• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Highlands County in...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 Index to map sheets
 General soil map
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Highlands County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026062/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Highlands County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 178 p., 2, 55 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1989]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Highlands County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Highlands County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 97).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 90-183-P.
General Note: "Issued July 1989"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026062
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001533241
notis - AHE6675
oclc - 21342797

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Highlands County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    How this survey was made
        Page 4
        Map unit composition
            Page 5
            Page 6
    General soil map units
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 49
        Crops and pasture
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
        Rangeland
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 58
        Recreation
            Page 58
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 59
        Engineering
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
    Soil properties
        Page 67
        Engineering index properties
            Page 67
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 68
        Soil and water features
            Page 69
            Page 70
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
        Engineering index test data
            Page 74
    Classification of the soils
        Page 75
        Soil series and their morphology
            Page 75
        Anclote series
            Page 76
        Archbold series
            Page 76
        Astatula series
            Page 76
        Basinger series
            Page 77
        Bradenton series
            Page 77
        Brighton series
            Page 78
        Chobee series
            Page 78
        Daytona series
            Page 79
        Duette series
            Page 79
        EauGallie series
            Page 80
        Felda series
            Page 81
        Gator series
            Page 81
        Hicoria series
            Page 82
        Hontoon series
            Page 82
        Immokalee series
            Page 83
        Kaliga series
            Page 84
        Malabar series
            Page 84
        Myakka series
            Page 85
        Oldsmar series
            Page 85
        Orsino series
            Page 86
        Paola series
            Page 87
        Pineda series
            Page 87
        Placid series
            Page 88
        Pomello series
            Page 88
        Pomona series
            Page 89
        St. Johns series
            Page 90
        St. Lucie series
            Page 90
        Samsula series
            Page 90
        Sanibel series
            Page 91
        Satellite series
            Page 91
        Smyrna series
            Page 92
        Tavares series
            Page 93
        Tequesta series
            Page 93
        Valkaria series
            Page 94
    Formation of the soils
        Page 95
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 95
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 96
    Reference
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Glossary
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Tables
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Index to map sheets
        Index 1
        Index 2
    General soil map
        Unnumbered ( 190 )
    Map
        Unnumbered ( 191 )
        Unnumbered ( 192 )
        Unnumbered ( 193 )
        Unnumbered ( 194 )
        Unnumbered ( 195 )
        Unnumbered ( 196 )
        Unnumbered ( 197 )
        Unnumbered ( 198 )
        Unnumbered ( 199 )
        Unnumbered ( 200 )
        Unnumbered ( 201 )
        Unnumbered ( 202 )
        Unnumbered ( 203 )
        Unnumbered ( 204 )
        Unnumbered ( 205 )
        Unnumbered ( 206 )
        Unnumbered ( 207 )
        Unnumbered ( 208 )
        Unnumbered ( 209 )
        Unnumbered ( 210 )
        Unnumbered ( 211 )
        Unnumbered ( 212 )
        Unnumbered ( 213 )
        Unnumbered ( 214 )
        Unnumbered ( 215 )
        Unnumbered ( 216 )
        Unnumbered ( 217 )
        Unnumbered ( 218 )
        Unnumbered ( 219 )
        Unnumbered ( 220 )
        Unnumbered ( 221 )
        Unnumbered ( 222 )
        Unnumbered ( 223 )
        Unnumbered ( 224 )
        Unnumbered ( 225 )
        Unnumbered ( 226 )
        Unnumbered ( 227 )
        Unnumbered ( 228 )
        Unnumbered ( 229 )
        Unnumbered ( 230 )
        Unnumbered ( 231 )
        Unnumbered ( 232 )
        Unnumbered ( 233 )
        Unnumbered ( 234 )
        Unnumbered ( 235 )
        Unnumbered ( 236 )
        Unnumbered ( 237 )
        Unnumbered ( 238 )
        Unnumbered ( 239 )
        Unnumbered ( 240 )
        Unnumbered ( 241 )
        Unnumbered ( 242 )
        Unnumbered ( 243 )
        Unnumbered ( 244 )
        Unnumbered ( 245 )
Full Text


United States In cooperation with l
Department of University of Florida; S oil Survey of
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences; H ig lands
Soil Agricultural Experiment
Conservation Stations and Soil Science
Service Department; and Florida o un y, Flo rida
Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services












J^
















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas. -

---, Koc mo | k
To find information about
your area of interest, 1 J 4
locate that area on the
Index to Map Sheets, MAP SHEET
which precedes the soil __
maps. Note the number of .... 2
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet. INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
that sheet.


Locate your area of ,_7 \a\I
interest on the map r \a BaC ac AsB
sheet. Note the map unit -\ BaC
symbols that are in that -A
area. Turn to the Index A a
to Map Units (see Con- AREA OF INTEREST
tents, which lists the mapn U NOTE: Map unit symbols n a soil
tents, which lists te map survey may consist only of numbers or
units by symbol and lelers. or iney may be a combination
name and shows the of numbers and letters.
page where each map MAP SHEET
unit is described.

The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.






















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal part
of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1986. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1986. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1986. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the University of
Florida; Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences; Agricultural Experiment
Stations and Soil Science Department; Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services; and the Florida Department of Transportation. It is part of
the technical assistance furnished to the Highlands County Soil and Water
Conservation District. The Highlands County Board of County Commissioners
contributed financially to the acceleration of the survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: Lake Simmons is a typical sinkhole-formed lake. The citrus crop in the background is
on Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes.


















Contents


Index to map units ............................... iv Duette series ............ ... ........... 79
Summary of tables .............................. v EauGallie series ............ .. ............. 80
Foreword ................. .................... vii Felda series .................. ................ 81
General nature of the county ....................... 1 Gator series ............................... 81
How this survey was made ........................ 4 Hicoria series ............... ............. 82
Map unit composition ........................... 5 Hontoon series ................................ 82
General soil map units .......................... 7 Immokalee series ............... .......... 83
Detailed soil map units ....................... 15 Kaliga series ................ ............ 84
Use and management of the soils ............... 49 Malabar series ............. ............. 84
Crops and pasture ............. .. ......... 49 Myakka series ................................. 85
Rangeland .................................... 53 Oldsmar series ............................ 85
Woodland management and productivity ......... 56 Orsino series ............................... 86
Windbreaks and environmental plantings......... 58 Paola series .................................. 87
Recreation .......... ........... ........... 58 Pineda series ................. .... ........... 87
Wildlife habitat ................. ............ 59 Placid series ................. ........... 88
Engineering ................................... 60 Pomello series ................. .......... 88
Soil properties .................. .............. 67 Pomona series ................... .......... 89
Engineering index properties .................... 67 St. Johns series................................ 90
Physical and chemical properties ................ 68 St. Lucie series .................. ............. 90
Soil and water features ........................ 69 Samsula series ............................... 90
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses Sanibel series .................. .......... 91
of selected soils ........................... 71 Satellite series ............................. 91
Engineering index test data .................... 74 Smyrna series .................. ............ 92
Classification of the soils... ................... 75 Tavares series ................................. 93
Soil series and their morphology................. 75 Tequesta series .............. ............. 93
Anclote series ................ ........... 76 Valkaria series ............. .............. 94
Archbold series ............................ 76 Formation of the soils .......... ........... 95
Astatula series .............. ................. 76 Factors of soil formation ...................... 95
Basinger series ............... ........... 77 Processes of soil formation ..................... 96
Bradenton series ................. ............ 77 References ................................. 97
Brighton series................... ............. 78 Glossary ............. ... ........... 99
Chobee series ................................ 78 Tables ............. .. .. ... .............. 107
Daytona series.............. .... ............. 79

Issued July 1989








iii


















Index to Map Units


1-Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes ............. 15 25-Chobee fine sandy loam, depressional ......... 32
2-St. Lucie sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes .......... 16 26-Tequesta muck ............................. 33
3-Basinger fine sand, depressional ............. 16 28-Archbold sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......... 34
4- Duette sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............ 17 29-Pomona sand ............................... 34
5-Daytona sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 18 30-Oldsmar fine sand .............. ............ 35
6-Tavares sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 18 31-Felda fine sand, depressional.................. 36
7- Placid fine sand, depressional ................ 19 32-Arents, very steep ........................... 36
8-Immokalee sand .............................. 19 33-Basinger, St. Johns, and Placid soils .......... 37
9-Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes........... 20 34-Tavares-Basinger-Sanibel complex, rolling ..... 38
10-Myakka fine sand ............................ 21 35-Sanibel muck .............................. 39
11-Orsino sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .......... 22 36-Pomello sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......... 39
12-Basinger fine sand .......................... 23 37-Malabar sand, depressional .................. 40
13-Felda fine sand ............. ............... 24 38-EauGallie fine sand ........................... 41
14- Satellite sand................................ 24 39-Smyrna sand ............................... 42
15-Bradenton fine sand ........................ 25 40-Arents, organic substratum ................... 42
16-Valkaria fine sand .................. ........ 26 41-Anclote-Basinger fine sands, frequently
17-Malabar fine sand .......................... 27 flooded ..................................... 43
18-Kaliga muck ................................ 28 42-Astatula-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent
19- Hicoria mucky sand, depressional ............. 28 slopes...................................... 43
20-Samsula muck ........................... 29 43-Urban land .................................. 45
21-Hontoon muck ............................. 30 44-Satellite-Basinger-Urban land complex......... 45
22- Brighton muck ............. ................ 30 45- Paola-Basinger sands, rolling ................. 45
23-Gator muck ........... ................ 31 46-Kaliga muck, frequently flooded ............... 46
24- Pineda sand................................. 32



















iv


















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) .................................. 108

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 2) .................... 109
Acres. Percent.

Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 3)... 110
Land capability. Oranges. Grapefruit. Tomatoes.
Watermelons. Bahiagrass.

Capability classes and subclasses (table 4) ........... ... ......... 113
Total acreage. Major management concerns.

Rangeland productivity and characteristic plant communities (table 5)....... 114
Range site. Total production. Characteristic vegetation.
Composition.

Woodland management and productivity (table 6) ........................ 119
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.

Recreational development (table 7) ...................................... 125
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.

W wildlife habitat (table 8) .................................... .......... 129
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.

Building site development (table 9) ...................................... 132
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.

Sanitary facilities (table 10) ............................................. 136
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.

Construction materials (table 11) ................ ..................... 141
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.



v






















Water management (table 12)............................................ 145
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.

Engineering index properties (table 13) .............. ............... 151
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 14) .................... 157
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Shrink-swell potential.
Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.

Soil and water features (table 15) ....................................... 161
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.

Depth to water table in selected soils (table 16). ... ...................... 164
Year. Month.

Physical analyses of selected soils (table 17) ............................. 165
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.

Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 18) ....................... 169
Depth. Horizon. Extractable basis. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophospate extractable.
Citrate-dithionite extractable.

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 19) ......................... 174
Depth. Horizon. Clay minerals.

Engineering index test data (table 20) .................. ................ 176
Classification. Mechanical analysis. Liquid limit. Plasticity
index. Moisture density.

Classification of the soils (table 21) .............. ...................... 178
Family or higher taxonomic class.

vi

















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Highlands County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the
management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and
pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are too unstable to be used
as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to
use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly
suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service













vii



























-TALLAHASSEE




































Location of Highlands County in Florida.














Soil Survey of

Highlands County, Florida


By Lewis J. Carter, Douglas Lewis, LeRoy Crockett, and Juan Vega,
Soil Conservation Service

Participating in the fieldwork were Keith Wolff, Lynn DesLauriers, Dan Michael, and
Debbie Prevost, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
University of Florida; Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences; Agricultural Experiment
Stations and Soil Science Department; Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services; and the Florida Department of Transportation




HIGHLANDS COUNTY is in the south-central part of The average temperature in summer is 81 degrees
peninsular Florida. It is bordered on the north by Polk Fahrenheit, and the average temperature in winter is 62
County, on the west by DeSoto and Hardee Counties, degrees F. The average rainfall is about 54 inches.
and on the south by Glades County. The eastern Table 1 shows data for temperature and precipitation
boundary is the line of flow of the Kissimmee River. as recorded at Archbold Biological Station in the period
Highlands County covers approximately 716,000 1932 to 1984.
acres. Of this, about 658,310 acres is land area and the In summer, temperatures vary only slightly from day
remaining acreage is large lakes that are in the ridge to day. They are tempered by cumulus clouds and rain
part of the county. showers during the late afternoon. The average daily
Citrus crops and ranching make up the base of the maximum temperature is about 92 degrees, and the
economy, and consumer services and retailing make up average daily minimum temperature is about 68
the remainder, degrees. The highest recorded temperature, which
Sebring, the county seat, is in the northern part of occurred during May 1953, is 103 degrees.
the county. In winter, temperatures can vary considerably
because of the dry, cold air from the north. It is not
uncommon for temperatures to fall from a daytime high
General Nature of the County in the 70's to a nighttime low in the 30's with the
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that passing of a cold front. The coldest temperatures
affect the use and management of the soils in usually occur the second night after the front passes.
Highlands County are described. These factors are During winter, the mean daily maximum temperature
climate, history, physiography and geology, water is 75 degrees, and the mean daily minimum
resources, farming, and transportation. temperature is 48 degrees. The lowest recorded
temperature, which occurred during January 1982, is 13
Climate degrees. Freezing temperatures can be expected
several times from mid-November to the end of March.
The climate of Highlands County is characterized by These freezing temperatures mostly occur during late
long, warm, humid summers and by mild, dry winters. December and January. They usually occur just before







2 Soil Survey


sunrise, and it is very rare that the temperature does Captain William Hooker, Captain John Pearce, Skipper,
not get above 32 degrees during the day. Frost can Durrance, Williams, Whidden, and many others.
severely damage vegetables, new growth on citrus Descendants of these early settlers still own and
trees, and improved pasture grasses, especially in the operate ranches in Highlands County. During the 1880's
lower areas of the county. and 1890's, many of the communities that make up the
Rainfall is seasonally distributed. Nearly 60 percent largest populated areas today were established. These
of the average annual precipitation falls in June through include Avon Park, Lake Placid, Venus, Fort Basinger,
September. Most rainfall in summer comes as and Hicoria. Sebring, which became the county seat in
thundershowers of short duration during the afternoon the early 1920's, was started by George E. Sebring in
and early evening hours. Lightning activity can be 1911. His somewhat radical design for a city, which was
intense in these storms. These summer storms can laid out from a center circle, has given Sebring a flavor
sometimes be heavy with 2 or 3 inches of rain falling in all its own. In 1912, the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad
an hour or two. Rains that last all day are rare in linked Sebring and Highlands County to the rest of the
summer. When such rains occur, they are usually State and paved the way for the rapid development of
associated with a tropical storm. Rainfall in winter and the area in the early years.
spring is generally less intense than thundershowers Highlands County has developed steadily since it
but may last 24 hours or more. was formed in 1921. According to census figures, the
Nearly all of the precipitation in Highlands County population of Highlands County in 1921 was 2,924. The
falls as rain. Hail falls occasionally late in the spring and 1986 population of the county was 58,151. Agriculture
early in the summer, but the hailstones generally are mainly accounted for this increase during the first 30 to
small and cause little damage. Snow is very rare. 40 years. Many ranches were started with cow-calf
Tropical storms can occur at any time during June operations for beef production. Large areas were
through November but are most common in August and cleared of native range and planted to improved pasture
September. These storms can produce high winds and grasses. Many citrus groves were established in the
very heavy rainfall. These conditions can cause ridge section of the county after agriculturalists learned
considerable damage and can cause flooding in the that citrus could survive on the once considered useless
low-lying areas. "sugar sand" of the ridge. Climate played a key role in
Periods of dry weather can be expected during any this development after a devastating freeze in 1895 that
season but will most likely occur in winter and spring, virtually wiped out the citrus industry in Florida. Growers
Dry periods in April and May are most damaging learned that citrus planted near some of the lakes in the
because of the higher temperatures and the effects region survived the freeze.
these conditions have on crops and pasture grasses. Although agriculture still remains the stable economic
Forest fires, as well as muck fires, are more prevalent base of the county, in recent years, the influx of people
during these times, and care should be taken when from northern states and the coasts of Florida has been
burning during dry periods, the biggest factor in the population increase. During the
Prevailing winds generally are southerly in spring and winter tourist season, the county's population is
summer and northerly in fall and winter. Wind speed estimated to more than double. Many of these winter
during the day generally ranges from 8 to 15 miles per visitors eventually become permanent residents.
hour and usually drops below 8 miles per hour at night. Presently, the county has three incorporated cities:
Sebring, Avon Park, and Lake Placid. The estimated
History 1986 population of Sebring was 9,991, Avon Park,
8,065, and Lake Placid, 1,002.
Florida became a territory of the United States in
1821, and the two original counties were formed (5). Water Resources
These were Escambia and St. Johns Counties. From
1824 to 1887, Alachua, Hillsborough, Manatee, and More than 50,000 acres of open water is distributed
DeSoto Counties were formed. Then, in 1921, DeSoto among some 50 freshwater lakes in Highlands County.
County was divided to form Highlands, Hardee, Glades, Most of the lakes are the result of sinkhole formation.
and Charlotte Counties. The largest lake in the county is Lake Istokpoga. The
In the early days, the pioneer settlers drove small eastern boundary of the county is the Kissimmee River,
herds of cattle into this area to feed on the vast prairies which flows into Lake Okeechobee. Several creeks,
and marshlands. Some of the early cattlemen were mainly Arbuckle, Josephine, and Fisheating Creeks,








Highlands County, Florida 3


dissect parts of the county. Most of these creeks are Geology
part of the Everglades drainage system and eventually The geology of Highlands County is primarily known
make their way to Lake Okeechobee and south. from well cuttings and cores, since most of the
Many of the lakes are used as sources of irrigation formations described do not exist in surface exposures
water for the citrus crops. Most have been developed in the county. The formations will be considered from
for urban use. Numerous lakes in the county offer the deepest to the most shallow.
recreational activities for those who enjoy boating and The Middle Eocene Avon Park Limestone Formation
fishing. consists of beds of gray to brown limestone and
The Floridan Aquifer is the primary source of all dolostone, which are soft to hard and granular to
underground water in central Florida. The shallow chalky. It consists of a foraminifera and small echinoid
aquifers that overlie the Floridan Aquifer, including the hash that has been differentially cemented and
surficial sands and the upper region of the Hawthorn recrystallized. The formation ranges between 200 and
Formation, are secondary sources. Wells provide most 350 feet in thickness. The top of the formation is about
of the water for human use in Highlands County, 500 feet below sea level in the northern part of the
including most municipal water systems. The wells are county and dips to more than 900 feet below sea level
generally drilled and cased to a depth of 80 to 120 feet. in the southern part.
The Late Eocene Ocala Limestone Formation
Physiography and Geology overlies the Avon Park Limestone and consists of a
Richard A. Johnson, geologist, Florida Department of Natural white to tan foraminiferal hash that has been very
Resources, Bureau of Geology, prepared this section. poorly cemented to very well cemented and
recrystallized. The dominant rock type is limestone, but
Physiography thin dolostone beds can be toward the base. Generally,
Highlands County can be divided into four the formation is very soft and crumbly. The formation
physiographic areas. They are, from west to east, the ranges between 200 and 400 feet in thickness. The top
Western Flatlands, the Highlands Ridge, the Istokpoga- of the Ocala Limestone Formation is between depths of
Indian Prairie Basin, and the Eastern Flatlands (3). 250 feet below sea level to the north and 650 feet
The Western Flatlands is made up of a very flat below sea level to the south.
marine terrace plain in the south and west of the The Oligocene Suwannee Limestone Formation
county. It has many shallow lakes, which are filled only overlies the Ocala Limestone in the western part of the
during the rainy season. Elevations in the flatlands vary county. It consists of a cream color to a white, soft,
between 40 and 90 feet above sea level, chalky limestone to slightly crystalline limestone. It is
The Highlands Ridge extends from the northwest to composed of foraminifera, echinoids, and mollusca. The
near the Glades County line in the south, adjacent to maximum thickness is about 80 feet, and it does not
the Western Flatlands. It is a long, narrow area exist in the eastern half of the county. The top of the
characterized by hills and lakes. The hills range up to formation ranges between 200 feet below sea level in
200 feet in elevation, while the lowest elevation in the the northwestern part of the county and approximately
region is about 40 feet above sea level. The lakes were 550 feet below sea level in the southwestern part.
formed by kartic processes; that is, they formed as a Overlying the Suwannee Limestone Formation to the
result of the dissolution and collapse of underlying west and the Ocala Limestone Formation to the east is
limestone and can be termed sinkholes. the Miocene Hawthorn Group, which consists of a green
The Istokpoga-lndian Prairie Basin is between the to white phosphatic clay; white to cream sandy,
Highlands Ridge to the west and the Eastern Flatlands phosphatic limestone; and quartz sand. Generally, the
to the east. It consists of swamps and marshes south group is noted for its content of phosphate, although
of, and including, Lake Istokpoga. Elevations in the thin beds can exist that do not contain phosphate or
region vary between 25 and 40 feet above sea level, that contain only a very low percent of the mineral. The
The Eastern Flatlands extends from the north-central thickness of the Hawthorn Group ranges between 300
area of the county to the southeast along the feet in the northern part of the county and about 650
Kissimmee River, which bounds the province to the feet in the Lake Placid area. The top of the group is
east. In general, it consists of flat, well drained land that probably at a depth of less than 200 feet everywhere in
has a few scattered ponds and marshes. Elevations the county.
vary from 30 to about 150 feet. The Pliocene Tamiami Formation may be present in







4 Soil Survey


the eastern part, and possibly the southwestern part, of crops include tomatoes, cucumbers, squash, and
Highlands County. It consists of shell marl, shelly sand, strawberries.
and possibly shelly limestone beds. Locally, the Nursery operations have been on the increase in
Tamiami Formation may be as much as 100 feet thick, recent years. A variety of wholesale nursery operations
In the ridge section of the county, the Cypresshead in the county include citrus, oaks, palms, azaleas, and
Formation overlies the Hawthorn Group. It consists of ornamentals, and several retail outlets are in the county
sand, clay, and gravel that are generally red to orange, as well.
The top of this group is commonly exposed in clay pits The growing of caladium tubers is a large agricultural
along the ridge. enterprise unique to Highlands County. This is the only
Over all of Highlands County, Pleistocene and county in the country where tubers are grown for resale
Holocene sand and peat are at the surface. The on a large scale. It is an estimated 5 to 7 million dollar
thickness ranges between 1 and 100 feet. These industry. Caladiums are grown on deep, organic soils,
undifferentiated deposits overlie the Cypresshead such as Brighton muck and Hontoon muck. They are
Formation, the Hawthorn Group, and the Tamiami planted in April or May and harvested from November
Formation, depending upon their location in the county. through March. Most growers farm 10- to 35-acre fields
and can grow over 40 different varieties. The two main
Farming varieties are Condium and Freidahemple. Caladiums
are used in landscaping and for potted plants in the
Highlands County soils and climate are well suited to .
north.
a variety of agricultural enterprises. Citrus crops and r i
beef-cattle operations are the main enterprises, and Thedairy industry s centered ao dairies
throughout Highlands County. Most of these dairies
others in the county include small scale vegetable through t nd Cnt te dr
have over 300 cows and range upward to 1,000 or
production, nursery operations, caladium production,
di y o s more. Most of the dairies are on flatwood soils, such as
and dairy operations.
d dairy operations. Immokalee sand. Grains for the cows are provided from
Citrus crops are grown on more than 46,000 acres
the midwest. Hay is grown locally.
(7). Most of the citrus is on excessively drained upland
soils, such as Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes, and
Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. In recent years, Transportation
flatwood soils have also been converted to citrus. This highways provide
Several county, state, and federal highways provide
requires extensive drainage, as well as irrigation. Most ready access between population centers in the county.
of the citrus grown in the county goes into the U.S. Highway 27, a four lane road, is the major artery
production of juice. A limited amount is sold as fresh a
and connects the major towns north to south. The two
fruit. The 1986 estimated amount of fruit produced in east-west arteries are U.S. 98 in the north and State
the county was 13912000 boxes of oranges and Highway 70 in the south. Rail and bus service is
2,395,000 boxes of grapefruit. .
2,395,000 boxes of grapefruit. available. Sebring Airport has limited air service, mainly,
Cattle raising in the county is mainly cow-calf herds, commuter type service
totaling 97,525 head. The calves are sold and shipped
to the midwest for finishing. Most of these operations
are in the flatwood areas. They are mainly on improved HOW This Survey Was Made
pasture, totaling 223,000 acres. In recent years, native
range, totaling 239,000 acres, has also been used in This survey was made to provide information about
the production of cattle. Many varieties of cattle are the soils in the survey area. The information includes a
produced in the county. These include the Hereford, description of the soils and their location and a
Angus Brahman, Santa Gertrudis, and various crosses. discussion of the suitability, limitations, and
Improved pasture species are bahiagrass, management of the soils for specified uses. Soil
pangolagrass, hermarthria, and white clover. These scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of
varieties are sometimes grown as hay crops. slopes; the general pattern of drainage; and the kinds of
Small scale vegetable operations are mainly on the crops and native plants growing on the soils. They dug
flatwood soils. Generally, these areas are cleared native many holes to study the soil profile, which is the
rangeland that has been drained and bedded. A variety sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The
of crops are grown in the county, but watermelon profile extends from the surface down into the
seems to be the most popular with local growers. Other unconsolidated material from which the soil formed. The







Highlands County, Florida 5


unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
living organisms and has not been changed by other compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
biological activity, same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly confirm data and assemble additional data based on
pattern that is related to the geology, the landforms, experience and research.
relief, climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
Each kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of of the soils in the area are generally collected for
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their scientists interpreted the data from these analyses and
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils the soil properties in terms of expected behavior of the
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of the
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy soils were field tested through observation of the soils
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape. in different uses under different levels of management.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
into one another as their characteristics gradually and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between sources, such as research information, production
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of records, and field experience of specialists. For
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, example, data on crop yields under defined levels of
supplemented by an understanding of the soil- management were assembled from farm records and
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
determine the boundaries. soil properties but also on such variables as climate
In Highlands County, a ground-penetrating radar and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
(GPR) system and hand transects were used to over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
document the type and variability of soils that occur from year to year. For example, soil scientists can state
within map units (6). The GPR system was successfully with a fairly high degree of probability that a given soil
used on selected soils to detect the presence, will have a high water table within certain depths in
determine the variability, and measure the depth to most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
major soil horizons or other soil features. Random table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
transects were made with the GPR and by hand in specific date.
Highlands County. The data collected were used to After soil scientists located and identified the
classify the soils and to determine the composition of significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
map units. The map units, as described in the section drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
entitled "Detailed Soil Map Units," are based on this photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
data. Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture, accurately.
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and Map Unit Composition
other features that enable them to identify soils. After
describing the soils in the survey area and determining A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil identified and named according to the taxonomic
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind the soils are natural objects. In common with other
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists their properties. Thus, the range of some observed







6


properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes, descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units, complex that it was impractical to make enough
these latter soils are called inclusions or included soils, observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
In the general soil map units, they are called soils of landscape.
minor extent. The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar) landscape into segments that have similar use and
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the management requirements. The delineation of such
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use information for the development of resource plans, but
or require different management. These are contrasting onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small in small areas.








7









General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication The natural vegetation is sand pine, South Florida
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of slash pine, turkey oak, sand oak, sand live oak,
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general scattered saw palmetto, prickleypear cactus, and
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map pineland threeawn (fig. 1).
unit consists of one or more major soils and some This map unit makes up about 79,000 acres, or 12
minor soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils percent, of the county. It is about 53 percent Astatula
making up one unit can occur in other units but in a soils, 16 percent Paola soils, 15 percent Tavares soils,
different pattern, and 16 percent soils of minor extent.
The general soil map can be used to compare the Astatula soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of surface layer of these soils is dark grayish brown sand
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, about 7 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. of 80 inches or more is brownish yellow sand.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for Paola soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
planning the management of a farm or field or for surface layer of these soils is gray sand about 5 inches
selecting a site for a road or a building or other thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 17 inches, is
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from light gray sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 27 inches, is
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other very pale brown and yellowish brown sand. The
characteristics that affect management. substratum to a depth of 80 inches is yellowish brown
and yellow sand.
Soils of the Upland Ridges Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
The two general soil map units in this group consist the surface layer of these soils is dark grayish brown
of nearly level to rolling, excessively drained to sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy underlying material, to a depth of about 56 inches, is
throughout. Most of these soils have a yellow or white yellow and very pale brown sand. The lower part to a
subsoil, and some have an organic-stained subsoil. The depth of 80 inches or more is white sand.
soils in these map units are along U.S. Highway 27 Of minor extent in this map unit are mostly Archbold,
from the Polk County line south to Venus. Orsino, Satellite, and St. Lucie soils.
Much of the acreage in this map unit is in citrus
1. Astatula-Paola-Tavares crops and is used for urban development. Present
trends are towards converting large areas of the sand
Nearly level to rolling, excessively drained to moderately trends are towards courting large areas of the sand
ridge into urban and commercial uses. Some areas are
well drained, sandy soils
used for cultivated crops and improved pasture, but
This map unit consists mostly of deep soils on high these uses are limited because of droughtiness and
and moderately high sandy ridges in the ridge part of rapid leaching of plant nutrients. The remainder of the
Highlands County. The ridge area extends from the map unit is in natural vegetation.
northwest corner of the county and is parallel to U.S.
Highway 27 through the central part of the county. The 2. Satellite-Archbold-Pomello
ridge area drops in elevation and ends near the
intersection of U.S. Highway 27 and Highlands County Nearly level or gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
Road 731. The ridge is 4 to 8 miles wide and has many to moderately well drained, sandy soils; some have an
sinkhole lakes, organic-stained subsoil








8 Soil Survey




































Figure 1.-The natural vegetation on this Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes, is mostly sand pine and sand live oak.



