• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Hillsborough County...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 Index to map sheets
 General soil map
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Hillsborough County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026061/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Hillsborough County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 168 p., 3, 99 folded p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1989]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Hillsborough County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Hillsborough County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 89-343-P.
General Note: "Issued May 1989"--P. iii.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026061
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001545947
notis - AHF9472
oclc - 19968261

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Hillsborough County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    How this survey was made
        Page 4
        Map unit composition
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Use of the ground penetrating radar
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Confidence limits of soil survey information
            Page 5
            Page 6
    General soil map units
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Crops and pasture
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
        Rangeland and grazeable woodland
            Page 57
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 58
            Page 59
        Recreation
            Page 60
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 61
        Engineering
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
    Soil properties
        Page 67
        Engineering index properties
            Page 67
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 68
        Soil and water features
            Page 69
            Page 70
    Classification of the soils
        Page 71
        Soil series of their morphology
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
    Formation of the soils
        Page 89
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 89
        Processes of horizon differentiation
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
    Reference
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Glossary
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Tables
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
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        Page 128
        Page 129
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        Page 131
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        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
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        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
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        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
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        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
    Index to map sheets
        Index 1
        Index 2
    General soil map
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Full Text


United States In cooperation with *
Department of University of Florida,
Agriculture Institute of Food andS oil S urvey of
Agricultural Sciences, i
Soil Agricultural Experiment H illsbo rough
Conservation Stations and Soil Science
Service Department, and
Florida Department of
Agriculture and y
Consumer Services F lo rid a


The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all
its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex,
religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, or marital or
family status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons
with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of
program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact
USDA's TARGET Center at (202)-720-2600 (voice and TDD).
To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil
Rights, Room 326W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue,
SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD).
USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. (3/00)





















J A=



i



.J.'





HOW TO US


Locate your area of interest on
the "Index to Map Sheets:' /





-.,6-i "---

;" 2 Note the number of the map
._1 -. --.-- -------- sheet and turn to that sheet.





Locate your area of interest
* on the map sheet.












List the map unit symbols
that are in your area. S o
Symbols

151 27C

134A 5 6 /B 13

S1314A
56 34A 148B
1 134A 14i 151






HIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5 which lists the name of each map unit and the .
page where that map unit is described. -__






















See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6A Contents) for location of additional data -r- .?
on a specific soil use.


-- !
ILL



















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.
I



















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1950. Unless otherwise
indicated, statements in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in
1983. This soil survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service
and the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical
assistance furnished to the Hillsborough County Soil and Water Conservation
District. The Hillsborough County Board of Commissioners contributed
financially to the acceleration of the survey.
Some of the boundaries on the soil maps of Hillsborough County do not
match those on the soil maps of adjacent counties, and some of the soil
names and descriptions do not fully agree. The differences are the result of
improvements in the classification of soils, particularly modification or
refinements in soil series concepts. Also, there may be differences in the
intensity of mapping or in the extent of the soils within the county.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.
This survey supersedes the soil survey of Hillsborough County published in
1958 (14).

Cover: Tampa's skyline showcases a modern, progressive city on Florida's Suncoast. This
urban area is built on Myakka soil that has been altered for building site development.












ii
















Contents


Index to m ap units ..................................................... iv Recreation ............................................................. 60
Sum m ary of tables ..................................................... v W wildlife habitat ...................................................... 61
Forew ord ...................................................................... vii Engineering ........................................................... 62
G general nature of the county......................................... 1 Soil properties ............................................................ 67
How this survey w as m ade ............... ...................... 4 Engineering index properties...................................... 67
M ap unit com position.................... ....................... 5 Physical and chem ical properties.............................. 68
So th go u po t i ........................... 5 Soil and w ater features ............................................... 69
Use of the ground-penetrating radar..... ............. 5 Classification of the soils ............................................ 71
Confidence limits of soil survey information.......... 5 Soil series and their morphology................................... 71
G general soil m ap units.............................................. 7 Form ation of the soils.................................................. 89
Detailed soil m ap units ............................................. 15 Factors of soil form ation.......................................... 89
Use and management of the soils......................... 53 Processes of horizon differentiation....................... 90
Crops and pasture .................................................... 53 References .............................................................. 93
Rangeland and grazeable w oodland...................... 57 G lossary ....................................................................... 95
W oodland m anagem ent and productivity.............. 58 Tables ........................................................................... 105


Soil Series

Adam sville series .......................................................... 71 M icanopy series ........................................................ 79
Archbold series............................................................. 72 M illhopper series ...................................................... 80
Basinger series ............................................................. 72 M yakka series ........................................................... 80
Brow ard series .............................................................. 72 O na series ... .................................................. ............ 81
Candler series ............................................................... 73 O rlando series .......................................................... 81
Chobee series ............................................................... 73 O rsino series ............................................................. 82
Eaton series.................................................................. 74 Paisley series............................................................ 82
Felda series ................................................................... 74 Pinellas series ........................................................... 83
Floridana series ............................................................ 75 Pom ello series .......................................................... 83
Fort M eade series........................................................... 75 St. Augustine series................................................. 84
G ainesville series ......................................................... 76 St. Johns series ........................................................ 84
Holopaw series............................................................. 76 Sam sula series ......................................................... 85
Im m okalee series ......................................................... 77 Seffner series............................................................ 85
Kendrick series ............................................................. 77 Sm yrna series ........................................................... 86
Kesson series ............................................................... 77 Tavares series .......................................................... 86
Lake series .................................................................... 78 W abasso series ........................................................ 87
Lochloosa series .......................................................... 78 W inder series ............................................................ 87
M alabar series .............................................................. 79 Zolfo series ............................................................... 88
Issued May 1989










iii
















Index to Map Units


2-Adamsville fine sand.............................................. 15 29-Myakka fine sand................................................. 32
3-Archbold fine sand................................................. 16 30-Myakka fine sand, frequently flooded................ 33
4-Arents, nearly level ................................................ 17 32-Myakka-Urban land complex .............................. 33
5-Basinger, Holopaw and Samsula soils, 33-Ona fine sand ....................................................... 35
depressional.......................................................... 17 34-Ona-Urban land complex.................................... 37
6-Broward-Urban land complex............................... 18 35-Orlando fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......... 37
7-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 19 36-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 38
8-Candler fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes.......... 20 37-Paisley fine sand, depressional.......................... 38
9-Candler-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent 38-Pinellas fine sand................................................. 39
slopes ..................................................................... 20 39-Arents, very steep ................................ ............. 40
10-Chobee loamy fine sand ..................................... 21 41-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......... 40
11-Chobee muck, depressional ............................... 21 42-Pomello-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
12-Chobee sandy loam, frequently flooded............ 22 slopes..................................................................... 40
13-Eaton fine sand .................................................... 23 43-Quartzipsamments, nearly level ......................... 41
14-Eaton mucky sand, depressional....................... 23 44-St. Augustine fine sand ....................................... 41
15-Felda fine sand..................................................... 24 45-St. Augustine-Urban land complex..................... 42
16-Felda fine sand, occasionally flooded............... 24 46-St. Johns fine sand.............................................. 42
17-Floridana fine sand .............................................. 25 47-Seffner fine sand.................................................. 43
18-Fort Meade loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent 50-Slickens................................................................. 44
slopes ..................................................................... 25 51-Haplaquents, clayey ......................................... 44
19-Gainesville loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent 52-Smyrna fine sand ................................................. 44
slopes..................................................................... 26 53-Tavares-Millhopper fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
20-Gypsum land ......................................................... 27 slopes ................................................................. 45
21-Immokalee fine sand ........................................... 27 54-Tavares-Millhopper fine sands, 5 to 8 percent
22-Immokalee-Urban land complex ......................... 27 slopes ..................................................................... 47
23-Kendrick fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes........ 29 55-Tavares-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
24-Kesson muck, frequently flooded ....................... 29 slopes ..................................................................... 48
25-Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............... 30 56-Urban land............................................................. 48
26-Lochloosa-Micanopy fine sands, 0 to 5 percent 57-Wabasso fine sand .............................................. 48
slopes:.................................................................... 30 58-Wabasso-Urban land complex............................ 49
27-Malabar fine sand ................................................ 31 59-Winder fine sand .............................................. 50
28-Millhopper-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent 60-Winder fine sand, frequently flooded................. 50
slopes ..................................................................... 32 61-Zolfo fine sand .................................................. 51
















iv
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)........................................................ 106
Average composition of selected map units (table 2)................................. 107
Transects. Soils. Composition. Confidence interval.
Confidence level. Dissimilar soils. Composition.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3)............................. 110
Acres. Percent.
Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table
4) .................................................................................................. ............. ..... 111
Land capability. Tomatoes. Strawberries. Oranges.
Grapefruit. Bahiagrass. Peppers.
Rangeland productivity (table 5) .................................................................... 115
Range site. Potential annual production.
Woodland management and productivity (table 6) ...................................... 117
Ordination symbol Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 7)............................................................... 123
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 8) .................................................................................. 128
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 9) ............................................................... 132
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 10) ............................................................................. 137
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill
Construction materials (table 11)................................................................... 143
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
Water management (table 12)........................................................................ 147
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Grassed waterways.
Engineering index properties (table 13) ........................................................ 152
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.



v



















Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 14) ............................ 159
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.
Soil and water features (table 15).................................................................. 164
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bedrock.
Subsidence. Risk of corrosion.
Classification of the soils (table 16)............................................................... 168
Family or higher taxonomic class.


































vi















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Hillsborough County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service












vii



























Location of HillsborouTALLAHASSE County in Florida.







































Location of Hillsborough County in Florida.












Soil Survey of

Hillsborough County, Florida

By James A. Doolittle, Gregg Schellentrager, and Susan Ploetz,
Soil Conservation Service


Soils recorrelated by James A. Doolittle, Warren G. Henderson, Jr.,
Wade Hurt, Gregg Schellentrager, and Carol A. Wettstein,
Soil Conservation Service

Soils surveyed by Jean Beem, R. E. Caldwell, Victor W. Carlisle,
J. B. Cromartie, Orlando E. Cruz, Ralph G. Leighty (in charge of
initial survey), and James H. Walker, Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations; and Joseph L. Huber, E. D. Matthews, Z. T. Millsap,
and William B. Warmack, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department,
and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY occupies about 1,053 Climate
square miles, or 673,830 acres, in the west-central part
of Florida. It is bounded on the south by Manatee Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation
County, on the east by Polk County, on the north by for the county as recorded at the local weather stations
Pasco County, and on the west by Pinellas County and and Tampa International Airport in the period 1890
Tampa Bay. Except for the irregular coastline on the through 1983. The climate of Hillsborough County is
west, the county is nearly square. Tampa, the county subtropical. The temperatures are modified by winds that
seat, is in the west-central part of Hillsborough County. sweep across the peninsula from the Gulf of Mexico.
The mean annual temperature is 72.2 degrees
Fahrenheit. The long summers are warm and humid, but
General Nature of the County thundershowers occur almost every afternoon and
prevent temperatures from becoming extremely high.
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that Daytime temperatures during June, July, August, and
affect the use and management of the soil in September average near 90 degrees Fahrenheit.
Hillsborough County are described. The factors are Winters are short and mild; many of the days are
climate, history and development, transportation, bright and sunny, and little rain falls. Cold spells,
recreation, and physiography, relief, and drainage, accompanied by cold winds, can be expected only a few
time during the year, and they last for only a few days.
January is the coldest month with an average






2 Soil Survey



temperature of 60.8 degrees. The nighttime average English settlers arrived in 1823 and established a
temperature in January is 51.3 degrees, and the daytime plantation near the Tampa shell mound at the mouth of
average is 70.2 degrees. Freezes can occur once or the Hillsborough River. Shortly after, the U.S. Army
twice in a season although many winters have no confiscated the land and established a post called Fort
damaging freezes. The lowest recorded temperature in Brooke. Shell mounds of the areas were dismantled and
Tampa was 18 degrees (December 1962). used for construction material for roadbeds and building
Normally, snowfall is negligible, but 0.2 inch was foundations.
recorded on January 19, 1977. Hillsborough County was officially chartered in 1834.
The average annual precipitation is about 50.2 inches Initially, Hillsborough County was much larger than its
at Plant City and 49.48 inches at Tampa. Generally, the present area and included what now makes up Pasco,
rainy season begins in June and continues into Polk, Manatee, Sarasota, DeSoto, Charlotte, Highlands,
September. During this period, the rainfall comes mainly Hardee, and Pinellas Counties. The city of Tampa was
in the form of heavy thunderstorms that generally last for incorporated in 1849.
1 or 2 hours. About 60 percent (29 inches) of the annual Settlers increased after the Seminole War ended in
rainfall occurs during June through September. The Setters increased afterthe
remaining 20 inches of rainfall is spread fairly evenly 1842. Transportation to the area was difficult. After the
over the other months. The average annual rainfall for railroads were built in the 1880's, commerce and industry
the period 1951 through 1980 was 46.73 inches. developed in Tampa. Agriculture expanded and spread
The wettest year on record was 1959, when 76.57 to rural sections. By 1885, the population of Tampa had
inches of rainfall was recorded. The driest year recorded grown to 3,000 and to 10,000 in the entire county. The
was 1956 with 28.89 inches of rain. The heaviest rain in cigar industry began in Tampa at this time and
a 24 hour period, 12.11 inches, was recorded in July prospered.
1960 at Tampa International Airport. Shipment of vegetables to northern markets began
Moderately high winds and accompanying about 1900. Since then, the production and shipment of
thunderstorms occur at all seasons of the year. From winter vegetables, strawberries, and citrus fruit, and more
August through November, occasional disturbances of recently, the production of nursery plants, tropical fish,
varying intensity, some of hurricane force, move and cut flowers has increased. These agricultural
northward from the tropics across the county. The heavy products are a major contributor to the economy of
rains that accompany these storms are generally more Hillsborough County.
damaging than the wind. The discovery of phosphate in Florida improved
Ground fog occurs frequently from November through railroad service, and port development made Tampa one
February. of the leading exporters of phosphate in the country.
The growth of Tampa was also tied to outside events,
History and Development such as the Spanish-American War, Florida real estate
William G. Saalman and John F. Creighton, soil conservationists, Soil booms, the Depression, and World War II. Because of
Conservation Service, helped to prepare this section. wartime industrial growth, Tampa's industry increased
from a prewar cigar and phosphate economic base to a
Native Americans Indians occupied the Tampa Bay wide diversity of postwar industries. Growth occurred as
region for thousands of years. At the time of the early new residents came into the area and as urban areas
European explorations, the Caloosa and Timucua Indians n eits or e re and uan
wetemajo tr wralong the city's borders were annexed. The population of
decimated by European diseases. Later, the Seminole the county also grew, but by 1960, about 82 percent of
Indians became the major tribal group in this area. the county's population still resided in urban areas. In
The Spanish were early explorers of the area. 1960, the population of Tampa was 275,000, and the
Expeditions in 1513 by Ponce de Leon, in 1528 by population of Hillsborough County was 397,788.
Panfilo de Narvaez, and in 1539 by Hernando de Soto During the last two decades, commerce and industry
produced the earliest recorded reports of Tampa Bay. have continued to grow while the population of Tampa
Early expeditions searched for gold, silver, and slaves, has remained relatively stable. The rest of the county
Settlements were not established, has been increasing in population over the past two
The Spanish were met with hostility from the natives, decades and is expected to continue its growth into the
The natives were already familiar with Europeans from 21st century. In 1983, the population of Tampa was
previous unrecorded slave trade Spanish expeditions. 276,576, and the population of Hillsborough County was
The city of Tampa was once a village of native 696,997.
American Indians. The diet of early inhabitants included
a large amount of shellfish. Shell mounds, built over
thousands of years from the discarded shells, were
located around these villages.






Hillsborough County, Florida 3



Transportation Physiography, Relief, and Drainage
William G. Saalman and John F. Creighton, soil conservationists, Soil Kenneth M. Campbell, geologist, Florida Geological Survey, helped
Conservation Service, helped to prepare this section. to prepare this section.
Hillsborough County has an excellent air, land, and Hillsborough County is in the Floridian section of the
sea transportation network. The county is serviced by Atlantic Coastal Plain (7). The notable physiographic
Tampa International Airport. This airport transports many features of the area are related to ancient seas, which
passengers and ships large volumes of air freight, such once covered the region. Relict shorelines are evidenced
as cut flowers, strawberries, and tropical fish. Smaller by subtle linear escarpments, which have not been
airports servicing the county are Peter 0. Knight Airport, significantly altered by fluvial (river) processes in much of
Tampa; Plant City Municipal Airport, Plant City; the area. Four ancient shorelines are preserved in
Vandenberg Airport, East Tampa; Hillsborough Airport, Hillsborough County. The Pamlico, Talbot, Penholoway,
Dover; and Brandon Airport, Brandon. MacDill Air Force and Wicomico shorelines stand at or near 25, 42, 70,
sers and Baourn Airpor, Ban and 100 feet above present mean sea level,
Base is at the southern tip of Tampa. respectively.
By land, the county is serviced by many local, State, C. Wythe Cooke (4) included the western and southern
Federal, and interstate highways. Interstate Highways 4, parts of the county in the Coastal Lowlands and the
75, and 275 converge in Tampa. The State road system eastern part in the Central Highlands. The Coastal
diverges in all directions from Tampa. Lowlands are low, nearly level plains that lie next to the
By sea, commercial water transportation is available coast. The Central Highlands are the gently undulating to
through the Port of Tampa, which is the seventh largest rolling areas in the eastern part of the county.
port in the Nation and includes one of the largest In the southwestern part of the county, Tampa Bay
phosphate-loading complexes in the world. A large dry extends for a considerable distance inland. Its northern
dock and cattle shipping facilities are in the Port of section is separated into Old Tampa Bay and
Tampa. Commercial access to Tampa Bay is also Hillsborough Bay by a peninsula that extends southward
available at other points along the 83 miles of coastline, from Tampa.
Large, nearly level plains, commonly called flatwoods,
Recreation are in the western, southern, and northeastern parts of
the county. These plains rise gradually from the coast to
William G. Saalman and John F. Creighton, soil conservationists, Soil elevations of more than 100 feet in the eastern part of
Conservation Service, helped to prepare this section. the county. Numerous intermittent ponds, swamps, and
The pleasant subtropical climate of Hillsborough marshes and a few permanent lakes are in the flatwood
Cnth eaantoubtromal cim of Hoorr iou areas. Many permanent lakes and intermittent ponds are
County encourages many forms of outdoor recreation. in the northwestern and north-central parts of the county.
Recreational resources are extensive and include fishing, Some of the larger lakes are Lake Thonotosassa, Lake
swimming, boating, sailing, and all of the warm-season Calrico, Mango Lake, Keystone Lake, and Lake
activities of freshwater and saltwater. The park system in Magdalene.
Hillsborough County is extensive and includes 7 regional Along the coast, elevations in the county range from
parks, 100 neighborhood parks, 6 urban parks, 12 district sea level to about 144 feet at a point about 3.4 miles
parks, 61 special parks, and numerous local parks. east of Plant City (8). Tampa is at an elevation of about
Tourism brings many new people to the Tampa Bay 19 feet.
area each year. Many tourists stay and become The surface drainage is toward Old Tampa Bay,
permanent residents. Hillsborough Bay, and Tampa Bay. The principal streams
Hillsborough County serves as the home of the Tampa are the Hillsborough, Alafia, and Little Manatee Rivers
Bay Buccaneers football team. Spring training and Rocky, Sweetwater, Sixmile, and Bullfrog Creeks.
headquarters for the Cincinnati Reds baseball team is Many ditches and small bays extend inland from the
based here. The University of Tampa and the University coast for short distances.
of South Florida provide intercollegiate sports Only a few streams flow through the gently undulating
competition. uplands in the north-central part of the county. Many
Busch Gardens, a major theme park, is located in depressions, some of which contain water that has
Tampa. Other major theme parks, such as Disney World, drained or seeped from surrounding soils, occur in these
Sea World, Circus World, Weeki Wachee, Cypress areas.
Gardens, and others, are within 1 hour driving distance Drainage is slow on the flatwoods. It is provided by the
of Hillsborough County. The Florida State Fairground is slight depressions occupied by swamps and sloughs and
also located in Hillsborough County. by the few large streams that pass through the areas.
The depressions contain water during the wet season;
during the dry season, most of the water evaporates. A






4 Soil Survey


large part of northwestern Hillsborough County is riddled scientists must determine the boundaries between the
with sinkholes because of the absence or thinning of the soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
underlying clayey residuum. Many of the sinkhole lakes profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented
are in direct hydrologic contact with underlying limestone by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
formations. Consequently, water levels fluctuate in are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in
response to the potentiometric surface of the Floridan an area and to determine the boundaries.
Aquifer. Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
Several canals and many ditches have been dug to profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
remove excess surface water. Provisions for controlling size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
the rate of runoff has been made in only a few of these rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and
canals and ditches. Dams or locks are desirable in the other features that enable them to identify soils. After
ditches or canals. They help to control the rate of runoff describing the soils in the survey area and determining
and thus help to regulate the water table in soils next to their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
the drainage area. taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
Soil suitability for various uses is normally based on concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
evaluations of properties within the soil alone, characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
Interpretations in this soil survey are made to determine are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
the effects these properties could have on use. Many systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
geologic features that are not expressed within the soil (16) used in the United States is based mainly on the
can significantly affect the suitability of a site for a kind and character of soil properties and the
particular use. Individual sites should be evaluated by arrangement of horizons within the profile. After the soil
onsite examination and testing. In many cases, special scientists classified and named the soils in the survey
planning, design, and construction techniques can be area, they compared the individual soils with similar soils
used to minimize geologic problems where they are in the same taxonomic class in other areas so that they
identified and evaluated. could confirm data and assemble additional data based
on experience and research.
How This Survey Was Made While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of
the soils in the area are generally collected for laboratory
This survey was made to provide information about the analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists
soils in the survey area. The information includes a interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as
description of the soils and their location and a well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils
of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils
the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general were field tested through observation of the soils in
pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants different uses under different levels of management.
growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
profile extends from the surface down into the sources, such as research information, production
unconsolidated material from which the soil formed. The records, and field experience of specialists. For example,
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other data on crop yields under defined levels of management
living organisms and has not been changed by other were assembled from farm records and from field or plot
biological activity, experiments on the same kinds of soil.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief, soil properties but also on such variables as climate and
climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over
kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of long periods of time, but they are not predictable from
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil a high water table within certain depths in most years,
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils but they cannot assure that a high water table will
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy date.
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape. After soil scientists located and identified the
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
into one another as their characteristics gradually drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.






Hillsborough County, Florida 5


Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, system (table 2) was successfully used on all soils to
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries detect the presence, determine the variability, and
accurately. measure the depth to major soil horizons or other soil
features. About 660 random transects were made with
Map Unit Composition the GPR in Hillsborough County. Information from notes
and ground-truth observations made in the field was
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an used along with radar data from this study to classify the
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area soils and to determine the composition of map units. The
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is map units, as described in the section entitled "Detailed
identified and named according to the taxonomic Soil Map Units," are based on this data and on data in
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a the previous survey.
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the Confidence Limits of Soil Surve
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their Information
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic probability that the composition of a map unit or a
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unitandom ample. In the absence o specific
is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and data to determine confidence limits the natural variability
some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes. In of soils and the way soil surveys are made must be
the detailed soil map units, these latter soils are called considered. the composition of map units and other
inclusions or included soils. In the general soil map units, information is derived largely from extrapolations made
they are called soils of minor extent. from a small sample. The map units contain dissimilar
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral infrom a small sample. The map unit contains doeissimilar
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in inclusions. Also, information extend below 6 feet of the surface. The infsois does not
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and exted below 6 feet of the surface. The information
management. These are called similar inclusions. They presented in the soil survey is not meant to be used as a
may or may not be mentioned in the map unit substitute for onsite investigations. Soil survey
descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have properties information can be used to select alternative practices or
and behavior different enough to affect use or require general designs that may be needed to minimize the
different management. These are dissimilar inclusions, possibility of soil-related failures. It cannot be used to
They generally occupy small areas and cannot be shown interpret specific points on the landscape.
separately on the soil maps because of the scale used in Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
mapping. The inclusions of dissimilar soils are mentioned units in Hillsborough County were determined by random
in the map unit descriptions. A few inclusions may not transects made with the GPR across mapped areas. The
have been observed, and consequently are not data are presented in the description of each soil under
mentioned in the descriptions, especially where the soil "Detailed Soil Map Units" and summarized in table 2.
pattern was so complex that it was impractical to make Soil scientists made enough transects and took enough
enough observations to identify all of the kinds of soils samples to characterize each map unit at a specific
on the landscape. confidence level. For example, map unit 29 was
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way characterized at a 95 percent confidence level based on
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data. the transect data. The resulting composition would read:
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Myakka fine sand,
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the Myakka soil and similar soils will comprise 84 to 93
landscape into segments that have similar use and percent of the delineation. In the other 7 to 16 percent
management requirements. The delineation of such of the areas of this map unit, the percentage of Myakka
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient soil and similar soils may be higher than 93 percent or
information for the development of resource plans, but lower than 84 percent.
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses The composition of miscellaneous areas and urban
in small areas. map units was based on the judgment of the soil
scientist and was not determined by a statistical
Use of the Ground-Penetrating Radar procedure.
Table 2 presents the average composition of the map
A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system (5, 6, 9, 11) units and expresses the probability that the average
was used to document the type and variability of soils composition will fall within the given range. The map unit
that occur in the detailed soil map units. The GPR is named for the taxon of the dominant soil or soils. The







6



proportion of similar and dissimilar soils is also given, dissimilar soils. The soils listed in the named soils and
Each soil listed by name in the table is described in the similar soils column are in the same soil management
section "Soil Series and Their Morphology." group. The soils listed in the dissimilar soils column are
The percent composition of the map units is given in different in use and management from those in named
table 2. Those taxonomic units (soil series) identified on and similar soils of the map unit. Each soil listed in the
the transects of the selected map units are divided into table is described in the section "Soil Series and Their
two categories: named soils and similar soils and Morphology."






Hillsborough County, Florida 5


Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, system (table 2) was successfully used on all soils to
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries detect the presence, determine the variability, and
accurately. measure the depth to major soil horizons or other soil
features. About 660 random transects were made with
Map Unit Composition the GPR in Hillsborough County. Information from notes
and ground-truth observations made in the field was
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an used along with radar data from this study to classify the
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area soils and to determine the composition of map units. The
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is map units, as described in the section entitled "Detailed
identified and named according to the taxonomic Soil Map Units," are based on this data and on data in
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a the previous survey.
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the Confidence Limits of Soil Surve
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their Information
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic probability that the composition of a map unit or a
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unitandom ample. In the absence o specific
is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and data to determine confidence limits the natural variability
some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes. In of soils and the way soil surveys are made must be
the detailed soil map units, these latter soils are called considered. the composition of map units and other
inclusions or included soils. In the general soil map units, information is derived largely from extrapolations made
they are called soils of minor extent. from a small sample. The map units contain dissimilar
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral infrom a small sample. The map unit contains doeissimilar
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in inclusions. Also, information extend below 6 feet of the surface. The infsois does not
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and exted below 6 feet of the surface. The information
management. These are called similar inclusions. They presented in the soil survey is not meant to be used as a
may or may not be mentioned in the map unit substitute for onsite investigations. Soil survey
descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have properties information can be used to select alternative practices or
and behavior different enough to affect use or require general designs that may be needed to minimize the
different management. These are dissimilar inclusions, possibility of soil-related failures. It cannot be used to
They generally occupy small areas and cannot be shown interpret specific points on the landscape.
separately on the soil maps because of the scale used in Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
mapping. The inclusions of dissimilar soils are mentioned units in Hillsborough County were determined by random
in the map unit descriptions. A few inclusions may not transects made with the GPR across mapped areas. The
have been observed, and consequently are not data are presented in the description of each soil under
mentioned in the descriptions, especially where the soil "Detailed Soil Map Units" and summarized in table 2.
pattern was so complex that it was impractical to make Soil scientists made enough transects and took enough
enough observations to identify all of the kinds of soils samples to characterize each map unit at a specific
on the landscape. confidence level. For example, map unit 29 was
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way characterized at a 95 percent confidence level based on
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data. the transect data. The resulting composition would read:
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Myakka fine sand,
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the Myakka soil and similar soils will comprise 84 to 93
landscape into segments that have similar use and percent of the delineation. In the other 7 to 16 percent
management requirements. The delineation of such of the areas of this map unit, the percentage of Myakka
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient soil and similar soils may be higher than 93 percent or
information for the development of resource plans, but lower than 84 percent.
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses The composition of miscellaneous areas and urban
in small areas. map units was based on the judgment of the soil
scientist and was not determined by a statistical
Use of the Ground-Penetrating Radar procedure.
Table 2 presents the average composition of the map
A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system (5, 6, 9, 11) units and expresses the probability that the average
was used to document the type and variability of soils composition will fall within the given range. The map unit
that occur in the detailed soil map units. The GPR is named for the taxon of the dominant soil or soils. The







6



proportion of similar and dissimilar soils is also given, dissimilar soils. The soils listed in the named soils and
Each soil listed by name in the table is described in the similar soils column are in the same soil management
section "Soil Series and Their Morphology." group. The soils listed in the dissimilar soils column are
The percent composition of the map units is given in different in use and management from those in named
table 2. Those taxonomic units (soil series) identified on and similar soils of the map unit. Each soil listed in the
the transects of the selected map units are divided into table is described in the section "Soil Series and Their
two categories: named soils and similar soils and Morphology."






Hillsborough County, Florida 5


Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, system (table 2) was successfully used on all soils to
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries detect the presence, determine the variability, and
accurately. measure the depth to major soil horizons or other soil
features. About 660 random transects were made with
Map Unit Composition the GPR in Hillsborough County. Information from notes
and ground-truth observations made in the field was
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an used along with radar data from this study to classify the
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area soils and to determine the composition of map units. The
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is map units, as described in the section entitled "Detailed
identified and named according to the taxonomic Soil Map Units," are based on this data and on data in
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a the previous survey.
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the Confidence Limits of Soil Surve
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their Information
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic probability that the composition of a map unit or a
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unitandom ample. In the absence o specific
is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and data to determine confidence limits the natural variability
some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes. In of soils and the way soil surveys are made must be
the detailed soil map units, these latter soils are called considered. the composition of map units and other
inclusions or included soils. In the general soil map units, information is derived largely from extrapolations made
they are called soils of minor extent. from a small sample. The map units contain dissimilar
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral infrom a small sample. The map unit contains doeissimilar
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in inclusions. Also, information extend below 6 feet of the surface. The infsois does not
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and exted below 6 feet of the surface. The information
management. These are called similar inclusions. They presented in the soil survey is not meant to be used as a
may or may not be mentioned in the map unit substitute for onsite investigations. Soil survey
descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have properties information can be used to select alternative practices or
and behavior different enough to affect use or require general designs that may be needed to minimize the
different management. These are dissimilar inclusions, possibility of soil-related failures. It cannot be used to
They generally occupy small areas and cannot be shown interpret specific points on the landscape.
separately on the soil maps because of the scale used in Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
mapping. The inclusions of dissimilar soils are mentioned units in Hillsborough County were determined by random
in the map unit descriptions. A few inclusions may not transects made with the GPR across mapped areas. The
have been observed, and consequently are not data are presented in the description of each soil under
mentioned in the descriptions, especially where the soil "Detailed Soil Map Units" and summarized in table 2.
pattern was so complex that it was impractical to make Soil scientists made enough transects and took enough
enough observations to identify all of the kinds of soils samples to characterize each map unit at a specific
on the landscape. confidence level. For example, map unit 29 was
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way characterized at a 95 percent confidence level based on
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data. the transect data. The resulting composition would read:
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Myakka fine sand,
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the Myakka soil and similar soils will comprise 84 to 93
landscape into segments that have similar use and percent of the delineation. In the other 7 to 16 percent
management requirements. The delineation of such of the areas of this map unit, the percentage of Myakka
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient soil and similar soils may be higher than 93 percent or
information for the development of resource plans, but lower than 84 percent.
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses The composition of miscellaneous areas and urban
in small areas. map units was based on the judgment of the soil
scientist and was not determined by a statistical
Use of the Ground-Penetrating Radar procedure.
Table 2 presents the average composition of the map
A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system (5, 6, 9, 11) units and expresses the probability that the average
was used to document the type and variability of soils composition will fall within the given range. The map unit
that occur in the detailed soil map units. The GPR is named for the taxon of the dominant soil or soils. The







6



proportion of similar and dissimilar soils is also given, dissimilar soils. The soils listed in the named soils and
Each soil listed by name in the table is described in the similar soils column are in the same soil management
section "Soil Series and Their Morphology." group. The soils listed in the dissimilar soils column are
The percent composition of the map units is given in different in use and management from those in named
table 2. Those taxonomic units (soil series) identified on and similar soils of the map unit. Each soil listed in the
the transects of the selected map units are divided into table is described in the section "Soil Series and Their
two categories: named soils and similar soils and Morphology."






7









General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication The existing natural vegetation consists of turkey oak,
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of bluejack oak, post oak, live oak, and scattered longleaf
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general pine and slash pine. The understory vegetation includes
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map pineland threeawn, bluestem, paspalum, creeping
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, panicum, purple
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up lovegrass, and broomsedge bluestem.
one unit can occur in other units but in a different This map unit makes up about 9 percent of
pattern. Hillsborough County. It is about 55 percent Candler soils,
The general soil map can be used to compare the 28 percent Lake soils, and 17 percent soils of minor
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of extent.
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, Typically, Candler soils have a surface layer that is
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for layer, to a depth of 72 inches, is fine sand. It is light
planning the management of a farm or field or for yellowish brown in the upper part and very pale brown in
selecting a site for a road or a building or other structure. the lower part. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches is a
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place mixture of very pale brown fine sand and strong brown
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that lamellae.
affect management. Typically, Lake soils have a surface layer that is dark
Some of the boundaries on the general soil map of grayish brown fine sand 4 inches thick. The underlying
Hillsborough County do not match those on the general material extends to a depth of about 80 inches. It is
soil maps of adjacent counties, and some of the soil strong brown fine sand in the upper part, reddish yellow
names and descriptions do not fully agree. The fine sand in the middle part, and strong brown fine sand
differences are the result of improvements in the in the lower part.
classification of soils, particularly modification or The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Kendrick,
refinements in soil series concepts. Also, there may be Millhopper, and Tavares soils.
differences in the intensity of mapping or in the extent of The soils in this map unit are used mainly for citrus
the soils within the survey area. crops. In some areas, they are used for pasture or for
homesite or urban development. Some areas are left
Soils of the Uplands and Low Ridges idle.
This group consists of nearly level to strongly sloping,
excessively drained, moderately well drained, and 2. Urban land-Candler
somewhat poorly drained soils. These soils are on the
uplands and on ridges and are sandy throughout. These Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained soils
soils are common in the north-central part of that are sandy throughout and have thin lamellae below
Hillsborough County and along the Alafia River. Four 66 inches of the surface; most areas have been modified
general soil map units are in this group. for urban use
The soils in this map unit are in broad upland areas,
1. Candler-Lake on ridges, and in the urban areas. Throughout the map
unit are a few scattered sinkholes and depressions.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained soils Lakes and ponds are common in some areas. These
that are sandy throughout soils are on relict beach ridges that are overlain by
The soils in this map unit are in broad upland areas eolian sands in and around the cities of Tampa and
and on ridges. Throughout most of the map unit are a Brandon.
few scattered sinkholes and depressions. Candler soils The existing natural vegetation consists of bluejack
are strongly sloping on hillsides and ridges on the oak, live oak, and turkey oak. The understory vegetation
uplands. Lake soils are nearly level on slightly lower consists of chalky bluestem, indiangrass, hairy panicum,
ridges. panicum, and pineland threeawn.







8 Soil Survey



This map unit makes up about 5 percent of Most of the acreage in this map unit is used for
Hillsborough County. It is about 33 percent Urban land, houses, large buildings, shopping centers, golf courses,
25 percent Candler soils, and 42 percent soils of minor and related urban uses. Farming is of little importance
extent. because of the extensive urban development. Numerous
The Urban land part of this map unit is covered by nurseries produce plants for landscaping. Natural
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces vegetation thrives only in a few areas in this map unit.
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification
is not feasible. 4. Zolfo-Seffner-Tavares
Typically, Candler soils have a surface layer of dark
brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface Nearly level to moderately sloping, moderately well
layer extends to a depth of 72 inches. It is light yellowish drained and somewhat poorly drained soils that have a
brown fine sand in the upper part and very pale brown sandy subsoil or are sandy throughout
fine sand in the lower part. The subsoil to a depth of The soils in this map unit are in broad, low-lying areas
about 80 inches is a mixture of very pale brown fine on the uplands and on low ridges on the flatwoods.
sand and strong brown lamellae. Throughout this map unit are a few scattered sinkholes
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are and numerous lakes, ponds, and depressions. These
Millhopper, Kendrick, and Tavares soils. soils are on relict beach ridges on the Coastal Lowlands
Most of the acreage in this map unit is used for and in the Western Valley and on low-lying plains that
houses, large buildings, shopping centers, golf courses, are adjacent to the Alafia River. Zolfo and Seffner soils
and related urban uses. Farming is of no importance are nearly level and are somewhat poorly drained. Zolfo
because of the extensive urban development. Numerous soils are on low ridges on the flatwoods. Seffner soils
nurseries produce plants for landscaping. Natural are on broad, low ridges and on rims of depressions.
vegetation thrives only in small areas scattered Tavares soils are moderately well drained. They are in
throughout the map unit. low-lying areas on hillslopes and ridges.
3 The existing natural vegetation consists of bluejack
Urban anoak, turkey oak, live oak, and longleaf pine. The
Nearly level to sloping, moderately well drained soils that understory vegetation includes pineland threeawn,
are sandy throughout; most areas have been modified creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, panicum,
for urban use broomsedge, and scattered saw palmetto.
The soils in this map unit are in urban areas, on broad, This map unit makes up about 8 percent of
low-lying ridges, and on the uplands. Throughout this Hillsborough County. It is about 60 percent Zolfo soils,
map unit are a few scattered sinkholes and numerous 20 percent Seffner soils, 10 percent Tavares soils, and
lakes, ponds, and depressions. These soils are on low, 10 percent soils of minor extent.
relict beach ridges that are overlain by eolian sands in Typically, Zolfo soils have a surface layer of very dark
and around the city of Tampa. gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface
The existing natural vegetation consists of bluejack layer extends to a depth of about 60 inches. It is grayish
oak, turkey oak, live oak, and longleaf pine. The brown mottled fine sand in the upper part, light gray
understory vegetation includes creeping bluestem, mottled fine sand in the middle part, and grayish brown
lopsided indiangrass, grassleaf goldaster, panicum, and fine sand in the lower part. The subsoil to a depth of 80
pineland threeawn. inches is dark brown fine sand.
This map unit makes up about 4 percent of Typically, Seffner soils have a surface layer about 21
Hillsborough County. It is about 43 percent Urban land, inches thick. It is very dark gray fine sand in the upper
34 percent Tavares soils, and 23 percent soils of minor part and dark gray fine sand in the lower part. The
extent. underlying material extends to a depth of about 80
The Urban land part of this map unit is covered by inches. It is very pale brown mottled fine sand in the
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces upper part, light gray mottled fine sand in the middle
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification part, and white mottled fine sand in the lower part.
is not feasible. Typically, Tavares soils have a surface layer of dark
Typically, Tavares soils have a surface layer of very grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying underlying material extends to a depth of about 80
material extends to a depth of about 80 inches. It is light inches. It is pale brown fine sand in the upper part, very
yellowish brown fine sand in the upper part, very pale pale brown fine sand in the middle part, and light gray
brown fine sand in the middle part, and white mottled fine sand in the lower part.
fine sand in the lower part. The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Basinger,
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Candler, Myakka, Smyrna, Orlando, and Pomello soils.
Millhopper, Zolfo, Candler, Seffner, Myakka, and Smyrna In most areas, the soils in this map unit are used for
soils. citrus crops, as pasture, or for homesite and urban






Hillsborough County, Florida 9



development. In some areas, these soils are used for Typically, Holopaw soils have a surface layer of black
cultivated crops or are left idle. mucky fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of
the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 12 inches, is
Soils of the Flatwoods dark gray fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of about
This group consists of nearly level to gently sloping, 42 inches, is light gray fine sand. The lower part, to a
moderately well drained, poorly drained, and very poorly depth of about 52 inches, is grayish brown fine sand.
drained soils. The soils are on broad, low ridges. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 64
Characteristically, the vegetation in these areas is an inches, is gray mottled sandy loam. The lower part to a
open forest of pine trees and a ground cover of saw depth of about 80 inches is light gray sandy loam.
palmetto and pineland threeawn. These soils are The soils of minor extent in this map unit are
scattered throughout Hillsborough County but are most Immokalee, Wabasso, Smyrna, and Felda soils.
extensive in the southern part. Four general soil map Most of the acreage in this map unit is used for citrus
units are in this group. crops, as pasture, as habitat for wildlife, or for homesite
and urban development. In some areas, these soils are
5. Myakka-Basinger-Holopaw used for cultivated crops or are left idle.
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils 6. Myakka-Immokalee-Pomello
that have a sandy subsoil, are sandy throughout, or have
a loamy subsoil Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained and
The soils in this map unit are on broad, low-lying moderately well drained soils that have a sandy subsoil
plains on the flatwoods that are interspersed with many The soils in this map unit are on broad plains that are
broad sloughs, depressions, and drainageways. These interspersed with low ridges. Scattered shallow
soils are extensive on the Coastal Lowlands. Myakka depressions and poorly-defined drainageways are in
soils are poorly drained and are on broad plains on the some areas. These soils are extensive on the Polk
flatwoods. Basinger and Holopaw soils are very poorly Upland in the southeastern part of the county. Myakka
drained. Basinger soils are in depressions and sloughs. and Immokalee soils are nearly level and are poorly
Holopaw soils are in the interior areas of depressions, drained. These soils are on broad, low-lying plains on the
sloughs, and swamps. flatwoods. Pomello soils are nearly level to gently sloping
In areas of Myakka soils, the natural vegetation and are moderately well drained. These soils are on low
consists of longleaf pine and slash pine and an ridges on the flatwoods.
understory vegetation of saw palmetto, pineland In areas of Myakka and Immokalee soils, the natural
threeawn, gallberry, and running oak. In areas of vegetation consists of longleaf pine and slash pine that
Basinger and Holopaw soils, the natural vegetation have an understory of saw palmetto, pineland threeawn,
consists of mixed stands of cypress, sweetgum, red gallberry, and running oak. In areas of Pomello soils, the
maple, and black tupelo and an understory of natural vegetation is mainly longleaf pine, sand pine, and
maidencane, cutgrass, and Jamaica sawgrass. slash pine that have an understory of saw palmetto,
This map unit makes up 35 percent of Hillsborough creeping bluestem, pineland threeawn, and running oak.
County. It is 39 percent Myakka soils, 7 percent Basinger This map unit makes up 15 percent of Hillsborough
soils, 5 percent Holopaw soils, and 49 percent soils of County. It is about 35 percent Myakka soils, 14 percent
minor extent. Immokalee soils, 12 percent Pomello soils, and 39
Typically, Myakka soils have a surface layer of very percent soils of minor extent.
dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface Typically, Myakka soils have a surface layer of very
layer, to a depth of about 20 inches, is gray fine sand. dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 25 layer, to a depth of about 20 inches, is gray fine sand.
inches, is black fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 25
30 inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The lower inches, is black fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of
part, to a depth of about 38 inches, is brownish yellow about 30 inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The
fine sand. The upper part of the substratum, to a depth lower part, to a depth of about 38 inches, is brownish
of about 55 inches, is very pale brown fine sand. The yellow fine sand. The upper part of the substratum, to a
lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is dark grayish depth of about 55 inches, is very pale brown fine sand.
brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is dark
Typically, Basinger soils have a surface layer of black grayish brown fine sand.
fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to Typically, Immokalee soils have a surface layer of very
a depth of about 28 inches, is gray fine sand. The dark gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface
subsoil, to a depth of about 42 inches, is brown and layer, to a depth of about 36 inches, is light gray fine
grayish brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about
about 80 inches is light brownish gray fine sand. 46 inches, is black fine sand. The middle part, to a depth






10 Soil Survey



of about 52 inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Archbold,
lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is dark brown Basinger, Malabar, Ona, Tavares, St. Johns, and
fine sand. Wabasso soils.
Typically, Pomello soils have a surface layer of very The soils in much of this map unit are used for
dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface houses, large buildings, shopping centers, and related
layer, to a depth of about 43 inches, is light gray fine urban uses. Most of the natural vegetation has been
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about removed. Farming is of little importance because of the
46 inches, is dark brown fine sand. The lower part, to a extensive urban development.
depth of about 55 inches, is brown fine sand. The
substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is grayish 8. Malabar-Wabasso-Basinger
brown fine sand.
The soils of minor extent are Archbold, Basinger, Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
Malabar, Ona, St. Johns, Samsula, Tavares, and that have a loamy subsoil, or have a sandy and loamy
Wabasso soils. subsoil, or are sandy throughout
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are used for The soils in this map unit are on broad plains on the
native pasture. A few areas are used for cultivated crops, flatwoods that are interspersed with low-lying flats and
improved pasture, or citrus crops or for homesite or shallow depressions. Streams, drainageways, and
urban development. sloughs are common in some areas. These soils are
extensive along the Coastal Lowland, which is south of
7. Urban land-Myakka-Smyrna the Alafia River, and on the low flatwoods, which are
adjacent to the Hillsborough River, in the northern part of
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that have a sandy the county. Malabar and Wabasso soils are poorly
subsoil; most areas have been modified for urban use drained. Malabar soils are on broad, low-lying plains and
The soils in this map unit are in urban areas and on sloughs on the flatwoods. Wabasso soils are on broad
broad, low-lying plains on the flatwoods. In some areas plains on the flatwoods. Basinger soils are very poorly
are scattered shallow depressions, poorly-defined drained and are along the exterior areas of swamps and
drainageways, and low ridges. The soils are mainly on depressions.
the Coastal Lowlands in and around the city of Tampa. The existing natural vegetation consists of slash pine
The existing natural vegetation consists of longleaf and cabbage palm. The understory vegetation includes
pine and slash pine. The understory vegetation includes saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, and waxmyrtle.
saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, gallberry, and running This map unit makes up about 3 percent of
oak. Hillsborough County. It is about 60 percent Malabar soils,
This map unit makes up about 9 percent of 15 percent Wabasso soils, 5 percent Basinger soils, and
Hillsborough County. It is about 23 percent Urban land, 20 percent soils of minor extent.
14 percent Myakka soils, 14 percent Smyrna soils, and Typically, Malabar soils have a surface layer of black
49 percent soils of minor extent. fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
The Urban land part of this map unit is covered by extends to a depth of about 25 inches. It is gray fine
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces sand in the upper part and white fine sand in the lower
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification part. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about
is not feasible. 56 inches, is brownish yellow and brown fine sand. The
Typically, Myakka soils have a surface layer of very next layer, to a depth of 68 inches, is light gray fine
dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface sand. The lower part of the subsoil to a depth of about
layer, to a depth of about 20 inches, is light gray fine 80 inches is gray sandy loam.
sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 44 inches. Typically, Wabasso soils have a surface layer of very
It is very dark grayish brown fine sand in the upper part, dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
dark brown fine sand in the middle part, and yellowish layer, to a depth of about 29 inches, is gray fine sand.
brown fine sand in the lower part. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 38
Typically, Smyrna soils have a surface layer of very inches, is black and dark brown fine sand. The lower
dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 60 inches, is light
layer, to a depth of about 12 inches, is gray fine sand. gray and mottled light greenish gray sandy clay loam.
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 15 The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is gray
inches, is dark brown fine sand. The lower part, to a loamy sand.
depth of about 20 inches, is very dark grayish brown fine Typically, Basinger soils have a surface layer of black
sand. The substratum extends to a depth of about 80 fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
inches. It is light brownish gray mottled fine sand in the a depth of about 28 inches, is gray fine sand. The
upper part and is brown fine sand in the lower part. subsoil, to a depth of about 42 inches, is brown and






Hillsborough County, Florida 11



grayish brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of part and very dark grayish brown fine sand in the lower
80 inches is light brownish gray fine sand. part. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 29
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Holopaw, inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The upper part
Myakka, Pinellas, Smyrna, and St. Johns soils. of the subsoil, to a depth of about 36 inches, is black
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are in natural fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of about 46
vegetation. A few areas are used as pasture or for inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The lower part,
homesite and urban development, to a depth of about 50 inches, is dark yellowish brown
fine sand. The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches
Soils of the Wetlands and Coastal Areas is light brownish gray fine sand.
This group consists of nearly level, somewhat poorly The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Basinger,
drained, poorly drained, and very poorly drained soils. Holopaw, Felda, Myakka, and Wabasso soils.
These soils are on flood plains, in poorly-defined Most areas of this map unit have been left idle in
drainageways, in swamps and marshes throughout natural vegetation. A few areas are used for pasture.
Hillsborough County, and on slight knolls that border 10. Sasula-Basinger
Tampa Bay. Three general soil map units are in this 1 Samsula-Basiger
group. Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are mucky in
the upper part and sandy in the lower part or are sandy
9. Winder-Chobee-St. Johns throughout
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils The soils in this map unit are around the exterior areas
that have a loamy or a sandy subsoil of swamps and sloughs and in broad, poorly-defined
The soils in this map unit are on or are closely drainageways on the flatwoods. Lakes and ponds are
associated with the flood plains of the Hillsborough and common in some areas. These soils are scattered
Alafia Rivers and their major tributaries. Ponds are throughout the county but are most extensive on the
common in some areas. Winder and St. Johns soils are Osceola Plain.
poorly drained and are in slightly higher positions on the The existing natural vegetation consists of mixed
flood plains than Chobee soils. Chobee soils are very stands of cypress, red maple, sweetgum, and black
poorly drained, tupelo. The understory vegetation includes cutgrass,
The existing natural vegetation consists of a dense maidencane, and Jamaica sawgrass.
growth of water oak, cypress, elm, ash, hickory, red This map unit makes up about 2 percent of
maple, and sweetgum. The understory vegetation is a Hillsborough County. It is about 65 percent Samsula
mixture of water-tolerant plants, such as maidencane, soils, 10 percent Basinger soils, and 25 percent soils of
sawgrass, swamp primrose, buttonbush, smartweed, minor extent.
sedge, and other similar plants. Typically, Samsula soils have a surface layer that is
This map unit makes up about 4 percent of about 41 inches thick. It is black muck in the upper part,
Hillsborough County. It is about 50 percent Winder soils, dark reddish brown muck in the middle part, and black
25 percent Chobee soils, 10 percent St. Johns soils, and fine sand in the lower part. The underlying material to a
15 percent soils of minor extent. depth of about 80 inches is light brownish gray fine sand.
Typically, Winder soils have a surface layer of very Typically, Basinger soils have a surface layer of black
dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
layer, to a depth of about 10 inches, is grayish brown a depth of about 28 inches, is gray fine sand. The
fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of subsoil, to a depth of 42 inches, is brown and grayish
about 14 inches, is dark grayish brown mottled sandy brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of about 80
loam and gray fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of inches is light brownish gray fine sand.
about 30 inches, is gray sandy clay loam. The upper part The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Felda,
of the substratum, to a depth of about 58 inches, is light Holopaw, Immokalee, Ona, St. Johns, and Smyrna soils.
gray mottled sandy clay loam. The lower part to a depth Most areas of this map unit have been left idle in
of 80 inches is gray sandy loam. natural vegetation. Some areas of these soils have been
Typically, Chobee soils have a surface layer that is 12 drained and are used for improved pasture. Other areas
inches thick. It is black muck in the upper part and black have been filled and are used for homesite or urban
loamy fine sand in the lower part. The subsoil extends to development.
a depth of about 80 inches. It is very dark gray sandy 11. Myakka-Urban land-St. Augustine
clay loam in the upper part, gray sandy clay loam in the
middle part, and light gray mottled sandy loam in the Nearly level, very poorly drained to somewhat poorly
lower part. drained soils that have a sandy subsoil or are sandy
Typically, St. Johns soils have a surface layer that is throughout; many areas have been modified for urban
about 12 inches thick. It is black fine sand in the upper use






12 Soil Survey







































Figure 1.-Phosphate mining is important to the economy of Hillsborough County.




The soils in this map unit are in broad, low flatwood pines, slash pines, and saw palmetto are in the more
areas, tidal marshes, urban areas, and on slight knolls elevated areas.
adjacent to Tampa Bay. If water control measures are This map unit makes up about 2 percent of
not used, the soils in this map unit are subject to tidal Hillsborough County. It is about 36 percent Myakka soils,
flooding. Myakka soils are poorly drained and very poorly 20 percent Urban land, 20 percent St. Augustine soils,
drained and are in tidal marshes or on the flatwoods and 24 percent soils of minor extent.
adjacent to Tampa Bay. St. Augustine soils are Typically, Myakka soils have a surface layer of very
somewhat poorly drained and are on flats and knolls that dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
resulted from dredging and filling operations. layer, to a depth of about 22 inches, is grayish brown
The existing vegetation consists mainly of salt-tolerant fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 40 inches, is
grasses and shrubs, such as needlegrass rush, seashore very dark grayish brown fine sand. The substratum to a
saltgrass, marshhay cordgrass, big cordgrass, smooth depth of about 80 inches is brown fine sand that
cordgrass, and red mangrove. A few scattered longleaf contains many shell fragments.







Hillsborough County, Florida 13


The Urban land part of this map unit is covered by fertilizers and phosphoric acids. Some areas are actively
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces mined, and some areas are left idle.
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification
is not feasible. 12. Arents-Haplaquents-Quartzipsamments
Typically, St. Augustine soils have a surface layer of
dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The underlying Very steep, heterogenous soils; nearly level, very poorly
material extends to a depth of about 80 inches. It is light drained soils that are clayey throughout; and moderately
brownish gray fine sand in the upper part, light gray well drained to excessively drained soils that are sandy
mottled fine sand that contains balls of sandy clay in the throughout
middle part, and gray fine sand in the lower part. These areas are in the phosphate belt (see fig. 1) in
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Broward, eastern Hillsborough County. Local relief, slope, and
Kesson, Malabar, and Wabasso soils. drainage vary more in this association than in the other
The soils in much of this map unit are used for associations.
houses, large buildings, shopping centers, marinas, and ass
related urban uses and recreational uses. Most of the Most idle areas have been revegetated and now
natural vegetation has been removed. Farming is of little provide improved pasture for livestock.
importance because of the extensive urban This map unit makes up about 4 percent of
development. Hillsborough County. It is about 55 percent Arents, 20
percent Haplaquents, 9 percent Quartzipsamments, and
16 percent soils of minor extent.
Soils of the Manmade Areas The soils of minor extent include Slickens, Gypsum
land, and some undisturbed areas of Gainesville, Zolfo,
These areas are dominated by features associated and Fort Meade soils.
with phosphate mining, such as removing overburden,
excavating pebble phosphate, and processing phosphate









15








Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. Table the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
2 gives the average composition of selected map units be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
as determined by Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) and made up of all of them. Basinger, Holopaw and Samsula
other transect methods. The map units in this section soils, depressional, is an undifferentiated group in this
are based on this data and on data in the previous survey area.
survey. The map unit descriptions in this section, along Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
with the soil maps, can be used to determine the other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
suitability and potential of a soil for specific uses. They of these included soils have properties that differ
also can be used to plan the management needed for substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
those uses. More information on each map unit, or soil, differences could significantly affect use and
is given under "Use and Management of the Soils." management of the soils in the map unit. The included
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
for which the unit is named, a special symbol on the soil maps.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes have little or no soil material and support little or no
general facts about the soil and gives the principal vegetation. Gypsum land is an example. Miscellaneous
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
specific uses. small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up the soil maps.
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
a series have major horizons that are similar in give properties of the soils and the limitations,
composition, thickness, and arrangement. capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in Some of the boundaries on the soil maps of
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, Hillsborough County do not match those on the soil
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the maps of adjacent counties, and some of the soil names
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil and descriptions do not fully agree. The differences are
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil the result of improvements in the classification of soils,
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil particularly modification or refinements in soil series
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or concepts. Also, there may be differences in the intensity
management. For example, Eaton fine sand is one of of mapping or in the extent of the soils within the survey
several phases in the Eaton series, area.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or 2-Adamsville fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
undifferentiated groups. somewhat poorly drained. It is on broad ridges on the
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such flatwoods. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Adamsville fine
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The sand, the Adamsville soil and similar soils make up 82 to
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar 99 percent of these mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make
in all areas. Tavares-Millhopper fine sands, 0 to 5 up 1 to 18 percent of the mapped areas.
percent slopes, is an example. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped underlying material, to a depth of about 30 inches, is
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of about 80






16 Soil Survey


inches is pale brown, mottled fine sand. Similar soils 3-Archbold fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
included in mapping are very dark grayish brown or dark moderately well drained. It is on low ridges on the
grayish brown fine sand in the lower part of the flatwoods. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
underlying material. Other similar soils, in some of the In 95 percent of areas mapped as Archbold fine sand,
higher parts of the landscape, are moderately well the Archbold soil and similar soils make up 82 to 99
drained. percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Lochloosa and to 18 percent of the mapped areas.
Pomello soils in small areas. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of light gray fine
In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a sand about 2 inches thick. The underlying material to a
depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months and recedes depth of about 80 inches is white fine sand. In places,
to a depth of 60 inches during prolonged dry periods, similar soils included in mapping have a black or very
Permeability is rapid. The available water capacity is low. dark brown subsoil in the lower part of the horizon. Other
In most areas, this soil is used for improved pasture, similar soils, in some of the higher parts of the
citrus crops, or homesite or urban development. In a few landscape, are well drained.
areas, this soil is used for cultivated crops, or it is left in Dissimilar soils included in mapping are some
natural vegetation, which consists of bluejack oak, turkey unnamed, excessively drained soils in small areas. Also
oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine. The understory included are some small areas of unnamed, moderately
includes broomsedge bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, well drained soils that have a black or very dark brown
saw palmetto, and pineland threeawn. subsoil within 30 inches of the surface.
In areas that are relatively free of freezing In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a
temperatures, this soil is well suited to citrus crops if an depth of 42 to 60 inches for about 6 months, and it
adequate water control system is established and recedes to a depth of 60 to 80 inches during prolonged
maintained and soil-improving measures are applied. dry periods. Permeability is very rapid. The available
Proper arrangement and bedding of tree rows, lateral water capacity is very low.
ditches or tile drains, and well constructed outlets will In most areas, this soil has been left idle in "scrub"
help lower the water table. Droughtiness, a result of the forest. A few areas are used for pasture or for homesite
low available water capacity, is a management concern, or urban development. The natural vegetation consists of
extended dry periods. A well designed sand pines. The understory includes pineland threeawn,
especially during extended dry periods. A well designed pricklypearcactus and saw palmetto
esopeialy dinaged ipricklypear cactus, and saw palmetto.
and properly managed irrigation system will help This soil generally is not suited to most cultivated
maintain optimum soil moisture and thus ensure
maxinn opimmsol tur and t rensiuoe crops and citrus crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching
maximum yields. Returning all crop residue to the soil of plant nutrients limit the kinds of crops that can be
and using a cropping system that includes grasses, grown and reduce potential yield of all crops.
legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help maintain Droughtiness, a result of the very low available water
fertility. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are i, a management concern, especially during
generally needed to improve soil quality. capacity, is a management concern, especially during
generally needed to improve soil quality extended dry periods.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture. Proper This soil is poorly suited to pasture. The very low
stocking, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of available water capacity limits the production of plants
grazing help keep the pasture in good condition. during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants, such
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more
grasses and legumes. drought tolerant if properly fertilized and limed. Proper
The potential of this soil for the production of slash stocking, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of
pines is moderately high. This soil has few limitations for grazing help keep the pasture in good condition.
woodland use and management. The potential of this soil for the production of sand
If this soil is used for building site development, the pines is moderate. The main management concerns for
main management concerns are excessive wetness, producing and harvesting timber are seedling mortality
instability of cutbanks, and possible contamination of and equipment use limitations. The very low available
ground water. Drainage is needed to lower the high water capacity adversely affects seedling survival in
water table, and fill material is needed in some areas. areas where understory plants are numerous. The fine
Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to slumping. sand texture of the surface layer limits the use of
Septic tank absorption fields need to be mounded in equipment.
most areas. If the density of housing is moderate to high, Population growth has resulted in increased
a community sewage system can help prevent construction of houses on this soil. If this soil is used for
contamination of water supplies by seepage. building site development, the main management
This Adamsville soil is in capability subclass IIIw, in concerns are instability of cutbanks and possible
woodland group 10W, and in the Oak Hammocks range contamination of ground water. Cutbanks are not stable
site. and are subject to slumping. If the density of housing is






Hillsborough County, Florida 17



moderate to high, a community sewage system can help separately, but in considering their present and predicted
to prevent contamination of water supplies by seepage. use, they were mapped as one unit.
This Archbold soil is in capability subclass Vis, in Typically, the surface layer of Basinger soil is black
woodland group 3S, and in the Sand Pine-Scrub Oak fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
range site. a depth of about 28 inches, is gray fine sand. The
subsoil, to a depth of about 42 inches, is brown and
4-Arents, nearly level. Arents consist of nearly level, grayish brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of
heterogeneous soil material. This material has been about 80 inches is light brownish gray fine sand. Similar
excavated, reworked, and reshaped by earthmoving soils included in mapping, in some areas, have a surface
equipment. Arents are near urban centers, phosphate- layer of mucky fine sand, and it is more than 7 inches
mining operations, major highways, and sanitary landfills. thick.
Arents do not have an orderly sequence of soil layers. Typically, the surface layer of Holopaw soil is black
This map unit is not associated with or confined to a mucky fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of
particular kind of soil. Arents are variable and contain the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 12 inches, is
discontinuous lenses, pockets, or streaks of black, gray, dark gray fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of about
grayish brown, brown, or yellowish brown sandy or loamy 42 inches, is light gray fine sand. The lower part, to a
fill material. The thickness of the fill material ranges from depth of about 52 inches, is grayish brown fine sand.
30 to 80 inches or more. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 64
Included in this map unit are areas used as sanitary inches, is grayish brown fine sand. The lower part to a
landfills. Refuse consists of concrete, glass, metal, depth of about 80 inches is gray, mottled sandy loam.
plastic, wood, and other materials and ranges in Similar soils included in mapping, in some areas, have a
thickness from 2 to 10 feet. It is generally stratified with black surface layer more than 10 inches thick.
layers of soil material that were used as daily cover. Typically, the upper part of the surface tiers of
These areas are identified on soil maps by the words Samsula soil is black muck about 10 inches thick. The
"sanitary landfill." Also included are small areas of soil lower part, to a depth of about 34 inches, is dark reddish
that has slope that ranges from 0 to 5 percent. brown muck. The layer below the organic material, to a
Most soil properties are variable. The depth to the depth of about 40 inches, is black fine sand. The
seasonal high water table varies with the amount of fill underlying material to a depth of 80 inches is light
material and artificial drainage. Permeability and the brownish gray fine sand. Similar soils included in
available water capacity vary widely from one area to mapping, in some areas, have organic material that is
another. more than 51 inches thick.
In most areas, the soil in this map unit has been left Dissimilar soils included in mapping are the Ona and
idle or is used for homesites, recreation, and urban other sandy soils, all in small areas. These soils have a
development. In a few areas, the soil is used for pasture well-developed sandy subsoil at a depth of more than 40
(fig. 2). An individual assessment of each site is inches.
necessary to determine its potential for different uses. In most years, the undrained areas in this map unit are
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a ponded for about 6 months. Permeability is rapid in
capability subclass, a woodland group, or range site. Basinger and Samsula soils. It is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layer of Holopaw soil and moderately slow or
5-Basinger, Holopaw and Samaula soils, moderate in the subsoil. The available water capacity is
depressional. The soils in this map unit are nearly level low in Basinger soil, low or moderate in Holopaw soil,
and very poorly drained. They are in swamps and and high in Samsula soil.
depressions on the flatwoods. Generally, Basinger soil is In most areas, the soils making up this map unit have
along the exterior of swamps or in shallow depressions. been left in natural vegetation. In some drained areas,
Holopaw and Samsula soils are in the interior areas of the soils are used as pasture. In other areas that have
the swamps or in deeper depressions. Undrained areas been filled, the soils are used for homesite or urban
are frequently ponded for very long periods. The slope is development. The natural vegetation consists of cypress.
0 to 2 percent. The understory includes bluestem, maidencane,
In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit, Basinger, panicum, Jamaica sawgrass, and cutgrass.
Holopaw and Samsula soils, depressional, and similar The soils are generally not suited to most cultivated
soils make up 78 to 96 percent of the mapped areas, crops, citrus crops, or pasture because of ponding,
and dissimilar soils make up about 4 to 22 percent of the excessive wetness, and low natural fertility. A drainage
mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of system is needed in most areas to remove excess
about 35 percent Basinger soil and similar soils, 31 surface water and reduce soil wetness, but suitable
percent Holopaw soil and similar soils, and 18 percent outlets are generally not available.
Samsula soil and similar soils. The individual soils are These soils are generally not suited to the production
generally in large enough areas to be mapped of pines because of ponding or extended wetness. They






18 Soil Survey







































Figure 2.-This reclaimed phosphate-nined area is In a traditional land and water pattern on Arents soiL This area Is used for recreation
and pasture.



may be suited to the production of cypress and 6-Broward-Urban land complex. This complex
hardwoods through natural regeneration. consists of Broward soil that is nearly level and
If these soils are used for building site development or somewhat poorly drained and of areas of Urban land.
for onsite waste disposal, ponding is the main limitation. This complex is in the low-lying coastal areas. The slope
Drainage is needed to lower the water table, and fill is 0 to 2 percent.
material is needed in most areas. While surface drainage This map unit consists of 45 to 60 percent Broward
helps to control ponding, the seasonal high water table soil and 40 to 45 percent Urban land. The included soils
is a continuing limitation, make up 10 percent or less of this map unit. The
The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass individual areas of the soils in this map unit are too
VIIw. Basinger and Holopaw soils are in woodland group mixed or too small to map separately at the scale used
2W. Samsula soil has not been assigned to a woodland for the maps in the back of this publication.
group. The soils in this map unit are in the Freshwater Typically, the surface layer of Broward soil is very dark
Marshes and Ponds range site. gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of






Hillsborough County, Florida 19



the underlying material, to a depth of 10 inches, is gray Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine
fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of 14 inches, is sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 26 subsurface layer, to a depth of about 35 inches, is light
inches, is very pale brown fine sand. This layer is yellowish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of
underlain by gray and white limestone. In places, the about 72 inches, is very pale brown fine sand. The lower
limestone is thin and discontinuous, part to a depth of about 80 inches is a mixture of very
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by pale brown fine sand and strong brown loamy sand
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces lamellae that are about one-sixteenth to one-quarter of
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification an inch thick and 2 to 6 inches long. In some places,
is not feasible. similar soils included in the mapped areas do not have
Included in mapping are Malabar and Wabasso soils in lamellae in the lower part of the subsurface layer. Other
small areas. These soils are in lower positions on the similar soils, in some areas, have a subsurface layer that
landscape than Broward soils, and they are poorly consists of 5 to 10 percent silt and clay; and some
drained, similar soils also included in mapping, in some of the
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are artificially lower parts of the landscape, are well drained.
drained by sewer systems, gutters, tile drains, and Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Kendrick and
surface ditches. The undrained areas have a seasonal Millhopper soils in small areas. Kendrick soils are well
high water table at a depth of about 20 to 30 inches for drained, and Millhopper soils are moderately well
2 to 6 months in most years. The permeability of drained. Also included are areas of unnamed soils on
Broward soil is rapid. The available water capacity is low upper side slopes that are well drained and have a
or very low. sandy clay loam subsoil within 40 to 80 inches of the
or very low. surface.
Present land use precludes the use of the soils in this A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than
map unit for cultivated crops, pasture, or commercial 80 inches. Permeability is rapid. The available water
trees. Broward soil in the Urban land part of this complex capacity is very low.
is used for lawns, parks, playgrounds, or cemeteries, or it In most areas, this Chandler soil is used for citrus
is left as open space, crops. In a few areas, it is used for pasture or for
If the soils in this map unit are used for building site homesite or urban development. The natural vegetation
development, the main management concerns are depth consists of bluejack oak, Chapman oak, scrub live oak,
to bedrock, wetness, possible contamination of the and turkey oak. The understory includes indiangrass,
ground water, and instability of cutbanks. The moderately hairy panicum, panicum, and running oak.
deep bedrock often interferes with the installation of This soil is suited to citrus crops in areas that are
septic tank absorption fields and sewer systems. If the relatively free of freezing temperatures. If this soil is used
density of housing is moderate to high, a community for cultivated crops, the main limitations are droughtiness
sewage system can help prevent contamination of water and rapid leaching of plant nutrients, which limit the
supplies by seepage. Cutbanks are not stable and are choice of plants that can be grown and reduce the
subject to slumping. Plans for homesite development potential yield of crops. Droughtiness, a result of the very
should provide for the preservation of as many trees as low available water capacity, is a management concern,
possible. Droughtiness, a result of low or very low especially during extended dry periods. Irrigation is
available water capacity, is a limitation, especially during generally feasible where irrigation water is readily
extended dry periods. Selection of vegetation that is available. Returning all crop residue to the soil and using
adapted to these soils is critical for the establishment of a cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a
lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable gardens. The soils grass-legume mixture help to conserve moisture,
need to be mulched, fertilized, and irrigated to establish maintain fertility, and control erosion.
lawn grasses and other small seeded plants. This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The very low
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a available water capacity of the soil limits production of
capability subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range plants during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants,
site. such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more
drought tolerant if the soil is properly fertilized and limed.
7-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and timely deferment
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and excessively of grazing help keep the pasture in good condition.
drained. It is on the uplands. The potential of this soil for the production of sand
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Candler fine pines is moderate. The main management concerns for
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Candler soil and similar producing and harvesting timber are seedling mortality
soils make up 82 to 96 percent of the mapped areas. and the equipment use limitations. The very low available
Dissimilar soils make up 4 to 18 percent of the mapped water capacity adversely affects seedling survival in
areas. areas where understory plants are numerous. The fine