This map unit consists of the deep, sandy, acid soils the surface layer of these soils is dark gray sand about
on the lower ridges in the ridge part of Highlands 4 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80
County. The soils in this map unit are in the inches or more is white sand.
northwestern corner of the county, parallel to U.S. Archbold soils are moderately well drained. Typically.
Highway 27 to the southern county line. These soils the surface layer of these soils is gray sand about 4
generally are in a band east and west of U.S. Highway inches thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80
27, averaging about 3 miles wide. inches or more is white sand.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, myrtle Pomello soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
oak, Chapman oak, sand live oak, sand pine, saw the surface layer of these soils is dark gray sand about
palmetto, pricklypear cactus, and scattered stands of 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 56
pineland threeawn. inches, is white sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to
This map unit makes up about 59,000 acres, or 9 a depth of 62 inches, is mixed dark brown and dark
percent, of the land area of the county. It is about 45 reddish brown sand. The lower part to a depth of 80
percent Satellite soils, 20 percent Archbold soils, 15 inches is brown sand.
percent Pomello soils, and 20 percent soils of minor Of minor extent in this map unit are mostly Daytona.
extent. Duette, Orsino, and St. Lucie soils.
Satellite soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, Most of this map unit is in native vegetation, but







Highlands County, Florida 9


some areas have been cleared for citrus and pasture gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is
production. Other areas are used as building sites and white fine sand.
as a source of sand for concrete. Of minor extent in this map unit are mostly Basinger,
Felda, Hicoria, and Placid soils.
Soils of the Flatwoods and Sloughs Large acreages of the soils in this map unit have
The four general soil map units in this group consist been cleared for pasture and citrus crops. The
of nearly level, poorly drained or very poorly drained remainder is in native range.
soils on the flatwoods and in sloughs. Map unit 3 is the
largest of the general soil map units in the county. The 4. Felda-Hicoria-Malabar
soils in this map unit have an organic-stained layer at a Nearly level, poorly drained or very poorly drained, sandy
depth of less than 50 inches. Map units 4 and 5 are in soils that are underlain by loamy material at a depth of
sloughs and depressions, and these soils are sandy 20 to more than 40 inches
throughout or have a loamy subsoil. The soils in map
unit 6 have an organic-stained subsoil and a loamy This map unit consists of soils in low, broad, flat
subsoil. areas and sloughs that are interspersed with many
small to large wet depressions. These soil are mostly
3. Myakka-lmmokalee-Smyrna along the Glades County line and Florida State Highway
70 in the east central part of Highlands County. Smaller
Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have an areas of these soils are scattered throughout the
organic-stained subsoil county.
This map unit consists of soils on the flatwoods that The natural vegetation in the sloughs and broad, flat
are interspersed with wet depressions. It is the largest areas is slash pine, cabbage palm, saw palmetto,
of the general soil map units. These soils are waxmyrtle, fetterbush, maidencane, pineland threeawn,
dominantly in the eastern part of Highlands County, but sand cordgrass, and various bluestems and sedges.
they are in all parts of the county except in the ridge The vegetation in the depressional areas is cypress,
part. willow, bay, tupelo-gum, and blackgum trees and
The natural vegetation is slash pine, saw palmetto, pickerelweed, arrowhead, waxmyrtle, sawgrass,
gallberry, pineland threeawn, and chalky and creeping maidencane, and other water-tolerant plants.
bluestems. This map unit makes up about 53,000 acres, or 8
This map unit makes up about 217,000 acres, or 33 percent, of the land area of the county. It is about 50
percent, of the county. It is 35 percent Myakka soils, 35 percent Felda soils, 13 percent Hicoria soils, 12 percent
percent Immokalee soils, 10 percent Smyrna soils, and Malabar soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
20 percent soils of minor extent. Felda soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
Typically, Myakka soils have a surface layer of black layer of these soils is gray fine sand about 7 inches
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 24 inches, is
a depth of 24 inches, is light gray and light brownish light gray and dark grayish brown fine sand. The
gray sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of subsoil, to a depth of 36 inches, is gray very fine sandy
about 58 inches, is black and dark brown sand. The loam. The upper part of the substratum, to a depth of
lower part to a depth of 80 inches is dark brown or 68 inches, is light gray fine sand. The lower part to a
brown sand. depth of 80 inches is dark grayish brown fine sand.
Typically, Immokalee soils have a surface layer of Hicoria soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
black sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, upper part of the surface layer of these soils is black
to a depth of 37 inches, is gray and white sand. The mucky sand about 4 inches thick, and below that layer,
subsoil to a depth of 80 inches is black sand. to a depth of 15 inches, is black sand. The subsurface
Typically, Smyrna soils have a surface layer of dark layer, to a depth of 21 inches, is light gray sand. The
gray sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 39 inches, is
a depth of 15 inches, is light gray fine sand. The dark gray fine sandy loam. The middle part, to a depth
subsoil, to a depth of 35 inches, is black, dark brown, of 52 inches, is grayish brown fine sandy loam. The
and brown fine sand. The upper part of the substratum, lower part to a depth of 80 inches is dark gray fine
to a depth of 45 inches, is light yellowish brown fine sandy loam.
sand. The middle part, to a depth of 56 inches, is light Malabar soils are poorly drained. Typically, the








10 Soil Survey


surface layer of these soils is dark gray fine sand about brownish gray and dark grayish brown fine sand.
4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 14 Of minor extent in this map unit are mostly Felda.
inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the Immokalee, Malabar. Myakka. Sanibel. and Satellite
subsoil, to a depth of 48 inches, is yellow, yellowish soils.
brown, and light yellowish brown fine sand. The lower Most areas of this map unit remain in natural
part to a depth of 80 inches is greenish gray fine sandy vegetation and are used as habitat for wildlife and as
loam. rangeland. Some areas have been cleared and are
Of minor extent in this map unit are mostly Basinger, used for pasture.
Chobee, Pineda, Tequesta, and Valkaria soils.
Most areas have been cleared and are used for 6. Oldsmar-EauGallie-Pomona
pasture. A few areas have been planted to citrus crops. Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have an
Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have an
5. Basinger-Valkaria-Placid organic-stained subsoil underlain by loamy material
This map unit consists mostly of soils in flatwood
Nearly level, poorly drained or very poorly drained, sandy areas that are adjacent to sloughs and drainageways.
soils The soils in this map unit are near Fisheating Creek
This map unit consists of narrow to broad sloughs, and near other major drainageways in the county. Also.
low flatwoods, and poorly defined drainageways that these soils are along the Hardee County line. This map
are interspersed with wet depressional areas. These unit is the smallest of the general soil map units in
areas are randomly scattered throughout the flatwoods Highlands County.
part of Highlands County and vary in size and shape. The natural vegetation is slash pine. saw palmetto.
The natural vegetation on the poorly drained soils is gallberry, fetterbush, running oak, waxmyrtle. pineland
slash pine, gallberry, pineland threeawn, cutthroat threeawn, creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem.
grass, maidencane, St. Johnswort, sand cordgrass, and maidencane, and other forbs and grasses.
various bluestems. The vegetation in the depressional This map unit makes up about 13.000 acres. or 2
areas is cypress, willow, and bay trees and percent, of the county. It is about 35 percent Oldsmar
pickerelweed, arrowhead, redroot, sawgrass, and St. soils, 25 percent EauGallie soils, 10 percent Pomona
Johnswort. soils, and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
This map unit makes up about 112,000 acres, or 17 Typically, Oldsmar soils have a surface layer of very
percent, of the land area of the county. It is about 50 dark gray sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
percent Basinger soils, 20 percent Valkaria soils, 10 layer, to a depth of 32 inches, is gray and light gray
percent Placid soils, and 20 percent soils of minor sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 54
extent. inches, is black, dark brown, and brown fine sand. The
Basinger soils are poorly drained. The surface layer lower part, to a depth of 60 inches, is grayish brown
of these soils is dark gray fine sand 6 inches thick. The sandy clay loam. The substratum to a depth of 80
subsurface layer, to a depth of 21 inches, is light gray inches is yellowish brown fine sand.
and light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a Typically, EauGallie soils have a surface layer of very
depth of 52 inches, is brown fine sand. The substratum dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
to a depth of 80 inches is light brownish gray and subsurface layer, to a depth of 26 inches, is gray and
grayish brown fine sand and loamy fine sand. light gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
Valkaria soils are poorly drained. The surface layer of depth of about 40 inches, is black and dark reddish
these soils is gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The brown fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil to a
subsurface layer, to a depth of 16 inches, is light gray depth of 80 inches is light brownish gray sandy clay
fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 51 inches, is loam and fine sandy loam.
yellowish brown and light yellowish brown fine sand. Typically, Pomona soils have a surface layer of black
The substratum to a depth of 80 inches is light gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
sand. depth of 29 inches, is gray and light gray sand. The
Placid soils are very poorly drained. The upper part upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 51 inches, is
of the surface layer of these soils is black fine sand dark brown and very dark grayish brown sand coated
about 3 inches thick. The lower part, to a depth of 11 with organic matter. Below that layer, to a depth of 61
inches, is very dark gray fine sand. The underlying inches, is light brownish gray sand. The lower part of
material to a depth of 80 inches is in layers of light








Highlands County, Florida 11










W r






















Figure 2.-This hardwood swamp consists mostly of redbay and sweetbay trees. The soil is Gator muck.


the subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray mainly in large hardwood swamps (fig. 2) or grassy
sandy loam. marshes, and some of these soils are in open
Of minor extent in this map unit are mostly Felda, depressions on the flatwoods. The largest area of these
Immokalee, Malabar, Myakka, and Smyrna soils. general soil map units is south of Lake Istokpoga.
Much of the acreage in this map unit is in native Several other large areas of these soils are scattered
range or improved pasture. Some soils in this map unit throughout the county.
have been drained and converted to use for citrus 7. Kaliga-Tequesta-Gator
crops. The rest of this map unit is in native range.
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that have an
Soils of the Swamps and Marshes organic layer underlain by loamy material
The two general soil map units in this group consist This map unit consists mostly of soils in large
of nearly level, very poorly drained soils. Most of the marshes, swamps, and depressional areas in Highlands
soils in these map units are organic. These soils are County. A large area of soils in this map unit is on the
~~Ni







Fiur 2.-Ti hadwo swm osssmsl frda n webytes h oliao uk

the~~~~~~~~~~ susi oadpho 0ice rmr sga ail nlrehrwo wms(i.2 rgas

sad la. ashs ndsmeo teesol aeinoe


cros.Th rstofths apunt s n atverage








12 Soil Survey


southeast side of Lake Istokpoga and C41-A canal, This map unit consists of broad marshes that are
south across Florida State Highway 70, to near the adjacent to Lake Istokpoga and to Morgan Hole and
Glades County line. These soils also are along the Arbuckle Creeks on the Avon Park Bombing Range.
Kissimmee River basin and in other isolated The soils in this map unit are also near drainageways
depressional areas throughout the county. that drain into small lakes around Highlands County.
The natural vegetation is sweetbay and redbay trees The natural vegetation consists of sweetbay,
and pickerelweed, arrowhead, sawgrass, waxmyrtle, blackgum, red maple, and cypress trees and St.
maidencane, St. Johnswort, and other water-tolerant Johnswort, sawgrass, waxmyrtle, arrowhead.
grasses and grasslike plants. pickerelweed, and maidencane.
This map unit makes up about 53,000 acres, or 8 This map unit makes up about 46.000 acres, or
percent, of the county. It is about 30 percent Kaliga about 7 percent, of the county. It is about 35 percent
soils, 25 percent Tequesta soils, 15 percent Gator soils, Samsula soils, 20 percent Hontoon soils. 15 percent
and 30 percent soils of minor extent. Sanibel soils, and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of Typically, Samsula soils have an organic surface
Kaliga soils is black muck about 6 inches thick. The layer of black muck about 36 inches thick. The upper
lower part, to a depth of 39 inches, is dark brown muck. part of the underlying material, to a depth of 45 inches.
The upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of is black sand. The lower part to a depth of 65 inches or
45 inches, is grayish brown very fine sand. Below that more is dark gray, grayish brown. and gray sand.
layer, to a depth of 68 inches, is dark gray very fine Typically, Hontoon soils have an organic surface
sandy loam. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is layer that is dark reddish brown muck 15 inches thick.
grayish brown very fine sand. and below that layer, to a depth of 65 inches, is black
Typically, Tequesta soils have an organic surface muck. The underlying material, to a depth of 73 inches.
layer of black muck about 12 inches thick. Below that is black mucky sand, and below that layer to a depth of
layer, to a depth of 17 inches, is black fine sand. The more than 80 inches is dark gray sand.
subsurface layer, to a depth of 32 inches, is light Typically, Sanibel soils have a surface layer of black
brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 77 muck about 8 inches thick, and below that layer, to a
inches, is dark gray fine sandy loam. The substratum to depth of 15 inches, is black mucky fine sand. The
a depth of 80 inches or more is light gray fine sand. underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
Typically, Gator soils have an organic surface layer sand in shades of gray.
of black muck about 18 inches thick. The upper part of Of minor extent in this map unit are mostly Brighton.
the underlying material, to a depth of 36 inches, is very Chobee, Gator, Hicoria, and Tequesta soils.
dark gray sandy clay loam. The middle part, to a depth Much of the acreage in this map unit is in natural
of 55 inches, is stratified, dark grayish brown sandy vegetation. Small areas have been drained for caladium
loam and loamy sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 production, truck farming, and improved pasture.
inches or more is a mixture of dark gray and gray sand.
Of minor extent in this map unit are mostly Brighton, Soils of the Cutthroat Seeps
Chobee, Hicoria, Hontoon, and Sanibel soils. The one general soil map unit in this group is in a
Much of the acreage in this map unit has been distinct landform in Highlands County that is commonly
cleared and drained for improved pasture. With referred to as a cutthroat seep. The soils in this map
extensive drainage and bedding, some areas of this unit are on slopes that seep. These sandy soils are
map unit are being used for citrus crops. A small poorly drained and very poorly drained. The group
percentage of the areas is in caladiums and vegetable name of this map unit is from the dominant vegetation.
production. The remainder of the map unit has been left which is cutthroat grass.
in natural vegetation.
9. Basinger-St. Johns-Placid
8. Samsula-Hontoon-Sanibel
Nearly level, poorly drained or very poorly drained, sandy
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; most are organic soils; some have an organic-stained subsoil
and have a sandy substratum; some have a thin, organic This map unit consists of nearly level soils that are
surface layer adjacent to the central ridge in Highlands County. A








Highlands County, Florida 13


small part of this map unit is on the Avon Park Bombing surface layer of these soils is black sand about 11
Range that is adjacent to a small isolated ridge east of inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 26
Morgan Hole Creek. inches, is light brownish gray sand. The subsoil is sand
The natural vegetation in the cutthroat seep is mostly throughout. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
made up of cutthroat grass, pineland threeawn, and 31 inches, is very dark brown. Below that layer, to a
slash pine. Other vegetation in the seep is St. depth of 49 inches, the subsoil is black. The next layer,
Johnswort, waxmyrtle, creeping bluestem, fetterbush, to a depth of 70 inches, is dark yellowish brown. The
gallberry, saw palmetto, and maidencane and bay trees. lower part of the subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
This map unit makes up about 26,000 acres, or more is very dark gray.
about 4 percent, of the county. It is about 40 percent Placid soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
Basinger soils, 20 percent St. Johns soils, 15 percent surface layer of these soils is black fine sand about 3
Placid soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent. inches thick. Below that layer, to a depth of 11 inches,
Basinger soils are poorly drained. Typically, the is very dark gray fine sand. The underlying material to a
surface layer of these soils is dark gray fine sand about depth of 80 inches is light brownish gray and dark
6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of grayish brown fine sand.
about 21 inches, is light gray and light brownish gray Of minor extent in this map unit are mostly
fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 52 inches, is brown EauGallie, Felda, Immokalee, Myakka, Sanibel,
fine sand. The upper part of the substratum, to a depth Satellite, Smyrna, and Valkaria soils.
of 62 inches, is mostly light brownish gray fine sand. Most areas of this map unit have been left in natural
The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is grayish brown vegetation and are used as habitat for wildlife and as
loamy fine sand. rangeland. Some areas have been cleared and are
St. Johns soils are poorly drained. Typically, the used for pasture.











15









Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area. soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
used to plan the management needed for those uses. be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given made up of all of them. Basinger, St. Johns, and Placid
under "Use and Management of the Soils." soils are an undifferentiated group in this survey area.
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more other than those for which the map unit is named.
soils for which the unit is named. Some of these included soils have properties that differ
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes differences could significantly affect use and
general facts about the soil and gives the principal management of the soils in the map unit. The included
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
specific uses. small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up a special symbol on the soil maps.
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the Table 2 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
of a series have major horizons that are similar in Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
composition, thickness, and arrangement, capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ
in slope, wetness, degree of erosion, and other 1-Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This nearly
characteristics that affect their use. On the basis of level to moderately sloping, excessively drained soil is
such differences, a soil series is divided into soil on high sandy ridges in the ridge part of the county.
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil from 25 to more than 500 acres. The slopes are smooth
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or to convex.
management. For example, Basinger fine sand, Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 5
depressional, is one of several phases in the Basinger inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 17
series. inches, is light gray sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 27
Some map units are made up of two or more major inches, is very pale brown and yellowish brown sand.
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is
undifferentiated groups, yellowish brown and yellow sand.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they Astatula, Orsino, Pomello, St. Lucie, and Tavares soils.
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The In most areas, the included soils make up 10 to 25
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar percent of the map unit.
in all areas. Anclote-Basinger fine sands, frequently The available water capacity of this Paola soil is very
flooded, is an example, low. The permeability is very rapid. Depth to the water








16 Soil Survey


table is more than 80 inches. very low. The permeability is very rapid. Depth to the
Most of the acreage of this soil is in citrus or natural water table is more than 80 inches.
vegetation. Some areas have been cleared for improved Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural
pasture and cultivated crops. The natural vegetation vegetation. Some areas have been cleared for citrus
consists of sand pine, slash pine, turkey oak, scrub crops. The natural vegetation consists of rosemary,
hickory, myrtle oak, Chapman oak, and sand live oak. sand pine, Chapman oak, myrtle oak, and a few scrub
The understory consists of scattered saw palmetto and hickory. The understory consists of scattered saw
pineland threeawn. palmetto and pricklypear cactus.
This Paola soil has very severe limitations for This St. Lucie soil has very severe limitations for
cultivated crops. Intensive management, including cultivated crops. Intensive management, including
irrigation, is required if this soil cultivated, irrigation, is required if this soil is cultivated.
Citrus trees are well suited to this soil under a high Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
level of management. Good yields of oranges and reduce potential yields of adapted crops.
grapefruit can be obtained with adequate irrigation. A Citrus trees are moderately suited to this soil. A
properly designed irrigation system is needed to ensure properly designed irrigation system is needed to ensure
consistent high yields. optimum yields and survival of the trees.
The potential of this soil for production of pasture and Pasture and hay crops are not suited to this soil.
hay crops is low. Bahiagrass and pangolagrass are best Droughtiness and the available water capacity are the
adapted to this soil. Regular applications of fertilizer and limiting factors.
lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to permit The potential of this soil for production of pine trees
plants to recover from grazing and to maintain vigor, is low. Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees are the main management problems. Sand pine is the
is low. Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality preferred tree for planting.
are the main management problems. Sand pine is the The potential of this soil for the production of
preferred tree for planting, desirable range plants is very low. The pliant community
The potential of this soil for the production of consists of dense woody plants, which are not used by
desirable range plants is very low. The plant community livestock. No appreciable forage is on this soil. This soil
consists of a woody understory, which is seldom grazed is in the Sand Pine Scrub range site.
by livestock. This soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses. If
site. the soil is used for lawns and gardens, it must be
This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses, irrigated. It has severe limitations for recreational
such as dwellings and local roads and streets. For development because the surface layer is too sandy.
lawns and recreational development, this soil has This limitation can be overcome by stabilizing the
severe limitations because of droughtiness and sandy surface layer or by adding suitable topsoil.
texture. Most of these limitations can be overcome by This St. Lucie soil is in capability subclass VIIls.
adding suitable topsoil and by watering as needed.
This Paola soil is in capability subclass Vis. 3-Basinger fine sand, depressional. This very
poorly drained, sandy soil is in wet depressions. The
2-St. Lucie sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 5
nearly level to moderately sloping, excessively drained to more than 50 acres. The slopes are smooth to
soil is on high ridges and knolls in the ridge part of the concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
county. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
range from 5 to more than 50 acres. The slopes are sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layers, in
smooth to convex. sequence, are light brownish gray sand to a depth of 16
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 4 inches, light gray sand to a depth of 32 inches, and
inches thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80 dark grayish brown sand to a depth of 48 inches. The
inches or more is white sand. underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of dark grayish brown sand and grayish brown sand.
Archbold, Astatula, Duette, Orsino, and Paola soils. In Included in mapping are small areas of Immokalee,
most areas, the included soils make up 10 to 20 Myakka, Placid, and Valkaria soils. In most areas, the
percent of the map unit. included soils make up 10 to 30 percent of the map
The available water capacity of this St. Lucie soil is unit.








Highlands County, Florida 17


The available water capacity of this Basinger soil is flatwood areas. The mapped areas are irregular in
low. The permeability is rapid. Internal drainage is very shape and mostly range from 10 to 125 acres. The
slow because of the high water table. This soil is slopes are generally smooth to convex.
ponded for 4 to 6 months each year. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 6
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 51
vegetation. The natural vegetation consists of inches, is light gray and white sand. The upper part of
pickerelweed, maidencane, cutgrass, sand cordgrass, the subsoil, to a depth of 59 inches, is dark reddish
St. Johnswort, and chalky bluestem. A few areas are in brown sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is
water-tolerant trees. mixed yellowish brown and very pale brown sand.
This Basinger soil has very severe limitations for Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
cultivated crops because of ponding. It is not suited to Archbold, Orsino, Paola, Pomello, and Satellite soils. In
cultivated crops without an intensive water control most areas, the included soils make up 10 to 30
system to remove excess surface water rapidly after percent of the map unit.
heavy rains and to provide for rapid internal drainage The available water capacity of this Duette soil is
from the soil above the high water table. Most places do very low. The permeability is moderately rapid. The
not have suitable drainage outlets. water table is at a depth of 48 to 72 inches for 1 to 4
Citrus trees are not suited to this soil unless a water months during the summer rainy season. It recedes to a
control system is established and maintained to lower depth during the rest of the year.
regulate the water table. The trees should be planted in Most of the acreage of this soil remains in native
bedded rows. vegetation or is in citrus crops. A few areas have been
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to cleared for cultivated crops and improved pasture. The
improved pasture; however, if adequate measures are natural vegetation consists of sand and slash pines and
taken to remove excess surface water and intensive sand live oak, Chapman oak, and myrtle oak. The
management practices used, the potential of this soil for understory consists of scattered saw palmetto and
production of improved pasture grasses is moderate. pineland threeawn.
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover are well This Duette soil has very severe limitations for
adapted to this soil. Grazing should be controlled to cultivated crops. Intensive management is required if
maintain plant vigor, and regular applications of lime the soil is cultivated. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
and fertilizer are needed. plant nutrients reduce the variety and potential yields of
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to adapted crops. Irrigation is advisable if adequate water
slash or longleaf pines because of excessive wetness is readily available.
and ponding. Citrus trees are moderately well suited to this soil. A
The potential of this soil for the production of range properly designed irrigation system is needed to ensure
plants is high. The dominant forage is maidencane and consistent high yields of oranges and grapefruit.
cutgrass. The water level fluctuates throughout the The potential of this soil for production of improved
year, deferring cattle from grazing. This rest period pasture grasses and hay crops is moderate. Bahiagrass
increases forage production; however, these periods of and bermudagrass are best adapted to this soil.
high water may reduce the grazing value of the site. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are needed.
This soil is in the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant vigor and
site. to permit grasses to recover from grazing.
This soil has severe limitations for building sites, The potential of this soil for production of pine trees
sanitary facilities, and recreational development mostly is low. Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality
because of wetness and ponding. Extensive measures are the main management problems. Slash, south
should be taken before using this soil for urban Florida slash, and longleaf pines are the preferred trees
development, for planting.
This Basinger, depressional soil is in capability Range plant production is very low on this soil. The
subclass Vllw. plant community consists of a dense woody understory,
which is seldom grazed by livestock. The dominate
4-Duette sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This nearly forage is pineland threeawn. This soil is in the Sand
level to gently sloping, moderately well drained soil is in Pine Scrub range site.
moderately high sandy areas in the ridge part of the This soil has slight limitations for local roads and
county. It also is on elevated knolls or ridges in the streets, small commercial buildings, and dwellings








18 Soil Survey


without basements. For other urban uses, it has main concerns in management. Slash, south Florida
moderate limitations because the seasonal high water slash, and longleaf pines are the preferred trees for
table is at a depth of 4 to 6 feet. This soil has severe planting.
limitations for recreational development because it is The potential of this soil for the production of range
too sandy, causing poor trafficability. This limitation can plants is very low. The plant community consists of a
be reduced or overcome by adding suitable topsoil or dense woody understory, which is seldom grazed by
by stabilizing the surface layer. cattle. The dominate forage is pineland threeawn. This
This Duette soil is in capability subclass VIs. soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range site.
This soil has slight limitations for dwellings without
5-Daytona sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained and streets. Lawns have to be watered regularly. This
soil is on elevated ridges on the flatwoods and on soil has moderate limitations if used as septic tank
moderately high ridges in the ridge part of the county. absorption fields because the water table is between
The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range depths of 40 and 60 inches for part of the year. For
from 15 to more than 75 acres. The slopes are recreational development, this soil has severe
generally smooth to convex. limitations because it is sandy, causing poor
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand trafficability. This limitation can be overcome by adding
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth suitable topsoil or by stabilizing the surface layer.
of 36 inches, is white sand. The upper part of the This Daytona soil is in capability subclass Vis.
subsoil, to a depth of 45 inches, is black sand. The
lower part, to a depth of 59 inches, is mixed black sand 6-Tavares sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This nearly
gradually changing to brown sand. The substratum to a level to gently sloping, moderately well drained soil is
depth of 80 inches or more is light gray sand. on moderately high sandy ridges in the ridge part of the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of county. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
Archbold, Duette, Immokalee, Pomello, and Satellite range from 15 to about 50 acres. The slopes are
soils. In most areas, the included soils make up 15 to smooth to convex.
30 percent of the map unit. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
The available water capacity of this Daytona soil is sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
very low. The permeability is moderately rapid. The underlying material, to a depth of about 56 inches, is
water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches during the yellow and very pale brown sand. The lower part to a
summer rainy season. It recedes to a lower depth depth of 80 inches or more is white sand.
during the rest of the year. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural Archbold, Astatula, Orsino, Paola, St. Lucie, and
vegetation. Some areas have been cleared for citrus Satellite soils. In most areas, the included soils make
crops and improved pasture. The natural vegetation up 10 to 20 percent of the map unit.
consists of slash pine, sand pine, sand live oak, The available water capacity of this Tavares soil is
Chapman oak, and myrtle oak. The understory consists very low. The permeability is rapid or very rapid. The
mostly of saw palmetto and pineland threeawn. water table is at a depth of 48 to 72 inches for 1 to 4
This Daytona soil has very severe limitations for months during the summer rainy season. During dry
cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of periods, the water table may recede below these
plant nutrients reduce the variety and potential yields of depths.
adapted crops. Irrigation is advisable. Most of the acreage of this soil is in citrus crops or
Citrus trees are moderately well suited to this soil. A has been left in natural vegetation. The natural
properly designed irrigation system is needed to ensure vegetation consists of sand pine, slash pine, longleaf
high yields. pine, south Florida slash pine, turkey oak, and sand live
The potential of this soil for production of improved oak. The understory consists of scattered saw palmetto,
pasture grasses and hay crops is moderate. Bahiagrass pineland threeawn, and various other forbs.
and bermudagrass are best adapted to this soil. This Tavares soil has very severe limitations for
Fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be cultivated crops. Intensive management is required if
controlled to maintain plant vigor, the soil is cultivated. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees plant nutrients reduce the variety and potential yields of
is low. Equipment use and seedling mortality are the







Highlands County, Florida 19


adapted crops. Irrigation is advisable if adequate water long dry periods, it may recede to a depth of more than
is readily available. 30 inches.
Citrus trees are well suited to this soil. Good yields of Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural
oranges and grapefruit can be obtained in some years vegetation of bays and other water-tolerant trees and
without irrigation. A properly designed irrigation system sawgrass, pickerelweed, arrowhead, redroot, St.
is needed to ensure consistent high yields. Johnswort, cutthroat grass, and maidencane.
The potential of this soil for production of pasture Under natural conditions, this Placid soil has very
grasses and hay crops is moderate. Bahiagrass and severe limitations for cultivated crops. Not only is
bermudagrass are well adapted to this soil. Grazing wetness, which is caused by ponding, a very severe
should be controlled to permit plants to recover from problem, but drainage and water control are also severe
grazing and to maintain plant vigor, problems. Adequate water control systems are difficult
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees to establish in most areas because suitable drainage
is moderate. Equipment use limitations and seedling outlets are not available. If a water control system can
mortality are the main management problems. Slash, be established and maintained, most locally adapted
south Florida slash, and longleaf pines are the preferred vegetable crops can be successfully grown.
trees for planting. This soil is not suited to citrus trees unless a proper
The potential of this soil for production of range water control system is established and maintained to
plants is low. The plant community consists of a dense regulate the water table. The trees should be planted in
woody understory, which is seldom grazed by livestock, bedded rows.
The dominant forage is pineland threeawn. This soil is Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. improved pasture; however, improved pasture can be
This soil has moderate limitations for most urban established if excess surface water is removed. A good
uses because the seasonal high water table is within 4 drainage system is needed for best results. Lime and
to 6 feet of the surface. It has slight limitations for fertilizer should be added according to the need of the
dwellings without basements, small commercial plants. White clover, bahiagrass, and pangolagrass are
buildings, and local streets and roads, best adapted to this soil.
This Tavares soil is in capability subclass Ills. Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
slash or longleaf pines because of excessive wetness
7-Placid fine sand, depressional. This nearly level, and ponding.
very poorly drained soil is in depressional areas on the The potential of this soil for the production of range
flatwoods and along the edges of swamps and marshes plants is high. This soil has the potential for producing
in the county. The depressional areas are circular, and significant amounts of maidencane and cutgrass.
the areas along the edges of swamps and marshes are Although many areas of this soil produce very small
irregular in shape. These mapped areas range from amounts of desirable range plants, some do and are
less than 1 acre to about 70 acres. The slopes are highly valuable assets to a good range management
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. program. These more productive areas are not grazed
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is black during wet periods, and grazing is deferred until the
fine sand about 3 inches thick. The lower part, to a winter when other range plants are of reduced value
depth of 11 inches, is very dark gray sand. The and quantity. This soil is in the Freshwater Marshes and
substratum to a depth of 80 inches is fine sand. It is in Ponds range site.
layers of light brownish gray and dark grayish brown. This soil has severe limitations for all urban uses
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of because of ponding. Good drainage systems that would
Basinger, Felda, Samsula, and Sanibel soils. In some adequately remove the water and effectively regulate
areas are soils that are similar to Placid soils except the water table are expensive and difficult to establish
they have 2 to 6 inches of muck on the surface. In most and maintain. Most areas do not have suitable water
areas, the included soils make up 10 to 15 percent of outlets. Even where drainage systems can be installed,
the map unit. the problem of keeping the areas adequately drained is
The available water capacity of this Placid soil is low. a continuing hazard.
The permeability is rapid. This soil is ponded for much This Placid soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
of the year. The water table is generally within 10
inches of the surface for the rest of the year, but during 8-Immokalee sand. This nearly level, poorly
drained soil is on broad flatwoods and in lower areas in







20 Soil Survey


the ridge part of the county. The mapped areas are because of the high water table. Trees should be
irregular in shape and range from 15 to more than 500 planted in bedded rows for highest productivity. Slash
acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 and south Florida slash pines are the preferred trees for
percent. planting.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 6 The potential of this soil for the production of
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 37 desirable range plants is moderate. This soil has the
inches, is gray and white sand. The subsoil to a depth potential for producing significant amounts of creeping
of 80 inches is black sand. bluestem, chalky bluestem, indiangrass, and other
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of desirable range plants. As the range deteriorates,
Basinger, Felda, Myakka, Pomello, Satellite, and pineland threeawn and saw palmetto dominate the site.
Smyrna soils. In most areas, the included soils make up Management of the native rangeland should include
10 to 15 percent of the map unit. crossfencing, cattle rotation to help maintain plant vigor,
The available water capacity of this Immokalee soil is and careful consideration of the number of cattle per
low. The permeability is moderate. The water table is acre based on range condition and size of the site. This
within 12 inches of the surface during the summer rainy soil is in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
season. Generally, it is between depths of 12 and 40 This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
inches for the rest of the year. The water table may because of wetness. Septic tank absorption fields
recede to a depth of more than 40 inches during should be mounded to maintain the system well above
extended dry periods. Also, this soil can have a perched the seasonal high water table. Building sites for
water table over the subsoil for short periods after dwellings without basements should also be mounded
heavy rainfall. to prevent moisture problems because of wetness. For
Most of the acreage of this soil is in improved recreational uses, this soil also has severe limitations
pasture and native rangeland. Some areas have been because of wetness, but with proper drainage to
cleared for citrus crops. The natural vegetation consists remove excess surface water during wet periods, many
of slash pine, south Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, of these limitations can be overcome.
running oak, saw palmetto, gallberry, fetterbush, This Immokalee soil is in capability subclass IVw.
pineland threeawn, chalky bluestem, low panicum, and
various other native grasses. 9-Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This
This Immokalee soil has severe limitations for nearly level to moderately sloping, excessively drained
cultivated crops. If wetness can be overcome by soil is in the ridge part of the county. This soil is the
providing proper drainage, a variety of vegetable crops dominant soil on the ridge. The mapped areas are
can be grown. A water control system is needed to irregular in shape and range from 50 to more than
remove excess water and to provide irrigation during 2,500 acres. The slopes are smooth to convex.
dry periods. Fertilizer and lime should be added Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
according to the specific need of the crops. sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying material to a
Citrus trees are moderately well suited to this soil if a depth of 80 inches is brownish yellow sand.
properly designed water control system is established Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and maintained to regulate the water table. Citrus trees Orsino, Paola, St. Lucie, and Tavares soils. In some
should be planted in bedded rows to maintain root areas is a soil that is very similar to Astatula soil, but it
systems well above the seasonal high water table. Plant has thin loamy sand bands or lamellae generally at a
cover should be maintained between the rows to depth of more than 70 inches. In most areas, the
prevent erosion of the beds. Proper management included soils make up 10 to 30 percent of the map
should also include regular applications of lime and unit.
fertilizer. The available water capacity of this Astatula soil is
The potential of this soil for production of pasture and very low. The permeability is very rapid.. Depth to the
hay crops is moderate. Water control systems are water table is more than 80 inches.
needed to remove excess water after heavy rainfall. Most of the acreage of this soil is in citrus crops. A
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover large part of the acreage has been developed for urban
are best adapted to this soil. use. Small areas have been cleared for improved
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees pasture grasses and cultivated crops. The natural
is moderate. The main concerns in management are vegetation consists of sand pine, longleaf pine, turkey
equipment use limitations and seedling mortality oak, live oak, and hickory. The understory is scattered