20 Soil Survey


sand texture of the surface layer limits the use of and properly managed sprinkler irrigation system helps
equipment. to maintain optimum soil moisture and to obtain
If this soil is used for building site development, the maximum yields. A ground cover of close-growing plants
main management concerns are instability of cutbanks between tree rows reduces erosion.
and possible contamination of ground water. Population This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The very low
growth has resulted in increased construction of houses available water capacity of the soil limits the production
on this soil. Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to of plants during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted
slumping. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass,
community sewage system can help prevent are more drought tolerant if properly fertilized and limed.
contamination of water supplies by seepage. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and timely deferment
This Candler soil is in capability subclass IVs, in of grazing help keep the pasture in good condition.
woodland group 8S, and in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey The potential of this soil for the production of sand
Oak Hills range site. pines is moderate. The main management concerns for
producing and harvesting timber are seedling mortality
8-sCandler fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This and the equipment use limitations. The very low available
soil is sloping to strongly sloping and excessively water capacity adversely affects seedling survival in
drained. It is o the uplareas mapped as Candler fine areas where understory plants are numerous. The fine
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Candler fine sand texture of the surface layer limits the use of
sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes, the Candler soil and similar
soils make up about 82 to 99 percent of the mapped equipment.
areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 18 percent of the Population growth has resulted in increased
construction of houses on this soil. If this soil is used for
mapped areas.
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine building site development, the main management
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends concerns are instability of cutbanks and possible
to a depth of about 74 inches. In the upper part, it is contamination of ground water. Cutbanks are not stable
yellow fine sand. In the lower part, it is very pale brown and are subject to slumping. If the density of housing is
fine sand. The next layer to a depth of about 80 inches moderate to high, a community sewage system can help
is very pale brown fine sand that has yellowish brown prevent contamination of water supplies by seepage.
loamy sand lamellae that are about one-sixteenth of an This Candler soil is in capability subclass Vis, in
inch thick and 2 to 4 inches long. Similar soils included woodland group 8S, and in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey
in mapping do not have lamellae. Other similar soils, in Oak Hills range site.
some areas, have 5 to 10 percent silt and clay in the
subsurface layer, and similar soils, in some of the lower 9-Candler-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
parts of the landscape, are well drained, slopes. This complex consists of Candler soil that is
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Millhopper and nearly level to gently sloping and excessively drained
Kendrick soils in small areas. Millhopper soils are and of areas of Urban land. This complex is on the
moderately well drained, and Kendrick soils are well uplands.
drained. Also included are some unnamed soils on the This map unit consists of 45 to 60 percent Candler soil
upper side slopes. These soils have a subsoil at a depth and 35 to 45 percent Urban land. The included soils
of more than 40 inches. They are well drained, make up 18 percent or less of this map unit. The
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than individual areas of the soils in this map unit are too
80 inches. Permeability is rapid. The available water mixed or too small to map separately at the scale used
capacity is very low. for the maps in the back of this publication.
In most areas, this Candler soil has been left in natural Typically, the surface layer of Candler soil is dark gray
vegetation. In some areas, it is used for citrus crops or fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
pasture or for homesite or urban development. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 26 inches, is brownish
natural vegetation consists of bluejack oak, Chapman yellow fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 76 inches,
oak, scrub live oak, and turkey oak. The understory is very pale brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of
includes indiangrass, hairy panicum, and pineland about 80 inches is very pale brown fine sand that has
threeawn. yellowish brown loamy sand lamellae that are about one-
This soil is generally not suited to most cultivated sixteenth to one-quarter of an inch thick and 2 to 6
crops because of droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant inches long. In places, the soil does not have lamellae.
nutrients, and steepness of slope. This soil is suited to In some areas, the subsurface layer contains 5 to 10
citrus crops in areas that are relatively free of freezing percent silt and clay. In some of the lower parts of the
temperatures. Droughtiness, a result of the very low landscape, the soil is well drained.
available water capacity, is a management concern, The Urban land part of this complex is covered by
especially during extended dry periods. A well designed concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces






Hillsborough County, Florida 21


that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification In most years, a seasonal high water table fluctuates
is not feasible. from the soil surface to a depth of 10 inches for more
Included in mapping are small areas of Kendrick, than 6 months. Permeability is moderately rapid in the
Millhopper, and Tavares soils. Kendrick and Millhopper surface layer, slow or very slow in the subsoil, and
soils are on convex shoulders and upper side slopes, moderately slow to moderately rapid in the substratum.
Kendrick soils are well drained, and Millhopper soils are The available water capacity is high.
moderately well drained. Tavares soils are in lower-lying, In most areas, this Chobee soil is used for pasture or
concave areas on the landscape. These soils are cultivated crops. In a few areas, it is used for homesite
moderately well drained, or urban development or is left in natural vegetation. The
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than natural vegetation consists of cypress, cabbage palm,
80 inches. The permeability of Candler soil is rapid. The slash pine, and Coastal Plain willows. The understory
available water capacity is low. includes buttonbush, maidencane, and Jamaica
Present land use precludes the use of the soils in this sawgrass.
map unit for cultivated crops, pasture, or commercial If a water control system is established and
trees. Candler soil in the Urban land part of this complex maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil
is used for lawns, parks, playgrounds, or cemeteries, or it is suited to most cultivated crops. If suitable outlets are
is left as open space. available, lateral ditches and tile drains can be used to
If the soils in this map unit are used for building site lower the water table. Returning all crop residue to the
development, the main management concerns are soil and using a cropping system that includes grasses,
instability of cutbanks and possible contamination of the legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to maintain
ground water. Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to fertility. Frequent applications of fertilizer are generally
slumping. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a needed to maintain fertility.
community sewage system can help to prevent If a water control system is established and
contamination of water supplies by seepage. Plans for maintained, this soil is well suited to pasture. Excess
homesite development should provide for the surface water can be removed from most areas if field
preservation of as many trees as possible. Droughtiness, drans restricted grazing duri stockingng wet periodsture rotatlon
a result of the very low available water capacity, is a and restricted grazing during wet periods help keep the
hazard, especially during extended dry periods. Selection pasture and the soil in good condition.
of vegetation that is adapted to these soils is critical for .The potential of this soil for the production of slash
the establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable pines is high in areas that have adequate drainage. The
gardens. The soils need to be mulched, fertilized, and main management concerns for producing and
irrigated to establish lawn grasses and other small harvesting timber are the equipment use limitations and
seeded plants. seedling mortality. If the soil is not properly drained,
Th tht equipment use is limited. Water-tolerant trees should be
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a planted. Planting and harvesting operations should be
capability subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range scheduled during dry periods. Bedding of rows helps to
minimize excessive wetness limitations.
I10-Chobee loamy fine sand. This soil is nearly level f this soil is used for building site development or for
10-Chobee loamy fine sand. This soil is nearly level onsite waste disposal, the main management concerns
and very poorly drained. It is on low-lying flats on the are excessive wetness and the slow or very slow
flatwoods. The slope is 0 to 2 percent permeability of the subsoil. Drainage is needed to lower
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Chobee loamy the high water table, and fill material is needed in most
fine sand, the Chobee soil and similar soils make up 88 areas. Slow to very slow permeability and the high water
to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make table increase the possibility that the septic tank
up 1 to 12 percent of the mapped areas. absorption fields will not function properly. The slow or
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black loamy very slow permeability limitation can be minimized by
fine sand about 16 inches thick. The upper part of the increasing the size of the absorption field. Septic tank
subsoil, to a depth of about 33 inches, is dark gray absorption fields need to be mounded in most areas.
sandy loam. The lower part, to a depth of 49 inches, is This Chobee soil is in capability subclass Illw and in
grayish brown, mottled sandy clay loam. The substratum woodland group 11W. It has not been assigned to a
to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray, mottled loamy range site.
fine sand. Similar soils included in mapping have a
surface layer of fine sand. Other similar soils, in some 11-Chobee muck, depressional. This soil is nearly
places, have a subsoil at a depth of more than 20 level and very poorly drained. It is in broad depressions.
inches. This soil is mainly in Harney Flats. Large ditches and
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Winder soils in canals that are equipped with water-control structures
small areas. These soils are poorly drained, dissect this map unit in most places. Undrained areas






22 Soil Survey


are ponded for very long periods. The slope is less than This Chobee soil is in capability subclass Vllw, in
1 percent. woodland group 2W, and in the Freshwater Marshes and
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Chobee muck, Ponds range site.
depressional, the Chobee soil and similar soils make up
80 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils 12-Chobee sandy loam, frequently flooded. This
make up 20 percent or less of the map unit. soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is on
Typically, this soil has a surface layer that is about 12 bottom lands mainly along the Hillsborough River and
inches thick. It is black muck in the upper 9 inches. In Blackwater Creek. This soil is flooded for very long
the lower 3 inches, it is black loamy fine sand. The upper periods following prolonged intense rain. The slope is
part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 36 inches, is very dominantly less than 1 percent.
dark gray sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a depth of In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Chobee sandy
ar e gray sandy clay loam loam, frequently flooded, the Chobee soil and similar
about 48 inches, is gray sandy clay loam. The soils make up 78 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray, Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 22 percent of the mapped
mottled sandy loam. areas
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black sandy
an unnamed very poorly drained soil. This soil has an loam about 15 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a
organic surface layer more than 16 inches thick. depth of about 60 inches. The upper part is very dark
The undrained areas in this map unit are ponded for 3 gray, mottled sandy clay loam. The lower part is gray,
to 6 months. The drained areas in this map unit have a mottled sandy clay loam. The substratum to a depth of
seasonal high water table that fluctuates from the soil about 80 inches is light gray, mottled loamy sand. In
surface to a depth of about 10 inches except during some areas, similar soils included in mapping have a
extended dry periods. Permeability is rapid in the upper surface layer of mucky fine sand, fine sand, or loamy
part of the surface layer and moderately rapid in the fine sand. Other similar soils have a thinner surface layer
lower part. It is slow or very slow in the subsoil and than Chobee soil, and in places, some similar soils have
moderately rapid in the substratum. The available water thin, discontinuous strata of limestone in the underlying
capacity is high. material.
In most areas, this Chobee soil is used for pasture or Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Felda and
urban development. In a few areas, it is used for Wabasso soils in small areas. These soils are poorly
homesites or is left in natural vegetation. The natural drained.
vegetation consists of cypress, sweetgum, and Coastal A seasonal high water table fluctuates from the soil
Plain willow. The understory includes buttonbush, surface to a depth of about 10 inches. Permeability is
maidencane, and Jamaica sawgrass. moderately rapid in the surface layer, slow or very slow
In its natural state, this soil is generally not suited to in the subsoil, and very slow to moderately rapid in the
cultivated crops. If a water control system, such as substratum. The available water capacity is high.
dikes, ditches, and pumps, is established and In most areas, this Chobee soil has been left in natural
maintained, this soil is suited to most cultivated crops. vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for pasture. The
Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a natural vegetation consists of baldcypress, Coastal Plain
Returning all crop residue to the soilwillow, red maple, cabbage palm, and sweetgum. The
cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a willow, red maple, cabbage palm, and sweetgum. The
grass-legume mixture help to maintain fertility. Frequent u nderstory includes madencane, sawgrass,
applications of fertilizer are generally needed to maintain smartweed and sedges.
fertility. In its natural state, this soil is generally not suited to
feit i l cultivated crops. If a water control system, such as
If a water control system is established and dikes, ditches, and pumps, is established and
maintained, this soil is well suited to pasture. Excess maintained, this soil is suited to cultivated crops, citrus
surface water can be removed from most areas if field crops, and pasture.
drains are installed. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, This soil is generally not suited to the production of
and restricted grazing during wet periods help keep the pine trees because of flooding or extended wetness. It
pasture and the soil in good condition. may be suited to the production of cypress and
This soil is generally not suited to the production of hardwoods through natural regeneration.
pines because of ponding or extended wetness. It may If this soil is used for building site development or for
be suited to the production of cypress and hardwoods onsite waste disposal, flooding is the main hazard. Major
through natural regeneration. flood control structures and extensive local drainage
If this soil is used for building site development or for systems are needed to control flooding.
onsite waste disposal, ponding is the main hazard. While This Chobee soil is in capability subclass Vw, in
surface drainage helps to control ponding, the seasonal woodland group 6W, and in the Freshwater Marshes and
high water table is a continuing limitation. Ponds range site.







Hillsborough County, Florida 23


13-Eaton fine sand. This soil is nearly level and to lower the high water table, and fill material is needed
poorly drained. It is in sloughs on the flatwoods. It is in most areas. The slow permeability and the high water
mainly in the northeastern part of the county. The slope table increase the possibility that the septic tank
is 0 to 2 percent. absorption fields will not function properly. The slow
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Eaton fine sand, permeability limitation can be minimized by increasing
the Eaton soil and similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent the size of the absorption field. If the density of housing
of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 20 is moderate to high, a community sewage system can
percent of the mapped areas. help prevent contamination of water supplies by
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine seepage.
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a This Eaton soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in
depth of about 22 inches, is light brownish gray fine woodland group 11W. It has not been assigned to a
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about range site.
28 inches, is dark grayish brown, mottled sandy clay.
The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is light 14-Eaton mucky sand, depressional. This soil is
brownish gray, mottled sandy clay. Similar soils included nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressions
in mapping, in some areas, have a surface layer that is on the flatwoods. Undrained areas are ponded for very
more than 8 inches thick. long periods. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Wabasso soils In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Eaton fine sand,
in small areas. Wabasso soils have a sandy subsoil depressional, the Eaton soil and similar soils make up 78
above a loamy subsoil. to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make
In most years, a seasonal high water table fluctuates up 1 to 22 percent of the mapped areas.
from the soil surface to a depth of about 10 inches for 1 Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black mucky
to 4 months. Permeability is rapid in the surface and sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil. The available depth of 22 inches, is light gray, mottled fine sand. The
water capacity is moderate. subsoil extends to a depth of about 48 inches. The
In most areas, this Eaton soil is used for pasture. In a upper part is dark grayish brown, mottled sandy clay.
few areas, it is used for homesite or urban development. The lower part is dark gray, mottled sandy clay. The
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine, slash substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is gray,
pine, sweetgum, and water oak. The understory includes mottled sandy clay. Similar soils included in mapping, in
gallberry, hairy panicum, and pineland threeawn. some areas, have a surface layer that is more than 8
If a water control system is established and inches thick, or it is mucky fine sand, or it is both. Other
maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil similar soils have a subsoil that is within 20 inches of the
is suited to most cultivated crops. If suitable outlets are surface.
available, lateral ditches and tile drains can be used to Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Felda,
lower the water table. Returning all crop residue to the Samsula, and Wabasso soils in small areas. These soils
soil and using a cropping system that includes grasses, are poorly drained.
legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to maintain In most years, the undrained areas in this map unit are
fertility. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are ponded for 1 to 4 months. A seasonal high water table
generally needed to improve soil quality, fluctuates from the soil surface to a depth of about 10
This soil is suited to pasture. Wetness limits the choice inches for 9 months. Permeability is rapid in the surface
of plants that can be grown and restricts grazing during and subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil. The
periods of excessive wetness. Proper stocking, pasture available water capacity is moderate.
rotation, and timely deferment of grazing help keep the In most areas, this Eaton soil has been left in natural
pasture in good condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed vegetation. In some areas, the soil has been drained,
for optimum growth of grasses and legumes. and it is used for pasture. The natural vegetation
The potential of this soil for the production of slash consists of cypress and sweetgum. The understory
pines is high. The main management concerns for includes sand cordgrass, bluestem, maidencane, and
producing and harvesting timber are the equipment use waxmyrtle.
limitations. Equipment use limitations are a concern In its natural state, this soil is generally not suited to
unless the soil is properly drained. Water-tolerant trees cultivated crops. If a water control system, such as
should be planted. Planting and harvesting operations dikes, ditches, and pumps, is established and
should be scheduled during dry periods. Bedding of rows maintained, this soil is suited to most cultivated crops
helps to minimize the excessive wetness limitations, and pasture.
If this soil is used for building site development, the This soil is generally not suited to the production of
main management concerns are excessive wetness, pine trees because of ponding or extended wetness. It
slow permeability of the subsoil, and possible may be suited to the production of cypress and
contamination of the ground water. Drainage is needed hardwoods through natural regeneration.






24 Soil Survey



This Eaton soil is in capability subclass VIlw and in during dry periods. Bedding of rows helps to minimize
woodland group 2W. It has not been assigned to a range the excessive wetness limitation.
site. If this soil is used for building site development, the
main management concern is excessive wetness.
15-Felda fine sand. This soil is nearly level and Population growth has resulted in increased construction
poorly drained. It is on broad sloughs on the flatwoods. of houses on this soil. Drainage is needed to lower the
The slope is 0 to 2 percent. high water table, and fill material is needed in most
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Felda fine sand, areas. Septic tank absorption fields need to be mounded
the Felda soil and similar soils make up 90 to 99 percent in most areas.
of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 10 This Felda soil is in capability subclass Illw, in
percent of the mapped areas. woodland group 10W, and in the Slough range site.
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The upper part of the 16-Felda fine sand, occasionally flooded. This soil
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 18 inches, is dark is nearly level and poorly drained. It is on low terraces of
gray, mottled fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of major rivers and streams. It is flooded for very long
about 22 inches, is dark grayish brown, mottled fine periods following prolonged intense rains. The slope is 0
sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 45 inches, is light to 2 percent.
brownish gray, mottled sandy clay loam. The substratum In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Felda fine sand,
to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray loamy sand occasionally flooded, the Felda soil and similar soils
that contains many shell fragments. Similar soils included make up 79 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
in mapping have a subsoil at a depth of more than 40 Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 21 percent of the mapped
inches. Other similar soils, in places, have a subsoil areas.
within 20 inches of the surface. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Pinellas and sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
WabDissimilar soils included in smallmapping areas. Pineas soillas arend subsurface layer, to a depth of about 12 inches, is
calcareous in the upper part of the subsoil. Wabasso grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of
calcareous in the upper part of the subsoil. Wabasso about 22 inches, is light gray, mottled fine sand. The
soils have a sandy subsoil above a loamy subsoil. subsoil, to a depth of about 38 inches, is gray, mottled
A seasonal high water table fluctuates from the soil sandy clay loam. The substratum to a depth of about 80
surface to a depth of about 10 inches for 2 to 6 months inches is light brownish gray, mottled loamy sand. Similar
in most years. Permeability is rapid in the surface and soils included in mapping have a subsoil within 20 inches
subsurface layers and is moderate in the subsoil. The of the surface. Other similar soils have a subsoil at a
available water capacity is moderate. depth of more than 40 inches.
In most areas, this Felda soil is used for pasture. In a Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Basinger and
few areas, it is used for cultivated crops or for homesite Wabasso soils in small areas. Basinger soils are very
or urban development, or it has been left idle in natural poorly drained. Wabasso soils have a sandy subsoil
vegetation. The natural vegetation consists of cabbage above a loamy subsoil.
palm and slash pine. The understory includes saw In most years, a seasonal high water table fluctuates
palmetto, pineland threeawn, and waxmyrtle. from the soil surface to a depth of about 10 inches for 2
If a water control system is established and to 6 months. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil subsurface layers and is moderate to moderately rapid in
is well suited to most cultivated crops. If suitable outlets the subsoil. The available water capacity is moderate.
are available, lateral ditches and tile drains can be used In most areas, this Felda soil has been left idle in
to lower the water table. Returning all crop residue to the natural vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for pasture.
soil and using a cropping system that includes grasses, The natural vegetation consists of swamp maple,
legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to maintain cabbage palm, slash pine, and sweetgum. The
fertility. understory includes saw palmetto, pineland threeawn,
This soil is suited to pasture. Wetness limits the choice and waxmyrtle.
of plants that can be grown and restricts grazing during This soil is suited to cultivated crops if a water control
periods of excessive wetness. Proper stocking, pasture system, such as dikes, ditches, and pumps, is
rotation, and timely deferment of grazing help keep the established and maintained. Returning all crop residue to
pasture in good condition, the soil and using a cropping system that includes
The potential of this soil for the production of slash grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to
pines is moderately high. The main management maintain fertility.
concern for producing and harvesting timber is seedling This soil is suited to pasture. Wetness and flooding
mortality. Water-tolerant trees should be planted. limits the choice of plants that can be grown and
Planting and harvesting operations should be scheduled restricts grazing during periods of excessive wetness.






Hillsborough County, Florida 25



Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and timely deferment legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to maintain
of grazing help keep the pasture in good condition. fertility.
The potential of this soil for the production of slash This soil is suited to pasture. Wetness limits the choice
pines is moderately high. The equipment use limitations of plants that can be grown and restricts grazing during
are a management concern unless the soil is properly periods of excessive wetness. Proper stocking, pasture
drained. Water-tolerant trees should be planted. Planting rotation, and timely deferment of grazing help keep the
and harvesting operations should be scheduled during pasture in good condition.
dry periods. Bedding of rows helps to minimize the The potential of this soil for the production of slash
excessive wetness limitation. pines is moderately high. The main management
If this soil is used for building site development or for concerns for producing and harvesting timber are
onsite waste disposal, flooding is the main hazard. Major equipment use limitations and seedling mortality.
flood control structures and extensive local drainage Equipment use limitations are a concern if the soil is not
systems are needed to control flooding, properly drained. Water-tolerant trees should be planted.
This Felda soil is in capability subclass IVw, in Planting and harvesting operations should be scheduled
woodland group 10OW, and in the Freshwater Marshes during dry periods. Bedding of rows helps to minimize
and Ponds range site. the excessive wetness limitation.
If this soil is used for building site development, the
17-Floridana fine sand. This soil is nearly level and main management concerns are excessive wetness and
very poorly drained. It is in sloughs and swales on the the slow to very slow permeability of the subsoil.
flatwoods. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. Drainage is needed to lower the high water table, and fill
In 60 percent of the areas mapped as Floridana fine material is needed in most areas. The slow or very slow
sand, the Floridana soil and similar soils make up 80 to permeability and the high water table increase the
98 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make possibility that the septic tank absorption fields will not
up 2 to 20 percent of the mapped areas. function properly. The slow or very slow permeability can
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine be minimized by increasing the size of the absorption
sand about 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a field.
depth of about 28 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper Ths Floridana soil is in capability subclass Iw and in
part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 43 inches, is dark woodland group 11W. It has not been assigned to a
gray, mottled sandy clay loam. The middle part, to a ge s
depth of about 60 inches, is gray, mottled sandy clay 18-Fort Meade loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
loam. The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is slopes. This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and well
gray, mottled sandy loam. Similar soils included in drained. It is on the uplands.
mapping, in some areas, have a surface layer that is less In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Fort Meade
than 10 inches thick. Other similar soils have a subsoil loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Fort Meade
within 20 inches of the surface; and in some places, the soil and similar soils make up 86 to 99 percent of the
included similar soils have a subsoil at a depth of more mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 14 percent
than 40 inches. of the mapped areas.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Samsula and Typically, this soil has a surface layer that is about 26
Wabasso soils in small areas. Samsula soils are organic, inches thick. The upper 7 inches is very dark gray loamy
and Wabasso soils are poorly drained, fine sand. The lower 19 inches is very dark grayish
A seasonal high water table fluctuates from the soil brown loamy sand. The upper part of the underlying
surface to a depth of about 10 inches. Permeability is material, to a depth of about 58 inches, is yellowish
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and slow or brown loamy sand. The lower part to a depth of about
very slow in the subsoil. The available water capacity is 80 inches is light yellowish brown loamy sand. Similar
high. soils included in mapping are weakly indurated in the
In most areas, this Floridana soil is used for cultivated lower part of the underlying material. Other similar soils
crops or pasture. In a few areas, it is used for homesite have a surface layer that is less than 10 inches thick.
or urban development. The natural vegetation consists of Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Millhopper
cabbage palm and slash pine. The understory includes soils in small areas. These soils are moderately well
bluestem, maidencane, panicum, and pineland threeawn. drained.
If a water control system is established and A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than
maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil 72 inches. Permeability is rapid. The available water
is well suited to most cultivated crops. If suitable outlets capacity is low or moderate.
are available, lateral ditches and tile drains can be used In most areas, this Fort Meade soil is used for citrus
to lower the water table. Returning all crop residue to the crops, cultivated crops, or pasture. In a few areas, it is
soil and using a cropping system that includes grasses, used for homesite or urban development. The natural






26 Soil Survey



vegetation consists of bluejack oak, live oak, turkey oak, The lower 42 inches is strong brown loamy fine sand.
and slash pine. The understory includes lopsided Similar soils included in mapping, in some areas, have a
indiangrass, panicum, and pineland threeawn. surface layer that is more than 10 inches thick. Other
This soil is well suited to citrus crops in areas that are similar soils, in some of the lower parts of the landscape,
relatively free of freezing temperatures. If this soil is used are moderately well drained.
for cultivated crops, the main limitations are droughtiness Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Millhopper
and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients, which limit the soils in small areas. These soils are moderately well
choice of plants that can be grown and reduce the drained.
potential yield of crops. Droughtiness, a result of the low A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than
to moderate available water capacity, is a management 72 inches. Permeability is rapid. The available water
concern, especially during extended dry periods. A well capacity is low.
designed and properly managed irrigation system helps In most areas, this Gainesville soil is used for citrus
to maintain optimum soil moisture and thus ensures crops, cultivated crops, or pasture. In a few areas, it is
maximum yields. Returning all crop residue to the soil used for homesite or urban development. The natural
and using a cropping system that includes grasses, vegetation consists of bluejack oak, live oak, turkey oak,
legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to conserve and slash pine. The understory includes lopsided
moisture, maintain fertility, and control erosion. indiangrass, panicum, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is well suited to pasture. The low or moderate This soil is well suited to citrus crops in areas that are
available water capacity of the soil limits production of relatively free of freezing temperatures. If this soil is used
plants during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants, for cultivated crops, the main limitations are droughtiness
such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients, which limit the
drought tolerant if the soil is properly fertilized and limed. choice of plants that can be grown and reduce the
Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and timely deferment
of grazing help keep the pasture r in good condition potential yields of crops. Droughtiness, a result of the
of grazing help keep the pasture in good condition.
The potential of this soil for the production of slash low available water capacity, is a management concern,
pines is moderately high. This soil has few limitations for especially during extended dry periods. A well designed
woodland use and management. The low to moderate and properly managed irrigation system helps to maintain
wilanse watr managemenea. Th lu serei optimum soil moisture and thus ensures maximum yields.
available water capacity generally influences seedling Returning all crop residue to the soil and usin a
survival in areas where understory plants are numerous. crop e te a
After harvesting, reforestation must be carefully cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a
managed to reduce competition from undesirable grass-legume mixture help to conserve moisture,
understory plants. maintain fertility, and control erosion.
If this soil is used for building site development, the This soil is well suited to pasture. The low available
main management concerns are the instability of water capacity of the soil limits production of plants
cutbacks and the possible contamination of the ground during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants, such
water. Population growth has resulted in increased as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more
construction of houses on this soil. Cutbanks are not drought tolerant if properly fertilized and limed. Proper
stable and are subject to slumping. If the density of stocking, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of
housing is moderate to high, a community sewage grazing help keep the pasture in good condition.
system can help prevent contamination of water supplies The potential of this soil for the production of slash
by seepage. pines is moderately high. The soil has few limitations for
This Fort Meade soil is in capability subclass Ills, in woodland use and management. The low available water
woodland group 10S, and in the Upland Hardwood capacity generally influences seedling survival in areas
Hammocks range site. where understory plants are numerous. After harvesting,
reforestation must be carefully managed to reduce
19-Gainesville loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent competition from undesirable understory plants.
slopes. This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and well If this soil is used for building site development, the
drained. It is on the uplands. main management concerns are instability of cutbanks
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Gainesville and possible contamination of the ground water.
loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Gainesville Population growth has resulted in increased construction
soil and similar soils make up 89 to 99 percent of the of houses on this soil. Cutbanks are not stable and are
mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 11 percent subject to slumping. If the density of housing is moderate
of the mapped areas. to high, a community sewage system can help prevent
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark contamination of water supplies by seepage.
grayish brown loamy fine sand about 9 inches thick. The This Gainesville soil is in capability subclass Ills, in
underlying material extends to a depth of about 80 woodland group 10OS, and in the Upland Hardwood
inches. The upper 29 inches is brown loamy fine sand. Hammocks range site.






Hillsborough County, Florida 27



20-Gypsum land. This miscellaneous area consists to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
of moderately steep to very steep mounds of gypsum. grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to
Gypsum is a product of acid manufacturing plants that maintain fertility. Frequent applications of fertilizer and
are associated with phosphate-mining operations. The lime are generally needed to improve crop production.
material is in mounds that are 30 to 60 feet high. If a water control system is established and
This miscellaneous area is not suited to cultivated maintained, this soil is well suited to pasture (fig. 3).
crops, pasture, or commercial trees. The surface Wetness limits the choice of plants that can be grown
generally is very unstable, and it erodes easily. These and restricts grazing during periods of excessive
areas do not support vegetation; acidity and compaction wetness. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and restricted
inhibits the growth of plants. grazing during wet periods help keep the pasture and the
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a soil in good condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for
capability subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
site. The potential of this soil for the production of slash
pines is moderate. Equipment use limitations and
21-Immokalee fine sand. This soil is nearly level seedling mortality are the main limitations. Equipment
and poorly drained. It is on broad plains on the use limitations are a management concern unless the
flatwoods. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. soil is properly drained. Planting and harvesting
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Immokalee fine operations should be scheduled during dry periods.
sand, the Immokalee soil and similar soils make up 77 to Water-tolerant trees should be planted. Bedding of rows
99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make helps to minimize the excessive wetness limitations.
up 1 to 23 percent of the mapped areas. If this soil is used for building site development, the
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray main management concerns are excessive wetness and
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to instability of cutbanks. Population growth has resulted in
a depth of 36 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper increased construction of houses on this soil. Drainage is
part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 46 inches, is needed to lower the high water table, and fill material is
black fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of about 52 needed in most areas. Septic tank absorption fields need
inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The lower part to be mounded in most areas. Cutbanks are not stable
to a depth of about 80 inches is dark brown fine sand. and are subject to slumping.
Similar soils included in mapping have a subsoil that is at This Immokalee soil is in capability subclass IVw, in
a depth of more 50 inches. Other similar soils, in some woodland group 8W, and in the South Florida Flatwoods
areas, have a subsoil within 30 inches of the surface. range site.
Also, some included similar soils, in places, have a
subsoil that is brown or dark brown. 22-Immokalee-Urban land complex. This complex
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Ona and consists of Immokalee soil that is nearly level and poorly
Wabasso soils in small areas. Ona soils do not have a drained and of areas of Urban land. This complex is on
subsurface layer. Wabasso soils have a sandy subsoil the flatwoods. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
above a loamy subsoil. This map unit consists of 45 to 60 percent Immokalee
In most years, a seasonal high water table fluctuates soil and 35 to 45 percent Urban land. The included soils
from the soil surface to a depth of 10 inches for more make up 14 percent or less of this map unit. The
than 2 months and recedes to a depth of 10 to 40 individual areas of the soils in this map unit are too
inches for 8 months or more. Permeability is rapid in the mixed or too small to map separately at the scale used
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the for the maps in the back of this publication.
subsoil. The available water capacity is low. Typically, the surface layer of Immokalee soil is black
In most areas, this Immokalee soil is used for native fine sand about 5 inches thick. The upper part of the
pasture. In a few areas, it is used for cultivated crops, subsurface layer, to a depth of 13 inches, is grayish
improved pasture, or citrus crops or for homesite or brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 35 inches,
urban development. The natural vegetation consists of is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
longleaf pine and slash pine. The understory includes depth of 40 inches, is black fine sand. The middle part,
creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, lopsided to a depth of 47 inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand.
indiangrass, saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, and The lower part, to a depth of 60 inches, is dark brown
waxmyrtle. fine sand. The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches
If a water control system is established and is light brownish gray fine sand. In places, the upper part
maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil of the subsoil is at a depth of more than 50 inches. In
is suited to most cultivated crops, citrus crops, and some areas, the upper part of the subsoil is within 30
pasture. Proper arrangement and bedding of tree rows, inches of the soil surface.
lateral ditches or tile drains, and well constructed outlets The Urban land part of this complex is covered by
will help lower the water table. Returning all crop residue concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces






28 Soil Survey
































Figure 3.-This bahiagrass on Immokalee fine sand provides good grazing for the dairy herd.


that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification complex is used for lawns, parks, playgrounds, or
is not feasible. cemeteries, or it is left as open space.
Included in mapping are Ona and Wabasso soils in If the soils in this map unit are used for building site
small areas. Ona soils do not have a subsurface layer. development, the main management concerns are
They are in slightly lower-lying swales and on flats. excessive wetness and the instability of cutbanks. Most
Wabasso soils have a sandy subsoil above a loamy areas of this map unit are artificially drained. Drainage is
subsoil. Wabasso soils are in similar positions on the needed to lower the water table, and fill material is
flatwoods as Immokalee soil. needed in undrained areas for building site development.
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are artificially Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to slumping.
drained by sewer systems, gutters, tile drains, and Plans for homesite development should provide for the
surface ditches. The undrained areas have a seasonal preservation of as many trees as possible. Selection of
high water table that fluctuates from a depth of about 10 vegetation that is adapted to these soils is critical for the
inches to the soil surface for 2 months. The seasonal establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable
high water table recedes to a depth of 10 to 40 inches gardens. The soils need to be mulched, fertilized, and
for 8 months or more. The permeability of Immokalee irrigated to establish lawn grasses and other small
soil is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, seeded plants.
moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil, and rapid in The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
the substratum. The available water capacity is low. capability subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range
Present land use precludes the use of the soils in this site.
map unit for cultivated crops, pasture, or commercial
trees. Immokalee soil in the Urban land part of this






Hillsborough County, Florida 29



23-Kendrick fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This during the dry periods can reduce the equipment use
soil is gently sloping and well drained. It is on the limitations.
uplands. If this soil is used for building site development, the
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Kendrick fine main management concern is instability of cutbanks.
sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, the Kendrick soil and similar Population growth has resulted in increased construction
soils make up 84 to 89 percent of the mapped areas. of houses on this soil. Cutbanks are not stable and are
Dissimilar soils make up 11 to 16 percent of the mapped subject to slumping.
areas. This Kendrick soil is in capability subclass Ils, in
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of grayish brown woodland group 11S, and in the Upland Hardwood
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to Hammocks range site.
a depth of 35 inches, is light yellowish brown fine sand.
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 68 24-Kesson muck, frequently flooded. This soil is
inches, is brownish yellow, mottled sandy loam. The level and very poorly drained. It is in tidal swamps and
lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is yellowish marshes. Kesson soil is subject to shallow flooding by
brown, mottled sandy clay loam. Similar soils included in the highest of normal tides. It is also subject to
mapping have a subsoil at a depth of more than 40 occasional deep flooding by storm tides. The slope is
inches. Other similar soils, in some of the lower parts of dominantly less than 1 percent.
the landscape, are moderately well drained. In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Kesson muck,
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Candler and frequently flooded, the Kesson soil and similar soils
Tavares soils in small areas. Candler soils are make up 81 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
excessively drained. Tavares soils are moderately well Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 19 percent of the mapped
drained, areas.
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black muck
72 inches. Permeability is rapid in the surface and about 5 inches thick. The underlying material extends to
subsurface layers. It is moderate or moderately rapid in a depth of about 80 inches. The upper 33 inches is gray,
the upper part of the subsoil and slow to moderate in the mottled fine sand. The lower 42 inches is light olive gray,
lower part. The available water capacity is low. mottled fine sand. Similar soils included in mapping have
In most areas, this Kendrick soil is used for citrus a surface layer that is more than 8 inches thick. Other
crops or pasture. In a few areas, it is used for homesite similar soils have thin discontinuous strata of limestone
or urban development. The natural vegetation consists of in the underlying material and, in some places, similar
bluejack oak, turkey oak, and slash pine. The understory soils have thin sandy clay loam or sandy loam strata in
includes dogfennel, lopsided indiangrass, and hairy the underlying material.
panicum. Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Myakka soils
This soil is well suited to citrus crops in areas that are in small areas. Myakka soils have a sandy subsoil and
relatively free of freezing temperatures. If this soil is used do not have an organic surface layer.
for cultivated crops, the main limitations are droughtiness A seasonal high water table fluctuates from the soil
and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients, which limit the surface to a depth of about 6 inches. It is affected by
choice of plants that can be grown and reduce the tidal fluctuations. Permeability is rapid in the surface
potential yield of crops. Droughtiness, a result of the low layer and moderately rapid or rapid in the underlying
available water capacity, is a management concern, material. The available water capacity is low.
especially during extended dry periods. A well designed In most areas, this Kesson soil has been left idle. In a
and properly managed irrigation system helps to maintain few areas, it is used for urban development. The natural
optimum soil moisture and thus ensure maximum yields. vegetation consists of black mangrove and scattered
Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a American mangrove. The understory includes saltwort
cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a and seashore saltgrass.
grass-legume mixture help to conserve moisture, This soil is generally not suited to most cultivated
maintain fertility, and control erosion. crops or pasture or to the production of pine trees
This soil is well suited to pasture. The low available because of the flooding hazard and saline conditions of
water capacity of the soil limits production of plants the soil.
during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants, such If this soil is used for building site development or for
as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more onsite waste disposal, tidal flooding is the main hazard.
drought tolerant if properly fertilized and limed. Drainage is needed to lower the water table, and fill
The potential of this soil for the production of slash material is needed in most areas.
pines is high. This soil has few limitations for woodland This Kesson soil is in capability subclass VIIIw. It has
use and management. Using special equipment, such as not been assigned to a woodland group. This soil is in
machinery equipped with rubber tires, and harvesting the Saltwater Marsh range site.