Highlands County, Florida 21


saw palmetto, sabal palmetto, bluestem, paspalum, very low. The permeability is moderate. The water table
cactus, and pineland threeawn. is at a depth of less than 12 inches during the summer
This Astatula soil has very severe limitations for most rainy season. Generally, it is at a depth of 12 to 40
cultivated crops. Intensive management is required if inches during the rest of the year. During extended dry
the soil is cultivated. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of periods, the water table recedes to a depth of more
plant nutrients reduce the variety and potential yields of than 40 inches. Also, this soil can have a perched water
adapted crops. An irrigation system is needed during table because of the permeability of the subsoil.
dry periods. A large part of the acreage of this soil has been
Citrus trees are well suited to this soil. Where a high cleared for improved pasture and vegetable crops and,
level of management and a properly designed irrigation in more recent years, has been used for citrus crops.
system are used, groves can produce yields of 500 Significant acreage remains in natural vegetation that
boxes per acre. consists mainly of slash pine, south Florida slash pine,
The potential of this soil for production of improved longleaf pine, fetterbush, gallberry, running oak,
pasture grasses is moderate; however, grazing should waxmyrtle, and saw palmetto (fig. 3). Pineland threeawn
be controlled to permit plants to recover and to maintain is the dominant grass; but depending on range
vigor. Bahiagrass and pangolagrass are best adapted to condition, there are significant amounts of creeping
this soil. bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees other grasses.
is moderate. Equipment use limitations and seedling This Myakka soil has severe limitations for cultivated
mortality are the main management problems. Sand crops because of wetness and the sandy texture. With
pine is the preferred tree for planting. proper management and use of conservation practices,
The potential of this soil for production of desirable however, this soil is well suited to a variety of vegetable
range plants is low. The plant community consists of a crops. A properly designed water control system will
dense woody understory, which is seldom grazed by remove excess surface water during rainy periods and
livestock. Under excellent conditions, the forage provide irrigation during dry periods. Proper
consists of creeping bluestem, indiangrass, and various management should include bedding in rows, regular
other bluestems. As the range deteriorates, low applications of lime and fertilizer, and planting of soil-
panicum and pineland threeawn dominate. This soil is in improving crops to protect the soil from erosion.
the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. Citrus trees are moderately well suited to this soil if a
This Astatula soil has slight limitations for most urban properly designed water control system is established
uses. This soil is a good source for roadfill. This soil and maintained. This system should be designed to
has severe limitations for recreational development maintain the water table at an effective depth. Trees
because it is too sandy, causing poor trafficability. should be planted in bedded rows. Irrigation should be
Adding suitable topsoil or stabilizing the surface layer available during dry periods. Regular applications of
will reduce or overcome this limitation, lime and fertilizer are needed.
This Astatula soil is in capability subclass Vis. The potential of this soil for production of pasture and
hay crops is moderate. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and
10-Myakka fine sand. This nearly level, poorly white clover are best suited to this soil. A water control
drained soil is in low, broad, flatwood areas in the system should be used to remove excess surface water
county. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and after heavy rainfall. Regular applications of lime and
range from 10 to 200 acres. The slopes are smooth and fertilizer are needed. Grazing should be controlled to
range from 0 to 2 percent. prevent weakening of plants.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4 The potential of this soil for production of pine trees
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 24 is moderate. Equipment use limitations and seedling
inches, is light gray and light brownish gray sand. The mortality are concerns in management. Slash and south
subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is black and dark Florida slash pines are the preferred trees for planting.
brown sand. The potential of this soil for the production of range
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of plants is moderate. This soil has the potential for
Basinger, Immokalee, Placid, Satellite, Smyrna, and producing significant amounts of creeping bluestem,
Valkaria soils. In most areas, the included soils make chalky bluestem, and indiangrass. Grazing should be
up 10 to 35 percent of the map unit. controlled to maintain plant vigor. Grazing time and
The available water capacity of this Myakka soil is number of cattle per acre are major considerations in a







22 Soil Survey





































Figure 3.-The natural vegetation on this Myakka fine sand is saw palmetto and slash pine.



good range management plan. This soil is in the South county. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
Florida Flatwoods range site. range from 15 acres to more than 100 acres. The
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses slopes are smooth to convex.
because of wetness. The limitations for septic tank Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 2
absorption fields can be overcome by backfilling and inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 46
mounding to maintain the system above the seasonal inches, is white sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about
high water table. For recreational development, this soil 66 inches, is yellowish brown, reddish brown, and dark
also has severe limitations because of wetness; but reddish brown sand. The substratum to a depth of 80
with proper drainage to remove excess surface water, inches or more is very pale brown sand.
most of the limitations can be overcome. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This Myakka soil is in capability subclass IVw. Archbold, Duette, Paola, Pomello. St. Lucie. and
Tavares soils. In most areas, the included soils make
11-Orsino sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This nearly up 10 to 25 percent of the map unit.
level to gently sloping, moderately well drained soil is The available water capacity of this Orsino soil is
on moderately high sandy ridges in the ridge part of the very low. The permeability is very rapid. The water table







Highlands County, Florida 23


is at a depth of 42 to 72 inches for 1 to 4 months during more. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2
the summer rainy season. It recedes to a lower depth percent.
during the rest of the year. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
Most of the acreage of this soil is in citrus crops or about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
has been left in natural vegetation. Some areas have of about 21 inches, is light gray and light brownish gray
been cleared for improved pasture and cultivated crops. fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 52 inches, is brown
The natural vegetation consists of sand pine, slash fine sand. The upper part of the substratum, to a depth
pine, scrub hickory, Chapman oak, myrtle oak, and of 62 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The lower
sand live oak. The understory consists of scattered saw part to a depth of 80 inches is grayish brown loamy fine
palmetto, pineland threeawn, and other forbs. sand.
This Orsino soil has very severe limitations for Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
cultivated crops. Intensive management is required if Felda, Immokalee, Myakka, Placid, and Valkaria soils.
the soil is cultivated. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of In some places are soils that are similar to Basinger
plant nutrients reduce the variety of adapted crops and soil, but the subsoil is not as brown as that in Basinger
their potential yields. Irrigation is advisable if adequate soil. In most areas, the included soils make up 10 to 25
water is readily available. percent of the map unit.
Citrus trees are well suited to this soil. Good yields of The available water capacity of this Basinger soil is
oranges and grapefruit can be obtained in some years low. The permeability is rapid. The water table is within
without irrigation. A properly designed irrigation system 12 inches of the surface for 2 to 5 months during the
is needed to ensure consistent high yields. summer rainy season. Generally, it is between depths
The potential of this soil for production of pasture and of 12 and 40 inches for 6 months or more but may
hay crops is low. Bahiagrass and bermudagrass are recede to a lower depth during extended dry periods.
well adapted to this soil. Regular applications of Most of the acreage of this soil remains in natural
fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be vegetation. Large areas have been cleared for improved
controlled to permit plants to recover from grazing and pasture and vegetable crops. The natural vegetation
to maintain vigor, consists of slash pine, south Florida slash pine,
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees gallberry, pineland threeawn, cutthroat grass,
is low. Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality maidencane, bluestem, St. Johnswort, and cordgrass.
are the main management problems. Slash, south This Basinger soil has very severe limitations for
Florida slash, and longleaf pines are the preferred trees cultivated crops because of wetness. This limitation can
for planting. be partly overcome if a properly designed water control
The potential of this soil for production of desirable system is established and maintained to remove excess
range plants is very low. The plant community consists surface water during wet periods and to provide
of a dense woody understory, which is seldom grazed irrigation during dry periods. Lime or fertilizer should be
by livestock. The dominate browse is pineland added according to the need of the crops.
threeawn. This soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees; however, if a
site. properly designed water control system is installed,
This soil has moderate limitations for most urban citrus is suitable. Controlling the depth of the water
uses because of the seasonal high water table. This soil table is vital to the success of growing citrus. Citrus
has slight limitations for dwellings without basements, should be planted in bedded rows, and irrigation should
small commercial buildings, and local streets and roads. be provided during dry periods. A cover crop should be
This soil has severe limitations for recreational maintained between rows.
development because it is too sandy. By adding The potential of this soil for production of improved
suitable topsoil or by stabilizing the surface layer, this pasture grasses and hay crops is moderate.
limitation can be overcome. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover are best
This Orsino soil is in capability subclass IVs. adapted to this soil if well managed. A water control
system to remove excess surface water after heavy
12-Basinger fine sand. This nearly level, poorly rainfall is needed to ensure good yields. Fertilizer is
drained soil is on the low flatwoods and in sloughs and needed on a regular basis. For pasture purposes,
poorly defined drainageways. The mapped areas are grazing should be controlled to maintain plant vigor.
irregular in shape and range from 10 to 50 acres or The potential of this soil for production of pine trees







24 Soil Survey


is moderate. Seedling mortality is the main concern in bluestems, sand cordgrass, maidencane. saw palmetto.
management because of wetness. Slash and south and fetterbush.
Florida pines are the preferred trees for planting. Under natural conditions, this Felda soil has severe
The potential of this soil for the production of range limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness:
plants is moderately high. This soil has the potential for however, if a water control system is established and
producing high amounts of blue maidencane, chalky maintained, a variety of vegetable crops is suitable for
bluestem, and bluejoint panicum. To maintain the this soil. The water control system is needed to remove
range, a good range management plan should include excess surface water during wet periods and provide
such considerations as grazing time and number of subsurface irrigation during dry periods. Fertilizer
cows per acre. This soil is in the Slough range site. should be added according to the need of the crops.
This soil has severe limitations for urban uses This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees: however, if a
because of wetness. Limitations for septic tank properly designed water control system is established
absorption fields can be overcome by mounding and and maintained to regulate the water table. citrus is
backfilling to maintain the system above the seasonal suitable. The trees should be planted in bedded rows to
high water table. This soil also has severe limitations for help maintain the root system above the water table. An
recreational development because of wetness and the irrigation system is needed, and fertilizer should be
sandy texture. Providing a drainage system to remove applied at regular intervals. Plant cover should be
excess surface water and adding suitable topsoil or maintained between the rows to prevent erosion of the
resurfacing the area will overcome this limitation, beds.
This Basinger soil is in capability subclass IVw. The potential of this soil for production of pasture and
hay crops is moderate. A water control system is
13-Felda fine sand. This nearly level, poorly needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
drained soil is on broad, low flats and in large rainfall. White clover, pangolagrass. and bahiagrass are
drainageways in the flatwoods part of the county. The best adapted to this soil. Management practices require
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 20 controlled grazing and regular applications of fertilizer
to more than 500 acres. The slopes are smooth and for maximum yields.
range from 0 to 1 percent. The potential of this soil for production of pine trees
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 7 is moderate. Seedling mortality and equipment use
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 24 limitations during wet periods are the main concerns in
inches, is light gray and dark grayish brown fine sand. management. Slash and south Florida slash pines are
The subsoil, to a depth of 36 inches, is gray very fine the preferred trees for planting.
sandy loam. The upper part of the substratum, to a The potential of this soil for the production of
depth of 68 inches, is light gray fine sand. The lower desirable range plants is moderately high. This soil has
part to a depth of more than 80 inches is dark grayish the potential for producing significant amounts of
brown fine sand. maidencane, chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to dominate the
Bradenton, Hicoria, Malabar, Pineda, Tequesta, and site under excessive grazing conditions: therefore.
Valkaria soils. In most areas, the included soils make management of the native rangeland should include
up 10 to 20 percent of the map unit. cattle rotation, crossfencing, and consideration of the
The available water capacity of this Felda soil is low. number of cattle per acre based on the condition of the
The permeability is moderate or moderately rapid. The range and size of the site. This soil is in the Slough
water table is within 12 inches of the surface during the range site.
summer rainy season. During the rest of the year, the This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
water table is between depths of 12 and 40 inches because of the high water table. Building sites and
except during dry periods when it may recede to a septic tank absorption fields should be mounded
lower depth, because of wetness. By improving drainage, most of the
Most of the acreage of this soil is in improved limitations can be overcome.
pasture and native rangeland. Some areas have been This Felda soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
cleared for citrus crops. The natural vegetation consists
of slash pine, south Florida slash pine, cabbage palm, 14-Satellite sand. This nearly level, somewhat
waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, various species of poorly drained soil is on slightly elevated ridges on the








Highlands County, Florida 25


flatwoods and on the lower ridges in the ridge part of too sandy. By adding suitable topsoil or stabilizing the
the county. The mapped areas are irregular in shape surface, this limitation can be minimized.
and range from 10 to more than 100 acres. The slopes This Satellite soil is in capability subclass VIs.
are generally smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2
percent. 15-Bradenton fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4 drained soil is on hammocks and in open areas on the
inches thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80 flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
inches is white fine sand that has brown mottles in the range from 5 to more than 50 acres. The slopes are
upper part of this horizon, smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
Archbold, Basinger, Daytona, Duette, Immokalee, about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
Myakka, and Pomello soils. In most areas, the included of 14 inches, is light gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a
soils make up 10 to 20 percent of the map unit. depth of 44 inches, is gray very fine sandy loam. White
The available water capacity of this Satellite soil is calcium carbonate nodules are in the lower part of the
very low. The permeability is very rapid. The water table subsoil. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches is light
is at a depth of 12 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. brownish gray and greenish gray loamy sand and very
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural fine sandy loam.
vegetation, but some areas have been cleared for Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
pasture and citrus crops. The natural vegetation Felda, Hicoria, Malabar, and Pineda soils. In most
consists of slash pine, south Florida slash pine, longleaf areas, the included soils make up 15 to 20 percent of
pine, myrtle oak, Chapman oak, and sand live oak. The the map unit.
understory consists of saw palmetto and pineland The available water capacity of this Bradenton soil is
threeawn. moderate. The permeability is moderate. The water
This Satellite soil has very severe limitations for table is within 12 inches of the surface during the
cultivated crops. A water control system is needed to summer rainy season. During the rest of the year, the
remove excess water in wet periods and provide water table is generally between depths of 12 and 40
irrigation during the dry periods. Soil-improving inches except during dry periods when it may recede to
practices should be used, and regular applications of a lower depth.
lime and fertilizer are needed if the soil is used for Most of the acreage of this soil is in improved
cultivated crops. pasture and native rangeland. A few areas have been
Citrus trees are moderately suited to this soil. A cleared for citrus crops. The natural vegetation consists
drainage system is needed to remove excess water mostly of live oak, cabbage palm, a few pines, saw
during the rainy season and supply supplemental palmetto, and various species of bluestems and
irrigation during the dry part of the year. panicums.
The potential of this soil for production of pasture and This Bradenton soil has severe limitations for
hay crops is moderate. Pangolagrass and bahiagrass cultivated crops. The limiting factor is the high water
are best adapted to this soil. Regular applications of table. If wetness can be overcome by providing
lime and fertilizer are needed. Grazing should be drainage, a variety of vegetable crops is suitable for
controlled to maintain healthy plants for maximum cultivation. A water control system is needed to remove
production. excess water during wet periods and to provide
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees irrigation during dry periods. Fertilizer should be added
is low. Seedling mortality is the main management according to the specific need of the crops.
problem. Slash, south Florida slash, and longleaf pines Citrus trees are well suited to this soil if a properly
are the preferred trees for planting, designed water control system is established and
The potential of this soil for the production of range maintained to regulate the water table. Citrus trees
plants is very low. The plant community consists of a should be planted in bedded rows so that the root
woody understory, which is seldom grazed. This soil is system is well above the seasonal high water table. A
in the Sand Pine Scrub range site. cover crop should be maintained between rows to
This Satellite soil has severe limitations for most prevent erosion of the beds. Proper management
urban uses because the seasonal high water table is should also include regular applications of fertilizer.
between depths of 15 and 40 inches. The limitations are The potential of this soil for production of hay and
severe for recreational development because the soil is pasture crops is moderate (fig. 4). A water control








26 Soil Survey




















i'i -.- -
Ab

.r ,q V, 4 -**

*'-. -w .-





Figure 4.-This improved pasture is on Bradenton fine sand. The cabbage palm hammocks are used for shade and as a resting area for the
cattle.



system is needed to remove excess surface water maintain the system above the seasonal high water
during heavy periods of rainfall. White clover, improved table. Most of the wetness problems can be overcome
bahiagrass, and pangolagrass are best adapted to this by providing adequate drainage.
soil. This Bradenton soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees
is high. The main concerns in management are seedling 16-Valkaria fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
mortality and equipment use limitations during wet drained soil is on the low flatwoods and in sloughs and
periods. Slash and south Florida slash pines are the poorly defined drainageways. The mapped areas are
preferred trees for planting. irregular in shape and range from 10 to 100 acres or
The potential of this soil for the production of more. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2
desirable range plants is very low because of the dense percent.
canopy of palm trees. The shaded areas are preferred Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5
resting places for cattle and, as such, are generally inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
severely grazed. This soil is in the Wetland Hardwood 16 inches, is light gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a
Hammock range site. depth of 51 inches, is yellowish brown and light
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses yellowish brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of
because of wetness. Building sites for small buildings 80 inches or more is light gray fine sand.
without basements should be mounded to prevent Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
moisture problems caused by the high water table. Basinger, Felda, Immokalee, Malabar. Myakka, and
Septic tank absorption fields should also be mounded to Satellite soils. In most areas, the included soils make








Highlands County, Florida 27


up 10 to 25 percent of the map unit. table. This soil also has severe limitations for
The available water capacity of this Valkaria soil is recreational development because of wetness and the
low. The permeability is rapid. The water table is within sandy texture. Providing a drainage system to remove
12 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months during the excess surface water and adding suitable topsoil or
summer rainy season. Generally, it is between depths resurfacing the area will overcome this limitation.
of 12 to 40 inches for 6 months or more but may recede This Valkaria soil is in capability subclass IVw.
to a lower depth during extended dry periods.
Large areas of this soil have been cleared for 17-Malabar fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
improved pasture and vegetable crops. Many areas drained soil is in low, narrow to broad sloughs or in
remain in natural vegetation that consists of slash pine, poorly defined drainageways on the flatwoods. The
south Florida slash pine, gallberry, pineland threeawn, mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 10
cutthroat grass, maidencane, bluestem, St. Johnswort, to more than 100 acres. The slopes are smooth and
and cordgrass. range from 0 to 2 percent.
This Valkaria soil has very severe limitations for Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
cultivated crops because of wetness, but this limitation about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
can be partly overcome if a properly designed water of 14 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of
control system is established and maintained to remove the subsoil, to a depth of 48 inches, is yellow, yellowish
excess surface water during wet periods and provide brown, and light yellowish brown fine sand. The lower
irrigation during dry periods. Soil amendments should part to a depth of more than 80 inches is greenish gray
be added according to the need of the crops, fine sandy loam.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. If a properly Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
designed water control system is established and Basinger, Felda, Pineda, and Valkaria soils. In some
maintained to regulate the water table, however, citrus places are soils that are similar to Malabar soil but have
is suitable. Controlling the depth of the water table is a layer of organic staining just above the loamy subsoil.
vital to the success of growing citrus, which should be In most areas, the included soils make up 15 to 25
planted in bedded rows with a cover crop to prevent percent of the map unit.
erosion. Irrigation should be available during extended The available water capacity of this Malabar soil is
dry periods, low. The permeability is slow or very slow. The water
The potential of this soil for production of improved table generally is within 12 inches of the surface for 2 to
pasture grasses and hay crops is moderate. 6 months during the summer rainy season. During the
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover are best rest of the year, it is generally between depths of 12
adapted to this soil if well managed. A water control and 40 inches. During dry periods, the water table may
system to remove excess surface water after heavy recede to a lower depth for a short time.
rainfall is needed to ensure optimum yields. On Most areas of this soil are in improved pasture and
improved pasture sites, grazing should be controlled to native rangeland. The natural vegetation consists of
maintain plant vigor, slash pine, south Florida slash pine, cabbage palm, saw
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees palmetto, waxmyrtle, gallberry, maidencane, various
is moderate. Because of wetness, seedling mortality species of bluestems, pineland threeawn, and sedges.
and equipment use limitations are the main concerns in This Malabar soil has severe limitations for cultivated
management. Slash and south Florida slash pines are crops because of wetness. If the high water table
the preferred trees for planting. problem can be overcome by establishing and
The potential of this soil for the production of range maintaining a suitable water control system, a variety of
plants is moderately high. This soil has the potential for vegetable crops can be grown. Proper management
producing high amounts of blue maidencane, chalky practices should include crop rotation, cover crops in
bluestem, and bluejoint panicum. To maintain the the rotation system, and applications of fertilizer
range, a good range management plan should include according to the need of the crops.
such considerations as grazing time and number of This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. Citrus trees
cattle per acre. This soil is in the Slough range site. can be adapted to this soil if a properly designed water
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses control system can be constructed and maintained to
because of wetness. Limitations for septic tank regulate the water table at the proper depth and also to
absorption fields can be overcome by mounding to provide irrigation. Trees should be planted in bedded
maintain the system above the seasonal high water rows, and a cover crop should be maintained between







28 Soil Survey


the rows to prevent erosion of the beds. Fertilizer areas, the included soils make up 10 to 15 percent of
should be applied at regular intervals, the map unit.
The potential of this soil for production of pasture and The available water capacity of this Kaliga soil is very
hay crops is moderate. Pangolagrass, improved high. The permeability is slow or very slow. Under
bahiagrass, and white clover are best adapted to this natural conditions, this soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months
soil. A water control system is needed to remove in most years. The water table is generally within 10
excess surface water after heavy rainfall. Grazing inches of the surface for the rest of the year.
should be controlled to prevent overgrazing and Many areas of this soil have been drained for
weakening of the plants. Regular applications of improved pasture and speciality crops. The smaller
fertilizer are needed, areas generally remain in natural vegetation of
The potential of this Malabar soil for production of sweetbay, cypress, red maple, blackgum, willow, St.
pines is moderate. The main management concerns are Johnswort, sawgrass, arrowhead, pickerelweed, and
seedling mortality and equipment use limitations during maidencane.
wet periods. Bedding of the trees and a simple drainage This Kaliga soil has very severe limitations for
system to remove excess surface water is needed if the cultivated crops. This soil is well suited to a variety of
potential productivity is to be realized. Slash and south vegetable crops if a properly designed water control
Florida slash pines are the preferred trees for planting, system can be established and maintained. Because of
The potential of this soil for the production of the naturally high acidity, lime should be added to
desirable, range plants is moderately high. Significant adjust the pH. In Highlands County, several areas of
amounts of creeping bluestem, South Florida bluestem, this soil are being used to grow speciality crops of
various panicums, and maidencane can be expected caladium bulbs and sod.
under good management that includes crossfencing, With adequate drainage, this soil has very high
cattle rotation, and careful consideration of the number potential for production of pasture and hay crops.
of cattle per site. This soil is in the Slough range site. Pangolagrass, hermarthria, white clover, and
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses bahiagrass are best adapted to this soil. The water
because of wetness. Septic tank absorption fields control system should maintain the water table near the
should be mounded to maintain the system above the surface to prevent excess oxidation of the organic
seasonal high water table. Building sites for small material. Lime is needed on this soil, and also fertilizer
buildings without basements also should be mounded to that is high in potash and trace elements because they
prevent moisture problems because of wetness. This are generally deficient in organic soils.
soil also has severe limitations for recreational This soil is not suited to citrus or pine trees.
development because of wetness and the sandy The potential of this soil for producing significant
texture. Providing a drainage system to remove excess amounts of desirable range plants is high. Maidencane
surface water and adding suitable topsoil or resurfacing and cutgrass are the most desirable plants. Many areas
the area will overcome this limitation, of this soil provide little or no vegetation that cattle
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass IVw. prefer. Those areas that do produce desirable plants
provide excellent forage during the normally dry winter
18-Kaliga muck. This nearly level, very poorly months when the native rangeland is depleted. Marshes
drained, organic soil is in swamps and marshes. This and swamps are additional benefits in a good range
soil is mainly in large, irregularly shaped areas in a management program. This soil is in the Freshwater
marsh south of Lake Istokpoga. The mapped areas Marshes and Ponds range site.
range from 15 to 200 acres. The slopes are smooth to This soil has severe limitations for urban and
concave and range from 0 to 1 percent. recreational uses. Ponding and low strength of the
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is black muck are hazards that are extremely difficult to
muck about 6 inches thick. The lower part, to a depth of overcome.
39 inches, is dark brown muck. The underlying material, This Kaliga soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
to a depth of 45 inches, is grayish brown very fine sand.
Below that layer, to a depth of 68 inches, is dark gray 19-Hicoria mucky sand, depressional. This nearly
very fine sandy loam. The lower part to a depth of 80 level, very poorly drained soil is in wet depressions.
inches is grayish brown very fine sand. This soil is ponded for much of the year. The mapped
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of areas range from 3 to 40 acres. The slopes are smooth
Felda, Hicoria, Samsula, and Tequesta soils. In most to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.








Highlands County, Florida 29


Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is black small amounts of desirable range plants, some do and
mucky sand about 4 inches thick. The lower part, to a are valuable assets to a good native rangeland
depth of 15 inches, is black fine sand. The subsurface management program. These more productive areas
layer, to a depth of 21 inches, is light gray sand. The are not grazed during wet periods and grazing is
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 39 inches, is deferred until winter when other range plants are of
dark gray fine sandy loam. The lower part, to a depth of reduced value and quantity. This soil is in the
52 inches, is grayish brown fine sandy loam. The Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.
substratum to a depth of 80 inches is dark gray fine This soil has severe limitations for all urban and
sandy loam. recreational uses because of ponding. Good drainage
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of systems that will adequately remove the water and
Felda, Placid, Sanibel, and Tequesta soils. In places regulate the water table are expensive and difficult to
are areas of soils that are similar to Hicoria soil, but establish and maintain. Most areas do not have
they have a fine textured subsoil at a depth of more adequate water outlets; and even if the soil is drained,
than 40 inches. The included soils make up 10 to 15 the problem of keeping the areas adequately drained is
percent of the map unit. a continuing hazard.
The available water capacity of this Hicoria soil is This Hicoria soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
high. The permeability is moderately slow or slow in the
subsoil. In most areas, this soil is ponded most of the 20-Samsula muck. This nearly level, very poorly
year. The water table is at a depth of 10 inches or less drained, organic soil is in depressions, swamps, and
much of the rest of the year. It can recede to a lower marshes. The mapped areas vary considerably in shape
depth during extended dry periods and during the and size. Generally, the smaller areas are circular and
winter. range from 3 to 15 acres, and the larger areas are very
Some areas of this soil have been drained for irregular in shape and range from 50 to more than 200
improved pasture, but most remain in natural acres. The slopes are smooth to concave and range
vegetation. The natural vegetation consists of cypress, from 0 to 1 percent.
red maple, blackgum, willow, and bay trees and Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 36
pickerelweed, arrowhead, maidencane, sawgrass, and inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material,
other water-tolerant plants. to a depth of 45 inches or more, is black sand. The
Under natural conditions, this Hicoria soil has very lower part, to a depth of 65 inches or more, is dark
severe limitations for cultivated crops. Ponding, internal gray, grayish brown, and gray sand.
drainage, and unavailability of suitable drainage outlets Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
severely restrict the use of this soil. If a properly Basinger, Hontoon, Placid, and Sanibel soils. In most
designed water control system can be established and areas, the included soils make up 10 to 15 percent of
maintained, most cultivated crops can be grown, the map unit.
This soil is not suited to citrus trees unless a proper The available water capacity of this Samsula soil is
water control system can be established and maintained high. The permeability is rapid. Under natural conditions
to regulate the water table. The trees should be planted this soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months in most years. The
in bedded rows. water table is at a depth of 10 inches or less for the rest
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to of the year.
improved pasture; however, improved pasture can be Many areas of this soil have been drained for
established if excess surface water is removed. A good improved pasture, vegetable crops, and specialty crops.
drainage system is needed for best results. Lime and Many small areas remain in native vegetation of
fertilizer should be added according to the need of the cypress, sweetbay, red maple, St. Johnswort, sawgrass,
plants. White clover, bahiagrass, and pangolagrass are waxmyrtle, arrowhead, pickerelweed, and maidencane.
best adapted to this soil. This Samsula soil has very severe limitations for
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to cultivated crops; however, if the soil is drained, a variety
slash or longleaf pines because of excessive wetness of crops can be grown. A properly designed and
and ponding. maintained water control system is required. Lime is
The potential of this Hicoria soil for the production of essential for maximum production. Fertilizer should be
range plants is high. This soil has the potential for added according to the need of the crops. In Highlands
producing significant amounts of maidencane and County, several areas of this soil have been drained
cutgrass. Although many areas of this soil produce very







30 Soil Survey


and are being used to grow caladium bulbs, a specialty drained for improved pasture, vegetable crops, and
crop. caladium plants and bulbs, a specialty crop. In a few of
With adequate drainage, this soil has very high the larger areas, the muck is being commercially mined.
potential for production of pasture and hay crops. Some areas remain in natural vegetation of sweetbay,
Pangolagrass, white clover, and bahiagrass are best blackgum, and other water-tolerant trees. The
adapted to this soil. A water control system is needed to understory consists of fern, maidencane, sawgrass, and
maintain the water table near the surface to prevent pickerelweed.
excess oxidation and subsidence of the organic This Hontoon soil has very severe limitations for
material. Lime is needed on this soil, and fertilizer that cultivated crops; however, if the soil is drained, a variety
is high in potash and trace elements should also be of crops are adapted. A properly designed and
applied because they are generally deficient in organic maintained water control system is required. Fertilizer
soils. should be applied according to the need of the crops,
This soil is not suited to citrus or pine trees. Citrus and lime should be added to these very acid soils to
crops can be adapted to this soil if a specially designed maintain high quality and obtain maximum yields.
water control system is established and maintained to With adequate drainage, hay and pasture crops have
regulate the water table, very high production potential. Pangolagrass, white
The potential of this soil for producing significant clover, and bahiagrass are best adapted to this soil.
amounts of desirable range plants is high. Maidencane The water control system should maintain the water
and cutgrass are the most desirable. Many areas of this table near the surface to prevent excess oxidation and
soil provide little or no vegetation that cattle prefer. subsidence of the organic material. Lime is needed on
Those areas that do produce desirable plants provide this soil, and fertilizer that is high in potash and trace
excellent forage during the winter and during dry elements should also be applied because these are
periods. Marshes and swamps are additional benefits in generally deficient in organic soils.
a good range management plan. This soil is in the This soil is not suited to citrus or pine tree
Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. production.
This soil has severe limitations for urban and The potential of this soil for the production of
recreational use. Installing water control systems, desirable range plants is high. This soil has the
removing the organic material, and backfilling with potential for producing significant amounts of
suitable soil material are necessary for most uses. maidencane and cutgrass. These marshes produce high
This Samsula soil is in capability subclass IVw. quality forage during droughts and during the winter
when other areas do not produce a great amount of
21-Hontoon muck. This nearly level, very poorly forage. Management of this native rangeland should
drained, organic soil is in the marshes and swampy include consideration of the number of cattle that use
areas. Most mapped areas range from 5 to 50 acres, the site for a specific period of time. This soil is in the
but a few areas range from 100 to more than 500 Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.
acres. These areas are irregular in shape. The slopes This soil has severe limitations for urban and
are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 1 percent. recreational uses because of the high water table and
Typically, the upper part of the organic surface layer the very low bearing strength of the muck. Major
is dark reddish brown muck 15 inches thick. Below this reclamation is needed before this soil can be used for
layer, to a depth of 65 inches, is black muck. The upper urban development.
part of the underlying material, to a depth of 73 inches, This Hontoon soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
is black mucky sand. The lower part to a depth of more
than 80 inches is dark gray sand. 22-Brighton muck. This nearly level, very poorly
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of drained, organic soil is in forested swamps and
Basinger, Placid, and Samsula soils. In most areas, the marshes. The mapped areas vary considerably in size
included soils make up 10 to 20 percent of the map and shape. The largest mapped areas are on the
unit. southern side of Lake Istokpoga and range from 10 to
The available water capacity of this Hontoon soil is more than 200 acres. The slopes are smooth to
very high. The permeability is rapid. Under natural concave and range from 0 to 1 percent.
conditions, this soil has a water table at or above the Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 12
surface except during extended dry periods, inches thick. Below that layer to a depth of 80 inches or
Many areas of this soil have been cleared and more is dark reddish brown peat.








Highlands County, Florida 31


Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 23-Gator muck. This nearly level, very poorly
Gator, Hontoon, Kaliga, and Samsula soils. In places drained soil is in swamps, marshes, and wet
are soils that are similar to Brighton soil, but they are at depressions. The mapped areas are irregular in shape
a depth of less than 51 inches. In most areas, the and range from 5 to more than 500 acres. The slopes
included soils make up 5 to 10 percent of the map unit. are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 1 percent.
The available water capacity of this Brighton soil is Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 18
very high. The permeability is rapid. Under natural inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material,
conditions, this soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months in most to a depth of 36 inches, is very dark gray sandy clay
years. The water table is generally at a depth of less loam. The next layer, to a depth of 55 inches, is a
than 10 inches the rest of the year but may recede to a stratified layer of dark grayish brown sandy loam and
depth of more than 10 inches during long, dry periods, loamy sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or
Many areas of this soil have been drained for more is a mixture of dark gray and gray sand.
improved pasture and specialty crops. Many areas Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
remain in natural vegetation of bays, red maple, and Chobee, Hicoria, and Tequesta soils. In most areas, the
other water-tolerant trees and sawgrass, waxmyrtle, included soils make up 10 to 20 percent of the map
arrowhead, pickerelweed, and other aquatic plants. unit.
This Brighton soil has very severe limitations for The available water capacity of this Gator soil is high.
cultivated crops; however, if the soil is drained, a variety The permeability is slow or very slow. Under natural
of crops are well suited. A properly designed and conditions this soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months in most
maintained water control system is required. Lime is years. The water table is generally within 10 inches of
needed to raise the pH for specialty crops and improved the surface for the rest of the year.
pasture. Fertilizer should be added according to the Most of the larger areas of this soil have been
need of the crops. Many areas of this soil have been drained for improved pasture. The smaller areas
drained and cleared for growing caladiums. Large areas generally remain in natural vegetation of sweetbay and
in this use are on the southern side of Lake Istokpoga. other water-tolerant trees and waxmyrtle, arrowhead,
With adequate drainage, the soil has very high pickerelweed, and maidencane.
potential for production of pasture and hay crops. This Gator soil has very severe limitations for
Bahiagrass and white clover are best adapted to this cultivated crops. This soil is well suited to a variety of
soil. The water control system should maintain the vegetable crops if a properly designed water control
water table at or near the surface to prevent excess system can be established and maintained.
oxidation and subsidence of the organic material. Lime With adequate drainage, this soil has very high
and fertilizer that is high in potash and trace elements potential for production of pasture and hay crops.
are essential to maintain the pasture. Pangolagrass, white clover, and bahiagrass are best
This soil is not suited to citrus or pine trees. Citrus adapted to this soil. The water control system should
crops can be adapted to this soil if a specially designed maintain the water table near the surface to prevent
water control system is established and maintained, excess oxidation of the organic material. Fertilizer high
The potential of this soil for the production of in potash and trace elements is recommended as these
desirable range plants is high. This soil has the are generally deficient in organic soils.
potential for producing significant amounts of This soil is not suited to citrus or pine trees.
maidencane and cutgrass. These marshes produce high The potential of this soil for producing significant
quality forage during droughts and during the winter amounts of desirable range plants is high. Maidencane
when other areas do not produce a great amount of and cutgrass are the most desirable. The productive
forage. Management of this native rangeland should areas provide excellent forage for cattle during the
include consideration of the number of cattle that use normally dry winter months when the native rangeland
the site for a specific period. This soil is in the is depleted. Such areas are beneficial in a good range
Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. management program. This soil is in the Freshwater
This soil has severe limitations for urban and Marshes and Ponds range site.
recreational uses. Ponding and low strength of the This soil has severe limitations for urban and
organic material are hazards that are extremely difficult recreational uses. Ponding and low strength of the
to overcome. muck are hazards that are extremely difficult to
This Brighton soil is in capability subclass Illw. overcome.
This Gator soil is in capability subclass Illw.