30 Soil Survey



25-Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil concerns for producing and harvesting timber are the
is nearly level to gently sloping and excessively drained, equipment use limitations and seedling mortality. The
It is on the uplands. fine sand texture of the surface layer limits the use of
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Lake fine sand, equipment. The very low to low available water capacity
0 to 5 percent slopes, the Lake soil and similar soils adversely affects seedling survival in areas where
make up 75 to 93 percent of the mapped areas. understory plants are numerous.
Dissimilar soils make up 7 to 25 percent of the mapped If this soil is used for building site development, the
areas. main management concerns are instability of cutbanks
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark grayish and possible contamination of the ground water.
brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying Population growth has resulted in increased construction
material extends to a depth of about 80 inches. The of houses on this soil. Cutbanks are not stable and are
upper 24 inches is strong brown fine sand. The next 40 subject to slumping. If the density of housing is moderate
inches is reddish yellow fine sand. The lower 12 inches to high, community sewage systems will help to prevent
is strong brown fine sand. Similar soils included in contamination of water supplies by seepage.
mapping, in some places, are gray or light gray in the This Lake soil is in capability subclass IVs, in
lower part of the underlying material. Other similar soils, woodland group 10S, and in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey
in some areas, consist of less than 5 percent silt and Oak Hills range site.
clay in the underlying material. The included similar soils,
in some of the lower parts of the landscape, are well 26-Lochloosa-Micanopy fine sands, 0 to 5
drained. percent slopes. The soils in this map unit are nearly
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Kendrick, level to gently sloping and somewhat poorly drained.
Millhopper, and Tavares soils in small areas. Kendrick These soils are on the uplands.
soils are well drained. Millhopper and Tavares soils are In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Lochloosa-
moderately well drained. Micanopy fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and similar
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than soils make up 97 to 99 percent of the mapped areas,
80 inches. Permeability is rapid. The available water and dissimilar soils make up 1 to 3 percent of the
capacity is very low or low. mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of
In most areas, this Lake soil is used for citrus crops. In about 51 percent Lochloosa soil and similar soils and 48
a few areas, it is used for pasture or for homesite or percent Micanopy soil.
urban development. The natural vegetation consists of Typically, the surface layer of Lochloosa soil is dark
bluejack oak, Chapman oak, scrub oak, live oak, and gray fine sand 7 inches thick. The upper part of the
turkey oak. The understory includes lopsided subsurface layer, to a depth of about 15 inches, is very
indiangrass, running oak, and pineland threeawn. pale brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of
This soil is suited to citrus crops in areas that are about 28 inches, is pale brown fine sand. The upper part
relatively free of freezing temperatures. If this soil is used of the subsoil, to a depth of about 35 inches, is light
for cultivated crops, the main limitations are droughtiness yellowish brown fine sandy loam. The middle part, to a
and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients, which limit the depth of about 40 inches, is yellowish brown, mottled
choice of plants that can be grown and reduce the sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a depth of about 69
potential yield of crops. Droughtiness, a result of the very inches, is gray, mottled sandy clay loam. The substratum
low to low available water capacity, is a management to a depth of about 80 inches is gray sandy clay loam.
concern, especially during extended dry periods. Similar soils included in mapping, in some areas, have a
Irrigation is generally feasible in most areas where subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches.
irrigation water is readily available. Returning all crop Typically, the surface layer of Micanopy soil is very
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that dark gray fine sand 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer,
includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture to a depth of about 15 inches, is brown fine sand. The
help to conserve moisture, maintain fertility, and control upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 25 inches,
erosion. is mottled yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The lower
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The very low part to a depth of about 80 inches is gray, mottled sandy
or low available water capacity of the soil limits clay.
production of plants during extended dry periods. Deep- Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Adamsville
rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and soils in small areas. Adamsville soils do not have a
bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly subsoil.
fertilized and limed. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, Lochloosa soil has a seasonal high water table at a
and timely deferment of grazing help keep the pasture in depth of 30 to 60 inches for 1 to 4 months, but it
good condition. recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches during
The potential of this soil for the production of slash prolonged dry periods. Micanopy soil has a perched,
pines is moderately high. The main management seasonal high water table at a depth of 18 to 30 inches






Hillsborough County, Florida 31


for 1 to 3 months, but it recedes to a depth of more than In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Malabar fine
60 inches during prolonged dry periods. Permeability of sand, the Malabar soil and similar soils make up 79 to 92
Lochloosa soil is moderately rapid or rapid in the surface percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 8
and subsurface layers and slow to moderately rapid in to 21 percent of the mapped areas.
the subsoil. Permeability of Micanopy soil is rapid in the Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine
surface and subsurface layers. It is moderate in the sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
upper part of the subsoil and slow in the lower part. The depth of about 12 inches, is light brownish gray fine
available water capacity is moderate in these soils. sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are used for 30 inches, is brownish yellow fine sand. The next layer,
citrus crops or for homesite or urban development. In a to a depth of about 50 inches, is pale brown fine sand.
few areas, they are used for cultivated crops or improved The lower part, to a depth of about 66 inches, is gray,
pasture, or they are left in natural vegetation. The natural mottled fine sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of
vegetation consists of live oak, turkey oak, longleaf pine, about 80 inches is grayish brown fine sand. Similar soils
and slash pine. The understory includes chalky bluestem, included in mapping, in some areas, have a Btg horizon
lopsided indiangrass, panicum, pineland threeawn, and that is within 40 inches of the surface. Other similar
waxmyrtle. soils, in some areas, do not have a Bw horizon; and in
If the soils in this map unit are used for cultivated some areas are similar soils that have a subsoil that is
crops, the main limitations are wetness and low natural brown or dark brown in the upper part.
fertility. These soils are moderately suited to citrus crops Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Basinger and
in areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures. Wabasso soils in small areas. Basinger soils are very
A well designed and properly managed irrigation system poorly drained. Wabasso soils have a dark color sandy
helps to maintain optimum soil moisture and thus ensure subsoil below the subsurface layer. Also included are
maximum yields. A drainage system is needed for most some unnamed soils that have a dark color sandy
cultivated crops and pasture plants. Returning all crop subsoil at a depth of more than 30 inches and do not
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that have a loamy subsoil below the sandy subsoil.
includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture In most years, a seasonal high water table fluctuates
help to maintain fertility. Frequent applications of fertilizer from the soil surface to a depth of about 10 inches for 2
and lime are generally needed to improve crop to 6 months. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
production. subsurface layers, slow in the subsoil, and moderately
The soils in this map unit are well suited to pasture. rapid or rapid in the substratum. The available water
Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and timely deferment capacity is very low or low. The depressions are subject
of grazing help keep the pasture in good condition, to shallow flooding during heavy rains.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of In most areas, this Malabar soil has been left idle in
grasses and legumes. native vegetation. In some areas, the soil has been
The potential of these soils for the production of slash drained and is used for cultivated crops or pasture or for
pines is high. These soils have few limitations for homesite or urban development. The natural vegetation
woodland use and management. consists of cabbage palm, longleaf pine, and slash pine.
If this map unit is used for building site development or The understory includes broomsedge, bluestem, inkberry,
for onsite waste disposal, the main management maidencane, saw palmetto, and waxmyrtle.
concerns are wetness and the slow permeability of the If a water control system is established and
subsoil. Population growth has resulted in increased maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil
construction of houses on these soils. A perched, is suited to most cultivated crops, citrus crops, and
seasonal high water table is above the subsoil in pasture. Proper arrangement and bedding of tree rows,
Micanopy soil. Drainage is needed to lower the high lateral ditches or tile drains, and well constructed outlets
water table. The slow permeability limitation can be will help lower the water table. Returning all crop residue
minimized by increasing the size of the absorption field. to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
Septic tank absorption fields need to be mounded in grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to
some areas. In areas of Lochloosa soil, cutbanks are not maintain fertility. Frequent applications of fertilizer and
stable and are subject to slumping. lime are generally needed to improve soil quality.
The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass llw, If an adequate water control system is established and
in woodland group 11 A, and in the Upland Hardwood maintained, this soil is well suited to pasture. Wetness
Hammocks range site. limits the choice of plants that can be grown and
restricts grazing during periods of wetness. Proper
27-Malabar fine sand. This soil is nearly level and stocking, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during
poorly drained. It is in low-lying sloughs and shallow wet periods help keep the pasture and the soil in good
depressions on the flatwoods. The slope is 0 to 2 condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum
percent. growth of grasses and legumes.






32 Soil Survey



The potential of this soil for the production of slash subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
pines is moderately high. Seedling mortality and the available water capacity is low.
equipment use limitation are the main limitations. Water- Present land use precludes the use of the soils in this
tolerant trees should be planted. Planting and harvesting map unit for cultivated crops, pasture, or commercial
operations should be scheduled during dry periods, trees. Millhopper soil in the Urban land part of this
Bedding of rows helps to minimize the excessive complex is used for lawns, parks, playgrounds, or
wetness limitation. Wetness limits the use of equipment. cemeteries, or it is left as open space.
If this soil is used for building site development, the If the soils in this map unit are used for building site
main management concerns are excessive wetness, development, the main management concern is
slow permeability of the subsoil, and instability of the instability of cutbanks. Cutbanks are not stable and are
cutbanks. Drainage is needed to lower the high water subject to slumping. Plans for homesite development
table, and fill material is needed in most areas. Slow should provide for the preservation of as many trees as
permeability and the high water table increase the possible. Droughtiness, a result of the low available
possibility that the septic tank absorption fields will not water capacity, is a limitation, especially during extended
function properly. Cutbanks are not stable and are dry periods. Selection of vegetation that is adapted to
subject to slumping, these soils is critical for the establishment of lawns,
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass IVw, in shrubs, trees, and vegetable gardens. The soils need to
woodland group 10W, and in the Slough range site. be mulched, fertilized, and irrigated to establish lawn
grasses and other small seeded plants.
28-Millhopper-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
slopes. This complex consists of Millhopper soil that is capability subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range
nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well site.
drained and of areas of Urban land. This complex is on 29-Myakka fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
the uplands. poorly drained. It is on broad plains on the flatwoods.
This map unit consists of 45 to 60 percent Millhopper The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
soil and 30 to 45 percent Urban land. The included soils In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Myakka fine
make up 10 percent or less of this map unit. The sand, the Myakka soil and similar soils make up 84 to 93
individual areas of the soils in this map unit are too percent of the maped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 7
mixed or too small to map separately at the scale used to 16 percent of the mapped areas.
for the maps in the back of this publication. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
Typically, the surface layer of Millhopper soil is very fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The upper part a depth of about 20 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper
of the subsurface layer, to a depth of 22 inches, is brown part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 25 inches, is
fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 57 inches, is black fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of 30
pale brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The lower part,
depth of about 64 inches, is light yellowish brown, to a depth of about 38 inches, is brownish yellow fine
mottled sandy loam. The lower part to a depth of about sand. The upper part of the substratum, to a depth of
80 inches is gray, mottled sandy clay loam. In some of about 55 inches, is very pale brown fine sand. The lower
the lower parts of the landscape, the soil is somewhat part to a depth of about 80 inches is dark grayish brown
poorly drained, and in some of the higher parts, it is well fine sand. Similar soils included in mapping, in some
drained. In places, the upper part of the subsoil is at a areas, have a surface layer that is more than 8 inches
depth of 40 inches. thick. Other similar soils, in some places, have a subsoil
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by within 20 inches of the surface, and some included
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces similar soils have a subsoil at a depth of more than 30
that obscure or alter the soil so that their identification is inches or have a brown or dark brown subsoil, or both.
not feasible. Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Basinger and
Included in mapping are Seffner and Tavares soils in Wabasso soils in small areas. Basinger soils are very
small areas. Seffner soils are in lower positions on the poorly drained. Wabasso soils have a loamy subsoil
landscape than Millhopper soil. Seffner soils are below a sandy subsoil.
somewhat poorly drained. Tavares soils and Millhopper In most years, a seasonal high water table fluctuates
soil are in similar positions on the landscape. Tavares from the soil surface to a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 4
soils do not have a subsoil. months and recedes to a depth of 40 inches during
In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a prolonged dry periods. Permeability is rapid in the
depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 to 4 months and recedes surface and subsurface layers, moderate or moderately
to a depth of 60 to 72 inches for 2 to 4 months. The rapid in the subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. The
permeability of Millhopper soil is rapid in the surface and available water capacity is low.







Hillsborough County, Florida 33



In most areas, this Myakka soil is used for native In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Myakka fine
pasture or cultivated crops. In a few areas, it is used for sand, frequently flooded, the Myakka soil and similar
improved pasture or citrus crops, or it is used for soils make up 78 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
homesite or urban development. The natural vegetation Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 22 percent of the mapped
consists of longleaf pine and slash pine. The understory areas.
includes gallberry, running oak, saw palmetto, pineland Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
threeawn, and waxmyrtle. fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
If a water control system is established and a depth of about 22 inches, is grayish brown fine sand.
maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil The subsoil, to a depth of about 40 inches, is very dark
is suited to most cultivated crops, citrus crops, and grayish brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of
pasture. Proper arrangement and bedding of tree rows, about 80 inches is brown fine sand. Similar soils included
lateral ditches or tile drains, and well constructed outlets in mapping, in some areas, have a surface layer of
will help lower the water table. Returning all crop residue mucky fine sand, have a surface layer that is more than
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes 8 inches thick, or have both. Other similar soils, in some
grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to places, have a subsoil at a depth of more than 30
maintain fertility. Frequent applications of fertilizer and inches.
lime are generally needed to improve soil quality. Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
If a water control system is established and unnamed soils. These soils are organic to a depth of 51
maintained, this soil is well suited to pasture. Wetness inches or more.
limits the choice of plants that can be grown and A seasonal high water table fluctuates from the soil
restricts grazing during periods of excessive wetness. surface to a depth of about 10 inches. It is affected by
Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing tdal fluctuations. Permeability is rapid in he surface and
during wet periods help keep the pasture and the soil in subsurface layers, moderate or moderately rapid in the
good condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. The available water
optimum growth of grasses and legumes. capacity is low.
optimum growth of grasses and legumesIn most areas this Myakka soil has been left idle. In a
The potential of this soil for the production of slash few areas, it is used for urban development. The natural
pines is moderate. The main management concerns for vegetation consists of mangrove trees, seashore
producing and harvesting timber are the equipment use saltgrass, glasswort, needlegrass rush, and marshhay
limitations and seedling mortality. Equipment use cordgrass (fig. 4).
limitations are a concern if the soil is not properly This soil is generally not suited to most cultivated
drained. Water-tolerant trees should be planted. Planting crops or pasture or to the production of pine trees
and harvesting operations should be scheduled during because of the flooding hazard and saline condition of
dry periods. Bedding of rows helps to minimize the the soil.
excessive wetness limitation. If this soil is used for building site development or for
If this soil is used for building site development, the onsite waste disposal, tidal flooding is the main hazard.
main management concerns are excessive wetness, Drainage is needed to lower the high water table, and fill
possible contamination of the ground water, and material is needed in most areas.
instability of cutbanks. Population growth has resulted in This Myakka soil is in capability subclass VIllw. It has
increased construction of houses on this soil. Drainage is not been assigned to a woodland group. This soil is in
needed to lower the high water table, and fill material is the Saltwater Marsh range site.
needed in most areas. Septic tank absorption fields need
to be mounded in most areas. If the density of housing is 32-Myakka-Urban land complex. This complex
moderate to high, a community sewage system can help consists of Myakka soil that is nearly level and poorly
to prevent contamination of water supplies by seepage. drained and of areas of Urban land. This complex is on
Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to slumping. broad plains on the flatwoods. The slope is 0 to 2
This Myakka soil is in capability subclass IVw, in percent.
woodland group 8W, and in the South Florida Flatwoods This map unit consists of 40 to 60 percent Myakka soil
range site. and 30 to 45 percent Urban land (see fig. 5). The
included soils make up 20 percent or less of this map
30-Myakka fine sand, frequently flooded. This soil unit. The individual areas of the soils in this map unit are
is level and very poorly drained. It is in tidal areas. This too mixed or too small to map separately at the scale
soil is subject to shallow flooding by the highest of used for the maps in the back of this publication.
normal tides. It is also subject to occasional deep Typically, the surface layer of Myakka soil is dark gray
flooding by storm tides. Many small ponds and tidal fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
channels are in this map unit. The slope is dominantly a depth of 20 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper
less than 1 percent, part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 24 inches, is very






34 Soil Survey







































gur 4.-Thme dense stands of mangrove to-e on Myakka fine sand, frequently flooded, are an important wetand ara hn
laborouoh County.



dark grayish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a drained. They are in shallow depressions and along
depth of about 30 inches, is dark brown fine sand. The drainageways. Wabasso soils have a loamy subsoil
lower part, to a depth of 44 inches, is yellowish brown below a sandy subsoil. These soils are in similar
fine sand. The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches positions on the flatwoods as Myakka soil. Generally,
is pale brown fine sand. In some areas, the surface layer Wabasso soils are more prevalent in the eastern part of
is more than 8 inches thick. In places, the upper part of the county and in areas adjoining Tampa Bay. Zolfo soils
the subsoil is at a depth of 20 inches. are somewhat poorly drained. They are in similar
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by positions on the flatwoods as Myakka soils.
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces In most areas, the soils in this map unit are artificially
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification drained by sewer systems, gutters, tile drains, and
is not feasible. surface ditches. The undrained areas have a seasonal
Included in mapping are Basinger, Wabasso, and Zolfo high water table that fluctuates from the soil surface to a
soils in small areas. Basinger soils are very poorly depth of about 10 inches for 1 to 4 months. The






Hillsborough County, Florida 35



seasonal high water table recedes to a depth of 40 inches for 6 months or more. Permeability is rapid in the
inches during prolonged dry periods. The permeability of surface layer, moderate or moderately rapid in the
Myakka soil is rapid in the surface and subsurface subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. The available water
layers, moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil, and capacity is low or moderate.
rapid in the substratum. The available water capacity is In most areas, this Ona soil is used for native pasture.
low. In a few areas, it is used for cultivated crops, improved
Present land use precludes the use of the soils in this pasture, or citrus crops or for homesite or urban
map unit for cultivated crops, pasture, or commercial development. The natural vegetation consists of longleaf
trees. Myakka soil in the Urban land part of this complex pine and slash pine. The understory includes gallberry,
is used for lawns, parks, playgrounds, or cemeteries, or it running oak, saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, and
is left as open space. waxmyrtle.
If the soils in this map unit are used for building site If an adequate water control system is established and
development, the main management concerns are maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil
excessive wetness, possible contamination of ground is well suited to most cultivated crops and pasture. If
water, and instability of cutbanks. The soils in most i w suited to m c crops i
areas of this map unit are artificially drained. Drainage is drained, this soil is moderately suited to citrus crops in
needed to lower the water table, and fill material is areas that are relatively free from freezing temperatures.
needed in undrained areas for building site development. Proper arrangement and bedding of tree rows, lateral
Septic tank absorption fields need to be mounded in ditches or tile drains, and well constructed outlets will
most areas. If the density of housing is moderate to high, help lower the water table. Droughtiness, a result of the
a community sewage system can help to prevent low or moderate available water capacity, is a concern in
contamination of water supplies by seepage. Cutbanks management especially during extended dry periods.
are not stable and are subject to slumping. Plans for This soil is suited to most irrigation systems. Returning
homesite development should provide for the all crop residue to the soil and using a cropping system
preservation of as many trees as possible. Selection of that includes grasses, legumes, or grass-legume
vegetation that is adapted to these soils is critical for the mixtures help to maintain fertility. Frequent applications
establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable of fertilizer and lime generally are needed to improve
gardens. The soils need to be mulched, fertilized, and crop production.
irrigated to establish lawn grasses and other small If a water control management system is established
seeded plants. and maintained, this soil is well suited to pasture.
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a Wetness limits the choice of plants that can be grown
capability subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range and restricts grazing during periods of excessive
site. wetness. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help keep the pasture and the
33-Ona fine sand. This soil is nearly level and poorly soil in good condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for
drained. It is on broad plains on the flatwoods. The slope optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
is 0 to 2 percent. The potential of this soil for the production of slash
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Ona fine sand, pine trees is moderately high. Equipment use limitations
the Ona soil and similar soils make up 84 to 99 percent and seedling mortality are the main limitations.
percent of the mapped areas. Equipment use limitations are a management concern

Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray unless the soplanted. is propelanting drained harvester-tolerant trees
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of the should be paned. Planting and harvesting operations
subsoil, to a depth of about 8 inches, is black fine sand. should be scheduled during dry periods. Bedding of rows
The lower part, to a depth of about 22 inches, is very helps to minimize the limitations caused by excessive
dark brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of wetness.
about 80 inches is light gray fine sand. Similar soils If this soil is used for building site development, the
included in mapping, in some areas, have a gray or dark main management concerns are excessive wetness,
gray subsurface layer. Other similar soils, in some possible contamination of ground water, and instability of
places, have a subsoil at a depth of more than 10 cutbanks. Population growth has resulted in increased
inches. construction of houses on this soil. Drainage is needed
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Basinger and to lower the high water table, and fill material is needed
Immokalee soils in small areas. Basinger soils are very in most areas. Septic tank absorption fields need to be
poorly drained. Immokalee soils have a subsurface layer. mounded in most areas. If the density of housing is
In most years, a seasonal high water table fluctuates moderate to high, a community sewer system can help
from the soil surface to a depth of 10 inches for more prevent contamination of water supplies by seepage.
than 2 months and recedes to a depth of 10 to 40 Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to slumping.








36 Soil Survey







































































Figure L.-Th1 redentlial area was developed on sobls In the Myakka-Urban land complex.







Hillsborough County, Florida 37



This Ona soil is in capability subclass IIIw, in woodland contamination of water supplies by seepage. Cutbanks
group 10W, and in the South Florida Flatwoods range are not stable and are subject to slumping. Plans for
site. homesite development should provide for the
preservation of as many trees as possible. Selection of
34-Ona-Urban land complex. This complex consists vegetation that is adapted to these soils is critical for the
of Ona soil that is nearly level and poorly drained and of establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable
areas of Urban land. This complex is on the flatwoods. gardens. The soils need to be mulched, fertilized, and
The slope is 0 to 2 percent. irrigated to establish lawn grasses and other small
This map unit consists of 45 to 60 percent Ona soil seeded plants.
and 30 to 45 percent Urban land. The included soils The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
make up 6 percent or less of this map unit. The capability subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range
individual areas of the soils in this map unit are too site.
mixed or too small to map separately at the scale used
for the maps in the back of this publication. 35-Orlando fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
Typically, the surface layer of Ona soil is black fine soil is nearly level to gently sloping and well drained. It is
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of 18 on the uplands.
inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The upper part In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Orlando fine
of the substratum, to a depth of about 40 inches, is sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Orlando soil and similar
grayish brown, mottled fine sand. The lower part to a soils make up 92 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
depth of about 80 inches is light gray fine sand. In Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 8 percent of the mapped
places, this soil has a subsurface layer that is gray or areas.
dark gray. In places, the upper part of the subsoil is at a Typically, this soil has a surface layer that is about 20
depth of more than 10 inches. inches thick. The upper 8 inches is black fine sand. The
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by lower 12 inches is very dark gray fine sand. The next
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces layer, to a depth of about 22 inches, is dark grayish
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification brown fine sand. The upper part of the underlying
is not feasible. material, to a depth of about 60 inches, is yellowish
Included in mapping are Basinger and Immokalee soils brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of about 80
in small areas. Basinger soils are very poorly drained inches is pale brown fine sand. Similar soils included in
and are in depressions and along drainageways. mapping, in some areas, have a surface layer that is less
Immokalee soils have a subsurface layer and are in than 10 inches thick. Other similar soils, in some places,
slightly higher positions on the flatwoods than Ona soil. have a weakly indurated layer at a depth of more than
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are artificially 40 inches. Also, similar soils in some of the lower parts
drained by sewer systems, gutters, tile drains, and of the landscape are moderately well drained.
surface ditches. The undrained areas have a seasonal Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Seffner and
high water table that fluctuates from the soil surface to a Candler soils in small areas. Seffner soils are somewhat
depth of about 10 inches for more than 2 months. The poorly drained. Candler soils are excessively drained.
high water table recedes to a depth of 10 to 40 inches A seasonal high water table is below a depth of more
for 6 months or more. The permeability of Ona soil is than 72 inches. Permeability is rapid. The available water
rapid in the surface layer, moderate or moderately rapid capacity is low.
in the subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. The available In most areas, this Orlando soil is used for cultivated
water capacity is low or moderate. crops or citrus crops. In a few areas, it is used for
Present land use precludes the use of the soils in this pasture or for homesite or urban development. The
map unit for cultivated crops, pasture, or commercial natural vegetation consists of bluejack oak, live oak,
trees. Ona soil in the Urban land part of this complex is turkey oak, and slash pine. The understory includes
used for lawns, parks, playgrounds, or cemeteries, or it is panicum, saw palmetto, and pineland threeawn.
left as open space. This soil is well suited to citrus crops in areas that are
If the soils in this map unit are used for building site relatively free of freezing temperatures. If this soil is used
development, the main management concerns are for cultivated crops, the main limitations are droughtiness
excessive wetness, possible contamination of ground and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients, which limit the
water, and instability of cutbanks. The soils in most choice of plants that can be grown and the potential
mapped areas are artificially drained. Drainage is needed yield of crops. Droughtiness, a result of the low available
to lower the high water table, and fill material is needed water capacity, is a management concern, especially
in undrained areas for building site development. Septic during extended dry periods. A well designed and
tank absorption fields need to be mounded in most properly managed irrigation system will help to maintain
areas. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a optimum soil moisture and thus ensure maximum yields.
community sewage system is needed to prevent Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a






38 Soil Survey



cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a
grass-legume mixture help to conserve moisture, depth of 40 to 60 inches for more than 6 months and
maintain fertility, and control erosion. recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches during
This soil is well suited to pasture. The low available prolonged dry periods. Permeability is very rapid. The
water capacity of the soil limits production of plants available water capacity is low or very low.
during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants, such In most areas, this Orsino soil is used for pasture. In a
as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more few areas, it is used for homesite or urban development
drought tolerant if properly fertilized and limed. Proper or is left in natural vegetation. The natural vegetation
stocking, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of consists of turkey oak, sand pine, and slash pine. The
grazing help keep the pasture in good condition. understory includes sand heath, pineland threeawn, saw
The potential of this soil for the production of slash palmetto, and pricklypear cactus.
pine trees is moderately high. This soil has few This soil is suited to citrus crops in areas that are
limitations for woodland use and management. The low relatively free of freezing temperatures. If this soil is used
available water capacity adversely affects seedling for cultivated crops, the main limitations are droughtiness
survival in areas where understory plants are numerous. and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients, which limit the
After harvesting, reforestation must be carefully choice of plants that can be grown and reduce the
managed to reduce competition from undesirable potential yield of crops. Droughtiness, a result of the low
understory plants. to very low available water capacity, is a management
If this soil is used for building site development, the concern, especially during extended dry periods. A well
main management concerns are instability of cutbanks designed and properly managed irrigation system will
and possible contamination of the ground water. help to maintain optimum soil moisture and thus ensure
Population growth has resulted in increased construction maximum yields. Returning all crop residue to the soil
of houses on this soil. Cutbanks are not stable and are and using a cropping system that includes grasses,
subject to slumping. If the density of housing is moderate ausi a r ssem ttue gase
legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to maintain
to high, a community sewage system can help prevent fertility.
contamination of water supplies by seepage. This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The low or
This Orlando soil is in capability subclass Ills, in Ths soil is moderately suited to pasture. The low or
woodland group 10S, and in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey very low available water capacity of the soil limits
Oak Hills range site. production of plants during extended dry periods. Deep-
rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
36-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This bahiagrasses, are more drought tolerant if properly
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well fertilized and limed. Proper stocking, pasture rotation,
drained. It is on the uplands and along slope breaks to and timely deferment of grazing help keep the pasture in
stream channels. good condition.
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Orsino fine The potential of this soil for the production of sand
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Orsino soil and similar pines and slash pines is moderate. The main
soils make up 83 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. management concern for producing and harvesting
Dissimilar soils make up to 17 percent of the mapped timber is seedling mortality. After harvesting,
areas. reforestation must be carefully managed to reduce
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of gray fine sand competition from undesirable understory plants. Proper
about 2 inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface site preparation controls initial plant competition, and
layer, to a depth of about 15 inches, is light gray fine spraying controls subsequent growth.
sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 31 inches, is If this soil is used for building site development, the
white fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth main management concerns are instability of cutbanks
of about 48 inches, is brownish yellow and very dark and possible contamination of the ground water.
grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 72 Population growth has resulted in increased construction
inches, is yellow, mottled fine sand. The substratum to a of houses on this soil. Cutbanks are not stable and are
depth of about 80 inches is pale brown fine sand. Similar subject to slumping. If the density of housing is moderate
soils included in mapping, in some areas, are well to high, a community sewage system can help prevent
drained. Other similar soils, in some of the lower parts of contamination of water supplies by seepage.
the landscape, have a brown or dark brown subsoil. This Orsino soil is in capability subclass IVs, in
Also, similar soils, in some areas, have a subsoil at a woodland group 8S, and in the Sand Pine Scrub range
depth of 80 inches or more. site.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Archbold,
Immokalee, and Millhopper soils in small areas. Archbold 37-Paisley fine sand, depressional. This soil is
soils do not have a subsoil. Immokalee soils are poorly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressions and
drained. Millhopper soils have a loamy subsoil. sloughs. Undrained areas are frequently ponded for very







Hillsborough County, Florida 39



long periods. The slope is dominantly less than 1 Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
percent. sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Paisley fine depth of about 11 inches, is light gray fine sand. The
sand, depressional, the Paisley soil and similar soils upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 22 inches,
make up 82 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. is calcareous, light gray, mottled fine sand. The lower
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 18 percent of the mapped part, to a depth of about 27 inches, is light olive gray,
areas. mottled sandy clay loam. The substratum to a depth of
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray about 80 inches is greenish gray, very shelly, loamy
fine sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to sand. Similar soils included in mapping, in some areas,
a depth of about 4 inches, is grayish brown fine sand. have a subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches.
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 24 Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Malabar and
inches, is gray, mottled sandy clay. The lower part to a Wabasso soils in small areas. These soils do not have a
depth of about 80 inches is light gray, mottled sandy calcareous layer above the subsoil.
clay. Similar soils included in mapping, in some places, In most years, a seasonal high water table fluctuates
have a calcareous subsoil. Other similar soils, in somen most sonal h water table luc uates
areas, have a surface layer that is mucky fine sand or rom the soil surface to a depth of 10 inches for less
sandy loam. In some places, the upper part of the than 3 months and recedes to a depth of more than 40
subsoil of similar soils is at a depth of more than 20 inches during prolonged dry periods. Permeability is rapid
inches. in the surface and subsurface layers, moderate in the
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Basinger and subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. The available water
Wabasso soils in small areas. Basinger soils do not have capacity is low or moderate.
a subsoil. Wabasso soils have a sandy subsoil above a In most areas, this Pinellas soil is used for cultivated
loamy subsoil. crops or pasture. In a few areas, it is used for homesite
A seasonal high water table fluctuates from the soil or urban development. The natural vegetation consists of
surface to a depth of about 10 inches for periods of 9 cabbage palm, longleaf pine, and slash pine. The
months or more. Permeability is rapid in the surface and understory includes lopsided indiangrass, running oak,
subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil. The available saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, and waxmyrtle.
water capacity is high. If a water control system is established and
In most areas, this Paisley soil has been left in natural maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil
vegetation. In some areas, it has been drained and is is well suited to most cultivated crops. If suitable outlets
used for pasture. The natural vegetation consists of are available, lateral ditches and tile drains can be used
cypress and sweetgum. The understory includes sand to lower the water table. Returning all crop residue to the
cordgrass, bluestem, maidencane, and waxmyrtle. soil and using a cropping system that includes grasses,
In its natural state, this soil is generally not suited to legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to maintain
cultivated crops. If an adequate water control system, fertility.
such as dikes, ditches, and pumps, is established and This soil is suited to pasture. Proper stocking, pasture
maintained, this soil is suited to use for most cultivated rotation, and timely deferment of grazing help keep the
crops and as pasture. pasture in good condition.
This soil is generally not suited to the production of The potential of this soil for the production of slash
pine trees because of ponding or extended wetness. It pines is moderate. The main management concerns for
may be suited to the production of cypress and producing and harvesting timber are the equipment use



surface drainage helps to control ponding, the seasonal and harvesting operations should be scheduled during
high water table is a continuing limitation, dry periods. Bedding of rows helps to minimize the
This Paisley soil is in capability subclass Vllw, in excessive wetness limitation.
woodland group 2W, and in the Freshwater Marshes and If this soil is used for building site development, the
Ponds range site. main management concerns are excessive wetness and
instability of cutbanks. Drainage is needed to lower the
38-Pinellas fine sand. This soil is nearly level and high water table, and fill material is needed in most
poorly drained. It is on broad plains on the flatwoods. areas. Septic tank absorption fields need to be mounded
Slope is 0 to 2 percent. in most areas. Cutbanks are not stable and are subject
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Pinellas fine to slumping.
sand, the Pinellas soil and similar soils make up 83 to 99 This Pinellas soil is in capability subclass IIIw, in
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 woodland group 8W, and in the Cabbage Palm
to 17 percent of the mapped areas. Flatwoods range site.