32 Soil Survey


24-Pineda sand. This nearly level, poorly drained pangolagrass are best adapted to this soil. Management
soil is on low, narrow to broad flats and in sloughs or practices should include regular applications of fertilizer,
poorly defined drainageways in the flatwoods part of the and grazing should be controlled to obtain maximum
county. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and yields.
range from 10 to more than 50 acres. The slopes are The potential of this soil for production of pine trees
smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent, is moderately high. The main concerns in management
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4 are seedling mortality and equipment use limitations
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 12 during wet periods. Bedding of the trees and a simple
inches, is light gray sand. The upper part of the subsoil, drainage system to remove excess surface water is
to a depth of 30 inches, is brownish yellow sand. The needed if the potential productivity is to be realized.
lower part, to a depth of 56 inches, is light brownish Slash and south Florida slash pines are the preferred
gray sandy clay loam and sandy loam. The substratum trees for planting.
to a depth of more than 80 inches is brown and light The potential of this soil for the production of
greenish gray sand. desirable range plants is moderate. The grazing sites
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of on this soil are preferred because of the high quality
Basinger, Felda, Malabar, and Valkaria soils. In most and quantity of forage, such as maidencane. chalky
areas, the included soils make up 10 to 25 percent of bluestem, and creeping bluestem. Management
the map unit. practices should include crossfencing, cattle rotation,
The available water capacity is low. The permeability and consideration to the specific number of cattle per
is slow or very slow. The water table is within 12 inches site. This soil is in the Slough range site.
of the surface during the summer rainy season. During This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
the rest of the year, it is between depths of 12 and 40 because of the high water table. Septic tank absorption
inches except during dry periods when it can recede to fields should be mounded to maintain the system above
a lower depth, the seasonal high water table. Building sites for small
Most areas of this soil are in improved pasture and buildings without basements also should be mounded to
native rangeland. The natural vegetation consists of prevent moisture problems because of wetness. This
cabbage palm, water oak, south Florida slash pine, soil also has severe limitations for recreational
waxmyrtle, slash pine, sand cordgrass, pineland development because of wetness and the sandy
threeawn, saw palmetto, and various species of texture. These limitations can be overcome by using a
bluestems. drainage system to remove excess surface water and
Under natural conditions, this Pineda soil has severe by adding suitable topsoil or stabilizing the surface
limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness. This layer.
limitation can be partly overcome if a properly designed This Pineda soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
water control system can be established and maintained
to remove excess surface water during the wet periods 25-Chobee fine sandy loam, depressional. This
and to provide irrigation during dry periods. Good nearly level, very poorly drained soil is in depressions
management practices should include using a cover on the flatwoods and in swamps and marshes. The
crop and applying fertilizer according to the need of the mapped areas range from 3 to 40 acres. The slopes are
crops. smooth to concave and range from 0 to 1 percent.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees; however, Typically, the surface layer is black fine sandy loam
they can be adapted to this soil if a properly designed about 18 inches thick. The upper 3 inches of that layer
water control system is established and maintained, is stratified muck and fine sandy loam. The subsoil, to a
The system should maintain the water table at the depth of 57 inches, is gray and dark gray sandy clay
proper depth and also provide irrigation during dry loam and fine sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of
periods. Trees should be planted in bedded rows, and a 80 inches is gray fine sand.
cover crop should be maintained between rows to Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
prevent erosion of the beds. Fertilizer should be applied Felda, Hicoria, Placid, and Tequesta soils. In places are
at regular intervals, areas of soils that are similar to Chobee soil. These
The potential of this soil for production of pasture and similar soils have either an organic layer that is more
hay crops is moderate. A water control system is than 6 inches thick above the mineral horizon or a fine
needed to remove excess surface water during periods textured subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches, or
of heavy rainfall. Bahiagrass, white clover, and have both. In most areas, the included soils make up 10








Highlands County, Florida 33


to 15 percent of the map unit. county. This soil also is along the Kissimmee River
The available water capacity of this Chobee soil is flood plain in former oxbows and dendritic patterns
moderate. The permeability is slow or very slow. This leading into the river. Generally, the mapped areas
soil is ponded most of the year. Much of the rest of the range from 5 to 300 acres, but a few areas are much
year, the water table is at a depth of 10 inches or less. larger. The slopes are smooth to concave and range
Generally, in dry periods during the winter, it recedes to from 0 to 2 percent.
a lower depth. Typically, the organic surface layer is black muck
Some areas of this soil have been drained for about 12 inches thick. Below that layer, to a depth of 17
improved pasture, but most areas remain in natural inches, is black fine sand. The subsurface layer, to a
vegetation, which consists of cypress, bays, red maple, depth of 32 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The
and other water-tolerant trees. The understory in marsh subsoil, to a depth of 77 inches, is dark gray fine sandy
areas consists of pickerelweed, arrowhead, waxmyrtle, loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more
sawgrass, and other water-tolerant plants. is light gray fine sand.
Under natural conditions, this Chobee soil has very Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
severe limitations for cultivated crops. Ponding, internal Basinger, Hicoria, Kaliga, and Sanibel soils. In most
drainage, and unavailability of drainage outlets severely areas, the included soils make up 10 to 15 percent of
restrict the use of this soil. Cultivated crops can be the map unit.
grown only if suitable drainage outlets can be installed The available water capacity of this Tequesta soil is
and maintained. moderate. The permeability is moderately slow. Under
This soil is not suited to citrus trees unless a water natural conditions, this soil is ponded for most of the
control system can be established and maintained to year. The water table is within 10 inches of the surface
regulate the water table. The trees should be planted in the rest of the year.
bedded rows. Large areas of this soil have been cleared and
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to drained for improved pasture, citrus crops, and hay
improved pasture; however, improved pasture can be crops. The natural vegetation consists of arrowhead,
established on this soil if excess water is removed. A waxmyrtle, pickerelweed, sawgrass, and other water-
good drainage system is needed for best results. Lime tolerant grasses. A few areas are in water-tolerant
and fertilizer should be added according to the need of trees.
the plants. White clover, bahiagrass, and pangolagrass Under natural conditions, this Tequesta soil has very
are best adapted to this soil. severe limitations for cultivated crops. Many areas of
This soil is not suited to pine tree production because this soil have been drained and are used for caladiums
of ponding and excessive wetness. and citrus crops and for limited vegetable crops.
The potential of this soil for the production of range Citrus crops are well suited to this soil if the trees are
plants is high. The soil has the potential for producing planted in bedded rows and if proper drainage is
significant amounts of maidencane and cutgrass. established and maintained to regulate the water table.
Although many areas of this soil produce small amounts Suitable water outlets should be installed. Fertilizer and
of desirable range plants, some do and are highly lime should be added to obtain maximum yields.
valuable assets to a good native range management Improved pasture and hay crops can be established
program. The more productive areas are not grazed if a good drainage system to remove excess surface
during wet periods, and grazing is deferred until winter water is installed and maintained. Lime and fertilizer
when other range plants are of reduced value and should be added as needed. White clover, bahiagrass,
quantity. This soil is in the Freshwater Marshes and and pangolagrass are the recommended plants for this
Ponds range site. soil. Production potential is very high.
This soil has severe limitations for all urban and This soil is not suited to pine tree production. Excess
recreational uses because of ponding. Drainage and wetness and ponding are the limiting factors.
large amounts of fill material are needed to make this The potential of this soil for production of range
soil suitable for urban use. Most areas do not have plants is high. This soil has the potential for producing
suitable drainage outlets to remove excess water. significant amounts of maidencane and cutgrass and is
This Chobee soil is in capability subclass Vllw. a highly valuable asset in a good native range
management program. Areas of this soil are not grazed
26-Tequesta muck. This nearly level, very poorly during wet periods, and grazing is deferred until winter
drained soil is in marshes and depressions in the when other range plants are of reduced value and







34 Soil Survey


quantity. This soil is in the Freshwater Marshes and plants is very low. The plant community consists of a
Ponds range site. dense woody understory, which is seldom grazed by
This soil has severe limitations for most urban and cattle. The dominate forage is pineland threeawn. This
recreational uses. The seasonal high water table and soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range site.
ponding must be considered in the planning and design This soil has moderate limitations for most urban and
for the intended use. Special designs, soil reclamation, recreational uses because of the sandy texture and also
or planned maintenance after installation should be because the seasonal high water table is between
considered as ways of overcoming the limitations, depths of 40 and 60 inches. For the most part, these
This Tequesta soil is in capability subclass IIIw. limitations are easily overcome by special designs and
soil reclamation, such as surfacing with suitable topsoil
28-Archbold sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This in conjunction with continued maintenance.
nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained This Archbold soil is in capability subclass VIs.
soil is on moderately high ridges in the ridge part of the
county. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and 29-Pomona sand. This nearly level, poorly drained
range from 15 to 75 acres. The slopes are smooth to soil is in the low, flatwood areas that are adjacent to the
convex. Hardee County line. The mapped areas are irregular in
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 4 shape and range from 10 to 50 acres. The slopes are
inches thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80 smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
inches or more is white sand. Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 6
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 29
Duette, Orsino, Paola, Pomello, St. Lucie, and Satellite inches, is gray and light gray sand. The upper part of
soils. In most areas, the included soils make up 10 to the subsoil, to a depth of 51 inches, is dark brown and
15 percent of the map unit. very dark grayish brown sand coated with organic
The available water capacity of this Archbold soil is matter. Below that layer, to a depth of 61 inches, is light
very low. The permeability is very rapid. The water table brownish gray sand. The lower part to a depth of 80
is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches during the summer inches or more is gray sandy loam.
rainy season. It recedes to a lower depth during the rest Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
of the year. Basinger, EauGallie, Felda, Myakka, and Placid soils. In
Most areas of this soil remain in native scrub forests. places is a soil that is similar to Pomona soil, but it has
Small areas have been cleared for citrus crops and a loamy subsoil at a depth of less than 40 inches. In
improved pasture. The natural vegetation consists of most areas, the included soils make up 20 to 50
sand pine, south Florida slash pine, Chapman oak, percent of the map unit.
myrtle oak, and sand live oak. The understory consists The available water capacity of this Pomona soil is
of saw palmetto and scattered pineland threeawn. moderate. The permeability is moderately slow or slow.
Without irrigation, this Archbold soil has very severe The water table is at a depth of less than 12 inches
limitations for cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid during the summer rainy season. Generally, during the
leaching of plant nutrients reduce the potential yields. rest of the year, it is at a depth of 12 to 40 inches and
Citrus trees are moderately well suited to this soil if a recedes to a lower depth during extended dry periods.
good irrigation system is installed and maintained. To Also, this soil can have a perched water table because
maximize yields, management practices should include of the permeability of the subsoil.
proper cover between rows and timely applications of Most areas of this soil are in native rangeland or
lime and fertilizer because of rapid leaching. improved pasture. The natural vegetation consists of
The potential of this soil for production of improved slash pine, south Florida slash pine, longleaf pine,
pasture grasses and hay crops is low. Fertilizer and waxmyrtle, fetterbush, gallberry, and saw palmetto.
lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to Pineland threeawn is the dominant grass; but
maintain plant vigor, depending on range condition, there are significant
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees amounts of creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, bushy
is low. Equipment use and seedling mortality are the bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, maidencane, and other
main concerns in management. Sand, slash, south grasses.
Florida slash, and longleaf pines are the preferred trees This Pomona soil has severe limitations for cultivated
for planting. crops. The root zone is limited by a water table that is
The potential of this soil for the production of range at a depth of less than 12 inches in wet seasons. The







Highlands County, Florida 35


potential of this soil for producing a variety of vegetable 30-Oldsmar fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
crops is moderate. To reach this potential, a water drained soil is in the flatwood areas that are adjacent to
control system to remove excess water in rainy seasons sloughs and streams in the county. The mapped areas
and to provide subsurface irrigation in dry seasons is are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 50 acres.
required. Crop residue and cover crops are needed to The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
should include bedding in rows. sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
Citrus trees are moderately well suited to this soil if a depth of 32 inches, is gray and light gray fine sand. The
properly designed water control system is established upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 54 inches, is
and maintained. This system should maintain the water black, dark brown, and brown fine sand. The lower part,
table at an effective depth and also provide for irrigation to a depth of 60 inches, is grayish brown sandy clay
during dry periods. Timely and regular applications of loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches is
lime and fertilizer are needed. yellowish brown fine sand.
The potential of this soil for production of improved Included with this soil in mapping are areas of
pasture grasses is moderate. Pangolagrass, white EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, and Smyrna soils. In
clover, and bahiagrass grow well if properly managed. A places are soils that are similar to Oldsmar soil, but
water control system is needed to remove excess they have a loamy or clayey layer within 40 inches of
surface water after heavy rainfall. Regular applications the surface. In most areas, the included soils make up
of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be 10 to 15 percent of the map unit.
controlled to prevent overgrazing and weakening of the The available water capacity of this Oldsmar soil is
plants. low. The permeability is slow or very slow. The water
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees table is within 12 inches of the surface during the
is moderately high. Seedling mortality and equipment summer rainy season. It is at a depth of 12 to 40 inches
use limitations during wet periods are the main the rest of the year. The water table may be perched
management problems. Surface ditches to remove above the upper part of the subsoil during periods of
excess water are needed. Trees should be planted in high rainfall.
bedded rows. Slash and south Florida slash pines are Most of the acreage of this soil is in native rangeland
the preferred trees for planting. or improved pasture. The natural vegetation consists of
The potential of this soil for production of range slash pine, south Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, saw
plants is moderate. Significant amounts of creeping palmetto, gallberry, fetterbush, chalky bluestem,
bluestem, chalky bluestem, indiangrass, and various pineland threeawn, low panicum, scattered hypericum,
panicums can be produced on this soil. Improper range and other native forbs and grasses.
management causes a decrease in these forage plants This Oldsmar soil has severe limitations for cultivated
and increases the amount of undesirable plants, such crops. Drainage must be provided to remove excess
as pineland threeawn, saw palmetto, and carpetgrass. surface water and to regulate the seasonal high water
To avoid this, several range management practices can table. The water control system should be designed to
be implemented, such as deferred grazing, brush provide irrigation as well. With these measures in place,
control, and proper stocking. This soil is in the South many vegetable crops, such as watermelon, tomatoes,
Florida Flatwoods range site. peppers, cabbage, and cucumbers can be grown.
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses Citrus trees are well suited to this soil but should be
because of the high water table. To overcome this extensively managed by establishing and maintaining a
limitation, building sites as well as septic tank proper water control system to regulate the water table.
absorption fields should be mounded. This soil also has Management practices should also include planting the
severe limitations for recreational development because trees in bedded rows, maintaining adequate drainage
of wetness and the sandy texture. Water control outlets, planting a cover crop between the rows to
systems are necessary but are normally difficult to control erosion, applying proper fertilizer, and controlling
install because adequate water outlets are not insects and disease.
available. The sandy texture limitation can be overcome The potential of this soil for the production of pasture
by adding suitable topsoil or resurfacing the area. and hay crops is moderate. Excess surface water
This Pomona soil is in capability subclass IVw. should be removed as quickly as possible.







36 Soil Survey


Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are suited to this The available water capacity of this Felda soil is low.
soil. The permeability is moderately rapid or moderate. This
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees soil is ponded for 6 months or more in most years.
is moderately high. Seedling mortality and wetness are During the dry, winter months, the water table recedes,
the main management problems. Slash and south but it generally stays within 24 inches of the surface.
Florida slash pines are the preferred trees for planting. Most acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation,
The potential of this soil for production of range which consists of pickerelweed, arrowhead,
plants is moderate. This soil has the potential to maidencane, St. Johnswort and some forested areas of
produce significant amounts of creeping bluestem, redbay, red maple, cypress, and other water-tolerant
chalky bluestem, indiangrass, and various panicums. As trees.
the range deteriorates, pineland threeawn and saw This Felda soil has very severe limitations for
palmetto dominate the site. To avoid this, management cultivated crops because of ponding. Most places do
should include crossfencing, cattle rotations, and careful not have suitable drainage outlets, but if outlets are
consideration as to the number of cattle per acre based available, this soil can be cultivated by establishing and
on range condition and size of the site. This soil is in maintaining a properly designed water control system.
the South Florida Flatwoods range site. Citrus trees are not suited to this soil unless a water
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses control system is established and maintained to
because of wetness. Septic tank absorption fields regulate the water table. The trees should be planted in
should be mounded. Dwelling foundations and slabs bedded rows.
should also be placed on suitable backfill material to Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
prevent moisture problems associated with the seasonal improved pasture; however, if adequate measures are
high water table. This soil also has severe limitations for taken to remove excess surface water and intensive
recreational development because of wetness and the management is practiced, the potential of this soil for
sandy texture. Many of the associated urban and production of improved pasture grasses is moderate.
recreational limitations can be overcome by providing Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover are best
drainage to control the high water table. This is a adapted to this soil. A controlled grazing system should
common practice in many urban areas within the be used to maintain plant vigor. Regular applications of
county. The sandy texture limitation can be overcome lime and fertilizer are needed.
by adding suitable topsoil or by resurfacing the area. This soil is not suited to commercial production of
This Oldsmar soil is in capability subclass IVw. pine trees. Some forested areas of baldcypress do
produce significant amounts of wood. Harvesting of the
31-Felda fine sand, depressional. This very poorly trees is difficult because of severe ponding and
drained soil is in small to large depressions on the because drainage outlets are not available.
flatwoods part of the county. The mapped areas are The potential of this soil for the production of range
mainly circular but also occur in long, narrow bands, plants is high. The dominant forage is maidencane.
Most mapped areas are 10 to 40 acres, but some areas Because of ponding, these areas are given a resting
are more than 100 acres. The slopes are smooth to time from grazing and provide additional forage during
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. the dry, winter months. The periods of ponding can also
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand reduce the grazing value of the forage. This soil is in
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.
of 31 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of This soil has severe limitations for building sites,
the subsoil, to a depth of 38 inches, is dark grayish sanitary facilities, and recreational development.
brown fine sandy loam. The lower part, to a depth of 70 Extensive measures must be taken for most urban
inches, is gray fine sandy loam and has olive mottles, uses. Adequate drainage outlets are not available, and
The substratum to a depth of 80 inches is gray fine the cost of site improvement generally outweighs the
sand and has streaks and lenses of loamy fine sand. benefits of urban development.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This Felda soil is in capability subclass VIIlw.
Basinger, Hicoria, Kaliga, Malabar, and Sanibel soils. In
places are soils that are similar to Felda soil, but they 32-Arents, very steep. Arents consists of
have loamy materials at a depth of less than 20 inches. excessively drained, unconsolidated soil material that
In most areas, the included soils make up 10 to 15 has been excavated from major canals and redeposited
percent of the map unit. along the sides of the canals. The major extent of this








Highlands County, Florida 37


soil is along the Harney Pond Canal, South Florida Water Conservation District.
Water Management Canal, Istokpoga Canal, and This soil has not been assigned a capability
various canals dug in the Kissimmee River for flood subclass.
control. Arents soil is also scattered throughout the
county wherever major canals for agriculture and lake 33-Basinger, St. Johns, and Placid soils. These
level water control canals and structures have been nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
installed. These areas vary in size and shape soils are in seep areas in the county. Locally, they are
depending on the size of the adjacent canal, and the called cutthroat seeps because of the cutthroat grass
height is 8 to 25 feet. Areas of Arents are generally that grows vigorously in these areas. Generally, these
smoothed at the top and are used as access roads. The seep areas are in association with the central ridge in
side slopes range from 45 to 65 percent. the county. They are the result of water seeping from a
The texture and thickness of the layers of this soil higher to a lower position on the landscape. These
are highly variable from site to site. Most areas contain areas tend to remain wetter for longer periods than
remnants of former soil horizons and shell fragments. A similar soils outside the seep areas. The mapped areas
typical profile has a surface layer of olive gray fine sand range from 50 to more than 1,000 acres. The slopes
about 2 inches thick. Below that layer are various layers are dominantly 0 to 2 percent but occasionally range up
of fine sand and loamy material from former natural to 5 percent near the edge of ridges.
horizons. Colors vary from black, gray, olive brown, to The composition of soils in these cutthroat seep
white. Some layers have various amounts of shell areas is highly variable. Similarity of landscape position,
fragments. land use, and management preclude mapping the soils
Included with this soil in mapping are soils in areas separately. Some areas contain all three soils while
along the Kissimmee River that are less than 8 feet others contain only one of the named soils. The
thick. These soils are not excessively drained, percentage composition is highly variable, although
Generally, these areas are where normal dredge most mapped areas are dominated by one of the major
operations did not deposit material thick enough over soils.
the existing soil. Also, some areas are mapped Arents Typically, the surface layer of Basinger soil is dark
in other parts of the county where soil material has gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
been deposited over natural soil. These areas are layer, to a depth of 21 inches, is light gray and light
generally associated with urban land use that elevates brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 52
structures and buildings well above a high water table. inches, is brown fine sand with many bodies of dark
The natural drainage of these soils depends on the grayish brown fine sand. The upper part of the
thickness of the fill material and the natural soil that is substratum, to a depth of 62 inches, is light brownish
being covered, gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is
The available water capacity of this soil is variable grayish brown loamy fine sand.
but generally is low. The permeability is variable but Typically, the surface layer of St. Johns soil is black
generally is rapid to moderate. The water table is at a sand about 11 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of more than 72 inches. Natural fertility is low. depth of 26 inches, is light brownish gray sand. The
This soil is generally not suited to pasture, rangeland, upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 31 inches, is
or cropland because of steepness and limited size. very dark brown sand. The next layer, to a depth of 49
Some areas in the county are planted to citrus crops, inches, is black sand. The next layer, to a depth of 70
and the soil seems to be adapted to this use. inches, is dark yellowish brown sand. The lower part to
Arents soil is not well suited to urban and a depth of 80 inches is very dark gray sand.
recreational uses because of limited size and Typically, the surface layer of Placid soil is black
steepness. Seepage can be a problem on soils used as sand about 7 inches thick. Below that layer, to a depth
septic tank absorption fields. In some areas, this soil is of 14 inches, is very dark gray sand. The underlying
used for building sites. These areas have been shaped material to a depth of 80 inches is gray sand.
so that they do not have a slope problem; therefore, Included in mapping are small areas of Myakka,
most of the severe limitations are eliminated for urban Samsula, Sanibel, and Smyrna soils. Some places have
use. These areas are highly variable in thickness and small areas of a soil that is similar to Placid soil, but the
texture. It is recommended that each site be soil has a surface layer that is more than 24 inches
investigated for existing limitations before use. For thick.
onsite investigation contact the Highlands Soil and The available water capacity of Basinger and Placid







38 Soil Survey


soils is low. It is moderate in St. Johns soil. The 34-Tavares-Basinger-Sanibel complex, rolling.
permeability of Basinger and Placid soils is rapid, and it This complex consists of nearly level to rolling,
is moderate or moderately slow in the subsoil of St. moderately well drained soils on ridgetops and side
Johns soil. The soils in this map unit have a water table slopes and poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
within 12 inches of the surface most of the year. in sloughs and depressional areas. The slopes are 2 to
Interspersed throughout the map unit are shallow 12 percent in the upland areas and are less than 2
depressions that are ponded for several months during percent in the depressions and sloughs.
the rainy season. Tavares soil makes up most of this map unit and is
The natural vegetation consists dominantly of on ridgetops and in the upland areas of the map unit.
cutthroat grass, pineland threeawn, longleaf pine, south Sanibel soil dominates the depressional areas, and
Florida slash pine, and slash pine. Other vegetation in Basinger soil is in the sloughs and in some
some areas includes St. Johnswort, waxmyrtle, depressions. This map unit is only in the easternmost
creeping bluestem, fetterbush, gallberry, maidencane, part of the ridge bounded on the south by the Seaboard
and saw palmetto and bay trees. Coast Railway and on the north by Arbuckle Creek
The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for Road.
cultivated crops; however, crops are well suited to these Tavares soil makes up 60 percent of this map unit.
soils if good drainage is provided. Fertilizer and lime Basinger soil makes up 20 percent, Sanibel soil makes
should be added according to the needs of the crop. up about 10 percent, and the included soils make up
These soils are poorly suited to citrus trees; however, about 10 percent. The individual areas of these soils
if a well designed water control system is installed, are too mixed or too small to map separately at the
citrus crops are suitable. Citrus trees should be planted selected scale.
in bedded rows, and an irrigation system is needed Tavares soil is moderately well drained. Typically,
during dry periods to maximize yields. A cover crop this soil has a surface layer of dark grayish brown sand
should be grown between the tree rows to control about 6 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth
erosion. of 80 inches or more is yellow and white sand. Mottles
The potential of these soils for the production of of brownish yellow sand are common at a depth of
pasture and hay crops is moderate if a water control more than 50 inches.
system is established and maintained to remove excess Basinger soil is very poorly drained and poorly
surface water. Bahiagrass and pangolagrass are suited drained. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark
to these soils, gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
The potential of these soils for production of pine layer, to a depth of 21 inches, is light gray and light
trees is moderately high. Seedling mortality because of brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 52
wetness is the main management problem, but once inches, is brown fine sand. The upper part of the
established, slash pine and longleaf pine do very well substratum, to a depth of 62 inches, is light brownish
on these sites. Seedlings should be planted in bedded gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is
rows. Slash pine and south Florida slash pine are the grayish brown loamy fine sand.
preferred trees for planting. Sanibel soil is very poorly drained. Typically, this soil
The potential of these soils for production of range has a surface layer of black muck about 8 inches thick.
plants is moderately high. The dominant forage is Below that layer, to a depth of 15 inches, is black
cutthroat grass with significant amounts of creeping mucky fine sand. The underlying material to a depth of
bluestem. Grazing time and number of cattle per acre 80 inches is gray and light brownish gray sand.
should be considered in a good range management Included in mapping are small areas of Astatula,
plan. These soils are in the Cutthroat Seep range site. Myakka, Orsino, Pomello, and Satellite soils.
These soils have severe limitations for urban uses The available water capacity of Tavares soil is very
because of wetness. Drainage outlets, tile drainage, or low, and it is low in Basinger and Sanibel soils. The
mounding are necessary if onsite sewage disposal soils in this map unit are mostly rapidly permeable.
systems are installed. Recreational development is also Tavares soil has a seasonal high water table that is
limited on these soils because of wetness and a sandy generally at a depth of 48 to 72 inches during the
surface. Water control systems and suitable topsoil or summer rainy season and other periods of high rainfall.
resurfacing are ways of overcoming these limitations. During the summer rainy season, Sanibel soil is ponded
The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass and Basinger soil has a water table within 12 inches of
IVw. the surface. Natural fertility is low in Tavares and








Highlands County, Florida 39


Basinger soils and moderate to high in Sanibel soils. A large acreage of this soil has been cleared and
The natural vegetation on the Tavares soil consists drained for improved pasture. Many small areas remain
of slash and longleaf pines, turkey oak, hickory, sand in natural vegetation, which consists of cypress and
live oak, scattered saw palmetto, and pineland other water-tolerant trees and pickerelweed,
threeawn. The dominant vegetation on Basinger and maidencane, and other water-tolerant grasses.
Sanibel soils is maidencane, pickerelweed, arrowhead, This Sanibel soil has very severe limitations for
redroot, and St. Johnswort. cultivated crops; however, if the soil is drained, a variety
Most of the soils in this map unit remain in natural of crops can be grown. A properly designed water
vegetation but have been dissected by roads and control system must be established and maintained.
ditches for an urban subdivision development. One Lime is essential, and fertilizer should be added
large area has been planted to citrus crops. As the according to the need of the crops to obtain high yields.
intended use of the land is for urban development, this With adequate drainage, this soil has very high
would preclude its use for cultivated crops, improved potential for production of pasture and hay crops. Very
pasture, or rangeland management, high yields of pangolagrass, white clover, hermarthria,
The soils in this map unit have variable limitations for bahiagrass, and St. Augustine are possible with proper
urban and recreational uses, depending upon the soil fertilization. Fertilizer that contains phosphates, potash,
type, slope, and position on the landscape. The and trace elements is needed. Proper liming practices
information provided is not intended to be used as site are also critical when establishing improved pastures.
specific but only as general information. Each area Water should be controlled to maintain the water table
considered for urban or recreational uses should be near the surface and prevent excess oxidation of the
investigated to determine the proper soil limitations, organic layer. Subsidence, or loss of the organic layer,
Assistance can be obtained by contacting the Highlands is occurring in many improved pastures.
Soil and Water Conservation District. This soil is not suited to citrus or pine tree
The parts of this map unit that are planted to citrus production. Citrus crops can be adapted if trees are
crops are in capability subclass Ills. planted in bedded rows and if proper drainage is
established and maintained on the site.
35-Sanibel muck. This nearly level, very poorly The potential of this soil for producing significant
drained soil is in marshes, swamps, and poorly defined amounts of desirable range plants is high. Maidencane
drainageways. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and cutgrass are the most desirable plants. This soil
and mostly range from 10 to 100 acres, but East of can provide excellent forage for cattle during the winter
Lake Istokpoga are some mapped areas that are and during dry periods. Marshes and swamps are some
several hundred acres in size. The slopes are smooth of the most productive areas for native rangeland in
to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. Highlands County. This soil is in the Freshwater
Typically, the organic surface layer is black muck Marshes and Ponds range site.
about 8 inches thick. Below that layer, to a depth of 15 This soil has severe limitations for building sites,
inches, is black mucky fine sand. The upper part of the sanitary facilities, and recreational development.
underlying material, to a depth of 63 inches, is gray Extensive measures must be taken for most urban
sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is uses. Adequate drainage outlets are not available, and
light brownish gray sand. the cost of site improvement generally outweighs the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of benefits of urban development.
Basinger, Kaliga, Placid, Samsula, and Tequesta soils. This Sanibel soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
In places are soils that are similar to Sanibel soil, but
they have a finer textured material in the substratum. In 36-Pomello sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
most areas, the included soils make up 15 to 30 nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
percent of the map unit. soil is on slightly elevated ridges and knolls in the
The available water capacity of this Sanibel soil is flatwoods part of the county and is also to a small
low. The permeability is rapid. Runoff is slow. Under extent in the ridge part of the county. The mapped
natural conditions, the water table is above the surface areas are irregular in shape and mostly range from 10
for 2 to 6 months during the wet seasons. During the to 30 acres. The slopes are generally smooth to
rest of the year, it is at a depth of less than 10 inches. convex.
Natural fertility is moderate, and the content of organic Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4
matter is high. inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 56







40 Soil Survey


inches, is white sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to these limitations can be easily overcome by simple
a depth of 62 inches, is mixed dark reddish brown and water control systems, such as ditching, mounding, and
dark brown sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 installation of tile drainage. This soil is too sandy for
inches or more grades to brown sand. most recreational uses. This limitation can be overcome
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of by adding suitable topsoil or by resurfacing the area.
Daytona, Duette, Immokalee, Orsino, and Satellite soils. This Pomello soil is in capability subclass Vis.
In places are some small areas of soils along the
Kissimmee River that are similar to Pomello soil, but 37-Malabar sand, depressional. This nearly level,
they have brighter colors in the subsurface layer than very poorly drained soil is in the concave areas on the
Pomello soil and support hardwood hammock flatwoods and along the edges of swamps and
vegetation. In most areas, the included soils make up marshes. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
10 to 15 percent of the map unit. range from 10 to 50 acres. The slopes are smooth to
The available water capacity of this Pomello soil is concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
very low. The permeability is moderately rapid. The Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 5
water table is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 2 to 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 18
months. It is generally higher during the summer rainy inches, is light gray sand. The upper part of the subsoil.
season but may recede to a depth of more than 60 to a depth of 48 inches, is brownish yellow and
inches during the dry winter and other extended dry yellowish brown sand. The lower part, to a depth of 59
periods. inches, is gray sandy loam. The substratum to a depth
Areas of this soil have been cleared for improved of more than 72 inches is light gray sand and loamy
pasture and citrus crops. Other areas are in natural sand.
vegetation of south Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
slash pine, sand live oak, Chapman oak, myrtle oak, Basinger, Felda, Hicoria, Placid, and Valkaria soils. In
fetterbush, saw palmetto, and scattered pineland places are soils that are similar to Malabar soil, but they
threeawn. have thin layers of muck on the surface. In most areas,
This Pomello soil has severe limitations for cultivated the included soils make up 20 to 30 percent of the map
crops because of droughtiness and rapid leaching of unit.
plant nutrients. If crops are grown, an irrigation system The available water capacity of this Malabar soil is
is needed during dry periods. Soil-improving measures low. The permeability is slow or very slow. This soil is
should be implemented. ponded for 4 to 6 months each year. The water table is
Citrus trees are moderately suited to this soil. A generally within 10 inches of the surface for the rest of
water control system should be established to remove the year. During long dry periods, it may recede to a
excess water from the root zone. Because of the depth of more than 30 inches.
drought characteristics of this soil, irrigation is needed Most of the acreage of this soil remains in natural
to maximize yields and to reduce tree stress during dry vegetation, which consists of arrowhead, maidencane,
periods. pickerelweed, and St. Johnswort. A few areas are in
The potential of this soil for production of pasture and water-tolerant trees.
hay crops is moderate. Bahiagrass and pangolagrass This Malabar soil has very severe limitations for most
are best adapted to this soil. Regular applications of cultivated crops because of ponding; however, a
lime and fertilizer are needed. Grazing should be properly designed and managed water control system
controlled to maintain healthy plants for maximum can overcome this limitation. The water control system
yields. should remove excess surface water after heavy
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees periods of rainfall and provide internal drainage to the
is low. Seedling mortality is the main concern in upper part of the soil profile. An adequate drainage
management. Slash, south Florida slash, and longleaf outlet is needed for the system to function properly.
pines are the preferred trees for planting. Citrus trees are not suited to this soil unless a water
The potential of this soil for the production of range control system is established and maintained to
plants is very low. The plant community consists of a regulate the water table. The trees should be planted in
woody understory that is seldom grazed by livestock, bedded rows.
This soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range site. Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
This soil has moderate limitations for most urban improved pasture; however, if adequate measures are
uses because of the seasonal high water table. Most of taken to remove the excess surface water and intensive