40 Soil Survey


39-Arents, very steep. This map unit consists of In most areas, this Pomello soil is used for native
mounds of very steep, heterogenous soil material. These pasture. In a few areas, it is used for citrus crops,
Arents are the accumulation of material from phosphate cultivated crops, or improved pasture or for homesite or
mining operations. urban development. The natural vegetation consists of
This map unit is not associated with or confined to a longleaf pine, sand pine, and slash pine. The understory
particular kind of soil. Arents do not have an orderly includes creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
sequence of soil layers. They are variable and contain running oak, saw palmetto, and pineland threeawn.
discontinuous lenses, pockets, or streaks of black, gray, This soil is generally not suited to most cultivated
grayish brown, brown, or yellowish brown sandy or loamy crops and citrus crops because of droughtiness and the
excavated material. The thickness of the excavated rapid leaching of plant nutrients, which limit the choice of
material ranges from 3 to 15 feet or more. plants that can be grown and reduce the potential yield
Included in this map unit are small areas of water. of all crops. Droughtiness, a result of the very low
Most soil properties of Arents are variable. The depth available water capacity, is a management concern,
to the seasonal high water table will vary with the especially during extended dry periods.
amount of excavated material and artificial drainage. The This soil is poorly suited to pasture. The very low
permeability and the available water capacity vary widely available water capacity of the soil limits production of
from one area to another. plants during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants,
Phosphate mining operations are inactive in most such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more
areas. A few areas have active operations. Present land drought tolerant if properly fertilized and limed. Proper
use and slope precludes the use of this map unit for stocking, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of
cultivated crops, pasture, commercial trees, or building grazing help keep the pasture in good condition.
site development. An individual assessment of each site The potential of this soil for the production of sand
is necessary to determine its potential for different uses. pines and slash pines is moderate. The main
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a timber are the equipment use limitations and seedling
capability subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range mortality. The fine sand texture of the surface layer limits
site. the use of equipment. The very low available water

41-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This capacity adversely affects seedling survival in areas
where understory plants are numerous.
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well If this soil is used for building site development, the
drained. It is on low ridges on the flatwoods.
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Pomello fine main management concerns are instability of cutbanks
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Pomello fine and possible contamination of the ground water.
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Pomello soil and similar Population growth has resulted in increased construction
soils make up 75 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. of houses on this soil. Cutbanks are not stable and are
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 25 percent of the mapped subject to slumping. If the density of housing is moderate
areas. to high, a community sewage system can help prevent
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray contamination of water supplies by seepage.
fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to This Pomello soil is in capability subclass Vis, in
a depth of about 43 inches, is light gray fine sand. The woodland group 8S, and in the Sand Pine Scrub range
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 46 inches, site.
is dark brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of
about 55 inches, is brown fine sand. The substratum to a 42-Pomello-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
depth of about 80 inches is grayish brown fine sand. slopes. This complex consists of Pomello soil that is
Similar soils included in mapping, in some places, have a nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well
subsoil within 30 inches of the surface. Other similar drained and of areas of Urban land. This complex is on
soils, in some areas, have a subsoil at a depth of more low ridges on the flatwoods.
than 50 inches, and similar soils, in some of the lower This map unit consists of 45 to 60 percent Pomello
parts of the landscape, are somewhat poorly drained, soil and 30 to 45 percent Urban land. The included soils
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Immokalee make up 25 percent or less of the map unit. The
and Smyrna soils in small areas. These soils are poorly individual areas of the soils in this map unit are too
drained. mixed or too small to map separately at the scale used
In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a for the maps in the back of this publication.
depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1 to 4 months and recedes Typically, the surface layer of Pomello soil is dark gray
to a depth of 40 to 60 inches during dry periods, fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
Permeability is very rapid in the surface and subsurface a depth of about 42 inches, is white fine sand. The upper
layers, moderately rapid in the subsoil, and rapid in the part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 48 inches, is very
substratum. The available water capacity is very low. dark brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of






Hillsborough County, Florida 41



about 54 inches, is brown fine sand. The substratum to a sand. Below that layer to a depth of more than 80 inches
depth of about 80 inches is white fine sand. In places, is light brownish yellow fine sand.
the upper part of the subsoil is within 30 inches of the Included in mapping are natural soils in small areas,
soil surface. In places, the upper part of the subsoil is at which have not been altered, and sand tailings with
a depth of more than 50 inches. In some of the lower inclusions of loamy or clayey bodies (slickens). In areas
parts of the landscape, the soil is somewhat poorly where slickens have been added, the amount of clay in
drained. the soil is variable. The variations in the amount of clay
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by is caused by the differential settling velocity of sand and
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces slickens. In some places, the clay has been carried by
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification the water, has settled, and has formed slight
is not feasible. depressions on the landscape. Also included are small
Included in mapping are Felda, Immokalee, and areas of Haplaquents, small areas of soil that has slope
Smyrna soils in small areas. These soils are poorly ranging from 0 to 5 percent, and small depressions with
drained and are in slightly lower positions on the intermittent pools of water.
landscape than Pomello soil. Quartzipsamments have a variable water table that is
In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a dependent upon the water table of the surrounding soils.
depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1 to 4 months and recedes In most areas, the seasonal high water table is at a
to a depth of 40 to 60 inches during dry periods. The depth of more than 72 inches. In some areas, the
permeability of Pomello soil is very rapid in the surface seasonal high water table fluctuates between depths of
and subsurface layers, moderately rapid in the subsoil, 20 to 72 inches of the surface. Permeability is variable
and rapid in the substratum. The available water capacity but generally is very rapid. The available water capacity
is very low. is also variable but generally is very low.
Present land use precludes the use of the soils in this In most areas, these soils are used for pasture or have
map unit for cultivated crops, pasture, or commercial been left idle. A few areas are used for homesite or
trees. Pomello soil in the Urban land part of this complex urban development.
is used for lawns, parks, playgrounds, or cemeteries, or it The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
is left as open space. capability subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range
If the soils in this map unit are used for building site site.
development, the main management concerns are
instability of cutbanks and possible contamination of the 44-St. Augustine fine sand This soil is nearly level
ground water. Population growth has resulted in and somewhat poorly drained. It is on flats and ridges
increased construction of houses on this soil. Cutbanks bordering Tampa Bay. It is subject to flooding for very
are not stable and are subject to slumping. If the density brief periods during Tampa Bay. It is subject to flope oding for very
of housing is moderate to high, a community sewage brief periods during hurricanes The slope is 0 to 2
system can help to prevent contamination of water percent.
supplies by seepage. Droughtiness, a result of the very In 95 percent of the areas mapped as St. Augustine
low available water capacity, is a limitation, especially fine sand, the St. Augustine soil and similar soils make
during extended dry periods. Selection of vegetation that up 91 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar
is adapted to these soils is critical for the establishment soils make up 1 to 9 percent of the mapped areas.
of lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable gardens. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a sand about 3 inches thick. The upper part of the
capability subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range underlying material, to a depth of about 12 inches, is
site. light brownish gray fine sand. The middle part, to a depth
of about 30 inches, is light gray, mottled fine sand
43-Quartzipsamments, nearly level. These soils are containing balls of sandy clay. The lower part to a depth
nearly level and moderately well drained to excessively of about 80 inches is gray fine sand. Similar soils
drained. They formed in accumulations of sand from included in mapping, in some areas, have a surface layer
phosphate mining operations. Quartzipsamments of sandy loam or loamy sand. Other similar soils, in
generally are confined to areas in specially constructed some places, have an underlying material that consists
basins. Sand, a by-product of phosphate mining of stratified lenses of sandy clay loam, clay loam, or
operations, has been pumped into these basins and loamy sand.
allowed to dry. Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Kesson and
iThe color and thickness of these soils vary from one Myakka soils in small areas. Kesson soils are very poorly
area to another, but one of the more common profiles drained. Myakka soils are poorly drained.
has a surface layer of mixed dark gray, gray, and light In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a
gray fine sand about 15 inches thick. Below the surface depth of 20 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months and recedes
layer, to a depth of about 55 inches, is pale brown fine to a depth of 50 inches during prolonged dry periods.






42 Soil Survey



Permeability is moderately rapid or rapid. The available Included in mapping are Kesson and Myakka soils in
water capacity is low. small areas. These soils are very poorly drained and are
In most areas, this St. Augustine soil has been left idle in lower-lying areas in tidal swamps and marshes.
as open space. In a few areas, it is used for homesite or In most areas, the soils in this map unit are artificially
urban development. The natural vegetation consists of drained by sewer systems, gutters, tile drains, and
waxmyrtle, greenbrier, blackberry, and panicum. surface ditches. The undrained areas have a seasonal
This soil is generally not suited to most cultivated high water table at a depth of about 20 to 30 inches for
crops, citrus crops, or pasture or for the production of 2 to 6 months. The high water table recedes to a depth
pine trees because of droughtiness, rapid leaching of of 50 inches during prolonged dry periods. The
plant nutrients, and the saline condition of the soil. permeability of St. Augustine soil is moderately rapid or
The potential of this soil for the production of longleaf rapid. The available water capacity is low.
pines and slash pines is very low. The main Present land use precludes the use of the soils in this
management concerns are the equipment use limitations map unit for cultivated crops, pasture, or commercial
and seedling mortality. Seedling mortality is increased trees. St. Augustine soil in the Urban land part of this
because of droughtiness and the saline condition of the complex is used for lawns, parks, playgrounds, or
soil. cemeteries, or it is left as open space.
If this soil is used for building site development, the If the soils in this map unit are used for building site
main management concerns are excessive wetness and development, the main management concerns are
instability of cutbanks. Population growth has resulted in excessive wetness and instability of cutbanks. In most
increased construction of houses on this soil. In most areas, the soils in this map unit are artificially drained.
areas, this soil is artificially drained by surface drains and Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to slumping.
ditches. Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to Selection of vegetation that is adapted to these soils is
slumping. Selection of vegetation that is adapted to this critical for the establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and
soil is critical for the establishment of lawns, shrubs,
trees, and vegetable gardens. This soil is subject to vegetable gardens. Droughtiness, a result of the low
flooding for very brief periods during severe hurricanes, available water capacity, is a limitation, especially during
flooding extended dry periods. The soils need to be mulched,
but tropical storms of hurricane intensity very rarely extended, and irriodsated to establish h lawn grasses and
affect Hillsborough County. fertilized, and irrigated to establish lawn grasses and
This St. Augustine soil is in capability subclass Vlls. other small seeded plants. The soils in this map unit are
This soil has not been assigned to a woodland group or subject to flooding for very brief periods during severe
to a rane sitegroup or hurricanes, but tropical storms of hurricane intensity very
rarely affect Hillsborough County.

45-St. Augustine-Urban land complex. This The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
complex consists of St. Augustine soil that is nearly level capability subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range
and somewhat poorly drained and of areas of Urban site.
land. This complex is on flats and slight ridges bordering
Tampa Bay. These soils are subject to flooding for very 46-St. Johns fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
brief periods during the hurricane season. The slope is 0 poorly drained. It is on low-lying plains on the flatwoods.
to 2 percent. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
This map unit consists of 50 to 60 percent St. In 80 percent of the areas mapped as St. Johns fine
Augustine soil and 30 to 45 percent Urban land. The sand, the St. Johns soil and similar soils make up 76 to
included soils make up 9 percent or less of this map 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make
unit. The individual areas of the soils in this map unit are up 1 to 24 percent of the mapped areas.
too mixed or too small to map separately at the scale Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is black
used for the maps in the back of this publication, fine sand about 6 inches thick. The lower part, to a
Typically, the surface layer of St. Augustine soil is dark depth of about 12 inches, is very dark grayish brown fine
gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The upper part of sand. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 29
the underlying material, to a depth of about 20 inches, is inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The upper part
brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of 37 of the subsoil, to a depth of about 36 inches, is black
inches, is light brownish gray, mottled fine sand. The fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of about 46
lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is gray, mottled inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The lower part,
fine sand. In some areas, the surface layer is loamy to a depth of about 50 inches, is dark yellowish brown
sand. fine sand. The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by is light brownish gray fine sand. Similar soils included in
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces mapping, in some areas, have a surface layer that is less
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification than 10 inches thick. Other similar soils, in some places,
is not feasible. do not have a subsurface layer; and in some places,






Hillsborough County, Florida 43



these included soils have a subsoil that is brown or dark needed in most areas. Septic tank absorption fields need
brown. to be mounded in most areas. If the density of housing is
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Basinger soils moderate to high, a community sewage system can help
in small areas. Basinger soils are very poorly drained, prevent contamination of water supplies by seepage.
Also included are unnamed soils that have a surface Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to slumping.
layer that is 10 to 24 inches thick and have a loamy This St. Johns soil is in capability subclass IIIw, in
layer at a depth of more than 40 inches. woodland group 10W, and in the South Florida
In most years, a seasonal high water table fluctuates Flatwoods range site.
from the soil surface to a depth of 15 inches for 2 to 6
months and recedes to a depth of 15 to 30 inches 47-Seffner fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
during prolonged dry periods. Permeability is rapid in the somewhat poorly drained. It is on the rims of
surface and subsurface layers, moderately slow or depressions and on broad, low ridges on the flatwoods.
moderate in the subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. The The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
available water capacity is moderate. In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Seffner fine
In most areas, this St. Johns soil is used for native sand, the Seffner soil and similar soils make up 84 to 99
pasture. In a few areas, it is used for cultivated crops or percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1
improved pasture or for homesite or urban development, to 16 percent of the mapped areas.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine and Typically, this soil has a surface layer that is about 13
slash pine. The understory includes gallberry, running inches thick. The upper 9 inches is very dark gray fine
oak, saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, and waxmyrtle. sand, and the lower 4 inches is very dark gray, mottled
If a water control system is established and fine sand. A transitional layer, to a depth of about 21
maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil inches, is dark gray, mottled fine sand. The upper part of
is well suited to most cultivated crops and pasture. If the underlying material, to a depth of about 35 inches, is
drained, this soil is moderately suited to citrus crops in very pale brown, mottled fine sand. The middle part, to a
areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures. depth of about 63 inches, is light gray, mottled fine sand.
Proper arrangement and bedding of tree rows, lateral The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is white, mottled
ditches or tile drains, and well constructed outlets will fine sand. Similar soils included in mapping, in some
help lower the water table. Droughtiness, a result of the areas, have a surface layer that is less than 10 inches
moderate available water capacity, is a management thick. Other similar-soils, in some places, have a surface
concern especially during extended dry periods. This soil layer that is more than 24 inches thick; and in some of
is suited to most irrigation systems. Returning all crop the higher parts of the landscape, the included similar
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that soils are moderately well drained.
includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Ona and
help to maintain fertility. Frequent applications of fertilizer Smyrna soils in small areas. These soils are poorly
and lime are generally needed to improve crop drained.
production. In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a
If a water control system is established and depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months and recedes
maintained, this soil is well suited to pasture. Wetness to a depth of less than 60 inches during prolonged dry
limits the choice of plants that can be grown and periods. Permeability is rapid. The available water
restricts grazing during periods of excessive wetness. capacity is low or moderate.
Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing In most areas, this Seffner soil is used for cultivated
during wet periods help keep the pasture and the soil in crops or pasture or for homesite and urban
good condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for development. In a few areas, it is used for citrus crops or
optimum growth of grasses and legumes. has been left idle in natural vegetation. The natural
The potential of this soil for the production of slash vegetation consists of longleaf pine, slash pine, and
pines is moderately high. Equipment use limitations and laurel oak. The understory includes creeping bluestem,
seedling mortality are the main limitations. Equipment grassleaf goldaster, lopsided indiangrass, saw palmetto,
use limitations are a concern in management if the soil is and pineland threeawn.
not properly drained. Water-tolerant trees should be If a water-control system is established and
planted. Planting and harvesting operations should be maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil
scheduled during dry periods, is well suited to most cultivated crops, citrus crops, and
If this soil is used for building site development, the pasture. If suitable outlets are available, lateral ditches
main management concerns are excessive soil wetness, and tile drains can be used to lower the water table.
possible contamination of the ground water, and Droughtiness, a result of the low to moderate available
instability of cutbanks. Population growth has resulted in water capacity, is a management concern, especially
increased construction of houses on this soil. Drainage is during extended dry periods. A well designed and
needed to lower the high water table, and fill material is properly managed irrigation system will help to maintain






44 Soil Survey



optimum soil moisture and thus ensure maximum yields. trees. An individual assessment of each site is necessary
Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a to determine its potential for different uses.
cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a The soils in this unit have not been assigned to a
grass-legume mixture help to maintain fertility. Frequent capability subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range
applications of fertilizer and lime are generally needed to site.
improve soil quality.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Proper stocking, 51-Haplaquents, clayey. This soil is nearly level and
pasture rotation, and timely deferment of grazing help very poorly drained. It formed in accumulations of fine-
keep the pasture in good condition. Fertilizer and lime textured material from phosphate mining operations.
are needed for optimum growth of grasses and legumes. Haplaquents are confined in specially constructed basins
The potential of this soil for the production of slash that are surrounded by short, steep dikes. Undrained
pines is high. This soil has few limitations for woodland areas are ponded for very long periods. The slope is less
use and management, than 1 percent.
If this soil is used for building site development, the Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown clay
main management concerns are excessive soil wetness, about 3 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth
instability of cutbanks, and possible contamination of the of about 80 inches is gray clay that has mottles in
ground water. Drainage is needed to lower the high various hues, values, and chromas. The clay is
water table, and fill material is needed in most areas. consolidated and will support the weight of livestock.
Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to slumping. Generally, Haplaquents range in thickness from about 3
Septic tank absorption fields are mounded in most areas. feet near the edges to more than 30 feet in the centers
If the density of housing is moderate to high, a of the basins. These soils contain about 88 percent clay,
community sewage system can help prevent 8 percent silt, and 4 percent sand. The clay is principally
contamination of water supplies by seepage, montmorillonite but includes kaolinite, illite, and
This Seffner soil is in capability subclass IlIw, in attapulgite.
woodland group 10W, and in the Oak Hammocks range Included in mapping are Slickens, Quartzipsamments,
site. and water in small areas. Also included are short, steep
to very steep slopes of exposed encircling dikes.
50-Slickens. This miscellaneous area consists of In most years, undrained areas of this map unit are
level, very poorly drained accumulations of fine-textured ponded except during dry periods. A seasonal high water
material from phosphate mining operations. Slickens table fluctuates from the soil surface to a depth of about
generally are confined in specially constructed basins or 10 inches. Permeability is variable but generally is very
holding ponds. The basins are designed to allow water slow. The available water capacity is high.
to flow through a series of holding ponds and allow the In most areas, this soil is used as pasture or has been
slickens to settle out. These areas are ponded for very left idle in natural vegetation. The natural vegetation
long periods. The slope is less than 1 percent. consists of primrose willow and Coastal Plain willow. The
Slickens do not have an orderly sequence of soil understory includes smartweed, maidencane, and
layers. Typically, the slickens are gray or light gray and cattails. An individual assessment of each site is
have mottles in various hues, values, and chromas. necessary to determine its potential for different uses.
Slickens are clayey and contain about 88 percent clay, 8 The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
percent silt, and 4 percent sand. The clay mainly is capability subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range
montmorillonite but includes kaolinite, illite, and site.
attapulgite. The clayey material is fluid or very fluid
throughout except, in some places, the upper few inches 52-Smyrna fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
are firm. poorly drained. It is on broad, low-lying, convex swells on
Included with this soil in mapping are the flatwoods. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Quartzipsamments in small areas. Also included are In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Smyrna fine
short, steep to very steep slopes of exposed encircling sand, the Smyrna soil and similar soils make up 90 to 99
dikes. percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1
In most years, undrained areas are ponded except to 10 percent of the mapped areas.
during extended dry periods. A seasonal high water table Typically, the soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
fluctuates from the soil surface to a depth of about 10 fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
inches. Permeability is very slow. The available water a depth of about 12 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper
capacity is high. part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 15 inches, is dark
Most areas in this map unit have been left idle. brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 20
Slickens generally do not support vegetation. They also inches, is very dark grayish brown fine sand. The upper
are too soft and boggy to support livestock. Slickens are part of the substratum, to a depth of about 45 inches, is
not suited to cultivated crops, pasture, or commercial light brownish gray, mottled fine sand. The lower part to







Hillsborough County, Florida 45



a depth of about 80 inches is brown fine sand. Similar mounded in most areas. If the density of housing is
soils included in mapping, in some areas, have a surface moderate to high, a community sewage system can help
layer that is more than 8 inches thick. Other similar soils, prevent contamination of water supplies by seepage.
in some areas, do not have a subsurface layer. In some Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to slumping.
places, the similar soils have subsoil at a depth of more This Smyrna soil is in capability subclass IVw, in
than 20 inches. woodland group 10W, and in the South Florida
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Pomello and Flatwoods range site.
Wabasso soils in small areas. Pomello soils are
moderately well drained. Wabasso soils have a loamy 53-Tavares-Millhopper fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
subsoil or sandy subsoil. slopes. The soils in this map unit are nearly level to
In most years, a seasonal high water table fluctuates gently sloping and moderately well drained. They are in
from the soil surface to a depth of 10 inches for more low-lying areas on the uplands and on low ridges on the
than 2 months and recedes to a depth of 10 to 40 flatwoods.
inches for 6 months or more. Permeability is rapid in the In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Tavares-
surface and subsurface layers, moderate or moderately Millhopper fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and similar
rapid in the subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. The soils make up 87 to 99 percent of the mapped area, and
available water capacity is low. dissimilar soils make up 1 to 13 percent of the mapped
In most areas, this Smyrna soil is used for native areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of about 63
pasture. In a few areas, it is used for cultivated crops, percent Tavares soil and similar soils and 26 percent
improved pasture, or citrus crops or for homesite or Millhopper soil and similar soils.
urban development. The natural vegetation consists of Typically, the surface layer of the Tavares soil is dark
longleaf pine and slash pine. The understory includes grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper
gallberry, running oak, saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, part of the underlying material, to a depth of about 32
and waxmyrtle. inches, is pale brown fine sand. The middle part, to a
If a water control system is established and depth of about 40 inches, is very pale brown fine sand.
maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray
is suited to most cultivated crops, citrus crops, and fine sand. Similar soils included in mapping, in some
pasture. Proper arrangement and bedding of tree rows, areas, have a brown or dark brown layer in the lower
lateral ditches or tile drains, and well constructed outlets part of the underlying material. Other similar soils, in
will help lower the water table. Returning all crop residue some of the lower parts of the landscape, are somewhat
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes poorly drained.
grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to Typically, the surface layer of the Millhopper soil is
maintain fertility. Frequent application of fertilizer and dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part
lime are generally needed to improve crop production. of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 9 inches, is
If a water control management system is established brown fine sand. The next layer, to a depth of about 25
and maintained, this soil is well suited to pasture. inches, is light yellowish brown fine sand. The next layer,
Wetness limits the choice of plants that can be grown to a depth of about 48 inches, is light gray, mottled fine
and restricts grazing during periods of excessive sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 57 inches, is
wetness. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and restricted light gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and depth of about 62 inches, is very pale brown, mottled
the soil in good condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed sandy clay loam. The lower part to a depth of about 80
for optimum growth of grasses and legumes. inches is gray, mottled sandy clay loam. Similar soils
The potential of this soil for the production of slash included in mapping, in some areas, have a dark surface
pines is moderately high. Equipment use limitations and layer more than 10 inches thick.
seedling mortality are the main limitations. Equipment Dissimilar soils which are included in this map unit are
use limitations are a concern if the soil is not properly Candler, Myakka, and Smyrna soils in small areas.
drained. Water-tolerant trees should be planted. Planting Candler soils are excessively drained. Myakka and
and harvesting operations should be scheduled during Smyrna soils are poorly drained.
dry periods. Bedding of rows helps to minimize the Tavares soil has a seasonal high water table at a
excessive wetness limitation. depth of 40 to 80 inches for more than 6 months, and it
If this soil is used for building site development, the recedes to a depth of more than 80 inches during
main management concerns are excessive wetness, prolonged dry periods. Millhopper soil has a seasonal
possible contamination of the ground water, and high water table at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 to 4
instability of cutbanks. Population growth has resulted in months, and it recedes to a depth of 60 to 72 inches for
increased construction of houses on this soil. Drainage is 2 to 4 months. Permeability of Tavares soil is rapid.
needed to lower the high water table, and fill material is Permeability of Millhopper soil is rapid in the surface and
needed in most areas. Septic tank absorption fields are subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The






46 Soil Survey



available water capacity is very low in Tavares soil and or as pasture, the main limitations are droughtiness and
low in Millhopper soil. the rapid leaching of plant nutrients, which limit the
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are used for choice of plants that can be grown and reduce the
pasture or homesite and urban development. In a few potential yield of crops. Droughtiness, a result of the very
areas, they are used for cultivated crops or citrus crops low or low available water capacity, is a management
or are left in natural vegetation. The natural vegetation concern, especially during extended dry periods. A well
consists of bluejack oak, turkey oak, live oak, and designed and property managed irrigation system will
longleaf pine. The understory includes creeping help to maintain optimum soil moisture and thus ensure
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, panicum, and pineland maximum yields. Returning all crop residue to the soil
threeawn (fig. 6). and using a cropping system that includes grasses,
The soils in this map unit are well suited to citrus legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to conserve
crops in areas that are relatively free of freezing moisture, maintain fertility, and control erosion.
temperatures. If these soils are used for cultivated crops







































Figure 6.-Ths area of Tavarwe-MMhopper fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, has been left n natural vegetation. These sols are In the
Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak HIls range site.






Hillsborough County, Florida 47



The soils in this map unit are well suited to pasture. inches, is white fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil,
The very low or low available water capacity of the soils to a depth of about 64 inches, is light yellowish brown,
limits production of plants during extended dry periods, mottled loamy fine sand. The lower part to a depth of
Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and about 80 inches is pale brown, mottled fine sandy loam.
bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Candler soils
fertilized and limed. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, in small areas. These soils are excessively drained.
and timely deferment of grazing help keep the pasture in Tavares soil has a seasonal high water table at a
good condition. depth of 40 to 80 inches for more than 6 months, and it
The potential of these soils for the production of slash recedes to a depth of more than 80 inches during
pines is moderately high. The main management prolonged dry periods. Millhopper soil has a seasonal
concerns for producing and harvesting timber are the high water table at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 to 4
equipment use limitations and seedling mortality. The months, and it recedes to a depth of 60 to 72 inches for
fine sand texture of the surface layer limits the use of 2 to 4 months. Permeability of Tavares soil is rapid.
equipment. The very low or low available water capacity Permeability of Millhopper soil is rapid in the surface and
adversely affects seedling survival in areas where subsurface layers and moderately rapid or moderate in
understory plants are numerous. the subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in
If the soils in this map unit are used for building site Tavares soil and low in Millhopper soil.
development, the main management concerns are In most areas, the soils in this map unit are used as
instability of cutbanks and possible contamination of the pasture or for homesites or urban development. In a few
ground water in Tavares soil. Population growth has areas, they are used for citrus crops or are left in natural
resulted in increased construction of houses on these vegetation. The natural vegetation consists of bluejack
soils. Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to oak, turkey oak, live oak, and longleaf pine. The
slumping. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a understory includes creeping bluestem, lopsided
community sewage system can help prevent indiangrass, panicum, and pineland threeawn.
contamination of water supplies by seepage. The soils in this map unit are suited to citrus crops in
The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass Ills, areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures. If
in woodland group 10S, and in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey these soils are used for cultivated crops or pasture, the
Oak Hills range site. main limitations are droughtiness and the rapid leaching
of plant nutrients, which limit the choice of plants that
54-Tavares-Millhopper fine sands, 5 to 8 percent can be grown and the potential yield of crops.
slopes. The soils in this map unit are moderately sloping Droughtiness, a result of the very low to low available
and moderately well drained. They are on the uplands water capacity, is a management concern, especially
that border ponds, lakes, and streams. Tavares soil is on during extended dry periods. A well designed and
the summit and lower side slopes. Millhopper soil is on properly managed irrigation system will help to maintain
the upper side slopes. optimum soil moisture and thus ensure maximum yields.
In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, Tavares- Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a
Millhopper fine sands, 5 to 8 percent slopes, and similar cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a
soils make up 78 to 99 percent of the mapped areas, grass-legume mixture help to maintain fertility, conserve
and dissimilar soils make up 1 to 22 percent of the moisture, and control erosion.
mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of The soils in this map unit are moderately suited to
about 70 percent Tavares soil and similar soils and 26 pasture. The very low or low available water capacity of
percent Millhopper soil. the soils limits production of plants during extended dry
Typically, the surface layer of the Tavares soil is very periods. Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal
dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The upper part bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant
of the underlying material, to a depth of about 21 inches, if properly fertilized and limed. Proper stocking, pasture
is light yellowish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a rotation, and timely deferment of grazing help keep the
depth of about 40 inches, is pale brown fine sand. The pasture in good condition.
lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is pale brown, The potential of these soils for the production of slash
mottled fine sand. Similar soils included in mapping, in pines is moderately high. The main management
some areas, have a surface layer more than 9 inches concerns for producing and harvesting timber are
thick. equipment use limitations and seedling mortality. The
Typically, the surface layer of the Millhopper soil is fine sand texture of the surface layer limits the use of
dark grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The equipment. The very low or low available water capacity
upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about generally affects seedling survival in areas where
26 inches, is light yellowish brown fine sand. The middle understory plants are numerous.
part, to a depth of about 38 inches, is very pale brown, If the soils in this map unit are used for building site
mottled fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 54 development, the main management concerns are the






48 Soil Survey



instability of cutbanks and possible contamination of the is used for lawns, parks, playgrounds, or cemeteries or is
ground water. Population growth has resulted in left as open space.
increased construction of houses on these soils. If the soils in this map unit are used for building site
Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to slumping. If development, the main management concerns are
the density of housing is moderate to high, a community instability of cutbanks and possible contamination of
sewage system can help prevent contamination of water ground water. Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to
supplies by seepage in areas of Tavares soil. slumping. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a
The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass community sewage system can help to prevent
IVs, in woodland group 10S, and in the Longleaf Pine- contamination of water supplies by seepage. Plans for
Turkey Oak Hills range site. homesite development should provide for the
preservation of as many trees as possible. Droughtiness,
55-Tavares-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent a result of the very low available water capacity, is a
slopes. This complex consists of Tavares soil that is limitation, especially during extended dry periods.
nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well Selection of vegetation that is adapted to these soils is
drained and of areas of Urban land. This complex is in critical for the establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and
low-lying areas on the uplands and on low ridges on the vegetable gardens. The soils need to be mulched,
flatwoods. fertilized, and irrigated to establish lawn grasses and
This map unit consists of 45 to 60 percent Tavares other small seeded plants.
soil and 30 to 45 percent Urban land. The included soils The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
make up 25 percent or less of this map unit. The capability subclass, or to a woodland group, or to a
individual areas of the soils in this map unit are too range site.
mixed or too small to map separately at the scale used
for the maps in the back of this publication. 56-Urban land. This map unit consists of
Typically, the surface layer of Tavares soil is very dark miscellaneous areas that are covered by concrete,
gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces that
the underlying material, to a depth of about 18 inches, is obscure or alter the soils so that identification is not
light yellowish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a feasible. The slope is dominantly less than 2 percent, but
depth of about 46 inches, is very pale brown fine sand. it ranges from less than 2 percent to 5 percent.
The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is white, In areas mapped as Urban land, 85 percent or more of
mottled fine sand. In some areas, the surface layer is the surface is covered by streets, parking lots, buildings,
more than 9 inches thick. In places, the lower part of the and other structures. In moderately built-up areas, these
underlying material is brown or dark brown. In some of structures cover 50 to 85 percent of the surface.
the lower parts of the landscape, the soil is somewhat Most areas of Urban land are artificially drained by
poorly drained. sewer systems, gutters, tile drains, and surface ditches.
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by Present land use precludes the use of this
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces miscellaneous area for cultivated crops, pasture, or
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification commercial trees. Open areas generally are used for
is not feasible. lawns, parks, playgrounds, cemeteries, or open spaces.
Included in mapping are Candler, Millhopper, and Urban land has not been assigned to a capability
Myakka soils in small areas. Candler soils are subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range site.
excessively drained and are in higher-lying or more
sloping upland areas than Tavares soil. Millhopper soils 57-Wabasso fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
have a subsoil and are in similar positions on the poorly drained. It is on plains on the flatwoods. The
landscape as Tavares soil. Myakka soils are poorly slope is 0 to 2 percent.
drained and are in lower-lying areas on the flatwoods In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Wabasso fine
than Tavares soils. sand, the Wabasso soil and similar soils make up 85 to
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are artificially 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make
drained by sewer systems, gutters, tile drains, and up 1 to 15 percent of the mapped areas.
surface ditches. The undrained areas have a seasonal Typically, the soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
high water table at a depth of 40 to 80 inches for more fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
than 6 months. The high water table recedes to a depth a depth of about 29 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper
of more than 80 inches during prolonged dry periods, part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 32 inches, is
The permeability of Tavares soil is rapid. The available black fine sand. The next layer, to a depth of about 38
water capacity is very low. inches, is dark brown fine sand. The next layer, to a
Present land use precludes the use of the soils in this depth of about 46 inches, is light gray sandy clay loam.
map unit for cultivated crops, pasture, or commercial The lower part, to a depth of about 60 inches, is light
trees. Tavares soil in the Urban land part of this complex greenish gray, mottled sandy clay loam. The substratum






Hillsborough County, Florida 49



to a depth of about 80 inches is gray loamy sand. Similar drained. Water-tolerant trees should be planted. Planting
soils included in mapping, in some areas, have a subsoil and harvesting operations should be scheduled during
at a depth of more than 30 inches. Other similar soils, in dry periods. Bedding of rows helps to minimize the
some places, have a subsoil at a depth of more than 40 excessive wetness limitations.
inches, or have a very strongly acid subsoil, or have If this soil is used for building site development, the
both. Other similar soils, in some areas, have a subsoil main management concerns are excessive wetness and
that is brown or dark yellowish brown; and in some slow permeability of the lower subsoil. Population growth
places, the similar soils have thin discontinuous strata of has resulted in increased construction of houses on this
limestone fragments in the underlying material, soil. Drainage is needed to lower the high water table,
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Myakka and and fill material is needed in most areas. The slow
Pinellas soils in small areas. Myakka soils do not have a permeability of the lower subsoil and the high water table
loamy subsoil below the sandy subsoil. Pinellas soils increase the possibility that the septic tank absorption
have a calcareous layer above the subsoil. fields will not function properly. The slow permeability
In most years, a seasonal high water table fluctuates limitation can be minimized by increasing the size of the
from the soil surface to a depth of 10 inches for 2 absorption field.
months and recedes to a depth of 40 inches during This Wabasso soil is in capability subclass IIIw, in
prolonged dry periods. Permeability is rapid in the woodland group 10W, and in the South Florida
surface and subsurface layers. It is moderate in the Flatwoods range site.
upper part of the subsoil and slow in the lower part, and
it is rapid in the substratum. The available water capacity 58-Wabasso-Urban land complex. This complex
is low or moderate. consists of Wabasso soil that is nearly level and poorly
In most areas, this Wabasso soil is used as native drained and of areas of Urban land. This complex is on
pasture. In a few areas, it is used for cultivated crops, broad plains on the flatwoods. The slope is 0 to 2
improved pasture, citrus crops, or homesite or urban percent.
development. The natural vegetation consists of longleaf This map unit consists of 50 to 65 percent Wabasso
pine and slash pine. The understory includes lopsided soil and 30 to 45 percent Urban land. The included soils
indiangrass, gallberry, saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, make up 15 percent or less of this map unit. The
and waxmyrtle. individual areas of the soils in this map unit are too
If a water control system is established and mixed or too small to map separately at the scale used
maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil for the maps in the back of this publication.
is well suited to most cultivated crops and pasture. If Typically, the surface layer of Wabasso soil is very
drained, this soil is moderately suited to citrus crops in dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures, layer, to a depth of about 21 inches, is light brownish
Proper arrangement and bedding of tree rows, lateral gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth
ditches or tile drains, and well constructed outlets will of about 31 inches, is black fine sand. The middle part,
remove excess surface water and will help lower the to a depth of about 37 inches, is gray, mottled sandy
water table. Droughtiness, a result of the low to clay loam. The lower part, to a depth of about 48 inches,
moderate available water capacity, is a management is brown, mottled sandy clay loam. The substratum to a
concern, especially during extended dry periods. This soil depth of about 80 inches is light gray, mottled loamy fine
is suited to most irrigation systems. Returning all crop sand. In places, the upper part of the subsoil is at a
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that depth of more than 30 inches. In places, the lower part
includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture of the subsoil is at a depth of more than 40 inches. In
help to maintain fertility. Frequent applications of fertilizer some areas, the upper part of the subsoil is brown or
and lime are generally needed to improve crop dark yellowish brown.
production. The Urban land part of this complex is covered by
If a water control system is established and concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces
maintained, this soil is well suited to pasture. Wetness that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification
limits the choice of plants that can be grown and is not feasible.
restricts grazing during periods of excessive wetness. Included in mapping are Felda, Malabar, and Myakka
Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing soils in small areas. Felda and Malabar soils do not have
during wet periods help to keep the pasture and the soil a dark color sandy subsoil above a loamy subsoil.
in good condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for Myakka soils do not have a loamy subsoil below a dark
optimum growth of grasses and legumes. color sandy subsoil. These soils are in similar positions
The potential of this soil for the production of slash on the flatwoods as Wabasso soil.
pines is moderately high. Equipment use limitations and In most areas, the soils in this map unit are artificially
seedling mortality are the main limitations. Equipment drained by sewer systems, gutters, tile drains, and
use limitations are a concern if the soil is not properly surface ditches. The undrained areas have a seasonal






50 Soil Survey



high water table that fluctuates from the soil surface to a In most years, a seasonal high water table fluctuates
depth of about 10 inches for 2 months. The high water from the soil surface to a depth of about 10 inches for 2
table recedes to a depth of 40 inches during prolonged to 6 months. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
dry periods. The permeability of the Wabasso soil is subsurface layers. It is slow or very slow in the subsoil
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers. It is moderate and in the substratum. The available water capacity is
in the upper part of the subsoil and slow in the lower moderate.
part, and it is rapid in the substratum. The available In most areas, this Winder soil is used as pasture. In a
water capacity is low or moderate. few areas, it is used for cultivated crops or for homesite
Present land use precludes the use of the soils in this or urban development. The natural vegetation consists of
map unit for cultivated crops, pasture, or commercial live oak, cabbage palm, and slash pine. The understory
trees. Wabasso soil in the Urban land part of this includes saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, and
complex is used for lawns, parks, playgrounds, or waxmyrtle.
cemeteries or is left as open space. If a water control system is established and
If the soils in this map unit are used for building site maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil
development, the main management concerns are is well suited to most cultivated crops. If suitable outlets
excessive wetness and slow permeability in the lower are available, lateral ditches and tile drains can be used
part of the subsoil. In most areas, the soils in this map to lower the water table. Returning all crop residue to the
unit are artificially drained. Drainage is needed to lower soil and using a cropping system that includes grasses,
the water table, and fill material is needed in undrained legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to maintain
areas for building site development. The slow fertility. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are
permeability limitation in the lower part of the subsoil can generally needed to improve crop production.
be minimized by increasing the size of the absorption This soil is suited to pasture. Wetness limits the choice
field. Selection of vegetation that is adapted to these of plants that can be grown and restricts grazing during
soils is critical for the establishment of lawns, shrubs, periods of excessive wetness. Proper stocking, pasture
trees, and vegetable gardens. The soils need to be rotation, and timely deferment of grazing help keep the
mulched, fertilized, and irrigated to establish lawn pasture in good condition.
grasses and other small seeded plants. The potential of this soil for the production of slash
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a pines is high. This soil has few limitations for woodland
capability subclass, to a woodland group, or to a range use and management. Equipment use limitations are a
site. concern if the soil is not properly drained. Water-tolerant
trees should be planted. Planting and harvesting
59-Winder fine sand. This soil is nearly level and operations should be scheduled during dry periods.
poorly drained. It is on broad, low-lying sloughs on the If this soil is used for building site development, the
flatwoods. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. main management concerns are excessive wetness and
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Winder fine slow to very slow permeability of the subsoil and
sand, the Winder soil and similar soils make up 88 to 99 substratum. Population growth has resulted in increased
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 construction of homes on this soil. The slow or very slow
to 12 percent of the mapped areas. permeability of the subsoil and substratum and the high
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray water table increase the possibility that the septic tank
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to absorption fields will not function properly. The slow or
a depth of about 10 inches, is grayish brown fine sand. very slow permeability limitation can be minimized by
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 14 increasing the size of the absorption field. Drainage is
inches, is dark grayish brown, mottled sandy loam and needed to lower the high water table, and fill material is
gray fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil, to a depth needed in most areas.
of about 30 inches, is gray sandy clay loam. The upper This Winder soil is in capability subclass IIIw, in
part of the substratum, to a depth of about 58 inches, is woodland group 11W, and in the Cabbage Palm
light gray, mottled sandy clay loam. The lower part to a Hammocks range site.
depth of about 80 inches is gray sandy loam. Similar
soils included in mapping, in some areas, have a subsoil 60-Winder fine sand, frequently flooded. This soil
at a depth of more than 20 inches. Other similar soils, in is nearly level and poorly drained. It is on the flood
some areas, have a thin, discontinuous strata of plains. This soil is flooded for very long periods following
fragmented limestone in the upper part of the subsoil. prolonged intense rain. Many areas are isolated by
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Basinger, stream channels and steep escarpments. The slope is 0
Myakka, and Wabasso soils in small areas. Basinger to 2 percent.
soils are very poorly drained. Myakka soils have a dark In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Winder fine
color sandy subsoil. Wabasso soils have a dark color sand, frequently flooded, the Winder soil and similar soils
sandy subsoil above a loamy subsoil. make up 76 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.






Hillsborough County, Florida 51



Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 24 percent of the mapped Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
areas. fine sand about 3 inches thick. The upper part of the
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine subsurface layer, to a depth of about 15 inches, is
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a grayish brown, mottled fine sand. The middle part, to a
depth of about 14 inches, is grayish brown fine sand. depth of about 51 inches, is light gray, mottled fine sand.
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 18 The lower part, to a depth of about 60 inches, is grayish
inches, is gray sandy clay loam and white fine sand. The brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 80
lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 34 inches, inches is dark brown fine sand. Similar soils included in
is grayish brown, mottled sandy clay loam. The mapping, in some places, have a subsoil that extends to
substratum, to a depth of about 80 inches, is light a depth of more than 80 inches. Other similar soils, in
brownish gray fine sand. Similar soils included in some of the higher parts of the landscape, are
mapping, in some areas, have a subsoil at a depth of moderately well drained.
more than 20 inches. Other similar soils, in some areas, Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Malabar,
have a surface layer that is more than 8 inches thick or Millhopper, Myakka, and Smyrna soils in small areas.
is stratified, or both. In some places are similar soils that Malabar, Myakka, and Smyrna soils are poorly drained.
have a thin, discontinuous strata of fragmented Millhopper soils are moderately well drained.
limestone in the upper part of the subsoil. In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Samsula, depth of 24 to 40 inches for more than 2 to 6 months
Basinger, and Chobee soils in small areas. These soils and recedes to a depth of 60 inches during prolonged
are very poorly drained. dry periods. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
In most years, a seasonal high water table fluctuates subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The
from the soil surface to a depth of about 10 inches for 2 available water capacity is low.
to 6 months. Permeability is rapid in the surface and In most areas, this Zolfo soil is used for citrus crops or
subsurface layers, slow or very slow in the subsoil, and pasture or for homesite or urban development. In a few
rapid in the substratum. The available water capacity is areas, it is used for cultivated crops or is left in natural
moderate. vegetation. The natural vegetation consists of live oak,
In most areas, this Winder soil has been left idle in turkey oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine. The understory
natural vegetation. In a few areas, it is used as pasture. includes broomsedge, bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
The natural vegetation consists of Coastal Plain willow, saw palmetto, and pineland threeawn.
red maple, cabbage palm, and sweetgum. The If a water control system is established and
understory includes buttonbush, maidencane, sawgrass, maintained and soil-improving measures applied, this soil
smartweed, and sedges. buttonbush, maidencane, sawgrass, is well suited to most cultivated crops. If drained, this soil
smartweed, and sedges. is moderately suited to citrus crops in areas that are
In its natural state, this soil is generally not suited to relatively free of freezing temperatures. Proper
cultivated crops or pasture. If a water control system, arrangement and bedding of tree rows, lateral ditches or
such as dikes, ditches, and pumps, is established and tile drains, and well constructed outlets will help lower
maintained, this soil is suited to pasture and cultivated the water table. Droughtiness, a result of the low
crops. available water capacity, is a management concern,
This soil is generally not suited to the production of especially during extended dry periods. A well designed
pines because of flooding or extended wetness. It may and properly managed irrigation system will help to
be suited to the production of cypress and hardwoods maintain optimum soil moisture and thus ensure
through natural regeneration. maximum yields. Returning all crop residue to the soil
If this soil is used for building site development or for and using a cropping system that includes grasses,
onsite waste disposal, flooding is the main hazard. Major legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to maintain
flood control structures and extensive local drainage fertility. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are
systems are needed to control flooding, generally needed to improve crop production.
This Winder soil is in capability subclass Vw and in This soil is moderately well suited to pasture. Proper
woodland group 11W. This soil has not been assigned to stocking, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of
a range site. grazing help keep the pasture in good condition.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
61-Zolfo fine sand. This soil is nearly level and grasses and legumes.
somewhat poorly drained. It is on broad, low ridges on The potential of this soil for the production of slash
the flatwoods. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. pines is moderately high. This soil has few limitations for
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Zolfo fine sand, woodland use and management.
the Zolfo soil and similar soils make up 88 to 99 percent If this soil is used for building site development, the
of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 12 main management concerns are excessive wetness,
percent of the mapped areas. instability of cutbanks, and possible contamination of the






52



ground water. Population growth has resulted in moderate to high, a community sewage system can help
increased construction of houses on this soil. Drainage is prevent contamination of water supplies by seepage.
needed to lower the high water table, and fill material is This Zolfo soil is in capability subclass IIIw, in
needed in most areas. Cutbanks are not stable and are woodland group 10W, and in the Upland Hardwood
subject to slumping. Septic tank absorption fields need Hammocks range site.
to be mounded in most areas. If the density of housing is






53








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural listed for each soil.
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid The soils in Hillsborough County do not meet the
soil-related failures in land uses. requirements for prime farmland.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Planners of management systems for individual fields
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive or farms should consider the detailed information given
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
and management. Field experience and collected data Cooperative Extension Service.
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis Large areas of agricultural land are in production in
for predicting soil behavior. Hillsborough County. In 1982, farm product sales
Information in this section can be used to plan the use exceeded 230 million dollars. Hillsborough County
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as ranked fifth in the State in value of farm products sold.
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary Crops include citrus crops, vegetables, strawberries, field
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and and container grown nursery plants, cut flowers, and
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife hay. Livestock production ranges from dairy and beef
habitat. It can be used to identify the suitability potentials cattle to tropical fish farming.
and limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to Pressures on local farmland acreage come from crop
help prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable damage from freezes, high land values, low product
soil properties. prices, and more intensive competing land uses.
Planners and others using soil survey information can Farmland acreage is expected to decline in the future.
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity Many farming operations will continue on a sound and
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. profitable basis.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a Urbanization is increasing in Hillsborough County. The
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature. city of Tampa is expanding. In some cases, the outer
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of edge of the city has joined with suburban areas, such as
sand, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to identify Temple Terrace. Former rural areas, such as
areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil layers Carrollwood and Citrus Park in northwest Hillsborough
can cause difficulty in excavation. County, are becoming urbanized. Other urban centers
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and not contiguous to Tampa, such as Brandon, Plant City,
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can and Sun City, are growing. During the past few years, the
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes. It can also county has consistently placed as one of the top ten
be a very useful guide and be beneficial when selecting growth areas in the country. Urbanization pressures will
sites for houses, buildings, streets and roads, continue and land devoted to agriculture will continue to
playgrounds, pond reservoir areas, and other uses. decline.

Crops and Pasture Soil Erosion
Soil erosion is the loss of soil by forces of water and
William G. Saalman and John F. Creighton, soil conservationists, Soil wind. The erosion of soil from agricultural land causes
Conservation Service, helped to prepare this section. loss of natural fertility and applied fertilizer elements. The
General management needed for crops and pasture is available water capacity of a soil is reduced as topsoil
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants erodes. When eroded soil moves from a field, fertilizer
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly and pesticide residues are carried into waterways,
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of causing pollution. Soil particles are considered pollutants
land capability classification used by the Soil to streams and waterways. Eroded soil, silt, or sediment,






54 Soil Survey



can fill up drainage ditches, storm sewers, and other Urban expansion is progressing rapidly in Hillsborough
bodies of water. Eroded soil can worsen weed problems County. Water and wind erosion occur on unprotected
in ditches and waterways. construction sites that have been stripped of vegetation.
All forms of water and wind erosion occur in Sediment control practices are needed on construction
Hillsborough County. Soil erosion is a limited problem sites.
scattered throughout the county. Erosion is on urban
land and agricultural land. Vegetables
Erosion by water may be barely noticeable, as in sheet The two major vegetable-growing areas in
and rill erosion, where a thin layer of soil is removed Hillsborough County are the Ruskin-Wimauma area in
from the field. Channel and gully erosion is more visible the southwest and the Dover-Plant City area in the east.
as large amounts of water collect and gather enough The Ruskin-Wimauma area produces a large amount of
force to visibly scar a field. Channels and gullies become tomatoes and one-quarter of the county's strawberries.
larger if left untreated. Other vegetables, such as greens, green beans, okra,
Wind erosion or soil blowing occurs on soils that are eggplant, peppers, cherry tomatoes, squash, cucumbers,
not protected by cover crops, rye windbreaks, or plastic watermelons, cantaloupes, and cauliflower, are grown in
mulch. Soil particles, blown by the wind, sandblast lesser amounts. The major crop in the Dover-Plant City
tender crops. Windblown soil can aggravate respiratory area is strawberries. Many other vegetables are also
ailments in people, increase maintenance on many types grown in this area. Strawberries are planted in October
of machinery, and spread weeds and certain crop and are harvested throughout the winter and spring.
diseases. Soil erosion by wind in Hillsborough County Vegetable crops have a high demand for water and
occurs during dry, windy fall and spring days when plant nutrients. Most of the vegetable crops in the county
vegetable crops are being established and large soil are grown on soils that have a sandy texture, low
areas are left bare. nutrient and available water capacity, and medium to
Factors affecting soil erosion are texture of the soil, strongly acid soil reaction. Limitations to use of these
type and amount of vegetation, slope, slope length, soils for vegetable crops can be minimized by
amount of soil surface unprotected by windbreaks, wind management practices, such as irrigation, fertilization
velocity, and type of farming activity, and liming, bedding, use of plastic mulch, and soil
Soil erosion occurs on unprotected cropland during fumigation. The management practices are applied with
fallow periods. Cover crops are especially important in such intensity that the soil's main function is a support
reducing soil erosion on cropland during fallow periods, and rooting medium.
Ryegrass, various millets, sudangrass, and sesbania are All commercial tomato and strawberry operations are
excellent choices for cover crops in Hillsborough County. irrigated. Tomatoes and other winter vegetables and sod
Sheet erosion in Hillsborough County occurs at tolerable are irrigated by using a semiclosed seepage irrigation
rates as calculated by the Universal Soil Loss Equation. system. Strawberries, field- and container-grown nursery
Improperly designed, installed, and maintained field plants, and other vegetables are irrigated by solid set
drainage systems are the principal causes of soil erosion sprinkler systems.
by water on cropland in Hillsborough County. Tender, high-value vegetable crops require large
Citrus crops are often grown on moderately sloping amounts of water at certain times of the year. Water
land, which increases soil erosion. Many of the citrus conservation is a main management concern as water
soils in Hillsborough County are well drained and have a quality and quantity are reduced because of the
rapid infiltration rate. Storm-water runoff is therefore increased salinity, the overdrawn aquifer, and the
reduced. Soil erosion will occur on well drained and reduced recharge areas. In addition to providing the
rapidly permeable soils if the groves are clean tilled. crop's water requirements, solid set sprinkler irrigation
Planting vegetation between the rows of citrus and using systems must be designed to provide freeze protection
specially designed and maintained surface drainage in strawberry fields and nurseries.
systems solve most erosion problems in citrus groves. Tailwater recovery systems, or ponds that collect
Herbicides are used for weed control under the tree runoff water from fields, provide extra water for periods
canopy. Newly planted citrus can be damaged by of peak demand, such as for freeze protection and at
windblown sand. Rapid establishment of vegetation planting time. Use of these ponds in suitable locations
between the rows reduces this problem. are encouraged by the Soil Conservation Service.
Erosion on pastureland is not a problem if a healthy Some vegetable farmers have begun planting forage
grass cover is present. Erosion occurs on pasture if poor sorghums during fallow periods to pick up the residual
management practices that reduce the grass cover have fertilizer from the vegetable crops and prevent salt build-
been followed. Overstocking, overgrazing, and up in the soil.
insufficient application of lime and fertilizer aggravate Double cropping of vegetables is being practiced on a
erosion on pastureland. limited basis and is gaining popularity. Tomato and






Hillsborough County, Florida 55



strawberry fields are bedded. Beds are covered with Myakka and Smyrna soils. Supplemental irrigation is
plastic mulch to accelerate and streamline storm runoff. practiced on all of these soils during moisture stress
Storm water should be controlled and carefully removed periods in spring and fall. Low volume or trickle irrigation
from the field to well maintained and vegetated outlets. is widely practiced to conserve irrigation water. Soils are
Plastic does reduce soil erosion during the growing low in organic matter and plant nutrients. Fertilizer and
season. lime are beneficial to the crop. Waste water treatment
Growers prefer to plant rows in a north-south direction. plant sludge is a useful soil amendment to add organic
A north-south row orientation has a positive influence on matter and nutrients and to improve tilth.
fruit and vegetable production because of more uniform Water control practices are important for citrus crops.
sunlight for the plant. On poorly drained soils, such as Myakka and Smyrna
In 1982, about 6,130 acres was planted to tomatoes in soils, the seasonal high water table creates a shallow
the county, and 4,500 acres was planted to strawberries, root zone. Citrus trees on poorly drained soils are
In addition, over 1,000 acres each of snap beans, green generally planted on raised beds to increase the
peppers, and squash was grown. Other minor crops available root zone. Subsurface drainage systems, or tile
grown include cabbage, cauliflower, cucumbers, drains, and surface drainage systems, or open ditches,
eggplant, field peas, greens, okra, and watermelons, are often installed in citrus groves to increase the rooting
Vegetables in Hillsborough County are grown on a depth. Irrigation systems are also beneficial on poorly
wide variety of soils. Most of these soils are poorly drained soils because the small volume of soil in the
drained, such as Myakka, Smyrna, Seffner, Ona, limited root zone needs frequent moisture replenishment.
Wabasso, and Pinellas soils. Tomatoes are grown
extensively on Wabasso soils, and strawberries are Pastureland
widely grown on Seffner soils. Some vegetables are
grown on soils that are very poorly drained, such as St. R. Greg Hendricks, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service,
Johns and Basinger soils. These soils need extra care assisted in preparing this section.
and planning for effective water control before being Beef cattle and dairy operations occur throughout
used for vegetables. In some places in the county, Hillsborough County. An estimated 2,000 producers and
vegetables are grown on the somewhat poorly drained 100,000 head of cattle are in the county. Less than 150
Zolfo soils, the moderately well drained Pomello soils, producers have herds of 100 head or more. The largest
and the well drained Fort Meade soils; however, these number of producers have less than 20 head.
areas are not very extensive. In 1982, Hillsborough County had 65 dairies with 10 or
One soil characteristic deserving special mention is more milk cows. Milk is marketed through the local co-op
the spodic horizon occurring in Immokalee, Myakka, in Tampa. Dairy cows feed on pasture, hay, and
Ona, Pomello, Smyrna, St. Johns, and Wabasso soils. concentrates. Pasture and hay crops are generally
The spodic layer allows semiclosed irrigation to be produced on farms. Hay is also produced for local sale
practiced efficiently. An artificial water table can often be by nonlivestock producers in the county. In 1982, hay for
built on the spodic layer that is less permeable than the beef and dairy cattle and horses was harvested from
overlying horizons. 11,000 acres.
Citrus At least one major feedlot is in Hillsborough County.
Grain and supplements are brought in from outside the
Commercial acreages of citrus are grown in rural and county. Feedlot forage is provided from sudan sorghum
suburban Hillsborough County. Citrus groves are coming silage, which is grown onsite. Limited acreages of millet
under increasing pressure from land development. Much sorghum for silage to supplement hay and pasture are
of the citrus land, particularly in the northern part of the grown by dairies.
county, is on moderately well drained soils, such as Approximately 120,000 acres of tame pasture is in the
Tavares and Millhopper soils, and this land is desirable county. The most widely grown grass is bahiagrass.
for commercial and residential development. In 1982, the Other grasses used for tame pasture are improved
commercial citrus acreage was 37,631 as reported by bermudagrass, stargrass, limpograss, and pangolagrass.
the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Most These tame pasture grasses are exotic to the United
of this acreage is harvested for processing into orange States and thus have not evolved in our relatively
juice concentrate. Small acreages of citrus specialty infertile sandy soils. Therefore, an annual fertility
fruits, such as tangerines and tangelos and navel and program is essential to achieve acceptable production
temple oranges, are also grown. Citrus acreage declined levels of forage that are able to outperform competing
over the past 20 years and will decline further because weeds, such as dogfennel and broomsedge. Bahiagrass,
of urbanization and recent freezes. unlike the other common pasture grasses, will maintain
Citrus is grown on a wide variety of soils in its stand under extremely low fertilization rates. Under
Hillsborough County. Soils range from the excessively low fertility rates, that is, less than 40 pounds of nitrogen
well drained Candler and Lake soils to the poorly drained per acre, bahiagrass can be expected to produce no






56 Soil Survey



more than 3 animal-unit-months (AUM) per acre under control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
most soil and water conditions. Another very important and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
consideration to a pasture maintenance program is pH appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
level. Soils that are suitable for the common tame diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction
pasture grasses are naturally acid with very low pH and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
levels. For tame pasture plants to thrive and efficiently and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop
utilize fertilizer, the pH level must be maintained in the residue, barnyard manure, and green manure crops; and
5.5 to 6.5 range. To maintain proper pH range, limestone harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss.
should be applied about every 3 years, or as needed, For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
according to soil tests. irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
Following adequate pastureland establishment grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
procedures is vital if a good stand of forage is to be applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum.
produced in a reasonable period of time. Proper seeding The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of
rates for bahiagrass and adequate quantity and quality of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely
vegetative planting materials must be applied for to increase as new production technology is developed.
pangolagrass, limpograss, bermudagrass, and stargrass. The productivity of a given soil compared with that of
Well prepared seedbed, good soil moisture, rolling or other soils, however, is not likely to change.
packing for good soil contact, and timely rains are critical Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in
factors. the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
These warm-season, perennial tame pasture grasses because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
mentioned above produce forage between March and office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
October. During the cooler months, November to Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
February, warm-season grasses are dormant, and forage about the management and productivity of the soils for
quality is extremely low. Incorporating cool-season those crops.
forages, such as rye, ryegrass, and clover, has been
done in the past. The winter months in Hillsborough Land Capability Classification
County are generally very dry. Therefore, irrigation is
essential if cool-season forages are to be produced with Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
any reliability. The cost of irrigating these pastures and the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops that
the high cost of establishment and maintenance has led require special management are excluded. The soils are
to a decline over the last 20 years of these cool-season grouped according to their limitations for field crops, the
pastures. risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the way
Landspreading of treated sewage effluent on tame they respond to management. The criteria used in
pasture is gaining interest. Tame pasture is also used for grouping the soils do not include major, and generally
landspreading effluent from animal waste management expensive, landforming that would change slope, depth,
systems. Waste water treatment plant sludge is also or other characteristics of the soils, nor do they include
applied to tame pasture on a limited basis. Sod possible but unlikely major reclamation projects.
production is often practiced in conjunction with tame Capability classification is not a substitute for
pasture grazing. Bahiagrass is the principal pasture or interpretations designed to show suitability and
sod production grass. St. Augustine grass is a premium limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for woodland,
sod grass and is not used for grazing in the Hillsborough and for engineering purposes.
County area. In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
Yields Per Acre class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
The average yields per acre that can be expected of are defined in the following paragraphs.
the principal crops under a high level of management Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
The yields are based mainly on the experience and defined as follows:
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use.
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
results of field trials and demonstrations are also choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
considered. practices.
The management needed to obtain the indicated Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil choice of plants or that require special conservation
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion practices, or both.






53








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural listed for each soil.
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid The soils in Hillsborough County do not meet the
soil-related failures in land uses. requirements for prime farmland.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Planners of management systems for individual fields
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive or farms should consider the detailed information given
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
and management. Field experience and collected data Cooperative Extension Service.
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis Large areas of agricultural land are in production in
for predicting soil behavior. Hillsborough County. In 1982, farm product sales
Information in this section can be used to plan the use exceeded 230 million dollars. Hillsborough County
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as ranked fifth in the State in value of farm products sold.
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary Crops include citrus crops, vegetables, strawberries, field
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and and container grown nursery plants, cut flowers, and
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife hay. Livestock production ranges from dairy and beef
habitat. It can be used to identify the suitability potentials cattle to tropical fish farming.
and limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to Pressures on local farmland acreage come from crop
help prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable damage from freezes, high land values, low product
soil properties. prices, and more intensive competing land uses.
Planners and others using soil survey information can Farmland acreage is expected to decline in the future.
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity Many farming operations will continue on a sound and
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. profitable basis.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a Urbanization is increasing in Hillsborough County. The
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature. city of Tampa is expanding. In some cases, the outer
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of edge of the city has joined with suburban areas, such as
sand, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to identify Temple Terrace. Former rural areas, such as
areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil layers Carrollwood and Citrus Park in northwest Hillsborough
can cause difficulty in excavation. County, are becoming urbanized. Other urban centers
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and not contiguous to Tampa, such as Brandon, Plant City,
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can and Sun City, are growing. During the past few years, the
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes. It can also county has consistently placed as one of the top ten
be a very useful guide and be beneficial when selecting growth areas in the country. Urbanization pressures will
sites for houses, buildings, streets and roads, continue and land devoted to agriculture will continue to
playgrounds, pond reservoir areas, and other uses. decline.

Crops and Pasture Soil Erosion
Soil erosion is the loss of soil by forces of water and
William G. Saalman and John F. Creighton, soil conservationists, Soil wind. The erosion of soil from agricultural land causes
Conservation Service, helped to prepare this section. loss of natural fertility and applied fertilizer elements. The
General management needed for crops and pasture is available water capacity of a soil is reduced as topsoil
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants erodes. When eroded soil moves from a field, fertilizer
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly and pesticide residues are carried into waterways,
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of causing pollution. Soil particles are considered pollutants
land capability classification used by the Soil to streams and waterways. Eroded soil, silt, or sediment,






54 Soil Survey



can fill up drainage ditches, storm sewers, and other Urban expansion is progressing rapidly in Hillsborough
bodies of water. Eroded soil can worsen weed problems County. Water and wind erosion occur on unprotected
in ditches and waterways. construction sites that have been stripped of vegetation.
All forms of water and wind erosion occur in Sediment control practices are needed on construction
Hillsborough County. Soil erosion is a limited problem sites.
scattered throughout the county. Erosion is on urban
land and agricultural land. Vegetables
Erosion by water may be barely noticeable, as in sheet The two major vegetable-growing areas in
and rill erosion, where a thin layer of soil is removed Hillsborough County are the Ruskin-Wimauma area in
from the field. Channel and gully erosion is more visible the southwest and the Dover-Plant City area in the east.
as large amounts of water collect and gather enough The Ruskin-Wimauma area produces a large amount of
force to visibly scar a field. Channels and gullies become tomatoes and one-quarter of the county's strawberries.
larger if left untreated. Other vegetables, such as greens, green beans, okra,
Wind erosion or soil blowing occurs on soils that are eggplant, peppers, cherry tomatoes, squash, cucumbers,
not protected by cover crops, rye windbreaks, or plastic watermelons, cantaloupes, and cauliflower, are grown in
mulch. Soil particles, blown by the wind, sandblast lesser amounts. The major crop in the Dover-Plant City
tender crops. Windblown soil can aggravate respiratory area is strawberries. Many other vegetables are also
ailments in people, increase maintenance on many types grown in this area. Strawberries are planted in October
of machinery, and spread weeds and certain crop and are harvested throughout the winter and spring.
diseases. Soil erosion by wind in Hillsborough County Vegetable crops have a high demand for water and
occurs during dry, windy fall and spring days when plant nutrients. Most of the vegetable crops in the county
vegetable crops are being established and large soil are grown on soils that have a sandy texture, low
areas are left bare. nutrient and available water capacity, and medium to
Factors affecting soil erosion are texture of the soil, strongly acid soil reaction. Limitations to use of these
type and amount of vegetation, slope, slope length, soils for vegetable crops can be minimized by
amount of soil surface unprotected by windbreaks, wind management practices, such as irrigation, fertilization
velocity, and type of farming activity, and liming, bedding, use of plastic mulch, and soil
Soil erosion occurs on unprotected cropland during fumigation. The management practices are applied with
fallow periods. Cover crops are especially important in such intensity that the soil's main function is a support
reducing soil erosion on cropland during fallow periods, and rooting medium.
Ryegrass, various millets, sudangrass, and sesbania are All commercial tomato and strawberry operations are
excellent choices for cover crops in Hillsborough County. irrigated. Tomatoes and other winter vegetables and sod
Sheet erosion in Hillsborough County occurs at tolerable are irrigated by using a semiclosed seepage irrigation
rates as calculated by the Universal Soil Loss Equation. system. Strawberries, field- and container-grown nursery
Improperly designed, installed, and maintained field plants, and other vegetables are irrigated by solid set
drainage systems are the principal causes of soil erosion sprinkler systems.
by water on cropland in Hillsborough County. Tender, high-value vegetable crops require large
Citrus crops are often grown on moderately sloping amounts of water at certain times of the year. Water
land, which increases soil erosion. Many of the citrus conservation is a main management concern as water
soils in Hillsborough County are well drained and have a quality and quantity are reduced because of the
rapid infiltration rate. Storm-water runoff is therefore increased salinity, the overdrawn aquifer, and the
reduced. Soil erosion will occur on well drained and reduced recharge areas. In addition to providing the
rapidly permeable soils if the groves are clean tilled. crop's water requirements, solid set sprinkler irrigation
Planting vegetation between the rows of citrus and using systems must be designed to provide freeze protection
specially designed and maintained surface drainage in strawberry fields and nurseries.
systems solve most erosion problems in citrus groves. Tailwater recovery systems, or ponds that collect
Herbicides are used for weed control under the tree runoff water from fields, provide extra water for periods
canopy. Newly planted citrus can be damaged by of peak demand, such as for freeze protection and at
windblown sand. Rapid establishment of vegetation planting time. Use of these ponds in suitable locations
between the rows reduces this problem. are encouraged by the Soil Conservation Service.
Erosion on pastureland is not a problem if a healthy Some vegetable farmers have begun planting forage
grass cover is present. Erosion occurs on pasture if poor sorghums during fallow periods to pick up the residual
management practices that reduce the grass cover have fertilizer from the vegetable crops and prevent salt build-
been followed. Overstocking, overgrazing, and up in the soil.
insufficient application of lime and fertilizer aggravate Double cropping of vegetables is being practiced on a
erosion on pastureland. limited basis and is gaining popularity. Tomato and






Hillsborough County, Florida 55



strawberry fields are bedded. Beds are covered with Myakka and Smyrna soils. Supplemental irrigation is
plastic mulch to accelerate and streamline storm runoff. practiced on all of these soils during moisture stress
Storm water should be controlled and carefully removed periods in spring and fall. Low volume or trickle irrigation
from the field to well maintained and vegetated outlets. is widely practiced to conserve irrigation water. Soils are
Plastic does reduce soil erosion during the growing low in organic matter and plant nutrients. Fertilizer and
season. lime are beneficial to the crop. Waste water treatment
Growers prefer to plant rows in a north-south direction. plant sludge is a useful soil amendment to add organic
A north-south row orientation has a positive influence on matter and nutrients and to improve tilth.
fruit and vegetable production because of more uniform Water control practices are important for citrus crops.
sunlight for the plant. On poorly drained soils, such as Myakka and Smyrna
In 1982, about 6,130 acres was planted to tomatoes in soils, the seasonal high water table creates a shallow
the county, and 4,500 acres was planted to strawberries, root zone. Citrus trees on poorly drained soils are
In addition, over 1,000 acres each of snap beans, green generally planted on raised beds to increase the
peppers, and squash was grown. Other minor crops available root zone. Subsurface drainage systems, or tile
grown include cabbage, cauliflower, cucumbers, drains, and surface drainage systems, or open ditches,
eggplant, field peas, greens, okra, and watermelons, are often installed in citrus groves to increase the rooting
Vegetables in Hillsborough County are grown on a depth. Irrigation systems are also beneficial on poorly
wide variety of soils. Most of these soils are poorly drained soils because the small volume of soil in the
drained, such as Myakka, Smyrna, Seffner, Ona, limited root zone needs frequent moisture replenishment.
Wabasso, and Pinellas soils. Tomatoes are grown
extensively on Wabasso soils, and strawberries are Pastureland
widely grown on Seffner soils. Some vegetables are
grown on soils that are very poorly drained, such as St. R. Greg Hendricks, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service,
Johns and Basinger soils. These soils need extra care assisted in preparing this section.
and planning for effective water control before being Beef cattle and dairy operations occur throughout
used for vegetables. In some places in the county, Hillsborough County. An estimated 2,000 producers and
vegetables are grown on the somewhat poorly drained 100,000 head of cattle are in the county. Less than 150
Zolfo soils, the moderately well drained Pomello soils, producers have herds of 100 head or more. The largest
and the well drained Fort Meade soils; however, these number of producers have less than 20 head.
areas are not very extensive. In 1982, Hillsborough County had 65 dairies with 10 or
One soil characteristic deserving special mention is more milk cows. Milk is marketed through the local co-op
the spodic horizon occurring in Immokalee, Myakka, in Tampa. Dairy cows feed on pasture, hay, and
Ona, Pomello, Smyrna, St. Johns, and Wabasso soils. concentrates. Pasture and hay crops are generally
The spodic layer allows semiclosed irrigation to be produced on farms. Hay is also produced for local sale
practiced efficiently. An artificial water table can often be by nonlivestock producers in the county. In 1982, hay for
built on the spodic layer that is less permeable than the beef and dairy cattle and horses was harvested from
overlying horizons. 11,000 acres.
Citrus At least one major feedlot is in Hillsborough County.
Grain and supplements are brought in from outside the
Commercial acreages of citrus are grown in rural and county. Feedlot forage is provided from sudan sorghum
suburban Hillsborough County. Citrus groves are coming silage, which is grown onsite. Limited acreages of millet
under increasing pressure from land development. Much sorghum for silage to supplement hay and pasture are
of the citrus land, particularly in the northern part of the grown by dairies.
county, is on moderately well drained soils, such as Approximately 120,000 acres of tame pasture is in the
Tavares and Millhopper soils, and this land is desirable county. The most widely grown grass is bahiagrass.
for commercial and residential development. In 1982, the Other grasses used for tame pasture are improved
commercial citrus acreage was 37,631 as reported by bermudagrass, stargrass, limpograss, and pangolagrass.
the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Most These tame pasture grasses are exotic to the United
of this acreage is harvested for processing into orange States and thus have not evolved in our relatively
juice concentrate. Small acreages of citrus specialty infertile sandy soils. Therefore, an annual fertility
fruits, such as tangerines and tangelos and navel and program is essential to achieve acceptable production
temple oranges, are also grown. Citrus acreage declined levels of forage that are able to outperform competing
over the past 20 years and will decline further because weeds, such as dogfennel and broomsedge. Bahiagrass,
of urbanization and recent freezes. unlike the other common pasture grasses, will maintain
Citrus is grown on a wide variety of soils in its stand under extremely low fertilization rates. Under
Hillsborough County. Soils range from the excessively low fertility rates, that is, less than 40 pounds of nitrogen
well drained Candler and Lake soils to the poorly drained per acre, bahiagrass can be expected to produce no






56 Soil Survey



more than 3 animal-unit-months (AUM) per acre under control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
most soil and water conditions. Another very important and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
consideration to a pasture maintenance program is pH appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
level. Soils that are suitable for the common tame diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction
pasture grasses are naturally acid with very low pH and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
levels. For tame pasture plants to thrive and efficiently and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop
utilize fertilizer, the pH level must be maintained in the residue, barnyard manure, and green manure crops; and
5.5 to 6.5 range. To maintain proper pH range, limestone harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss.
should be applied about every 3 years, or as needed, For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
according to soil tests. irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
Following adequate pastureland establishment grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
procedures is vital if a good stand of forage is to be applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum.
produced in a reasonable period of time. Proper seeding The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of
rates for bahiagrass and adequate quantity and quality of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely
vegetative planting materials must be applied for to increase as new production technology is developed.
pangolagrass, limpograss, bermudagrass, and stargrass. The productivity of a given soil compared with that of
Well prepared seedbed, good soil moisture, rolling or other soils, however, is not likely to change.
packing for good soil contact, and timely rains are critical Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in
factors. the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
These warm-season, perennial tame pasture grasses because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
mentioned above produce forage between March and office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
October. During the cooler months, November to Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
February, warm-season grasses are dormant, and forage about the management and productivity of the soils for
quality is extremely low. Incorporating cool-season those crops.
forages, such as rye, ryegrass, and clover, has been
done in the past. The winter months in Hillsborough Land Capability Classification
County are generally very dry. Therefore, irrigation is
essential if cool-season forages are to be produced with Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
any reliability. The cost of irrigating these pastures and the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops that
the high cost of establishment and maintenance has led require special management are excluded. The soils are
to a decline over the last 20 years of these cool-season grouped according to their limitations for field crops, the
pastures. risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the way
Landspreading of treated sewage effluent on tame they respond to management. The criteria used in
pasture is gaining interest. Tame pasture is also used for grouping the soils do not include major, and generally
landspreading effluent from animal waste management expensive, landforming that would change slope, depth,
systems. Waste water treatment plant sludge is also or other characteristics of the soils, nor do they include
applied to tame pasture on a limited basis. Sod possible but unlikely major reclamation projects.
production is often practiced in conjunction with tame Capability classification is not a substitute for
pasture grazing. Bahiagrass is the principal pasture or interpretations designed to show suitability and
sod production grass. St. Augustine grass is a premium limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for woodland,
sod grass and is not used for grazing in the Hillsborough and for engineering purposes.
County area. In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
Yields Per Acre class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
The average yields per acre that can be expected of are defined in the following paragraphs.
the principal crops under a high level of management Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
The yields are based mainly on the experience and defined as follows:
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use.
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
results of field trials and demonstrations are also choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
considered. practices.
The management needed to obtain the indicated Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil choice of plants or that require special conservation
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion practices, or both.






Hillsborough County, Florida 57



Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce Potential annual production is the amount of
the choice of plants or that require very careful vegetation that can be expected to grow annually on
management, or both. well managed rangeland that is supporting the potential
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have climax plant community. Total production includes all
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their vegetation, whether or not it is palatable to grazing
use. animals. It includes the current year's growth of leaves,
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them twigs, and fruits of woody plants, but it does not include
generally unsuitable for cultivation, the increase in stem diameter of trees and shrubs. It is
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make expressed in pounds per acre of air-dry vegetation for
them unsuitable for cultivation. favorable, average, and unfavorable years. In a favorable
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have year, the amount and distribution of precipitation and the
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial temperatures make growing conditions substantially
crop production. better than average. In an average year, growing
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class, conditions are about average. In an unfavorable year,
They are designated by adding a small letter, w or s, to growing conditions are well below average, generally
the class numeral, for example, IIIw. The letter w shows because of low available soil moisture.
that water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or Dry weight is the total annual yield per acre of air-dry
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly vegetation. Yields are adjusted to a common percent of
corrected by artificial drainage), and s shows that the soil air-dry moisture content. The relationship of green weight
is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony. to air-dry weight varies according to such factors as
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils exposure, amount of shade, recent rains, and
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V are unseasonable dry periods.
subject to little or no erosion, but they have other Range management requires a knowledge of the kinds
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland, of soil and of the potential climax plant community. It
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V contains also requires an of the present racommunityge
only the subclasses indicated by w or s. also requires an evaluation of the present range
The capability classification of each map unit is given condition. Range condition is determined by comparing
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units." the present plant community with the potential climax
plant community on a particular range site. The more
closely the existing community resembles the potential
Rangeland and Grazeable Woodland climax community, the better the range condition. Range
R. Greg Hendricks, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, condition is an ecological rating only. It does not have a
assisted in preparing this section. specific meaning that pertains to the present plant
community in a given use.
In areas that have similar climate and topography, The objective in range management is to control
differences in the kind and amount of vegetation grazing so that the plants growing on a site are about
produced on rangeland are closely related to the kind of the same in kind and amount as the potential climax
soil. Effective management is based on the relationship plant community for that site. Such management
of the soils, vegetation, and water.
Table 5 shows, for each soil, the range site; the total generally results in the optimum production of
annual production of vegetation in favorable, average, vegetation, reduction of undesirable brush species,
and unfavorable years; the characteristic vegetation; and conservation of water, and control of erosion.
the average percentage of each species. Only those Sometimes, however, a range condition somewhat below
soils that are used as rangeland or are suited to use as the potential meets grazing needs, provides wildlife
rangeland are listed. Explanation of the column headings habitat, and protects soil and water resources.
in table 5 follows. Native grasses are an important part of the overall,
A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that year-round supply of forage to livestock producers in
produces a characteristic natural plant community that Hillsborough County. This forage is readily available. It is
differs from natural plant communities on other range economical and provides important roughage needed by
sites in kind, amount, or proportion of range plants. The cattle, which is the principal grazing livestock produced
relationship between soils and vegetation was in the area. About 314,000 acres throughout the county
established during this survey; thus, range sites generally is available as native rangeland to cattle producers. Of
can be determined directly from the soil map. Soil this, 180,000 acres is used strictly as rangelands. The
properties that affect moisture supply and plant nutrients remaining 134,000 acres is used by cattle producers in
have the greatest influence on the productivity of range connection with pulp and timber operations as grazeable
plants. Soil reaction, salt content, and a seasonal high woodlands.
water table are also important.






58 Soil Survey


Rangelands measure of productivity. Forage refers to total vegetation
Rangelands consist of specific native vegetative produced annually on well managed rangeland and does
composition makeup, which differ because of soil not reflect forage value or grazing potentials.
properties, light intensity, and ground water fluctuation. Management of the soils for range should be planned
These recognizable differences in plant composition on with potential productivity in mind. Soils with the highest
rangelands in Hillsborough County are defined by production should be given highest priority when
specific range sites. The dominant native forage plants economic considerations are important.
that grow on a range site are generally the most Major management considerations revolve around
productive and the most suitable for livestock. These livestock grazing. The objective in range management is
dominant native forage plants will maintain themselves to control grazing so that the native plants growing on a
as long as the environment does not change. site are about the same in kind and amount as the
The native forage plants are grouped into three potential climax plant community for that site. Such
categories according to their response to grazing- management generally results in the optimum production
decreasers, increases, and invaders: of vegetation, conservation of water, and controlled
Decreasers are generally the most abundant and most erosion. The length of time an area should be grazed,
palatable plants on a given range site in good and the season it should be used, how long and when the
excellent condition, and they decrease in abundance if range should be rested, the grazing pattern of livestock
the rangeland is under continuous heavy grazing. within a pasture that contains more than one soil, and
Increasers are plants less palatable to livestock, and the palatability of the dominant plants on the soil are
they increase for a short time under continuous heavy basic considerations if rangelands are to be improved or
grazing but eventually decrease under continuous heavy maintained.
grazing. Rangeland improvement practices, such as
Invaders are native to rangelands in small amounts. mechanical brush control, controlled burning, and
They have very little forage value, and they tend to especially controlled livestock grazing, benefit
increase and become the new dominant plants as the rangelands. Predicting the effects of these practices is of
decreaser and increase plants have been grazed out. utmost importance. Without exception, the proper
Range condition is determined by comparing the management of range will result in sustained production
present plant community with the potential climax plant and conservation of the soil and water resources with
community on a particular range site. The more closely improvement of the habitat for many wildlife species.
the existing community resembles the potential
community, the better the range condition. Range Grazeable Woodland
condition is an ecological rating only, and it does not Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory
have specific meaning that pertains to the present plant of native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory is
community in a given use. Four condition classes are an integral part of the forest plant community. The native
used to measure range condition. These are: plants can be grazed without significantly impairing other
Excellent condition-producing 76 to 100 percent forest values. On such forest land, grazing is compatible
of the potential with timber management if it is controlled or managed in
Good condition-producing 51 to 75 percent of such a manner that timber and forage resources are
the potential maintained or enhanced.
Fair condition-producing 26 to 50 percent of the Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs,
potential shrubs, and other plants within the reach of livestock or
Poor condition-producing 0 to 25 percent of the used by grazing or browsing wildlife. A well managed
potential forest can produce enough understory vegetation to
About 15 percent of the rangelands in Hillsborough support an optimum number of livestock or wildlife, or
County is in good and excellent condition and about 85 both.
percent is in poor and fair condition. For each soil in Forage production of grazeable woodland varies
Hillsborough County that supports rangeland vegetation according to the different kinds of grazeable woodland.
suitable for grazing, table 5 gives the range site that can The potential carrying capacity is affected by the amount
be expected if the native vegetative cover has not been of shade cast by the canopy; the accumulation of fallen
eliminated by cultivation or by other influences of man. needles; the influences of time and intensity of grazing
Table 5 also shows, for each range site in excellent on the forage; the number, size, and spacing of trees;
condition, the annual production of air-dry herbage per and the method of site preparation.
acre that can be expected in favorable, average, and
unfavorable years. Favorable years are those in which Woodland Management and Productivity
climatic factors, such as rainfall and temperature, are
favorable for plant growth. Moisture content in the plants Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth,
varies as the growing season progresses and is not a fertility, texture, and the available water capacity






Hillsborough County, Florida 59



influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate is not needed. The rating is moderate if slopes are steep
determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site. enough that wheeled equipment cannot be operated
Available water capacity and depth of the root zone are safely across the slope, if soil wetness restricts
major influences of tree growth. Elevation and aspect equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, or if special
are of particular importance in mountainous areas. equipment is needed to avoid or reduce soil compaction.
This soil survey can be used by woodland managers The rating is severe if slopes are steep enough that
planning ways to increase the productivity of forest land. tracked equipment cannot be operated safely across the
Some soils respond better to fertilization than others, slope, if soil wetness restricts equipment use for more
and some are more susceptible to erosion after roads than 6 months per year, or if special equipment is
are built and timber is harvested. Some soils require needed to avoid or reduce soil compaction. Ratings of
special efforts to reforest. In the section "Detailed Soil moderate or severe indicate a need to choose the most
Map Units," each map unit in the survey area suitable for suitable equipment and to carefully plan the timing of
producing timber presents information about productivity, harvesting and other management operations.
limitations for harvesting timber, and management Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
concerns for producing timber. The common forest death of naturally occurring or properly planted seedlings
understory plants are also listed. Table 6 summarizes of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as influenced
this forestry information and rates the soils for a number by kinds of soil or topographic features. Seedling
of factors to be considered in management. Slight, mortality is caused primarily by too much water or too
moderate, and severe are used to indicate the degree of little water. The factors used in rating a soil for seedling
the major soil limitations to be considered in forest mortality are texture of the surface layer, depth and
management. duration of the water table, rooting depth, and the aspect
The first tree listed for each soil under the column of the slope. Mortality generally is greatest on soils that
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil. An have a sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk is slight if,
indicator species is a tree that is common in the area after site preparation, expected mortality is less than 25
and that is generally the most productive on a given soil. percent; moderate if expected mortality is between 25
Table 6 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The and 50 percent; and severe if expected mortality
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates exceeds 50 percent. Ratings of moderate or severe
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator indicate that it may be necessary to use containerized or
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the larger than usual planting stock or to make special site
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential preparations, such as bedding, furrowing, installing
productivity is based on the site index and the point surface drainage, or providing artificial shade for
where mean annual increment is the greatest. seedings. Reinforcement planting is often needed if the
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter, risk is moderate or severe.
indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and Ratings of windthrow hazard consider the likelihood of
management. The letter W indicates a soil in which trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting
excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes a depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth
significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry, sandy can be restricted by a high water table, fragipan, or
soil. The letter A indicates a soil that has no significant bedrock, or by a combination of such factors as soil
restrictions or limitations for forest use and management. wetness, texture, structure, and depth. The risk is slight if
If a soil has more than one limitation, the priority is as strong winds cause trees to break but do not uproot
follows: W and S. them and moderate if strong winds cause an occasional
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability tree to be blown over and many trees to break. Ratings
that damage may occur if site preparation activities or of moderate indicate the need for care in thinning or
harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is slight if possibly not thinning. Specialized equipment may be
no particular preventive measures are needed under needed to avoid damage to shallow root systems in
ordinary conditions. partial cutting operations. A plan for periodic salvage of
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the windthrow trees and the maintenance of a road and trail
use of forest management equipment, year-round or system may be needed.
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope, Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
wetness, or susceptibility of the surface layer to the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it competition becomes more severe on the more
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils
the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be used. On having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The
the steepest slopes, even tracked equipment cannot risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants
operate; more sophisticated systems are needed. The reduces adequate natural or artificial reforestation but
rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by soil does not necessitate intensive site preparation and
wetness for less than 2 months and if special equipment maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from






60 Soil Survey


undesirable plants reduces natural or artificial impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
ensure the development of an adequately stocked stand. duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
Managers must plan site preparation measures to ensure In table 7, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
reforestation without delays. slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that one or
the order of their observed general occurrence. more of the soil properties are considered somewhat
Generally, only two or three tree species dominate, restrictive for the intended use. If need be, these
The soils that are commonly used to produce timber properties can be modified or overcome by special
have the yield predicted in cubic meters. The yield is planning or design. Severe means that soil properties
predicted at the point where mean annual increment are unfavorable for the intended use and should be
culminates. corrected by special design, soil reclamation, or planned
The site index is determined by taking height maintenance before the site can be adapted to the
measurements and determining the age of selected intended use.
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the The information in table 7 can be supplemented by
average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a specified other information in this survey, for example,
number of years. This index applies to fully stocked, interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
even-aged, unmanaged stands. The procedure and 10 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
technique for determining site index are given in the site and for local roads and streets in table 9.
index tables used for the Soil Survey of Hillsborough Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
County (3, 10, 12, 15, 17). and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
The productivity class represents an expected volume and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
produced by the most important trees, expressed in facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
multiplying by 14.3. Cubic feet can be converted to cords flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs
per acre by dividing by 85. It can be converted to board rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when
feet by multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of
a productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected constructing campsites.
to produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at the point Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
where mean annual increment culminates, or about 568 vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
board feet per acre per year. areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
Trees to plant are those that are used for reforestation are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
or, if suitable conditions exist, natural regeneration. They during the period of use, and do not have slopes that
are suited to the soils and will produce a commercial increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access
wood crop. Desired product, topographic position (such roads and parking areas.
as a low, wet arsa), and personal preference are three Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
factors of many that can influence the choice of trees to foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
use for reforestation. wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry. If
Recreation grading is needed, the depth of the soil over bedrock
should be considered.
In table 7, the soils of the survey area are rated Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil well drained, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry,
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the and are not subject to flooding more than once a year
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not during the period of use. They have moderate slopes.
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
vegetation, access to water, potential water when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to






Hillsborough County, Florida 61



prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have the intensity of management needed for each element of
moderate slopes. The suitability of the soil for tees or the habitat.
greens is not considered in rating the soils. The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
Wildlife Habitat kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
John F. Vance, biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped to and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
prepare this section. indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
Wildlife is a valuable resource of Hillsborough County, established, improved, or maintained in most places.
but this resource has been severely impacted by urban Moderately intensive management is required for
development, especially in the Tampa, Brandon, Plant satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
City, and Sun City areas. This resource also has been limitations are severe for the designated element or kind
severely impacted by intensive agricultural development of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
in the Dover-Plant City and the Ruskin-Wimauma areas. maintained in most places, but management is difficult
Less developed areas still support a large variety and and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
number of wildlife. that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
The game species include white-tailed deer, squirrel, very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
turkey, feral hogs, bobwhite quail, and waterfowl. expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
Nongame species include raccoon, rabbit, armadillo, impractical or impossible.
opossum, skunk, bobcat, gray and red foxes, otter, and a The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
variety of songbirds, wading birds, shore birds, following paragraphs.
woodpeckers, reptiles, and amphibians. Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
Good habitat for wildlife is available in the 3,000 acre roducin herbaceous lants. Soil roerties and
Hillsborough River State Park and in other smaller parks faueg ha pat o pri and
administered by the county. features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
The Hillsborough River, the upper Alafia and Little are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
Manatee Rivers, and the lakes and ponds in the less available water capacity, wetness, slope, and flood
Manatee Rivers, and the lakes and pondns in the les hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
urbanized areas of the county provide good freshwater hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
fishing. The main species include largemouth bass, considerations. Examples of grain and seed crops are
bluegill, redear, spotted sunfish, warmouth, black crappie corn, wheat, browntop millet, and grain sorghum.
(speckled perch), chain pickerel, and catfish. Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
Tampa Bay, the tidal creeks, and other areas adjacent and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
to the Gulf of Mexico provide good saltwater fishing. The that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
main species include spotted seatrout, red drum, and of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
spot. water capacity, wetness, flood hazard, and slope. Soil
Many endangered or threatened species are in temperature and soil moisture are also considerations.
Hillsborough County. They range from the rare red- Examples of grasses and legumes are bahiagrass,
cockaded woodpecker and indigo snake to more lovegrass, Florida beggarweed, clover, and sesbania.
commonly known species, such as the alligator and bald Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
eagle. A complete list of such species, with detailed established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
information on range and habitat, can be obtained at the properties and features that affect the growth of these
local office of the Soil Conservation Service. plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is layer, available water capacity, wetness, and flood
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and considerations. Examples of wild herbaceous plants are
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and bluestem, goldenrod, beggarweed, partridge pea, and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can bristlegrass.
be created or improved by planting appropriate Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants, properties and features that affect the growth of
In table 8, the soils in the survey area are rated hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
according to their potential for providing habitat for the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in these plants are oak, saw palmetto, cherry, sweetgum,
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and cabbage palm, hawthorn, dogwood, hickory, blackberry,
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are and blueberry. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining are suitable for planting on soils rated good are firethorn,
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining wild plum, and waxmyrtle.






62 Soil Survey


Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil and because of the map scale, small areas of different
properties and features that affect the growth of soils may be included within the mapped areas of a
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of specific soil.
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness. The information is not site specific and does not
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar, eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
and juniper. for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
Wetland plants are annual and perennial, wild design and construction of engineering works.
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites. State and local ordinances and regulations that restrict
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
properties and features affecting wetland plants are not considered in preparing the information in this
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity, section. Local ordinances and regulations must be
and slope. Examples of wetland plants are smartweed, considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
wild millet, cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds. Soil properties, site features, and observed
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less performance were considered in determining the ratings
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
created by dams, levees, or other water-control determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
water areas are wetness, slope, and permeability, bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the
Examples of shallow water areas are marshes, waterfowl surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
feeding areas, and ponds, table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
the following paragraphs. kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland, fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce swell potential, available water capacity, and other
grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses.
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas This information can be used to: evaluate the potential
include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow, of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and
cottontail, and red fox. recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
turkey, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox, detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate
raccoon, and deer. potential sources of sand, earthfill, and topsoil; plan
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds, terraces,
swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife and other structures for soil and water conservation; and
attracted to such areas are ducks, geese, herons, shore predict performance of proposed small structures and
birds, mink, and otter. pavements by comparing the performance of existing
similar structures on the same or similar soils.
Engineering The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
This section provides information for planning land survey can be used to make additional interpretations.
uses related to urban development and to water Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are Glossary.
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water Building Site Development
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and Table 9 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
test data in the "Soil Properties" section. that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
Information in this section is intended for land use without basements, small commercial buildings, local
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
planning site investigations prior to design and limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
construction. The information, however, has limitations, features are generally favorable for the indicated use
For example, estimates and other data generally apply and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet, if soil properties or site features are considered






Hillsborough County, Florida 63


somewhat restrictive for the intended use but can be of sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface layer
modified or overcome by special planning or design; and affect trafficability after vegetation is established.
severe if soil properties or site features are unfavorable
for the intended use and should be corrected by special Sanitary Facilities
design, soil reclamation, or planned maintenance before Table 10 shows the degree and the kind of soil
the site can be adapted to the intended use. Special Table 10 shows the degree and the kind of soil
easite can be adapted to th e intended use. Special limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
limitations are severe, sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
are considered slight if soil properties and site features
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a are generally favorable for the indicated use and
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves, limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The soil properties or site features are not considered
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and somewhat restrictive for the intended use but can be
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging, modified or overcome by special planning or design; and
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to severe if soil properties or site features are unfavorable
bedrock or a very firm dense layer, soil texture, and for the intended use and should be corrected by special
slope. The time of the year that excavations can be design, soil reclamation, or planned maintenance before
made is affected by the depth to a seasonal high water the site can be adapted to the intended use.
table and the susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The Table 10 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
resistance of the excavation walls or banks to sloughing as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
or caving is affected by soil texture and the depth to the soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
water table. and that good performance and low maintenance can be
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family more soil properties or site features make the soil less
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
for small commercial buildings without basements, for that one or more soil properties or site features are
dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high alteration.
water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
layers can cause the movement of footings. Depth to a effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
high water table, depth to bedrock, and flooding affect through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
the ease of excavation and construction. Landscaping part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 incheE is
and grading that require cuts and fills of more than 5 to evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
6 feet are not considered. features, and observed performance of the soils
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface Permeability, depth to a high water table, depth to
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They bedrock, and flooding affect absorption of the effluent.
have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of Bedrock interferes with installation.
gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
properties, site features, and observed performance of public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
the soils. Depth to bedrock, depth to a high water table, permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
flooding, and slope affect the ease of excavating and than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
grading. Soil strength (as inferred from the engineering slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
classification of the soil), shrink-swell potential, and surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath
depth to a high water table affect the traffic-supporting the absorption field to filter the effluent effectively. Many
capacity. local ordinances require that this material be of a certain
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and thickness.
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level
reaction, depth to a high water table, depth to bedrock, floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
the available water capacity in the upper 40 inches, and compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
the content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic materials affect the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, and the amount impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is






64 Soil Survey



required to minimize seepage and contamination of potential for plants. Material from the surface layer
ground water. should be stockpiled for use as the final cover.
Table 10 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 Construction Materials
foot or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The Table 11 gives information about the soils as a source
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high water They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
table, depth to bedrock, flooding, and content of organic sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
matter. properties and site features that affect the removal of
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level compaction, minor processing, and other standard
of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the and used in road embankments in another place. In this
lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope and table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
bedrock can cause construction problems. embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is exacting in design than higher embankments.
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on their profile. The table showing engineering index
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted, properties provides detailed information about each soil
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source layer. This information can help determine the suitability
away from the site. of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground in the ratings.
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
needs to be considered, and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
The ratings in table 10 are based on soil properties, suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of
site features, and observed performance of the soils. excavation is affected by a high water table and slope.
Permeability, depth to bedrock, depth to a water table, How well the soil performs in place after it has been
slope, and flooding affect both types of landfill. Texture, compacted and drained is determined by its strength (as
highly organic layers, soil reaction, and content of salts inferred from the engineering classification of the soil)
and sodium affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise and shrink-swell potential.
stated, the ratings apply only to that part of the soil Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
within a depth of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
limitation rated slight or moderate may not be valid, material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
Onsite investigation is needed. stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate
to the landfill, and spread over the waste. shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
Soil texture, wetness, and slope affect the ease of many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 foot to 3 feet.
removing and spreading the material during wet and dry Soils rated poor are wet, and the depth to the water
periods. Loamy or silty soils are the best cover for a table is less than 1 foot. They may have a plasticity
landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are difficult index of more than 10 or a high shrink-swell potential.
to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing. They may have layers of suitable material, but the
After soil material has been removed, the soil material material is less than 3 feet thick.
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
bedrock or the water table to permit revegetation. The commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
soil material used as final cover for a landfill should be gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
suitable for plants. The surface layer generally has the Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 11, only
best workability, more organic matter, and the best the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is






Hillsborough County, Florida 65



evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect considered somewhat restrictive for the intended use but
excavation of the material. can be modified or overcome by special planning or
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of design; and severe if soil properties or site features are
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated unfavorable for the intended use and should be
by the engineering classification of the soil), the corrected by special design, soil reclamation, or planned
thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock maintenance before the site can be adapted to the
fragments. Gradation of grain sizes is given in the table intended use.
on engineering index properties. This table also gives the restrictive features that affect
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and diversions,
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to and grassed waterways.
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3 Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as marl, potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
are not considered to be sand and gravel, and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches of the reservoir area.
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
the reclamation potential of the borrow area. of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such constructed to impound water or to protect land against
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
is affected by slope, a water table, soil texture, and material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
thickness of suitable material. Reclamation of the borrow feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
area is affected by slope, a water table, bedrock, and and compacted during construction.
toxic material. The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and depth greater than the height of the embankment can
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less affect performance and safety of the embankment.
than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts, Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are determine these properties.
not so wet that excavation is difficult. Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include
40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content
appreciable amount of gravel or soluble salts, or soils of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium.
that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are not so A high water table affects the amount of usable material.
wet that excavation is difficult. It also affects trafficability.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
than 20 inches of suitable material, have too much extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
humus, or contain a large amount of soluble salts, or permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
have a seasonal high water table at or near the surface. only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of water table, permeability of the aquifer, and the salinity
moisture and releases a variety of plant-available of the soil. Depth to bedrock affects the ease of
nutrients as it decomposes. excavation.
Water Management Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
Water Management subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
Table 12 gives information on the soil properties and effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
site features that affect water management. The degree bedrock or to other layers that affect the rate of water
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir movement, permeability, depth to a high water table or
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed depth of standing water if the soil is subject to ponding,
ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil slope, susceptibility to flooding, and subsidence of
properties and site features are generally favorable for organic layers. Excavating and grading and the stability
the indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily of ditchbanks are affected by depth to bedrock, slope,






66



and the hazard of cutbanks caving. The productivity of system is affected by the depth of the root zone, the
the soil after drainage is adversely affected by extreme amount of salts or sodium, and soil reaction.
acidity or by toxic substances in the root zone, such as Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
not considered in the ratings. surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to Wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock affect the
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design construction of grassed waterways. A hazard of wind
and management of an irrigation system are affected by erosion, low available water capacity, restricted rooting
depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding, depth, toxic substances such as salts or sodium, and
available water capacity, intake rate, permeability, restricted permeability adversely affect the growth and
erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system maintenance of the grass after construction.
is affected by depth to bedrock. The performance of a






67








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
Estimates of soil properties are based on field groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the SM.
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field those properties that affect roadway construction and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
accurately by field observation, and help characterize that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
key soils. of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Engineering Index Properties groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 20, or higher, for the poorest.
or 6 feet. Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
properties of each layer are given for each soil series mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight percentage.
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
defined in the Glossary. indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The






67








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
Estimates of soil properties are based on field groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the SM.
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field those properties that affect roadway construction and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
accurately by field observation, and help characterize that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
key soils. of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Engineering Index Properties groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 20, or higher, for the poorest.
or 6 feet. Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
properties of each layer are given for each soil series mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight percentage.
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
defined in the Glossary. indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The






68 Soil Survey



estimates are based on test data from the survey area, and management of irrigation systems. Available water
or from nearby areas, and on field examination. capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
actually available to plants at any given time.
Physical and Chemical Properties Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
Table 14 shows estimates of some characteristics and each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
The estimates are based on field observations and on and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
test data for these and similar soils. fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of corrosion.
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
in diameter, laboratory measurements at representative sites of
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink- frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
operations. construction material, and the potential of the soil to
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per corrode metal and concrete.
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root measurements of similar soils.
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of often needed.
movement of water through the soil when the soil is Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
construction where the rate of water movement under less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
saturated conditions affects behavior, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water is sometimes used.
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
capacity for water storage in each major soil layer is sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
varies, depending on soil properties that affect the to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
retention of water and the depth of the root zone. The and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre
most important properties are the content of organic per year. These estimates are based primarily on
matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4
Available water capacity is an important factor in the percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values of
choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the design K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the






Hillsborough County, Florida 69



more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
water. infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum other nutrients for crops.
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
can occur over a sustained period without affecting crop Soil and Water Features
productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre per
year. Table 15 gives estimates of various soil and water
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have features. The estimates are used in land use planning
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind that involves engineering considerations.
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following groups. They are grouped according to the intake of
distinctions: water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine precipitation from long-duration storms.
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. The four hydrologic soil groups are:
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
establish. potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind transmission.
erosion are used. Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
control wind erosion are used. texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 transmission.
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
are used. soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
control wind erosion are used. chiefly of clays that have high shrink-swell potential, soils
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and that have a permanent high water table, soils that have a
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and soils
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 that are shallow over nearly impervious material. These
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to In table 15, some soils are assigned to two hydrologic
control wind erosion are used. soil groups. Soils that have a seasonal high water table
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and but can be drained are assigned first to a hydrologic soil
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, group that denotes the drained condition of the soil and
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly then to a hydrologic group that denotes the undrained
erodible. Crops can easily be grown. condition, for example, B/D. Because there are different
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay degrees of drainage and water table control, onsite
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate. investigation is needed to determine the hydrologic
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily group of the soil in a particular location.
be grown. Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface by
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by
to wind erosion. runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high tides.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the Shallow water standing or flowing for short periods after
soil at various stages of decomposition. rainfall is not considered flooding. Standing water in
In table 14, the estimated content of organic matter is swamps and marshes or in a closed depression is
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil considered ponding.
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Table 15 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
The content of organic matter of a soil can be and the time of year when flooding is most likely to
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the occur.






70


Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence The two numbers in the "High water table-Depth"
are estimated. Frequency generally is expressed as column indicate the normal range in depth to a saturated
none, rare, occasional, or frequent. None means that zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot. The first
flooding is not probable. Rare means that flooding is numeral in the range indicates the highest water level. A
unlikely but possible under unusual weather conditions plus sign preceding the range in depth indicates that the
(there is a near 0 to 5 percent chance of flooding in any water table is above the surface of the soil. "More than
year). Occasional means that flooding occurs 6.0" indicates that the water table is below a depth of 6
infrequently under normal weather conditions (there is a feet or that the water table exists for less than a month.
5 to 50 percent chance of flooding in any year). Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth
Frequent means that flooding occurs often under normal of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and
weather conditions (there is more than a 50 percent on observations during soil mapping. The rock is
chance of flooding in any year). Common is used when specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or
classification as occasional or frequent does not affect fractured, excavations can be made with trenching
interpretations. Duration is expressed as very brief (less machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard
than 2 days), brief (2 to 7 days), long (7 days to 1 or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is
month), and very long (more than 1 month). The time of needed for excavation.
year that floods are most likely to occur is expressed in Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
months. June-February, for example, means that flooding saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
can occur during the period June through February. results from either desiccation and shrinkage or oxidation
About two-thirds to three-fourths of all flooding occurs of organic material, or both, following drainage.
during the stated period. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period
The information on flooding is based on evidence in of several years. Table 15 shows the expected initial
the soil profile, namely, thin strata of sand, silt, or clay subsidence and total subsidence, which is initial
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic subsidence plus the slow sinking that occurs over a
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of period of several years as a result of oxidation.
distinctive horizons, which are characteristic of soils that Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
are not subject to flooding. imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
Also considered are local information about the extent ie uga a obyte raa of
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil onwer th a te
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the lowering the water table.
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
levels. corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil.
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the Special site examination and design may be needed if
soil. Indicated in table 15 are the depth to the seasonal the combination of factors creates a severely corrosive
high water table; the kind of water table, that is, perched environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
or apparent; and the months of the year that the water boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion
table commonly is highest. A water table that is than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated in of soil or within one soil layer.
table 15. For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A perched For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
water table is water standing above an unsaturated as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
zone. In places an upper, or perched, water table is acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation
separated from a lower one by a dry zone. extract.






71








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (16). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic,
or on laboratory measurements. Table 16 shows the Typic Haplaquods.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An layer or of the substratum within a series. An example is
example is Spodosol. the St. Johns series, which is a member of the sandy,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, siliceous, hyperthermic family of Typic Haplaquods.
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the Soil Series and Their Morphology
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder In this section, each soil series recognized in the
indicates the order. An example is Aquods (Aqu, survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
meaning water, plus ods, from Spodosol). in alphabetic order.
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, formed are identified for each series. The soil is
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
base status. Each great group is identified by the name soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hapl, meaning follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (13). Many
minimal horizonation, plus aquods, the suborder of the of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Spodosols that has an aquic moisture regime). defined in Soil Taxonomy (16). Unless otherwise stated,
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The pedon description is the range of important
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not characteristics of the soils in the series.
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are The map units of each soil series are described in the
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate Adamsville Series
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives The Adamsville series consists of deep, somewhat
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective poorly drained soils. These soils formed in sandy marine
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great sediment. They are on broad ridges on the flatwoods. A
group. An example is Typic Haplaquods. seasonal high water table is at a depth of 20 to 40
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on inches for 2 to 6 months. The slope is less than 2
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other percent. These soils are hyperthermic, uncoated, Aquic
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the Quartzipsamments.
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where Adamsville soils are closely associated on the
there is much biological activity. Among the properties landscape with Lochloosa, Pomello, Tavares, and Zolfo






71








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (16). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic,
or on laboratory measurements. Table 16 shows the Typic Haplaquods.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An layer or of the substratum within a series. An example is
example is Spodosol. the St. Johns series, which is a member of the sandy,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, siliceous, hyperthermic family of Typic Haplaquods.
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the Soil Series and Their Morphology
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder In this section, each soil series recognized in the
indicates the order. An example is Aquods (Aqu, survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
meaning water, plus ods, from Spodosol). in alphabetic order.
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, formed are identified for each series. The soil is
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
base status. Each great group is identified by the name soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hapl, meaning follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (13). Many
minimal horizonation, plus aquods, the suborder of the of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Spodosols that has an aquic moisture regime). defined in Soil Taxonomy (16). Unless otherwise stated,
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The pedon description is the range of important
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not characteristics of the soils in the series.
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are The map units of each soil series are described in the
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate Adamsville Series
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives The Adamsville series consists of deep, somewhat
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective poorly drained soils. These soils formed in sandy marine
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great sediment. They are on broad ridges on the flatwoods. A
group. An example is Typic Haplaquods. seasonal high water table is at a depth of 20 to 40
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on inches for 2 to 6 months. The slope is less than 2
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other percent. These soils are hyperthermic, uncoated, Aquic
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the Quartzipsamments.
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where Adamsville soils are closely associated on the
there is much biological activity. Among the properties landscape with Lochloosa, Pomello, Tavares, and Zolfo







72 Soil Survey



soils. Lochloosa soils have an argillic horizon. Pomello Basinger Series
and Zolfo soils have a spodic horizon. Pomello and
Tavares soils are moderately well drained. The Basinger series consists of deep, very poorly
Typical pedon of Adamsville fine sand; about 0.5 mile drained soils. These soils formed in sandy marine
west of Welcome, 2,000 feet west and 100 feet south of sediment. They are in swamps and depressions and
the northeast corner of sec. 33, T. 30 S., R. 22 E. along drainageways on the flatwoods. A seasonal high
water table is within 10 inches of the surface. The slope
A-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; is less than 2 percent. These soils are siliceous,
weak fine crumb structure; friable; many fine, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents.
medium, and coarse roots; mixed organic matter Basinger soils are closely associated on the landscape
and sand grains having a salt-and-pepper with Holopaw, Myakka, Ona, and Samsula soils.
appearance; medium acid; clear smooth boundary. Holopaw soils have an argillic horizon. Samsula soils are
C1-6 to 30 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single organic. Myakka and Ona soils have a spodic horizon
grained; loose; common fine, medium, and coarse and are poorly drained.
roots; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand, in an area of
C2-30 to 80 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; Basinger, Holopaw and Samsula soils, depressional;
common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR about 1.5 miles north of Enon Church, about 200 feet
5/8) mottles; single grained; slightly acid. east and 1,000 feet south of the northwest corner of

Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to mildly sec. 13, T. 28 S., R. 22 E.
alkaline throughout. Silt and clay make up less than 5 A-0 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine
percent of the 10- to 40-inch control section. granular structure; very friable; many fine roots;
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is fine sand or sand. E-7 to 28 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; very dark
chroma of 1 to 4. The texture is fine sand or sand. streaks along root channels; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
Archbold Series Bh/E-28 to 42 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) and grayish
brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; single grained; loose;
The Archbold series consists of deep, moderately well strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
drained soils. These soils formed in sandy marine C-42 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sediment. They are on low ridges on the flatwoods. In sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid.
most years, a seasonal high water table is at a depth of
42 to 60 inches for about 6 months. The slope is less Reaction ranges from extremely acid to neutral
than 2 percent. These soils are hyperthermic, uncoated throughout.
Typic Quartzipsamments. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 6, and
Archbold soils are closely associated on the chroma of 1. Typically, the texture is fine sand, but the
landscape with Pomello soils. Pomello soils have a range includes muck or mucky fine sand.
spodic horizon. The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
Typical pedon of Archbold fine sand; about 1 mile chroma of 1 to 3.
northeast of Turkey Creek, 800 feet north and 100 feet The B part of the Bh/E horizon has hue of 5YR, value
east of the southwest corner of sec. 1, T. 29 S., R. 21 E. The B part of the Bh/E horizon has hue of 5YR, value
eastof the southwest corner of sec. 1, T. 29 S., R. 21 E. of 3, and chroma of 3 or 4; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and
A-0 to 2 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single chroma of 2; or hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and-
grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; chroma of 2. The E part has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to
strongly acid; diffuse boundary. 8, and chroma of 1 to 3.
C-2 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine'sand; single The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly chroma of 1 to 3.
acid.

Reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid Broward Series
throughout. Silt and clay make up less than 2 percent of The Broward series consists of moderately deep,
the 10- to 40-inch control section. somewhat poorly drained soils that formed in sandy
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and marine sediment. These soils are underlain by limestone
chroma of 1 or 2. bedrock. They are on low-lying ridges along the coastal
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and areas. In a natural state, the high water table is at a
chroma of 1 or 2. depth of 30 inches for 2 to 6 months during most years.






Hillsborough County, Florida 73



The slope is less than 2 percent. These soils are A-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
hyperthermic, uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments. grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; many
Broward soils are closely associated on the landscape uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; clear wavy
with Malabar and Wabasso soils. Malabar and Wabasso boundary.
soils do not have limestone bedrock within 80 inches of E1-6 to 35 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
the surface and are poorly drained, fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine and
Typical pedon of Broward fine sand, in an area of medium roots; many uncoated sand grains; strongly
Broward-Urban land complex; about 1 mile south of acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Tampa International Airport, 500 feet north and 500 feet E2-35 to 72 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
west of the southeast corner of sec. 17, T. 29 S., R. 18 sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; many
E. uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; clear wavy

A-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; boundary.
E&Bt-72 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
single grained; loose; many medium and fine roots; sand, (E); strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) loamy sand
mixed black organic matter and uncoated sand sand, (E); strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) loamy sand
grains having a salt-and-pepper appearance; slightly lamellae about 1/16 to 1/4 inch thick and 2 to 6
acid; clear smooth boundary. inches long, (Bt); single grained; loose; few fine
C1-4 to 10 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single roots; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid.
grained; loose; few fine roots; neutral; gradual wavy The thickness of the solum is 80 inches or more.
boundary. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid
C2-10 to 14 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine throughout.
sand; single grained; loose; neutral; gradual wavy The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
boundary. chroma of 1 to 3.
C3-14 to 26 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) fine chromaof 1 to ,
sand; few fine faint light gray streaks and few fine The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
distinct yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; single grained; chroma of 3 to 8.
loose; mildly alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary. The E part of the E&Bt horizon has hue of 10YR,
2R-26 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) and white (10YR value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 6; and the Bt part
8/1) limestone, has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma
of 6 or 8. The lamellae is about 1/32 to 1/2 inch thick. It
Depth to limestone ranges from 20 to 40 inches. In is 1/2 inch to about 40 inches in length.
most areas, limestone is pitted by solution cavities to a
depth of 60 inches or more. Reaction ranges from Chobee Series
medium acid to moderately alkaline throughout.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and The Chobee series consists of deep, very poorly
chroma of 1 or 2. drained soils. These soils formed in loamy marine
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and sediment. They are in depressions and on low-lying flats
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand. Some on the flatwoods and on the flood plains. A seasonal
pedons have thin, discontinuous layers of marl in the high water table is within 10 inches of the surface for
lower part of the C horizon. more than 6 months during most years. The slope is less
than 2 percent. These soils are fine-loamy, siliceous,
Candler Series hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls.
Chobee soils are closely associated on the landscape
The Candler series consists of deep, excessively with Floridana and Winder soils. Floridana soils have a
drained soils. These soils formed in sandy marine surface and subsurface layer that is more than 20 inches
sediment. They are on the uplands. The water table is at thick. Winder soils are poorly drained, and they do not
a depth of more than 80 inches. The slope ranges from have a mollic epipedon.
0 to 12 percent. These soils are hyperthermic, uncoated Typical pedon of Chobee loamy fine sand; 1.5 miles
Typic Quartzipsamments. south of Temple Terrace Junction, 2,300 feet west and
Candler soils are closely associated on the landscape 1,500 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 30, T. 28
with Kendrick, Millhopper, and Tavares soils. Kendrick S., R. 20 E.
and Millhopper soils have an argillic horizon. Tavares
soils are moderately well drained. A-0 to 16 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand;
Typical pedon of Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent moderate medium granular structure; friable; many
slopes; about 1.5 miles northeast of Sulphur Springs, fine and medium roots; few small pockets of gray
2,800 feet east and 300 feet north of the southwest (10YR 5/1) sand; slightly acid; clear smooth
corner of sec. 8, T. 28 S., R. 19 E. boundary.






74 Soil Survey



Bti-16 to 33 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay A-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; moderate
loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; medium granular structure; friable; common fine and
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth
medium roots; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
boundary. E-5 to 22 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
Bt2-33 to 49 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium
clay loam; common fine distinct light yellowish roots; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
brown (10YR 6/4) mottles; weak coarse subangular Btg1-22 to 28 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
blocky structure; sticky and plastic; few fine roots; sandy clay; common fine prominent strong brown
many fine to coarse soft white carbonate nodules; (7.5YR 5/6) and few fine prominent dark brown
calcareous; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy (7.5YR 3/2) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky
boundary. structure; sticky and plastic; few fine roots; very
Cgl-49 to 59 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) loamy fine strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
sand; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) Btg2-28 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; massive; sandy clay; common fine distinct dark brown (7.5YR
nonsticky and nonplastic; calcareous; moderately 3/4) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
alkaline; gradual irregular boundary. structure; sticky and plastic; strongly acid.
Cg2-59 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) loamy fine
sand; many fine to coarse dark grayish brown (10YR The thickness of the solum is 60 inches or more.
4/2) mottles; massive; friable; about 35 to 45 The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
percent, by volume, shell fragments; calcareous; chroma of 1 or 2. Typically, the texture is fine sand, but it
moderately alkaline, ranges from fine sand to mucky fine sand. Reaction is
very strongly acid or strongly acid.
The thickness of the solum is more than 40 inches. The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is fine sand or loamy fine
chroma of 1 or 2. Typically, the texture is muck or loamy sand. Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid.
fine sand, but the range includes fine sand, sandy loam, The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
or mucky fine sand. Reaction ranges from strongly acid chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have a Cg horizon
to neutral. beneath the Btg horizon. Reaction ranges from very
The upper part of the Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, strongly acid to medium acid.
value of 2 to 5, and chroma of 1. The lower part has hue
of 10YR, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. The
texture is sandy clay loam or fine sandy loam. Reaction Felda Series
ranges from medium acid to moderately alkaline in the The Felda series consists of deep, poorly drained
Bt horizon. soils. These soils formed in stratified sandy and loamy
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and alluvium and marine sediment. They are on flood plains
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is loamy sand, loamy fine and on the flatwoods. A seasonal high water table is
sand, fine sandy loam, or sandy loam. Reaction ranges within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months during
from medium acid to moderately alkaline, most years. Depressions are often ponded during wet
periods. The slope is less than 2 percent. These soils
Eaton Series are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs.
Felda soils are closely associated on the landscape
The Eaton series consists of deep, poorly drained and with Basinger, Myakka, Pinellas, Wabasso, and Winder
very poorly drained soils. These soils formed in fine soils. Basinger soils are very poorly drained and do not
textured marine sediment. They are in depressions on have an argillic horizon. Myakka and Wabasso soils have
the flatwoods. A seasonal high water table is within 10 a spodic horizon. Myakka soils do not have an argillic
inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months during most horizon. Pinellas soils are calcareous in the upper part of
years. Depressional areas may be ponded during wet the subsoil. Winder soils have a surface and subsurface
periods. The slope is less than 2 percent. These soils layer that is less than 20 inches thick.
are clayey, mixed, hyperthermic Arenic Albaqualfs. Typical pedon of Felda fine sand; about 2 miles south
Eaton soils are closely associated on the landscape of Temple Terrace Junction, 2,100 feet west and 1,000
with Felda and Wabasso soils. Felda soils have a fine- feet south of the northeast corner of sec. 36, T. 28 S., R.
loamy argillic horizon. Wabasso soils have a spodic 19 E.
horizon.
Typical pedon of Eaton fine sand; 0.5 mile east of A-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
Moriczville, 2,500 feet east and 750 feet north of the weak fine crumb structure; friable; many fine and
southwest corner of sec. 20, T. 27 S., R. 22 E. medium roots; mixed organic matter and sand grains






Hillsborough County, Florida 75



having a salt-and-pepper appearance; strongly acid; A-0 to 12 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
clear wavy boundary. medium granular structure; friable; common fine and
E1-5 to 18 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; few medium roots; organic matter coated sand
common medium distinct brown (10YR 4/3) mottles; grains; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
single grained; loose; many fine roots; slightly acid; E-12 to 28 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
clear wavy boundary. grained; loose; common medium roots; slightly acid;
E2-18 to 22 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine clear wavy boundary.
sand; common medium distinct dark yellowish brown Btgl-28 to 43 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
(10YR 4/4) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine loam; common coarse distinct brown (10YR 5/3)
and medium roots; slightly acid; clear wavy mottles; moderate coarse subangular blocky
boundary. structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common
Btg-22 to 45 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine and medium roots; mildly alkaline; clear wavy
sandy clay loam; common coarse distinct yellowish boundary.
brown (10YR 5/4) mottles; weak coarse subangular Btg2-43 to 60 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
blocky structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown
few fine roots; neutral; clear irregular boundary. (10YR 5/4) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
Cg-45 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) loamy sand; structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; mildly
massive; nonsticky and nonplastic; many shell alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
fragments; mildly alkaline. Btg3-60 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam;
common medium distinct brown (10YR 5/3) mottles;
The thickness of the solum ranges from 30 to 80 weak medium subangular blocky structure; slightly
inches. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to mildly sticky and slightly plastic; common medium lenses
alkaline in the A horizon and from slightly acid to of sand and loamy sand; mildly alkaline.
moderately alkaline in the E, Bt, and C horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and The thickness of the solum ranges from 48 to 80
chroma of 1. inches. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and moderately alkaline throughout.
chroma of 1 or 2. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is fine sand or mucky fine
7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of sand.
4 to 7. The texture is sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5G, value of 4 to chroma of 1 or 2.
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is loamy sand or The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to
fine sand. In some pedons, this horizon does not have 7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of
shell fragments. 4 to 7. The texture is sandy clay loam, sandy loam, or
fine sandy loam.
Floridana Series Some pedons have a C horizon that has hue of 5Y or
2.5Y, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1. The texture is
The Floridana series consists of deep, very poorly loamy fine sand or sand.
drained soils. These soils formed in sandy and loamy
marine sediment. They are in sloughs and swales on the Fort Meade Series
flatwoods. A seasonal high water table is within 10
inches of the surface for more than 6 months during The Fort Meade series consists of deep, well drained
most years. Depressional areas are often ponded during soils. These soils formed in sandy marine sediment.
wet periods. The slope is less than 2 percent. These They are on the uplands. A seasonal high water table is
soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic at a depth of more than 72 inches. The slope ranges
Argiaquolls. from 0 to 5 percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous,
Floridana soils are closely associated on the hyperthermic Quartzipsammentic Haplumbrepts.
landscape with Chobee, Felda, and Holopaw soils. Fort Meade soils are closely associated on the
Chobee soils do not have a subsurface layer. Felda and landscape with Gainesville and Millhopper soils.
Holopaw soils do not have a mollic epipedon. Felda soils Gainesville soils do not have an umbric epipedon.
are poorly drained. Millhopper soils have an argillic horizon.
Typical pedon of Floridana fine sand; about 6 miles Typical pedon of Fort Meade loamy fine sand, 0 to 5
southeast of Fort Lonesome, 1,000 feet east and 2,500 percent slopes; about 2.5 miles southeast of Turkey
feet south of the northwest corner of sec. 24, T. 32 S., Creek, 2,000 feet west and 2,650 feet south of the
R. 22 E. northeast corner of sec. 13, T. 29 S., R. 21 E.






76 Soil Survey



Ap-0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy fine The content of weathered phosphatic and iron pebbles
sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; few fine ranges from 0 to 5 percent, by volume. These pebbles
and coarse roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary. range from 4 to 20 millimeters in size. Reaction ranges
A-7 to 26 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) from very strongly acid to slightly acid throughout.
loamy sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; few The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
fine and coarse roots; neutral; clear wavy boundary. chroma of 1 or 2.
C1-26 to 58 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loamy The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4
sand; single grained; loose; few coarse roots; or 5, and chroma of 3 to 8. The texture is loamy sand or
medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. loamy fine sand.
C2-58 to 72 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) loamy
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary. Holopaw Series
C3-72 to 80 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
loamy sand; single grained; loose; common medium The Holopaw series consists of deep, very poorly
loamy sand; single grained; loose; common medium drained sosThesesosr iay i
yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) phosphatic pebbles; drained soils. These soils formed in sandy marine
strongly acid ; sediment. They are in swamps and depressions on the
flatwoods. A seasonal high water table fluctuates within
The content of weathered phosphatic and iron pebbles 10 inches of the surface during most years. Depressional
range from 0 to 5 percent, by volume. These pebbles areas are often ponded. The slope is less than 2
range from 4 to 20 millimeters in size. Reaction ranges percent. These soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic
from strongly acid to neutral in the A horizon and from Grossarenic Ochraqualfs.
very strongly acid to medium acid in the C horizon. Holopaw soils are closely associated on the landscape
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and with Basinger, Ona, and Samsula soils. Basinger and
chroma of 1 to 3. Ona soils do not have an argillic horizon. Ona soils are
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 6, and poorly drained and have a spodic horizon. Samsula soils
chroma of 3 to 8. The texture is loamy sand or loamy are organic.
fine sand. Typical pedon of Holopaw mucky fine sand, in an area
of Basinger, Holopaw and Samsula soils, depressional;
Gainesville Series about 1.5 miles north of Enon Church, about 200 feet
S. east and 1,000 feet south of the northwest corner of
The Gainesville series consists of deep, well drained sec. 13, T. 28 S., R 22 E
soils. These soils formed in sandy marine sediment.
They are on the uplands. A seasonal high water table is A-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand;
at a depth of more than 72 inches. The slope ranges weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
from 0 to 5 percent. These soils are hyperthermic, and medium roots; slightly acid; gradual smooth
coated Typic Quartzipsamments. boundary.
Gainesville soils are closely associated on the E1-6 to 12 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
landscape with Fort Meade and Tavares soils. Fort single grained; loose; many fine roots; slightly acid;
Meade soils have an umbric epipedon. Tavares soils gradual smooth boundary
have less than 5 percent silt and clay to a depth of 40 gradual smooth boundary.
inches. E2-12 to 42 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
Typical pedon of Gainesville loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 single grained; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid;
percent slopes; about 10 miles northwest of Plant City, gradual smooth boundary.
500 feet east and 600 feet north of the southwest corner E3-42 to 52 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
of sec. 5, T. 28 S., R. 22 E. sand; single grained; loose; neutral; abrupt wavy
boundary.
A-0 to 9 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) Btg1-52 to 64 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam;
loamy fine sand; moderate medium granular common fine distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR
structure; friable; many fine and medium roots; 4/6) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; mildly
C1-9 to 38 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) loamy fine sand; alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
weak medium granular structure; very friable; Btg2-64 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) sandy loam;
common fine and medium roots; many coated sand massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; mildly
grains; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. alkaline.
C2-38 to 80 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy
fine sand; single grained; loose; many coated sand Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral in the A
grains; few fine and medium weathered phosphatic and E horizons. It ranges from strongly acid to
pebbles; strongly acid. moderately alkaline in the Btg horizon.






Hillsborough County, Florida 77


The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR to 5YR, value of 2 or
chroma of 1 or 2. Typically, the texture is mucky fine 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The Bw horizon has hue of
sand, but the range includes fine sand and sand. 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and Some pedons have a C horizon that has hue of 10YR,
chroma of 1 to 3. value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 4.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sandy loam, fine Kendrick Series
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. Some pedons have a
BC horizon that has the same color and texture range as The Kendrick series consists of deep, well drained
the Btg horizon. soil. These soils formed in loamy marine sediment. They
Some pedons have a Cg horizon that has hue of are on the uplands. The slope ranges from 2 to 5
10YR to 5GY, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. percent. These soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic
The texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy fine sand. Arenic Paleudults.
Kendrick soils are closely associated on the landscape
Immokalee Series with Candler soils. Candler soils are excessively drained
The Immokalee series consists of deep, poorly drained and do not have an argillic horizon.
soil. These soils formed in sandy marine sediment. They Typical pedon of Kendrick fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
are on broad plains on the flatwoods. A seasonal high slopes; about 1 mile south of Thonotosassa, 75 feet east
water table is at a depth of 10 inches or less for more and 2,000 feet north of the southwest corner of sec. 15,
than 2 months during most years. The slope is less than T. 28 S., R. 20 E.
2 percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Ap-0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
Arenic Haplaquods. moderate medium granular structure; very friable;
Immokalee soils are closely associated on the many fine roots; medium acid; abrupt smooth
many fine roots; medium acid; abrupt smooth
landscape with Myakka, Ona, Smyrna, Wabasso, and boundary.
Zolfo soils. Myakka, Ona, and Smyrna soils have a E-4 to 35 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fine
spodic horizon within 30 inches of the surface. Wabasso sand; single grained; loose; common fine roots;
soils have an argillic horizon. Zolfo soils are somewhat strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
poorly drained. Btl-35 to 68 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sandy
Typical pedon of Immokalee fine sand; about 1 mile loam; common medium distinct strong brown
east of the south runway of MacDill Air Force Base, 4/6)loam; commottles; weak fine subangularong bloky structure;
1,300 feet south and 2,650 feet east of the northwest friab4/6) mottles; weak fineroots; strubangular blocky structure; wavy
corner of sec. 26, T. 30 S., R. 18 E. friable; few fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavyoundary.
A-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; Bt2-68 to 80 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy
weak fine crumb structure; very friable; many fine clay loam; common medium distinct strong brown
and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth (7.5YR 4/6) mottles; weak fine and medium
boundary. subangular blocky structure; friable; very strongly
E-8 to 36 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; acid.
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; The thickness of the soum is more than 60 inches.
very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. The thickness of the solum is more than 60 inches. In
Bhl-36 to 46 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak some pedons, up to 3 percent weathered phosphatic
fine granular structure; friable; common fine and pebbles and iron con concretions are in the solum. Reaction
medium roots; many organic matter coated sand ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid
grains; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. throughout except in areas where the surface layer has
Bh2-46 to 52 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) been limed.
fine sand; single grained; friable; few fine roots; The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
many organic matter coated sand grains; very chroma of 1 or 2YR, value of 5 or 6, and
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. The E horzonhas hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
Bw-52 to 80 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/2) fine sand; chroma of 3 to 8.
single grained; loose; strongly acid. The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4
to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. The texture is sandy loam,
The solum is more than 42 inches thick. Reaction fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
ranges from extremely acid to medium acid throughout.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and Kesson Series
chroma of 1 or 2.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and The Kesson series consists of deep, very poorly
chroma of 1 or 2. drained soil. These soils formed in deposits of shell






78 Soil Survey


fragments and sandy marine sediment. They are in tidal C1-4 to 28 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) fine sand;
swamps and marshes. The slope is less than 1 percent. single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
These soils are siliceous, hyperthermic Typic strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Psammaquents. C2-28 to 68 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) fine
Kesson soils are closely associated on the landscape sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly
with Myakka and St. Augustine soils. Myakka soils have acid; gradual wavy boundary.
a spodic horizon and are poorly drained. St. Augustine C3-68 to 80 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) fine
soils are somewhat poorly drained, sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid.
Typical pedon of Kesson muck, frequently flooded;
about 2 miles south of Gibsonton, 4,000 feet north and Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid
3,000 feet west of the northeast corner of sec. 3, T. 31 throughout except in areas where the surface layer has
S., R. 19 E. been limed.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
A-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; massive; chroma of 1 to 3.
about 10 percent shell fragments; calcareous; The C horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 4
moderately alkaline; clear smooth boundary. to 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. In some pedons, a few small
Cgl-5 to 38 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sand; common pockets of uncoated sand grains occur, either
fine distinct dark greenish gray (5GY 4 /1) streaks; individually or collectively, but these are not indicative of
single grained; loose; about 10 percent shell wetness.
fragments; calcareous; moderately alkaline; clear
smooth boundary. Lochloosa Series
Cg2-38 to 80 inches; light olive gray (5Y 612) fine sand; The choose series consists of deep, somewhat
single grained; loose; about 25 percent shell The Lochloosa series consists of deep, somewhat
fragments; calcareous; moderately alkaline. poorly drained soils. These soils formed in sandy and
loamy marine sediment. They are on the uplands. A
The content of sulfur is more than 0.75 percent within seasonal high water table is at a depth of 30 to 60
20 inches of the surface. Reaction ranges from mildly inches for 1 to 7 months during most years. The slope
alkaline to strongly alkaline throughout. ranges from 0 to 5 percent. These soils are loamy,
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 6, and siliceous, hyperthermic Aquic Arenic Paleudults.
chroma of 1 to 3. The content of shell fragments ranges Lochloosa soils are closely associated on the
from about 5 to 15 percent, landscape with Adamsville, Micanopy, and Millhopper
The Cg horizon has hue of 10 YR to 5Y, value of 5 to soils. Adamsville soils do not have an argillic horizon.
8, and chroma of 1 to 3. The content of shell fragments Micanopy soils have an argillic horizon within 20 inches
ranges from about 5 to 30 percent. of the soil surface. Millhopper soils are moderately well
drained and have a surface and subsurface layer that is
more than 40 inches thick.
Lake Series Typical pedon of Lochloosa fine sand, in an area of
Lochloosa-Micanopy fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes;
The Lake series consists of deep, excessively drained about 2 miles west of Seffner, 1,200 feet east and 1,750
soils. These soils formed in sandy marine sediment. feet south of the northwest corner of sec. 4, T. 29 S., R.
They are on the uplands. The water table is at a depth 20 E.
of more than 80 inches. The slope ranges from 0 to 5
percent. These soils are hyperthermic, coated Typic Ap-0 to 7 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak
Quartzipsamments. fine and medium granular structure; very friable;
Lake soils are closely associated on the landscape common fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
with Kendrick, Millhopper, and Tavares soils. Kendrick boundary.
soils are well drained, and Millhopper and Tavares soils El -7 to 15 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
are moderately well drained. sand; weak fine and medium granular structure; very
Typical pedon of Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent friable; few fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy
slopes; about 2.5 miles north of Seffner, 2,650 feet west boundary.
and 2,200 feet north of the southeast comer of sec. 23, E2-15 to 28 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
T. 28 S., R. 20 E. single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
Ap-0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine Btl -28 to 35 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; weak fine crumb structure; friable; many fine fine sandy loam; weak fine and medium subangular
and medium roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy blocky structure; very friable; few fine roots; strongly
boundary. acid; clear wavy boundary.






Hillsborough County, Florida 79



Bt2-35 to 40 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy E-4 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
clay loam; common fine distinct yellowish red (5YR sand; single grained; friable; few fine and medium
5/6) and gray (10YR 6/1) mottles; moderate roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine Bw-12 to 30 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few
Btg-40 to 69 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam; fine roots; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
few medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) E'-30 to 50 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
and red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles; moderate medium single grained; nonsticky and nonplastic; slightly
subangular blocky structure; sticky and slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
plastic; about 2 percent phosphatic pebbles and Btg-50 to 66 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sandy loam;
nodules of ironstone; very strongly acid; gradual few coarse distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
wavy boundary. mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
Cg-69 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay loam; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; neutral; gradual
massive; sticky and plastic; very strongly acid. wavy boundary.
S. Cg-66 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction is sand; single grained; loose; neutral.
very strongly acid or strongly acid throughout.
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and The thickness of the solum ranges from 46 to 80
chroma of 1 or 2. inches. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to moderately
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and alkaline throughout.
chroma of 2 to 4. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1.
chroma of 1 to 8. The texture is sandy clay loam or The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
sandy loam. In some pedons, the Bt horizon has 1 to 5 chroma of 1 or 2.
percent, by volume, plinthite. The Btg horizon has hue of The Bw horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 5
10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. to 7, and chroma of 4 to 8. The E' horizon has hue of
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 3. The Btg
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sandy loam or sandy horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 7, and
clay loam. chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of 4 to 7.
Typically, the texture is fine sandy loam, but the range
Malabar Series includes sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
The Malabar series consists of deep, poorly drained The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to
soils. These soils formed in sandy and loamy marine 7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of
sediment. They are on broad, low-lying flats and in 5 to 7. The texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand.
shallow depressions on the flatwoods. A seasonal high
water table is within 10 inches of the soil surface for 2 to Micanopy Series
6 months during most years. Depressions are subject to
ponding during wet periods. The slope is less than 2 The Micanopy series consists of deep, somewhat
percent. These soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic poorly drained soils. These soils formed in loamy and
Grossarenic Ochraqualfs. clayey marine sediment. They are on the uplands. A
Malabar soils are closely associated on the landscape seasonal high water table is at a depth of 30 to 60
with Basinger, Felda, Holopaw, Myakka, Ona, and inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The slope
Wabasso soils. Basinger soils are very poorly drained, ranges from 0 to 5 percent. These soils are fine, mixed,
They do not have an argillic horizon. Felda soils have an hyperthermic Aquic Paleudalfs.
argillic horizon within 40 inches of the surface. Holopaw Micanopy soils are closely associated on the
soils are very poorly drained and do not have a Bw landscape with Adamsville, Millhopper, and Lochloosa
horizon. Myakka and Ona soils are poorly drained. They soils. Adamsville soils do not have an argillic horizon.
do not have an argillic horizon. Myakka, Ona, and Millhopper and Lochloosa soils have a surface and
Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon, subsurface layer more than 20 inches thick. In addition,
Typical pedon of Malabar fine sand; about 2.5 miles Millhopper soils are moderately well drained.
west of Cosme, 2,250 feet east and 2,000 feet north of Typical pedon of Micanopy fine sand, in an area of
the southwest corner of sec. 30, T. 27 S., R. 17 E. Lochloosa-Micanopy fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes;
about 1,500 feet east and 2,000 feet south of the
A-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak northwest corner of sec. 4, T. 29 S., R. 20 E.
fine granular structure; friable; many fine and
medium roots; slightly acid; gradual smooth Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
boundary, moderate medium granular structure; friable;






80 Soil Survey


common fine and medium roots; strongly acid; Typical pedon of Millhopper fine sand, in an area of
abrupt smooth boundary. Tavares-Millhopper fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes;
E-5 to 15 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single about 4.5 miles west of Bloomingdale, 50 feet west and
grained; loose; few common fine roots; strongly 850 feet south of the northeast corner of sec. 8, T. 30
acid; clear wavy boundary. S., R. 20 E.
Bt-15 to 25 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy
clay loam; common fine and medium distinct A-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak
yellowish red (5YR 4/6) mottles; moderate medium medium granular structure; very friable; many fine
subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; and medium roots; medium acid; clear wavy
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. boundary.
Btg-25 to 59 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay; many E1-4 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
medium and coarse prominent dark red (10YR 3/6) grained; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid; clear
and strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) mottles; weak wavy boundary.
medium subangular blocky structure; sticky and E2-9 to 25 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
plastic; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots;
BCg-59 to 80 inches; gray (5YR 6/1) sandy clay; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
common coarse prominent strong brown (7.5YR E3-25 to 48 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
5/6) and red (2.5YR 4/6) mottles; weak fine common fine faint white mottles; single grained;
subangular blocky structure; sticky and plastic; loose; few fine roots; medium acid; clear wavy
strongly acid. boundary.
E4-48 to 57 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction single grained; loose; medium acid; clear wavy
ranges from extremely acid to medium acid throughout. boundary.
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and Bt-57 to 62 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sandy
chroma of 1 or 2. clay loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and (10YR 5/4) mottles; weak medium subangular
chroma of 3 to 4. The texture is fine sand or loamy fine blocky structure; friable; strongly acid; clear wavy
sand. boundary.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and Btg-62 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam;
chroma of 3 to 6. The texture is sandy clay loam or common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
sandy clay. The weighted average content of clay is 5/4) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
more than 35 percent in the upper 20 inches. The Btg friable; strongly acid.
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of
1; or it is neutral and has value of 5 or 6. The BCg Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid
horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and in the A and E horizons. It ranges from very strongly acid
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sandy clay or sandy clay to medium acid in the Bt horizon.
loam. The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
Some pedons have a Cg horizon that has hue of chroma of 1 or 2.
10YR to 5GY, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
texture is sandy clay loam or sandy clay. chroma of 3 to 8 in the upper part and has hue of 10YR,
value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 2 to 4 in the lower part.
Milihopper Series ,Mottles, indicative of wetness, occur at a depth of more
Millhopper Series than 40 inches.
The Millhopper series consists of deep, moderately The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
well drained soils. These soils formed in sandy and chroma of 3 to 7. Typically, the texture is sandy clay
loamy marine sediment. They are on uplands. A loam, but the range includes sandy loam, fine sandy
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 loam, and loamy sand. If loamy sand occurs in the Bt
inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The slope horizon, it is less than 8 inches thick and is underlain by
ranges from 0 to 8 percent. These soils are loamy, sandy clay loam in the lower part of the Bt horizon.
siliceous, hyperthermic Grossarenic Paleudults. The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to
Millhopper soils are closely associated on the 7, and chroma of 1 to 4. The texture is sandy loam or
landscape with Candler, Myakka, Seffner, and Tavares sandy clay loam.
soils. These associated soils do not have an argillic
horizon. Candler soils are excessively drained. Myakka Myakka Series
soils are poorly drained and have a spodic horizon.
Seffner soils are somewhat poorly drained. Tavares soils The Myakka series consists of deep, poorly drained
are moderately well drained, and very poorly drained soils. These soils formed in




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