Highlands County, Florida 41


management is practiced, the potential of this soil for summer rainy period. During the rest of the year, it is at
production of improved pasture grasses is moderate. a depth of 12 to 40 inches. A perched water table
White clover, bahiagrass, and pangolagrass are best above the hardpan layer, or the upper subsoil, may be
adapted to this soil. A controlled grazing system should evident during periods of high rainfall.
be used to maintain plant vigor. Regular applications of Most areas of this soil are in native rangeland or
lime and fertilizer are needed. improved pasture. The natural vegetation consists of
This soil is not suited to pine trees because the water slash pine, south Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, saw
table is at or above the soil surface for most of the year. palmetto, gallberry, fetterbush, running oak, pineland
The potential of this soil for the production of range threeawn, and various species of bluestems, panicums,
plants is high. The dominant forage on this site is and other grasses.
maidencane. Areas of this soil are not grazed during This EauGallie soil has severe limitations for
wet periods, and grazing is deferred until dry winter cultivated crops because of wetness. A water control
months when other range plants are of reduced quantity system is needed to remove excess water during the
and value. This soil is in the Freshwater Marshes and rainy season and to provide irrigation in dry periods.
Ponds range site. With water control available, the soil is suitable for a
This soil has severe limitations for all urban and variety of vegetable crops.
recreational uses because of ponding. An effective This soil is moderately well suited to citrus trees if a
drainage system that keeps the water table at a given properly designed water control system is established
depth is expensive and difficult to establish and and maintained. The system should keep the water
maintain. This soil acts as a collection basin for the table below a depth that is detrimental to the normal
area; therefore, a suitable outlet to remove the water is growth of the citrus trees. It should also provide
not available. This soil requires an adequate amount of supplemental irrigation during dry periods. Other
fill material to maintain house foundations and road management practices, such as bedding in rows,
beds above the high water table. Even when a good adequate drainage outlets, a cover crop to control
drainage system is installed and the proper amount of erosion, proper fertilization, and adequate insect and
fill material is added, keeping the area dry is a disease control, are also needed.
continuing problem because of seepage water from the The potential of this soil for production of pasture
slightly higher adjacent flatwoods. grasses is moderate. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass Vllw. white clover grow well if properly managed. Installing a
simple drainage system to remove excess surface water
38-EauGallie fine sand. This nearly level, poorly should be considered.
drained soil is in the flatwood areas that are adjacent to This soil has moderately high potential for production
sloughs and drainageways. The mapped areas are of pine trees. Seedling mortality and equipment
irregular in shape and range from 6 to 320 acres or limitations are the main management problems because
more. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 of wetness. Slash and south Florida slash pine are the
percent, preferred trees for planting.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine The potential of this soil for production of range
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a plants is moderate. Significant amounts of creeping
depth of about 26 inches, is gray and light gray fine bluestem, chalky bluestem, indiangrass, and various
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about panicums can be produced. Improper range
40 inches, is black and dark reddish brown fine sand. management causes a decrease in these forage plants
The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is light brownish and increases the amount of undesirable plants, such
gray sandy clay loam and fine sandy loam. as pineland threeawn, saw palmetto, and waxmyrtle. To
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of avoid this, several range management practices, such
Felda, Immokalee, Myakka, Oldsmar, Pomona, and as deferred grazing, brush control, and proper stocking,
Smyrna soils. In places are soils that are similar to should be implemented. This soil is in the South Florida
EauGallie soil, but they have a loamy layer within 40 Flatwoods range site.
inches of the surface. In most areas, the included soils This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
make up 5 to 30 percent of the map unit. because of the high water table. To overcome this
The available water capacity of this EauGallie soil is limitation, building sites and septic tank absorption
low. The permeability is moderate to slow. The water fields should be mounded. This soil also has severe
table is within 12 inches of the surface during the limitations for recreational development because of







42 Soil Survey


wetness and the sandy texture. Problems associated surface to help control erosion.
with wetness can be corrected by providing adequate Citrus trees are moderately well suited to this soil if a
drainage and drainage outlets to control the high water properly designed water control system is established
table. The sandy texture limitation can be overcome by and maintained. The system should be designed to
adding suitable topsoil or by resurfacing the area. maintain the water table at an effective depth. Irrigation
This EauGallie soil is in capability subclass IVw. water should be available during dry periods. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
39-Smyrna sand. This nearly level, poorly drained The potential of this soil for production of pasture and
soil is on the broad flatwoods in the county. The hay crops is moderate. Bahiagrass, pangolagrass, and
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 20 white clover are best suited to this soil. Surface
to 500 acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 drainage is needed to remove excess surface water
to 2 percent. after periods of heavy rainfall. Regular applications of
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 5 lime and fertilizer are needed. Grazing should be
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 15 controlled to prevent overgrazing and weakening of
inches, is light gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of plants.
about 35 inches, is black, dark brown, and brown fine The potential of this soil for production of pine trees
sand. The upper part of the substratum, to a depth of is moderately high. Equipment use limitations, seedling
45 inches, is light yellowish brown fine sand. The mortality, and plant competition are concerns in
middle part, to a depth of 56 inches, is light gray fine management. Trees should be planted in bedded rows.
sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is white Slash and south Florida slash pine are the preferred
sand. trees for planting.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The potential of this soil for the production of range
Basinger, Immokalee, Myakka, Placid, and Valkaria plants is moderate. This soil has the potential for
soils. In most areas, the included soils make up 10 to producing significant amounts of creeping bluestem,
20 percent of the map unit. chalky bluestem, indiangrass. various panicums, and
The available water capacity of this Smyrna soil is numerous legumes and forbs. Grazing should be
low. The permeability is moderate or moderately rapid. controlled to maintain plant vigor: if not, the range will
The water table is at a depth of less than 12 inches deteriorate and pineland threeawn and saw palmetto
during the summer rainy season. Generally, during the will dominate the site. Proper management should
rest of the year, it is at a depth of 12 to 40 inches. include consideration of grazing time and number of
During extended dry periods, the water table can cattle per acre. This Smyrna soil is in the South Florida
recede to a lower depth. Also, this soil can have a Flatwoods range site.
perched water table because of the permeability of the This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
subsoil. because of the high water table. To overcome these
Many areas of this soil have been cleared for limitations, building sites and septic tank absorption
improved pasture. The acreage that remains in natural fields should be mounded. This soil also has severe
vegetation consists mainly of slash pine, south Florida limitations for recreational development because of
slash pine, longleaf pine, saw palmetto, gallberry, wetness and the sandy texture. Problems associated
fetterbush, waxmyrtle, and running oak. Pineland with wetness can be corrected by providing adequate
threeawn is the dominant grass; but depending on drainage systems and drainage outlets to control the
range conditions, there are significant amounts of high water table. The sandy texture limitation can be
creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, panicum, and overcome by adding suitable topsoil or by resurfacing
other grasses, the area.
This Smyrna soil has severe limitations for cultivated This Smyrna soil is in capability subclass IVw.
crops because of wetness. With proper management,
this soil is well suited to a variety of vegetable crops. A 40-Arents, organic substratum. Arents consists of
properly designed water control system should be soil materials that have been dug from different areas in
established and maintained to remove excess surface the county and have been spread over the muck soils
water during rainy periods and to provide irrigation for urban area development. The slopes are less than 2
during dry periods. Proper measures include bedding in percent.
rows and regular applications of lime and fertilizer. Crop In most places, this soil is made up of loose, sandy,
residue and soil-improving crops should be left on the mineral material. In some places, varying amounts of







Highlands County, Florida 43


loamy material or former subsoils that are made up of Basinger soil is poorly drained. Typically, the surface
organic matter coated sand grains are mixed throughout layer is dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
or occur as pockets, lenses, and streaks. Depth of this subsurface layer, to a depth of about 21 inches, is light
fill material varies from 20 to more than 80 inches, gray and light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a
Muck of variable thickness underlies the fill material, depth of about 52 inches, is brown fine sand. The upper
and mineral material is below the muck. part of the substratum, to a depth of 62 inches, is light
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of brownish gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of
Basinger and Placid soils. In places are areas of soils 80 inches or more is grayish brown loamy fine sand.
that have less than 20 inches of fill material over the Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
muck. In most areas, the included soils make up 5 to 10 of Hicoria, Hontoon, and Samsula soils. Hontoon and
percent of the map unit. Samsula soils are in old isolated meanders. In places
The available water capacity of this soil and the are soils that have a darker, finer textured surface layer
permeability are variable depending on the composition and have a loamy substratum.
of the fill material. The water table is variable and can The available water capacity of the soils in this map
be at a depth of 10 to more than 80 inches depending unit is low. The permeability of these soils is somewhat
on the amount of fill material that has been added and variable, but in most places, it is rapidly permeable.
also depending on whether the area has been drained Depth to the high water table at any particular site
or not drained. depends on elevation above stream bottom. Rainfall
This soil is not used for cultivated crops, citrus crops, over the watershed causes frequent flooding. Generally,
pasture, pine trees, or native rangeland. this soil is flooded every year, and every 2 years on the
This soil has varied limitations for urban and average it is flooded more than once during the year.
recreational development depending on the type of fill The flooding results in yearly deposition and scouring of
material and the thickness of the material. The original the surface. Debris is on the surface, and floodwater
water table should be maintained so that the muck does marks are evident on trees, fences and bridges. The
not dry out, causing it to oxidize and then subside. This water table depth will fluctuate depending on
subsidence will cause roads and foundations to settle streamflow. During periods of flooding, soils near the
and crack. Lawns, gardens, and ornamental plants can stream are saturated. During dry periods, the stream
be grown successfully, but the pH of the soil should be provides drainage of the soils. This drainage lowers the
checked because of the high variability of the fill water table. The soils will be dryer and have less water
material. An onsite soils investigation is needed on available for plant growth.
each individual site. The natural vegetation consists of dense stands of
This Arents soil is not assigned to a capability baldcypress, red maple, blackgum, bays, and other
subclass, water-tolerant trees and ferns and other water-tolerant
plants.
41-Anclote-Basinger fine sands, frequently This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus crops,
flooded. This complex consists of nearly level, very pastures, pine trees, native rangeland, or urban use
poorly drained and poorly drained soils. The mapped because of the hazard of flooding.
areas are long and narrow and are adjacent to The soils in this complex are in capability subclass
streambeds. These areas are dissected by stream VIw.
action. The slopes are dominantly 0 to 2 percent, but
stream dissection has created many short, steep 42-Astatula-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent
slopes. slopes. This complex consists of nearly level to
Anclote soil makes up 45 to 60 percent of this moderately sloping, excessively drained Astatula soil
complex. Basinger soil makes up 25 to 35 percent. The and areas of Urban land (fig. 5). Astatula soil is on
included soils make up 5 to 30 percent. The individual broad, upland ridges and in unoccupied areas, such as
areas of the soils in this map unit are too mixed or too lawns and vacant lots, of the Urban land part of the
small to map separately at the selected scale, complex.
Anclote soil is very poorly drained. Typically, the Astatula soil or Astatula soil that has been modified
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 20 by cutting, grading, or shaping makes up 40 to 70
inches thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80 percent of this map unit. In a few small areas, Urban
inches or more is dark gray and light brownish gray fine land makes up 70 percent of the map unit. In most
sand. areas, Urban land makes up 15 to 40 percent. The







44 Soil Survey







































Figure 5.-Urban development and citrus crops are competing land uses on Astatula soil in this area of Astatula-Urban land complex, 0 to
8 percent slopes.



included soils make up 20 to 50 percent of the map very low. The permeability is very rapid. The water table
unit. The individual areas of Astatula soil and of Urban is at a depth of more than 72 inches.
land are too mixed or too small to map separately at the Present land use precludes the use of this map unit
selected scale. for cultivated crops, citrus crops. improved pasture.
Typically, Astatula soil has a surface layer of dark rangeland, or pine trees. The potential of these soils in
grayish brown sand about 8 inches thick. The existing open spaces is high for most urban uses:
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches is brownish however, lawns, gardens. and ornamentals will require
yellow sand. supplemental irrigation and fertilization because of the
The Urban land part of this map unit is covered by drought nature of these soils and their low natural
roads, houses, driveways, and other urban structures. fertility. If the surface soil has been removed, additions
Included in mapping are small areas of Archbold, of a good quality topsoil may be needed for vigorous
Daytona, Duette, Orsino, Paola, St. Lucie, and Tavares plant growth.
soils. The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to
The available water capacity of this Astatula soil is a capability subclass.







Highlands County, Florida 45


43-Urban land. Urban land consists of areas that The available water capacity of this Basinger soil is
are 75 percent or more covered with streets, buildings, very low. The permeability is rapid. The water table is
parking lots, shopping centers, industrial areas, airports, within 12 inches of the surface for 2 to 5 months during
and other urban structures. Small areas of undisturbed the summer rainy season. Generally, the water table is
soils are mostly in lawns, vacant lots, playgrounds, and between depths of 12 and 40 inches for 6 months or
green areas. The original soil in some areas has been more but may recede to a lower depth during extended
altered by filling, grading, and shaping. Urban land is dry periods.
nearly level except for some parking areas that are Present land use precludes the use of these soils for
sloped to drain off water. The mapped areas range from cultivated crops, citrus crops, pasture, or commercial
about 5 to 100 acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2 woodland. The open part of the map unit is used for
percent, lawns, gardens, ornamentals, and open space. For
Included in mapping are Archbold, Astatula, Satellite, maintaining lawns and plants in good condition, regular
and Tavares soils. These areas are too small to applications of fertilizer and supplemental irrigation are
delineate separately, needed. A water control system is necessary to remove
Urban land will remain in its present use; therefore, excess surface water from Basinger soil during periods
no other uses are rated, of high rainfall. Because of the complexity of these
Urban land has not been assigned a capability areas and severe water problems affecting the urban
subclass, uses of these soils, it is suggested that a site specific
investigation be conducted to determine suitability for
44-Satellite-Basinger-Urban land complex. This the intended use. Assistance in conducting this
complex consists of nearly level, somewhat poorly investigation can be obtained by contacting the
drained Satellite soil and poorly drained Basinger soil Highlands Soil and Water Conservation District.
and areas of Urban land. The slopes range from 0 to 2 The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to
percent. a capability subclass.
This map unit consists of about 20 to 60 percent
Satellite soil, 5 to 25 percent Basinger soil, and 15 to 45-Paola-Basinger sands, rolling. This highly
55 percent Urban land. In a few small areas, Urban pitted complex consists of nearly level to rolling,
land makes up more than 55 percent of the map unit. excessively drained soils on side slopes and ridgetops
The individual areas of the soils in this map unit are too and poorly drained to very poorly drained soils in small
mixed or too small to map separately at the selected depressional areas. The slopes are smooth to convex
scale. on the ridges and concave in the depressions and
Typically, Satellite soil has a surface layer of dark range from 0 to 12 percent. Basinger soil ranges from
gray sand about 4 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth less than 1 acre to more than 10 acres, and Paola soil
of more than 80 inches is white fine sand. makes up the remaining acres in the map unit. This
Typically, Basinger soil has a surface layer of dark map unit is only in one area on the southeastern side of
gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface the ridge between Lake Placid and Florida State
layer, to a depth of about 21 inches, is light gray and Highway 70.
light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of Paola soil makes up 60 to 75 percent of this map
52 inches, is brown fine sand. The upper part of the unit. Basinger soil makes up 5 to 20 percent. The
substratum, to a depth of 62 inches, is light brownish included soils make up 5 to 35 percent. The individual
gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is areas are too mixed or too small to map separately at
grayish loamy fine sand. the selected scale.
The Urban land part of this complex consists of Paola soil has slopes of 2 to 12 percent. Typically,
housing developments, recreational areas, shopping this soil has a surface layer of gray sand about 7 inches
centers and other urban structures. Openland areas are thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 17 inches, is
mainly lawns, playgrounds, and vacant lots. light gray sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 27 inches, is
Included in mapping are small areas of Archbold, very pale brown sand. The substratum to a depth more
Immokalee, Myakka, and Placid soils. than 80 inches is yellowish brown and yellow sand.
The available water capacity of this Satellite soil is Basinger soil is in the pitted or depressional areas.
very low. The permeability is very rapid. The water table Typically, the surface layer of this soil is dark gray fine
is at a depth of 12 to 40 inches for periods of 2 to 6 sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
months, subsurface, to a depth of 16 inches, is light gray fine







46 Soil Survey


sand. The lower part, to a depth of 21 inches, is light 46-Kaliga muck, frequently flooded. This nearly
brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 52 level, very poorly drained soil is on a long. narrow flood
inches, is brown fine sand. The upper part of the plain that is adjacent to the streambed on Arbuckle
substratum, to a depth of 62 inches, is light brownish Creek. The mapped areas range from 25 to more than
gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of more than 100 acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to
80 inches is grayish brown loamy fine sand. 2 percent.
Included in mapping are Astatula, Myakka, Orsino, Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 6
Placid, St. Lucie, and Satellite soils. Placid soil makes inches thick. Below that layer. to a depth of 39 inches.
up about 30 percent of the part described as Basinger is dark brown muck. The upper part of the underlying
soil. In places are soils in areas that are ponded material, to a depth of 45 inches. is a thin layer of
throughout the year and soils in areas that have 12 to grayish brown very fine sand. The next layer, to a depth
20 percent slopes. Most of this map unit is in an urban of 68 inches, is dark gray very fine sandy loam. The
subdivision; consequently, many areas have been lower part to a depth of 80 inches is grayish brown very
altered by cutting, filling, or smoothing for present and fine sand.
future development. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The available water capacity of Paola soil is very low. Basinger, Felda, Hicoria, Samsula. Sanibel. and
The permeability is very rapid. The water table is at a Tequesta soils. In most areas. the included soils make
depth of more than 72 inches throughout the year. up 15 to 35 percent of the map unit.
The available water capacity of Basinger soil is low. The available water capacity of this Kaliga soil is very
The permeability is rapid. The water table is at a depth high. The permeability is slow or very slow. The
of less than 12 inches during the summer rainy season, seasonal high water table is at a depth of less than 12
Some areas are ponded for a short period after heavy inches for very long periods in most years. These soils
rainfall. The high water table impedes internal drainage, are subject to flooding for long periods during seasons
The natural vegetation on Paola soil consists of sand of high rainfall. The flooding results in deposition and
and slash pines, turkey oak, myrtle oak, Chapman oak, removal of sediment and debris. In the lowest areas on
sand live oak, pignut hickory, scattered saw palmetto, the flood plain, the muck is generally thicker. On higher
and pineland threeawn. The natural vegetation on the bars, the soils have a thick, sandy surface layer
Basinger soil is mostly St. Johnswort and some stratified with buried organic material. On the more
pineland threeawn, sand cordgrass, cutgrass, bluestem, sloughlike areas on the landscape, the soils have a
maidencane, and pickerelweed. thin, organic layer underlain by sand.
The present and intended use as an urban The natural vegetation consists of maidencane.
subdivision precludes the use of this land for cultivated duckpotato, arrowhead. pickerelweed. and waxmyrtle
crops, citrus crops, improved pasture, pine tree and buttonbush, bays, red maple, blackgum. and
production, or rangeland. The soils in this map unit cypress trees.
have varied limitations for urban and recreational uses, Under natural conditions. this Kaliga soil is not suited
depending on the slope and position on the landscape, to cultivated crops, citrus crops, pasture, or woodland
This information is not site specific; therefore, an onsite because of the hazard of flooding.
investigation of each area is needed to determine the In some areas of this map unit, the potential of this
limitations for the intended use. Assistance can be soil for producing significant amounts of improved
obtained by contacting the Highlands Soil and Water pasture grasses is very high. Water control systems
Conservation District. should be designed to remove excess surface water
Wetness in the depressions is the main limitation for and to provide flood control measures.
urban uses. This problem can be overcome by adding The potential of this soil for producing significant
fill material since most areas are small. Septic tank amounts of desirable range plants is high. Maidencane
absorption fields on slopes can cause seepage and cutgrass are the most desirable plants. Many areas
downslope or possible contamination of well water. of this soil provide little or no vegetation that cattle find
Lawns and gardens will require supplemental irrigation, desirable. Those areas that do produce desirable plants
Shoring is needed in shallow excavations in these provide excellent forage during the normally dry months
sandy soils, when the native rangeland is depleted. Marshes and
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to swamps are beneficial in a good range management
a capability subclass. program. This soil is in the Freshwater Marshes and
Ponds range site.







Highlands County, Florida 47


This soil is very poorly suited to urban or recreational strength. Overcoming these hazards and limitations are
development because of flooding, wetness, and low soil expensive and impractical.
This Kaliga soil is in capability subclass Vllw.




___







49









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid land capability classification used by the Soil
soil-related failures in land uses. Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
conservationists, engineers, and others collect listed for each soil.
extensive field data about the nature and behavior Planners of management systems for individual fields
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, or farms should consider the detailed information given
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
various soil uses and management. Field experience Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
and collected data on soil properties and performance local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior. Cooperative Extension Service.
This section can be used to plan the use and About 271,000 acres in Highlands County is used for
management of soils for crops, pasture, rangeland, and pasture and crops according to estimates from Florida
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, Crop and Livestock Reporting Service (7). Of this total,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks 220,000 acres is used for pasture; more than 46,000
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It acres for citrus crops; and 5,000 acres for specialty
can be used to identify the limitations of each soil for crops. The main specialty crops are cucumbers,
specific land uses and to help prevent construction watermelons, tomatoes, caladiums, sod, and nursery
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties. plants.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on Pasture
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain Pasture plants are commonly referred to as
or create a land use pattern in harmony with nature. improved, which denotes that they are mostly
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of introduced species, are adapted to the climate, and
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to often provide improved forage quality.
identify areas where wetness or very firm soil layers Warm-season perennial grasses are the most
can cause difficulty in excavation, dominant introduced forage in Highlands County. These
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and grasses produce most of their growth in the summer.
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can Bahiagrass (fig. 6) is the most common grass in the
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate county. The scarcity of digitgrass, limpograss, and
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, bermudagrass is attributed to their need for more
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs, intensive management. Annual grasses include
ryegrass, a cool-season forage, and sorghum-
sudangrass hybrids, a warm-season forage. Grass
op a as e pastures can be supplemented with legumes to
Larry Sharpe, district conservationist, and Thomas Edward increase forage production, palatability, and digestibility.
Sievers, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, helped to Legumes also fix atmospheric nitrogen, which supplies
prepare this section. additional nitrogen to the grass. This reduces or
General management needed for crops and pasture eliminates the need for nitrogen fertilization. White







49









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid land capability classification used by the Soil
soil-related failures in land uses. Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
conservationists, engineers, and others collect listed for each soil.
extensive field data about the nature and behavior Planners of management systems for individual fields
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, or farms should consider the detailed information given
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
various soil uses and management. Field experience Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
and collected data on soil properties and performance local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior. Cooperative Extension Service.
This section can be used to plan the use and About 271,000 acres in Highlands County is used for
management of soils for crops, pasture, rangeland, and pasture and crops according to estimates from Florida
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, Crop and Livestock Reporting Service (7). Of this total,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks 220,000 acres is used for pasture; more than 46,000
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It acres for citrus crops; and 5,000 acres for specialty
can be used to identify the limitations of each soil for crops. The main specialty crops are cucumbers,
specific land uses and to help prevent construction watermelons, tomatoes, caladiums, sod, and nursery
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties. plants.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on Pasture
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain Pasture plants are commonly referred to as
or create a land use pattern in harmony with nature. improved, which denotes that they are mostly
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of introduced species, are adapted to the climate, and
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to often provide improved forage quality.
identify areas where wetness or very firm soil layers Warm-season perennial grasses are the most
can cause difficulty in excavation, dominant introduced forage in Highlands County. These
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and grasses produce most of their growth in the summer.
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can Bahiagrass (fig. 6) is the most common grass in the
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate county. The scarcity of digitgrass, limpograss, and
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, bermudagrass is attributed to their need for more
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs, intensive management. Annual grasses include
ryegrass, a cool-season forage, and sorghum-
sudangrass hybrids, a warm-season forage. Grass
op a as e pastures can be supplemented with legumes to
Larry Sharpe, district conservationist, and Thomas Edward increase forage production, palatability, and digestibility.
Sievers, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, helped to Legumes also fix atmospheric nitrogen, which supplies
prepare this section. additional nitrogen to the grass. This reduces or
General management needed for crops and pasture eliminates the need for nitrogen fertilization. White








50 Soil Survey





































Figure 6.-This improved pasture of bahiagrass on Oldsmar fine sand offers good grazing for the cattle.



clover is the major cool-season legume. Warm-season periodic rest period insures a healthy, productive, and
legumes include perennials, such as carpon desmodium nutritious forage.
and phasey bean, and annuals, such as The prevalence of weeds and brush indicates the
aeschynomene, hairy indigo, and alyce clover, need for improved management. In addition, other
Some introduced plants are not adapted to Florida's common problems are excessive or inadequate
natural environment; consequently, the environment moisture, low fertility or pH. uncontrolled grazing. or
must be modified to compensate for the introduced improper plants selection.
plants' shortcomings and to insure their survival and Pasture is used to produce forage for beef and dairy
optimum performance. Environmental modifications cattle. Commercial cow-calf operations are the major
include water control, such as drainage and irrigation, livestock enterprises. These beef-cattle operations
and soil amendments, such as fertilization and pH range from several hundred animals to a hundred
adjustment. Rotation grazing is needed to provide animals or less. Large operations generally depend
adequate rest periods during the growing season for the upon a combination of rangeland and improved, or
forage to reproduce and replenish root reserves. This introduced, perennial plants for forage, while the small







Highlands County, Florida 51


operations generally use only improved pasture plants. have a sandy surface layer that is low to moderate in
In recent years, the higher cost of fertilizer and content of organic matter. The exceptions are Anclote,
equipment has slowed the conversion of rangeland to Brighton, Chobee, Gator, Hicoria, Hontoon, Placid,
pastureland. Some Florida ranchers, aware of the value Samsula, Sanibel, and Tequesta soils. Anclote,
of the native grasses, have moved from the intensive Chobee, Hicoria, and Placid soils have a sandy, dark
agronomic management approach to a more surface layer that is high in content of organic matter.
ecologically-based management of native grasses. Brighton, Gator, Hontoon, Tequesta, Sanibel, and
Pomello and Tavares soils are moderately suited to Samsula soils are organic soils and have an organic
bahiagrass, improved bermudagrass, and pangolagrass. surface layer. Generally, the structure of the surface
With good management, hairy indigo, alsike clover, and layer of most soils in the county is weak. Most of the
aeschynomene can be grown in summer and fall. moderately well drained soils and the somewhat poorly
Satellite soil is moderately suited to bahiagrass, drained Satellite soils are low in content of organic
improved bermudagrass, and legumes, such as sweet matter and are drought. Returning crop residue to the
clover, but adequate amounts of lime and fertilizer must soil and planting cover crops will improve soil structure
be applied, and increase the available water capacity of the soil.
If drained, Basinger, Bradenton, EauGallie, Felda, If irrigated, Astatula, Paola, and Tavares soils are
Immokalee, Malabar, Myakka, Oldsmar, Pineda, very well suited to citrus crops. If adequately drained,
Smyrna, and Valkaria soils are well suited to pastures Basinger, Bradenton, EauGallie, Felda, Immokalee,
of bahiagrass and hermarthria grass. Subsurface Malabar, Myakka, Oldsmar, Pineda, Smyrna, and
irrigation increases the length of the growing season Valkaria soils are well suited to vegetable crops and
and the total forage production. Legumes, such as white citrus crops. Soils in low areas where air drainage is
clover, are well suited to these soils if adequate poor and frost pockets are common, generally are
amounts of lime and fertilizer are added. poorly suited to early vegetables, small fruits, and citrus
The very poorly drained soils, such as Anclote, crops.
Chobee, Gator, Hicoria, Placid, and Samsula soils, are Field crops are grown on a small acreage in
very wet during rainy periods. In most areas, water Highlands County. The acreage of corn, grain sorghum,
stands on the surface, and the production of pasture of sunflowers, and sugarcane can be increased if
good quality is not possible unless artificial drainage is economic conditions warrant. Rye is the common close-
used. growing crop.
The design of surface drainage and subsurface The specialty crops that are grown commercially are
irrigation systems varies with the kind of soil and the citrus, watermelons, tomatoes, cucumbers, caladiums,
forage species. For intensive pasture production, a nursery plants, and sod. If economic conditions are
combination of these systems is needed. Information on favorable, the acreage of nursery plants and sod can be
the drainage and irrigation needed for each kind of soil increased.
is available at the local office of the Soil Conservation The latest information for growing specialty crops can
Service. be obtained from the local office of the Cooperative
In some parts of the county, pasture is greatly Extension Service or the Soil Conservation Service.
depleted by excessive grazing. Yields of pasture are Soil erosion by water is not a serious problem in
increased mainly by good grassland management and Highlands County. Erosion generally is a hazard on the
by adding lime and fertilizer. Differences in the amount more sloping soils if the surface is not protected by a
and kind of pasture yields are closely related to the kind cover of vegetation. Loss of the surface layer through
of soil. Management of pasture is based on the erosion is damaging because productivity is reduced as
relationship of soils, pasture plants, lime, fertilizer, the surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is
moisture, and management, incorporated into the plow layer. This loss is damaging
The latest information about pasture can be obtained also because soil erosion on farmland results in
from local offices of the Soil Conservation Service and sedimentation of streams. Controlling erosion minimizes
the Cooperative Extension Service. the pollution of streams by sediment and improves the
quality of water for municipal use, for recreation, and for
Crops fish and wildlife.
The major crop in Highlands County is citrus. Other Erosion control practices provide protective surface
crops are vegetables and specialty crops. cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. A
Most of the soils used for crops in Highlands County cropping system that keeps a vegetation cover on the








52 Soil Survey


soil for extended periods can hold soil losses to an county. Most of the soils have a sandy surface layer
amount that will not reduce the productive capacity of and are a light color. Bradenton, Felda, Malabar, and
the soils. On livestock farms, which require pasture and Pineda soils have a loamy subsoil. Anclote, Astatula,
hay, the legumes and grass forage crops in the Satellite, Tavares, and Valkaria soils have sandy
cropping system reduce erosion on sloping soils, material to a depth of 80 inches or more. Basinger,
provide nitrogen, and improve tilth for the following EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, Pomello, and Smyrna
crop. soils have a dark sandy subsoil that contains organic
Tillage practices that leave crop residue on the carbon.
surface reduce runoff and help control erosion. These Most of the soils have a surface layer that is strongly
management practices can be adapted to most soils in acid or very strongly acid. Applications of ground
the county. limestone are required to raise the pH level sufficiently
Wind erosion is a major hazard on the sandy soils for good growth of crops. The levels of nitrogen,
and on the organic soils. In a few hours, wind can potassium, and available phosphorus are naturally low
damage soils and tender crops in open, unprotected in most soils in Highlands County. On all soils, additions
areas if it is strong and the soil is dry and bare of of lime and fertilizer should be based on the results of
vegetation or crop residue. About three-fourths of the soil tests, on the need of the crops, and on the
cropland is subject to wind erosion. Keeping a plant expected yields. The Cooperative Extension Service
cover or mulch on the surface reduces wind erosion. can help in determining the kind and amount of fertilizer
Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It and lime to apply.
reduces soil fertility by removing the finer soil particles Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
and organic matter from the soil; damages or destroys seeds and in the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils
crops by sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and that have good tilth are granular and porous.
weed seeds; and creates health hazards and cleaning
problems. Control of wind erosion maintains soil quality, Yields Per Acre
protects crops, reduces the spread of insects and The average yields per acre that can be expected of
disease, and improves air quality, the principal crops under a high level of management
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such are shown in table 3. In any given year, yields may be
as Carolina cherry laurel, slash pine, southern redcedar, higher or lower than those indicated in the table
and Japanese privet and strips of small grains, are because of variations in rainfall and other climatic
effective in reducing wind erosion and crop damage, factors.
Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow plantings The yields are based mainly on the experience and
made at right angles to the prevailing wind and at records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
specific intervals across the field. The intervals depend agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
on the erodibility of the soil and the susceptibility of the results of field trials and demonstrations are also
crop to damage from sandblasting. considered.
Information about conservation practices to control The management needed to obtain the indicated
erosion on each kind of soil in the county and on the yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
design of wind erosion control systems is available from and the crop. Management can include drainage,
the local office of the Soil Conservation Service. erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper
Soil drainage is a major concern in management on planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop
much of the acreage used for crops in the county. varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
Some soils, such as the poorly drained Basinger, weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable
Bradenton, EauGallie, Felda, Immokalee, Malabar, soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
Myakka, Pineda, Smyrna, and Valkaria soils, are phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
naturally so wet that the production of crops commonly crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
grown in the area is generally not practical, and green manure crops; and harvesting that insures
During wet periods in most years, excessive wetness the smallest possible loss. For yields of irrigated crops,
of the root zone causes damage to citrus crops on the it is assumed that the irrigation system is adapted to the
somewhat poorly drained soils unless the soils are soils and to the crops grown, that good quality irrigation
artificially drained. Examples are Pomello and Satellite water is uniformly applied as needed, and that tillage is
soils. kept to a minimum.
Soil fertility is naturally low in most soils in the The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity







Highlands County, Florida 53


of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
likely to increase as new production technology is generally unsuitable for cultivation.
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change. them unsuitable for cultivation.
Crops other than those shown in table 3 are grown in Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local crop production.
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information class. They are designated by adding a small letter, w,
about the management and productivity of the soils for or s, to the class numeral, for example, Illw. The letter
those crops, w shows that water in or on the soil interferes with plant
growth or cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be
Land Capability Classification partly corrected by artificial drainage); and s shows that
the soil is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought,
Land capability classification shows, in a general or stony.
way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops The acreage of soils in each capability class and
that require special management are excluded. The subclass is shown in table 4. The capability
soils are grouped according to their limitations for field classification of each map unit is given in the section
crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops, "Detailed Soil Map Units."
and the way they respond to management. The criteria
used in grouping the soils do not include major, and Rangeland
generally expensive, landforming that would change
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do Thomas Edward Sievers, range conservationist, Soil Conservation
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation Service, assisted in preparing this section.
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for Rangeland is land on which the natural vegetation is
interpretations designed to show suitability and predominantly native grasses, grasslike plants, forbs, or
limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for shrubs suitable for grazing by domestic livestock or
woodland, and for engineering purposes. wildlife. In addition to livestock forage and wildlife
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped habitat, rangeland provides wood, water, recreation,
at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only and scenic beauty. Rangeland includes grassland, open
class and subclass are used in this survey. These forest, wetland, and shrubland.
levels are defined in the following paragraphs. Rangeland was once more prevalent throughout
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are Highlands County, and numerous ranching enterprises
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The prospered from the abundant native forage. Common
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and grazing practices that were previously used unwittingly
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are lead to the degradation of rangeland productivity. The
defined as follows, but in this survey, there are no obvious solution was the conversion of rangeland into
Class I, II, V, or VIII soils. pastureland of introduced or nonindigenous grasses
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their and legumes. Rangeland now covers 269,243 acres of
use. the county (14).
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce Rangeland differs in the species composition and
the choice of plants or that require moderate production potential. Distinctive types of rangeland are
conservation practices. called range sites. These sites are differentiated by the
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the various soil types, particularly their topographic position
choice of plants or that require special conservation on the landscape and their associated drainage
practices, or both. regimes. A characteristic "climax plant community" has
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that evolved under the natural conditions of each range site.
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful These plant associations are best suited to the existing
management, or both. environmental condition of the site. Certain species in
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have the climax plant community are better adapted than
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their other species. These better adapted species compete
use. more effectively for light, water, and nutrients; therefore,








54 Soil Survey


they tend to dominate the climax plant community. Less suppressed, removes rank forage, returns nutrients to
adapted species are only minor components. Human the soil, and reduces the hazard of wildfire. Excessive
activities that drastically deviate from the natural burning more frequently than every third year can be
precedence, such as excesses of grazing, burning, or detrimental to climax plant communities.
drainage, will alter the balance between plant species
and will change the complexion of each range site Range Sites
impacted. The soils in Highlands County have been grouped
Native plants can be divided into three groups based into seven range sites. The following descriptions of
on their response to continual heavy grazing- each range site gives important soil characteristics,
decreasers, increases, and invaders, production potential, species composition, and specific
Decreasers are the most palatable plants; concerns of management.
consequently, they are the first to decline under South Florida Flatwoods.-This range site consists
continual heavy grazing. Decreasers are generally the of nearly level, poorly drained, coarse textured soils.
best adapted and most productive species. Many of these soils have organic pans. The water table
Increasers are less palatable to livestock. They fluctuates during the year and may rise to the surface
increase initially as the decreasers are eliminated, but during the rainy season. The common flatwoods soils
they also eventually decrease. are Myakka and Immokalee soils. The flatwoods are
Invaders have very little forage value so they tend to Highlands County's most common range site and are
increase and become more dominant plants as the easily recognized by the open stands of longleaf or
decreaser and increase plants are grazed out. slash pines and the saw palmetto understory. Creeping
Rangeland dominated by climax vegetation, bluestem is a key decreaser species. Chalky bluestem,
predominantly decreasers and a few increases and lopsided indiangrass, and blue maidencane are other
invaders, are in excellent condition. Rangeland in poor important decreaser grasses. Important forbs include
condition is dominated by increases and invaders, and grassleaf goldaster, gayfeather, deertongue, and other
decreasers are rare. Two additional condition classes, perennial legumes. Wiregrass, saw palmetto, and
good and fair, describe rangeland of intermediate gallberry are the most common invaders. Flatwoods in
condition, excellent condition will produce about 4,500 pounds of
Grazing can be controlled to protect and promote the air-dried herbage per year. Flatwoods in poor condition
climax plant community. Such management will produce 1,500 pounds per acre, per year.
enhance forage production and palatability, soil and Traditionally, flatwoods have been winter burned and
water conservation, and wildlife habitat. Adequate rest grazed thereafter. Burning was necessary to improve
periods, where grazing is prohibited, are essential if the palatability of wiregrass (pineland threeawn), which
decreasers are to remain healthy and vigorous. Plants dominates flatwoods in poor condition. Wiregrass
need the opportunity to replenish root reserves and becomes unpalatable again in the spring, but the
produce seed. Young plants need time to establish decreaser grasses remain palatable; therefore,
themselves. These rest periods are needed during the wiregrass receives a rest the remainder of the growing
growing season, following grazing, and after burning season, but the few decreasers that remain are
and brush control practices have been applied, subjected to heavy and continuous use. Flatwoods in
Livestock should consume 50 percent or less of the poor condition should be grazed for shorter periods
plant, by weight. The remaining part of the plant is following burning to utilize wiregrass production and
enough to initiate regrowth without depleting root should be rested the remainder of the growing season
reserves. Rotational grazing provides a mechanism to to encourage the decreasers. Flatwoods in good and
enable rest periods and proper utilization, excellent condition generally need to be rested after
Mechanical brush control treatments, such as roller burning. Decreaser plants are less fire resistant and
chopping and webb plowing, accelerate range recovery need time to recover. Flatwoods make good winter
from lower to higher condition classes if used in range because the bluestems remain green and shrubs
conjunction with rotational grazing. The elimination of are available for grazing and cover.
shrubs releases the decreasers from persistent Freshwater Marshes and Ponds.-This range site is
competition, and the soil disturbance of mechanical on low-lying, nearly level, and very poorly drained soils.
treatments enhances tillering and reseeding of many These soils are inundated for most of the growing
decreaser species. Florida rangelands evolved with season. Some soils, such as Kaliga, Samsula, and
periodic wildfires. Prescribed burning keeps shrubs Brighton soils, are organic. Others, such as Hicoria and







Highlands County, Florida 55


Placid fine sand, depressional, soils, are mineral, invaders. This range site in excellent condition will
Maidencane and cutgrass are the most important produce about 3,000 pounds of herbage per acre, per
decreasers. Sand cordgrass and carpetgrass are year. Most of the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range
common invaders. Marshes in excellent condition can sites have been converted to citrus crops or urban
produce 10,000 pounds per acre of palatable range development use.
forage per year. Marshes in poor condition produce Cutthroat Seep.-This range site is on nearly level,
about 2,000 pounds per acre of herbage per year. poorly drained and very poorly drained soils in seep
Freshwater marshes and ponds are the most areas. Cutthroat seeps are situated below the Sand
productive range sites in Highlands County. Pine Scrub and the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
Maidencane and cutgrass grown on organic soils are range sites and above the flatwoods. Longleaf or slash
superior in quality and quantity to other native grasses; pines dominate the overstory. Creeping bluestem,
however, the inundation and softness of organic soils chalky bluestem, and toothachegrass are the major
can limit summer grazing. Maidencane and cutgrass are decreaser grasses. Cutthroat grass is the dominant
prone to die back following freezing temperatures; increase grass. Cutthroat seeps in excellent condition
consequently, spring and fall provide the best grazing will produce about 7,500 pounds per acre, per year of
opportunities, forage. Cutthroat Seeps provide good winter grazing
Slough.-This range site is on nearly level, poorly because cutthroat grass and the bluestems remain
drained, coarse textured soils. Basinger is the most green for grazing and cover.
common slough soil. Topographically, sloughs are Wetland Hardwood Hammock.-This range site is
positioned between the flatwoods and marshes. on a poorly drained, coarse textured, calcareous soil,
Sloughs serve as drainageways through the flatwoods namely Bradenton. The density of hardwoods and
that often connect and ring the marshes. Blue cabbage palm overstory can limit forage production on
maidencane is the major decreaser grass, this site. Other tree species include live oak, laurel oak,
Toothachegrass and hairy bluestem are other important red maple, and blackgum. Longleaf uniola, switchgrass,
decreaser grasses. Wiregrass, St. Johnswort, and eastern gamagrass are the major decreaser
waxmyrtle, sedges, and rushes are the most common grasses.
invaders. Sloughs in excellent condition produce an Table 5 shows, for each soil, the range site; the total
average of 6,000 pounds per acre, per year. Sloughs in annual production of vegetation in favorable, normal,
poor condition produce much less forage, and the and unfavorable years; the characteristic vegetation;
quality is poorer. Blue maidencane is prone to die back and the average percentage of each species. Only
after freezing temperatures or in late fall. Excessive those soils that are used as rangeland or are suited to
drainage, combined with uncontrolled grazing, has use as rangeland are listed. Explanation of the column
encouraged shrub encroachment, particularly headings in table 5 follows.
waxmyrtle. A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that
Sand Pine Scrub.-This range site is on high, produces a characteristic natural plant community that
moderately well drained to excessively drained, coarse differs from natural plant communities on other range
textured soils. Ridge soils, such as Paola, St. Lucie, sites in kind, amount, or proportion of range plants. The
Duette, and Daytona soils, support this range site. Sand relationship between soils and vegetation was
pine is the characteristic species of these drought established during this survey; thus, range sites
soils. The understory is dominated by shrubs, including generally can be determined directly from the soil map.
rosemary, scrub hickory, and sand live oak; Soil properties that affect moisture supply and plant
consequently, forage production is low. Lopsided nutrients have the greatest influence on the productivity
indiangrass, creeping bluestem, and shortspike of range plants. Soil reaction, salt content, and a
bluestem are decreaser grasses, seasonal high water table are also important.
Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills.-This range site is Total production is the amount of vegetation that can
on nearly level to steep, moderately well drained to be expected to grow annually on well managed
excessively well drained, coarse textured soils. Ridge rangeland that is supporting the climax plant
soils, such as Astatula and Tavares soils, support this community. Total production includes all vegetation,
range site. The overstory is composed of longleaf pine whether or not it is palatable to grazing animals. It
and turkey oak. Creeping bluestem, lopsided includes the current year's growth of leaves, twigs, and
indiangrass, and switchgrass are the major decreaser fruits of woody plants, but it does not include the
grasses. Wiregrass and saw palmetto are the common increase in stem diameter of trees and shrubs. It is








56 Soil Survey


expressed in pounds per acre of air-dry vegetation for the county, which was previously wooded, has been
favorable, normal, and unfavorable years. In a favorable converted for pasture use.
year, the amount and distribution of precipitation and Three major types of woodlands in the county
the temperatures make growing conditions substantially support different forest communities. Approximately
better than average. In a normal year, growing one-third of the woodlands is composed of the slash
conditions are about average. In an unfavorable year, pine-longleaf pine type. These forests typically grow on
growing conditions are well below average, generally the flatwoods and are the most important type
because of low available soil moisture. economically. These trees are used for fence posts,
Dry weight is the total annual yield per acre of air-dry pulpwood, and sawtimber. Fully stocked forests on
vegetation. Yields are adjusted to a common percent of these sites can be expected to produce 1 to 1.5 cords
air-dry moisture content. The relationship of green of wood annually.
weight to air-dry weight varies according to such factors About 18,000 acres of sand pine, oak-pine, and oak-
as exposure, amount of shade, recent rains, and hickory forests are on the higher sand ridges in the
unseasonable dry periods, county. These woodlands do not have an economic
Characteristic vegetation-the grasses, forbs, and value but are important for their wildlife value. Because
shrubs that make up most of the climax plant these sites are favored for development, these forest
community on each soil-is listed by common name. communities and their associated wildlife species are
Under composition, the expected percentage of the total becoming increasingly rare.
annual production is given for each species making up The remaining forest land is made up of the oak-
the characteristic vegetation. The amount that can be gum-cypress type. These forests are in, or are adjacent
used as forage depends on the kinds of grazing animals to, freshwater swamps along drainage systems and
and on the grazing season. lakes. Although cypress has a minor economic value,
Range management requires a knowledge of the this forest type is most valuable for the wildlife that
kinds of soil and of the potential climax plant inhabit the forests and for the water resources they
community. It also requires an evaluation of the present protect.
range condition. Range condition is determined by Historically, forest land in the county has not been
comparing the present plant community with the protected. Private development, conversion to
potential climax plant community on a particular range pastureland, and damage from wildfires have all
site. The more closely the existing community reduced the woodland acreage. However, wherever
resembles the climax community, the better the range forests are protected from fire, the slash, and longleaf
condition. Range condition is an ecological rating only. pine forests have reestablished themselves.
It does not have a specific meaning that pertains to the Some markets for forest products are in the county.
present plant community in a given use. Fence-post and sawtimber sales are relatively steady,
The objective in range management is to control but pulpwood sales can be erratic. In 1984, the
grazing so that the plants growing on a site are about estimated primary income from forest land was 421.937
the same in kind and amount as the climax plant dollars. Management generally consists of protection of
community for that site. Such management generally natural stands, the use of prescribed fire, and periodic
results in the optimum production of vegetation, harvests. A notable exception is the Air Force's Avon
reduction of undesirable brush species, conservation of Park Air Force Range in the northeastern part of the
water, and control of erosion. Sometimes, however, a county, which manages over 10,000 acres of planted
range condition somewhat below the potential meets and natural slash and longleaf pines mainly as
grazing needs, provides wildlife habitat, and protects commercial forest lands.
soil and water resources. Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth,
fertility, texture, and the available water capacity
Woodland Management and Productivity influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate
determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site.
Paul F. Ebersbach and Kurt E. Olsen, foresters, U.S. Air Force, Available water capacity and depth of the root zone are
helped to prepare this section. major influences of tree growth.
Approximately 96,000 acres, or 15 percent, of the This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
total land area in Highlands County is woodland. Nearly planning ways to increase the productivity of forest
all of this land is privately owned. Much of the land in land. Some soils respond better to fertilization than







Highlands County, Florida 57


others, and some are more susceptible to erosion after if soil wetness restricts equipment use from 2 to 6
roads are built and timber is harvested. Some soils months per year or if special equipment is needed to
require special efforts to reforest. In the section avoid or reduce soil compaction. The rating is severe if
"Detailed Soil Map Units," each map unit in the survey soil wetness restricts equipment use for more than 6
area suitable for producing timber presents information months per year or if special equipment is needed to
about productivity, limitations for harvesting timber, and avoid or reduce soil compaction. Ratings of moderate or
management concerns for producing timber. The severe indicate a need to choose the most suitable
common forest understory plants are also listed. Table equipment and to carefully plan the timing of harvesting
6 summarizes this forestry information and rates the and other management operations.
soils for a number of factors to be considered in Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
management. Slight, moderate, and severe are used to death of naturally occurring or properly planted
indicate the degree of the major soil limitations to be seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as
considered in forest management. influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features.
The first tree listed for each soil under the column Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much water
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil. or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil for
An indicator species is a tree that is common in the seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer, depth
area and that is generally the most productive on a and duration of the water table, and rooting depth.
given soil. Mortality generally is greatest on soils that have a
Table 6 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk is slight if, after
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates site preparation, expected mortality is less than 25
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator percent; moderate if, expected mortality exceeds 50
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the percent. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate that it
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential may be necessary to use containerized or larger than
productivity is based on the site index and the point usual planting stock or to make special site
where mean annual increment is the greatest. preparations, such as bedding, furrowing, installing
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter, surface drainage, or providing artificial shade for
indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and seedlings. Reinforcement planting is often needed if risk
management. The letter W indicates a soil in which is moderate or severe.
excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes Ratings of windthrow hazard consider the likelihood
a significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry, of trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting
sandy soil. If a soil has more than one limitation, the depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth
priority is as follows: W and S. can be restricted by a high water table, fragipan, or
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability bedrock, or by a combination of such factors as soil
that damage may occur if site preparation activities or wetness, texture, structure, and depth. The risk is slight
harvesting operation expose the soil. The risk is slight if if strong winds cause trees to break but do not uproot
no particular preventive measures are needed under them; moderate if strong winds cause an occasional
ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion control tree to be blown over and many trees to break; and
measures are needed for particular silvicultural severe if moderate or strong winds commonly blow
activities; and severe if special precautions are needed trees over. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate the
to control erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings need for care in thinning or possibly not thinning.
of moderate or severe indicate the need for construction Specialized equipment may be needed to avoid damage
of higher standard roads, additional maintenance of to shallow root systems in partial cutting operations. A
roads, additional care in planning of harvesting and plan for periodic salvage of windthrown trees and the
reforestation operations, or use of specialized maintenance of a road and trail system may be needed.
equipment. Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
use of forest management equipment, year-round or competition becomes more severe on the more
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils
wetness or susceptibility of the surface layer to having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The
compaction. The rating is slight if equipment use is risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants
restricted by soil wetness for less than 2 months and if reduces adequate natural or artificial reforestation but
special equipment is not needed. The rating is moderate does not necessitate intensive site preparation and








58 Soil Survey


maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous
undesirable plants reduces natural or artificial trees and shrubs provide the most protection.
reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
ensure the development of an adequately stocked houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
stand. Managers must plan site preparation measures plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
to ensure reforestation without delays. spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
is expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
the order of their observed general occurrence. Additional information on planning windbreaks and
Generally, only two or three tree species dominate, screens and on planting and caring for trees and shrubs
The soils that are commonly used to produce timber can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
have the yield predicted in cubic meters. The yield is Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
predicted at the point where mean annual increment Service, or from a nursery.
culminates.
The site index is determined by taking height Recreation
measurements and determining the age of selected
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the Facilities are available in Highlands County for a
average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a wide variety of recreation activities. With an abundance
specified number of years. This index applies to fully of freshwater lakes, there are many opportunities for
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. The site index fishing, sailing, water skiing, canoeing, and skin diving.
is based on an age of 25 years for South Florida slash Numerous fish camps are in the county, and most of
pine and 50 years for all other trees. The site index the lakes have public access boat ramps. Highlands
values given in table 6 are based on standard Hammock State Park provides camping and nature
procedures and techniques (8, 9, 13). paths. Avon Park Bombing Range also provides an
The productivity class represents an expected volume outlet for hunting, fishing, and camping on more than
produced by the most important trees, expressed in 50,000 acres. Numerous golf courses are throughout
cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per the county, and many are public courses. A wide variety
hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by of privately owned campgrounds provides temporary
multiplying by 14.3. It can be converted to board feet by living facilities for people from northern states during the
multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, a winter months. Most municipalities have public picnic
productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected and recreational areas and tennis, racquetball, and
to produce 114 cubic feet pre acre per year at the point basketball courts. Sebring provides a boat ramp, civic
where mean annual increment culminates, or about 568 center, and cultural center that are within walking
board feet per acre per year. distance of downtown.
Trees to plant are those that are used for In table 7, the soils of the survey area are rated
reforestation or, if suitable conditions exist, natural according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and will recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
produce a commercial wood crop. Desired product, features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
topographic position (such as a low, wet area), and surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
personal preference are three factors of many that can Not considered in the ratings, but important in
influence the choice of trees to use for reforestation. evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines.
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for








58 Soil Survey


maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous
undesirable plants reduces natural or artificial trees and shrubs provide the most protection.
reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
ensure the development of an adequately stocked houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
stand. Managers must plan site preparation measures plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
to ensure reforestation without delays. spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
is expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
the order of their observed general occurrence. Additional information on planning windbreaks and
Generally, only two or three tree species dominate, screens and on planting and caring for trees and shrubs
The soils that are commonly used to produce timber can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
have the yield predicted in cubic meters. The yield is Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
predicted at the point where mean annual increment Service, or from a nursery.
culminates.
The site index is determined by taking height Recreation
measurements and determining the age of selected
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the Facilities are available in Highlands County for a
average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a wide variety of recreation activities. With an abundance
specified number of years. This index applies to fully of freshwater lakes, there are many opportunities for
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. The site index fishing, sailing, water skiing, canoeing, and skin diving.
is based on an age of 25 years for South Florida slash Numerous fish camps are in the county, and most of
pine and 50 years for all other trees. The site index the lakes have public access boat ramps. Highlands
values given in table 6 are based on standard Hammock State Park provides camping and nature
procedures and techniques (8, 9, 13). paths. Avon Park Bombing Range also provides an
The productivity class represents an expected volume outlet for hunting, fishing, and camping on more than
produced by the most important trees, expressed in 50,000 acres. Numerous golf courses are throughout
cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per the county, and many are public courses. A wide variety
hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by of privately owned campgrounds provides temporary
multiplying by 14.3. It can be converted to board feet by living facilities for people from northern states during the
multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, a winter months. Most municipalities have public picnic
productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected and recreational areas and tennis, racquetball, and
to produce 114 cubic feet pre acre per year at the point basketball courts. Sebring provides a boat ramp, civic
where mean annual increment culminates, or about 568 center, and cultural center that are within walking
board feet per acre per year. distance of downtown.
Trees to plant are those that are used for In table 7, the soils of the survey area are rated
reforestation or, if suitable conditions exist, natural according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and will recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
produce a commercial wood crop. Desired product, features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
topographic position (such as a low, wet area), and surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
personal preference are three factors of many that can Not considered in the ratings, but important in
influence the choice of trees to use for reforestation. evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines.
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for







Highlands County, Florida 59


recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding Wildlife Habitat
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height, John Vance, biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped to
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is prepare this section.
essential. Wildlife is a valuable resource of Highlands County.
In table 7, the degree of soil limitation is expressed The wetland areas and native rangelands along the
as moderate or severe. Moderate means that limitations Kissimmee River, Arbuckle Creek, Charley Bowlegs
can be overcome or alleviated by planning, design, or Creek, and Fisheating Creek provide particularly
special maintenance. Severe means that soil properties valuable habitat. The 3,700 acre Archbold Research
are unfavorable and that limitations can be offset by soil Station, the 3,500 acre Highlands Hammock State Park,
reclamation, special design, intensive maintenance, and the 51,000 acre Avon Park Bombing Range are
limited use, or by a combination of these measures, especially important.
The information in table 7 can be supplemented by The primary game species include white-tailed deer,
other information in this survey, for example, squirrel, wild turkey, bobwhite quail, feral hogs, and
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table waterfowl. Nongame species include raccoon, rabbit,
10 and interpretations for dwellings without basements armadillo, opossum, skunk, bobcat, gray fox, otter,
and for local roads and streets in table 9. mink, and a variety of songbirds, wading birds,
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping woodpeckers, predatory birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing The major streams and hundreds of natural lakes in
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary Highlands County provide good fish habitat. Twenty-
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to seven lakes are over 100 acres in size. These include
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best four that are over 1,000 acres and Lake Istokpoga, the
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to largest, which covers about 28,000 acres. Important fish
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few species include largemouth bass, channel catfish,
or no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but bullhead catfish, warmouth, bluegill, redear, red-bellied
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes and spotted sunfish, black crappie, chain pickerel, gar,
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of and bowfin, and suckers.
constructing campsites. Areas of concern include the habitat changes caused
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most by intensive agriculture practices, such as citrus and
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking improved pastures. Many native rangeland areas could
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, offer better wildlife habitat if poor grazing and burning
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding practices could be improved. The increasing urban
during the period of use, and do not have slopes that development down the central ridge is eliminating much
increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access wildlife habitat.
roads and parking areas. A number of endangered or threatened species are
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive in Highlands County. These include the seldom seen
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not red-cockaded woodpecker to the more commonly
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The known species, such as the wood stork. A detailed list
surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry. of these species with information on range and habitat
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding needs is available from the local office of the Soil
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best Conservation Service.
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
once a year during the period of use. They have the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
moderate slopes, abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be can be created or improved by planting appropriate
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject by promoting the natural establishment of desirable
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They plants.
have moderate slopes. The suitability of the soil for tees In table 8, the soils in the survey area are rated
or greens is not considered in rating the soils. according to their potential for providing habitat for







60 Soil Survey


various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining these plants are oak, maple, gallberry, saw palmetto,
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining huckleberry, hickory, and blackberry.
the intensity of management needed for each element Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
of the habitat. properties and features that affect the growth of
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or Examples of coniferous plants are pine and cypress.
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, Wetland plants are annual and perennial, wild
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
established, improved, or maintained in most places. properties and features affecting wetland plants are
Moderately intensive management is required for texture of the surface layer, wetness, and reaction.
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that Examples of wetland plants are smartweed, wild millet,
limitations are severe for the designated element or pickerelweed, arrowhead, cordgrass, rushes, sedges,
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or and reeds.
maintained in most places, but management is difficult Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are created by dams, levees, or other water-control
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
impractical or impossible. stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
following paragraphs. ponds.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and in the following paragraphs.
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
available water capacity, wetness, slope, and flood grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,
considerations. Examples of grain and seed crops are and wild herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to
browntop millit and grain sorghum. these areas include bobwhite quail, burrowing owl,
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses meadowlark, dove, sandhill crane, and cattle egret.
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
water capacity, wetness, flood hazard, and slope. Soil plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
temperature and soil moisture are also considerations. turkey, owls, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox, raccoon,
Examples of grasses and legumes are bahiagrass, deer, and bear.
pangolagrass, clover, and aschynomene. Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil attracted to such areas are ducks, herons, shore birds,
properties and features that affect the growth of these otters, alligators, egrets, and gallinules.
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, and flood Engineering
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of wild herbaceous plants are This section provides information for planning land
bluestem, goldenrod, beggarweed, and partridge pea. uses related to urban development and to water
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage, most limiting features are identified. The ratings are







Highlands County, Florida 61


given in the following tables: Building site development, maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water this survey can be used to make additional
management. The ratings are based on observed interpretations.
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
test data in the "Soil Properties" section. special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Information in this section is intended for land use Glossary.
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and Building Site Development
construction. The information, however, has limitations. Table 9 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
For example, estimates and other data generally apply that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet, without basements, small commercial buildings, local
and because of the map scale, small areas of different roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
soils may be included within the mapped areas of a limitations are considered slight if soil properties and
specific soil. site features are generally favorable for the indicated
The information is not site specific and does not use and limitations are minor and easily overcome;
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or moderate if soil properties or site features are
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the somewhat restrictive for the indicated use and special
design and construction of engineering works. planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were properties or site features are so unfavorable that
not considered in preparing the information in this special design, soil reclamation, and possibly increased
section. Local ordinances and regulations must be maintenance are required. Special feasibility studies
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design. may be required where the soil limitations are severe.
Soil properties, site features, and observed Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
performance were considered in determining the ratings maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
determinations were made about grain-size distribution, ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, soil wetness, observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, likelihood filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to a very
of flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, and soil firm dense layer, soil texture, and slope. The time of the
density. Data were collected about kinds of clay year that excavations can be made is affected by the
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and depth to a seasonal high water table and the
the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of
erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell the excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is
potential, available water capacity, and other behavioral affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table.
characteristics affecting engineering uses. Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
This information can be used to evaluate the structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
and recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for made for small commercial buildings without
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground basements, for dwellings with basements, and for
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills, dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan soil properties, site features, and observed performance
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrink-swell
locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and potential, and organic layers can cause the movement
topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, of footings. Depth to a high water table and flooding
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water affect the ease of excavation and construction.
conservation; and predict performance of proposed Landscaping and grading that require cuts and fills of
small structures and pavements by comparing the more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
performance of existing similar structures on the same Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
or similar soils. and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.
The information in the tables, along with the soil They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base







62 Soil Survey


of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a Sanitary Facilities
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally Table 10 shows the degree and the kind of soil
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields.
properties, site features, and observed performance of sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
the soils. Depth to a high water table, flooding, and are considered slight if soil properties and site features
slope affect the ease of excavating and grading. Soil are generally favorable for the indicated use and
strength (as inferred from the engineering classification limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
of the soil), shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high soil properties or site features are somewhat restrictive
water table affect the traffic-supporting capacity. for the indicated use and special planning, design, or
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil are unfavorable for the indicated use and overcoming
properties, site features, and observed performance of the unfavorable properties requires special design, extra
the soils. Soil reaction, depth to a high water table, and maintenance, or alteration.
the available water capacity in the upper 40 inches Table 10 also shows the suitability of the soils for
affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, and the use as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good
amount of sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface indicates that soil properties and site features are
layer affect trafficability after vegetation is established, favorable for the use and that good performance and
low maintenance can be expected; fair indicates that
Controlling Erosion on Building Sites
soil properties and site features are moderately
Soil erosion is a problem in disturbed areas. Water favorable for the use and one or more soil properties or
erosion can damage sloping soils if rains are intense site features make the soil less desirable than the soils
and the soils are bare of vegetation and surface mulch. rated good; and poor indicates that one or more soil
The disturbing or clearing of areas for construction properties or site features are unfavorable for the use
operations or for landscaping removes vegetation and and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires
leaves the soil vulnerable to erosion. Wind and water special design, extra maintenance, or costly alteration.
erosion can be reduced by clearing or disturbing only Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
the minimum area necessary for construction. effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
Exposed soil results in wind erosion and through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
sedimentation of streams. Control of erosion minimizes part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
the pollution of streams by sediment and improves the evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties. site
quality of water for municipal use, for recreation, and for features, and observed performance of the soils.
fish and wildlife. Permeability, depth to a high water table, and flooding
Grading removes topsoil and can expose the sandy affect absorption of the effluent.
clay loam or sandy clay subsoil in Bradenton, Felda, Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
and Pineda soils. Ripping the exposed subsoil and fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
covering it with less erodible topsoil reduce erosion. surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
Wind erosion is a major hazard on sandy soil. It can public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
damage soils in a few hours in open, unprotected areas permeable sand and gravel is less than 4 feet below the
if the winds are strong and the soil is dry and bare of base of the absorption field, if slope is excessive, or if
vegetation and surface mulch. Drifting soil can inundate the water table is near the surface. There must be
drainage ditches, roads, fences, and equipment. The air unsaturated soil material beneath the absorption field to
pollution caused by wind erosion can create health filter the effluent effectively. Many local ordinances
problems. Wind erosion can be minimized by require that this material be of a certain thickness.
maintaining plant cover and surface mulch and by Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
planting windbreaks of trees and shrubs. hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the
Mulching helps to reduce damage from erosion and solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly
improves soil moisture conditions for seedlings, level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
Information about conservation practices to control compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
erosion is available in local offices of the Soil the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
Conservation Service. impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is







Highlands County, Florida 63


required to minimize seepage and contamination of material remaining in the borrow area must be thick
ground water, enough over the water table to permit revegetation. The
Table 10 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes soil material used as final cover for a landfill should be
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 suitable for plants. The surface layer generally has the
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are best workability, more organic matter, and the best
excavated to provide material for the embankments. potential for plants. Material from the surface layer
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, should be stockpiled for use as the final cover.
and observed performance of the soils. Considered in
the ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high Construction Materials
water table, flooding, and content of organic matter. Table 11 gives information about the soils as a
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the source of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the are rated good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and
level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to topsoil. They are rated as a probable or improbable
function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is source of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on
excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high soil properties and site features that affect the removal
content of organic matter is detrimental to proper of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic compaction, minor processing, and other standard
activity. Slope can cause construction problems, construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste and used in road embankments in another place. In this
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in exacting in design than higher embankments.
successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layer of soil from a source away from the site. layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground their profile. The table showing engineering index
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation properties provides detailed information about each soil
needs to be considered, layer. This information can help determine the suitability
The ratings in table 10 are based on soil properties, of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
site features, and observed performance of the soils. after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not
Permeability, depth to a water table, slope, and flooding considered in the ratings.
affect both types of landfill. Texture, highly organic The ratings are based on soil properties, site
layers, and soil reaction, affect trench type landfills, features, and observed performance of the soils. The
Unless otherwise stated, the ratings apply only to that thickness of suitable material is a major consideration.
part of the soil within a depth of about 6 feet. For The ease of excavation is affected by a high water table
deeper trenches, a limitation rated slight or moderate and slope. How well the soil performs in place after it
may not be valid. Onsite investigation is needed. has been compacted and drained is determined by its
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used strength (as inferred from the engineering classification
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
to the landfill, and spread over the waste. or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope material, low shrink-swell potential, and slopes of 15
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material percent or less. Depth to the water table is more than 3
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are feet. Soils rated fair are more than 35 percent silt- and
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover clay-sized particles and have a plasticity index of less
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are than 10. They have moderate shrink-swell potential,
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or many stones. Depth to
blowing, the water table is 1 to 3 feet. Soils rated poor have a
After soil material has been removed, the soil plasticity index of more than 10, a high shrink-swell







64 Soil Survey


potential, or slopes of more than 25 percent. They are Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
wet, and the depth to the water table is less than 1 foot. than 20 inches of suitable material, have slopes of more
They may have layers of suitable material, but the than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
material is less than 3 feet thick. near the surface.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand for topsoil because of its organic matter content.
and gravel are used in many kinds of construction. Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 11, retention of moisture and releases a variety of plant-
only the probability of finding material in suitable available nutrients as it decomposes.
quantity is evaluated. The suitability of the material for
specific purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that Water Management
affect excavation of the material. Table 12 gives information on the soil properties and
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source site features that affect water management. The degree
of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
indicated by the engineering classification of the soil), areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
the thickness of suitable material, and the content of ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil
rock fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification properties and site features are generally favorable for
are given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of the indicated use and limitations are minor and are
grain sizes is given in the table on engineering index easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site
properties. features are somewhat restrictive for the indicated use
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of and special planning, design, or maintenance is needed
clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is to overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if
up to 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at soil properties or site features are so unfavorable for
least 3 feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, the intended use that special design and possibly
large stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable increased maintenance or alteration are required.
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as This table also gives the restrictive features that
shale and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and affect each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and
gravel, diversions, and grassed waterways.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
area. and the depth to permeable material. Excessive slope
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such can affect the storage capacity of the reservoir area.
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil constructed to impound water or to protect land against
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the
rock fragments, and toxic material, soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a 5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and mixed and compacted during construction.
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
less than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
salts, are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, depth greater than the height of the embankment can
and are not so wet that excavation is difficult. affect performance and safety of the embankment.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 determine these properties.
to 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
appreciable amount of gravel or soils that have slopes seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are not so wet that compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features
excavation is difficult. include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high







Highlands County, Florida 65


content of organic matter. A high water table affects the supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The
amount of usable material. It also affects trafficability. design and management of an irrigation system are
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that affected by depth to the water table, the need for
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that performance of a system is affected by the depth of the
impound water 3 feet or more above the original root zone and soil reaction.
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and combination of channels and ridges constructed across
the salinity of the soil. a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and intercepting runoff. Slope and wetness affect the
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or water erosion,
layers that affect the rate of water movement; an excessively coarse texture, and restricted
permeability; depth to a high water table or depth of permeability adversely affect maintenance.
standing water if the soil is subject to ponding; slope; Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
susceptibility to flooding; and subsidence of organic channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
layers. Excavating and grading and the stability of surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity.
ditchbanks are affected by slope and the hazard of Wetness and slope affect the construction of grassed
cutbanks caving. The productivity of the soil after waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available
drainage is adversely affected by extreme acidity or by water capacity, restricted rooting depth, and restricted
toxic substances in the root zone. Availability of permeability adversely affect the growth and
drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings. maintenance of the grass after construction.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to










67









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters
the course of the soil survey. The data and the in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
explained on the following pages, percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
Soil properties are determined by field examination of sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are defined in the Glossary.
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are Classification of the soils is determined according to
made and examined to identify and classify the soils the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are adopted by the American Association of State Highway
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the and Transportation Officials (1).
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, The Unified system classifies soils according to
and compaction characteristics. These results are properties that affect their use as construction material.
reported in table 20. Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
Estimates of soil properties are based on field of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
accurately by field observation, and help characterize highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
key soils. properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables for example, SP-SM.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical those properties that affect roadway construction and
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
Engineering Index Properties of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
classification and of the range of index properties for soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the inspection.
upper 5 or 6 feet. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are 20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay classification for soils tested, with group index numbers







67









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters
the course of the soil survey. The data and the in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
explained on the following pages, percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
Soil properties are determined by field examination of sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are defined in the Glossary.
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are Classification of the soils is determined according to
made and examined to identify and classify the soils the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are adopted by the American Association of State Highway
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the and Transportation Officials (1).
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, The Unified system classifies soils according to
and compaction characteristics. These results are properties that affect their use as construction material.
reported in table 20. Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
Estimates of soil properties are based on field of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
accurately by field observation, and help characterize highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
key soils. properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables for example, SP-SM.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical those properties that affect roadway construction and
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
Engineering Index Properties of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
classification and of the range of index properties for soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the inspection.
upper 5 or 6 feet. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are 20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay classification for soils tested, with group index numbers








68 Soil Survey


in parentheses, is given in table 20. root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry- structure.
weight basis. The percentages are estimates Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
determined mainly by converting volume percentage in water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of
the field to weight percentage. movement of water through the soil when the soil is
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated saturated. They are based on soil characteristics
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3 observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074 construction where the rate of water movement under
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on saturated conditions affects behavior.
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field. water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) plants. The capacity for water storage in each major soil
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The layer is stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area, capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect
or from nearby areas, and on field examination, the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
The most important properties are the content of
Physical and Chemical Properties organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
Table 14 shows estimates of some characteristics in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates design and management of irrigation systems. Available
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
area. The estimates are based on field observations water actually available to plants at any given time.
and on test data for these and similar soils. Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
in diameter. fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility corrosion.
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink- change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and minerals with water and varies with the amount and
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving type of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on
operations. the soil and the magnitude of the change in soil
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per moisture content influence the amount of swelling of
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at soils in place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For
1/3 bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after others, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the and amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon measurements of similar soils.
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
available water capacity, total pore space, and other often needed.
soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The







Highlands County, Florida 69


change is based on the soil fraction less than 2 carbonate. These soils are slightly erodible. Crops can
millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change be grown if measures to control wind erosion are used.
of less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and 6. Loamy soils that are 20 to 35 percent clay and
high, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate,
percent, is sometimes used. except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil erodible. Crops can easily be grown.
to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six 7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) clay and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet carbonate. These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops
and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre can easily be grown.
per year. These estimates are based primarily on 8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject
percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4 to wind erosion.
percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
of K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the soil at various stages of decomposition.
more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by In table 14, the estimated content of organic matter is
water. expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water The content of organic matter of a soil can be
that can occur over a sustained period without affecting maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
crop productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
per year. infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have other nutrients for crops.
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the Soil and Water Features
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following Table 15 gives estimates of various soil and water
distinctions: features. The estimates are used in land use planning
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine that involves engineering considerations.
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
to establish. groups. They are grouped according to the intake of
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops precipitation from long-duration storms.
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind The four hydrologic soil groups are:
erosion are used. Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained
highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of
measures to control wind erosion are used. water transmission.
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to
are used. moderately coarse texture. These soils have a
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay moderate rate of water transmission.
loams that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
are moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
measures to control wind erosion are used. layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
5. Loamy soils that are less than 20 percent clay soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
carbonate and sandy clay loams and sandy clays that Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate
are less than 5 percent finely divided calcium (high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These







70 Soil Survey


consist chiefly of clays that have high shrink-swell seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils.
potential, soils that have a permanent high water table, The estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly soil. Indicated in table 15 are the depth to the seasonal
impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate high water table; the kind of water table, that is,
of water transmission. Some of the soils in table 15 apparent; and the months of the year that the water
have two hydrologic groupings, a B/D listing means that table commonly is highest. A water table that is
under natural conditions this soil would be in Group D, seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated in
but because of applied management practices, such as table 15. Table 16 shows water table data of several
ditching and pumping, the soil may be assigned to soils in Highlands County.
Group C or B, depending on the extent of practices An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
applied. Since management practices vary from site to in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
site, it is recommended that site specific investigations stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
be made to determine the proper hydrologic group. allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil.
Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface The two numbers in the "High water table-Depth"
by flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by column indicate the normal range in depth to a
runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high saturated zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot.
tides. Shallow water standing or flowing for short The first numeral in the range indicates the highest
periods after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered water level. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
flooding. Standing water in swamps and marshes or in indicates that the water table is above the surface of
a closed depression is considered ponding. the soil. "More than 6.0" indicates that the water table
Table 15 gives the frequency and duration of flooding is below a depth of 6 feet or that the water table exists
and the time of year when flooding is most likely to for less than a month.
occur. Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
occurrence are estimated. Frequency generally is results from either desiccation and shrinkage or
expressed as none or frequent. None means that oxidation of organic material, or both, following
flooding is not probable. Frequent means that flooding drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually
occurs often under normal weather conditions (there is over a period of several years. Table 15 shows the
more than a 50 percent chance of flooding in any year). expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of
Duration is expressed as long (7 days to 1 month), and drainage, and total subsidence, which results from a
very long (more than 1 month). The time of year that combination of factors.
floods are most likely to occur is expressed in months. Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
November-June, for example, means that flooding can imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
occur during the period November through June. About water throughout an extensive area as a result of
two-thirds to three-fourths of all flooding occurs during lowering the water table.
the stated period. Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
The information on flooding is based on evidence in electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
the soil profile, namely, thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
or clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
organic matter content with increasing depth; and soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
absence of distinctive horizons, which are characteristic electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion
of soils that are not subject to flooding, of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
Also considered are local information about the content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the
extent and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil. Special site examination and design may be
soil on the landscape to historic floods. Information on needed if the combination of factors creates a severely
the extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific corrosive environment. The steel in installations that
than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that intersect soil boundaries or soil layers is more
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency susceptible to corrosion than steel in installations that
levels. are entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a layer.
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed







Highlands County, Florida 71


as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. The sum of
class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field cations, which may be considered a measure of cation-
capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation exchange capacity, was calculated by adding the values
extract. for extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation-
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture, exchange capacity expressed in percent. The pH
acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation measurements were made with a glass electrode using
extract, a soil-water ratio of 1:1, a 0.01 molar calcium chloride
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and normal
Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio.
Analyses of Selected Soils Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
Dr. Victor W. Carlisle, professor of Soil Science, and Dr. W. G. and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
Harris, assistant professor of Soil Science, University of Florida, were determined by atomic absorption
Agricultural Experiment Station. Soil Science Department, prepared
this section. spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were
extracted from probable spodic horizons with 0.01 molar
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and
properties or representative pedons sampled in iron was by atomic absorption and of extracted carbon
Highlands County are presented in tables 17, 18, and was by the Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
19. The analyses were conducted and coordinated by Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 2 microns
the Soil Characterization Laboratory at the University of was ascertained by x-ray diffraction. Peak heights at 18
Florida. Detailed profile descriptions of the analyzed angstrom, 14 angstrom, 10 angstrom, 7.2 angstrom,
soils are given in alphabetical order in the section 4.83 angstrom, 4.31 angstrom, and 3.04 angstrom
"Classification of the Soils." Laboratory data and profile positions represent montmorillonite, interstratified
information for additional soils in Highlands County, as expandable vermiculite or 14 angstrom intergrades,
well as for other counties in Florida, are on file at the mica, kaolinite, gibbsite, quartz, and calcite,
University of Florida, Soil Science Department. respectively. Peaks were measured, summed, and
Typifying pedons were sampled from pits at carefully normalized to give the percent of soil minerals identified
selected locations. Samples were airdried, crushed, and in the x-ray diffractograms. These percentage values do
sieved through a 2 millimeter screen. Most analytical not indicate absolute determined quantities of soil
methods used are outlined in Soil Survey Investigations minerals but do imply a relative distribution of minerals
Report No. 1 (12). in a particular mineral suite. Absolute percentages
Particle-size distribution was determined using a would require additional knowledge of particle size,
modified pipette method with sodium crystallinity, unit structure, substitution, and matrix
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity problems.
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil
cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from Physical Properties
Physical Properties
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at Representative soils sampled for laboratory analyses
100 centimeters water (1io bar) and 345 centimeters in Highlands County were inherently very sandy (table
water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water 17). Some contained argillic horizons in the lower sola.
percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were All pedons sampled contained one horizon or more in
ovendried, ground to pass a 2 millimeter sieve, and 15- which the total sand content exceeded 90 percent.
bar water retention was determined. Organic carbon Archbold, Astatula, Daytona, Duette, Orsino, Paola, St.
was determined by a modification of the Walkley-Black Lucie, Satellite, Tavares, and Valkaria soils contained
wet combustion method. more than 95 percent sand to a depth of 2 meters or
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils more. Immokalee, Placid, Pomello, and Smyrna soils
with normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. contained more than 90 percent sand to a depth of
Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined slightly more than 1 meter.
by flame emission. Calcium and magnesium were The content of clay in these excessively sandy soils
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. was rarely more than 2 percent. Frequently, the silt
Extractable acidity was determined by the barium content was slightly higher than the clay content. The








72 Soil Survey


deep argillic horizons of Bradenton, Chobee, EauGallie, retain very low amounts of available water for plants.
Felda, Hicoria, and Malabar soils contained about 12.3 Conversely, soils with a higher amount of fine textured
to 22.5 percent clay. Silt content exceeded 10 percent materials and a higher content of organic matter, such
in one horizon of the Chobee soil, but rarely exceeded as Chobee fine sandy loam and Hicoria mucky sand,
4 percent in all of the other soils. retain much larger amounts of available water for
Medium and fine sand dominated the sand fractions plants.
throughout all of the soils in Highlands County. All
horizons of Daytona, Duette, Orsino, Paola, and Chemical Properties
Tavares soils contained more than 50 percent medium
sand, and Archbold, Astatula, and St. Lucie soils Chemical soil properties (table 18) show that a wide
contained more than 60 percent. Only Basinger, Placid, range of extractable bases was present in Highlands
and Valkaria soils contained in excess of 50 percent County soils. With exception of Chobee fine sandy
fine sand throughout. Fine sands dominated Bradenton, loam, all of the other soils contained one or more
Chobee, EauGallie, Felda, Hicoria, Immokalee, horizons that had less than 1 milliequivalent per
Malabar, Satellite, and Smyrna soils. Very coarse sands hundred grams extractable bases. Chobee soils ranged
were not detectable in Archbold, Astatula, Basinger, from 7.43 to 20.74 milliequivalents per hundred grams
Daytona, Duette, Felda, Orsino, Paola, Placid, Pomello, extractable bases; however, somewhat higher amounts
St. Lucie, Satellite, and Valkaria soils and were barely of extractable bases occurred in the deeper horizons of
detectable in all the other soils in the county. Generally, Bradenton fine sand, ranging from 24.86 to 37.55
coarse sands, ranging from 1 to 5 percent, was in all milliequivalents per hundred grams. Archbold, Duette,
horizons of all of the soils. All horizons of Bradenton, Paola, Pomello, St. Lucie, and Satellite soils contained
Felda, Smyrna, and Valkaria soils contained more than less than 1 milliequivalent per hundred grams
25 percent very fine sand. Hicoria and Malabar soils extractable bases throughout the depth of the soil. The
contained horizons that had more than 25 percent very mild, humid climate of Highlands County results in
fine sand. Daytona, Duette, Orsino, and Paola soils depletion of basic cations (calcium, magnesium.
contained less than 1 percent very fine sands. These sodium, and potassium) through leaching.
sandy soils in Highlands County rapidly become very With the exception of EauGallie fine sand, calcium
drought during periods of low precipitation when was the dominant base in all of the other soils in the
rainfall is widely scattered. Conversely, these sandy county. Magnesium exceeded the amount of calcium in
soils are rapidly saturated when high amounts of rainfall the deeper horizons of EauGallie soil and in one or two
occur. Soils with inherently poor drainage, such as deeper horizons of Basinger, Immokalee, Placid, and
Basinger, Bradenton, Chobee, EauGallie, Felda, Pomello soils. All of the soils but Archbold, Basinger,
Hicoria, Immokalee, Malabar, Placid, Smyrna, and Daytona, Duette, EauGallie, Paola, Placid. Pomello, St.
Valkaria soils, may remain saturated with ground water Lucie, and Satellite soils contained one or more
close to the surface for long periods, horizons in which the calcium content exceeded 1
Hydraulic conductivity values usually were well in milliequivalent per hundred grams. Extractable
excess of 50 centimeters per hour throughout the Typic magnesium of 1 milliequivalent or more occurred only in
and Spodic Quartzipsamment pedons but rarely one or more horizons of Basinger, Bradenton. Chobee.
exceeded 1.0 centimeters per hour in the lower sola of EauGallie, Felda, Hicoria, and Malabar soils. The
soils containing argillic horizons. Low hydraulic highest amounts of extractable calcium and magnesium
conductivity values at shallow depths in such soils as occurred in Bradenton and Chobee soils. Sodium
Bradenton and Chobee soils could affect the design and generally occurred in amounts that were much less than
function of septic tank absorption fields. Low hydraulic 0.2 milliequivalents per hundred grams; however, one
conductivity values were also recorded for spodic or more horizons in Bradenton, Felda, Hicoria,
horizons in EauGallie soil, but hydraulic conductivity for Immokalee, Malabar, and Placid soils exceeded this
Bh horizons in Immokalee, Pomello, and Smyrna soils value. Archbold, Astatula, Paola, St. Lucie, Satellite.
were higher than generally recorded for spodic horizons and Tavares soils contained 0.02 milliequivalents of
of most Florida soils. The available water for plants can sodium to a depth of 2 meters or more. All soils
be estimated from bulk density and water content data. contained one or more horizons that had 0.03
The excessively sandy soils, such as Archbold, milliequivalents per hundred grams or less extractable
Astatula, Paola, St. Lucie, Satellite, and Tavares sands, potassium. Archbold, Basinger, Daytona, Duette,







Highlands County, Florida 73


EauGallie, Felda, Immokalee, Orsino, Paola, Placid, horizons. Pyrophosphate extractable iron and aluminum
Pomello, St. Lucie, Satellite, Tavares, and Valkaria soils ratio to citrate-dithionite extractable iron and aluminum
contained horizons that had nondetectable amounts of was sufficient to meet spodic horizon criteria for all
potassium. spodosols. Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron was
Values for cation-exchange capacity, an indicator of less than 0.02 percent for all of these soils except
plant nutrient capacity, exceeded 10 milliequivalents per Daytona soil, which contained 0.26 percent extractable
hundred grams in the surface horizon of Bradenton, iron.
Chobee, Hicoria, and Placid soils. Enhanced cation- Citrate-dithionite extractable iron in the Bt horizon of
exchange capacities paralleled the higher clay contents Bradenton, Chobee, EauGallie, Felda, Hicoria, and
occurring in the deeper horizons of Bradenton, Chobee, Malabar soils ranged from 0.08 to 0.84 percent and was
EauGallie, Felda, Hicoria, and Malabar soils. Soils with generally less than 0.30 percent. Aluminum extracted
low cation-exchange capacity in the surface horizon, by citrate-dithionite from the Bt horizon in these soils
such as Archbold, Pomello, and St. Lucie soils, require ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 percent. Larger amounts of
only small amounts of lime or sulfur to significantly alter citrate-dithionite iron generally occurred in the Bh
both the base status and soil reaction. Generally, soils horizon as compared to the Bt horizon. The amounts of
of low inherent soil fertility are associated with low iron and aluminum in Highlands County soils were not
values for extractable bases and low cation-exchange sufficient to detrimentally affect phosphorus availability.
capacity. Fertile soils are associated with high values
for extractable bases, high base saturation values, and Mineralogical Properties
high cation-exchange capacity.
The content of organic carbon was less than 1 Sand fractions of 2 to 0.05 millimeters were siliceous,
percent in Archbold, Astatula, Basinger, Duette, Paola, and quartz was overwhelmingly dominant in all pedons.
Pomello, St. Lucie, Satellite, Tavares, and Valkaria soils Small amounts of heavy minerals occurred in most
and in all horizons below the surface layer in horizons with greatest concentrations in the very fine
Bradenton, Daytona, Felda, Malabar, Orsino, and Placid sand fraction. No weatherable minerals were observed.
soils. Only Chobee, Hicoria, and Placid soils contained Crystalline mineral components of the clay fraction of
horizons with more than 3 percent organic carbon. 0.002 millimeters are reported in table 19 for major
Daytona, Duette, EauGallie, Immokalee, Pomello, and horizons of the pedons sampled. The clay mineralogical
Smyrna soils contained Bh horizons with enhanced suite was composed mostly of montmorillonite, a 14-
amounts of organic carbon ranging from 0.49 percent in angstrom intergrade, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz.
Daytona soil to 2.68 percent in Smyrna soil. In the other Montmorillonite occurred in all soils sampled except
soils, the content of organic carbon decreased rapidly in Immokalee and Smyrna soils. The 14-angstrom
with increased depth. Since the content of organic intergrade mineral occurred in most soils but was not
carbon in the surface layer is directly related to the soil detectable in Archbold, Bradenton, Chobee, EauGallie,
nutrient and available water capacity of sandy soils, Felda, Hicoria, Immokalee, and Satellite pedons.
management practices that conserve and maintain the Kaolinite occurred in all soils sampled but was not
amount of organic carbon are highly desirable. detected in the Btg horizon of Bradenton soil, the A
Electrical conductivity values were all very low horizon of Chobee soil, the Ap horizons of Felda,
ranging from nondetectable throughout EauGallie and Malabar, and Smyrna soils, and the Bwl horizon of
Satellite soils to 0.19 millimohs per centimeter in the Valkaria soil. Gibbsite was detected only in Placid and
surface soil of Smyrna sand. These data indicate that Smyrna soils. Varying amounts of quartz occurred in all
the content of soluble salt in soils sampled in Highlands horizons of all of the soils. Orsino and St. Lucie soils
County was insufficient to detrimentally affect the contained horizons that had detectable amounts of
growth of salt-sensitive plants. calcite, and St. Lucie soil also contained one horizon
The ratio of sodium pyrophosphate extractable that had detectable amounts of mica; however,
carbon and aluminum to clay in the Bh horizon of quantities of both these minerals were insufficient for
Duette, EauGallie, Immokalee, Pomello, and Smyrna the assignment of numerical values.
soils was sufficient to meet chemical criteria for spodic Montmorillonite in Highlands County soils was
horizons. Field morphology was used to determine generally inherited from the sediments in which these
spodic horizons in the Daytona soil. The Bh horizons in soils formed. The stability of montmorillonite is generally
this soil did not meet all chemical criteria for spodic favored by alkaline conditions. Montmorillonite is







74


generally most abundant in areas where alkaline American Association of State Highway and
elements have not been leached by percolation Transportation Officials (AASHTO) (1) or the American
rainwater, such as soils saturated with limestone- Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (2).
influenced ground waters; however, it may occur in Table 20 contains engineering test data about some
moderate amounts regardless of drainage of chemical of the major soils in Highlands County. These tests help
conditions. evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The
The 14-angstrom intergrade is a mineral of uncertain classifications given are based on data obtained by
origin that is widespread in Florida soils. It tends to be mechanical analysis and by tests to determine liquid
most prevalent under moderately acidic, relatively well- limits and plastic limits.
drained conditions; although, it occurs in a variety of The mechanical analyses were made by a combined
soil environments. This mineral is the major constituent sieve and hydrometer method (4). In this method, the
of sand grain coatings in the Astatula and Tavares soils various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis
of Highlands County; however, amounts of coatings that of all the material in the soil sample, including that
occur in these soils are not sufficient to meet taxonomic coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. The mechanical
criteria established for the recognition of coated Typic analyses used in this method should not be used in
Quartzipsamments. naming textural classes of soils.
Kaolinite may have been inherited from the parent Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
material, or it may have formed as a weathering product water on the strength and consistence of the soil
of other minerals. It is relatively stable in the acidic material. As the moisture content of a clayey soil is
environments of Highlands County soils. Clay-size increased from a dry state, the material changes from a
quartz has primarily resulted from decrements of the silt semisolid to plastic state. If the moisture content is
fraction. further increased, the material changes from a plastic to
Clay mineralogy can have a significant impact on soil a liquid state. The plastic limit is the moisture content at
properties, particularly for soils of higher clay content. which the soil material changes from a semisolid to a
Soils that contain montmorillonite have a higher plastic state, and the liquid limit is the moisture content
capacity for plant nutrient retention than soils dominated at which the soil material changes from a plastic to a
by kaolinite, 14-angstrom intergrade minerals, and liquid state. The plasticity index is the numerical
quartz. Large amounts of montmorillonitic clay can difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit. It
create problems for most types of construction because indicates the range of moisture content within which a
of the large amounts of swelling when wet and shrinking soil material is plastic. The data on liquid limit and
when dry. In most Highlands County soils, the clay plasticity index in table 20 are based on laboratory tests
mineralogy influences their use and management less of soil samples.
frequently than the total clay content. Compaction, or moisture-density, data are important
in earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a
Engineering Index Test Data successively higher moisture content, assuming that the
Table 20 shows laboratory test data for several compactive effort remains constant, the density of the
pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the compacted material increases until the optimum
county. The pedons are typical of the series and are moisture content is reached. After that, density
described in the section "Soil Series and Their decreases with an increase in moisture content. The
Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the highest dry density obtained in the compactive test is
Florida Department of Transportation Soils Laboratory, termed maximum dry density. As a rule, maximum
Bureau of Materials and Research. strength of earthwork is obtained if the soil is
The testing methods generally are those of the compacted to the maximum dry density.







75









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National Spodic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (11). group. An example is Spodic Psammaquents.
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
series. Classification is based on soil properties other characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties are those of horizons below plow depth
or on laboratory measurements. Table 21 shows the where there is much biological activity. Among the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The properties and characteristics considered are particle-
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
forming processes and the degree of soil formation, the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An soil properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic
example is Entisol. Spodic Psammaquents.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
that reflect the most important variables within the mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, of the surface layer or of the substratum within a series.
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great Soil Series and Their Morphology
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic In this section, each soil series recognized in the
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
base status. Each great group is identified by the name in alphabetic order.
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, formed are identified for each series. The soil is
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime). other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup, of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (10). Many
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. defined in Soil Taxonomy (11). Unless otherwise stated,
Extragrades have some properties that are not colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following
representative of the great group but do not indicate the pedon description is the range of important
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each characteristics of the soils in the series.
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives The map units of each soil series are described in
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."







75









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National Spodic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (11). group. An example is Spodic Psammaquents.
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
series. Classification is based on soil properties other characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties are those of horizons below plow depth
or on laboratory measurements. Table 21 shows the where there is much biological activity. Among the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The properties and characteristics considered are particle-
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
forming processes and the degree of soil formation, the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An soil properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic
example is Entisol. Spodic Psammaquents.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
that reflect the most important variables within the mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, of the surface layer or of the substratum within a series.
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great Soil Series and Their Morphology
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic In this section, each soil series recognized in the
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
base status. Each great group is identified by the name in alphabetic order.
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, formed are identified for each series. The soil is
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime). other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup, of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (10). Many
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. defined in Soil Taxonomy (11). Unless otherwise stated,
Extragrades have some properties that are not colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following
representative of the great group but do not indicate the pedon description is the range of important
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each characteristics of the soils in the series.
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives The map units of each soil series are described in
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."







76 Soil Survey


Anclote Series approximately 1,500 feet north and 200 feet east of the
southwest corner, sec. 7, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
The Anclote series consists of very poorly drained
soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine A-0 to 4 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single grained:
sediment. These soils are on the flood plains along loose; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid;
Fisheating Creek. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. gradual wavy boundary.
The soils of the Anclote series are sandy, siliceous, C-4 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
hyperthermic Typic Haplaquolls. grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; medium
Anclote soils are closely associated with Basinger, acid.
Hicoria, Hontoon, and Samsula soils. Basinger soils do
not have a mollic epipedon and have layers of organic The soil reaction is slightly acid to extremely acid.
staining. Hicoria soils have an argillic horizon. Hontoon The texture is sand or fine sand. The content of silt plus
and Samsula are organic soils. clay in the 10- to 40-inch control section is less than 2
Typical pedon of Anclote fine sand, in an area of percent.
Anclote-Basinger fine sands, frequently flooded; The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
approximately 200 feet south and 1,800 feet east of the chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have a slightly
northwest corner, sec. 28, T. 39 S., R. 29 E. decomposed thin layer of leaves on the surface.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and
A-0 to 20 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral (N) and has value of 6
weak medium granular structure; very friable; to 8. In some pedons, there is staining along old root
slightly acid; clear smooth boundary, channels.
Cgl-20 to 30 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; moderately alkaline; gradual Astatula Series
wavy boundary.
Cg2-30 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) The Astatula series consists of nearly level to
fine sand; single grained; loose; moderately moderately sloping, excessively drained, drought soils
alkaline. that formed in marine and eolian deposits. These soils
are wholly within the ridge part of the county. The
The soil reaction is medium acid to moderately slopes range from 0 to 8 percent. The soils of the
alkaline. Astatula series are hyperthermic, uncoated Typic
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and Quartzipsamments.
chroma of 1 or 2. Astatula soils are closely associated with Archbold.
The Cg horizon has a hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 2 Orsino, Paola, St. Lucie, and Tavares soils. Archbold.
to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Orsino, and Tavares soils have zones of saturation
between depths of 36 to 60 inches. Paola soils have an
Archbold Series albic horizon. St. Lucie soils have value of 7 or 8 and
chroma of 1 or 2 in the C horizon.
The Archbold series consists of nearly level to gently chroma of 1 or 2 in the C horizon.
sloping, moderately well drained, drought soils that Typical peon of Astatula sand, 0 to percent
formed in marine and eolian deposits. These soils are fleet easn aof range grove; 300 feet north and S, R.
on moderately high ridges in the ridge part of the
county. The slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils
of the Archbold series are hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
Quartzipsamments. single grained; loose; many fine and very fine roots;
Archbold soils are closely associated with Basinger, few medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
Placid, St. Lucie, and Satellite soils. Basinger soils have boundary.
a B!E horizon and are poorly drained or very poorly C-7 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand:
drained. Placid soils have an umbric epipedon and are single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
very poorly drained. St. Lucie soils are excessively very strongly acid.
drained, and Satellite soils are somewhat poorly
drained. The soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
Typical pedon of Archbold sand, 0 to 5 percent slightly acid. The texture below the surface layer ranges
slopes; on the Archbold Biological Station; from sand to fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.







76 Soil Survey


Anclote Series approximately 1,500 feet north and 200 feet east of the
southwest corner, sec. 7, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
The Anclote series consists of very poorly drained
soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine A-0 to 4 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single grained:
sediment. These soils are on the flood plains along loose; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid;
Fisheating Creek. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. gradual wavy boundary.
The soils of the Anclote series are sandy, siliceous, C-4 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
hyperthermic Typic Haplaquolls. grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; medium
Anclote soils are closely associated with Basinger, acid.
Hicoria, Hontoon, and Samsula soils. Basinger soils do
not have a mollic epipedon and have layers of organic The soil reaction is slightly acid to extremely acid.
staining. Hicoria soils have an argillic horizon. Hontoon The texture is sand or fine sand. The content of silt plus
and Samsula are organic soils. clay in the 10- to 40-inch control section is less than 2
Typical pedon of Anclote fine sand, in an area of percent.
Anclote-Basinger fine sands, frequently flooded; The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
approximately 200 feet south and 1,800 feet east of the chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have a slightly
northwest corner, sec. 28, T. 39 S., R. 29 E. decomposed thin layer of leaves on the surface.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and
A-0 to 20 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral (N) and has value of 6
weak medium granular structure; very friable; to 8. In some pedons, there is staining along old root
slightly acid; clear smooth boundary, channels.
Cgl-20 to 30 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; moderately alkaline; gradual Astatula Series
wavy boundary.
Cg2-30 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) The Astatula series consists of nearly level to
fine sand; single grained; loose; moderately moderately sloping, excessively drained, drought soils
alkaline. that formed in marine and eolian deposits. These soils
are wholly within the ridge part of the county. The
The soil reaction is medium acid to moderately slopes range from 0 to 8 percent. The soils of the
alkaline. Astatula series are hyperthermic, uncoated Typic
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and Quartzipsamments.
chroma of 1 or 2. Astatula soils are closely associated with Archbold.
The Cg horizon has a hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 2 Orsino, Paola, St. Lucie, and Tavares soils. Archbold.
to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Orsino, and Tavares soils have zones of saturation
between depths of 36 to 60 inches. Paola soils have an
Archbold Series albic horizon. St. Lucie soils have value of 7 or 8 and
chroma of 1 or 2 in the C horizon.
The Archbold series consists of nearly level to gently chroma of 1 or 2 in the C horizon.
sloping, moderately well drained, drought soils that Typical peon of Astatula sand, 0 to percent
formed in marine and eolian deposits. These soils are fleet easn aof range grove; 300 feet north and S, R.
on moderately high ridges in the ridge part of the
county. The slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils
of the Archbold series are hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
Quartzipsamments. single grained; loose; many fine and very fine roots;
Archbold soils are closely associated with Basinger, few medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
Placid, St. Lucie, and Satellite soils. Basinger soils have boundary.
a B!E horizon and are poorly drained or very poorly C-7 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand:
drained. Placid soils have an umbric epipedon and are single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
very poorly drained. St. Lucie soils are excessively very strongly acid.
drained, and Satellite soils are somewhat poorly
drained. The soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
Typical pedon of Archbold sand, 0 to 5 percent slightly acid. The texture below the surface layer ranges
slopes; on the Archbold Biological Station; from sand to fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.







76 Soil Survey


Anclote Series approximately 1,500 feet north and 200 feet east of the
southwest corner, sec. 7, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
The Anclote series consists of very poorly drained
soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine A-0 to 4 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single grained:
sediment. These soils are on the flood plains along loose; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid;
Fisheating Creek. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. gradual wavy boundary.
The soils of the Anclote series are sandy, siliceous, C-4 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
hyperthermic Typic Haplaquolls. grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; medium
Anclote soils are closely associated with Basinger, acid.
Hicoria, Hontoon, and Samsula soils. Basinger soils do
not have a mollic epipedon and have layers of organic The soil reaction is slightly acid to extremely acid.
staining. Hicoria soils have an argillic horizon. Hontoon The texture is sand or fine sand. The content of silt plus
and Samsula are organic soils. clay in the 10- to 40-inch control section is less than 2
Typical pedon of Anclote fine sand, in an area of percent.
Anclote-Basinger fine sands, frequently flooded; The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
approximately 200 feet south and 1,800 feet east of the chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have a slightly
northwest corner, sec. 28, T. 39 S., R. 29 E. decomposed thin layer of leaves on the surface.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and
A-0 to 20 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral (N) and has value of 6
weak medium granular structure; very friable; to 8. In some pedons, there is staining along old root
slightly acid; clear smooth boundary, channels.
Cgl-20 to 30 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; moderately alkaline; gradual Astatula Series
wavy boundary.
Cg2-30 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) The Astatula series consists of nearly level to
fine sand; single grained; loose; moderately moderately sloping, excessively drained, drought soils
alkaline. that formed in marine and eolian deposits. These soils
are wholly within the ridge part of the county. The
The soil reaction is medium acid to moderately slopes range from 0 to 8 percent. The soils of the
alkaline. Astatula series are hyperthermic, uncoated Typic
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and Quartzipsamments.
chroma of 1 or 2. Astatula soils are closely associated with Archbold.
The Cg horizon has a hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 2 Orsino, Paola, St. Lucie, and Tavares soils. Archbold.
to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Orsino, and Tavares soils have zones of saturation
between depths of 36 to 60 inches. Paola soils have an
Archbold Series albic horizon. St. Lucie soils have value of 7 or 8 and
chroma of 1 or 2 in the C horizon.
The Archbold series consists of nearly level to gently chroma of 1 or 2 in the C horizon.
sloping, moderately well drained, drought soils that Typical peon of Astatula sand, 0 to percent
formed in marine and eolian deposits. These soils are fleet easn aof range grove; 300 feet north and S, R.
on moderately high ridges in the ridge part of the
county. The slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils
of the Archbold series are hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
Quartzipsamments. single grained; loose; many fine and very fine roots;
Archbold soils are closely associated with Basinger, few medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
Placid, St. Lucie, and Satellite soils. Basinger soils have boundary.
a B!E horizon and are poorly drained or very poorly C-7 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand:
drained. Placid soils have an umbric epipedon and are single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
very poorly drained. St. Lucie soils are excessively very strongly acid.
drained, and Satellite soils are somewhat poorly
drained. The soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
Typical pedon of Archbold sand, 0 to 5 percent slightly acid. The texture below the surface layer ranges
slopes; on the Archbold Biological Station; from sand to fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.







Highlands County, Florida 77


Silt plus clay in the 10- to 40-inch control section is less neutral. The texture below the A horizon is sand or fine
than 5 percent, sand.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
6, and chroma of 1 or 2. 5, and chroma of 1.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 4 to 8. chroma of 1 to 3.
The Bh part of the Bh/E horizon has hue of 10YR,
Basinger Series value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1 to 3; hue of 7.5YR,
value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 3,
The Basinger series consists of nearly level, poorly and chroma of 2. In many pedons, the Bh horizon is not
drained and very poorly drained soils that formed in mixed with the E horizon. The E part has properties
marine sand. These soils are on low flatwoods and in similar to those described for the E horizon.
sloughs, depressions, and drainageways in the county. The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 6, and
The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The soils of the chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
Basinger series are siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic chroma of 3. In some pedons, the texture in the lower
Psammaquents. part of the C horizon is loamy sand or loamy fine sand.
Basinger soils are closely associated with
Immokalee, Myakka, Placid, Satellite, and Valkaria Bradenton Series
soils. Immokalee and Myakka soils are in slightly higher
positions than Basinger soils and have a spodic The Bradenton series consists of nearly level, poorly
horizon. Placid soils have a thicker surface horizon than drained soils that formed in loamy marine sediment
Basinger soils, Satellite soils do not have a diagnostic influenced by calcareous materials. These soils are on
horizon and are better drained, and Valkaria soils have hammocks and in open areas on the flatwoods. The
higher chromas. slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The soils of the
Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand; on the Avon Bradenton series are coarse-loamy, siliceous,
Park Air Force Range; 400 feet north and 1,400 feet hyperthermic Typic Ochraqualfs.
west of the southwest corner, sec. 6, T. 33 S., R. 30 E. Bradenton soils are closely associated with Felda,
Hicoria, Malabar, Myakka, and Pineda soils. Felda soils
Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand, have an argillic horizon between depths of 20 and 40
rubbed; weak fine granular structure; very friable; inches. Hicoria soils have an umbric epipedon and are
common medium and many fine and very fine roots; in depressions. Malabar and Pineda soils have a Bw
medium acid; clear smooth boundary. horizon. Myakka soils have a spodic horizon.
E1-6 to 16 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; Typical pedon of Bradenton fine sand; approximately
single grained; loose; many fine and few medium 2,400 feet east and 1,300 feet south of the northwest
roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. corner, sec. 1, T. 38 S., R. 31 E.
E2-16 to 21 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; single grained; loose; medium acid; Ap-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
gradual wavy boundary. weak fine granular structure; very friable; strongly
Bh/E-21 to 52 inches; discontinuous very dark grayish acid; clear smooth boundary.
brown (10YR 3/2) spodic material in the upper 4 E-4 to 14 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
inches and many small bodies throughout (Bh), single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear smooth
brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand (E); single grained; boundary.
loose; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. Btg-14 to 29 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) very fine sandy
C1-52 to 62 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) loam; common medium prominent yellowish brown
fine sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky
gradual wavy boundary. structure; friable; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
C2-62 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy boundary.
fine sand; single grained; nonsticky and nonplastic; Btgk-29 to 44 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) very fine sandy
extremely acid. loam; common medium prominent yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) mottles; common or many white calcium
The soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to carbonate nodules; massive; friable; moderately







Highlands County, Florida 77


Silt plus clay in the 10- to 40-inch control section is less neutral. The texture below the A horizon is sand or fine
than 5 percent, sand.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
6, and chroma of 1 or 2. 5, and chroma of 1.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 4 to 8. chroma of 1 to 3.
The Bh part of the Bh/E horizon has hue of 10YR,
Basinger Series value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1 to 3; hue of 7.5YR,
value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 3,
The Basinger series consists of nearly level, poorly and chroma of 2. In many pedons, the Bh horizon is not
drained and very poorly drained soils that formed in mixed with the E horizon. The E part has properties
marine sand. These soils are on low flatwoods and in similar to those described for the E horizon.
sloughs, depressions, and drainageways in the county. The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 6, and
The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The soils of the chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
Basinger series are siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic chroma of 3. In some pedons, the texture in the lower
Psammaquents. part of the C horizon is loamy sand or loamy fine sand.
Basinger soils are closely associated with
Immokalee, Myakka, Placid, Satellite, and Valkaria Bradenton Series
soils. Immokalee and Myakka soils are in slightly higher
positions than Basinger soils and have a spodic The Bradenton series consists of nearly level, poorly
horizon. Placid soils have a thicker surface horizon than drained soils that formed in loamy marine sediment
Basinger soils, Satellite soils do not have a diagnostic influenced by calcareous materials. These soils are on
horizon and are better drained, and Valkaria soils have hammocks and in open areas on the flatwoods. The
higher chromas. slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The soils of the
Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand; on the Avon Bradenton series are coarse-loamy, siliceous,
Park Air Force Range; 400 feet north and 1,400 feet hyperthermic Typic Ochraqualfs.
west of the southwest corner, sec. 6, T. 33 S., R. 30 E. Bradenton soils are closely associated with Felda,
Hicoria, Malabar, Myakka, and Pineda soils. Felda soils
Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand, have an argillic horizon between depths of 20 and 40
rubbed; weak fine granular structure; very friable; inches. Hicoria soils have an umbric epipedon and are
common medium and many fine and very fine roots; in depressions. Malabar and Pineda soils have a Bw
medium acid; clear smooth boundary. horizon. Myakka soils have a spodic horizon.
E1-6 to 16 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; Typical pedon of Bradenton fine sand; approximately
single grained; loose; many fine and few medium 2,400 feet east and 1,300 feet south of the northwest
roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. corner, sec. 1, T. 38 S., R. 31 E.
E2-16 to 21 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; single grained; loose; medium acid; Ap-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
gradual wavy boundary. weak fine granular structure; very friable; strongly
Bh/E-21 to 52 inches; discontinuous very dark grayish acid; clear smooth boundary.
brown (10YR 3/2) spodic material in the upper 4 E-4 to 14 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
inches and many small bodies throughout (Bh), single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear smooth
brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand (E); single grained; boundary.
loose; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. Btg-14 to 29 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) very fine sandy
C1-52 to 62 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) loam; common medium prominent yellowish brown
fine sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky
gradual wavy boundary. structure; friable; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
C2-62 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy boundary.
fine sand; single grained; nonsticky and nonplastic; Btgk-29 to 44 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) very fine sandy
extremely acid. loam; common medium prominent yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) mottles; common or many white calcium
The soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to carbonate nodules; massive; friable; moderately








78 Soil Survey


alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy boundary. percent rubbed fiber; weak medium granular
Cgkl-44 to 66 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) structure; loose to friable; dark brown (10YR 4i3)
loamy sand; few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR sodium pyrophosphate extract; common fine roots:
6/8) mottles; common or many white calcium extremely acid; (pH 3.7 in 0.01 molar calcium
carbonate nodules; massive; friable; moderately chloride solution); gradual wavy boundary.
alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy boundary. Oe-12 to 80 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
Cgk2-66 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 5/1) very hemic material (peat); about 25 percent rubbed
fine sandy loam; common medium prominent fiber; massive; friable; gray (10YR 5/1) sodium
brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; common or pyrophosphate extract: common medium and fine
many white calcium carbonate nodules; massive; roots; extremely acid; (pH 3.5 in 0.011 molar calcium
friable: mildly alkaline; calcareous. chloride solution).

The thickness of the solum ranges from 20 to 50 The thickness of the organic material is more than 51
inches. The reaction ranges from strongly acid to inches. In some areas, it is up to 15 feet thick. The
neutral in the A and E horizons. The Bt and C horizons organic material has pH value of less than 4.5 in 0.01
range from neutral to strongly alkaline, molar calcium chloride solution and has a pH range of
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and 3.5 to 5.5 by the Hellige-Truog method.
chroma of 1. The Oa or Op horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3.
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand. and chroma of 1 to 3; or it is neutral (N) and has value
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 7, of 2. The fiber content is about 20 percent, unrubbed.
and chroma of 1 or 2. This horizon may have mottles in The rubbed fiber content is about 10 percent or less.
shades of brown, red, and yellow. The texture is fine The Oe horizon has hue of 10YR or SYR, value of 1
sandy loam, sandy loam, or very fine sandy loam. The to 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The fiber content is about
carbonate content increases as depth increases. 40 to 60 percent, unrubbed. The rubbed fiber is about
The Ck horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, 16 to 40 percent.
and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 5GY, value of 6, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture ranges from sand to Chobee Series
sandy clay loam. Some pedons have fine shell
fragments. The Chobee series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of loamy

Brighton Series marine sediment. These soils are in small to large
depressions on the flatwoods and in some swamps and
The Brighton series consists of nearly level, very marshes in the county. The slopes range from 0 to 1
poorly drained soils that formed in decomposing organic percent. The soils of the Chobee series are fine-loamy,
material underlain by marine sediment. These soils are siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls.
mainly in large forested wetland areas within the Chobee soils are closely associated with Basinger,
county. The largest of these areas is on the south side Felda, Hicoria, and Tequesta soils. Basinger soils have
of Lake Istokpoga. The slopes range from 0 to 1 a Bh horizon. Felda soils have a Bt horizon between
percent. The soils of the Brighton series are dysic, depths of 20 to 40 inches and do not have a mollic
hyperthermic Typic Medihemists. epipedon. Hicoria soils have a Bt horizon between
Brighton soils are closely associated with Basinger, depths of 20 to 40 inches. Tequesta soils have an
Hontoon, Placid, and Samsula soils. Basinger and organic surface layer 6 to 16 inches thick.
Placid soils are mineral soils that normally are adjacent Typical pedon of Chobee fine sandy loam.
to Brighton soils. Hontoon and Samsula soils are depressional; in a marsh on the Avon Park Air Force
organic soils that contain organic materials that are Range; 2,700 feet south and 1,400 feet west of the
highly decomposed. northeast corner, sec. 17, T. 33 S., R. 30 E.
Typical pedon of Brighton muck; in a drained field of
caladiums; on Highlands County Road 621, 100 feet A-0 to 18 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy loam;
west of the northeast corner, sec. 3, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. weak medium granular structure; friable; upper 3
inches stratified muck and fine sandy loam; many or
Op-0 to 12 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 4








78 Soil Survey


alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy boundary. percent rubbed fiber; weak medium granular
Cgkl-44 to 66 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) structure; loose to friable; dark brown (10YR 4i3)
loamy sand; few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR sodium pyrophosphate extract; common fine roots:
6/8) mottles; common or many white calcium extremely acid; (pH 3.7 in 0.01 molar calcium
carbonate nodules; massive; friable; moderately chloride solution); gradual wavy boundary.
alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy boundary. Oe-12 to 80 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
Cgk2-66 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 5/1) very hemic material (peat); about 25 percent rubbed
fine sandy loam; common medium prominent fiber; massive; friable; gray (10YR 5/1) sodium
brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; common or pyrophosphate extract: common medium and fine
many white calcium carbonate nodules; massive; roots; extremely acid; (pH 3.5 in 0.011 molar calcium
friable: mildly alkaline; calcareous. chloride solution).

The thickness of the solum ranges from 20 to 50 The thickness of the organic material is more than 51
inches. The reaction ranges from strongly acid to inches. In some areas, it is up to 15 feet thick. The
neutral in the A and E horizons. The Bt and C horizons organic material has pH value of less than 4.5 in 0.01
range from neutral to strongly alkaline, molar calcium chloride solution and has a pH range of
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and 3.5 to 5.5 by the Hellige-Truog method.
chroma of 1. The Oa or Op horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3.
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand. and chroma of 1 to 3; or it is neutral (N) and has value
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 7, of 2. The fiber content is about 20 percent, unrubbed.
and chroma of 1 or 2. This horizon may have mottles in The rubbed fiber content is about 10 percent or less.
shades of brown, red, and yellow. The texture is fine The Oe horizon has hue of 10YR or SYR, value of 1
sandy loam, sandy loam, or very fine sandy loam. The to 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The fiber content is about
carbonate content increases as depth increases. 40 to 60 percent, unrubbed. The rubbed fiber is about
The Ck horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, 16 to 40 percent.
and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 5GY, value of 6, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture ranges from sand to Chobee Series
sandy clay loam. Some pedons have fine shell
fragments. The Chobee series consists of nearly level, very
poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of loamy

Brighton Series marine sediment. These soils are in small to large
depressions on the flatwoods and in some swamps and
The Brighton series consists of nearly level, very marshes in the county. The slopes range from 0 to 1
poorly drained soils that formed in decomposing organic percent. The soils of the Chobee series are fine-loamy,
material underlain by marine sediment. These soils are siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls.
mainly in large forested wetland areas within the Chobee soils are closely associated with Basinger,
county. The largest of these areas is on the south side Felda, Hicoria, and Tequesta soils. Basinger soils have
of Lake Istokpoga. The slopes range from 0 to 1 a Bh horizon. Felda soils have a Bt horizon between
percent. The soils of the Brighton series are dysic, depths of 20 to 40 inches and do not have a mollic
hyperthermic Typic Medihemists. epipedon. Hicoria soils have a Bt horizon between
Brighton soils are closely associated with Basinger, depths of 20 to 40 inches. Tequesta soils have an
Hontoon, Placid, and Samsula soils. Basinger and organic surface layer 6 to 16 inches thick.
Placid soils are mineral soils that normally are adjacent Typical pedon of Chobee fine sandy loam.
to Brighton soils. Hontoon and Samsula soils are depressional; in a marsh on the Avon Park Air Force
organic soils that contain organic materials that are Range; 2,700 feet south and 1,400 feet west of the
highly decomposed. northeast corner, sec. 17, T. 33 S., R. 30 E.
Typical pedon of Brighton muck; in a drained field of
caladiums; on Highlands County Road 621, 100 feet A-0 to 18 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy loam;
west of the northeast corner, sec. 3, T. 37 S., R. 30 E. weak medium granular structure; friable; upper 3
inches stratified muck and fine sandy loam; many or
Op-0 to 12 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 4







Highlands County, Florida 79


common fine and very fine roots; strongly acid; east and 2,100 feet north of the southwest corner, sec.
gradual wavy boundary. 5, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
Btg1-18 to 36 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay loam;
massive; friable; slightly acid; gradual wavy A-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
boundary. single grained; loose; many fine and medium and
Btg2-36 to 57 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) fine sandy few coarse roots; extremely acid; gradual wavy
loam; many fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR boundary.
5/6) mottles; few medium prominent white (10YR E-3 to 36 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
8/1) sand pockets; weak coarse subangular blocky grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
structure; friable; neutral; gradual wavy boundary, strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Cg-57 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sand; common Bh-36 to 45 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak fine
sand pockets; weak fine subangular blocky subangular blocky structure; very friable; many fine
structure; friable; mildly alkaline. and medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A thin Oa horizon is on the surface of this soil in BC-45 to 59 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
many pedons. It has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2, grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; very
and chroma of 1 or 2. strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and C-59 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; few fine
chroma of 1 or 2. The reaction ranges from strongly distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; single
acid to neutral. grained; loose; few fine roots; very strongly acid.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 6,
and chroma of 1. This horizon may have mottles of Depth to the Bh horizon is 30 to 50 inches. The soil
brown. The reaction of the Btg horizon ranges from reaction ranges from medium acid to extremely acid.
neutral to moderately alkaline. Texture is mostly sandy The texture below the A horizon is sand or fine sand.
clay loam; but, in parts, the texture is sandy loam and The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 6, and
fine sandy loam. chroma of 1 or 2.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and
and chroma of 1; or hue of 5GY, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or 2.
chroma of 1. The reaction ranges from mildly acid to The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
moderately alkaline. The texture is sand, fine sand, or chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma
loamy sand. of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2.
The BC horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of
Daytona Series 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 to 6.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
The Daytona series consists of nearly level to gently chroma of 1 to 3.
sloping, moderately well drained, drought soils that
formed in marine sand. These soils are on elevated Duette Series
ridges on the flatwoods and on moderately high ridges
in the ridge part of the county. The slopes range from 0 The Duette series consists of nearly level to gently
to 5 percent. The soils of the Daytona series are sandy, sloping, moderately well drained, very drought soils
siliceous, hyperthermic Entic Haplohumods. that formed in marine sand. These soils are on
Daytona soils are closely associated with Archbold, moderately high ridges in the ridge part of the county
Duette, Immokalee, Orsino, Paola, Pomello, and and on elevated ridges on the flatwoods. The slopes
Satellite soils. Archbold, Orsino, and Satellite soils do range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils of the Duette
not have a spodic horizon. Duette soils have a Bh series are hyperthermic, Grossarenic Entic
horizon below a depth of 50 inches. Immokalee soils Haplohumods.
are poorly drained. Paola soils do not have a spodic Duette soils are closely associated with Archbold,
horizon and are excessively drained. Pomello soils are Astatula, Daytona, Paola, Pomello, and Satellite soils.
somewhat poorly drained. Archbold and Satellite soils do not have a diagnostic
Typical pedon of Daytona sand, 0 to 5 percent horizon within 80 inches of the surface. Astatula and
slopes; on the Archbold Biological Station; 2,200 feet Paola soils are excessively drained and are in slightly







Highlands County, Florida 79


common fine and very fine roots; strongly acid; east and 2,100 feet north of the southwest corner, sec.
gradual wavy boundary. 5, T. 38 S., R. 30 E.
Btg1-18 to 36 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay loam;
massive; friable; slightly acid; gradual wavy A-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
boundary. single grained; loose; many fine and medium and
Btg2-36 to 57 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) fine sandy few coarse roots; extremely acid; gradual wavy
loam; many fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR boundary.
5/6) mottles; few medium prominent white (10YR E-3 to 36 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
8/1) sand pockets; weak coarse subangular blocky grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
structure; friable; neutral; gradual wavy boundary, strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Cg-57 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sand; common Bh-36 to 45 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak fine
sand pockets; weak fine subangular blocky subangular blocky structure; very friable; many fine
structure; friable; mildly alkaline. and medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A thin Oa horizon is on the surface of this soil in BC-45 to 59 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
many pedons. It has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2, grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; very
and chroma of 1 or 2. strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and C-59 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; few fine
chroma of 1 or 2. The reaction ranges from strongly distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; single
acid to neutral. grained; loose; few fine roots; very strongly acid.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 6,
and chroma of 1. This horizon may have mottles of Depth to the Bh horizon is 30 to 50 inches. The soil
brown. The reaction of the Btg horizon ranges from reaction ranges from medium acid to extremely acid.
neutral to moderately alkaline. Texture is mostly sandy The texture below the A horizon is sand or fine sand.
clay loam; but, in parts, the texture is sandy loam and The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 6, and
fine sandy loam. chroma of 1 or 2.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and
and chroma of 1; or hue of 5GY, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or 2.
chroma of 1. The reaction ranges from mildly acid to The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
moderately alkaline. The texture is sand, fine sand, or chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma
loamy sand. of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2.
The BC horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of
Daytona Series 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 to 6.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
The Daytona series consists of nearly level to gently chroma of 1 to 3.
sloping, moderately well drained, drought soils that
formed in marine sand. These soils are on elevated Duette Series
ridges on the flatwoods and on moderately high ridges
in the ridge part of the county. The slopes range from 0 The Duette series consists of nearly level to gently
to 5 percent. The soils of the Daytona series are sandy, sloping, moderately well drained, very drought soils
siliceous, hyperthermic Entic Haplohumods. that formed in marine sand. These soils are on
Daytona soils are closely associated with Archbold, moderately high ridges in the ridge part of the county
Duette, Immokalee, Orsino, Paola, Pomello, and and on elevated ridges on the flatwoods. The slopes
Satellite soils. Archbold, Orsino, and Satellite soils do range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils of the Duette
not have a spodic horizon. Duette soils have a Bh series are hyperthermic, Grossarenic Entic
horizon below a depth of 50 inches. Immokalee soils Haplohumods.
are poorly drained. Paola soils do not have a spodic Duette soils are closely associated with Archbold,
horizon and are excessively drained. Pomello soils are Astatula, Daytona, Paola, Pomello, and Satellite soils.
somewhat poorly drained. Archbold and Satellite soils do not have a diagnostic
Typical pedon of Daytona sand, 0 to 5 percent horizon within 80 inches of the surface. Astatula and
slopes; on the Archbold Biological Station; 2,200 feet Paola soils are excessively drained and are in slightly








80 Soil Survey


higher positions on the landscape than Duette soils. sloughs and streams. The slopes range from 0 to 2
Daytona and Pomello soils have a spodic horizon percent. The soils of the EauGallie series are sandy.
between 30 and 50 inches. siliceous, hyperthermic Alfic Haplaquods.
Typical pedon of Duette sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes; EauGallie soils are closely associated with Felda.
approximately 1,000 feet east of the southwest corner, Immokalee, Myakka, Oldsmar, Pomona, and Smyrna
sec. 5, T. 38 S., R. 30 E. soils. Felda soils do not have a spodic horizon.
Immokalee, Myakka, and Smyrna soils do not have an
A-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single argillic horizon. Oldsmar soils have A and E horizons
grained; loose; few coarse and common medium that are more than 30 inches thick. Pomona soils have
and many fine and very fine roots; extremely acid; low base saturation.
clear smooth boundary. Typical pedon of EauGallie fine sand; on the Avon
E1-6 to 18 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single Park Air Force Range; 600 feet north and 2.600 feet
grained; loose; common medium and many fine and west of the southeast corner, sec. 8, T. 33 S.. R. 30 E.
very fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary. Ap-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand,
E2-18 to 51 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single rubbed; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
grained; loose; few medium and fine roots; very common medium and many fine roots: very strongly
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bh-51 to 59 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) E1-4 to 16 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand: single
sand; weak fine granular structure and about 15 grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
percent weak fine subangular blocky structure; very boundary.
friable: few medium roots; extremely acid; irregular E2-16 to 26 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand:
wavy boundary. single grained; loose; strongly acid; abrupt wavy
BC-59 to 80 inches; mixed dark yellowish brown boundary.
(10YR 3/4) and very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand; Bhl-26 to 33 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few medium roots; very moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
strongly acid. friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bh2-33 to 40 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
Depth to the Bh horizon is more than 50 inches. The fine sand; many medium faint reddish brown
soil reaction ranges from medium acid to extremely mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
acid. The texture is sand or fine sand below the A friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
horizon. Btg-40 to 53 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
chroma of 1. structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2. BCg-53 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
Some pedons have a BE horizon that has hue of fine sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky
10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. structure; friable; very strongly acid.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; The soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. medium acid in the A and E horizons, from very
The BC horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of strongly acid to slightly acid in the Bh horizon, and from
3 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 4. Some pedons do not have very strongly acid to mildly alkaline in the Btg and BCg
a BC horizon, horizons.
Some pedons have a C horizon that has hue of The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2 to 4. chroma of 1.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
EauGallie Series chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR or 10YR, value of 2
The EauGallie series consists of nearly level, poorly or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral (N) and has
drained soils that formed in marine sediment. These value of 2. The texture is sand or fine sand.
soils are on broad flatwoods that are adjacent to







Highlands County, Florida 81


Some pedons have an E' horizon that has hue of (10YR 6/8) mottles; single grained; loose; few
10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 to 3. The pockets and lenses of calcium carbonate nodules;
texture is sand or fine sand. mildly alkaline.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, 5Y, or 2.5Y, value
of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sandy The thickness of the solum ranges from 30 to 60
loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
Felda Series chroma of 1. The soil reaction ranges from very strongly
acid to neutral.
The Felda series consists of nearly level, poorly The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
drained and very poorly drained soils that formed in and chroma of 1 or 2. The soil reaction ranges from
sandy and loamy marine sediment. These soils are in very strongly acid to neutral. The texture is sand or fine
large drainageways and depressions and on low flats in sand.
the flatwoods part of the county. The slopes range from The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
0 to 2 percent. The soils of the Felda series are loamy, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5Y, value of 6, and
siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. chroma of 1; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and chroma of
Felda soils are closely associated with Bradenton, 2. This horizon has mottles in shades of brown, yellow,
Malabar, Pineda, Tequesta, and Valkaria soils. and red. The reaction ranges from slightly acid to mildly
Bradenton soils have an argillic horizon within 20 inches alkaline. The texture is sandy loam, very fine sandy
of the surface. Malabar, Pineda, and Valkaria soils have loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
a Bw horizon. Tequesta soils have an organic surface The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
layer. and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 5GY, value of 6, and
Typical pedon of Felda fine sand; approximately 300 chroma of 1. The reaction is slightly acid to moderately
feet east and 200 feet north of the southwest corner, alkaline. The texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy sand.
sec. 32, T. 37 S., R. 32 E. Shell fragments are in some pedons.

Ap-0 to 7 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single Gator Series
grained; loose; many fine and very fine roots; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. The Gator series consists of nearly level, very poorly
Eg1-7 to 14 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; drained, organic soils that formed in moderately thick
single grained; loose; few fine and very fine roots; deposits of sapric material underlain by loamy mineral
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, layers. These soils are in marshes, swamps, and
Eg2-14 to 21 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; depressional areas throughout the county. The slopes
single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy range from 0 to 1 percent. The soils of the Gator series
boundary. are loamy, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric
Eg3-21 to 24 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) Medisaprists.
fine sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; Gator soils are closely associated with Chobee,
gradual wavy boundary. Felda, Hicoria, and Tequesta soils. The associated soils
Btg-24 to 36 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) very fine sandy are mineral soils, and in addition, Tequesta soils have a
loam: common medium prominent brownish yellow histic epipedon.
(10YR 6/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular Typical pedon of Gator muck; in a drained area of
blocky structure; friable; few pockets and lenses of improved pasture, northwest side of intersection of two
calcium carbonate nodules in lower part of horizon; spoil banks on Buck Island Ranch; 2,900 feet east and
medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. 1,000 feet north of the southwest corner, sec. 28, T. 38
Cgl-36 to 68 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; S., R. 31 E.
many medium and few coarse prominent brownish
yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; single grained; loose; Oa-0 to 18 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; about 1
few pockets and lenses of calcium carbonate percent rubbed fiber; moderate medium granular
nodules; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. structure; friable; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
Cg2-68 to 80 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sodium pyrophosphate extract; many very fine and
fine sand; few medium prominent brownish yellow fine roots in upper 6 inches and common fine roots







Highlands County, Florida 81


Some pedons have an E' horizon that has hue of (10YR 6/8) mottles; single grained; loose; few
10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 to 3. The pockets and lenses of calcium carbonate nodules;
texture is sand or fine sand. mildly alkaline.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, 5Y, or 2.5Y, value
of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sandy The thickness of the solum ranges from 30 to 60
loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
Felda Series chroma of 1. The soil reaction ranges from very strongly
acid to neutral.
The Felda series consists of nearly level, poorly The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
drained and very poorly drained soils that formed in and chroma of 1 or 2. The soil reaction ranges from
sandy and loamy marine sediment. These soils are in very strongly acid to neutral. The texture is sand or fine
large drainageways and depressions and on low flats in sand.
the flatwoods part of the county. The slopes range from The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
0 to 2 percent. The soils of the Felda series are loamy, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5Y, value of 6, and
siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. chroma of 1; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and chroma of
Felda soils are closely associated with Bradenton, 2. This horizon has mottles in shades of brown, yellow,
Malabar, Pineda, Tequesta, and Valkaria soils. and red. The reaction ranges from slightly acid to mildly
Bradenton soils have an argillic horizon within 20 inches alkaline. The texture is sandy loam, very fine sandy
of the surface. Malabar, Pineda, and Valkaria soils have loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
a Bw horizon. Tequesta soils have an organic surface The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
layer. and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 5GY, value of 6, and
Typical pedon of Felda fine sand; approximately 300 chroma of 1. The reaction is slightly acid to moderately
feet east and 200 feet north of the southwest corner, alkaline. The texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy sand.
sec. 32, T. 37 S., R. 32 E. Shell fragments are in some pedons.

Ap-0 to 7 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single Gator Series
grained; loose; many fine and very fine roots; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. The Gator series consists of nearly level, very poorly
Eg1-7 to 14 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; drained, organic soils that formed in moderately thick
single grained; loose; few fine and very fine roots; deposits of sapric material underlain by loamy mineral
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary, layers. These soils are in marshes, swamps, and
Eg2-14 to 21 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; depressional areas throughout the county. The slopes
single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy range from 0 to 1 percent. The soils of the Gator series
boundary. are loamy, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic Terric
Eg3-21 to 24 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) Medisaprists.
fine sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; Gator soils are closely associated with Chobee,
gradual wavy boundary. Felda, Hicoria, and Tequesta soils. The associated soils
Btg-24 to 36 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) very fine sandy are mineral soils, and in addition, Tequesta soils have a
loam: common medium prominent brownish yellow histic epipedon.
(10YR 6/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular Typical pedon of Gator muck; in a drained area of
blocky structure; friable; few pockets and lenses of improved pasture, northwest side of intersection of two
calcium carbonate nodules in lower part of horizon; spoil banks on Buck Island Ranch; 2,900 feet east and
medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. 1,000 feet north of the southwest corner, sec. 28, T. 38
Cgl-36 to 68 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; S., R. 31 E.
many medium and few coarse prominent brownish
yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; single grained; loose; Oa-0 to 18 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; about 1
few pockets and lenses of calcium carbonate percent rubbed fiber; moderate medium granular
nodules; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. structure; friable; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
Cg2-68 to 80 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sodium pyrophosphate extract; many very fine and
fine sand; few medium prominent brownish yellow fine roots in upper 6 inches and common fine roots




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs