• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Collier County soil legend
 How to use the soil survey
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Collier County area, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026060/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Collier County area, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 152 p., 67 p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Liudahl, Kenneth J
United States -- Natural Resources Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: <Washington D.C.>
Publication Date: <1998>
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Collier County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Collier County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service ; in cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ... <et al.>.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026060
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002439455
oclc - 39339309
notis - AME4644
lccn - 98148411

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Collier County soil legend
        Unnumbered ( 2 )
    How to use the soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    How this survey was made
        Page 5
        Map unit composition
            Page 6
    General soil map units
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 15
        Holopaw fine sand, limestone substratum
            Page 15
        Malabar fine sand
            Page 16
        Chobee, limestone substratum, and Dania mucks, depressional
            Page 17
        Riviera, limestone substratum-Copeland fine sands
            Page 18
        Immokalee fine sand
            Page 18
            Page 19
        Myakka fine sand
            Page 20
        Oldsmar fine sand, limestone substratum
            Page 21
        Hallandale fine sand
            Page 21
        Pineda fine sand, limestone substratum
            Page 22
        Pomello fine sand
            Page 23
        Oldsmar fine sand
            Page 24
        Basinger fine sand
            Page 24
        Riviera fine sand, limestone substratum
            Page 25
        Ft. Drum and Malabar, high, fine sands
            Page 26
        Boca fine sand
            Page 27
        Chobee, winder, and gator soils, depressional
            Page 27
        Holopaw and Okeelanta soils, depressional
            Page 28
        Boca, Riviera, limestone substratum, and Copeland fine sands, depressional
            Page 29
        Holopaw fine sand
            Page 29
        Pineda and Riviera fine sands
            Page 30
        Wabasso fine sand
            Page 31
            Page 32
        Hilolo, Jupiter, and Margate fine sands
            Page 33
        Urban land
            Page 34
        Urban land-Holopaw-Basinger complex
            Page 34
        Urban land-Immokalee-Oldsmar-limestone substratum, complex
            Page 34
        Urban land-Aquents complex, organic substratum
            Page 35
        Udorthents, shaped
            Page 35
        Tuscawilla fine sand
            Page 36
        Urban land-Matlacha-Boca complex
            Page 36
        Satellite fine sand
            Page 37
        Durbin and Wulfert mucks, frequently flooded
            Page 37
        Urban land-Satellite complex
            Page 38
        Canaveral-Beaches complex
            Page 38
        Winder, Riviera, limestone substratum, and Chobee soils, depressional
            Page 39
        Paola fine sand, gently rolling
            Page 40
        Pennsuco silt loam
            Page 40
        Hallandale and Boca fine sands
            Page 41
        Ochopee fine sandy loam, low
            Page 42
        Ochopee fine sandy loam
            Page 42
        Kesson muck, frequently flooded
            Page 43
        Estero and Peckish soils, frequently flooded
            Page 43
        Jupiter-Boca complex
            Page 43
        Basinger fine sand, occasionally flooded
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 47
        Crops
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Rangeland and pasture
                Page 51
                Page 52
            Windbreaks and environmental plantings
                Page 53
            Recreation
                Page 53
            Wildlife habitat
                Page 54
                Page 55
            Engineering
                Page 56
                Page 57
                Page 58
                Page 59
                Page 60
    Soil properties
        Page 61
        Engineering index properties
            Page 61
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 62
        Soil and water features
            Page 63
            Page 64
    Classification of the soils
        Page 65
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 65
        Basinger series
            Page 65
        Boca series
            Page 66
        Canaveral series
            Page 67
        Chobee series
            Page 67
        Copeland series
            Page 68
        Dania series
            Page 68
        Durbin series
            Page 69
        Estero series
            Page 69
        Ft. Drum series
            Page 70
        Gator series
            Page 71
        Hallandale series
            Page 71
        Hilolo series
            Page 72
        Holopaw series
            Page 72
        Immokalee series
            Page 73
        Jupiter series
            Page 73
        Kesson series
            Page 74
        Malabar series
            Page 74
        Margate series
            Page 75
        Matlacha series
            Page 76
        Myakka series
            Page 76
        Ochopee series
            Page 77
        Okeelanta series
            Page 77
        Oldsmar series
            Page 77
        Paola series
            Page 78
        Peckish series
            Page 79
        Pennsuco series
            Page 79
        Pineda series
            Page 79
        Pomello series
            Page 80
        Riviera series
            Page 81
        Satellite series
            Page 81
        Tuscawilla series
            Page 82
        Wabasso series
            Page 83
        Winder series
            Page 83
        Wulfert series
            Page 84
    Reference
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Glossary
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Tables
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
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        Page 143
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        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    General soil map
        Page 153
    Index to map sheets
        Page 154
        Page 155
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
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        Page 50
        Page 51
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        Page 67
Full Text

USDA United States In cooperation with the
W Department of University of Florida, S o il S survey of
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,ll r Cnt
Natural Agricultural Experiment C ollier C county
Resources Stations, and Soil and
Conservation Water Science A rea Flo rida
Service Department, and the
Florida Department of
Agricultural and Consumer
Services


















4 -


U~



*1*








Collier County Soil Legend
Revised Jan. 1990 H. Yamataki


HYDRIC
H 2 HOLOPAW FS, LIMESTONE SUBSTRATUM
H 3 MALABAR FS
H 4 CHOBEE, LIMESTONE SUBSTRATUM and DANIA MUCKS, DEPRESSIONAL
H 6 RIVIERA, LIMESTONE SUBSTRATUM COPELAND FS
7 IMMOKALEE FS
8 MYAKKA FS
10 OLDSMAR FS, LIMESTONE SUBSTRATUM
11 HALLANDALE FS
H 14 PINEDA FS, LIMESTONE SUBSTRATUM
15 POMELLO FS
16 OLDSMAR FS
H 17 BASINGER FS
H 18 RIVIERA FS, LIMESTONE SUBSTRATUM
20 FT. DRUM and MALABAR HIGH FS
21 BOCA FS
H 22 CHOBEE, WINDER and GATOR SOILS, DEPRESSIONAL
H 23 HOLOPAW and OKEELANTA SOILS, DEPRESSIONAL
H 25 BOCA, RIVIERA, LIMESTONE SUBSTRATUM and COPELAND FS, DEPRESSIONAL
H 27 HOLOPAW FS
H 28 PINEDA and RIVIERA FS
29 WABASSO FS
H 31 HILOLO, LIMESTONE SUBSTRATUM, JUPITER and MARGATE SOILS
32 URBAN LAND
33 URBAN LAND HOLOPAW, BASINGER COMPLEX
34 URBAN LAND IMMOKALEE, OLDSMAR, LIMESTONE SUBSTRATUM COMPLEX
35 URBAN LAND AQUENTS COMPLEX, ORGANIC SUBSTRATUM
36 UDORTHENTS, SHAPED
37 TUSCAWILLA FS
38 URBAN LAND MATLACHA, LIMESTONE SUBSTRATUM, BOCA COMPLEX
39 SATELLITE FS
H 40 DURBIN and WULFERT MUCKS
41 URBAN LAND SATELLITE COMPLEX
42 CANAVERAL BEACHES ASSOCIATION
H 43 WINDER, RIVIERA, LIMESTONE SUBSTRATUM and CHOBEE SOILS, DEPRESSIONAL
45 PAOLA FS (1 % 8 % slopes)
H 48 PENNSUCCO SOIL (marl prairie)
H 49 HALLANDALE and BOCA FS (slough)
H 50 OCHOPEE FSL, PRAIRIE (marl)
H 51 OCHOPEE FSL
H 52 KESSON MUCK, FREQUENTLY FLOODED
H 53 ESTERO and PECKISH SOILS, FREQUENTLY FLOODED
H 54 JUPITER, BOCA COMPLEX
H 56 BASINGER FS, OCCASIONALLY FLOODED

















How to Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area divided
into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the use and management of
large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the map unit in the area
on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units for a general description of the soils in
your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can-
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas.

To find information about your KoKI mo
area of interest, locate that 11 j 4N- -
area on the Index to Map -
Sheets, which precedes the a
soil maps. Note the number of MAP SHEET
the map sheet and turn to that
sheet. 1 17 -8-- -- .--

Locate your area of interest on INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
the map sheet. Note the map
units symbols that are in that f
area. Turn to the Contents, a WaF
which lists the map units by Fa Bac
symbol and name and shows /- N AsB
the page where each map unit BaC
is described. 1 I

The Summary of Tables AREA OF INTEREST
shows which table has data on {NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
a specific land use for each survey may consist only of numbers or
daild soil ma uit. Se letters, or they may be a combination
detailed soil map unit. See of numbers and letters.
Contents for sections of this
MAP SHEET
publication that may address
your specific needs.





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint
effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal agencies,
State agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and local agencies. The
Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service) has
leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1988. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1990. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this
publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1990. This survey was made
cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service; the University of
Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations,
and Soil and Water Science Department; and the Florida Department of Agricultural
and Consumer Services. The survey is part of the technical assistance furnished to
the Collier Soil and Water Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of these
maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If enlarged,
maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have been shown at
a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Natural Resources Conservation Service are
offered on a nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin,
religion, sex, age, marital status, or handicap.


Cover: A color infrared satellite image of the southwestern part of the survey area. The lighter
colors indicate areas of urban development, the reddish colors indicate the wetter areas, and the
greenish colors indicate areas that have actively growing vegetation. The Gulf of Mexico is on the
left side of the image. Photo courtesy of the South Florida Water Management District.





















ii

















Contents


Sum m ary of Tables .................................................. v 37- Tuscawilla fine sand ...........................................36
Foreword .............................. ............ ............ vii 38-Urban land-Matlacha-Boca complex ..................36
General Nature of the County ........................................ 1 39- Satellite fine sand ............................................. 37
How This Survey Was Made ...................... ..... 5 40-Durbin and Wulfert mucks, frequently
M ap Unit Com position ............................................ 6 flooded .......................................................... 37
General Soil Map Units............................................... 7 41-Urban land-Satellite complex .............................38
Detailed Soil Map Units ............................................15 42-Canaveral-Beaches complex .............................38
2-Holopaw fine sand, limestone substratum ..........15 43-Winder, Riviera, limestone substratum,
3-Malabar fine sand...............................................16 and Chobee soils, depressional ..........................39
4-Chobee, limestone substratum, and Dania 45-Paola fine sand, gently rolling ..........................40
m ucks, depressional ....................................... 17 48- Pennsuco silt loam .............................................40
6-Riviera, limestone substratum-Copeland fine 49-Hallandale and Boca fine sands .........................41
sands ....................................................... ......... 18 50-Ochopee fine sandy loam, low ...........................42
7-Immokalee fine sand .......................................... 18 51-Ochopee fine sandy loam ..................................42
8-Myakka fine sand ...............................................20 52-Kesson muck, frequently flooded .......................43
10-Oldsmar fine sand, limestone substratum ..........21 53-Estero and Peckish soils, frequently flooded .....43
11- Hallandale fine sand ........................................... 21 54- Jupiter-Boca complex ........................................ 43
14-Pineda fine sand, limestone substratum ............22 56-Basinger fine sand, occasionally flooded ...........44
15-Pomello fine sand ............................................23 Use and Management of the Soils ..............................47
16- O ldsm ar fine sand ............................................ 24 Crops ........................................ .....................47
17- Basinger fine sand ........................................... 24 Rangeland and Pasture ........................................... 51
18-Riviera fine sand, limestone substratum ...........25 Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings .................53
20-Ft. Drum and Malabar, high, fine sands .............26 Recreation ........................................................53
21-Boca fine sand ................................................ 27 Wildlife Habitat..................... .......................... 54
22-Chobee, Winder, and Gator soils, Engineering ............................ .............. 56
depressional ..................................................... 27 Soil Properties .............................. .................. ... 61
23-Holopaw and Okeelanta soils, depressional ......28 Engineering Index Properties ....................................61
25-Boca, Riviera, limestone substratum, and Physical and Chemical Properties ...........................62
Copeland fine sands, depressional ...................29 Soil and Water Features ..........................................63
27- Holopaw fine sand ........................................... 29 Classification of the Soils ........................................ 65
28-Pineda and Riviera fine sands ..........................30 Soil Series and Their Morphology ..................................65
29- W abasso fine sand .......................................... 31 Basinger Series ................................................... 65
31-Hilolo, Jupiter, and Margate fine sands .............. 33 Boca Series .................... ........................66
32- Urban land ..................................................... 34 Canaveral Series ................................................ 67
33-Urban land-Holopaw-Basinger complex ............. 34 Chobee Series .....................................................67
34-Urban land-lmmokalee-Oldsmar, limestone Copeland Series ............................... ............ 68
substratum, complex ........................................... 34 Dania Series ..............................................68
35-Urban land-Aquents complex, organic Durbin Series ............................... ............. 69
substratum ...................... .........................35 Estero Series ............................. .................. 69
36- Udorthents, shaped .......................................... 35 Ft. Drum Series ................................................... 70




iii






















G ator Series............................ .................... ..... 71 Paola Series ................................................. ............ 78
Hallandale Series .................................................... 71 Peckish Series ............................. .... ................... 79
Hilolo Series ................................................... ......... 72 Pennsuco Series .................................... .. ............... 79
Holopaw Series .................................. .... 72 Pineda Series ......................... .. ..................... 79
Immokalee Series ......................................... ........... 73 Pomello Series .......................... ............... 80
Jupiter Series ....................... ..... .................... 73 Riviera Series ................... ...... ........ .......... 81
Kesson Series ................................................ 74 Satellite Series ........................................ 81
M alabar Series........................... ... ........... 74 Tuscawilla Series ...................... ............................ 82
M argate Series ................................ .... ...................75 W abasso Series ........................................... .............. 83
Matlacha Series ..................................................... 76 W inder Series .................................... ................... 83
M yakka Series ........................................... ..............76 W ulfert Series ................................. .. .............. 84
O chopee S series ..................... ....................... ......77 R references ................................... ............................ 85
O keelanta S series .................................................... 77 G lossary ....................................................................... 87
O ldsm ar Series ......................... ................... ...... 77 Tables .............................................................. 95

Issued 1998






























iv


















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) ............................. ..................... 96

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 2) ............................ 97

Land capability and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 3)........... 98

Rangeland productivity and characteristic plant communities (table 4) .... 101

Recreational development (table 5) ..................................................... 103

W wildlife habitat (table 6) .......................................................................... 108

Building site development (table 7) ..................................................... 112

Sanitary facilities (table 8) .............................................. 117

Construction materials (table 9) ................................... ....................... 123

Water management (table 10) ......................................... 128

Engineering index properties (table 11) .......................... ........................ 134

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 12) ......................... 143

Soil and water features (table 13) ..................... ...................... 149

Classification of the soils (table 14) ............................... ..................... 152

















v





















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that affects land use planning in this survey
area. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected land uses. The survey also
highlights soil limitations, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the
impact of selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers, foresters,
and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan land
use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to ensure
proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists in
recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use the
survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Various land use regulations of Federal, State, and local governments may impose
special restrictions on land use or land treatment. The information in this report is
intended to identify soil properties that are used in making various land use or land
treatment decisions. Statements made in this report are intended to help the land
users identify and reduce the effects of soil limitations that affect various land uses.
The landowner or user is responsible for identifying and complying with existing laws
and regulations.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some soils
are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock. Some are too
unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are
poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil
poorly suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this soil
survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location of each
soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is described.
Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this publication and
additional information are available at the local office of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Natural Resources Conservation Service





vii













Soil Survey of


Collier County Area, Florida


By Kenneth Liudahl, David J. Belz, Lawrence Carey, Robert W. Drew, Steve Fisher,
and Robert Pate, Natural Resources Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil and Water Science Department, and the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




The survey area is in the extreme southwestern part of
peninsular Florida (fig. 1). Collier County is bounded by
Lee and Hendry Counties to the north, Hendry and
Broward Counties to the east, Monroe County and the
Gulf of Mexico to the south, and by the Gulf of Mexico to Talla
the west. The survey area covers 759,200 acres of the
1,348,400 total acres in Collier County. The Big Cypress
National Preserve and the Everglades National Park
areas, in the eastern part of Collier County, were not
included in the survey area.
Tourism and related services are the largest
nonagricultural industries in the county. Naples, the county
seat, is the center for tourism. It is in the southwestern
part of the county. Winter fresh-market vegetables and
citrus crops are the largest agricultural industries in the
county. Immokalee, in the north-central part of the county,
is the center for the agricultural industry.

General Nature of the County
This section provides general information about the
county, including climate, history and development, water
resources, farming, and geology.
Climate Figure 1.-Location of the survey area in Florida.

Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation for the low eighties in the summer months. Winters are mild
the survey area, as recorded in the period 1944 to 1983 at and have many bright, warm days and moderately cool
Fort Myers, located 20 miles north of Collier County. nights. From November to March, the maximum
The annual average temperature is nearly 74 degrees, temperatures average in the middle to high seventies, and
Monthly averages range from the low sixties in January to minimum temperatures average in the low to middle fifties.








2 Soil Survey



During occasional cold periods, temperatures drop into the History and Development
thirties. Only occasionally does the temperature drop
below 32 degrees, and rarely does it drop into the Ron Jamro, director, Collier County Museum, prepared this section.
twenties. Frost occurs in the farming areas only a few
times each year, and it is generally light and scattered. Collier County was the 62nd county created in Florida.
In the summer, the maximum temperature averages in It has the third largest total land area in the state.
the low nineties from June through the first part of The region has been occupied by humans for a known
September. The daily maximum is 90 degrees or more for period of at least 8,000 years, beginning with nomadic
over 80 percent of the days during this period. The bands of Paleo and early Archaic Indians who migrated
maximum temperature has rarely reached 100 down the Florida peninsula in search of abundant game.
degrees. Over the centuries, this primitive hunting culture evolved
The average annual rainfall is over 50 inches. About into a more settled society, concentrated primarily in towns
two-thirds of the rain falls from June to September. During and villages along the coastal fringe of southwestern
this period, the average is nearly 8 inches per month. In Florida.
the drier half of the year, the monthly rainfall average is Known as the Calusa, this advanced and powerful
less than 2 inches during the period from November society developed a complex religious and economic
through January and averages a little over 2 inches from structure, engineered canals, earthworks, and temples,
February through April. In winter the survey area generally and exerted political control over much of southern Florida
receives only very light rainfall or no rain falls for long by the time the Spanish arrived in the 16th century.
periods. During the summer, most of the rain falls during In 1513, Juan Ponce de Leon led the first exploration of
late afternoon or early evening thundershowers that Florida and the lower Gulf Coast. He is believed to have
provide a cooling effect for hot summer days. The landed in the vicinity of Cape Romano or at Caxambas on
thundershowers seldom last long, although they often what is now Marco Island. Although the Spanish attempts
yield large amounts of rain. Exceptions occur during to colonize the southwestern tip of Florida failed, the once
the late summer or fall, when tropical storms or dominant Calusa had virtually disappeared by the early
hurricanes can pass near the Fort Myers and Naples area. 1700s as a result of enslavement, warfare, and contact
These storms can result in a heavy downpour that can with European diseases. A tribal remnant may have
reach torrential proportions. Six to 10 or more inches survived among the Spanish fishing operations that were
of rain can fall during a 24-hour period. A trace amount based as far south as Marco Island. The huge quantities
of snow was officially observed only once, in February of dried and salted fish produced at these "ranchos" by
1899. Spanish and Indian workers were sold profitably in Cuban
The prevailing wind direction is from the east. High wind markets well into the 20th century.
velocities are not generally experienced except during the A brief period of British rule that began in 1763
passage of a tropical storm. During winter and spring, a encouraged the gradual movement south of scattered
few days generally experience winds that range from 20 to bands of Indians from the Creek Confederacy. These tribal
30 miles per hour. Thunderstorms are sometimes groups, known collectively as "Seminole," reached the Big
accompanied by strong gusts of winds for a brief period. Cypress Swamp region of what is now Collier County as a
Wind speeds of approximately 100 miles per hour have result of the Second Seminole War (1835-42) and, later,
been experienced with the passage of a hurricane during the Third Seminole War (1855-58). Military action in the
the fall. The chance of a hurricane passing through the area, although inconclusive and relatively minor in extent,
area in any given year is about one in twelve, gave impetus for further exploration in the area.
Thunderstorms can occur during any month, but they The maze of inlets and waterways of the Ten Thousand
are infrequent from November to April. From June through Islands was used by Confederate blockade runners during
September, they occur on an average of 2 out of every 3 the Civil War. Tales abound about army deserters and
days, generally during the late afternoon or early evening, fugitives from the law who took refuge in the area after the
The appearance of heavy fog is rather infrequent, war.
occurring mostly in the winter during early morning. Most Modern-day settlement of the survey area evolved
of the fog appears as a shallow ground fog that rapidly slowly and in isolated pockets during the 1870s and
burns off after sunrise. The sun shines at some time 1880s. Small pioneer fishing and farming communities
almost every day. emerged at Everglade, Naples, Marco, and Chocoloskee.
The relative humidity is high during the night, averaging Further inland, at Immokalee, cattle ranching became a
from 80 to 90 percent. It drops off to an average of 50 to primary means of livelihood.
60 percent during the middle of the day. Collier County was created in 1923 and had a







Collier County Area, Florida 3



population of less than 1,200 people. The creation of the county's water resources, are creating water-control
county and much of its early economic development were structures, providing ground-water monitoring and data
closely tied to the financial resources and vision of a gathering, and restricting activities known to adversely
Memphis-born millionaire, Barron Collier. Backed by a affect the quality and quantity of water.
personal fortune amassed from streetcar advertising,
Collier completed the Tamiami Trail in 1928, thus
unlocking the area's enormous agricultural and resort Farming
potential. The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad extended itsteve Mozley, district conservationist, Natural Resources
tracks to Immokalee in 1921 and, later, to Naples and Conservation Service, prepared this section.
Marco Island in 1926. A second railroad, the Seaboard Air
Line, reached Naples in 1927. The soils and climate of Collier County are favorable for
By 1935, the town of Ochopee had become the center farming and agricultural industries. The most common
of a very large tomato-growing and packing industry, vegetable crop in the survey area is tomatoes. Other
Florida's first commercial oil well was brought in at vegetables grown in the county are peppers, cucumbers,
Sunniland in 1943, and the county's cypress logging squash, potatoes, sweet corn, onion, and green beans.
industry flourished at Copeland well into the 1950s. The most common fruit crop is oranges. Other fruits grown
Although severely stunted by the onset of the Great include watermelons, avocados, and strawberries. Other
Depression, Collier County's population and economic farming-related activities include the production of
development accelerated at an impressive pace at the end gladiolus and ornamentals.
of World War II. In the short span of thirty years, the Livestock production consists mainly of beef cattle. A
number of residents swelled from 6,488 in 1950 to 85,000 combination of native rangeland and improved pasture is
in 1980. used as forage sources.
The county seat was moved from Everglades City to Many areas in the county, especially in the western
Naples in 1962. This move signalled a new era of part, that were once native rangeland or cropland have
sustained growth in agriculture, tourism, and construction been converted to urban land.
that have made Collier County one of the fastest
developing areas in the United States today. Geology

Water Resources Kenneth M. Campbell, geologist, Florida Geological Survey,
Department of Natural Resources, prepared this section.
Steve Mozley, district conservationist, Natural Resources
Conservation Service, prepared this section. Although several authors have discussed the
geomorphology of the Florida peninsula, the classification
The primary source of water in the survey area is detailed by White in 1970 is the basis of this section (11).
ground water, which is in three major aquifers. These Collier County lies within the Southern or Distal
aquifers are the Floridan, Intermediate, and Surficial Physiographic Zone. The dominant geomorphic features in
aquifer systems. The Floridan aquifer is the deepest and the county include the Immokalee Rise, the Big Cypress
is characterized by poor water quality. The Intermediate Spur, and the Southwestern Slope (11) (fig. 2). The
aquifer has limited quantities of available water. The remainder of the county falls within the Gulf Coastal
Surficial aquifer is closest to the surface and is the most Barrier Chain and Lagoons, Reticulated Coastal Swamps,
important source of water for public uses. and the Ten Thousand Islands.
The water in the Surficial aquifer is primarily The Immokalee Rise is located primarily in Hendry
replenished by rainfall. The aquifer's vicinity to the surface County, but it extends into the eastern part of Lee County
increases the risk of contamination from pollution. and the northeastern part of Collier County. The
An extensive network of canals has been excavated to Immokalee Rise is bounded on the north by the
drain areas of the county for human habitation and other Caloosahatchee Valley, on the east by the Everglades, on
uses. This drainage system has reduced the retention the south-southeast by the Big Cypress Spur, and on the
time of water falling as rain, resulting in a reduction of southwest by the Southwestern Slope (11). The
nutrient uptake by plants which, in turn, affects water boundaries between these features are poorly defined.
quality and reduces the time available for water to infiltrate The Immokalee Rise is described by White as a "southerly
the soil for aquifer replenishment. The intrusion of salt extension of Pamlico(?) marine sand invading the Distal
water is another concern, and it has occurred in some Zone from the sand dominated Central Zone to the north."
areas along the coast. White further states that the rise appears to have formed
Collier County officials and government recognize these as a submarine shoal that extended southward from a
water resource concerns and, in an effort to protect the mainland cape during the Late Pleistocene epoch. Relict








4 Soil Survey





| HENDRY COUNTY




IMMOKALEE RISE


) 0 5 10 MILES
LEE COUNTY 0 5 10 KILOMETERS
11

O HENDRY COUNTY






BIG CYPRESS SPUR V
SOUTHWESTERN SLOPE B CYPRESS SPUR
z
.I



a ~e RETICULATED
< go it COASTAL
J SWAMPS




CAPE ROMANO o/0 ^___
-i



"be1 MONROE COUNTY
GULF COASTAL LAGOONS


Figure 2.-Geomorphic features of the Collier County area.


shoreline features are only weakly developed, apparently Immokalee Rise to the Everglades and the Southwestern
because of low energy conditions that existed as the shoal Slope. The Big Cypress Spur is characterized by large
emerged from the receding sea (11). The Immokalee Rise areas of limestone or marl exposed at the surface, as well
is at an elevation of 25 to 42 feet above mean sea level as areas of sandy or peaty soils (6, 4).
(MSL) (6), and it dips very gently to the southwest. The Southwestern Slope is at an elevation below about
Numerous small karst lakes are located along the margin 25 feet above MSL (6). It is between the Gulf of Mexico
of the rise (11). and the western edges of the Immokalee Rise and the Big
The Big Cypress Spur is a transitional feature between Cypress Spur. Drainage is to the southwest. Most of this
the Immokalee Rise, the Everglades Trough, and the area has a thin mantle of sand, which generally becomes
Southwestern Slope. The elevation of the spur is only more thick to the north, overlying an eroded Tamiami
slightly higher than that of the Everglades and the Formation limestone surface (4).
Southwestern Slope. Drainage is from the north, from the Cape Romano forms the southern end of the quartz







Collier County Area, Florida 5



sand-dominated Gulf Barrier Island Chain. Most of the can observe only a limited number of soil profiles.
quartz sand transported past Cape Romano is deposited Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented by an
in a large shoal complex south of the cape. North of Cape understanding of the soil-landscape relationship, are
Romano, the Collier County coastline consists of barrier sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in an area
islands and lagoons. and to determine the boundaries.
The Ten Thousand Islands are located to the south of Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
Cape Romano. This feature is transitional between the profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
quartz sand-dominated barrier island coastline to the north size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
and the carbonate-dominated, quartz-deficient shoreline to rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, reaction, and
the south. Sufficient quartz sand is present to form other features that enable them to identify soils. After
beaches on the gulf side of the outermost islands, but not describing the soils in the survey area and determining
enough is present to allow the beaches to coalesce (11). their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
The outer islands are often on a core composed of taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
vermetid gastropodd) reef rock (7). The inner islands are concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
generally composed of oyster reefs. Both types of islands characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
are generally topped by mangrove swamps (11). are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
The Reticulated Coastal Swamps border the Gulf Coast systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
in the southern part of Collier County. These swamps are used in the United States is based mainly on the kind and
tidally influenced, complexly channeled mangrove swamps character of soil properties and the arrangement of
and coastal marshes. They are at an elevation of less than horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
five feet above mean sea level. Thin deposits of organic classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
material and marl overlie limestone and calcareous compared the individual soils with similar soils in the same
sandstone of the Tamiami Formation (6). taxonomic class in other areas so that they could confirm
data and assemble additional data based on experience
How This Survey Was Made and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of
This survey was made to provide information about the the soils in the area are generally collected for laboratory
soils in the survey area. The information includes a analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists interpret
description of the soils and their location and a discussion the data from these analyses and tests as well as the
of the suitability, limitations, and management of the soils field-observed characteristics and the soil properties to
for specified uses. Soil scientists observed the general determine the expected behavior of the soils under
pattern of drainage, the kinds of crops and native plants different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils are field
growing on the soils, and the kinds of bedrock. They dug tested through observation of the soils in different uses
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the sequence under different levels of management. Some
of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The profile extends interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, and
from the surface down into the unconsolidated material some new interpretations are developed to meet local
from which the soil formed. The unconsolidated material is needs. Data are assembled from other sources, such as
devoid of roots and other living organisms and has not research information, production records, and field
been changed by other biological activity, experience of specialists. For example, data on crop
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern yields under defined levels of management are assembled
that is related to the geology, landforms, relief, climate, from farm records and from field or plot experiments on
and natural vegetation of the area. Each kind of soil is the same kinds of soil.
associated with a particular kind of landscape or with a Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
segment of the landscape. By observing the soils in the soil properties but also on such variables as climate and
survey area and relating their position to specific biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over long
segments of the landscape, a soil scientist develops a periods of time, but they are not predictable from year to
concept, or model, of how the soils were formed. Thus, year. For example, soil scientists can predict with a fairly
during mapping, this model enables the soil scientist to high degree of accuracy that a given soil will have a high
predict with a considerable degree of accuracy the kind of water table within certain depths in most years, but they
soil at a specific location on the landscape. cannot assure that a high water table will always be at a
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge into specific level in the soil on a specific date.
one another as their characteristics gradually change. To After soil scientists located and identified the significant
construct an accurate soil map, however, soil scientists natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they drew the
must determine the boundaries between the soils. They boundaries of these bodies on aerial photographs and







6



identified each as a specific map unit. Aerial photographs soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to
show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and rivers, all of which other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units,
help in locating boundaries accurately, these latter soils are called inclusions or included soils. In
the general soil map units, they are called soils of minor
Ground Penetrating Radar extent.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral patterns
In this survey area, a ground penetrating radar (GPR) similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in the map
system (3) and hand transects were used to determine unit, and thus they do not affect use and management.
and document the type of variability of the soils in the These are called noncontrasting (similar) inclusions. They
detailed soil map units. Hundreds of random transects may or may not be mentioned in the map unit
were made with the GPR and by hand. Information from descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have properties
notes on observations made in the field were used with and behavior divergent enough to affect use or require
radar data from this study to classify the soils and to different management. These are contrasting (dissimilar)
determine the composition of map units. The map units, inclusions. They generally occupy small areas and cannot
as described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" are be shown separately on the soil maps because of the
based on these data. scale used in mapping. The inclusions of contrasting soils
are mentioned in the map unit descriptions. A few
Map Unit Composition inclusions may not have been observed and consequently
are not mentioned in the descriptions, especially where
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an area the soil pattern was so complex that it was impractical to
dominated by one major kind of soil or an area dominated make enough observations to identify all of the kinds of
by two or three kinds of soil. A map unit is identified and soils on the landscape.
named according to the taxonomic classification of the The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
dominant soil or soils. Within a taxonomic class there are diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
precisely defined limits for the properties of the soils. On The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
the landscape, however, the soils are natural objects. In taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
common with other natural objects, they have a landscape into segments that have similar use and
characteristic variability in their properties. Thus, the range management requirements. The delineation of such
of some observed properties may extend beyond the limits landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
defined for a taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single information for the development of resource plans, but
taxonomic class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses in
including areas of soils of other taxonomic classes, small areas.
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or






7










General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication but it consists of scattered slash pine, saw palmetto,
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of soils, grasses, and weeds. Most areas have been artificially
relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general soil drained by canals and ditches.
map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it consists of This map unit makes up about 37,689 acres, or about
one or more major soils and some minor soils. It is named 5.5 percent of the survey area. It is about 55 percent
for the major soils. The soils making up one unit can occur Urban land, 14 percent Udorthents, 5 percent Holopaw
in another but in a different pattern, soils, 5 percent Immokalee soils, and 21 percent soils of
The general soil map can be used to compare the minor extent.
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of Urban land consists of commercial buildings, houses,
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, parking lots, streets, sidewalks, shopping centers, and
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. other urban areas where the soil cannot be observed.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for No single pedon represents Udorthents, but a common
planning the management of a farm or field or for profile has a mixed layer of grayish brown and pale brown
selecting a site for a road or a building or other structure. fine sandy loam to a depth of 18 inches. The next layer is
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place in gray gravelly fine sand to a depth of 37 inches. The
slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that subsoil is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about
affect management. 47 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 47
inches.
Soils of the Manmade Areas Holopaw soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
The general soil map unit in this group consists of layer isdark grayfine sand about inches thickThe
nearly level, somewhat poorly drained and poorly drained subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth o about 52
soils that were filled or excavated to accommodate inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is light
cl b pin l a gray, and the lower part is light brownish gray. The subsoil
he extends to a depth of about 62 inches. The upper part of
other urban land uses. Some of the soils are sandy
throughout because they formed naturally or were the subsoil is dark grayish brown fine sand, and the lower
throughout because they formed naturally or were
composed of sandy fill material. Other soils are sandy and part s dark grayish brown fine sandy loam. The
substratum is gray loamy fine sand to a depth of about 80
loamy because they formed naturally or were composeds g
of mixed sandy and loamy fill material. Some of the fill i nches
material contains gravel. Immokalee soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
1. Urban Land-Udorthents-Holopaw-lmmokalee subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of about
Areas of Urban land and nearlyleve, somewhatpoorly 35 inches. The subsoil is fine sand to a depth of about 58
drained andpoorly drainedsoils that consist of mixed nches. The upper part of the subsoil is black, the next part
drained and poorly drained soils that consist of mixed is dark reddish brown and the lower part is dark brown.
is dark reddish brown,and the lower part is dark brown.
sandy and loamy fill over limestone bedrock, that are
The substratum is pale brown fine sand to a depth of
sandy throughout, or that are sandy and have a loamy aboutinches.
subsoil
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Hilolo,
This map unit is mostly in the cities of Naples, Malabar, Myakka, Tuscawilla, Pomello, Satellite, Jupiter,
Immokalee, and Marco Island. Another large area is Margate, and Ft. Drum soils.
mapped in the Golden Gate Development area, east of Most areas of this unit are presently used as urban land
Naples. or are being prepared for future urban uses.
This map unit consists of nearly level, somewhat poorly S o t ,
drained to poorly drained soils composed of sandy andls of the Flatwoods Sloughs, and Hammocks
loamy fill material. Some areas consist of undisturbed, The four general soil map units in this group consist of
poorly drained sandy soils. Natural vegetation is scarce, nearly level, poorly to very poorly drained soils. Some are








8 Soil Survey



sandy soils that overlie limestone at a depth of 10 to 60 The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Hilolo,
inches; some are deep, sandy soils that have a loamy or Malabar, Myakka, Tuscawilla, Pomello, Satellite, Jupiter,
organically coated subsoil; and some are sandy Margate, and Ft. Drum soils.
throughout the profile and have an organically coated The soils in this map unit are used mostly for the
subsoil. The soils in this group are on flatwoods, in production of citrus, vegetable, and other crops. Some
sloughs, or on hammocks throughout the survey area. areas have been used for urban development.
2. Immokalee-Oldsmar-Basinger 3. Holopaw-Malabar-Basinger-lmmokalee
Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have a Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils; some have a
weakly to strongly developed, organically coated subsoil weakly to strongly organically coated subsoil and some
or that have a loamy subsoil have a loamy subsoil
This map unit consists of 3 large areas and several This map unit consists of several small mapped areas
smaller areas. The larger areas are nearly circular to throughout the county. The largest unit is about 6 miles
square in shape. They are each about 10 miles wide and long and 3 miles wide. It is south of the Lee County line,
10 miles long, and they are located north, southwest, and about 4 miles east of U.S. Highway 41, and stretches
south of Immokalee. The smaller areas are west of south to the Golden Gate Airport.
Immokalee and north and south of Naples. This map unit consists of nearly level, poorly drained
This map unit consists of nearly level, poorly drained soils on flatwoods and in sloughs. The natural vegetation
soils on flatwoods and in sloughs. The natural vegetation in the sloughs is scattered areas of South Florida slash
on the flatwoods consists mainly of saw palmetto and pine, scrub cypress, cabbage palm, saw palmetto,
some scattered areas of South Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, sand cordgrass, pineland threeawn, panicum,
waxmyrtle, and gallberry. The natural vegetation in the and chalky bluestem. The natural vegetation on the
sloughs consists of scattered areas of slash pine, scrub flatwoods is dominantly saw palmetto and scattered areas
cypress, cabbage palm, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, sand of South Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, gallberry, cabbage
cordgrass, pineland threeawn, panicums, and chalky palm, chalky bluestem, and pineland threeawn.
bluestem. This map unit makes up about 62,712 acres, or about
This map unit makes up about 129,278 acres, or about 9.2 percent of the survey area. It is about 38 percent
18.9 percent of the survey area. It is about 35 percent Holopaw soils, 26 percent Malabar soils, 17 percent
Immokalee soils, 32 percent Oldsmar soils, 8 percent Basinger soils, 8 percent Immokalee soils, and 11 percent
Basinger soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent. soils of minor extent.
Immokalee soils are poorly drained. Typically, the Holopaw soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The layer is dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of about subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 52
35 inches. The subsoil is fine sand to a depth of about 58 inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is light
inches. The upper part of the subsoil is black, the next part gray, and the lower part is light brownish gray. The subsoil
is dark reddish brown, and the lower part is dark brown. extends to a depth of about 62 inches. The upper part of
The substratum is pale brown fine sand to a depth of the subsoil is dark grayish brown fine sand, and the lower
about 80 inches. part is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam. The
Oldsmar soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface substratum is gray loamy fine sand to a depth of about 80
layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. inches.
The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 35 Malabar soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is light layer is dark gray fine sand about 2 inches thick. The
gray, and the lower part is light brownish gray. The subsoil subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a
extends to a depth of about 80 inches. The upper part of depth of about 15 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth
the subsoil is black fine sand, the next part is very dark of about 72 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is
grayish brown fine sand, and the lower part is dark grayish brownish yellow and yellow fine sand, the next part is very
brown fine sandy loam. pale brown and light gray fine sand, and the lower part is
Basinger soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface grayish brown, mottled sandy clay loam. The substratum
layer is grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The is light gray fine sand that has ab6ut 10 percent shell
subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of about fragments to a depth of about 80 inches.
25 inches. The subsoil is brown fine sand to a depth about Basinger soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
44 inches. The substratum is brown fine sand to a depth layer is grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
of about 80 inches. subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of about








Collier County Area, Florida 9



25 inches. The subsoil is brown fine sand to a depth of part is light yellowish brown and gray, mottled sandy clay
about 44 inches. The substratum is brown fine sand to a loam; and the lower part is yellowish brown, mottled sandy
depth of about 80 inches. clay loam. The substratum is light gray, mottled loamy fine
Immokalee soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sand to a depth of about 80 inches.
surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The Winder soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of about surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick.
35 inches. The subsoil is fine sand to a depth of about 58 The subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a
inches. The upper part of the subsoil is black, the next part depth of about 15 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth
is dark reddish brown, and the lower part is dark brown, of about 50 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is gray
The substratum is pale brown fine sand to a depth of fine sandy loam, the next part is gray sandy clay loam,
about 80 inches. and the lower part is dark gray sandy clay loam. The
The soils of minor extent in this unit are Pineda and substratum is white fine sandy loam to a depth of about 80
Riviera soils. inches.
The soils in this map unit are used mostly for the The soils of minor extent in this unit are Malabar,
production of citrus, vegetable, and other crops. A few Pineda, Riviera, Winder, Gator, Okeelanta, and
areas have been used for urban development or have Immokalee soils.
been left in natural vegetation. The soils in this map unit are used mostly for the
4. Holopaw-Wabasso-Winder production of citrus, vegetable, and other crops. A few
areas have been left in natural vegetation.
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained, 5. Pineda-Boca-allandale
sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil; some also have an
organically coated subsoil Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have a loamy
This map unit consists of several small mapped areas subsoi or sandy substratum overlimestone bedrock
in the northern part of the survey area. It consists of nearly This map unit consists of a large mapped area and
level, very poorly to poorly drained soils on the flatwoods several smaller areas. The large area is about 30 miles
in sloughs and in small closed depressions. long and 15 miles wide at its widest point. It is north of the
The natural vegetation on the flatwoods is dominantly East Tamiami Trail and south of County Roads 896 and
saw palmetto and scattered areas of South Florida slash 858, stretching from U.S. Highway 41 at the Lee County
pine, gallberry, and waxmyrtle. The natural vegetation in line southeast to the Fakahatchee Strand. The smaller
the sloughs is scattered areas of South Florida slash pine, mapped areas are to the west and north of the larger
scrub cypress, cabbage palm, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, area.
sand cordgrass, pineland threeawn, panicums, and chalky This map unit consists of nearly level, poorly drained
bluestem. The natural vegetation in the closed soils in sloughs and on flatwoods. The natural vegetation
depressions is pickerelweed, St. Johnswort, and on the sloughs consists of scattered areas of South
maidencane. Florida slash pine, scrub cypress, cabbage palm, sand
This map unit makes up about 41,842 acres, or about cordgrass, panicum, and chalky bluestem. The natural
6.1 percent of the survey area. It is about 38 percent vegetation on the flatwoods is saw palmetto, scattered
Holopaw soils, 22 percent Wabasso soils, 13 percent areas of South Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, threeawn,
Winder soils, and 27 percent soils of minor extent. and cabbage palm.
Holopaw soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface This map unit makes up about 152,307 acres, or about
layer is dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The 22.3.percent of the survey area. It consists of about 41
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 52 percent Pineda soils and the similar Riviera soils, 28
inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is light percent Boca soils, 24 percent Hallandale soils, and 7
gray, and the lower part is light brownish gray. The subsoil percent soils of minor extent.
extends to a depth of about 62 inches. The upper part of Pineda soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
the subsoil is dark grayish brown fine sand, and the lower layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick.
part is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam. The The subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a
substratum is gray loamy fine sand to a depth of about 80 depth of about 12 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth
inches, of about 55 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface brownish yellow and very pale brown fine sand, the next
layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The part is grayish brown sandy clay loam, and the lower part
subsurface layer is gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to is light brownish gray and dark grayish brown fine sandy
a depth of about 70 inches. The upper part of the subsoil loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 55 inches.
is black and very dark grayish brown fine sand; the next Boca soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface








10 Soil Survey



layer is very dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The gray, and the lower part is brown. The subsoil is dark
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 26 grayish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of about 30
inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is light inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 30
gray, and the lower part is brown. The subsoil is dark inches.
grayish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of about 30 Riviera soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 30 surface layer is gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
inches. subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 32
Hallandale soils are poorly drained. Typically, the inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is light
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 3 inches brownish gray, and the lower part is light gray. The subsoil
thick. The subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand to a is sandy clay loam to a depth of about 54 inches. The
depth of about 9 inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown upper part of the subsoil is grayish brown, and the lower
fine sand to a depth of about 12 inches. Limestone part is dark gray. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about
bedrock is at a depth of about 12 inches. 54 inches.
The soils of minor extent in this unit are Copeland, Copeland soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
Malabar, Basinger, Jupiter, Margate, and Ochopee soils, surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
The soils in this map unit are used for a variety of subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 18
purposes, including urban development and agriculture. inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is very dark
Some areas have been left in natural vegetation, grayish brown, and the lower part is dark gray. The subsoil
is light gray, mottled sandy clay loam to a depth of about
Soils of Prairies, Swamps, and Freshwater Marshes
24 inches. The substratum is light gray marl to a depth of
The three general soil map units in this group consist of about 30 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about
nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils. 30 inches.
Some of the soils are shallow to moderately deep, loamy The soils of minor extent in this unit are Basinger,
soils overlying limestone bedrock; some are sandy, have a Gator, Hallandale, Jupiter, and Dania soils.
loamy subsoil, and have bedrock at a depth of 24 to 60 Most areas of this unit were used for logging during the
inches; and some have a sandy surface layer, a loamy middle of the 20th century. Since that time, however, they
subsurface layer, and limestone bedrock at a depth of have been left undisturbed as wildlife and botanical
more than 60 inches, preserves.
6. Boca-Riviera-Copeland 7. Ochopee-Pennsuco
Level, very poorly drained, sandy soils that have a loamy Poorly drained, loamy soils that have a loamy subsoil over
subsoil over limestone bedrock limestone bedrock
This map unit consists of one large mapped area and This map unit consists of 5 large mapped areas and
several smaller mapped areas throughout the survey area. several smaller areas in the south-central part of the
The largest mapped area is 1 to 6 miles wide and 28 miles survey area. The largest unit is 8 miles long and about 3
long. It includes the Fakahatchee Strand and adjacent miles wide, and it is between the Big Cypress Preserve
cypress strands near the eastern boundary of the survey and the Fakahatchee Strand. Other large areas of this unit
area from U.S. Highway 41 near Copeland to County are along the western, southeastern, and southwestern
Road 846, just southwest of Immokalee. Another large edges of the Fakahatchee Strand.
area, about 10 miles long and 5 miles wide, is southwest This unit consists of nearly level, poorly drained soils in
of Corkscrew Marsh, along the Collier County's northwest low prairies and wetland hardwood areas. The natural
border with Lee County. vegetation in the prairies is sawgrass, reeds, maidencane,
This map unit consists of very poorly drained soils in needlegrass, sedges, waxmyrtle, scattered areas of dwarf
cypress strands. The natural vegetation in the cypress cypress, rushes, and cordgrass. The natural vegetation in
strands is baldcypress, pickerelweed, maidencane, the hardwood swamps is red maple, scrub cypress, saw
sawgrass, and Florida willow, palmetto, and South Florida slash pine.
This map unit makes up about 108,070 acres, or about This map unit makes up about 40,512 acres, or about
15.8 percent of the survey area. It is about 30 percent 5.9 percent of the survey area. It is about 81 percent
Boca soils, 30 percent Riviera soils, 30 percent Copeland Ochopee soils and 19 percent Pennsuco soils.
soils, and 10 percent soils of minor extent. Ochopee soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
Boca soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam about 5 inches
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray fine sandy loam to
thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about a depth of about 17 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a
26 inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is light depth of about 17 inches.






Collier County Area, Florida 11



Pennsuco soils are poorly drained. Typically, the and gray fine sandy loam and loamy fine sand to a depth
surface layer is very dark gray silt loam about 5 inches of about 80 inches.
thick. The subsoil is dark gray silt loam to a depth of about The soils of minor extent in this unit are Boca, Gator,
40 inches. The substratum is grayish brown fine sand to a and Pineda soils.
depth of about 48 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth Most areas of this freshwater marsh unit have been left
of about 48 inches. in natural vegetation and are used as wildlife management
Most of areas of this map unit have been left in natural areas.
vegetation. A few areas have been cleared and prepared Soils of the Tidal Areas
for urban development.
8. Winra-Choe The two general soil map units in this group consist of
nearly level, very poorly drained and moderately well
Level, very poorly drained, sandy over loamy soils with drained soils in the tidal swamps and marshes and
sandy and loamy soils with a loamy subsoil associated sandy and shelly beach deposits. Some of the
Sm u o o soils are organic to a depth of 20 to more than 80 inches;
This map unit consists of two mapped areas. The larger
some are sandy throughout and often have a thin mucky
area is 18 miles long and 1 to 6 miles wide. It is in the some are sand tho t ad on he a tn
extreme eastern part of the survey area, stretching from s of 8 inches or more f
the Hendry County line to the northern border of the Big
Cypress Preserve. The second area is about 10 miles 9. Durbin-Wulfert-Canaveral
long and 1 to 3 miles wide. It is in the Corkscrew Marsh in Nearly level, very poorly drained and moderately well
Nearly level, very poorly drained and moderately well
the northwestern comer of Collier County and has a d m
drained, mucky or sandy soils that have a sandy
divergent extension stretching about 5 miles south of Lake su tum
Trafford.
This map unit consists of level, very poorly drained soils This map unit occurs entirely along the coastal margin
in freshwater marshes. The natural vegetation consists of of Collier County. It is about 20 miles wide at its widest
sawgrass, maidencane, pickerelweed, fireflag, and Florida point, and it is between U.S. Highway 41 at Collier-
willow. Seminole State Park and Cape Romano.
This map unit makes up about 30,167 acres, or about This map unit consists mainly of nearly level, very
4.4 percent of the survey area. It is about 35 percent poorly drained tidal areas and low, narrow, moderately well
Winder soils, 30 percent Riviera soils, 25 percent Chobee drained ridges along the Gulf of Mexico. The natural
soils, and 10 percent soils of minor extent. vegetation in the tidal areas is dominantly mangroves. The
Winder soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the natural vegetation on the ridges consists of Australian
surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. pines, cabbage palms, coconut palms, seagrapes, and
The subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a various grasses and shrubs.
depth of about 15 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth This map unit makes up about 69,871 acres, or about
of about 50 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is gray 10.2 percent of the survey area. It is about 54 percent
fine sandy loam, the next part is gray sandy clay loam, Durbin soils, 44 percent Wulfert soils, and 2 percent
and the lower part is dark gray sandy clay loam. The Canaveral soils.
substratum is white fine sandy loam to a depth of about 80 Durbin soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
inches. surface soil is dark reddish brown to black muck about 63
Riviera soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the inches thick. The substratum is dark gray fine sand to a
surface layer is gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The depth of about 80 inches.
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 32 Wulfert soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is light surface soil is dark reddish brown to black muck about 40
brownish gray, and the lower part is light gray. The subsoil inches thick. The substratum is dark gray fine sand to a
is sandy clay loam to a depth of about 54 inches. The depth of about 80 inches.
upper part of the subsoil is grayish brown, and the lower Canaveral soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
part is dark gray. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about the surface layer is dark brown fine sand about 4 inches
54 inches. thick. The substratum is brown to light gray fine sand that
Chobee soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the is mixed with shell fragments to a depth of about 80
surface layer is fine sandy loam about 13 inches thick. inches.
The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of about 47 The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Beaches.
inches. The upper part of the subsoil is dark gray, and the Beaches make up a small part of this map unit along the
lower part is gray. The substratum is dark greenish gray extreme edges of the land area. Also included are small







12 Soil Survey












































Figure 3.-An area of the Kesson-Estero-Peckish general soil map unit. Cordgrass and needlerush are the dominant species in these
frequently flooded marshes.

areas of very poorly drained soils that consist of mixed southern part of Collier County. It is about 3 miles wide
shells and organic material, at its widest point, and it is south of the Fakahatchee
Most areas of this unit remain in natural vegetation. Strand.
Some areas, particularly along the coast, have been This map unit consists of level, very poorly drained soils
altered for use as sites for homes or for other purposes. in tidal marshes along the Gulf Coast mangrove swamps.
The natural vegetation in these marshes is cordgrass,
10. Kesson-Estero-Peckish black needlerush, scattered areas of mangroves, and
y d d s s w m o batis (fig. 3). Cattails are common along the ditches that
Level, very poorly drained sandy soils with muck or mucky discharge freshwater into the marshes from the interior of
fine sand soils with a sandy substratum; some have an
organicay coated subsothe county.
organically coatedsubsoThis map unit makes up about 11,717 acres, or about
This map unit consists of a nearly continuous, narrow 1.7 percent of the survey area. It is about 52 percent
strip between the uplands and mangrove swamps in the Kesson soils, 20 percent Peckish soils, 20 percent Estero








Collier County Area, Florida 13



soils, and 8 percent soils of minor extent, dark brown and very dark brown fine sand to a depth of
Kesson soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the about 62 inches.
surface layer is black muck about 5 inches thick. The Peckish soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
subsurface layer is dark gray fine sand to a depth of about surface layer is very dark grayish brown mucky fine sand
10 inches. The substratum is fine sand to a depth of about about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
80 inches. The upper part of the substratum is gray, the brown fine sand to a depth of about 37 inches. The subsoil
next part is light brownish gray, and the lower part is pale is dark brown fine sand to a depth of about 42 inches. The
brown. substratum is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of
Estero soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the about 80 inches.
surface layer is black muck about 6 inches thick. The Of minor extent in this unit are Basinger, occasionally
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 40 flooded, soils.
inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is black, Almost all areas of this map unit remain in natural
and the lower part is dark grayish brown. The subsoil is vegetation.









15










Detailed Soil Map Units


SThe map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of up of all of them. Pineda and Riviera fine sands is an
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The undifferentiated group in this survey area.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be used of these included soils have properties that differ
to plan the management needed for those uses. More substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
information on each map unit, or soil, is given under the differences could significantly affect use and management
heading "Use and Management of the Soils." of the soils in the map unit. The included soils are
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an identified in each map unit description. Some small areas
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils of strongly contrasting soils are identified by a special
for which the unit is named. symbol on the soil maps.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes have little or no soil material and support little or no
general facts about the soil and gives the principal vegetation. Urban land is an example. Miscellaneous
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
specific uses. small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up a the soil maps.
soil series. Except for differences in texture of the surface Table 2 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of a series each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
have major horizons that are similar in composition, give properties of the soils and the limitations, capabilities,
thickness, and arrangement. and potentials for many uses. The Glossary defines many
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface of the terms used in describing the soils.
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, 2-Holopaw fine sand, limestone
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the basis substratum
of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil This nearly level, poorly drained soil is in sloughs and
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil phase broad, poorly defined drainageways. Individual areas are
commonly indicates a feature that affects use or elongated and irregular in shape, and they range from 20
management. For example, Boca fine sand is a phase of to 300 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
the Boca series. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about
Some map units are made up of two or more major 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil depth of about 57 inches. The upper part of the
associations, or undifferentiated groups, subsurface layer is white, and the lower part is light gray
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such an and dark grayish brown. The subsoil extends to a depth of
intricate pattern or in such small areas that they cannot be about 62 inches. It is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam.
shown separately on the soil maps. The pattern and Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 62 inches.
proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in all areas. In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Holopaw fine
Urban land-Satellite complex is an example. sand, limestone substratum, Holopaw and similar soils
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more make up 78 to 97 percent of the map unit. In the
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped as remaining areas, the Holopaw soil makes up either a
one unit because similar interpretations can be made for higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas. The
use and management. The pattern and proportion of the characteristics of Malabar, Pineda, and Riviera soils that
soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can be have a limestone substratum are similar to those of the
made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be made Holopaw soil.






15










Detailed Soil Map Units


SThe map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of up of all of them. Pineda and Riviera fine sands is an
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The undifferentiated group in this survey area.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be used of these included soils have properties that differ
to plan the management needed for those uses. More substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
information on each map unit, or soil, is given under the differences could significantly affect use and management
heading "Use and Management of the Soils." of the soils in the map unit. The included soils are
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an identified in each map unit description. Some small areas
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils of strongly contrasting soils are identified by a special
for which the unit is named. symbol on the soil maps.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes have little or no soil material and support little or no
general facts about the soil and gives the principal vegetation. Urban land is an example. Miscellaneous
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
specific uses. small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up a the soil maps.
soil series. Except for differences in texture of the surface Table 2 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of a series each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
have major horizons that are similar in composition, give properties of the soils and the limitations, capabilities,
thickness, and arrangement. and potentials for many uses. The Glossary defines many
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface of the terms used in describing the soils.
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, 2-Holopaw fine sand, limestone
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the basis substratum
of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil This nearly level, poorly drained soil is in sloughs and
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil phase broad, poorly defined drainageways. Individual areas are
commonly indicates a feature that affects use or elongated and irregular in shape, and they range from 20
management. For example, Boca fine sand is a phase of to 300 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
the Boca series. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about
Some map units are made up of two or more major 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil depth of about 57 inches. The upper part of the
associations, or undifferentiated groups, subsurface layer is white, and the lower part is light gray
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such an and dark grayish brown. The subsoil extends to a depth of
intricate pattern or in such small areas that they cannot be about 62 inches. It is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam.
shown separately on the soil maps. The pattern and Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 62 inches.
proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in all areas. In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Holopaw fine
Urban land-Satellite complex is an example. sand, limestone substratum, Holopaw and similar soils
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more make up 78 to 97 percent of the map unit. In the
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped as remaining areas, the Holopaw soil makes up either a
one unit because similar interpretations can be made for higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas. The
use and management. The pattern and proportion of the characteristics of Malabar, Pineda, and Riviera soils that
soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can be have a limestone substratum are similar to those of the
made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be made Holopaw soil.








16 Soil Survey



The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of overcome these limitations. This soil also has severe
Basinger, Boca, and Chobee soils in landscape positions limitations for recreational development because of
similar to those of the Holopaw soil. These soils make up wetness and the sandy texture. The problems associated
about 3 to 22 percent of the unit. with wetness can be corrected by providing adequate
The permeability of this soil is moderate to moderately drainage and drainage outlets to control the high water
slow. The available water capacity is low. Under natural table. The sandy texture can be overcome by adding
conditions, the seasonal high water table is within a depth suitable topsoil or by resurfacing the area.
of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. During This Holopaw soil is in capability subclass IVw.
the other months, the water table is below a depth of 12
inches, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches 3-Malabar fine sand
during extended dry periods. During periods of high
rainfall, the soil is covered by shallow, slowly moving water This nearly level, poorly drained soil is in sloughs and
for about 7 days. poorly defined drainageways. Individual areas are
The natural vegetation consists of scattered areas of elongated and irregular in shape, and they range from 10
South Florida slash pine, cypress, cabbage palm, saw to 250 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
palmetto, waxmyrtle, sand cordgrass, chalky bluestem, Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about
and gulf muhly. 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of fine sand to a depth of about 15 inches. The subsoil
the wetness and droughtiness. With good water-control extends to a depth of about 72 inches. The upper part of
and soil-improving measures, this soil is suitable for many the subsoil is brownish yellow and yellow fine sand, the
fruit and vegetable crops. A water-control system is next part is very pale brown and light gray fine sand, and
needed to remove excess water during wet seasons and the lower part is grayish brown, mottled sandy clay loam.
to provide water through subsurface irrigation during dry The substratum is light gray fine sand that has 10 percent
seasons. Row crops should be rotated with cover crops. shell fragments to a depth of about 80 inches.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows. In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Malabar fine
Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the sand, Malabar and similar soils make up 75 to 99 percent
needs of the crops, of the map unit. In the remaining areas, the Malabar soil
With proper water-control measures, the soil is makes up either a higher or lower percentage of the
moderately suited to citrus. A water-control system that mapped areas. The characteristics of Pineda and Riviera
maintains good drainage to an effective depth is needed, soils are similar to those of the Malabar soil.
Planting on raised beds provides good surface and The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
internal drainage and elevates the trees above the Basinger, Boca, and Oldsmar soils in landscape positions
seasonal high water table. Planting a good grass cover similar to those of the Malabar soil. These soils make up
crop between the trees helps to protect the soil from about 1 to 25 percent of the unit.
blowing when the trees are younger. The permeability of this soil is slow or very slow. The
With good water-control management, this soil is well available water capacity is low. Under natural conditions,
suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to the seasonal high water table is within a depth of 12
remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. In the other
well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover, months, the water table is below a depth of 12 inches, and
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
be grown with good management. Regular applications of extended dry periods. During periods of high rainfall, the
fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest soil is covered by shallow, slowly moving water for about 7
possible yields, days.
This soil is well suited to range. The dominant forage The natural vegetation consists of scattered areas of
consists of blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, and South Florida slash pine, cypress, cabbage palm, saw
bluejoint panicum. Management practices should include palmetto, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, and chalky
deferred grazing. The Holopaw soil is in the Slough range bluestem.
site. This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses the wetness and droughtiness. With good water-control
because of the high water table. It has severe limitations and soil-improving measures, this soil is suitable for many
for septic tank absorption fields because of the wetness, fruit and vegetable crops. A water-control system is
poor filtration, and the slow percolation rate. Building sites needed to remove excess water during wet seasons and
and septic tank absorption fields should be mounded to to provide water through subsurface irrigation during dry








Collier County Area, Florida 17



seasons. Row crops should be rotated with cover crops. is dark gray, and the lower part is gray. Limestone bedrock
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows. is at a depth of about 45 inches.
Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the Typically, the surface layer of the Dania soil is black
needs of the crops. muck about 10 inches thick. The substratum is light gray
With proper water-control measures, the soil is loamy fine sand to a depth of about 12 inches. Limestone
moderately suited to citrus. A water-control system that bedrock is at a depth of about 12 inches.
maintains good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Chobee soil,
Planting on raised beds provides good surface and entirely of the Dania soil, or any combination of the two
internal drainage and elevates the trees above the soils. The two soils were not separated in mapping
seasonal high water table. Planting a good grass cover because of similar management needs resulting from the
crop between the trees helps to protect the soil from ponding.
blowing when the trees are younger. The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas
With good water-control management, this soil is well of Gator and Hallandale soils in similar landscape
suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to positions. These soils make up about 5 to 15 percent of
remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is the unit.
well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. The permeability in the Chobee soil is moderate, and
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can the available water capacity is moderate. The permeability
be grown with good management. Regular applications of in the Dania soil is rapid, and the available water capacity
fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest is very low. Under natural conditions, these soils are
possible yields. ponded for 6 months or more during most years. During
This soil is well suited to range. The dominant forage the other months, the water table is within a depth of 12
consists of blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, and inches, and it recedes to a depth of 12 to 40 inches during
bluejoint panicum. Management practices should include extended dry periods.
deferred grazing. The Malabar soil is in the Slough range These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or citrus
site. because of ponding and wetness. They are used for
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses natural wetlands. The natural vegetation consists of
because of the high water table. It has severe limitations cypress, red maple, ferns, maidencane, and other wetland
for septic tank absorption fields because of wetness and plants.
poor filtration. Building sites and septic tank absorption These soils are moderately suited to range. The
fields should be mounded to overcome these limitations, dominant forage is maidencane. Since the depth of the
This soil also has severe limitations for recreational water table fluctuates throughout the year, a natural
development because of wetness and the sandy texture, deferment from cattle grazing occurs. Although this rest
The problems associated with wetness can be corrected period increases forage production, the periods of high
by providing adequate drainage and drainage outlets to water may reduce the grazing value of the site. The
control the high water table. The sandy texture can be Chobee and Dania soils are in the Freshwater Marshes
overcome by adding suitable topsoil or by resurfacing the and Ponds range site.
area. These soils have severe limitations for all urban and
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass IVw. recreational uses because of ponding and the depth to
bedrock. They also have severe limitations for septic tank
absorption fields because of ponding, the depth to
4-Chobee, limestone substratum, and bedrock, slow percolation, and poor filtration. An effective
Dania mucks, depressional drainage system that keeps the water table at a given
depth is expensive and difficult to establish and maintain.
These level, very poorly drained soils are in cypress Also, these soils act as a collecting basin for the area;
swamps and marshes. Individual areas are elongated and therefore, a suitable outlet to remove the water is not
irregular in shape, and they range from 10 to 100 acres in available. They require an adequate amount of fill material
size. The slope is 0 to 1 percent. to maintain house foundations and road beds above the
Typically, the surface layer of the Chobee soil is black high water table. Even when a good drainage system is
fine sandy loam to a depth of about 6 inches. The installed and the proper amount of fill material is added,
subsurface layer is black fine sandy loam to a depth of keeping the area dry is a continual problem because of
about 13 inches. The subsoil is mottled sandy clay loam to seepage water from the slightly higher adjacent sloughs or
a depth of about 45 inches. The upper part of the subsoil flatwoods.








18 Soil Survey



The Chobee and Dania soils are in capability subclass These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops
Vllw. because of the wetness and droughtiness. With good
water-control and soil-improving measures, these soils are
6-Rivie, le sd suitable for many fruit and vegetable crops. A water-
6--Riviera, limestone substratum-Copeland control system is needed to remove excess water during
fine sands wet seasons and to provide water through subsurface
irrigation during dry seasons. Row crops should be rotated
These nearly level, poorly drained soils are in sloughs wit oer ros eeded preparation should include
and cypress swamps. Individual areas are elongated and locations o ertil
bedding of the rows. Applications of fertilizer and lime
irregular in shape, and they range from 40 to 400 acres in d be the nees of the cro
should be based on the needs of the crops.
size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. With proper water-control measures, these soils are
Typically, the Riviera soil has a surface layer of gray m water-control sste
n moderately suited to citrus. A water-control system that
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is maintains good drainage to an effective depth is needed.
fine sand to a depth of about 32 inches. The upper part of Planting on raised beds provides good surface and
the subsurface layer is light brownish gray, and the lower
internal drainage and elevates the trees above the
part is light gray. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth enal aiage a le he ees abo
of about 54 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is seasonal high water table. The loamy subsoil may impede
of about 54 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is
proper drainage. Planting a good grass cover crop
grayish brown, and the lower part is dark gray. Limestone proper rie Plti oo rss coer rom
between the trees helps to protect the soil from blowing
bedrock is at a depth of about 54 inches.
Typically, the Copeland soil has a surface layer of black wn throntro ageentese are
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is water-control mneme
fine sand to a depth of about 18 inches. The upper part of well suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
fine sand to a depth of about 18 inches. The upper part of
the subsurface layer is very dark grayish brown, and the remove excess water during the wet season. These soils
are well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
lower part is dark gray. The subsoil is light gray, mottled ell sute to paoagrass grass a clover
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can
sandy clay loam to a depth about 24 icheshe be grown with good management. Regular applications of
substratum is light gray marl to a depth of about 30
substratum is light gray marl to a depth of about 30 fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 30
inches possible yields.
In These soils are poorly suited to range. The Riviera and
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Riviera, Copeland soils have not been assigned to a range site.
limestone substratum-Copeland fine sands, Riviera and These soils have severe limitations for most urban uses
similar soils make up 55 to 75 percent of the map unit and wer tabl a s r
because of the high water table. They have severe
Copeland and similar soils make up 25 to 40 percent. In iitatios for seabs es ease
limitations for septic tank absorption fields because of
the remaining areas, the named soils make up either a rotin a oor filta uld
wetness, slow percolation, and poor filtration. Building
higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas. The two septic tan fild ould
sites and septic tank absorption fields should be mounded
soils occur as areas so intricately mixed or so small that t overcome these limitations. These soils also have
to overcome these limitations. These soils also have
mapping them separately was not practical. The
severe limitations for recreational development because of
characteristics of Holopaw and Pineda soils are similar to seee tatns ereatioal eelopmet because o
those of the major soils wetness and the sandy texture. The problems associated
those of the major soils.
with wetness can be corrected by providing adequate
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas ofe high ate
c i drainage and drainage outlets to control the high water
Boca soils in similar landscape positions. These soilsThe sandy texture can be overcome by adding
table. The sandy texture can be overcome by adding
make up about 1 to 10 percent of the unit. .
make up about 1 to 10 percent of the unit. suitable topsoil or by resurfacing the area.
The permeability in the Riviera soil is moderately rapid suite top Cil area
to moderately slow, and the available water capacity is The Rera an C and sos are capability
low. The permeability in the Copeland soil is moderate, suass
and the available water capacity is moderate. Under
natural conditions, the seasonal high water table is within 7-Immokalee fine sand
a depth of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years.
During the other months, the water table is below a depth This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods.
of 12 inches, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40 Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and
inches during extended dry periods. During periods of high they range from 10 to 500 acres in size. The slope is 0 to
rainfall, the soils are covered by shallow, slowly moving 2 percent.
water for about 7 days. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
These soils are presently used for natural wetlands. inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to
The natural vegetation consists of cypress, red maple, a depth of about 35 inches. The subsoil is fine sand to a
ferns, and other wetland plants. depth of about 58 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is








18 Soil Survey



The Chobee and Dania soils are in capability subclass These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops
Vllw. because of the wetness and droughtiness. With good
water-control and soil-improving measures, these soils are
6-Rivie, le sd suitable for many fruit and vegetable crops. A water-
6--Riviera, limestone substratum-Copeland control system is needed to remove excess water during
fine sands wet seasons and to provide water through subsurface
irrigation during dry seasons. Row crops should be rotated
These nearly level, poorly drained soils are in sloughs wit oer ros eeded preparation should include
and cypress swamps. Individual areas are elongated and locations o ertil
bedding of the rows. Applications of fertilizer and lime
irregular in shape, and they range from 40 to 400 acres in d be the nees of the cro
should be based on the needs of the crops.
size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. With proper water-control measures, these soils are
Typically, the Riviera soil has a surface layer of gray m water-control sste
n moderately suited to citrus. A water-control system that
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is maintains good drainage to an effective depth is needed.
fine sand to a depth of about 32 inches. The upper part of Planting on raised beds provides good surface and
the subsurface layer is light brownish gray, and the lower
internal drainage and elevates the trees above the
part is light gray. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth enal aiage a le he ees abo
of about 54 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is seasonal high water table. The loamy subsoil may impede
of about 54 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is
proper drainage. Planting a good grass cover crop
grayish brown, and the lower part is dark gray. Limestone proper rie Plti oo rss coer rom
between the trees helps to protect the soil from blowing
bedrock is at a depth of about 54 inches.
Typically, the Copeland soil has a surface layer of black wn throntro ageentese are
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is water-control mneme
fine sand to a depth of about 18 inches. The upper part of well suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
fine sand to a depth of about 18 inches. The upper part of
the subsurface layer is very dark grayish brown, and the remove excess water during the wet season. These soils
are well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
lower part is dark gray. The subsoil is light gray, mottled ell sute to paoagrass grass a clover
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can
sandy clay loam to a depth about 24 icheshe be grown with good management. Regular applications of
substratum is light gray marl to a depth of about 30
substratum is light gray marl to a depth of about 30 fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 30
inches possible yields.
In These soils are poorly suited to range. The Riviera and
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Riviera, Copeland soils have not been assigned to a range site.
limestone substratum-Copeland fine sands, Riviera and These soils have severe limitations for most urban uses
similar soils make up 55 to 75 percent of the map unit and wer tabl a s r
because of the high water table. They have severe
Copeland and similar soils make up 25 to 40 percent. In iitatios for seabs es ease
limitations for septic tank absorption fields because of
the remaining areas, the named soils make up either a rotin a oor filta uld
wetness, slow percolation, and poor filtration. Building
higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas. The two septic tan fild ould
sites and septic tank absorption fields should be mounded
soils occur as areas so intricately mixed or so small that t overcome these limitations. These soils also have
to overcome these limitations. These soils also have
mapping them separately was not practical. The
severe limitations for recreational development because of
characteristics of Holopaw and Pineda soils are similar to seee tatns ereatioal eelopmet because o
those of the major soils wetness and the sandy texture. The problems associated
those of the major soils.
with wetness can be corrected by providing adequate
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas ofe high ate
c i drainage and drainage outlets to control the high water
Boca soils in similar landscape positions. These soilsThe sandy texture can be overcome by adding
table. The sandy texture can be overcome by adding
make up about 1 to 10 percent of the unit. .
make up about 1 to 10 percent of the unit. suitable topsoil or by resurfacing the area.
The permeability in the Riviera soil is moderately rapid suite top Cil area
to moderately slow, and the available water capacity is The Rera an C and sos are capability
low. The permeability in the Copeland soil is moderate, suass
and the available water capacity is moderate. Under
natural conditions, the seasonal high water table is within 7-Immokalee fine sand
a depth of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years.
During the other months, the water table is below a depth This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods.
of 12 inches, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40 Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and
inches during extended dry periods. During periods of high they range from 10 to 500 acres in size. The slope is 0 to
rainfall, the soils are covered by shallow, slowly moving 2 percent.
water for about 7 days. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
These soils are presently used for natural wetlands. inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to
The natural vegetation consists of cypress, red maple, a depth of about 35 inches. The subsoil is fine sand to a
ferns, and other wetland plants. depth of about 58 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is








Collier County Area, Florida 19

















-I'































Figure 4.-An area of Immokalee fine sand. The dominant vegetation in areas of this map unit includes South Florida slash pine, saw
palmetto, and several species of threeawns.

black, the next part is dark reddish brown, and the lower Basinger and Holopaw soils in sloughs. These soils make
part is dark brown. The substratum is pale brown fine up about 1 to 11 percent of the unit.
sand to a depth of about 80 inches. The permeability of this soil is moderate. The available
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Immokalee fine water capacity is low. Under natural conditions, the
sand, Immokalee and similar soils make up 89 to 99 seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches
percent of the map unit. In the remaining areas, the for 1 to 6 months during most years. During the other
Immokalee soil makes up either a higher or lower months, the water table is below a depth of 18 inches, and
percentage of the mapped areas. The characteristics of it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
Myakka and Oldsmar soils are similar to those of the extended dry periods.
Immokalee soil. The natural vegetation consists of South Florida slash
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of pine, saw palmetto (fig. 4), waxmyrtle, chalky bluestem,







20 Soil Survey



creeping bluestem, and pineland threeawn. depth of about 27 inches. The upper part of the
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is light
the wetness and droughtiness. The number of adapted brownish gray. The subsoil is fine sand to a depth of about
crops is limited unless very intensive management 48 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is black, and the
practices are used. With good water-control and soil- lower part is brown. The substratum is yellowish brown
improving measures, this soil is suitable for many fruit and fine sand to a depth of about 80 inches.
vegetable crops. A water-control system is needed to In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Myakka fine
remove excess water during wet seasons and to provide sand, Myakka and similar soils make up 95 to 98 percent
water through subsurface irrigation during dry seasons. of the map unit. In the remaining areas, the Myakka soil
Row crops should be rotated with cover crops. Seedbed makes up either a higher or lower percentage of the
preparation should include bedding of the rows. mapped areas. The characteristics of Immokalee soils are
Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the similar to those of the Myakka soil.
needs of the crops. The permeability of this soil is moderate. The available
With proper water-control measures, the soil is well water capacity is low. Under natural conditions, the
suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches
good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on for 1 to 6 months during most years. During the other
raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage months, the water table is below a depth of 18 inches, and
and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees extended dry periods.
helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are The natural vegetation consists mostly of South Florida
younger. slash pine, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, chalky bluestem,
With good water-control management, this soil is well creeping bluestem, and pineland threeawn.
suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is the wetness and droughtiness. The number of adapted
well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover, crops is limited unless very intensive management
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can practices are used. With good water-control and soil-
be grown with good management. Regular applications of improving measures, this soil is suitable for many fruit and
fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest vegetable crops. A water-control system is needed to
possible yields. remove excess water during wet seasons and to provide
This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant water through subsurface irrigation during dry seasons.
forage consists of creeping bluestem, lopsided Row crops should be rotated with cover crops. Seedbed
indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem. preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Management practices should include deferred grazing Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the
and brush control. This Immokalee soil is in the South needs of the crops.
Florida Flatwoods range site. With proper water-control measures, the soil is well
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses and suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains
septic tank absorption fields because of the wetness. If good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on
this soil is used as a septic tank absorption field, it should raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage
be mounded to maintain the system well above the and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
seasonal high water table. For recreational uses, this soil table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
also has severe limitations because of wetness and the helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are
sandy texture; however, with proper drainage to remove younger.
excess surface water during wet periods, many of the With good water-control management, this soil is well
effects of these limitations can be overcome, suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
This Immokalee soil is in capability subclass IVw. remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is
well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
8-Myakka fine sand Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can
be grown with good management. Regular applications of
This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods. fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and possible yields.
they range from 10 to 400 acres in size. The slope is 0 to This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant
2 percent. forage consists of creeping bluestem, lopsided
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem.
7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a Management practices should include deferred grazing








Collier County Area, Florida 21



and brush control. This Myakka soil is in the South Florida improving measures, this soil is suitable for many fruit and
Flatwoods range site. vegetable crops. A water-control system is needed to
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses remove excess water during wet seasons and to provide
because of the wetness. It has severe limitations for septic water through subsurface irrigation during dry seasons.
tank absorption fields because of the wetness. If this soil Row crops should be rotated with cover crops. Seedbed
is used as a septic tank absorption field, it should be preparation should include bedding of the rows.
mounded to maintain the system well above the seasonal Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the
high water table. For recreational uses, this soil also has needs of the crops.
severe limitations because of wetness and the sandy With proper water-control measures, the soil is well
texture; however, with proper drainage to remove excess suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains
surface water during wet periods, many of the effects of good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on
these limitations can be overcome, raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage
This Myakka soil is in capability subclass IVw. and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are
10-Oldsmar fine sand, limestone younger
younger.
substratum With good water-control management, this soil is well
suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods. suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is
well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
they range from 10 to 300 acres in size. The slope is 0 to well t pt aoagrass, bahagrass a clover
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can
St s l be grown with good management. Regular applications of
Typically, the surace layer is a grayish brown fine fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine
sand to a depth of about 35 inches. The upper part of the possible yields.
This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant
subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is light is sos m l s d to rnge e
brownish gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 60
indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem.
inches. The upper part of the subsoil is black fine sand, ndangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem.
Management practices should include deferred grazing
the next part is very dark grayish brown fine sand, and the an n s ld in ri
and brush control. This Oldsmar soil is in the South Florida
lower part is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam.
Flatwoods range site.
Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 60 inches. woods range sie.
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Oldsmar fine because of wetness. It has severe limitations for septic
sand, limestone substratum, Oldsmar and similar soils
make up 85 to 98 percent of the map unit. In the tank absorption fields because of the wetness, slow
Oldsmar soil makes up either a percolation rate, and poor filtration. If this soil is used as a
remaining areas, the Oldsmar soil makes up either a
r or lr pre o r. T septic tank absorption field, it should be mounded to
higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas. The
characteristics of Immokalee and Wabasso soils are maintain the system well above the seasonal high water
similar to those of the Oldsmar soil. table. For recreational uses, this soil also has severe
similar to those of the Oldsmar soil.
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of limitatons because of wetness and the sandy texture;
Malabar, Pineda, and Riviera soils in sloughs. These soils however, with proper drainage to remove exss surface
make up about 0 to 15 percent of the map unit. water during wet periods, many of the effects of these
make up about 0 to 15 percent of the map unit.
The permeability of this soil is slow. The available watertions can be overcome.
This Oldsmar soil is in capability subclass IVw.
capacity is low. Under natural conditions, the seasonal Ths ldsmar sos n abty subclass Vw.
high water table is between a depth of 6 to 18 inches for 1
to 6 months during most years. During the other months, 11-Hallandale fine sand
the water table is below a depth of 18 inches, and it
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods.
extended dry periods. Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and
The natural vegetation consists mostly of cabbage they range from 20 to 1,000 acres in size. The slope is 0
palm, South Florida slash pine, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, to 2 percent.
and chalky bluestem. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
the wetness and droughtiness. The number of adapted brown fine sand to a depth of about 9 inches. The subsoil
crops is limited unless very intensive management is yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of about 12 inches.
practices are used. With good water-control and soil- Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 12 inches.








Collier County Area, Florida 21



and brush control. This Myakka soil is in the South Florida improving measures, this soil is suitable for many fruit and
Flatwoods range site. vegetable crops. A water-control system is needed to
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses remove excess water during wet seasons and to provide
because of the wetness. It has severe limitations for septic water through subsurface irrigation during dry seasons.
tank absorption fields because of the wetness. If this soil Row crops should be rotated with cover crops. Seedbed
is used as a septic tank absorption field, it should be preparation should include bedding of the rows.
mounded to maintain the system well above the seasonal Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the
high water table. For recreational uses, this soil also has needs of the crops.
severe limitations because of wetness and the sandy With proper water-control measures, the soil is well
texture; however, with proper drainage to remove excess suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains
surface water during wet periods, many of the effects of good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on
these limitations can be overcome, raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage
This Myakka soil is in capability subclass IVw. and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are
10-Oldsmar fine sand, limestone younger
younger.
substratum With good water-control management, this soil is well
suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods. suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is
well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
they range from 10 to 300 acres in size. The slope is 0 to well t pt aoagrass, bahagrass a clover
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can
St s l be grown with good management. Regular applications of
Typically, the surace layer is a grayish brown fine fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine
sand to a depth of about 35 inches. The upper part of the possible yields.
This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant
subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is light is sos m l s d to rnge e
brownish gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 60
indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem.
inches. The upper part of the subsoil is black fine sand, ndangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem.
Management practices should include deferred grazing
the next part is very dark grayish brown fine sand, and the an n s ld in ri
and brush control. This Oldsmar soil is in the South Florida
lower part is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam.
Flatwoods range site.
Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 60 inches. woods range sie.
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Oldsmar fine because of wetness. It has severe limitations for septic
sand, limestone substratum, Oldsmar and similar soils
make up 85 to 98 percent of the map unit. In the tank absorption fields because of the wetness, slow
Oldsmar soil makes up either a percolation rate, and poor filtration. If this soil is used as a
remaining areas, the Oldsmar soil makes up either a
r or lr pre o r. T septic tank absorption field, it should be mounded to
higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas. The
characteristics of Immokalee and Wabasso soils are maintain the system well above the seasonal high water
similar to those of the Oldsmar soil. table. For recreational uses, this soil also has severe
similar to those of the Oldsmar soil.
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of limitatons because of wetness and the sandy texture;
Malabar, Pineda, and Riviera soils in sloughs. These soils however, with proper drainage to remove exss surface
make up about 0 to 15 percent of the map unit. water during wet periods, many of the effects of these
make up about 0 to 15 percent of the map unit.
The permeability of this soil is slow. The available watertions can be overcome.
This Oldsmar soil is in capability subclass IVw.
capacity is low. Under natural conditions, the seasonal Ths ldsmar sos n abty subclass Vw.
high water table is between a depth of 6 to 18 inches for 1
to 6 months during most years. During the other months, 11-Hallandale fine sand
the water table is below a depth of 18 inches, and it
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods.
extended dry periods. Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and
The natural vegetation consists mostly of cabbage they range from 20 to 1,000 acres in size. The slope is 0
palm, South Florida slash pine, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, to 2 percent.
and chalky bluestem. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
the wetness and droughtiness. The number of adapted brown fine sand to a depth of about 9 inches. The subsoil
crops is limited unless very intensive management is yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of about 12 inches.
practices are used. With good water-control and soil- Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 12 inches.








22 Soil Survey



In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Hallandale fine and brush control. This Hallandale soil is in the South
sand, Hallandale and similar soils make up 83 to 98 Florida Flatwoods range site.
percent of the map unit. In the remaining areas, the This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
Hallandale soil makes up either a higher or lower because of the shallow depth to bedrock and the wetness.
percentage of the mapped areas. The characteristics of It has severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields
Boca and Jupiter soils are similar to those of the because of the depth to bedrock, wetness, and poor
Hallandale soil. filtration. If this soil is used as a septic tank absorption
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of field, it should be mounded to maintain the system well
Pineda and Riviera, limestone substratum, soils in above the seasonal high water table. For recreational
sloughs. These soils make up about 17 percent or less of uses, this soil has severe limitations because of wetness,
the unit. the sandy texture, and the shallow depth to bedrock:
The permeability of this soil is rapid. The available however, with proper drainage to remove excess surface
water capacity is very low. Under natural conditions, the water during wet periods, some of these limitations can be
seasonal high water table is between a depth of 6 to 18 overcome.
inches for 1 to 6 months during most years. During the This Hallandale soil is in capability subclass IVw.
other months, the water table is below a depth of 18
inches, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches 14-Pineda fine sand, limestone substratum
during extended dry periods.
The natural vegetation consists of South Florida slash This nearly level, poorly drained soil is in sloughs and
pine, saw palmetto, creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, poorly defined drainageways. Individual areas are
and pineland threeawn. elongated and irregular in shape, and they range from 20
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of to 300 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
the wetness and droughtiness. The number of adapted Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
crops is limited unless very intensive management sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
practices are used. With good water-control and soil- brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about 12 inches.
improving measures, this soil is suitable for many fruit and The subsoil extends to a depth of about 55 inches. The
vegetable crops. A water-control system is needed to upper part of the subsoil is brownish yellow and very pale
remove excess water during wet seasons and to provide brown fine sand, the next part is grayish brown sandy clay
water through subsurface irrigation during dry seasons. loam, and the lower part is light brownish gray and dark
Row crops should be rotated with cover crops. Seedbed grayish brown fine sandy loam. Limestone bedrock is at a
preparation should include bedding of the rows. depth of about 55 inches.
Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Pineda fine sand,
needs of the crops. limestone substratum, Pineda and similar soils make up
With proper water-control measures, the soil is well 79 to 98 percent of the map unit. In the remaining areas,
suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains the Pineda soil makes up either a higher or lower
good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on percentage of the mapped areas. The characteristics of
raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage Holopaw and Riviera, limestone substratum, soils are
and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water similar to those of the Pineda soil.
table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are Boca, Hallandale, and Malabar soils in landscape
younger, positions similar to those of the Pineda soil. These soils
With good water-control management, this soil is well make up about 11 percent of less of the unit.
suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to The permeability of this soil is slow. The available water
remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is capacity is low. Under natural conditions, the seasonal
well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover, high water table is within a depth of 12 inches for 3 to 6
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can months during most years. During the other months, the
be grown with good management. Regular applications of water table is below a depth of 12 inches, and it recedes
fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest to a depth of more than 40 inches during extended dry
possible yields. periods. During periods of high rainfall, the soil is covered
This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant by shallow, slowly moving water for about 7 days.
forage consists of creeping bluestem, lopsided The natural vegetation consists of South Florida slash
indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem. pine, waxmyrtle, chalky bluestem, blue maidencane, and
Management practices should include deferred grazing gulf muhly.








Collier County Area, Florida 23



This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of sand to a depth of about 60 inches. The upper part of the
the wetness and droughtiness. With good water-control subsoil is black, the next part is dark brown, and the lower
and soil-improving measures, this soil is suitable for many part is brown. The substratum is light yellowish brown to
fruit and vegetable crops. A water-control system is brown fine sand to a depth of about 80 inches.
needed to remove excess water during wet seasons and In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Pomello fine
to provide water through subsurface irrigation during dry sand, Pomello and similar soils make up 85 to 98 percent
seasons. Row crops should be rotated with cover crops. of the map unit. In the remaining areas, the Pomello soil
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows. makes up either a higher or lower percentage of the
Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the mapped areas.
needs of the crops. The permeability of this soil is moderately rapid. The
With proper water-control measures, the soil is available water capacity is low. Under natural conditions,
moderately suited to citrus. A water-control system that the seasonal high water table is at a depth of 24 to 42
maintains good drainage to an effective depth is needed. inches for 1 to 5 months during most years. During the
Planting on raised beds provides good surface and other months, the water table is below a depth of 40
internal drainage and elevates the trees above the inches, and it recedes to a depth of more than 80 inches
seasonal high water table. Planting a good grass cover during extended dry periods.
crop between the trees helps to protect the soil from The natural vegetation consists mostly of oak, South
blowing when the trees are younger. Florida slash pine, saw palmetto, cactus, chalky bluestem,
With good water-control management, this soil is well creeping bluestem, and pineland threeawn.
suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is the droughtiness. The number of adapted crops is limited
well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover, unless very intensive management practices are used.
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can With irrigation and soil-improving measures, this soil is
be grown with good management. Regular applications of suitable for many fruit and vegetable crops. Row crops
fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest should be rotated with cover crops. Applications of
possible yields. fertilizer and lime should be based on the needs of the
This soil is well suited to range. The dominant forage crops.
consists of blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, and With proper water-control measures, the soil is well
bluejoint panicum. Management practices should include suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains
deferred grazing. This soil is in the Slough range site. good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage
because of the high water table. It has severe limitations and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
for septic tank absorption fields because of the wetness, table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
slow percolation, and poor filtration. Building sites and helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are
septic tank absorption fields should be mounded to younger.
overcome these limitations. This soil also has severe This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Pangolagrass
limitations for recreational development because of and bahiagrass are adapted species, but they produce fair
wetness and the sandy texture. The problems associated yields with good management. Regular applications of
with wetness can be corrected by providing adequate fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
drainage and drainage outlets to control the high water possible yields.
table. The sandy texture can be overcome by adding This soil is poorly suited to range. The dominant forage
suitable topsoil or by resurfacing the area. consists of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
This Pineda soil is in capability subclass IIIw. pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem. The dense
growth of scrubby oaks, saw palmetto, and other shrubs
15-Pomello fine sand dominates the desirable forage. Management practices
should include deferred grazing and brush control.
This nearly level, moderately well drained soil is on low Livestock usually do not use this range site, except for
ridges on flatwoods. Individual areas are elongated and protection and as dry bedding ground during the wet
irregular in shape, and they range from 5 to 100 acres in seasons. This Pomello soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub
size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. Range site.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4 This soil has moderate limitations for most urban uses
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth because of the wetness and droughtiness. It has severe
of about 35 inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer limitations for septic tank absorption fields because of
is light gray, and the lower part is white. The subsoil is fine wetness and the poor filtration. If this soil is used as a








24 Soil Survey



septic tank absorption field, it should be mounded to With proper water-control measures, the soil is well
maintain the system well above the seasonal high water suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains
table. For recreational uses, this soil also has severe good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on
limitations because of droughtiness and the sandy texture. raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage
Suitable topsoil or other material should be added to and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
improve trafficability. table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
This Pomello soil is in capability subclass VIs. helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are
younger.
16W-Ol r fe s d ith good water-control management, this soil is well
smart fine san suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods. remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is
Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
they range from 20 to 450 acres in size. The slope is 0 to Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can
2 percent, be grown with good management. Regular applications of
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine possible yields.
sand to a depth of about 35 inches. The upper part of the This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant
subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is light forage consists o creeping bluestem, lopsided
brownish gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 80 indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem.
inches. The upper part of the subsoil is black fine sand, Management practices should include deferred grazing
the next parvery artsak grayish brownib fine sand, and the and brush control. This Oldsmar soil is in the South Florida
the next part is very dark grayish brown fine sand, and the
lower part is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam.atwoods range site.
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Oldsmar fine This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Oldsmar fine
sand, Oldsmar and similar soils make up 80 to 98 percent because of wetness. It has severe limitations for septic
of the map unit. In the remaining areas, the Oldsmar soil tank absorption fields because of wetness and s
percolation. If this soil is used as a septic tank absorption
makes up either a higher or lower percentage of the percolation I s soil is used as a septic tank absorption
field, it should be mounded to maintain the system well
mapped areas. The characteristics of Immokalee soils are faeld it should be mounded to malntan the sstem wel
similar to those of the Oldsmar soil. above the seasonal high water table. For recreational
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of uses this soil also hassere limitatins because of
Malabar and Pineda soils in sloughs. These soils make up wetness, slow percolation, and the sandy texture;
about 20 percent or less of the unit. however, with proper drainage to remove excess surface
S water during wet periods, many of the effects of these
The permeability of this soil is slow or very slow. The wate in e erooo
limitations can be overcome.
available water capacity is low. Natural fertility also is low.
This Oldsmar soil is in capability subclass IVw.
Under natural conditions, the seasonal high water table is Ths ldsmar sos n capab subclass
between a depth of 6 to 18 inches for 1 to 6 months during
most years. During the other months, the water table is 17-Basinger fine sand
below a depth of 18 inches, and it recedes to a depth of
more than 40 inches during extended dry periods. This nearly level, poorly drained soil is in sloughs and
The natural vegetation consists mostly of South Florida poorly defined drainageways. Individual areas are
slash pine, cabbage palm, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, elongated and irregular in shape, and they range from 20
chalky bluestem, and pineland threeawn. to 800 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
the wetness and droughtiness. The number of adapted about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
crops is limited unless very intensive management fine sand to a depth of about 25 inches. The subsoil is
practices are used. With good water-control and soil- brown fine sand to a depth of about 44 inches. The
improving measures, this soil is suitable for many fruit and substratum is brown fine sand to a depth of about 80
vegetable crops. A water-control system is needed to inches.
remove excess water during wet seasons and to provide In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Basinger fine
water through subsurface irrigation during dry seasons, sand, Basinger and similar soils make up 83 to 98 percent
Row crops should be rotated with cover crops. Seedbed of the map unit. In the remaining areas, the Basinger soil
preparation should include bedding of the rows. makes up either a higher or lower percentage of the
Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the mapped areas. The characteristics of Malabar soils are
needs of the crops, similar to those of the Basinger soil.








24 Soil Survey



septic tank absorption field, it should be mounded to With proper water-control measures, the soil is well
maintain the system well above the seasonal high water suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains
table. For recreational uses, this soil also has severe good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on
limitations because of droughtiness and the sandy texture. raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage
Suitable topsoil or other material should be added to and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
improve trafficability. table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
This Pomello soil is in capability subclass VIs. helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are
younger.
16W-Ol r fe s d ith good water-control management, this soil is well
smart fine san suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods. remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is
Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
they range from 20 to 450 acres in size. The slope is 0 to Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can
2 percent, be grown with good management. Regular applications of
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine possible yields.
sand to a depth of about 35 inches. The upper part of the This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant
subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is light forage consists o creeping bluestem, lopsided
brownish gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 80 indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem.
inches. The upper part of the subsoil is black fine sand, Management practices should include deferred grazing
the next parvery artsak grayish brownib fine sand, and the and brush control. This Oldsmar soil is in the South Florida
the next part is very dark grayish brown fine sand, and the
lower part is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam.atwoods range site.
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Oldsmar fine This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Oldsmar fine
sand, Oldsmar and similar soils make up 80 to 98 percent because of wetness. It has severe limitations for septic
of the map unit. In the remaining areas, the Oldsmar soil tank absorption fields because of wetness and s
percolation. If this soil is used as a septic tank absorption
makes up either a higher or lower percentage of the percolation I s soil is used as a septic tank absorption
field, it should be mounded to maintain the system well
mapped areas. The characteristics of Immokalee soils are faeld it should be mounded to malntan the sstem wel
similar to those of the Oldsmar soil. above the seasonal high water table. For recreational
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of uses this soil also hassere limitatins because of
Malabar and Pineda soils in sloughs. These soils make up wetness, slow percolation, and the sandy texture;
about 20 percent or less of the unit. however, with proper drainage to remove excess surface
S water during wet periods, many of the effects of these
The permeability of this soil is slow or very slow. The wate in e erooo
limitations can be overcome.
available water capacity is low. Natural fertility also is low.
This Oldsmar soil is in capability subclass IVw.
Under natural conditions, the seasonal high water table is Ths ldsmar sos n capab subclass
between a depth of 6 to 18 inches for 1 to 6 months during
most years. During the other months, the water table is 17-Basinger fine sand
below a depth of 18 inches, and it recedes to a depth of
more than 40 inches during extended dry periods. This nearly level, poorly drained soil is in sloughs and
The natural vegetation consists mostly of South Florida poorly defined drainageways. Individual areas are
slash pine, cabbage palm, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, elongated and irregular in shape, and they range from 20
chalky bluestem, and pineland threeawn. to 800 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
the wetness and droughtiness. The number of adapted about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
crops is limited unless very intensive management fine sand to a depth of about 25 inches. The subsoil is
practices are used. With good water-control and soil- brown fine sand to a depth of about 44 inches. The
improving measures, this soil is suitable for many fruit and substratum is brown fine sand to a depth of about 80
vegetable crops. A water-control system is needed to inches.
remove excess water during wet seasons and to provide In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Basinger fine
water through subsurface irrigation during dry seasons, sand, Basinger and similar soils make up 83 to 98 percent
Row crops should be rotated with cover crops. Seedbed of the map unit. In the remaining areas, the Basinger soil
preparation should include bedding of the rows. makes up either a higher or lower percentage of the
Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the mapped areas. The characteristics of Malabar soils are
needs of the crops, similar to those of the Basinger soil.








Collier County Area, Florida 25



The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of development because of wetness and the sandy texture.
Immokalee soils on flatwoods. These soils make up 17 The problems associated with wetness can be corrected
percent or less of the map unit. by providing adequate drainage and drainage outlets to
The permeability of this soil is rapid. The available control the high water table. The sandy texture can be
water capacity is low. Under natural conditions, the overcome by adding suitable topsoil or by resurfacing the
seasonal high water table is within a depth of 12 inches for area.
3 to 6 months during most years. During the other months, This Basinger soil is in capability subclass IVw.
the water table is below a depth of 12 inches, and it
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during 18-Riviera fine sand, limestone substratum
extended dry periods. During periods of high rainfall, the
soil is covered by shallow, slowly moving water for about 7 This nearly level, poorly drained soil is in sloughs and
days. broad, poorly defined drainageways. Individual areas are
The natural vegetation consists of scattered areas of elongated and irregular in shape, and they range from 25
South Florida slash pine, cypress, cabbage palm, saw to 500 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
palmetto, waxmyrtle, blue maidencane, sand cordgrass, Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 6
pineland threeawn, chalky bluestem, and St. Johnswort. inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of of about 32 inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer
the wetness and droughtiness. With good water-control is light brownish gray, and the lower part is light gray. The
and soil-improving measures, this soil is suitable for many subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth of about 54 inches.
fruit and vegetable crops. A water-control system is The upper part of the subsoil is grayish brown, and the
needed to remove excess water during wet seasons and lower part is dark gray. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of
to provide water through subsurface irrigation during dry about 54 inches.
seasons. Because of the rapid permeability, the water In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Riviera fine sand,
table is difficult to maintain. Row crops should be rotated limestone substratum, Riviera and similar soils make up
with cover crops. Seedbed preparation should include 80 to 96 percent of the map unit. In the remaining areas,
bedding of the rows. Applications of fertilizer and lime the named soil or soils make up either a higher or lower
should be based on the needs of the crops. percentage of the mapped areas. The characteristics of
With proper water-control measures, the soil is Pineda soils that have a limestone substratum are similar
moderately suited to citrus. A water-control system that to those of the Riviera soil.
maintains good drainage to an effective depth is needed. The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
Planting on raised beds provides good surface and Boca, Copeland, and Holopaw soils in landscape positions
internal drainage and elevates the trees above the similar to those of the Riviera soil. These soils make up
seasonal high water table. Planting a good grass cover about 4 to 20 percent of the unit.
crop between the trees helps to protect the soil from The permeability of this soil is moderate to moderately
blowing when the trees are younger. rapid. The available water capacity is low. Under natural
With good water-control management, this soil is well conditions, the seasonal high water table is within a depth
suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. During
remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is the other months, the water table is below a depth of 12
well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover, inches, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can during extended dry periods. During periods of high
be grown with good management. Regular applications of rainfall, the soil is covered by shallow, slowly moving water
fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest for about 7 days.
possible yields. The natural vegetation consists of scattered areas of
This soil is well suited to range. The dominant forage South Florida slash pine, cypress, cabbage palm,
consists of blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, and waxmyrtle, sand cordgrass, gulf muhly, blue maidencane,
bluejoint panicum. Management practices should include South Florida bluestem, and chalky bluestem.
deferred grazing. This Basinger soil is in the Slough range This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
site. the wetness and droughtiness. With good water-control
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses and soil-improving measures, the soil is suitable for many
because of the high water table. It has severe limitations fruit and vegetable crops. A water-control system is
for septic tank absorption fields because of wetness and needed to remove excess water during wet seasons and
poor filtration. Building sites and septic tank absorption to provide water through subsurface irrigation during dry
fields should be mounded to overcome these limitations, seasons. Row crops should be rotated with cover crops.
This soil also has severe limitations for recreational Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.








26 Soil Survey



Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the 15 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 72
needs of the crops. inches. The upper part of the subsoil is brownish yellow
With proper water-control measures, the soil is and yellow fine sand, the next part is very pale brown and
moderately suited to citrus. A water-control system that light gray fine sand, and the lower part is grayish brown,
maintains good drainage to an effective depth is needed. mottled sandy clay loam. The substratum is light gray fine
Planting on raised beds provides good surface and sand to a depth of about 80 inches.
internal drainage and elevates the trees above the Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Ft. Drum soil,
seasonal high water table. Planting a good grass cover entirely of the Malabar soil, or any combination of the two
crop between the trees helps to protect the soil from soils. The two soils were not separated in mapping
blowing when the trees are younger, because of similar management needs and soil
With good water-control management, this soil is well characteristics.
suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is Basinger, Holopaw, and Pineda soils in sloughs. These
well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover, soils make up about 0 to 18 percent of the unit.
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can The permeability in the Ft. Drum soil is rapid. The
be grown with good management. Regular applications of permeability in the Malabar soil is slow or very slow. The
fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest available water capacity of both soils is low. Under natural
possible yields. conditions, the seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6
This soil is well suited to range. The dominant forage to 18 inches for 1 to 6 months during most years. During
consists of blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, bluejoint the other months, the water table is below a depth of 18
panicum, South Florida bluestem, and gulf dune inches, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
paspalum. Management practices should include deferred during extended dry periods.
grazing. This Riviera soil is in the Slough range site. The natural vegetation consists mostly of South Florida
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses slash pine, saw palmetto, live oak, cabbage palm,
because of the high water table. It has severe limitations waxmyrtle, chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, low
for septic tank absorption fields because of wetness and panicum, and pineland threeawn.
poor filtration. Building sites and septic tank absorption These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops
fields should be mounded to overcome these limitations, because of the wetness and droughtiness. The number of
This soil also has severe limitations for recreational adapted crops is limited unless very intensive
development because of wetness and the sandy texture. management practices are used. With good water-control
The problems associated with wetness can be corrected and soil-improving measures, these soils are suitable for
by providing adequate drainage and drainage outlets to many fruit and vegetable crops. A water-control system is
control the high water table. The sandy texture can be needed to remove excess water during wet seasons and
overcome by adding suitable topsoil or by resurfacing the to provide water through subsurface irrigation during dry
area. seasons. Row crops should be rotated with cover crops.
This Riviera soil is in capability subclass IIIw. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the
20-Ft. Drum and Malabar, high, fine sands needs of the crops.
With proper water-control measures, these soils are
These nearly level, poorly drained soils are on ridges well suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains
along sloughs. Individual areas are elongated and good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on
irregular in shape, and they range from 10 to 200 acres in raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage
size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
Typically, the Ft. Drum soil has a surface layer of very table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
dark grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The helps to protect the soils from blowing when the trees are
subsoil is fine sand to a depth of about 20 inches. The younger.
upper part of the subsoil is light brownish gray, and the With good water-control management, these soils are
lower part is light gray. The substratum is fine sand to a well suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
depth of about 80 inches. The upper part of the remove excess water during the wet season. These soils
substratum is brownish yellow, the next part is white, and are well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
the lower part is brown. Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can
Typically, the Malabar, high, soil has a surface layer of be grown with good management. Regular applications of
dark gray fine sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about possible yields.








Collier County Area, Florida 27



These soils are moderately suited to range. The the wetness and droughtiness. The number of adapted
dominant forage consists of creeping bluestem, lopsided crops is limited unless very intensive management
indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem. practices are used. With good water-control and soil-
Management practices should include deferred grazing improving measures, this soil is suitable for many fruit and
and brush control. The Ft. Drum and Malabar soils are in vegetable crops. A water-control system is needed to
the Cabbage Palm Flatwoods range site. remove excess water during wet seasons and to provide
These soils have severe limitations for most urban uses water through subsurface irrigation during dry seasons.
because of the wetness. They have severe limitations for Row crops should be rotated with cover crops. Seedbed
septic tank absorption fields because of the wetness and preparation should include bedding of the rows.
poor filtration. If these soils are used as a septic tank Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the
absorption field, they should be mounded to maintain the needs of the crops.
system well above the seasonal high water table. For With proper water-control measures, the soil is well
recreational uses, these soils also have severe limitations suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains
because of wetness and the sandy texture; however, with good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on
proper drainage to remove excess surface water during raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage
wet periods, many of the effects of these limitations can and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
be overcome, table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
The Ft. Drum and Malabar soils are in capability helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are
subclass IVw. younger.
With proper water management, this soil is well suited
1Boca fine sand to pasture. A water-control system is needed to remove
excess water during the wet season. This soil is well
This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods. suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Excellent
This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods.
Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and pastuesof grass or a grass-cover mixture can be grown
they range from 20 to 350 acres in size. The slope is 0 to with good management. Regular applications of fertilizer
2 percent. and controlled grazing are needed for the highest possible
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand yields.
This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to This soiis moder sued to range. The dominant
a depth of about 26 inches. The upper part of the forage consists of creeping bluestem, lopsided
subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is brown. idangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem.
Management practices should include deferred grazing
The subsoil is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam to a and bru ntrol. This oc a soil is in the South lorida
depth of about 30 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth Flatwood range site.
of about 30 inches. Flatwood range site.
n ecent o the This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Boca fine sand,
Boca and similar soils make up 79 to 93 percent of the because of the depth to bedrock and wetness. It has
map unit. In the remaining areas, the Boca soil makes up severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields because
either a higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas. of the shallow depth to bedrock, wetness, and poor
The characteristics of Hallandale soils are similar to those filtaton. If this soil is usedas a septc tank absorption
of the Boca soil. field, it should be mounded to maintain the system well
above the seasonal high water table. For recreational
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of eth s oal h waer ta. Fo eceaoa
Pineda and Riviera, limestone substratum, soils in uses, this soil also has severe limitations because of
wetness and the sandy texture; however, with proper
sloughs. These soils make up about 7 to 21 percent of the wetness and the sandy texture however, with proper
unit. drainage to remove excess surface water during wet
The permeability of this soil is moderate. The available periods, many of the effects of these limitations can be
water capacity is very low. Under natural conditions, the overcome.
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches Ths Boca soil is n capability subclass IIw.
for 1 to 6 months during most years. During the other
months, the water table is below a depth of 18 inches, and 22-Chobee, Winder, and Gator soils,
it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during depressional
extended dry periods.
The natural vegetation consists mostly of South Florida These level, very poorly drained soils are in
slash pine, cabbage palm, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, depressions and marshes. Individual areas are circular or
chalky bluestem, and pineland threeawn. elongated in shape, and they range from 5 to 200 acres in
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of size. The slope is 0 to 1 percent.








Collier County Area, Florida 27



These soils are moderately suited to range. The the wetness and droughtiness. The number of adapted
dominant forage consists of creeping bluestem, lopsided crops is limited unless very intensive management
indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem. practices are used. With good water-control and soil-
Management practices should include deferred grazing improving measures, this soil is suitable for many fruit and
and brush control. The Ft. Drum and Malabar soils are in vegetable crops. A water-control system is needed to
the Cabbage Palm Flatwoods range site. remove excess water during wet seasons and to provide
These soils have severe limitations for most urban uses water through subsurface irrigation during dry seasons.
because of the wetness. They have severe limitations for Row crops should be rotated with cover crops. Seedbed
septic tank absorption fields because of the wetness and preparation should include bedding of the rows.
poor filtration. If these soils are used as a septic tank Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the
absorption field, they should be mounded to maintain the needs of the crops.
system well above the seasonal high water table. For With proper water-control measures, the soil is well
recreational uses, these soils also have severe limitations suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains
because of wetness and the sandy texture; however, with good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on
proper drainage to remove excess surface water during raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage
wet periods, many of the effects of these limitations can and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
be overcome, table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
The Ft. Drum and Malabar soils are in capability helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are
subclass IVw. younger.
With proper water management, this soil is well suited
1Boca fine sand to pasture. A water-control system is needed to remove
excess water during the wet season. This soil is well
This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods. suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Excellent
This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods.
Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and pastuesof grass or a grass-cover mixture can be grown
they range from 20 to 350 acres in size. The slope is 0 to with good management. Regular applications of fertilizer
2 percent. and controlled grazing are needed for the highest possible
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand yields.
This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to This soiis moder sued to range. The dominant
a depth of about 26 inches. The upper part of the forage consists of creeping bluestem, lopsided
subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is brown. idangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem.
Management practices should include deferred grazing
The subsoil is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam to a and bru ntrol. This oc a soil is in the South lorida
depth of about 30 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth Flatwood range site.
of about 30 inches. Flatwood range site.
n ecent o the This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Boca fine sand,
Boca and similar soils make up 79 to 93 percent of the because of the depth to bedrock and wetness. It has
map unit. In the remaining areas, the Boca soil makes up severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields because
either a higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas. of the shallow depth to bedrock, wetness, and poor
The characteristics of Hallandale soils are similar to those filtaton. If this soil is usedas a septc tank absorption
of the Boca soil. field, it should be mounded to maintain the system well
above the seasonal high water table. For recreational
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of eth s oal h waer ta. Fo eceaoa
Pineda and Riviera, limestone substratum, soils in uses, this soil also has severe limitations because of
wetness and the sandy texture; however, with proper
sloughs. These soils make up about 7 to 21 percent of the wetness and the sandy texture however, with proper
unit. drainage to remove excess surface water during wet
The permeability of this soil is moderate. The available periods, many of the effects of these limitations can be
water capacity is very low. Under natural conditions, the overcome.
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches Ths Boca soil is n capability subclass IIw.
for 1 to 6 months during most years. During the other
months, the water table is below a depth of 18 inches, and 22-Chobee, Winder, and Gator soils,
it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during depressional
extended dry periods.
The natural vegetation consists mostly of South Florida These level, very poorly drained soils are in
slash pine, cabbage palm, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, depressions and marshes. Individual areas are circular or
chalky bluestem, and pineland threeawn. elongated in shape, and they range from 5 to 200 acres in
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of size. The slope is 0 to 1 percent.








28 Soil Survey



Typically, the Chobee soil has a surface layer of black available. They require an adequate amount of fill material
fine sandy loam about 13 inches thick. The subsoil is to maintain house foundations and road beds above the
mottled sandy clay loam to a depth of about 47 inches. high water table. Muck should be removed before adding
The upper part of the subsoil is dark gray, and the lower fill material. Even when a good drainage system is
part is gray. The substratum is dark greenish gray and installed and the proper amount of fill material is added,
gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about 80 inches. keeping the area dry is a continual problem because of
Typically, the Winder soil has a surface layer of dark seepage water from the slightly higher adjacent sloughs
gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer and flatwoods.
is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about 15 The Chobee, Winder, and Gator soils are in capability
inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 50 inches. subclass VIIw.
The upper part of the subsoil is gray fine sandy loam, the
next part is gray sandy clay loam, and the lower part is 23-Holopaw and Okeelanta soils,
dark gray sandy clay loam. The substratum is white fine depressional
sandy loam to a depth of about 80 inches.
Typically, the Gator soil has a surface soil of black muck These level, very poorly drained soils are in
about 25 inches thick. The substratum is very dark gray, depressions and marshes. Individual areas are circular or
grayish brown, greenish gray, and light gray fine sandy elongated in shape, and they range from 5 to 200 acres in
loam to a depth of about 80 inches, size. The slope is 0 to 1 percent.
Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Chobee soil, Typically, the Holopaw soil has a surface layer of dark
entirely of the Winder soil, entirely of the Gator soil, or any gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
combination of the three soils. The three soils were not is fine sand to a depth of about 52 inches. The upper part
separated in mapping because of similar management of the subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is
needs resulting from the ponding, light brownish gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of about 62 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is dark
Pineda and Riviera soils in similar landscape positions. grayish brown fine sand, and the lower part is dark grayish
These soils make up about 17 percent or less of the unit. brown fine sandy loam. The substratum is gray loamy fine
The permeability in these soils is slow or very slow. The sand to a depth of about 80 inches.
available water capacity is moderate in the Chobee and Typically, the Okeelanta soil has surface soil of black
Winder soils and high in the Gator soil. Under natural and dark reddish brown muck about 20 inches thick. The
conditions, these soils are ponded for 6 months or more substratum extends to a depth of about 80 inches. The
each year during most years. During the other months, the upper part of the substratum is dark grayish brown fine
water table is within a depth of 12 inches, and it recedes sand, and the lower part is light brownish gray loamy fine
to a depth of 12 to 40 inches during extended dry periods, sand.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or citrus Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Holopaw soil,
because of flooding, ponding, and wetness. These soils entirely of the Okeelanta soil, or any combination of the
are used for natural wetlands. The natural vegetation two soils. The two soils were not separated in mapping
consists of pickerelweed, maidencane, rushes, fireflag, because of similar management needs resulting from the
sawgrass, Florida willow, and a few cypress trees. ponding. The characteristics of Riviera soils are similar to
These soils are moderately suited to range. The those of the major soils.
dominant forage consists of maidencane and cutgrass. The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
Since the depth of the water table fluctuates throughout Basinger and Gator soils in similar landscape positions.
the year, a natural deferment from cattle grazing occurs. These soils make up about 10 percent or less of the unit.
Although this rest period increases forage production, the The permeability in the Holopaw soil is moderate to
periods of high water may reduce the grazing value of the moderately slow, and the available water capacity is low.
site. The Chobee, Winder, and Gator soils are in the The permeability in the Okeelanta soil is slow or very slow,
Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. and the available water capacity is high. Under natural
These soils have severe limitations for all urban and conditions, these soils are ponded for 6 months or more
recreational uses because of ponding. They have severe each year. During the other months, the water table is
limitations for septic tank absorption fields because of within a depth of 12 inches, and it recedes to a depth of
ponding, slow percolation, and poor filtration. An effective 12 to 40 inches during extended dry periods.
drainage system that keeps the water table at a given These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or citrus
depth is expensive and difficult to establish and maintain, because of ponding and wetness. These soils are used for
Also, these soils act as a collecting basin for the area; natural wetlands. The natural vegetation consists of St.
therefore, a suitable outlet to remove the water is not Johnswort, maidencane, rushes, primrose willow, fireflags,








Collier County Area, Florida 29



pickerelweed, sawgrass, Florida willow, and a few cypress lower part is dark gray. The subsoil is light gray, mottled
trees, sandy clay loam to a depth of about 24 inches. The
These soils are moderately suited to range. The substratum is light gray marl to a depth of about 30
dominant forage consists of maidencane and cutgrass. inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 30
Since the depth of the water table fluctuates throughout inches.
the year, a natural deferment from cattle grazing occurs. Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Boca soil,
Although this rest period increases forage production, the entirely of the Riviera soil, entirely of the Copeland soil, or
periods of high water may reduce the grazing value of the any combination of the three soils. These three soils were
site. The Holopaw and Okeelanta soils are in the not separated in mapping because of similar management
Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. needs resulting from the ponding. The characteristics of
These soils have severe limitations for all urban and Holopaw, Malabar, and Pineda soils are similar to those of
recreational uses because of ponding. An effective the major soils.
drainage system that keeps the water table below a given The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
depth is needed but is difficult to establish and maintain. Basinger, Dania, Gator, and Hallandale soils in similar
These soils are in landscape positions that act as a landscape positions. These soils make up about 20
collecting basin for the area; therefore, a suitable outlet to percent or less of the map unit.
remove the water is not available in many locations. They The permeability in the Boca soil is moderate, and the
require an adequate amount of fill material to maintain available water capacity is very low. The permeability in
house foundations and road beds above the high water the Riviera soil is moderately rapid to moderately slow,
table. Muck should be removed before adding fill material, and the available water capacity is low. The permeability in
Even when a good drainage system is installed and the the Copeland soil is moderately slow, and the available
proper amount of fill material is added, keeping the area water capacity is moderate. Under natural conditions,
dry is a continual problem because of seepage water from these soils are ponded for 6 months or more each year.
the slightly higher adjacent sloughs and flatwoods. During the other months, the water table is within a depth
The Holopaw and Okeelanta soils are in capability of 12 inches, and it recedes to a depth of 12 to 40 inches
subclass Vllw. during extended dry periods.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or citrus
because of flooding, ponding, and wetness. They are used
25-Boca, Riviera, limestone substratum, for natural wetlands. The natural vegetation consists
and Copeland fine sands, depressional mostly of baldcypress, pickerelweed, rushes, fireflag,
These level, very poorly drained soils are in sawgrass, and Florida wilow.
The Boca, Riviera, and Copeland soils have not been
depressions, cypress swamps, and marshes. Individual assigned to a range site.
areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and they assigned a range site.
areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and they These soils have severe limitations for all urban and
range from 100 to 3,000 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 1 and
percentrecreational uses because of ponding and the depth to
Typically, the Boca soil has a surface layer of very dark bedrock. An effective drainage system that keeps the
Water table below a given depth is needed but is difficult to
gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer establish andmantain. These sols are in landscape
is fine sand to a depth of about 26 inches. The upper part
of the subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is positions that acts a collecting basin for the area;
brown. The subsoil is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam therefore, a suitable outlet to remove the water is often not
to a depth of about 30 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a available. They require an adequate amount of fill material
h of a t 3 i. to maintain house foundations and road beds above the
depth of about 30 inches.
depthigh water table. Even when a good drainage system is
Typically, the Riviera soil has a surface layer of gray high water table. Even when a good drainage system is
installed and the proper amount of fill material is added,
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is i
fine sand to a depth of about 32 inches. The upper part of keeping the area dry s a continual proem because of
the subsurface layer is light brownish gray, and the lower seepage water from the slightly higher adjacent sloughs
and flatwoods.
part is light gray. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth a a and land l a n a
f aThe Boca, Riviera, and Copeland soils are in capability
of about 54 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is
grayish brown, and the lower part is dark gray. Limestone
bedrock is at a depth of about 54 inches.
Typically, the Copeland soil has a surface layer of black 27-Holopaw fine sand
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
fine sand to a depth of about 18 inches. The upper part of This nearly level, poorly drained soil is in sloughs and
the subsurface layer is very dark grayish brown, and the poorly defined drainageways. Individual areas are








Collier County Area, Florida 29



pickerelweed, sawgrass, Florida willow, and a few cypress lower part is dark gray. The subsoil is light gray, mottled
trees, sandy clay loam to a depth of about 24 inches. The
These soils are moderately suited to range. The substratum is light gray marl to a depth of about 30
dominant forage consists of maidencane and cutgrass. inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 30
Since the depth of the water table fluctuates throughout inches.
the year, a natural deferment from cattle grazing occurs. Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Boca soil,
Although this rest period increases forage production, the entirely of the Riviera soil, entirely of the Copeland soil, or
periods of high water may reduce the grazing value of the any combination of the three soils. These three soils were
site. The Holopaw and Okeelanta soils are in the not separated in mapping because of similar management
Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. needs resulting from the ponding. The characteristics of
These soils have severe limitations for all urban and Holopaw, Malabar, and Pineda soils are similar to those of
recreational uses because of ponding. An effective the major soils.
drainage system that keeps the water table below a given The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
depth is needed but is difficult to establish and maintain. Basinger, Dania, Gator, and Hallandale soils in similar
These soils are in landscape positions that act as a landscape positions. These soils make up about 20
collecting basin for the area; therefore, a suitable outlet to percent or less of the map unit.
remove the water is not available in many locations. They The permeability in the Boca soil is moderate, and the
require an adequate amount of fill material to maintain available water capacity is very low. The permeability in
house foundations and road beds above the high water the Riviera soil is moderately rapid to moderately slow,
table. Muck should be removed before adding fill material, and the available water capacity is low. The permeability in
Even when a good drainage system is installed and the the Copeland soil is moderately slow, and the available
proper amount of fill material is added, keeping the area water capacity is moderate. Under natural conditions,
dry is a continual problem because of seepage water from these soils are ponded for 6 months or more each year.
the slightly higher adjacent sloughs and flatwoods. During the other months, the water table is within a depth
The Holopaw and Okeelanta soils are in capability of 12 inches, and it recedes to a depth of 12 to 40 inches
subclass Vllw. during extended dry periods.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or citrus
because of flooding, ponding, and wetness. They are used
25-Boca, Riviera, limestone substratum, for natural wetlands. The natural vegetation consists
and Copeland fine sands, depressional mostly of baldcypress, pickerelweed, rushes, fireflag,
These level, very poorly drained soils are in sawgrass, and Florida wilow.
The Boca, Riviera, and Copeland soils have not been
depressions, cypress swamps, and marshes. Individual assigned to a range site.
areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and they assigned a range site.
areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and they These soils have severe limitations for all urban and
range from 100 to 3,000 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 1 and
percentrecreational uses because of ponding and the depth to
Typically, the Boca soil has a surface layer of very dark bedrock. An effective drainage system that keeps the
Water table below a given depth is needed but is difficult to
gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer establish andmantain. These sols are in landscape
is fine sand to a depth of about 26 inches. The upper part
of the subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is positions that acts a collecting basin for the area;
brown. The subsoil is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam therefore, a suitable outlet to remove the water is often not
to a depth of about 30 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a available. They require an adequate amount of fill material
h of a t 3 i. to maintain house foundations and road beds above the
depth of about 30 inches.
depthigh water table. Even when a good drainage system is
Typically, the Riviera soil has a surface layer of gray high water table. Even when a good drainage system is
installed and the proper amount of fill material is added,
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is i
fine sand to a depth of about 32 inches. The upper part of keeping the area dry s a continual proem because of
the subsurface layer is light brownish gray, and the lower seepage water from the slightly higher adjacent sloughs
and flatwoods.
part is light gray. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth a a and land l a n a
f aThe Boca, Riviera, and Copeland soils are in capability
of about 54 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is
grayish brown, and the lower part is dark gray. Limestone
bedrock is at a depth of about 54 inches.
Typically, the Copeland soil has a surface layer of black 27-Holopaw fine sand
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
fine sand to a depth of about 18 inches. The upper part of This nearly level, poorly drained soil is in sloughs and
the subsurface layer is very dark grayish brown, and the poorly defined drainageways. Individual areas are








30 Soil Survey



elongated and irregular in shape, and they range from 10 suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
to 400 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand to a Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can
depth of about 52 inches. The upper part of the be grown with good management. Regular applications of
subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is light fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
brownish gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 62 possible yields.
inches. The upper part of the subsoil is dark grayish brown This soil is well suited to range. The dominant forage
fine sand, and the lower part is dark grayish brown fine consists of blue maidencane, gulf dune paspalum, chalky
sandy loam. The substratum is gray loamy fine sand to a bluestem, and bluejoint panicum. Management practices
depth of about 80 inches. should include deferred grazing. This Holopaw soil is in
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Holopaw fine the Slough range site.
sand, Holopaw and similar soils make up 87 to 98 percent This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
of the map unit. In the remaining areas, the Holopaw soil because of the high water table. This soil has severe
makes up either a higher or lower percentage of the limitations for septic tank absorption fields because of
mapped areas. The characteristics of Malabar, Pineda, wetness and poor filtration. Building sites and septic tank
and Riviera soils are similar to those of the Holopaw soil. absorption fields should be mounded to overcome these
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of limitations. This soil also has severe limitations for
Basinger and Oldsmar soils in landscape positions similar recreational development because of wetness and the
to those of the Holopaw soil. These soils make up about sandy texture. The problems associated with wetness can
13 percent or less of the unit. be corrected by providing adequate drainage and drainage
The permeability of this soil is moderate to moderately outlets to control the high water table. The sandy texture
slow. The available water capacity is low. Under natural can be overcome by adding suitable topsoil or by
conditions, the seasonal high water table is within a depth resurfacing the area.
of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. During This Holopaw soil is in capability subclass IVw.
the other months, the water table is below a depth of 12
inches, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches 28-Pineda and Riviera fine sands
during extended dry periods. During periods of high
rainfall, the soil is covered by shallow, slowly moving water These nearly level, poorly drained soils are in sloughs
for about 7 days. and poorly defined drainageways. Individual areas are
The natural vegetation consists of scattered areas of elongated and irregular in shape, and they range from 10
slash pine, cypress, cabbage palm, saw palmetto, to 300 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
waxmyrtle, sand cordgrass, gulf muhly, panicums, chalky Typically, the Pineda soil has a surface layer of dark
bluestem, plumgrass, gulf dune paspalum, and blue grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
maidencane. subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of depth of about 12 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth
the wetness and droughtiness. With good water-control of about 55 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is
and soil-improving measures, the soil is suitable for many brownish yellow and gray pale brown fine sand, the next
fruit and vegetable crops. A water-control system is part is grayish brown sandy clay loam, and the lower part
needed to remove excess water during wet seasons and is light brownish gray and dark grayish brown fine sandy
to provide water through subsurface irrigation during dry loam. The substratum is light gray fine sand to a depth of
seasons. Row crops should be rotated with cover crops, about 80 inches.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows. Typically, the Riviera soil has a surface layer of gray
Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
needs of the crops, fine sand to a depth of about 32 inches. The upper part of
With proper water-control measures, the soil is the subsurface layer is light brownish gray, and the lower
moderately suited to citrus. A water-control system that part is light gray. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth
maintains good drainage to an effective depth is needed. of about 54 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is
Planting on raised beds provides good surface and grayish brown, and the lower part is dark gray. The
internal drainage and elevates the trees above the substratum is gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about 80
seasonal high water table. Planting a good grass cover inches.
crop between the trees helps to protect the soil from Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Pineda soil,
blowing when the trees are younger. entirely of the Riviera soil, or any combination of the two
With good water-control management, this soil is well soils. These two soils were not separated in mapping








Collier County Area, Florida 31



because of similar soil characteristics and management to overcome these limitations. These soils also have
needs, severe limitations for recreational development because of
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of wetness, slow percolation, and the sandy texture. The
Basinger and Boca soils in similar landscape positions. problems associated with wetness can be corrected by
These soils make up 10 percent or less of the map unit. providing adequate drainage and drainage outlets to
The permeability of Pineda and Riviera soils is slow or control the high water table. The sandy texture can be
very slow. The available water capacity for both soils is overcome by adding suitable topsoil or by resurfacing the
low. Under natural conditions, the seasonal high water area.
table is within a depth of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months The Pineda and Riviera soils are in capability subclass
during most years. During the other months, the water IIIw.
table is below a depth of 12 inches, and it recedes to a
depth of more than 40 inches during extended dry periods. 29-Wabasso fine sand
During periods of high rainfall, the soils are covered by
shallow, slowly moving water for about 7 days. This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods.
The natural vegetation consists of scattered areas of Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and
slash pine, cypress, cabbage palm, saw palmetto, they range from 10 to 100 acres in size. The slope is 0 to
waxmyrtle, sand cordgrass, gulf muhly, panicums, chalky 2 percent.
bluestem, blue maidencane, sedges, and rushes. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine
because of the wetness and droughtiness. With good sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 70 inches.
water-control and soil-improving measures, these soils are The upper part of the subsoil is black and very dark
suitable for many fruit and vegetable crops. A water- grayish brown fine sand; the next part is light yellowish
control system is needed to remove excess water during brown and gray, mottled sandy clay loam; and the lower
wet seasons and to provide water through subsurface part is yellowish brown, mottled sandy clay loam. The
irrigation during dry seasons. Row crops should be rotated substratum is light gray, mottled loamy fine sand to a
with cover crops. Seedbed preparation should include depth of about 80 inches.
bedding of the rows. Applications of fertilizer and lime In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Wabasso fine
should be based on the needs of the crops. sand, Wabasso and similar soils make up 80 to 98 percent
With proper water-control measures, these soils are of the map unit. In the remaining areas, the Wabasso soil
moderately suited to citrus. A water-control system that makes up either a higher or lower percentage of the
maintains good drainage to an effective depth is needed. mapped areas. The characteristics of Oldsmar soils are
Planting on raised beds provides good surface and similar to those of the Wabasso soil.
internal drainage and elevates the trees above the The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
seasonal high water table. Planting a good grass cover Basinger, Holopaw, and Riviera soils in sloughs. These
crop between the trees helps to protect the soil from soils make up 20 percent or less of the unit.
blowing when the trees are younger. The permeability of this soil is slow or very slow. The
With good water-control management, these soils are available water capacity is low. Under natural conditions,
well suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to the seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18
remove excess water during the wet season. They are inches for 1 to 6 months during most years. During the
well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover, other months, the water table is below a depth of 18
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can inches, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
be grown with good management. Regular applications of during extended dry periods.
fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest The natural vegetation consists mostly of South Florida
possible yields. slash pine, cabbage palm, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle,
These soils are well suited to range. The dominant chalky bluestem, and pineland threeawn.
forage consists of blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, and This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
bluejoint panicum. Management practices should include the wetness and droughtiness. The number of adapted
deferred grazing. The Pineda and Riviera soils are in the crops is limited unless very intensive management
Slough range site (fig. 5). practices are used. With good water-control and soil-
These soils have severe limitations for most urban uses improving measures, this soil is suitable for many fruit and
because of the high water table. They have severe vegetable crops. A water-control system is needed to
limitations for septic tank absorption fields because of remove excess water during wet seasons and to provide
wetness, slow percolation, and poor filtration. Building water through subsurface irrigation during dry seasons.
sites and septic tank absorption fields should be mounded Row crops should be rotated with cover crops. Seedbed








32 Soil Survey



















































Figure 5.-An area of Pineda and Riviera fine sands in a slough. During the rainy season, slowly moving water covers the surface for about 7
days. The dominant vegetation includes cypress and South Florida slash pine.

preparation should include bedding of the rows. and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
needs of the crops, helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are
With proper water-control measures, the soil is well younger.
suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains With good water-control management, this soil is well
good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is








Collier County Area, Florida 33



well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover, not separated in mapping because of similar soil
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can characteristics and management needs. The
be grown with good management. Regular applications of characteristics of Boca, Ft. Drum, and Hallandale soils are
fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest similar to those of the major soils.
possible yields. The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant Holopaw and Pineda soils in sloughs. These soils make up
forage consists of creeping bluestem, lopsided about 10 percent of the unit.
indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem. The permeability in the Hilolo soil is moderately slow to
Management practices should include deferred grazing slow, and the available water capacity is moderate. The
and brush control. This Wabasso soil is in the South permeability in the Jupiter and Margate soils are rapid,
Florida Flatwoods range site. and the available water capacity is very low. Under natural
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses conditions, the seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6
because of wetness. This soil has severe limitations for to 18 inches for 1 to 6 months during most years. During
septic tank absorption fields because of wetness, poor the other months, the water table is below a depth of 18
filtration, and slow percolation. If this soil is used as a inches, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
septic tank absorption field, it should be mounded to during extended dry periods.
maintain the system well above the seasonal high water The natural vegetation consists mostly of cabbage
table. For recreational uses, this soil also has severe palm, saw palmetto, chalky bluestem, broomsedge
limitations because of wetness, slow percolation, and the bluestem, scattered areas of water oaks, and pineland
sandy texture; however, with proper drainage to remove threeawn.
excess surface water during wet periods, many of the These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops
effects of these limitations can be overcome, because of the wetness and droughtiness. The number of
This Wabasso soil is in capability subclass IIIw. adapted crops is limited unless very intensive
management practices are used. With good water-control
31-Hilolo, Jupiter, and Margate fine sands and soil-improving measures, these soils are suitable for
many fruit and vegetable crops. A water-control system is
These nearly level, poorly drained soils are on needed to remove excess water during wet seasons and
hammocks and flatwoods. Individual areas are elongated to provide water through subsurface irrigation during dry
and irregular in shape, and they range from 5 to 600 acres seasons. Row crops should be rotated with cover crops.
in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Typically, the Hilolo soil has a surface layer of very dark Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the
grayish brown fine sand about 9 inches thick. The needs of the crops.
subsurface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand to a With proper water-control measures, these soils are
depth of about 12 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth well suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains
of about 50 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is light good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on
brownish gray fine sandy loam, the next part is light gray raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage
sandy clay loam and fine sandy loam, and the lower part and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
is gray fine sandy loam. The substratum is light olive gray table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
loam fine sand to a depth of about 61 inches. Limestone helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are
bedrock is at a depth of about 61 inches. younger.
Typically, the Jupiter soil has a surface layer of black With good water-control management, these soils are
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is well suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
very dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 10 remove excess water during the wet season. They are
inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 10 well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
inches. Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can
Typically, the Margate soil has a surface layer of black be grown with good management. Regular applications of
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about 17 possible yields.
inches. The subsoil is brown fine sand to a depth of about These soils are moderately suited to range. The
35 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 35 dominant forage consists of creeping bluestem, lopsided
inches. indiangrass, and chalky bluestem. Management practices
Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Hilolo soil, should include deferred grazing and brush control. The
entirely of the Jupiter soil, entirely of the Margate soil, or Hilolo, Jupiter, and Margate soils are in the Upland
any combination of the three soils. These three soils were Hardwood Hammock range site.








34 Soil Survey



These soils have severe limitations for most urban uses is fine sand to a depth of about 52 inches. The upper part
because of wetness and depth to bedrock. They have of the subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is
severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields because light brownish gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of
of wetness, depth to bedrock, poor filtration, and slow about 62 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is dark
percolation. If these soils are used as a septic tank grayish brown fine sand, and the lower part is dark grayish
absorption field, they should be mounded to maintain the brown fine sandy loam. The substratum is gray loamy fine
system well above the seasonal high water table. For sand to a depth of about 80 inches.
recreational uses, these soils also have severe limitations Typically, the Basinger soil has a surface layer of
because of wetness, depth to bedrock, and the sandy grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
texture; however, with proper drainage to remove the subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of about
excess surface water during wet periods, many of the 25 inches. The subsoil is brown fine sand to a depth of
effects of these limitations can be overcome, about 44 inches. The substratum is brown fine sand to a
The Hilolo soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The Jupiter depth of about 80 inches.
and Margate soils are in capability subclass IVw. In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Urban land-
Holopaw-Basinger complex, Urban land makes up about
45 percent of the unit, the Holopaw soil makes up about
32Urban land 35 percent, and the Basinger soil makes up about 20
About 75 percent or more of Urban land consists of percent. In the remaining areasthe major components
make up either a higher or lower percentage of the
areas that are covered by streets, buildings, parking lots, make u ether a higher or lower pcntage of the
shopping centers, highways, industrial areas, airports, and maed areas y areas sntrcatelyxed
other urban structures. Small areas of undisturbed soils or so small that mapping them separately was not
practical. The Holopaw and Basinger soils may have been
are mostly in lawns, vacant lots, playgrounds, and green racial. The Holoaw and Basiger soils may have been
filled or reworked to accommodate urban land uses.
areas. The original soil in some areas has been altered by e ermea i te oloaw oi moderate ur
filling, grading, and shaping. Urban land is nearly level,
moderately slow, and the available water capacity is
except for some parking areas that are sloped to remove moderately slow, and the available water capacity is
moderate. The permeability in the Basinger soil is rapid,
excess water. Individual areas are usually rectangular in and the avaae water apaity i s low. Under soilrap
shape and range from about 10 to 1,200 acres in size. Under natural
The slope is 0 to 2 percent conditions, the seasonal high water table is within a depth
of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. During
Included soils in this map unit are small areas of Boca, ohe months, te atr te is eo a et o
Hallandale, Immokalee, and Myakka soils that have with the other months, the water table is below a depth of 12
Hallandale, Immokalee, and Myakka soils that have with
less than 12 inches of fill material spread over the surface. inches and it recedes to a depth of more than40 inches
These soils make up about 25 percent or less of the unit. during extended dry periods. During periods of high
rainfall, the soil is covered by shallow, slowly moving water
The depth to the water table varies according to the for about 7 days. Most areas have had a drainage system
amount of fill material and the extent of artificial drainage in staled to he to control the season high after table
in a mapd aa. installed to help to control the seasonal high water table
in a mapped area.
The present land use preludes the use of this map unit an e runoff
The present land use precludes the use of this map unit
for other uses; therefore, this map unit is not rated for f r ctited crps, trus e p pasture. Because of
other uses, for cultivated crops, citrus, or tame pasture. Because of
other uses.
This map unit has not been assigned a capability. the complexity ofthis map unit, onsite investigations
subclass. should be made for urban and recreational development
and for septic tank absorption fields.
This map unit has not been assigned a capability
33-Urban land-Holopaw-Basinger complex subclass.

These areas of Urban land and nearly level, poorly
drained soils are in urban areas. Individual areas are 34-Urban land-lmmokalee-Oldsmar,
blocky to irregular in shape, and they range from 20 to limestone substratum, complex
500 acres in size.
Typically, Urban land consists of commercial buildings, These areas of Urban land and nearly level, poorly
houses, parking lots, streets, sidewalks, recreational drained soils are in urban areas. Individual areas are
areas, shopping centers, and other urban structures blocky to irregular in shape, and they range from 20 to
where the soil cannot be observed. 500 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the Holopaw soil has a surface layer of dark Typically, Urban land consists of commercial buildings,
gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer houses, parking lots, streets, sidewalks, recreational








34 Soil Survey



These soils have severe limitations for most urban uses is fine sand to a depth of about 52 inches. The upper part
because of wetness and depth to bedrock. They have of the subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is
severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields because light brownish gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of
of wetness, depth to bedrock, poor filtration, and slow about 62 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is dark
percolation. If these soils are used as a septic tank grayish brown fine sand, and the lower part is dark grayish
absorption field, they should be mounded to maintain the brown fine sandy loam. The substratum is gray loamy fine
system well above the seasonal high water table. For sand to a depth of about 80 inches.
recreational uses, these soils also have severe limitations Typically, the Basinger soil has a surface layer of
because of wetness, depth to bedrock, and the sandy grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
texture; however, with proper drainage to remove the subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of about
excess surface water during wet periods, many of the 25 inches. The subsoil is brown fine sand to a depth of
effects of these limitations can be overcome, about 44 inches. The substratum is brown fine sand to a
The Hilolo soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The Jupiter depth of about 80 inches.
and Margate soils are in capability subclass IVw. In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Urban land-
Holopaw-Basinger complex, Urban land makes up about
45 percent of the unit, the Holopaw soil makes up about
32Urban land 35 percent, and the Basinger soil makes up about 20
About 75 percent or more of Urban land consists of percent. In the remaining areasthe major components
make up either a higher or lower percentage of the
areas that are covered by streets, buildings, parking lots, make u ether a higher or lower pcntage of the
shopping centers, highways, industrial areas, airports, and maed areas y areas sntrcatelyxed
other urban structures. Small areas of undisturbed soils or so small that mapping them separately was not
practical. The Holopaw and Basinger soils may have been
are mostly in lawns, vacant lots, playgrounds, and green racial. The Holoaw and Basiger soils may have been
filled or reworked to accommodate urban land uses.
areas. The original soil in some areas has been altered by e ermea i te oloaw oi moderate ur
filling, grading, and shaping. Urban land is nearly level,
moderately slow, and the available water capacity is
except for some parking areas that are sloped to remove moderately slow, and the available water capacity is
moderate. The permeability in the Basinger soil is rapid,
excess water. Individual areas are usually rectangular in and the avaae water apaity i s low. Under soilrap
shape and range from about 10 to 1,200 acres in size. Under natural
The slope is 0 to 2 percent conditions, the seasonal high water table is within a depth
of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. During
Included soils in this map unit are small areas of Boca, ohe months, te atr te is eo a et o
Hallandale, Immokalee, and Myakka soils that have with the other months, the water table is below a depth of 12
Hallandale, Immokalee, and Myakka soils that have with
less than 12 inches of fill material spread over the surface. inches and it recedes to a depth of more than40 inches
These soils make up about 25 percent or less of the unit. during extended dry periods. During periods of high
rainfall, the soil is covered by shallow, slowly moving water
The depth to the water table varies according to the for about 7 days. Most areas have had a drainage system
amount of fill material and the extent of artificial drainage in staled to he to control the season high after table
in a mapd aa. installed to help to control the seasonal high water table
in a mapped area.
The present land use preludes the use of this map unit an e runoff
The present land use precludes the use of this map unit
for other uses; therefore, this map unit is not rated for f r ctited crps, trus e p pasture. Because of
other uses, for cultivated crops, citrus, or tame pasture. Because of
other uses.
This map unit has not been assigned a capability. the complexity ofthis map unit, onsite investigations
subclass. should be made for urban and recreational development
and for septic tank absorption fields.
This map unit has not been assigned a capability
33-Urban land-Holopaw-Basinger complex subclass.

These areas of Urban land and nearly level, poorly
drained soils are in urban areas. Individual areas are 34-Urban land-lmmokalee-Oldsmar,
blocky to irregular in shape, and they range from 20 to limestone substratum, complex
500 acres in size.
Typically, Urban land consists of commercial buildings, These areas of Urban land and nearly level, poorly
houses, parking lots, streets, sidewalks, recreational drained soils are in urban areas. Individual areas are
areas, shopping centers, and other urban structures blocky to irregular in shape, and they range from 20 to
where the soil cannot be observed. 500 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the Holopaw soil has a surface layer of dark Typically, Urban land consists of commercial buildings,
gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer houses, parking lots, streets, sidewalks, recreational








34 Soil Survey



These soils have severe limitations for most urban uses is fine sand to a depth of about 52 inches. The upper part
because of wetness and depth to bedrock. They have of the subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is
severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields because light brownish gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of
of wetness, depth to bedrock, poor filtration, and slow about 62 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is dark
percolation. If these soils are used as a septic tank grayish brown fine sand, and the lower part is dark grayish
absorption field, they should be mounded to maintain the brown fine sandy loam. The substratum is gray loamy fine
system well above the seasonal high water table. For sand to a depth of about 80 inches.
recreational uses, these soils also have severe limitations Typically, the Basinger soil has a surface layer of
because of wetness, depth to bedrock, and the sandy grayish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The
texture; however, with proper drainage to remove the subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of about
excess surface water during wet periods, many of the 25 inches. The subsoil is brown fine sand to a depth of
effects of these limitations can be overcome, about 44 inches. The substratum is brown fine sand to a
The Hilolo soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The Jupiter depth of about 80 inches.
and Margate soils are in capability subclass IVw. In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Urban land-
Holopaw-Basinger complex, Urban land makes up about
45 percent of the unit, the Holopaw soil makes up about
32Urban land 35 percent, and the Basinger soil makes up about 20
About 75 percent or more of Urban land consists of percent. In the remaining areasthe major components
make up either a higher or lower percentage of the
areas that are covered by streets, buildings, parking lots, make u ether a higher or lower pcntage of the
shopping centers, highways, industrial areas, airports, and maed areas y areas sntrcatelyxed
other urban structures. Small areas of undisturbed soils or so small that mapping them separately was not
practical. The Holopaw and Basinger soils may have been
are mostly in lawns, vacant lots, playgrounds, and green racial. The Holoaw and Basiger soils may have been
filled or reworked to accommodate urban land uses.
areas. The original soil in some areas has been altered by e ermea i te oloaw oi moderate ur
filling, grading, and shaping. Urban land is nearly level,
moderately slow, and the available water capacity is
except for some parking areas that are sloped to remove moderately slow, and the available water capacity is
moderate. The permeability in the Basinger soil is rapid,
excess water. Individual areas are usually rectangular in and the avaae water apaity i s low. Under soilrap
shape and range from about 10 to 1,200 acres in size. Under natural
The slope is 0 to 2 percent conditions, the seasonal high water table is within a depth
of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. During
Included soils in this map unit are small areas of Boca, ohe months, te atr te is eo a et o
Hallandale, Immokalee, and Myakka soils that have with the other months, the water table is below a depth of 12
Hallandale, Immokalee, and Myakka soils that have with
less than 12 inches of fill material spread over the surface. inches and it recedes to a depth of more than40 inches
These soils make up about 25 percent or less of the unit. during extended dry periods. During periods of high
rainfall, the soil is covered by shallow, slowly moving water
The depth to the water table varies according to the for about 7 days. Most areas have had a drainage system
amount of fill material and the extent of artificial drainage in staled to he to control the season high after table
in a mapd aa. installed to help to control the seasonal high water table
in a mapped area.
The present land use preludes the use of this map unit an e runoff
The present land use precludes the use of this map unit
for other uses; therefore, this map unit is not rated for f r ctited crps, trus e p pasture. Because of
other uses, for cultivated crops, citrus, or tame pasture. Because of
other uses.
This map unit has not been assigned a capability. the complexity ofthis map unit, onsite investigations
subclass. should be made for urban and recreational development
and for septic tank absorption fields.
This map unit has not been assigned a capability
33-Urban land-Holopaw-Basinger complex subclass.

These areas of Urban land and nearly level, poorly
drained soils are in urban areas. Individual areas are 34-Urban land-lmmokalee-Oldsmar,
blocky to irregular in shape, and they range from 20 to limestone substratum, complex
500 acres in size.
Typically, Urban land consists of commercial buildings, These areas of Urban land and nearly level, poorly
houses, parking lots, streets, sidewalks, recreational drained soils are in urban areas. Individual areas are
areas, shopping centers, and other urban structures blocky to irregular in shape, and they range from 20 to
where the soil cannot be observed. 500 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the Holopaw soil has a surface layer of dark Typically, Urban land consists of commercial buildings,
gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer houses, parking lots, streets, sidewalks, recreational








Collier County Area, Florida 35



areas, shopping centers, and other urban structures have been spread over the muck soils for coastal urban
where the soil cannot be observed, development. Individual areas are blocky to irregular in
Typically, the Immokalee soil has a surface layer of shape, and they range from 20 to 300 acres in size. The
black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer slope is 0 to 2 percent.
is light gray fine sand to a depth of about 35 inches. The Typically, Urban land consists of commercial buildings,
subsoil is fine sand to a depth of about 40 inches. The houses, parking lots, streets, sidewalks, recreational
upper part of the subsoil is black, the next part is dark areas, shopping centers, and other urban structures
reddish brown, and the lower part is dark brown. The where the soil cannot be observed. The depth of fill
substratum is very pale brown fine sand to a depth of material used in the construction of urban areas ranges
about 80 inches. from 30 to more than 80 inches.
Typically, the Oldsmar soil has a surface layer of dark No single pedon represents Aquents, but a common
grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The profile has a surface layer of mixed yellowish brown, light
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 35 gray, and grayish brown fine sand that has about 15
inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is light percent limestone pebbles and shell fragments to a depth
gray, and the lower part is light brownish gray. The subsoil of 38 inches. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
extends to a depth of about 60 inches. The upper part of is dark reddish brown muck.
the subsoil is black fine sand, the next part is very dark In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Urban land-
grayish brown fine sand, and the lower part is dark grayish Aquents complex, organic substratum, Urban land makes
brown fine sandy loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of up 60 to 75 percent of the unit and Aquents make up 26 to
about 60 inches. 40 percent. In the remaining areas, the major components
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Urban land- make up either a higher or lower percentage of the
Immokalee-Oldsmar, limestone substratum, complex, mapped areas. Included in mapping are areas that do not
Urban land makes up about 45 percent of the unit, the have gravelly fill and may contain layers of sandy loam or
Immokalee soil makes up about 35 percent, and the sandy clay loam fill.
Oldsmar soil makes up about 20 percent. In the remaining The depth to the water table varies depending upon the
areas, the major components make up either a higher or amount of fill material and the extent of artificial drainage
lower percentage of the mapped areas. They occur as in a mapped area.
areas so intricately mixed or so small that mapping them The present land use precludes the use of this map unit
separately was not practical. The Immokalee and Oldsmar for other uses. Because of the complexity of this map unit,
soils may have been filled or reworked to accommodate onsite investigations should be made for urban and
urban land uses. recreational development and for septic tank absorption
The permeability in the Immokalee soil is moderate, fields.
and the available water capacity is low. The permeability in This map unit has not been assigned a capability
the Oldsmar soil is moderately slow, and the available subclass.
water capacity is low. Under natural conditions, the
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches 3,
for 1 to 6 months during most years. During the other 36-Udorthents, shaped
months, the water table is below a depth of 18 inches T n l ,
These nearly level to undulating, somewhat poorly
during extended dry periods. Most areas have had a dne to lldan so ae
drainage system installed to help to control the seasonal drained to moderate we ned so
high water table and the runoff. courses and in adjacent areas where the soil material has
The present land use precludes the use of this map unit been mechanically altered and shaped. Individual areas
The present land use precludes the use of this map unit
are elongated and irregular in shape, and they range from
for cultivated crops, citrus, or tame pasture. Because of o are n e e loe o
40 to 640 acres in size. The slope is 1 to 6 percent.
the complexity of this map unit, onsite investigations o e pen represents orthet
should be made for urban and recreational development No single pedon represents Udorthents but a common
and for septic tank absorption fields. profile has a surface layer of mixed grayish brown and
is ap nit as not been assinedpale brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 18 inches. The
subclassp next layer is gray gravelly fine sand to a depth of about 37
inches. The subsoil is light brownish gray fine sandy loam
to a depth of about 47 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a
35-Urban land-Aquents complex, organic depth of about 47 inches.
substratum This map unit is composed of many altered soils that
have widely differing chemical and physical
This map unit consists of Urban land and soil materials characteristics. Some areas may be composed of soils
that have been dug from different areas in the county and that are fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.








Collier County Area, Florida 35



areas, shopping centers, and other urban structures have been spread over the muck soils for coastal urban
where the soil cannot be observed, development. Individual areas are blocky to irregular in
Typically, the Immokalee soil has a surface layer of shape, and they range from 20 to 300 acres in size. The
black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer slope is 0 to 2 percent.
is light gray fine sand to a depth of about 35 inches. The Typically, Urban land consists of commercial buildings,
subsoil is fine sand to a depth of about 40 inches. The houses, parking lots, streets, sidewalks, recreational
upper part of the subsoil is black, the next part is dark areas, shopping centers, and other urban structures
reddish brown, and the lower part is dark brown. The where the soil cannot be observed. The depth of fill
substratum is very pale brown fine sand to a depth of material used in the construction of urban areas ranges
about 80 inches. from 30 to more than 80 inches.
Typically, the Oldsmar soil has a surface layer of dark No single pedon represents Aquents, but a common
grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The profile has a surface layer of mixed yellowish brown, light
subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 35 gray, and grayish brown fine sand that has about 15
inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is light percent limestone pebbles and shell fragments to a depth
gray, and the lower part is light brownish gray. The subsoil of 38 inches. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
extends to a depth of about 60 inches. The upper part of is dark reddish brown muck.
the subsoil is black fine sand, the next part is very dark In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Urban land-
grayish brown fine sand, and the lower part is dark grayish Aquents complex, organic substratum, Urban land makes
brown fine sandy loam. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of up 60 to 75 percent of the unit and Aquents make up 26 to
about 60 inches. 40 percent. In the remaining areas, the major components
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Urban land- make up either a higher or lower percentage of the
Immokalee-Oldsmar, limestone substratum, complex, mapped areas. Included in mapping are areas that do not
Urban land makes up about 45 percent of the unit, the have gravelly fill and may contain layers of sandy loam or
Immokalee soil makes up about 35 percent, and the sandy clay loam fill.
Oldsmar soil makes up about 20 percent. In the remaining The depth to the water table varies depending upon the
areas, the major components make up either a higher or amount of fill material and the extent of artificial drainage
lower percentage of the mapped areas. They occur as in a mapped area.
areas so intricately mixed or so small that mapping them The present land use precludes the use of this map unit
separately was not practical. The Immokalee and Oldsmar for other uses. Because of the complexity of this map unit,
soils may have been filled or reworked to accommodate onsite investigations should be made for urban and
urban land uses. recreational development and for septic tank absorption
The permeability in the Immokalee soil is moderate, fields.
and the available water capacity is low. The permeability in This map unit has not been assigned a capability
the Oldsmar soil is moderately slow, and the available subclass.
water capacity is low. Under natural conditions, the
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches 3,
for 1 to 6 months during most years. During the other 36-Udorthents, shaped
months, the water table is below a depth of 18 inches T n l ,
These nearly level to undulating, somewhat poorly
during extended dry periods. Most areas have had a dne to lldan so ae
drainage system installed to help to control the seasonal drained to moderate we ned so
high water table and the runoff. courses and in adjacent areas where the soil material has
The present land use precludes the use of this map unit been mechanically altered and shaped. Individual areas
The present land use precludes the use of this map unit
are elongated and irregular in shape, and they range from
for cultivated crops, citrus, or tame pasture. Because of o are n e e loe o
40 to 640 acres in size. The slope is 1 to 6 percent.
the complexity of this map unit, onsite investigations o e pen represents orthet
should be made for urban and recreational development No single pedon represents Udorthents but a common
and for septic tank absorption fields. profile has a surface layer of mixed grayish brown and
is ap nit as not been assinedpale brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 18 inches. The
subclassp next layer is gray gravelly fine sand to a depth of about 37
inches. The subsoil is light brownish gray fine sandy loam
to a depth of about 47 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a
35-Urban land-Aquents complex, organic depth of about 47 inches.
substratum This map unit is composed of many altered soils that
have widely differing chemical and physical
This map unit consists of Urban land and soil materials characteristics. Some areas may be composed of soils
that have been dug from different areas in the county and that are fine sand to a depth of 80 inches.







36 Soil Survey



The depth to the water table varies depending upon the suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains
amount of fill material and extent of irrigation and artificial good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on
drainage in a mapped area. raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage
The present land use preludes the use of this map unit and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
for other uses; therefore, this map unit is not rated for table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
other uses. helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are
This map unit has not been assigned a capability younger.
subclass. With good water-control management, this soil is well
suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is
37-Tuscawilla fine sand well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can
This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods and Exceent pasesof grass or a grass-clover mixture can
be grown with good management. Regular applications of
in hammocks. Individual areas are irregular and elongated
fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
in shape, and they range from 10 to 300 acres in size. The and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
slope is 0 to 2 percent. possible yields.
This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand orange consists of chalky bluestem and blue maidencane.
6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
to a depth of about 14 inches. The subsoil is sandy clay Management practices should include deferred grazing
oam to a depth of about inche upr pt o t and brush control. This Tuscawilla soil is in the Wetland
loam to a depth of about 50 inches. The upper part of the
Hardwood Hammock range site.
subsoil is mottled, dark grayish brown; the next part is Hardwood Hammock range site.
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses and
mottled, grayish brown; and the lower part is gray. The
substratum is gray loamy fine sand to a depth of about 80 septic tank absr ds because of wetness. If this
inches. soil is used as a septic tank absorption field, it should be
In percent of the areas mapped as Tuscawilla fine mounded to maintain the system well above the seasonal
sand, Tuscawilla and similar soils make up 80 to 98 high water table. For recreational uses, this soil also has
sand, Tuscawilla and similar soils make up 80 to 98
severe limitations because of wetness and the sandy
percent of the map unit. In the remaining areas, the severe limtatons because owetes and the sandy
Tuscawilla soil makes up either a higher or lower texture; however, with proper drainage to remove excess
Tuscawilla soil makes up either a higher or lower
percentage of the mapped areas. The characteristics of surface water during wet periods, many of the effects of
percentage of the mapped areas. The characteristics of
these limitations can be overcome.
Oldsmar soils are similar to those of the Tuscawilla soil.
This Tuscawilla soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
Wabasso soils in sloughs.
The permeability of this soil is moderate. The available 38-Urban land-Matlacha-Boca complex
water capacity is low. Under natural conditions, the
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches These areas of Urban land and nearly level, somewhat
for 1 to 6 months during most years. During the other poorly drained and poorly drained soils are in urban areas
months, the water table is below a depth of 18 inches, and and rock quarries. Individual areas are blocky and
it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during irregular in shape, and they range from 20 to 640 acres in
extended dry periods. size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
The natural vegetation consists of oaks, cabbage palm, Typically, Urban land consists of commercial buildings,
red maple, red bay, South Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, houses, parking lots, streets, sidewalks, recreational
maidencane, and chalky bluestem. areas, shopping centers, and other urban structures
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of where the soil cannot be observed.
the wetness and droughtiness. The number of adapted Typically, the Matlacha soil has a surface soil of dark
crops is limited unless very intensive management brown and light brownish gray gravelly fine sand about 21
practices are used. With good water-control and soil- inches thick. The next layer is fine sand to a depth of
improving measures, this soil is suitable for many fruit and about 51 inches. The upper part of this layer is very dark
vegetable crops. A water-control system is needed to gray, and the lower part is dark gray. The subsoil is pale
remove excess water during wet seasons and to provide brown fine sandy loam to a depth of about 54 inches.
irrigation during dry seasons. Row crops should be rotated Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 54 inches.
with cover crops. Seedbed preparation should include Typically, the Boca soil has a surface layer of very dark
bedding of the rows. Applications of fertilizer and lime gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
should be based on the needs of the crops. is fine sand to a depth of about 26 inches. The upper part
With proper water-control measures, the soil is well of the subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is







36 Soil Survey



The depth to the water table varies depending upon the suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains
amount of fill material and extent of irrigation and artificial good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on
drainage in a mapped area. raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage
The present land use preludes the use of this map unit and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
for other uses; therefore, this map unit is not rated for table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
other uses. helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are
This map unit has not been assigned a capability younger.
subclass. With good water-control management, this soil is well
suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
remove excess water during the wet season. This soil is
37-Tuscawilla fine sand well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can
This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on flatwoods and Exceent pasesof grass or a grass-clover mixture can
be grown with good management. Regular applications of
in hammocks. Individual areas are irregular and elongated
fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
in shape, and they range from 10 to 300 acres in size. The and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
slope is 0 to 2 percent. possible yields.
This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand orange consists of chalky bluestem and blue maidencane.
6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
to a depth of about 14 inches. The subsoil is sandy clay Management practices should include deferred grazing
oam to a depth of about inche upr pt o t and brush control. This Tuscawilla soil is in the Wetland
loam to a depth of about 50 inches. The upper part of the
Hardwood Hammock range site.
subsoil is mottled, dark grayish brown; the next part is Hardwood Hammock range site.
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses and
mottled, grayish brown; and the lower part is gray. The
substratum is gray loamy fine sand to a depth of about 80 septic tank absr ds because of wetness. If this
inches. soil is used as a septic tank absorption field, it should be
In percent of the areas mapped as Tuscawilla fine mounded to maintain the system well above the seasonal
sand, Tuscawilla and similar soils make up 80 to 98 high water table. For recreational uses, this soil also has
sand, Tuscawilla and similar soils make up 80 to 98
severe limitations because of wetness and the sandy
percent of the map unit. In the remaining areas, the severe limtatons because owetes and the sandy
Tuscawilla soil makes up either a higher or lower texture; however, with proper drainage to remove excess
Tuscawilla soil makes up either a higher or lower
percentage of the mapped areas. The characteristics of surface water during wet periods, many of the effects of
percentage of the mapped areas. The characteristics of
these limitations can be overcome.
Oldsmar soils are similar to those of the Tuscawilla soil.
This Tuscawilla soil is in capability subclass IIIw.
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
Wabasso soils in sloughs.
The permeability of this soil is moderate. The available 38-Urban land-Matlacha-Boca complex
water capacity is low. Under natural conditions, the
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to 18 inches These areas of Urban land and nearly level, somewhat
for 1 to 6 months during most years. During the other poorly drained and poorly drained soils are in urban areas
months, the water table is below a depth of 18 inches, and and rock quarries. Individual areas are blocky and
it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during irregular in shape, and they range from 20 to 640 acres in
extended dry periods. size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
The natural vegetation consists of oaks, cabbage palm, Typically, Urban land consists of commercial buildings,
red maple, red bay, South Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, houses, parking lots, streets, sidewalks, recreational
maidencane, and chalky bluestem. areas, shopping centers, and other urban structures
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of where the soil cannot be observed.
the wetness and droughtiness. The number of adapted Typically, the Matlacha soil has a surface soil of dark
crops is limited unless very intensive management brown and light brownish gray gravelly fine sand about 21
practices are used. With good water-control and soil- inches thick. The next layer is fine sand to a depth of
improving measures, this soil is suitable for many fruit and about 51 inches. The upper part of this layer is very dark
vegetable crops. A water-control system is needed to gray, and the lower part is dark gray. The subsoil is pale
remove excess water during wet seasons and to provide brown fine sandy loam to a depth of about 54 inches.
irrigation during dry seasons. Row crops should be rotated Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 54 inches.
with cover crops. Seedbed preparation should include Typically, the Boca soil has a surface layer of very dark
bedding of the rows. Applications of fertilizer and lime gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
should be based on the needs of the crops. is fine sand to a depth of about 26 inches. The upper part
With proper water-control measures, the soil is well of the subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is








Collier County Area, Florida 37



brown. The subsoil is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam irrigation during dry seasons. Because of the rapid
to a depth of about 30 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a permeability, the water table is difficult to maintain. Row
depth of about 30 inches. crops should be rotated with cover crops. Seedbed
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Urban land- preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Matlacha-Boca complex, Urban land makes up about 45 Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the
percent of the unit, the Matlacha soil makes up about 30 needs of the crops.
percent, and the Boca soil makes up about 25 percent. In With proper water-control measures, the soil is well
the remaining areas, the major components make up suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains
either a higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas. good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on
They occur as areas so intricately mixed or so small that raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage
mapping them separately was not practical. The Boca soil and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
may have been filled or reworked to accommodate urban table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
land uses. The depth to the water table varies depending helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are
upon the amount of fill material and the extent of artificial younger.
drainage. This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Pangolagrass
The present land use precludes the use of this map unit and bahiagrass are adapted species, but they produce
for other uses. Because of the complexity of this map unit, only fair yields with good management. Regular
onsite investigations should be made for urban and applications of fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed
recreational development and for septic tank absorption for the highest possible yields.
field sites. This soil is poorly suited to range. The dominant forage
This map unit has not been assigned a capability consists of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
subclass. pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem. The dense
growth of scrubby oaks, saw palmetto, and other shrubs
dominates the desirable forage. Management practices
39-Satellite fine sand should include deferred grazing and brush control.
This nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soil is on Livestock usually do not use this range site, except for
This nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soil is on
protection and as dry-bedding ground during the wet
low coastal ridges. Individual areas are elongated and protection and as dry-bedding ground during the wet
seasons. This Satellite soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub
irregular in shape, and they range from 10 to 400 acres in seasons This Satellite soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub
size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. range s
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3 because of wetness and drougtions f ost has severe
inches thick. The substratum is light gray to white fine because ofwetness and droughess. It has severe
s t h ic he ubtatu i iht a to white fine limitations for septic tank absorption fields because of
sand to a depth of about 80 inches.
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Satellite fine wetness and poor filtration. If this soil is used as a septic
tank absorption field, it should be mounded to maintain the
sand, the Satellite soil makes up 81 to 100 percent of the tank absoption ed, t should be mounded to maintain the
system well above the seasonal high water table. For
map unit. In the remaining areas, it makes up either a system wel above the seasonal high water tabe For
ap unit. In the remaining areas it mapes p eer a recreational uses, this soil also has severe limitations
higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas.
h o because of wetness and the sandy texture; however, with
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of because wetness and the sandy texture; however, with
proper drainage to remove excess surface water during
Oldsmar soils in landscape positions similar to those of pper drainage to remove excess surface water during
the Satellite soil. wet periods, many of the effects of the wetness can be
overcome. Suitable topsoil or other material should be
The permeability of this soil is very rapid. The available e e oter mteri o
added to improve trafficability.
water capacity is very low. Under natural conditions, the
This Satellite soil is in capability subclass VIs.
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to 42 inches Ths e sos n capab subclass
for 1 to 6 months during most years. During the other
months, the water table is below a depth of 40 inches. 40-Durbin and Wulfert mucks, frequently
The natural vegetation consists of Florida rosemary, flooded
sand live oak, South Florida slash pine, saw palmetto,
prickly pear, pineland threeawn, and creeping bluestem. These level, very poorly drained soils are in tidal
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of mangrove swamps. Individual areas are elongated and
the droughtiness. The number of adapted crops is limited irregular in shape, and they range from 50 to 1,000 acres
unless very intensive management practices are used. in size. The slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
With good water-control and soil-improving measures, this Typically, the Durbin soil has a surface soil of dark
soil is suitable for many fruit and vegetable crops. A water- reddish brown to black muck about 63 inches thick. The
control system is needed to remove excess water during substratum is dark gray fine sand to a depth of about 80
wet seasons and to provide water through subsurface inches.








Collier County Area, Florida 37



brown. The subsoil is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam irrigation during dry seasons. Because of the rapid
to a depth of about 30 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a permeability, the water table is difficult to maintain. Row
depth of about 30 inches. crops should be rotated with cover crops. Seedbed
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Urban land- preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Matlacha-Boca complex, Urban land makes up about 45 Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the
percent of the unit, the Matlacha soil makes up about 30 needs of the crops.
percent, and the Boca soil makes up about 25 percent. In With proper water-control measures, the soil is well
the remaining areas, the major components make up suited to citrus. A water-control system that maintains
either a higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas. good drainage to an effective depth is needed. Planting on
They occur as areas so intricately mixed or so small that raised beds provides good surface and internal drainage
mapping them separately was not practical. The Boca soil and elevates the trees above the seasonal high water
may have been filled or reworked to accommodate urban table. Planting a good grass cover crop between the trees
land uses. The depth to the water table varies depending helps to protect the soil from blowing when the trees are
upon the amount of fill material and the extent of artificial younger.
drainage. This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Pangolagrass
The present land use precludes the use of this map unit and bahiagrass are adapted species, but they produce
for other uses. Because of the complexity of this map unit, only fair yields with good management. Regular
onsite investigations should be made for urban and applications of fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed
recreational development and for septic tank absorption for the highest possible yields.
field sites. This soil is poorly suited to range. The dominant forage
This map unit has not been assigned a capability consists of creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
subclass. pineland threeawn, and chalky bluestem. The dense
growth of scrubby oaks, saw palmetto, and other shrubs
dominates the desirable forage. Management practices
39-Satellite fine sand should include deferred grazing and brush control.
This nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soil is on Livestock usually do not use this range site, except for
This nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soil is on
protection and as dry-bedding ground during the wet
low coastal ridges. Individual areas are elongated and protection and as dry-bedding ground during the wet
seasons. This Satellite soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub
irregular in shape, and they range from 10 to 400 acres in seasons This Satellite soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub
size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. range s
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3 because of wetness and drougtions f ost has severe
inches thick. The substratum is light gray to white fine because ofwetness and droughess. It has severe
s t h ic he ubtatu i iht a to white fine limitations for septic tank absorption fields because of
sand to a depth of about 80 inches.
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Satellite fine wetness and poor filtration. If this soil is used as a septic
tank absorption field, it should be mounded to maintain the
sand, the Satellite soil makes up 81 to 100 percent of the tank absoption ed, t should be mounded to maintain the
system well above the seasonal high water table. For
map unit. In the remaining areas, it makes up either a system wel above the seasonal high water tabe For
ap unit. In the remaining areas it mapes p eer a recreational uses, this soil also has severe limitations
higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas.
h o because of wetness and the sandy texture; however, with
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of because wetness and the sandy texture; however, with
proper drainage to remove excess surface water during
Oldsmar soils in landscape positions similar to those of pper drainage to remove excess surface water during
the Satellite soil. wet periods, many of the effects of the wetness can be
overcome. Suitable topsoil or other material should be
The permeability of this soil is very rapid. The available e e oter mteri o
added to improve trafficability.
water capacity is very low. Under natural conditions, the
This Satellite soil is in capability subclass VIs.
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to 42 inches Ths e sos n capab subclass
for 1 to 6 months during most years. During the other
months, the water table is below a depth of 40 inches. 40-Durbin and Wulfert mucks, frequently
The natural vegetation consists of Florida rosemary, flooded
sand live oak, South Florida slash pine, saw palmetto,
prickly pear, pineland threeawn, and creeping bluestem. These level, very poorly drained soils are in tidal
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of mangrove swamps. Individual areas are elongated and
the droughtiness. The number of adapted crops is limited irregular in shape, and they range from 50 to 1,000 acres
unless very intensive management practices are used. in size. The slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
With good water-control and soil-improving measures, this Typically, the Durbin soil has a surface soil of dark
soil is suitable for many fruit and vegetable crops. A water- reddish brown to black muck about 63 inches thick. The
control system is needed to remove excess water during substratum is dark gray fine sand to a depth of about 80
wet seasons and to provide water through subsurface inches.







38 Soil Survey



Typically, the Wulfert soil has a surface soil of dark have been filled or reworked to accommodate urban land
reddish brown to black muck about 40 inches thick. The uses.
substratum is dark gray fine sand to a depth of about 80 The permeability in the Satellite soil is very rapid. The
inches, available water capacity is very low. Under natural
Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Durbin soil, conditions, the seasonal high water table is at a depth of
entirely of the Wulfert soil, or any combination of the two 18 to 40 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
soils. The two soils were not separated in mapping During the other months, the water table is below a depth
because of similar management needs resulting from the of 40 inches.
tidal flooding. The present land use precludes the use of this map unit
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of for cultivated crops, citrus, or tame pasture. Because of
Kesson and Pennsuco soils in similar landscape positions. the complexity of this map unit, onsite investigations
These soils make up about 0 to 10 percent of the unit. should be made for urban and recreational development
The permeability in the Durbin soil is rapid, and the and for septic tank absorption field sites.
available water capacity is high. The permeability in the This map unit has not been assigned a capability
Wulfert soil is rapid, and the available water capacity is subclass.
moderate. The water table fluctuates with the tide. It is
within a depth of 12 inches for most of the year. The soil is 42s
subject to tidal flooding. 42-Canaveral-Beaches complex
The natural vegetation consists of red, white, and black
SThis map unit consists of the nearly level, moderately
mangroves.
well drained Canaveral soil on low ridges and areas of
These soils are not suited to citrus, cultivated crops, or eaes individual loge and rea
tame pasture because of the flooding and the high content Beahes, nd they range from 2 to 3 acres in sie. Te
of sasshape, and they range from 20 to 300 acres in size. The
of salts.
o salts slope is 0 to 2 percent-
These soils have severe limitations for urban and se is 0 t 2
Typically, the Canaveral soil has surface layer of dark
recreational development and septic tank absorption brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The substratum is
fields. Extensive measures must be taken for urban uses. fine sand thi e t
brown to light gray fine sand that is mixed with shell
Adequate drainage outlets are not available, and the cost r n to a depth of abt 80 inhes.
fragments to a depth of about 80 inches.
of site improvement generally outweighs the benefits of
Typically, Beaches consist of sand that is mixed with
urban development in areas of these soils.
urban development in areas of these soils shell fragments and shells. Beaches are subject to
The Durbin and Wulfert soils are in capability subclass frequent wave and s s.
.. ~frequent wave action.
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Canaveral-
Beaches complex, the Canaveral soil makes up 55
41-Urban land-Satellite complex percent of the unit and Beach areas make up about 45
percent. In the remaining areas, the major components
These areas of Urban land and nearly level, somewhat make up either a higher or lower percentage of the
poorly drained soils are in urban areas. Individual areas mapped areas. Canaveral soils and Beaches occur as
are blocky to irregular in shape, and they range from 20 to areas so intricately mixed or so small that mapping them
500 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. separately was not practical.
Typically, Urban land consists of commercial buildings, The permeability in the Canaveral soil is rapid or very
houses, parking lots, streets, sidewalks, recreational rapid. The available water capacity is very low. During
areas, shopping centers, and other urban structures most years, the seasonal high water table is at a depth of
where the soil cannot be observed. 18 to 36 inches for 1 to 6 months. During the other
Typically, the Satellite soil has a surface layer of gray months, the water table is below a depth of 40 inches.
fine sand about 3 inches thick. The substratum is light This soil is subject to tidal flooding under severe weather
gray to white fine sand to a depth about 80 inches. conditions.
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Urban land- The natural vegetation consists of Australian pines, sea
Satellite complex, Urban land makes up about 60 percent oats, sea grape, cabbage palm, Brazilian pepper, and salt-
of the unit and the Satellite soil makes up about 40 tolerant herbaceous plants (fig. 6).
percent. In the remaining areas, the major components This map unit is not suited to citrus, row crops, or tame
make up either a higher or lower percentage of the pasture because of droughtiness and the high content of
mapped areas. Urban land and Satellite soils occur as salts.
areas so intricately mixed or so small that mapping This map unit has severe limitations as a site for
them separately was not practical. The Satellite soil may buildings and septic tank absorption fields because of tidal







38 Soil Survey



Typically, the Wulfert soil has a surface soil of dark have been filled or reworked to accommodate urban land
reddish brown to black muck about 40 inches thick. The uses.
substratum is dark gray fine sand to a depth of about 80 The permeability in the Satellite soil is very rapid. The
inches, available water capacity is very low. Under natural
Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Durbin soil, conditions, the seasonal high water table is at a depth of
entirely of the Wulfert soil, or any combination of the two 18 to 40 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
soils. The two soils were not separated in mapping During the other months, the water table is below a depth
because of similar management needs resulting from the of 40 inches.
tidal flooding. The present land use precludes the use of this map unit
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of for cultivated crops, citrus, or tame pasture. Because of
Kesson and Pennsuco soils in similar landscape positions. the complexity of this map unit, onsite investigations
These soils make up about 0 to 10 percent of the unit. should be made for urban and recreational development
The permeability in the Durbin soil is rapid, and the and for septic tank absorption field sites.
available water capacity is high. The permeability in the This map unit has not been assigned a capability
Wulfert soil is rapid, and the available water capacity is subclass.
moderate. The water table fluctuates with the tide. It is
within a depth of 12 inches for most of the year. The soil is 42s
subject to tidal flooding. 42-Canaveral-Beaches complex
The natural vegetation consists of red, white, and black
SThis map unit consists of the nearly level, moderately
mangroves.
well drained Canaveral soil on low ridges and areas of
These soils are not suited to citrus, cultivated crops, or eaes individual loge and rea
tame pasture because of the flooding and the high content Beahes, nd they range from 2 to 3 acres in sie. Te
of sasshape, and they range from 20 to 300 acres in size. The
of salts.
o salts slope is 0 to 2 percent-
These soils have severe limitations for urban and se is 0 t 2
Typically, the Canaveral soil has surface layer of dark
recreational development and septic tank absorption brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The substratum is
fields. Extensive measures must be taken for urban uses. fine sand thi e t
brown to light gray fine sand that is mixed with shell
Adequate drainage outlets are not available, and the cost r n to a depth of abt 80 inhes.
fragments to a depth of about 80 inches.
of site improvement generally outweighs the benefits of
Typically, Beaches consist of sand that is mixed with
urban development in areas of these soils.
urban development in areas of these soils shell fragments and shells. Beaches are subject to
The Durbin and Wulfert soils are in capability subclass frequent wave and s s.
.. ~frequent wave action.
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Canaveral-
Beaches complex, the Canaveral soil makes up 55
41-Urban land-Satellite complex percent of the unit and Beach areas make up about 45
percent. In the remaining areas, the major components
These areas of Urban land and nearly level, somewhat make up either a higher or lower percentage of the
poorly drained soils are in urban areas. Individual areas mapped areas. Canaveral soils and Beaches occur as
are blocky to irregular in shape, and they range from 20 to areas so intricately mixed or so small that mapping them
500 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. separately was not practical.
Typically, Urban land consists of commercial buildings, The permeability in the Canaveral soil is rapid or very
houses, parking lots, streets, sidewalks, recreational rapid. The available water capacity is very low. During
areas, shopping centers, and other urban structures most years, the seasonal high water table is at a depth of
where the soil cannot be observed. 18 to 36 inches for 1 to 6 months. During the other
Typically, the Satellite soil has a surface layer of gray months, the water table is below a depth of 40 inches.
fine sand about 3 inches thick. The substratum is light This soil is subject to tidal flooding under severe weather
gray to white fine sand to a depth about 80 inches. conditions.
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Urban land- The natural vegetation consists of Australian pines, sea
Satellite complex, Urban land makes up about 60 percent oats, sea grape, cabbage palm, Brazilian pepper, and salt-
of the unit and the Satellite soil makes up about 40 tolerant herbaceous plants (fig. 6).
percent. In the remaining areas, the major components This map unit is not suited to citrus, row crops, or tame
make up either a higher or lower percentage of the pasture because of droughtiness and the high content of
mapped areas. Urban land and Satellite soils occur as salts.
areas so intricately mixed or so small that mapping This map unit has severe limitations as a site for
them separately was not practical. The Satellite soil may buildings and septic tank absorption fields because of tidal






Collier County Area, Florida 39























.4 ., ;f.,. ,












Figure 6.-An area of Canaveral-Beaches complex. The dominant vegetation in areas of the Canaveral soil includes cabbage palm, Australian
pine, and salt-tolerant herbaceous plants.

flooding and wetness. For most recreational uses, this soil inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 50 inches.
also has severe limitations because of tidal flooding, The upper part of the subsoil is gray fine sandy loam, the
wetness, and the sandy surface texture; however, it is well next part is gray sandy clay loam, and the lower part is
suited to beach and water-related activities, dark gray sandy clay. The subsoil is white fine sandy loam
This map unit has not been assigned a capability to a depth of about 80 inches.
subclass. Typically, the Riviera soil has a surface layer of gray
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
43--Winder, Riviera, limestone substratum, fine sand to a depth of about 32 inches. The upper part of
and Chobee soils, depressional the subsurface layer is light brownish gray, and the lower
part is light gray. The subsoil is sandy clay loam to a depth
These level, very poorly drained soils are in marshes, of about 54 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is
Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and grayish brown, and the lower part is dark gray. Limestone
they range from 100 to 1,000 acres in size. The slope is 0 bedrock is at a depth of about 54 inches.
to 1 percent. Typically, the Chobee soil has a surface layer of mucky
Typically, the Winder soil has a surface layer of dark fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer black fine sandy loam to a depth of about 13 inches. The
is light brownish ray fine sand to a death of about 15 subsoil is mottled sandy clay loam to a death of about 47
ipr ish light gray Te subsoil ismo sandy clay loam to a depth







40 Soil Survey



inches. The upper part of the subsoil is dark gray, and the fine sand to a depth of about 45 inches. The substratum is
lower part is gray. The substratum is dark greenish gray brownish yellow and yellowish brown fine sand to a depth
and gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about 80 inches, of about 80 inches.
Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Winder soil, In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Paola fine sand,
entirely of Riviera and similar soils, entirely of the Chobee gently rolling, the Paola soil makes up 90 to 98 percent of
soil, or any combination of the three soils. The three soils the map unit. In the remaining areas, it makes up either a
were not separated in mapping because of similar higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas.
management needs resulting from the ponding. The The permeability of this soil is very rapid. The available
characteristics of Pineda soils are similar to those of the water capacity is very low. The seasonal high water table
major soils. is at a depth of more than 72 inches during most years.
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of The natural vegetation consists of sand pine, slash
Gator and Boca soils in similar landscape positions. These pine, sand live oak, running oak, prickly pear, creeping
soils make up about 0 to 15 percent of the unit. A large dodder, pineland threeawn, and mosses.
area of muck is in the Corkscrew Swamp sanctuary. This soil is suited to various uses, such as the
The permeability in the Winder and Chobee soils is production of citrus and row crops and as range. However,
slow or very slow. The available water capacity of both because of urban encroachment, it is not used for these
soils is moderate. The permeability in the Riviera soil is purposes.
moderately rapid to moderately slow. The available water This soil has slight limitations for most urban
capacity is low. Under natural conditions, the soils in this development and septic tank absorption fields. It has
unit are ponded for 6 months or more during most years, severe limitations for recreational uses because it is too
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops, citrus, or sandy. Suitable topsoil or other natural soil material should
tame pasture because of ponding and wetness. They are be added to improve trafficability.
used for natural wetlands. The natural vegetation consists This Paola soil is in capability subclass VIs.
of sawgrass, maidencane, pickerelweed, fireflag, willow,
and other wetland plants. The Winder, Riviera, and
Chobee soils are in the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds 48-Pennsuco silt loam
range site. This level, poorly drained soil is on low prairies.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban and ,
Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and
recreational uses because of ponding. They also have they range from 20 to 300 acres in size. The slope is 0 to
severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields because percent
of ponding, slow percolation, and poor filtration. An 1 percent.
of ponding, slow percolation, and poor filtration. An Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray silt loam
effective drainage system that keeps the water table at a
effective drainage system that keeps the water table at a about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is dark gray silt loam to a
given depth is expensive and difficult to establish and depth of about 40 inches. The substratum is grayish
maintain. Also, these soils act as a collecting basin for the depth of about 48 inches. Limestone
brown fine sand to a depth of about 48 inches. Limestone
area; therefore, a suitable outlet to remove the water is
not available in many places. They require an adequate I 95 t of the aea appe as
amount of fill material to maintain house foundations and the e eup to percent o
loam, the Pennsuco soil makes up 90 to 98 percent of the
road beds above the high water table. Even when a good a the e nn makes up either a
drainage system is installed and the proper amount of fill hiher o le percentage of the mapped areas.
higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas.
material is added, keeping the area dry is a continual The permeability of this soil is moderate to moderately
problem because of seepage water from the slightly slow. The available water capacity is high. Under natural
higher adjacent slough and flatwood areas, conditions, the seasonal high water table is within a depth
The Winder, Riviera, and Chobee soils are in capability of 12 inches for 4 to 6 months during most years. A few
of 12 inches for 4 to 6 months during most years. A few
subclass Vllw.
inches of water is above the surface during extremely wet
periods.
45-Paola fine sand, gently rolling The natural vegetation consists of sawgrass, reeds,
scattered areas of cypress, maidencane, needlegrass,
This nearly level to gently rolling, excessively drained sedges, waxmyrtle, and other wetland plants.
soil is on coastal dunes on Marco Island. Individual areas This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
are elongated and irregular in shape, and they range from the wetness and the high soil reaction (pH). With
10 to 100 acres in size. The slope is 1 to 8 percent. adequate water control, a limited variety of vegetable
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3 crops can be grown. The low elevation makes adequate
inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand to a water control difficult. A crop rotation in which row crops
depth of about 32 inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown are followed by cover crops is needed. Planting on raised







40 Soil Survey



inches. The upper part of the subsoil is dark gray, and the fine sand to a depth of about 45 inches. The substratum is
lower part is gray. The substratum is dark greenish gray brownish yellow and yellowish brown fine sand to a depth
and gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about 80 inches, of about 80 inches.
Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Winder soil, In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Paola fine sand,
entirely of Riviera and similar soils, entirely of the Chobee gently rolling, the Paola soil makes up 90 to 98 percent of
soil, or any combination of the three soils. The three soils the map unit. In the remaining areas, it makes up either a
were not separated in mapping because of similar higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas.
management needs resulting from the ponding. The The permeability of this soil is very rapid. The available
characteristics of Pineda soils are similar to those of the water capacity is very low. The seasonal high water table
major soils. is at a depth of more than 72 inches during most years.
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of The natural vegetation consists of sand pine, slash
Gator and Boca soils in similar landscape positions. These pine, sand live oak, running oak, prickly pear, creeping
soils make up about 0 to 15 percent of the unit. A large dodder, pineland threeawn, and mosses.
area of muck is in the Corkscrew Swamp sanctuary. This soil is suited to various uses, such as the
The permeability in the Winder and Chobee soils is production of citrus and row crops and as range. However,
slow or very slow. The available water capacity of both because of urban encroachment, it is not used for these
soils is moderate. The permeability in the Riviera soil is purposes.
moderately rapid to moderately slow. The available water This soil has slight limitations for most urban
capacity is low. Under natural conditions, the soils in this development and septic tank absorption fields. It has
unit are ponded for 6 months or more during most years, severe limitations for recreational uses because it is too
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops, citrus, or sandy. Suitable topsoil or other natural soil material should
tame pasture because of ponding and wetness. They are be added to improve trafficability.
used for natural wetlands. The natural vegetation consists This Paola soil is in capability subclass VIs.
of sawgrass, maidencane, pickerelweed, fireflag, willow,
and other wetland plants. The Winder, Riviera, and
Chobee soils are in the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds 48-Pennsuco silt loam
range site. This level, poorly drained soil is on low prairies.
These soils have severe limitations for all urban and ,
Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and
recreational uses because of ponding. They also have they range from 20 to 300 acres in size. The slope is 0 to
severe limitations for septic tank absorption fields because percent
of ponding, slow percolation, and poor filtration. An 1 percent.
of ponding, slow percolation, and poor filtration. An Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray silt loam
effective drainage system that keeps the water table at a
effective drainage system that keeps the water table at a about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is dark gray silt loam to a
given depth is expensive and difficult to establish and depth of about 40 inches. The substratum is grayish
maintain. Also, these soils act as a collecting basin for the depth of about 48 inches. Limestone
brown fine sand to a depth of about 48 inches. Limestone
area; therefore, a suitable outlet to remove the water is
not available in many places. They require an adequate I 95 t of the aea appe as
amount of fill material to maintain house foundations and the e eup to percent o
loam, the Pennsuco soil makes up 90 to 98 percent of the
road beds above the high water table. Even when a good a the e nn makes up either a
drainage system is installed and the proper amount of fill hiher o le percentage of the mapped areas.
higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas.
material is added, keeping the area dry is a continual The permeability of this soil is moderate to moderately
problem because of seepage water from the slightly slow. The available water capacity is high. Under natural
higher adjacent slough and flatwood areas, conditions, the seasonal high water table is within a depth
The Winder, Riviera, and Chobee soils are in capability of 12 inches for 4 to 6 months during most years. A few
of 12 inches for 4 to 6 months during most years. A few
subclass Vllw.
inches of water is above the surface during extremely wet
periods.
45-Paola fine sand, gently rolling The natural vegetation consists of sawgrass, reeds,
scattered areas of cypress, maidencane, needlegrass,
This nearly level to gently rolling, excessively drained sedges, waxmyrtle, and other wetland plants.
soil is on coastal dunes on Marco Island. Individual areas This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
are elongated and irregular in shape, and they range from the wetness and the high soil reaction (pH). With
10 to 100 acres in size. The slope is 1 to 8 percent. adequate water control, a limited variety of vegetable
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3 crops can be grown. The low elevation makes adequate
inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand to a water control difficult. A crop rotation in which row crops
depth of about 32 inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown are followed by cover crops is needed. Planting on raised








Collier County Area, Florida 41



beds elevates the plants above the high water table. All conditions, the seasonal high water table is within a depth
crop residue and cover crops should be used to maintain of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. During
the organic matter content. Applications of fertilizers that the other months, the water table is below a depth of 12
include minor elements are needed. inches, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant during extended dry periods. During periods of high
forage consists of maidencane and needlegrass. The rainfall, the soil is covered by shallow, slowly moving water
Pennsuco soil is in the Slough range site. for about 7 days.
This soil has severe limitations for all urban and The natural vegetation consists of scrub cypress, sand
recreational uses because of wetness. It has severe cordgrass, waxmyrtle, and maidencane.
limitations for septic tank absorption fields because of These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops
wetness and the slow infiltration rate. An effective because of the wetness, the shallow depth to bedrock,
drainage system that keeps the water table at a given and droughtiness. With good water-control and soil-
depth is expensive and difficult to establish and maintain, improving measures, these soils are suitable for many fruit
This soil requires an adequate amount of fill material to and vegetable crops. A water-control system is needed to
maintain house foundations and road beds above the high remove excess water during wet seasons and to provide
water table. Even when a good drainage system is water through subsurface irrigation during dry seasons.
installed and the proper amount of fill material is added, Row crops should be rotated with cover crops. Seedbed
keeping the area dry is a continual problem because of preparation should include bedding of the rows.
seepage from the slightly higher adjacent flatwood areas. Applications of fertilizer and lime should be based on the
This Pennsuco soil is in capability subclass IVw. needs of the crops.
With proper water-control measures, these soils are
49-Hallandale and Boca fine sands moderately suited to citrus. A water-control system that
maintains good drainage to an effective depth is needed.
These nearly level, poorly drained soils are in sloughs Planting on raised beds provides good surface and
and poorly defined drainageways. Individual areas are internal drainage and elevates the trees above the
elongated and irregular in shape, and they range from 20 seasonal high water table. Planting a good grass cover
to 600 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent. crop between the trees helps to protect the soils from
Typically, the Hallandale soil has a surface layer of very blowing when the trees are younger.
dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface With good water-control management, these soils are
layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 9 well suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to
inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown fine sand to a depth remove excess water during the wet season. They are
of about 12 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
about 12 inches. Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can
Typically, the Boca soil has a surface layer of very dark be grown with good management. Regular applications of
gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
is fine sand to a depth of about 26 inches. The upper part possible yields.
of the subsurface layer is light gray, and the lower part is These soils are well suited to range. The dominant
brown. The subsoil is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam forage consists of blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, and
to a depth of about 30 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a bluejoint panicum. Management practices should include
depth of about 30 inches, deferred grazing. The Hallandale and Boca soils are in the
Mapped areas can consist entirely of Hallandale and Slough range site.
similar soils, entirely of the Boca soil, or any combination These soils have severe limitations for most urban uses
of the two soils. The two soils were not separated in because of the high water table and the shallow depth to
mapping because of similar management needs and soil bedrock. They have severe limitations for septic tank
characteristics. The characteristics of Jupiter soils are absorption fields because of wetness, the shallow depth
similar to those of the major soils. to bedrock, and poor filtration. Building sites and septic
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of tank absorption fields should be mounded to overcome
Copeland and Pineda, limestone substratum, soils in these limitations. These soils also have severe limitations
similar landscape positions. These soils make up about 0 for recreational development because of wetness, the
to 5 percent of the unit. shallow depth to bedrock, and the sandy texture. The
The permeability in the Hallandale soil is rapid. The problems associated with wetness can be corrected by
permeability in the Boca soil is moderate. The available providing adequate drainage and drainage outlets to
water capacity of both soils is very low. Under natural control the high water table. The sandy texture can be








42 Soil Survey



overcome by adding suitable topsoil or by resurfacing the adequate drainage and drainage outlets to control the high
area. water table.
The Hallandale and Boca soils are in capability This Ochopee soil is in capability subclass IVw.
subclass Vw.
51-Ochopee fine sandy loam
50-Ochopee fine sandy loam, low
This nearly level, poorly drained soil is in low wetland
This level, poorly drained soil is on low prairies, hardwood areas. Individual areas are elongated and
Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and irregular in shape, and they range from 20 to 400 acres in
they range from 20 to 400 acres in size. The slope is 0 to size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
1 percent. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is dark gray fine
loam about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is dark gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about 17 inches. Limestone
sandy loam to a depth of about 17 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 17 inches.
bedrock is at a depth of about 17 inches. In 95 percent of the area mapped as Ochopee fine
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Ochopee fine sandy loam, the Ochopee soil makes up 85 to 100 percent
sandy loam, low, the Ochopee soil makes up 90 to 98 of the map unit. In the remaining areas, it makes up either
percent of the map unit. In the remaining areas, it makes a higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas. This
up either a higher or lower percentage of the mapped map unit contains as much as 10 percent rock outcrop.
areas. This map unit contains as much as 10 percent rock The permeability of this soil is moderately rapid. The
outcrop, available water capacity is very low. Under natural
The permeability of this soil is moderately rapid. The conditions, the seasonal high water table is within a depth
available water capacity is very low. Under natural of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months. During the other months,
conditions, the seasonal high water table is within a depth the water table is below a depth of 12 inches, and it
of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. During recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
the other months, the water table is below a depth of 12 extended dry periods. During periods of high rainfall, the
inches. During periods of high rainfall, the soil is covered soil is covered by shallow, slowly moving water for about 7
by shallow, slowly moving water for about 7 days. days.
This soil is not suited to citrus because of the shallow This soil is not suited to citrus because of the shallow
depth to bedrock and the high soil reaction. depth to bedrock and the high soil reaction.
The natural vegetation consists of scrub cypress, The natural vegetation consists of scrub cypress,
cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and South Florida bluestem. waxmyrtle, Rhyncoapusa, South Florida bluestem, and
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of sedges.
the wetness and the high soil reaction (pH). With This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
adequate water control, a limited variety of vegetables can the wetness and the high soil reaction (pH). With
be grown. The low elevation, the shallow depth to rock, adequate water control, a limited variety of vegetables can
and the frequent heavy rains make adequate water control be grown. The low elevation, the shallow depth to rock,
difficult to establish. A crop rotation in which row crops are and the frequent heavy rains make adequate water control
followed by cover crops is needed. All crop residue and difficult to establish. A crop rotation in which row crops are
cover crops should be used to maintain the organic matter followed by cover crops is needed. All crop residue and
content. Applications of fertilizers that include minor cover crops should be used to maintain the organic matter
elements are needed, content. Applications of fertilizers that include minor
This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant elements are needed.
forage consists of South Florida bluestem and This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant
plumegrass. This Ochopee soil is in the Slough range site. forage consists of maidencane and cutgrass. The
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses and Ochopee soil is in the Scrub Cypress range site.
septic tank absorption fields because of the high water This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses and
table and the shallow depth to bedrock. Building sites and septic tank absorption fields because of the high water
septic tank absorption fields should be mounded to table and the shallow depth to bedrock. Building sites and
overcome these limitations. This soil also has severe septic tank absorption fields should be mounded to
limitations for recreational development because of overcome these limitations. This soil also has severe
wetness and the shallow depth to bedrock. The problems limitations for recreational development because of
associated with wetness can be corrected by providing wetness and the shallow depth to bedrock. The problems








42 Soil Survey



overcome by adding suitable topsoil or by resurfacing the adequate drainage and drainage outlets to control the high
area. water table.
The Hallandale and Boca soils are in capability This Ochopee soil is in capability subclass IVw.
subclass Vw.
51-Ochopee fine sandy loam
50-Ochopee fine sandy loam, low
This nearly level, poorly drained soil is in low wetland
This level, poorly drained soil is on low prairies, hardwood areas. Individual areas are elongated and
Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and irregular in shape, and they range from 20 to 400 acres in
they range from 20 to 400 acres in size. The slope is 0 to size. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
1 percent. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is dark gray fine
loam about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is dark gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about 17 inches. Limestone
sandy loam to a depth of about 17 inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 17 inches.
bedrock is at a depth of about 17 inches. In 95 percent of the area mapped as Ochopee fine
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Ochopee fine sandy loam, the Ochopee soil makes up 85 to 100 percent
sandy loam, low, the Ochopee soil makes up 90 to 98 of the map unit. In the remaining areas, it makes up either
percent of the map unit. In the remaining areas, it makes a higher or lower percentage of the mapped areas. This
up either a higher or lower percentage of the mapped map unit contains as much as 10 percent rock outcrop.
areas. This map unit contains as much as 10 percent rock The permeability of this soil is moderately rapid. The
outcrop, available water capacity is very low. Under natural
The permeability of this soil is moderately rapid. The conditions, the seasonal high water table is within a depth
available water capacity is very low. Under natural of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months. During the other months,
conditions, the seasonal high water table is within a depth the water table is below a depth of 12 inches, and it
of 12 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. During recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
the other months, the water table is below a depth of 12 extended dry periods. During periods of high rainfall, the
inches. During periods of high rainfall, the soil is covered soil is covered by shallow, slowly moving water for about 7
by shallow, slowly moving water for about 7 days. days.
This soil is not suited to citrus because of the shallow This soil is not suited to citrus because of the shallow
depth to bedrock and the high soil reaction. depth to bedrock and the high soil reaction.
The natural vegetation consists of scrub cypress, The natural vegetation consists of scrub cypress,
cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and South Florida bluestem. waxmyrtle, Rhyncoapusa, South Florida bluestem, and
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of sedges.
the wetness and the high soil reaction (pH). With This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
adequate water control, a limited variety of vegetables can the wetness and the high soil reaction (pH). With
be grown. The low elevation, the shallow depth to rock, adequate water control, a limited variety of vegetables can
and the frequent heavy rains make adequate water control be grown. The low elevation, the shallow depth to rock,
difficult to establish. A crop rotation in which row crops are and the frequent heavy rains make adequate water control
followed by cover crops is needed. All crop residue and difficult to establish. A crop rotation in which row crops are
cover crops should be used to maintain the organic matter followed by cover crops is needed. All crop residue and
content. Applications of fertilizers that include minor cover crops should be used to maintain the organic matter
elements are needed, content. Applications of fertilizers that include minor
This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant elements are needed.
forage consists of South Florida bluestem and This soil is moderately suited to range. The dominant
plumegrass. This Ochopee soil is in the Slough range site. forage consists of maidencane and cutgrass. The
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses and Ochopee soil is in the Scrub Cypress range site.
septic tank absorption fields because of the high water This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses and
table and the shallow depth to bedrock. Building sites and septic tank absorption fields because of the high water
septic tank absorption fields should be mounded to table and the shallow depth to bedrock. Building sites and
overcome these limitations. This soil also has severe septic tank absorption fields should be mounded to
limitations for recreational development because of overcome these limitations. This soil also has severe
wetness and the shallow depth to bedrock. The problems limitations for recreational development because of
associated with wetness can be corrected by providing wetness and the shallow depth to bedrock. The problems







Collier County Area, Florida 43



associated with wetness can be corrected by providing subsurface layer is black, and the lower part is dark
adequate drainage and drainage outlets to control the high grayish brown. The subsoil is dark brown and very dark
water table. brown fine sand to a depth of about 62 inches.
The Ochopee soil is in capability subclass IVw. Typically, the Peckish soil has a surface layer of very
dark grayish brown mucky fine sand about 9 inches thick.
52-Kesson muck, frequently flooded The subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth
of about 37 inches. The subsoil is dark brown fine sand to
This level, very poorly drained soil is in frequently a depth of about 42 inches. The substratum is light
flooded tidal marshes. Individual areas are elongated and brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about 80 inches.
irregular in shape, and they range from 300 to 1,000 acres Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Estero soil,
in size. The slope is 0 to 1 percent, entirely of the Peckish soil, or any combination of the two
Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 5 soils. The two soils were not separated in mapping
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray fine sand because of similar management needs resulting from the
to a depth of about 10 inches. The substratum is fine sand flooding.
to a depth of about 80 inches. The upper part of the The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
substratum is gray, the next part is light brownish gray, Wulfert soils in similar landscape positions. These soils
and the lower part is pale brown. make up about 0 to 5 percent of the unit.
In 80 percent of the area mapped as Kesson muck, The permeability in the Estero soil is moderately rapid,
frequently flooded, the Kesson soil makes up 75 to 90 and the available water capacity is moderate. The
percent of the map unit. In the remaining areas, it makes permeability in the Peckish soil is rapid, and the available
up either a higher or lower percentage of the mapped water capacity is moderate. The water table fluctuates
areas. with tidal action and seasonal rainfall. It is at or near the
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of surface for long periods. These soils are frequently
Basinger, Dania, and Peckish soils in landscape positions flooded.
similar to those of the Kesson soil. These soils make up These soils are not suited to cultivated crops, tame
about 10 to 25 percent of the unit. pasture, or citrus because of the flooding and the high
The permeability of this soil is rapid to moderately content of salts. They are used for natural wetlands. The
rapid. The available water capacity is high. The water natural vegetation consists of cordgrass, saltgrass,
table fluctuates with tidal action and seasonal rainfall. It is rushes, needlegrass, saltwort, and scattered mangrove.
at or near the surface for long periods. This soil is These soils have severe limitations for urban and
frequently flooded, recreational development and septic tank absorption fields
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, tame pasture, because of flooding. Extensive measures must be taken
or citrus because of the flooding and the high content of for urban uses. Adequate drainage outlets are not
salts. It is used for natural wetlands. The natural available, and the cost of site improvement generally
vegetation consists of cordgrass, saltgrass, rushes, outweighs the benefits of urban development in areas of
needlegrass, saltwort, and scattered areas of mangroves, these soils.
This soil has severe limitations for urban and The Estero and Peckish soils are in capability subclass
recreational development. Extensive measures must be VIIIw.
taken to use this soil for urban development. Adequate
drainage outlets are not available, and the cost of site
improvement generally outweighs the benefits of urban 54-Jupiter-Boca complex
development in areas of this soil.
This Kesson soil is in capability subclass Vw. These nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly
drained soils are in sloughs and low wetland hardwood
areas. Individual areas are elongated and irregular in
53-Estero and Peckish soils, frequently shape, and they range from 30 to 400 acres in size. The
flooded slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the very poorly drained Jupiter soil has a
These level, very poorly drained soils are in frequently surface layer of black mucky fine sand about 4 inches
flooded tidal marshes. Individual areas are elongated and thick. The subsurface layer is very dark grayish brown fine
irregular in shape, and they range from 300 to 1,000 acres sand to a depth of about 10 inches. Limestone bedrock is
in size. The slope is 0 to 1 percent. at a depth of about 10 inches.
Typically, the Estero soil has a surface layer of black Typically, the poorly drained Boca soil has a surface
muck about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine layer of very dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
sand to a depth of about 40 inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 26







Collier County Area, Florida 43



associated with wetness can be corrected by providing subsurface layer is black, and the lower part is dark
adequate drainage and drainage outlets to control the high grayish brown. The subsoil is dark brown and very dark
water table. brown fine sand to a depth of about 62 inches.
The Ochopee soil is in capability subclass IVw. Typically, the Peckish soil has a surface layer of very
dark grayish brown mucky fine sand about 9 inches thick.
52-Kesson muck, frequently flooded The subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth
of about 37 inches. The subsoil is dark brown fine sand to
This level, very poorly drained soil is in frequently a depth of about 42 inches. The substratum is light
flooded tidal marshes. Individual areas are elongated and brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about 80 inches.
irregular in shape, and they range from 300 to 1,000 acres Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Estero soil,
in size. The slope is 0 to 1 percent, entirely of the Peckish soil, or any combination of the two
Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 5 soils. The two soils were not separated in mapping
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray fine sand because of similar management needs resulting from the
to a depth of about 10 inches. The substratum is fine sand flooding.
to a depth of about 80 inches. The upper part of the The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
substratum is gray, the next part is light brownish gray, Wulfert soils in similar landscape positions. These soils
and the lower part is pale brown. make up about 0 to 5 percent of the unit.
In 80 percent of the area mapped as Kesson muck, The permeability in the Estero soil is moderately rapid,
frequently flooded, the Kesson soil makes up 75 to 90 and the available water capacity is moderate. The
percent of the map unit. In the remaining areas, it makes permeability in the Peckish soil is rapid, and the available
up either a higher or lower percentage of the mapped water capacity is moderate. The water table fluctuates
areas. with tidal action and seasonal rainfall. It is at or near the
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of surface for long periods. These soils are frequently
Basinger, Dania, and Peckish soils in landscape positions flooded.
similar to those of the Kesson soil. These soils make up These soils are not suited to cultivated crops, tame
about 10 to 25 percent of the unit. pasture, or citrus because of the flooding and the high
The permeability of this soil is rapid to moderately content of salts. They are used for natural wetlands. The
rapid. The available water capacity is high. The water natural vegetation consists of cordgrass, saltgrass,
table fluctuates with tidal action and seasonal rainfall. It is rushes, needlegrass, saltwort, and scattered mangrove.
at or near the surface for long periods. This soil is These soils have severe limitations for urban and
frequently flooded, recreational development and septic tank absorption fields
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, tame pasture, because of flooding. Extensive measures must be taken
or citrus because of the flooding and the high content of for urban uses. Adequate drainage outlets are not
salts. It is used for natural wetlands. The natural available, and the cost of site improvement generally
vegetation consists of cordgrass, saltgrass, rushes, outweighs the benefits of urban development in areas of
needlegrass, saltwort, and scattered areas of mangroves, these soils.
This soil has severe limitations for urban and The Estero and Peckish soils are in capability subclass
recreational development. Extensive measures must be VIIIw.
taken to use this soil for urban development. Adequate
drainage outlets are not available, and the cost of site
improvement generally outweighs the benefits of urban 54-Jupiter-Boca complex
development in areas of this soil.
This Kesson soil is in capability subclass Vw. These nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly
drained soils are in sloughs and low wetland hardwood
areas. Individual areas are elongated and irregular in
53-Estero and Peckish soils, frequently shape, and they range from 30 to 400 acres in size. The
flooded slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the very poorly drained Jupiter soil has a
These level, very poorly drained soils are in frequently surface layer of black mucky fine sand about 4 inches
flooded tidal marshes. Individual areas are elongated and thick. The subsurface layer is very dark grayish brown fine
irregular in shape, and they range from 300 to 1,000 acres sand to a depth of about 10 inches. Limestone bedrock is
in size. The slope is 0 to 1 percent. at a depth of about 10 inches.
Typically, the Estero soil has a surface layer of black Typically, the poorly drained Boca soil has a surface
muck about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine layer of very dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
sand to a depth of about 40 inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 26







Collier County Area, Florida 43



associated with wetness can be corrected by providing subsurface layer is black, and the lower part is dark
adequate drainage and drainage outlets to control the high grayish brown. The subsoil is dark brown and very dark
water table. brown fine sand to a depth of about 62 inches.
The Ochopee soil is in capability subclass IVw. Typically, the Peckish soil has a surface layer of very
dark grayish brown mucky fine sand about 9 inches thick.
52-Kesson muck, frequently flooded The subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth
of about 37 inches. The subsoil is dark brown fine sand to
This level, very poorly drained soil is in frequently a depth of about 42 inches. The substratum is light
flooded tidal marshes. Individual areas are elongated and brownish gray fine sand to a depth of about 80 inches.
irregular in shape, and they range from 300 to 1,000 acres Mapped areas can consist entirely of the Estero soil,
in size. The slope is 0 to 1 percent, entirely of the Peckish soil, or any combination of the two
Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 5 soils. The two soils were not separated in mapping
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray fine sand because of similar management needs resulting from the
to a depth of about 10 inches. The substratum is fine sand flooding.
to a depth of about 80 inches. The upper part of the The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
substratum is gray, the next part is light brownish gray, Wulfert soils in similar landscape positions. These soils
and the lower part is pale brown. make up about 0 to 5 percent of the unit.
In 80 percent of the area mapped as Kesson muck, The permeability in the Estero soil is moderately rapid,
frequently flooded, the Kesson soil makes up 75 to 90 and the available water capacity is moderate. The
percent of the map unit. In the remaining areas, it makes permeability in the Peckish soil is rapid, and the available
up either a higher or lower percentage of the mapped water capacity is moderate. The water table fluctuates
areas. with tidal action and seasonal rainfall. It is at or near the
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of surface for long periods. These soils are frequently
Basinger, Dania, and Peckish soils in landscape positions flooded.
similar to those of the Kesson soil. These soils make up These soils are not suited to cultivated crops, tame
about 10 to 25 percent of the unit. pasture, or citrus because of the flooding and the high
The permeability of this soil is rapid to moderately content of salts. They are used for natural wetlands. The
rapid. The available water capacity is high. The water natural vegetation consists of cordgrass, saltgrass,
table fluctuates with tidal action and seasonal rainfall. It is rushes, needlegrass, saltwort, and scattered mangrove.
at or near the surface for long periods. This soil is These soils have severe limitations for urban and
frequently flooded, recreational development and septic tank absorption fields
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, tame pasture, because of flooding. Extensive measures must be taken
or citrus because of the flooding and the high content of for urban uses. Adequate drainage outlets are not
salts. It is used for natural wetlands. The natural available, and the cost of site improvement generally
vegetation consists of cordgrass, saltgrass, rushes, outweighs the benefits of urban development in areas of
needlegrass, saltwort, and scattered areas of mangroves, these soils.
This soil has severe limitations for urban and The Estero and Peckish soils are in capability subclass
recreational development. Extensive measures must be VIIIw.
taken to use this soil for urban development. Adequate
drainage outlets are not available, and the cost of site
improvement generally outweighs the benefits of urban 54-Jupiter-Boca complex
development in areas of this soil.
This Kesson soil is in capability subclass Vw. These nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly
drained soils are in sloughs and low wetland hardwood
areas. Individual areas are elongated and irregular in
53-Estero and Peckish soils, frequently shape, and they range from 30 to 400 acres in size. The
flooded slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the very poorly drained Jupiter soil has a
These level, very poorly drained soils are in frequently surface layer of black mucky fine sand about 4 inches
flooded tidal marshes. Individual areas are elongated and thick. The subsurface layer is very dark grayish brown fine
irregular in shape, and they range from 300 to 1,000 acres sand to a depth of about 10 inches. Limestone bedrock is
in size. The slope is 0 to 1 percent. at a depth of about 10 inches.
Typically, the Estero soil has a surface layer of black Typically, the poorly drained Boca soil has a surface
muck about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine layer of very dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
sand to a depth of about 40 inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is fine sand to a depth of about 26








44 Soil Survey



inches. The upper part of the subsurface layer is light are well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
gray, and the lower part is brown. The subsoil is dark Excellent pastures of grass or a grass-clover mixture can
grayish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of about 30 be grown with good management. Regular applications of
inches. Limestone bedrock is at a depth of about 30 fertilizer and controlled grazing are needed for the highest
inches. possible yields.
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Jupiter-Boca These soils are well suited to range. The dominant
complex, Jupiter and similar soils make up 50 to 70 forage consists of blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, and
percent of the unit and Boca and similar soils make up 30 bluejoint panicum. Management practices should include
to 45 percent. In the remaining areas, the major soils deferred grazing. The Jupiter and Boca soils are in the
make up either a higher or lower percentage of the Scrub Cypress range site.
mapped areas. The characteristics of Hallandale and These soils have severe limitations for most urban uses
Margate soils are similar to those of the major soils. because of the high water table and the shallow depth to
The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of bedrock. They have severe limitations for septic tank
Copeland soils in similar landscape positions. These soils absorption fields because of wetness, the shallow depth to
make up about 0 to 10 percent of the unit. bedrock, and poor filtration. Building sites and septic tank
The permeability in the Jupiter soil is rapid, and the absorption fields should be mounded to overcome these
available water capacity is very low. The permeability in limitations. These soils also have severe limitations for
the Boca soil is moderate, and the available water recreational development because of wetness, the
capacity is very low. Under natural conditions, the shallow depth to bedrock, and the sandy texture. The
seasonal high water table is within a depth of 12 inches for problems associated with wetness can be corrected by
4 to 8 months during most years. During the other months, providing adequate drainage and drainage outlets to
the water table is below a depth of 12 inches, and it control the high water table. The sandy texture can be
recedes to a depth of more than 30 inches during overcome by adding suitable topsoil or by resurfacing the
extended dry periods. During periods of high rainfall, the area.
soil is covered by shallow, slowly moving water for about 7 The Jupiter soil is in capability subclass VIw, and the
days. Boca soil is in capability subsoil Vw.
The natural vegetation consists of laurel oak, red
maple, scrub cypress, cabbage palm, saw palmetto, 56-Basinger fine sand, occasionally
waxmyrtle, pondapple, vines, panicum, ferns, plumegrass, flooded
Rhyncosporia (rush), South Florida bluestem, and gulf
dune paspalum. This nearly level, poorly drained soil is on occasionally
These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops flooded low ridges that are surrounded by tidal marshes.
because of the wetness, the shallow depth to bedrock, Individual areas are elongated and irregular in shape, and
and droughtiness. The number of adapted crops is limited they range from 5 to 40 acres in size. The slope is 0 to 2
unless good water-control and soil-improving measures percent.
are used. These soils are suitable for some vegetable Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
crops if a water-control system that removes excess water about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
during wet seasons and provides water through fine sand to a depth of about 25 inches. The subsoil is
subsurface irrigation during dry seasons is used. The brown fine sand to a depth of about 44 inches. The
presence of rock near the surface, however, makes the substratum is brown fine sand to a depth of about 80
construction of such a system difficult. Row crops should inches.
be rotated with cover crops. Seedbed preparation should In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Basinger fine
include bedding of the rows. Applications of fertilizer and sand, occasionally flooded, the Basinger soil makes up 90
lime should be based on the needs of the crops, to 98 percent of the map unit. In the remaining areas, it
These soils are poorly suited to citrus. Water-control makes up either a higher or lower percentage of the
systems that maintain good drainage to an effective depth mapped areas.
are difficult to establish. Planting on raised beds provides The dissimilar soils in this map unit are small areas of
surface and internal drainage and elevates the trees Immokalee soils in landscape positions similar to those of
above the seasonal high water table. Planting a good the Basinger soil. These soils make up 0 to 10 percent of
grass cover crop between the trees helps to protect the this unit.
soil from blowing when the trees are younger. The permeability of this soil is rapid. The available
With good water-control management, these soils are water capacity is low. Under natural conditions, the
well suited to pasture. A water-control system is needed to seasonal high water table is within a depth of 12 inches for
remove excess water during the wet season. These soils 3 to 6 months. During the other months, the water table is








Collier County Area, Florida 45



below a depth of 12 inches, and it recedes to a depth of fig, oaks, orchids, and other wetland plants.
more than 40 inches during extended dry periods. During This soil has severe limitations for urban and
periods of storm tides, the soil is briefly flooded, recreational uses and septic tank absorption fields
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus, or tame because of the high water table and occasional tidal
pasture because of occasional tidal flooding and the flooding. Careful consideration should be given before
wetness. It is used for natural wetlands. The natural using this soil for these land uses.
vegetation consists of sabal palm, gumbo limbo, strangler This Basinger soil is in capability subclass VIw.










47










Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the by the Natural Resources Conservation Service is
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land uses explained; and the estimated yields of the main crops are
to the limitations and potentials of natural resources and listed for each soil.
the environment. Also, it can help to prevent soil-related Planners of management systems for individual fields
failures in land uses. or farms should consider the detailed information given in
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, the description of each soil under the heading "Detailed
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive Soil Map Units." Specific information can be obtained from
field data about the nature and behavioral characteristics the local office of the Natural Resources Conservation
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses and Approximately 54,000 acres in Collier County is used
management. Field experience and collected data on soil for crops, according to the most recent estimates (5). Of
properties and performance are used as a basis for this total, about 19,000 acres is used for oranges and
predicting soil behavior. grapefruits and 35,000 acres is used for tomatoes,
Information in this section can be used to plan the use squash, peppers, cucumbers, watermelons, and nursery
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as plants.
rangeland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, The acreage used for citrus crops (fig. 7) has been
highways and other transportation systems, and parks and increasing as the industry has moved south, seeking
other recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It can increased protection from freezing temperatures. With
be used to identify the potentials and limitations of each proper water management, many of the soils in the survey
soil for specific land uses and to help prevent construction area are well suited to the production of citrus crops.
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties. Urban development is increasing throughout Collier
Planners and others using soil survey information can County, and it continues to be a major land use change in
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity the survey area.
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. Wind erosion is a hazard on unprotected soils in the
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a land county. It can damage soils and tender crops in a few
use pattern that is in harmony with nature. hours in open, unprotected areas if the winds are strong
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of and the soil is dry and does not have a vegetative cover or
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to surface mulch. It reduces soil fertility by removing fine soil
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil particles and organic matter; damages or destroys crops
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, by sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and weed
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and others seeds; and creates health hazards and cleaning problems.
may also find this survey useful. The survey can help Controlling wind erosion minimizes the potential for dust
them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate sites for storms and improves the quality of air. Maintaining a
pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, playgrounds, lawns, vegetative cover and surface mulching minimize the
and trees and shrubs. hazard of wind erosion.
Field windbreaks consisting of adapted trees and
shrubs, such as Carolina laurel cherry, slash pine,
Crops southern redcedar, and Japanese privet, and strip crops of
John Lawrence, state resource conservationist, Natural Resources small grain reduce the hazard of wind erosion and
Conservation Service, helped to prepare this section, minimize damage to crops. Field windbreaks and strip
crops are narrow plantings made at right angles to the
General management needed for crops is suggested in prevailing wind at specific intervals across the field. The
this section. The crops best suited to the soils, including intervals depend on the erodibility of the soil and the
some not commonly grown in the survey area, are susceptibility of the crop to damage from sandblasting.
identified; the system of land capability classification used Information about the design of erosion-control







47










Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the by the Natural Resources Conservation Service is
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land uses explained; and the estimated yields of the main crops are
to the limitations and potentials of natural resources and listed for each soil.
the environment. Also, it can help to prevent soil-related Planners of management systems for individual fields
failures in land uses. or farms should consider the detailed information given in
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, the description of each soil under the heading "Detailed
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive Soil Map Units." Specific information can be obtained from
field data about the nature and behavioral characteristics the local office of the Natural Resources Conservation
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses and Approximately 54,000 acres in Collier County is used
management. Field experience and collected data on soil for crops, according to the most recent estimates (5). Of
properties and performance are used as a basis for this total, about 19,000 acres is used for oranges and
predicting soil behavior. grapefruits and 35,000 acres is used for tomatoes,
Information in this section can be used to plan the use squash, peppers, cucumbers, watermelons, and nursery
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as plants.
rangeland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, The acreage used for citrus crops (fig. 7) has been
highways and other transportation systems, and parks and increasing as the industry has moved south, seeking
other recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It can increased protection from freezing temperatures. With
be used to identify the potentials and limitations of each proper water management, many of the soils in the survey
soil for specific land uses and to help prevent construction area are well suited to the production of citrus crops.
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties. Urban development is increasing throughout Collier
Planners and others using soil survey information can County, and it continues to be a major land use change in
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity the survey area.
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. Wind erosion is a hazard on unprotected soils in the
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a land county. It can damage soils and tender crops in a few
use pattern that is in harmony with nature. hours in open, unprotected areas if the winds are strong
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of and the soil is dry and does not have a vegetative cover or
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to surface mulch. It reduces soil fertility by removing fine soil
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil particles and organic matter; damages or destroys crops
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, by sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and weed
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and others seeds; and creates health hazards and cleaning problems.
may also find this survey useful. The survey can help Controlling wind erosion minimizes the potential for dust
them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate sites for storms and improves the quality of air. Maintaining a
pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, playgrounds, lawns, vegetative cover and surface mulching minimize the
and trees and shrubs. hazard of wind erosion.
Field windbreaks consisting of adapted trees and
shrubs, such as Carolina laurel cherry, slash pine,
Crops southern redcedar, and Japanese privet, and strip crops of
John Lawrence, state resource conservationist, Natural Resources small grain reduce the hazard of wind erosion and
Conservation Service, helped to prepare this section, minimize damage to crops. Field windbreaks and strip
crops are narrow plantings made at right angles to the
General management needed for crops is suggested in prevailing wind at specific intervals across the field. The
this section. The crops best suited to the soils, including intervals depend on the erodibility of the soil and the
some not commonly grown in the survey area, are susceptibility of the crop to damage from sandblasting.
identified; the system of land capability classification used Information about the design of erosion-control









48 Soil Survey




























Jr







0 .iil











l s s. l s r l r so of t p o Io b r i
'.A

Figure 7.-Citrus trees on raised beds in an area of Immokalee fine sand. With proper management practices, many of the soils in the survey
area are well suited to the production of citrus crops.


measures for each kind of soil in Collier County is damage pasture plants during wet seasons. They also
contained in the "Water and Wind Erosion Control have a low available water capacity and are drought
Handbook-rFlorida," which is available at the local office during dry periods. These soils must have subsurface
of the Natural Resources Conservation Service. irrigation to achieve maximum pasture production. The
Soil drainage is a major management concern on design of the surface drainage and subsurface irrigation
almost all of the acreage used for crops and pasture in the systems varies according to the kind of soil and the
survey area. Under natural conditions, some of the soils pasture plants that are to be grown. A combination of
are so wet that the production of crops common to the surface drains and subsurface irrigation systems is
area is generally not practical without extensive water- needed on the poorly drained soils for intensive pasture
control systems. Unless artificially drained, some of the production. Information about drainage and irrigation for
poorly drained soils, such as Riviera, Immokalee, Myakka, each kind of soil is available from the local office of the
Oldsmar, Wabasso, and Pineda soils, are wet enough to Natural Resources Conservation Services.








Collier County Area, Florida 49



Soil fertility is naturally low in most soils in the survey Yields per Acre
area. Most of the soils have a sandy surface layer and are r r r
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
light in color. Many of the soils, including Chobee and he r al rs er a ee of
the principal crops under a high level of management are
Wabasso soils, have a loamy subsoil. Satellite and
shown in table 3. In any given year, yields may be higher
Canaveral soils have sandy material to a depth of 80shown table n any given year ydsmay be
inches or more yaa aasso ldsmar or lower than those indicated in the table because of
inches or more. Myakka, Wabasso, Oldsmar, and
variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
Immokalee soils have an organic-stained layer in the var ns rafa and othr or
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
subsoil. Most of the soils have a surface layer that is e s are seaon and ee
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
strongly acid or very strongly acid. If the soils have never agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
been limed, they require applications of ground limestone results of field trials and demonstrations are also
to raise the pH level sufficiently for good growth of crops. considered.
The levels of nitrogen, potassium, and available Te mt n d to o n t i
phosphorus are naturally low in most of these soils. he management needed to obtain the indicated yields
phosphorus are naturally low in most of these soils.
of the various crops depends on the kind of soil and the
Additions of lime and fertilizer should be based on the
results of current soil tests, the needs of the crops, and cropanagement can include drainage, erosion control,
the expected level of yields. The Cooperative Extension and protection from flooding; the proper planting and
Service can help in determining the kinds and amounts of seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
fertilizer and lime required, appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
Soilth is an important factor in the germination of diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction and
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
seeds and in the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils that optimum levels of nitrogen, phosph potassium, and
trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop
have good tilth are granular and porous. Most of the soils rescue, barnyard manure, and green manure crop
residue, barnyard manure, and green manure crops; and
in the survey area have a sand or loamy sand surface
layer that is light in color and has a low to moderate harvesting that ensures the smallest possible loss
content of organic matter. The exceptions include Chobee, irri gated to t soils as d th the
Copeland, and Gator soils. Gator soil have an organic grown, that good-ality irrigation after is unto thro
surface layer. Generally, the structure of the surface grown, that good-quality irrigation water is uniformly
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum.
layer of most soils in the survey area is weak. In dry soils The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of
that have a low content of organic matter, intense
that have a low content of organic matter, intense each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely to
rainfall causes colloidal matter to cement, forming a increase as new production technology is developed. The
slight crust. The crust is slightly hard when dry, and it is productivity o give he
slightly impervious to water. It reduces the infiltration ro tivit o iv c ae a
rate and increases the runoff rate. Regular additions of souls however, s not lkely to change.
Crops other than those shown in the table are grown in
crop residue, manure, and other organic material improve the survey area, bt estate ies are tale ae i
soil structure and reduce the formation of crusts. the surveyarea but estimated fields are not listed
Very fw fld croare gr the survy area. because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
Very few field crops are grown in the survey area. The
office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service or of
acreage used for grain sorghum and potatoes can be the arae e e ion Service o
the Cooperative Extension Service can provide
increased if economic conditions are favorable. Rye is the t C at ten e e an provi
information about the management and productivity of the
most common close-growing crop. It is used mainly as a
soils for those crops.
cover crop on fields where vegetables are grown.
Tomatoes are the primary specialty crop. Other Land Ca y
Land Capability Classification
specialty crops grown commercially in the county are
watermelons, cucumbers, peppers, and a small acreage Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
of squash, nursery plants, and sod. Bedding, plastic the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops that
mulch, and water management are needed for the require special management are excluded. The soils are
maximum production of crops (fig. 8). If economic grouped according to their limitations for field crops, the
conditions are favorable, the production of nursery plants, risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the way
sod, cabbage, turnips, collards, and mustard greens can they respond to management. The criteria used in
be increased. If drained, Gator, Myakka, Immokalee, grouping the soils do not include major and generally
Oldsmar, Wabasso, and Pineda soils are suited to expensive landforming that would change slope, depth, or
vegetables and small fruit. The latest information about other characteristics of the soils, nor do they include
growing specialty crops can be obtained from the local possible but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability
offices of the Cooperative Extension Service and the classification is not a substitute for interpretations
Natural Resources Conservation Service. designed to show suitability and limitations of groups of








50 Soil Survey
















































Figure 8.-Management practices, such as bedding, using plastic mulch, and maintaining the water table, are required for the maximum
production of vegetables.

soils for rangeland, for woodland, or for engineering Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
purposes. choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at practices. There are no class II soils in this survey area.
three levels-capability class, subclass, and unit. Only Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
class and subclass are used in this survey. choice of plants or that require special conservation
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are designated practices, or both.
by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals indicate Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
progressively greater limitations and narrower choices for the choice of plants or that require very careful
practical use. The classes are defined as follows: management, or both.
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have other
There are no class I soils in this survey area. limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.








Collier County Area, Florida 51



Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them average, and unfavorable years. In a favorable year, the
generally unsuitable for cultivation, amount and distribution of precipitation and the
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make temperatures make growing conditions substantially better
them unsuitable for cultivation, than average. In an average year, growing conditions are
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have about average. In an unfavorable year, growing conditions
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial are well below average, generally because of low available
crop production, soil moisture.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class. Range management requires a knowledge of the
They are designated by adding a small letter, w or s, to kinds of soil and of the potential climax plant community.
the class numeral, for example, IIIw. The letter w shows It also requires an evaluation of the present range
that water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or condition. Range condition is determined by comparing
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly the present plant community with the climax plant
corrected by artificial drainage) and the letter s shows that community on a particular range site. The more closely
the soil is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or the existing community resembles the climax community,
stony, the better the range condition. Range condition is an
ecological rating only. It does not have a specific meaning
that pertains to the present plant community in a given
Rangeland and Pastureuse.
Pete Deal and Sid Brantly, rangeland management specialists, One objective in range management may be to manage
Natural Resources Conservation Service, helped to prepare this section, the plant community so that the plants growing on a site
are about the same in kind and amount as the potential
In areas that have similar climate and topography, climax plant community for that site. Such management
differences in the kind and amount of vegetation produced generally results in the optimum production of vegetation,
on rangeland are closely related to the kind of soil. control of undesirable brush species, conservation of
Effective management is based on the relationship of the water, and control of erosion. Sometimes, however, a
soils, vegetation, and water. range condition somewhat below the potential meets
Rangeland grazing needs, provides wildlife habitat, and protects soil
and water resources.
Table 4 shows, for each soil, the range site and the Livestock producers manage about 12,000 brood cows
potential annual production of vegetation for sites in on approximately 160,000 acres of rangeland in Collier
excellent condition in favorable, average, and unfavorable County (5). This land provides food and cover for wildlife
years. Only those soils that are used as rangeland or are and filters and stores supplies of freshwater.
suited to use as rangeland are listed. An explanation of The native vegetation consists mainly of grasses,
the column headings in the table follows, grasslike plants, herbaceous plants, and shrubs that are
A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that suitable for grazing. The rangeland in Collier County
produces a characteristic climax plant community that includes natural grasslands, savannahs, and lightly
differs from natural plant communities on other range sites wooded lands. Many acres of rangeland were farmed and
in kind, amount, or proportion of plants. The relationship are now returning to native vegetation, although much of
between soils and vegetation was ascertained during this the area has been invaded by brush. Sound management
survey; thus, range sites generally can be determined plans for this land include practices described in the
directly from the soil map. Soil properties that affect following paragraphs.
moisture supply and plant nutrients have the greatest Proper grazing use requires manipulating the
influence on the productivity of plants. Soil reaction, salt length and intensity of grazing so that no more than 50
content, and a seasonal high water table are also percent of the current year's growth of desirable plants is
important. removed each year. It is best accomplished by
Potential annual production is the amount of implementing a planned grazing system, which allows for
vegetation that can be expected to grow annually on well deferment periods of at least two months during the
managed rangeland that is supporting the climax plant growing season.
community. Total production includes all vegetation, Weed and brush management can be used to alter the
whether or not it is palatable to grazing animals. It type and distribution of brush and weeds to approximate
includes the current year's growth of leaves, twigs, and natural conditions. Mechanical treatment, chemical
fruits of woody plants, but it does not include the increase treatment, and prescribed burning may be used
in stem diameter of trees and shrubs. It is expressed in individually or in conjunction to achieve the range
pounds per acre of air-dry vegetation for favorable, manager's goals. Deferred grazing improves the condition








52 Soil Survey



and vigor of forage plants through a period of complete cattle, but it deteriorates with prolonged overgrazing.
rest from any type of use by livestock. Generally, a Pickerelweed, sawgrass, willow, and primrose increase if
deferment of at least 30 days or more some time during overuse continues.
the active growing season (May-September) follows Sand Pine Scrub. This range site is on nearly level to
prescribed burning. A similar 90-day deferment follows gently sloping uplands. It has a limited potential for
mechanical treatment. producing native forage plants. It supports a relatively
Range condition is a measure of the present plant dense stand of sand pine trees and a dense, woody
community in relation to the potential climax native plant understory. Livestock do not use this site if other range
community, sites are available. The main forage plants are lopsided
The productivity of the sites is closely related to indiangrass, bluestems, and low panicums.
the natural drainage of the soil. The wettest soils, such Cabbage Palm Flatwoods. This range site consists of
as those in marshes, generally produce the greater nearly level areas characterized by cabbage palm trees
amounts of vegetation. The deep, drought, sandy scattered throughout the landscape. If the site is in
soils normally produce the least amount of herbage excellent condition, it is a preferred livestock grazing area
annually. that produces a high quality and quantity of forage plants.
Table 4 suggests a range of production potentials. It Creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, and several panicum
includes all vegetation, whether palatable to grazing species are the dominant forage grasses. Pineland
animals or not. The production potential includes the threeawn and saw palmetto increase in amount as the
current year's growth of leaves and twigs and the fruit of condition of the range site deteriorates.
woody plants. It does not include the increase in stem Scrub Cypress. This range site consists of a relatively
diameter of trees and shrubs. The potential is expressed open grassland with small, scattered areas of cypress
in pounds per acre of air-dry vegetation in years that have trees. If the site is in excellent condition, most of the
favorable, average, and unfavorable growing conditions. grasses are South Florida bluestem and Gulf-dune
Eight range sites are important for wildlife and livestock paspalum. As the condition of the site deteriorates,
in the survey area. A brief description of each is provided rhyncospora, St. Johnswort, and white-top sedge increase
in the following paragraphs, in amount.
South Florida Flatwoods. This range site is in nearly Upland Hardwood Hammock. This forested range site
level areas. Scattered to numerous pine trees are consists of nearly level areas that have a natural overstory
common in the area, and saw palmetto, gallberry, and of hardwoods, such as maple, live oak, laurel oak, and
other woody plants are scattered throughout. This range water oak. The site usually provides little forage because
site produces an abundant quantity of grasses. Creeping of an excessive amount of canopy cover. If the site is in
bluestem is the dominant grass, although the amounts of excellent condition, switchgrass and chalky bluestem
indiangrass, chalky bluestem, panicums, and pineland are important forage species. Broomsedge and
threeawn are significant. wiregrass begin to dominate as the range condition
If this range site deteriorates because of deteriorates.
uncontrolled livestock grazing and annual burning, saw Wetland Hardwood Hammock. This range site is
palmetto and pineland threeawn significantly increase forested, nearly level, and somewhat poorly to poorly
in amount, and bluestems, indiangrass, and panicums drained. Laurel oak, live oak, water oak, red maple, and
decrease. cypress dominate the overstory, and switchgrass,
Slough. This range site generally consists of open maidencane, perennial blue maidencane, and chalky
grassland. It occurs as nearly level areas that form broad bluestem are important forage plants in the understory.
natural drainage courses. The potential plant community is This site is usually not very productive because of the
dominated by blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, and excessive amount of tree canopy. Common carpetgrass
bluejoint panicum. These grasses are all readily utilized by is often found when the site degrades to poor
livestock. If overgrazing occurs for prolonged periods, condition.
carpetgrass and sedges replace the more productive Pasture
grasses.
Freshwater Marsh and Ponds. This range site The 80,000 acres of pasture in Collier County provide
consists of an open grassland marsh or pond. It has some components of habitat necessary for a host of
potential for producing significant amounts of maidencane, wildlife species. They also filter and store much of the
The water level fluctuates throughout the year. During county's supplies of fresh water. Livestock producers care
periods of high water, grazing by livestock is naturally for the land in such a way that it supports 18,000 brood
deferred. This range site is a preferred grazing area for cows. Much of the pasture in Collier County is managed








Collier County Area, Florida 53



for bahiagrass, pangola digitgrass, limpograss, subject to flooding are limited for recreational uses by the
bermudagrass, and aeschynomene. Sound management duration and intensity of flooding and the season when
practices, which include the control of weeds and flooding occurs. In planning recreational facilities, onsite
applications of fertilizer and lime, if necessary, a planned assessment of the height, duration, intensity, and
grazing system, and water-control measures are needed frequency of flooding is essential.
to obtain desirable yields. In the table, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
Bahiagrass is successfully managed with a stubble slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
height of about 2 inches. Short grazing periods should be properties are generally favorable and that limitations, if
followed by a 3-week recovery period. Pangola digitgrass any exist, are minor and easily overcome. Moderate
is best managed with a stubble height of about 4 to 6 means that limitations can be overcome or alleviated by
inches and a 5-week recovery period. Limpograsses are planning, design, or special maintenance. Severe means
successfully managed with a 9-week recovery period and that soil properties are unfavorable and that limitations can
a stubble height of about 6 inches. be offset only by soil reclamation, special design, intensive
maintenance, limited use, or a combination of these
Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings measures.
The information in the table can be supplemented by
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards from other information in this survey, for example,
tropical rain and wind. They also protect fruit trees and interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 8
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows and interpretations for dwellings without basements and
of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees for local roads and streets in table 7.
and shrubs provide the most protection. Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary facilities
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility of and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to heavy foot
the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops from traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best soils are nearly
wind and provide food and cover for wildlife, level and are not wet or subject to flooding during the
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen period of use. The surface absorbs rainfall readily but
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The plants, remains firm, and is not dusty when dry.
mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely spaced. To Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
ensure plant survival, a healthy planting stock of suitable vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
species should be planted properly on a well prepared site areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
and maintained in good condition. are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to flooding
Additional information on planning windbreaks and during the period of use.
screens and on planting and caring for trees and shrubs Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil Conservation foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not wet
Service or the Cooperative Extension Service or from a or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
nursery. surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry. If
grading is needed, the depth of the soil over bedrock or a
Recreation hardpan should be considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
In table 5, the soils of the survey area are rated require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are not
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and are
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil not subject to flooding more than once a year during the
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few or no
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not stones or boulders on the surface.
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
vegetation, access to water, potential water impoundment when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
sites, and access to public sewer lines. The capacity of prolonged flooding during the period of use. The suitability
the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the ability of of the soil for tees or greens is not considered in rating the
the soil to support vegetation are also important. Soils soils.








Collier County Area, Florida 53



for bahiagrass, pangola digitgrass, limpograss, subject to flooding are limited for recreational uses by the
bermudagrass, and aeschynomene. Sound management duration and intensity of flooding and the season when
practices, which include the control of weeds and flooding occurs. In planning recreational facilities, onsite
applications of fertilizer and lime, if necessary, a planned assessment of the height, duration, intensity, and
grazing system, and water-control measures are needed frequency of flooding is essential.
to obtain desirable yields. In the table, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
Bahiagrass is successfully managed with a stubble slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
height of about 2 inches. Short grazing periods should be properties are generally favorable and that limitations, if
followed by a 3-week recovery period. Pangola digitgrass any exist, are minor and easily overcome. Moderate
is best managed with a stubble height of about 4 to 6 means that limitations can be overcome or alleviated by
inches and a 5-week recovery period. Limpograsses are planning, design, or special maintenance. Severe means
successfully managed with a 9-week recovery period and that soil properties are unfavorable and that limitations can
a stubble height of about 6 inches. be offset only by soil reclamation, special design, intensive
maintenance, limited use, or a combination of these
Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings measures.
The information in the table can be supplemented by
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards from other information in this survey, for example,
tropical rain and wind. They also protect fruit trees and interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 8
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows and interpretations for dwellings without basements and
of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees for local roads and streets in table 7.
and shrubs provide the most protection. Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary facilities
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility of and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to heavy foot
the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops from traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best soils are nearly
wind and provide food and cover for wildlife, level and are not wet or subject to flooding during the
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen period of use. The surface absorbs rainfall readily but
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The plants, remains firm, and is not dusty when dry.
mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely spaced. To Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
ensure plant survival, a healthy planting stock of suitable vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
species should be planted properly on a well prepared site areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
and maintained in good condition. are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to flooding
Additional information on planning windbreaks and during the period of use.
screens and on planting and caring for trees and shrubs Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil Conservation foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not wet
Service or the Cooperative Extension Service or from a or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
nursery. surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry. If
grading is needed, the depth of the soil over bedrock or a
Recreation hardpan should be considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
In table 5, the soils of the survey area are rated require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are not
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and are
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil not subject to flooding more than once a year during the
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few or no
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not stones or boulders on the surface.
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
vegetation, access to water, potential water impoundment when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
sites, and access to public sewer lines. The capacity of prolonged flooding during the period of use. The suitability
the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the ability of of the soil for tees or greens is not considered in rating the
the soil to support vegetation are also important. Soils soils.







54 Soil Survey







































Figure 9.-Wood storks in an area of Basinger fine sand. Storks often use the same areas used for domestic livestock.

Wildlife Habitat snipe, waterfowl, raccoon, skunk, bobcat, otter, songbirds,
woodpeckers, reptiles, amphibians, and a great variety of
John F. Vance, Jr., state biologist, Natural Resources Conservation wading birds.
Service, helped prepare this section. Numerous species of fish, such as black drum, redfish
(red drum), sea trout, sheepshead, snook, and tarpon
Collier County has an abundant wildlife population. provide excellent opportunities for fishing in the brackish
Except for the areas of urban development along the and saltwater areas. Snook and tarpon are species that
coast and the intensive agriculture in the Immokalee area, are particularly prized. The 1,500-acre Lake Trafford and
good habitat is present throughout the survey area- several smaller lakes and freshwater canals provide good
especially for wetland wildlife. Some of the more important opportunities for fishing, primarily for largemouth bass and
areas are in the Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve, the various types of sunfish.
Collier-Seminole State Park, and the Cape Romano-Ten A number of endangered or threatened species are
Thousand Islands and Rookery Bay State Aquatic found in Collier County. They include species ranging from
Preserves. The National Audubon Corkscrew Swamp the seldom-seen Eastern indigo snake to more commonly
Refugee provides one of the largest rookery areas for the known species, such as the wood stork (fig. 9) or bald
endangered wood stork. eagle. A complete list of information about range and
Primary game species are bobwhite quail and white- habitat can be obtained from the local office of the Natural
tailed deer. Other species include squirrel, feral hogs, Resources Conservation Service.








Collier County Area, Florida 55



Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect the layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
construction of water impoundments. The kind and stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod, beggarweed,
be created or improved by planting appropriate vegetation, partridge pea, and bristlegrass.
by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by promoting Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts or
the natural establishment of desirable plants. other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
In table 6, the soils in the survey area are rated properties and features that affect the growth of hardwood
according to their potential for providing habitat for various trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, available
kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in planning water capacity, and wetness. Examples of these plants
parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and other are oak, wild grape, red bay, cabbage palm, blackgum,
developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are sweetbay, blackberry, and blueberry. Examples of fruit-
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining specific producing shrubs that are suitable for planting on soils
elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining the rated good are cocoplum, beautyberry, and mulberry.
intensity of management needed for each element of the Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
habitat. properties and features that affect the growth of
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or very coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or kind of the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
habitat is easily established, improved, or maintained. Few Examples of coniferous plants are pine and cypress.
or no limitations affect management, and satisfactory Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
results can be expected. A rating of fair indicates that the herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
element or kind of habitat can be established, improved, Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
or maintained in most places. Moderately intensive properties and features affecting wetland plants are
management is required for satisfactory results. A rating of texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
poor indicates that limitations are severe for the slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland plants
designated element or kind of habitat. Habitat can be are smartweed, wild millet, pickerelweed, wildrice,
created, improved, or maintained in most places, but saltgrass, cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
management is difficult and must be intensive. A rating of Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
very poor indicates that restrictions for the element or kind than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
of habitat are very severe and that unsatisfactory results created by dams, levees, or other water-control structures.
can be expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining Soil properties and features affecting shallow water areas
habitat is impractical or impossible, are depth to bedrock, wetness, slope, and permeability.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the Examples of shallow water areas are marshes, waterfowl
following paragraphs, feeding areas, and ponds.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and features the following paragraphs.
that affect the growth of grain and seed crops are depth of Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available water pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
capacity, wetness, slope, and flooding. Soil temperature grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
and soil moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
grain and seed crops are corn, wheat, soybeans, and herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas
grain sorghum. include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow,
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses blackbirds, and egrets.
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth of deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available water associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous plants.
capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flooding, and slope. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild turkey,
Soil temperature and soil moisture are also woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are raccoon, deer, bear, and panther.
bahiagrass, deervetch, clover, and sesbania. Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore
properties and features that affect the growth of these birds, alligator, mink, and otter.








56 Soil Survey



Engineering structures and pavements by comparing the performance
of existing similar structures on the same or similar soils.
This section provides information for planning land uses The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
related to urban development and to water management, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
Soils are rated for various uses, and the most limiting survey, can be used to make additional interpretations.
features are identified. Ratings are given for building site Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
development, sanitary facilities, construction materials, special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
and water management. The ratings are based on Glossary.
observed performance of the soils and on the estimated Building Site Development
data and test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use Table 7 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for that affect shallow excavations, dwellings without
planning site investigations prior to design and basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
construction. The information, however, has limitations, streets, and lawns and landscaping. The limitations are
For example, estimates and other data generally apply considered slight if soil properties and site features are
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. generally favorable for the indicated use and limitations, if
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils any exist, are minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific properties or site features are somewhat restrictive for the
soil. indicated use and special planning, design, or
The information is not site specific and does not maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features are
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the so unfavorable that special design, soil reclamation, and
design and construction of engineering works. possibly increased maintenance are required. Special
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict feasibility studies may be required where the soil
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were limitations are severe.
not considered in preparing the information in this section. Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
Local ordinances and regulations should be considered in maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
planning, in site selection, and in design, utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The ratings
Soil properties, site features, and observed are based on soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings in performance of the soils. The ease of digging, filling, and
this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, compacting is affected by the depth to bedrock, a
determinations were made about grain-size distribution, cemented pan, or a very firm, dense layer; stone content;
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock, soil texture; and slope. The time of the year that
soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, excavations can be made is affected by the depth to a
likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, seasonal high water table and the susceptibility of the soil
and soil density. Data were collected about kinds of clay to flooding. The resistance of the excavation walls or
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and the banks to sloughing or caving is affected by soil texture and
kinds of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for depth to the water table.
erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
available water capacity, and other behavioral structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed soil.
characteristics affecting engineering uses. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
This information can be used to evaluate the potential dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made
of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and for small commercial buildings without basements and for
recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for soil properties, site features, and observed performance of
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrinking and
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills, swelling, and organic layers can cause the movement of
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan footings. Depth to a high water table, depth to bedrock,
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil; construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts
plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds, and fills of more than 5 or 6 feet are not considered.
terraces, and other structures for soil and water Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
conservation; and predict performance of proposed small and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They








Collier County Area, Florida 57



have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base of a high water table, depth to bedrock, and flooding affect
gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material; and a absorption of the effluent. Bedrock interferes with
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally limited installation.
to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
properties, site features, and observed performance of the fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
soils. Depth to bedrock, depth to a high water table, surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
flooding, large stones, and slope affect the ease of public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
excavating and grading. Soil strength (as inferred from the permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
engineering classification of the soil), shrink-swell than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field or if the
potential, and depth to a high water table affect the traffic- water table is near the surface. There must be
supporting capacity, unsaturated soil material beneath the absorption field to
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and filter the effluent effectively. Many local ordinances require
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and that this material be of a certain thickness.
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to hold
features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid and
reaction, depth to a high water table, depth to bedrock, the liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level floor
available water capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of compacted
content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic materials affect plant soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold the sewage
growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, and the amount of sand, within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly impervious soil
clay, or organic matter in the surface layer affect material for the lagoon floor and sides is required to
trafficability after vegetation is established, minimize seepage and contamination of ground water.
Sanitary Facilities The table gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 or
Table 8 shows the degree and the kind of soil limitations 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
that affect septic tank absorption fields, sewage lagoons, excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
and sanitary landfills. The limitations are considered slight ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
if soil properties and site features are generally favorable observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
for the indicated use and limitations, if any exist, are minor ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high water table,
and easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site depth to bedrock, flooding, and content of organic matter.
features are moderately favorable for the indicated use Excessive seepage resulting from rapid permeability in
and special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to the soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if one or level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function
more soil properties or site features are unfavorable for unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive or
the use and if overcoming the unfavorable properties if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of
requires special design, extra maintenance, or alteration. organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the
The table also shows the suitability of the soils for use lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope and
as daily cover for landfill. A rating of good indicates that bedrock can cause construction problems.
soil properties and site features are favorable for the use Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
and that good performance and low maintenance can be disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is
features are moderately favorable for the use and one or placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered
more soil properties or site features make the soil less daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on
that one or more soil properties or site features are the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted,
unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or away from the site.
costly alteration. Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which effluent vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground-water
from a septic tank is distributed into the soil through pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation should be
subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that part of the considered.
soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is evaluated. The The ratings in the table are based on soil properties,
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and site features, and observed performance of the soils.
observed performance of the soils. Permeability, depth to Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,








58 Soil Survey



depth to a water table, slope, and flooding affect both and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
types of landfill. Texture, highly organic layers, soil suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of
reaction, and content of salts and sodium affect trench excavation is affected by large stones, a high water table,
landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the ratings apply only to and slope. How well the soil performs in place after it has
that part of the soil within a depth of about 6 feet. For been compacted and drained is determined by its strength
deeper trenches, a limitation rated slight or moderate may (as inferred from the engineering classification of the soil)
not be valid. Onsite investigation is needed. and shrink-swell potential.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used to Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand or
cover compacted solid waste in an area sanitary landfill, gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
The soil material is obtained offsite, transported to the material, a low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
landfill, and spread over the waste, stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are plasticity index of less than 10. They have a moderate
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover for shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or many
a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are difficult stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet. Soils rated
to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing, poor have a plasticity index of more than 10 or a high
After soil material has been removed, the soil material shrink-swell potential. They are wet and have a water
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over table at a depth of less than 1 foot. They may have layers
bedrock or the water table to permit revegetation. The soil of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
material used as the final cover for a landfill should be thick.
suitable for plants. The surface layer generally has the Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
best workability, more organic matter, and the best commercial use with a minimum of processing. They are
potential for plants. Material from the surface layer should used in many kinds of construction. Specifications for
be stockpiled for use as the final cover, each use vary widely. In the table, only the probability of
Construction Materials finding material in suitable quantity is evaluated. The
suitability of the material for specific purposes is not
Table 9 gives information about the soils as a source of evaluated, nor are factors that affect excavation of the
roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated material.
good, fair, orpoor as a source of roadfill and topsoil. They The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of
are rated as a probable or improbable source of sand and sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated
gravel. The ratings are based on soil properties and site by the engineering classification of the soil), the thickness
features that affect the removal of the soil and its use as of suitable material, and the content of rock fragments.
construction material. Normal compaction, minor Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are given in the soil
processing, and other standard construction practices are series descriptions. Gradation of grain sizes is given in the
assumed. Each soil is evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. table on engineering index properties.
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean
and used in road embankments in another place. In this sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to 12
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3 feet
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large stones. All
exacting in design than higher embankments, other soils are rated as an improbable source. Coarse
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale and siltstone, are
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil not considered to be sand and gravel.
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading. Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation can
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within their be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches of a
profile. The table showing engineering index properties soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is the
provides detailed information about each soil layer. This reclamation potential of the borrow area.
information can help to determine the suitability of each Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil after it is properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
stabilized with lime or cement is not considered in the fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading is
ratings. affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation of







Collier County Area, Florida 59



the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, rock overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
fragments, bedrock, and toxic material, material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a depth material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5 feet.
of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and cobbles, It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed and
have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less than 8 compacted during construction.
percent. They are low in content of soluble salts, are The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural soil
naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are not so to support an embankment. Soil properties to a depth
wet that excavation is difficult, greater than the height of the embankment can affect
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a performance and safety of the embankment. Generally,
relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to 40 deeper onsite investigation is needed to determine these
inches of suitable material, soils that have an appreciable properties.
amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or soils that Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are not so wet seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
that excavation is difficult. compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content of
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium. A
of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more high water table affects the amount of usable material. It
than 15 percent, or have a seasonal high water table at or also affects trafficability.
near the surface. Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred for extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
moisture and releases a variety of plant nutrients as it impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
decomposes. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
Water Management water table, permeability of the aquifer, and the salinity of
the soil. Depth to bedrock and the content of large stones
Table 10 gives information on the soil properties and affect the ease of excavation.
site features that affect water management. The degree Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir subsurface water from the soil. How easily and effectively
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed the soil is drained depends on the depth to bedrock, to a
excavated ponds. The limitations are considered slight if cemented pan, or to other layers that affect the rate of
soil properties and site features are generally favorable for water movement; permeability; depth to a high water table
the indicated use and limitations, if any exist, are minor or depth of standing water if the soil is subject to ponding;
and are easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or slope; susceptibility to flooding; subsidence of organic
site features are somewhat restrictive for the indicated use layers; and the potential for frost action. Excavating and
and special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to grading and the stability of ditchbanks are affected by
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large stones,
properties or site features are unfavorable for the use. slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving. The productivity
Special design, possibly increased maintenance, or of the soil after drainage is adversely affected by extreme
alteration are required, acidity or by toxic substances in the root zone, such as
This table also gives the restrictive features that affect salts, sodium, and sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is
each soil for drainage, irrigation, and grassed waterways. not considered in the ratings.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage and management of an irrigation system are affected by
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil and depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable available water capacity, intake rate, permeability, erosion
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity hazard, and slope. The construction of a system is
of the reservoir area. affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or
constructed to impound water or to protect land against sodium, and soil reaction.








60



Grassed waterways are natural or constructed waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
cemented pan affect the construction of grassed construction.







61










Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier is
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are defined
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on in the Glossary.
the following pages. Classification of the soils is determined according to the
Soil properties are determined by field examination of Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some adopted by the American Association of State Highway
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are and Transportation Officials (1).
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are The Unified system classifies soils according to
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and properties that affect their use as construction material.
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter content.
compaction characteristics. These results are available at Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW, GP, GM,
the local office of the Natural Resources Conservation GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils as ML,
Service. CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic soils as PT.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two groups can
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the have a dual classification, for example, SP-SM.
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of similar The AASHTO system classifies soils according to those
soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field observations, verify properties that affect roadway construction and
properties that cannot be estimated accurately by field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observation, and help to characterize key soils, that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one of
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of grain-
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index. Soils in
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical and group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content of fines
chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in group A-7 are
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, fine grained. Highly organic soils are classified in group A-
8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Engineering Index Properties Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-weight
Table 11 gives estimates of the engineering basis. The percentages are estimates determined mainly
classification and of the range of index properties for the by converting volume percentage in the field to weight
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils percentage.
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 or Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated sieves
6 feet. is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3 inches in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer diameter based on an ovendry weight. The sieves,
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard Series), have
properties of each layer are given for each soil series openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074 millimeters,
under the heading "Soil Series and Their Morphology." respectively. Estimates are based on laboratory tests of
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the U.S. soils sampled in the survey area and in nearby areas and
Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined on estimates made in the field.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 from nearby areas and on field examination.
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than sand The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and







61










Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier is
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are defined
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on in the Glossary.
the following pages. Classification of the soils is determined according to the
Soil properties are determined by field examination of Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some adopted by the American Association of State Highway
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are and Transportation Officials (1).
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are The Unified system classifies soils according to
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and properties that affect their use as construction material.
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter content.
compaction characteristics. These results are available at Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW, GP, GM,
the local office of the Natural Resources Conservation GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils as ML,
Service. CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic soils as PT.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two groups can
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the have a dual classification, for example, SP-SM.
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of similar The AASHTO system classifies soils according to those
soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field observations, verify properties that affect roadway construction and
properties that cannot be estimated accurately by field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observation, and help to characterize key soils, that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one of
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of grain-
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index. Soils in
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical and group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content of fines
chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in group A-7 are
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, fine grained. Highly organic soils are classified in group A-
8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Engineering Index Properties Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-weight
Table 11 gives estimates of the engineering basis. The percentages are estimates determined mainly
classification and of the range of index properties for the by converting volume percentage in the field to weight
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils percentage.
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 or Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated sieves
6 feet. is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3 inches in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer diameter based on an ovendry weight. The sieves,
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard Series), have
properties of each layer are given for each soil series openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074 millimeters,
under the heading "Soil Series and Their Morphology." respectively. Estimates are based on laboratory tests of
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the U.S. soils sampled in the survey area and in nearby areas and
Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined on estimates made in the field.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 from nearby areas and on field examination.
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than sand The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and







62 Soil Survey



plasticity index are generally rounded to the nearest 5 matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure.
percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg Available water capacity is an important factor in the
limits extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points)' choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the design
across classification boundaries, the classification in the and management of irrigation systems. Available water
marginal zone is omitted in the table. capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water actually
available to plants at any given time.
Physical and Chemical Properties Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
Table 12 shows estimates of some characteristics and each major horizon is based on many field tests. For many
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are soils, values have been verified by laboratory analyses.
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops and other
The estimates are based on field observations and on test plants, in evaluating soil amendments for fertility and
data for these and similar soils. stabilization, and in determining the risk of corrosion.
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity of
diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of each the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at 25
major soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the degrees C. Estimates are based on field and laboratory
soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. measurements at representative sites of nonirrigated soils.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility The salinity of irrigated soils is affected by the quality of
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the the irrigation water and by the frequency of water
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain moisture. application. Hence, the salinity of soils in individual fields
They influence the shrink-swell potential, permeability, can differ greatly from the value given in the table. Salinity
plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, and other soil affects the suitability of a soil for crop production, the
properties. The amount and kind of clay in a soil also stability of soil if used as construction material, and the
affect tillage and earthmoving operations. potential of the soil to corrode metal and concrete.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume change
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume change
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3-bar occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay minerals
moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying the with water and varies with the amount and type of clay
soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated moist minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the soil and
bulk density of each major soil horizon is expressed in the magnitude of the change in soil moisture content
grams per cubic centimeter of soil material that is less influence the amount of swelling of soils in place.
than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density data are used Laboratory measurements of swelling of undisturbed clods
to compute shrink-swell potential, available water capacity, were made for many soils. For others, swelling was
total pore space, and other soil properties. The moist bulk estimated on the basis of the kind and amount of clay
density of a soil indicates the pore space available for minerals in the soil and on measurements of similar soils.
water and roots. A bulk density of more than 1.6 can If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
restrict water storage and root penetration. Moist bulk high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
density is influenced by texture, kind of clay, content of buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
organic matter, and soil structure, often needed.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the change
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of movement in length of an unconfined clod as moisture content is
of water through the soil when the soil is saturated. They increased from air-dry to field capacity. The classes are
are based on soil characteristics observed in the field, low, a change of less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability is percent; and high, more than 6 percent. Very high, more
considered in the design of soil drainage systems and than 9 percent, is sometimes used.
septic tank absorption fields. Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to
capacity for water storage in each major soil layer is predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet and
stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre per
varies, depending on soil properties that affect the year. These estimates are based primarily on percentage
retention of water and the depth of the root zone. The of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on
most important properties are the content of organic soil structure and permeability. Values of K range from








Collier County Area, Florida 63



0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the more susceptible maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by water. soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
Erosion factor Tis an estimate of the maximum infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that other nutrients for crops.
can occur over a sustained period without affecting crop
productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre per Soil and Water Features
year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have Table 13 gives estimates of various soil and water
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind erosion features. The estimates are used in land use planning that
in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the susceptibility involves engineering considerations.
of soil to wind erosion. Soils are grouped according to the Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff from
following distinctions: precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four groups.
1. Coarse sands, sands, fine sands, and very fine They are grouped according to the infiltration of water
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive precipitation
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to from long-duration storms.
establish. The four hydrologic soil groups are:
2. Loamy coarse sands, loamy sands, loamy fine Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
sands, loamy very fine sands, and sapric soil material, potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
These soils are very highly erodible. Crops can be grown if deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
intensive measures to control wind erosion are used. gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
3. Coarse sandy loams, sandy loams, fine sandy transmission.
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
control wind erosion are used. or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils that
4L. Calcareous loams, silt loams, clay loam, and silty have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse texture.
clay loams. These soils are erodible. Crops can be grown These soils have a moderate rate of water transmission.
if intensive measures to control wind erosion are used. Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
4. Clays, silty clays, noncalcareous clay loams, and thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
silty clay loams that are more than 35 percent clay. These layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils are moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These soils
measures to control wind erosion are used. have a slow rate of water transmission.
5. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are less Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
than 20 percent clay and sandy clay loams, sandy clays, runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
and hemic soil material. These soils are slightly erodible. chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
Crops can be grown if measures to control wind erosion soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that
are used. have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
6. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are more soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
than 20 percent clay and noncalcareous clay loams that These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
are less than 35 percent clay. These soils are very slightly Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface by
erodible. Crops can be grown if ordinary measures to flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by runoff
control wind erosion are used. from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high tides. Shallow
7. Silts, noncalcareous silty clay loams that are less water standing or flowing for short periods after rainfall or
than 35 percent clay, and fibric soil material. These soils snowmelt is not considered flooding. Standing water in
are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if ordinary swamps and marshes or in a closed depression is
measures to control wind erosion are used. considered ponding.
8. Soils that are not subject to wind erosion because The table gives the frequency and duration of flooding
of rock fragments on the surface or because of surface and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
wetness. Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the are estimated. Frequency generally is expressed as none,
soil at various stages of decomposition. In the table, the rare, occasional, or frequent. None means that flooding is
estimated content of organic matter is expressed as a not probable. Rare means that flooding is unlikely but
percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less than possible under unusual weather conditions (the chance of
2 millimeters in diameter. flooding is nearly 0 percent to 5 percent in any year).
The content of organic matter in a soil can be Occasional means that flooding occurs infrequently under







64



normal weather conditions (the chance of flooding is 5 to Two numbers in the column showing depth to the water
50 percent in any year). Frequent means that flooding table indicate the normal range in depth to a saturated
occurs often under normal weather conditions (the chance zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot. The first
of flooding is more than a 50 percent in any year). numeral in the range indicates the highest water level. A
Common is used when the occasional and frequent plus sign preceding the range in depth indicates that the
classes are grouped for certain purposes. Duration is water table is above the surface of the soil. "More than
expressed as very brief(less than 2 days), brief (2 to 7 6.0" indicates that the water table is below a depth of 6
days), long (7 days to 1 month), and very long (more than feet or that it is within a depth of 6 feet for less than a
1 month). The time of year that floods are most likely to month.
occur is expressed in months. About two-thirds to three- Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth of
fourths of all flooding occurs during the stated period. 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and on
The information on flooding is based on evidence in the observations during soil mapping. The rock is specified as
soil profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or fractured,
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic excavations can be made with trenching machines,
matter content with increasing depth; and little or no backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard or massive,
horizon development. blasting or special equipment generally is needed for
Also considered is local information about the extent excavation.
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on the Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
landscape to historic floods. Information on the extent of electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
flooding based on soil data is less specific than that weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of corrosion
provided by detailed engineering surveys that delineate of uncoated steel is related to such factors as soil
flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency levels, moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and electrical
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of concrete is
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The estimates are based mainly on the sulfate and sodium content, texture,
based mainly on the evidence of a saturated zone, namely moisture content, and acidity of the soil. Special site
grayish colors or mottles in the soil. Indicated in the table examination and design may be needed if the combination
are the depth to the seasonal high water table; the kind of of factors results in a severe hazard of corrosion. The
water table, that is, perched or apparent; and the months steel in installations that intersect soil boundaries or soil
of the year that the water table commonly is highest. A layers is more susceptible to corrosion than steel in
water table that is seasonally high for less than 1 month is installations that are entirely within one kind of soil or
not indicated in the table. within one soil layer.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water in For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water stands in low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
an uncased borehole after adequate time is allowed for total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
adjustment in the surrounding soil. A perched water table electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
is water standing above an unsaturated zone. In places an For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed as
upper, or perched, water table is separated from a lower low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture, acidity,
one by a dry zone. and the amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.






65










Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National characteristics considered are particle-size class, mineral
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (9). Beginning content, temperature regime, depth of the root zone,
with the broadest, these categories are the order, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and permanent
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series, cracks. A family name consists of the name of a subgroup
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the preceded by terms that indicate soil properties. An
field or inferred from those observations or on laboratory example is siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents.
measurements. Table 14 shows the classification of the SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
soils in the survey area. The categories are defined in the horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
following paragraphs. texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-forming There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
processes and the degree of soil formation. Each order is layer or of the substratum within a series.
identified by a word ending in so/. An example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil Soil Series and Their Morphology
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties In this section, each soil series recognized in the survey
that reflect the most important variables within the orders.
area is described. The descriptions are arranged in
The last syllable in the name of a suborder indicates the arphabetic order.
alphabetic order.
order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning water, plus Charater o t s a t m i
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
ent, from Entisol).
ent, from Ent formed are identified for each series. The soil is compared
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
GREAT GROUPe Each suborder is divided into great with similar soils and with nearby soils of other series. A
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic peo a s threeiensi area of soi, that is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and typical of the series in the survey area is described. The
n sol m tre and temperature reg ; ad detailed description of each soil horizon follows standards
base status. Each great group is identified by the name of .
a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the in the "Soil Sre anal" an of te technical
terms used in the descriptions are defined in "Soil
soil. An example is Psammaquent (Psamm, meaning Taxonomy" (9). Unless otherwise stated, colors in the
sandy, plus aquent, the suborder of the Entisols that has descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
an aquic moisture regime). description is the range of important characteristics of the
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
soils in the series.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The typic he is e si serie
iThe map units of each soil series are described in the
is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are transitions section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Extragrades
have some properties that are not representative of the Basinger Series
great group but do not indicate transitions to any other
known kind of soil. Each subgroup is identified by one or The Basinger series consists of nearly level, poorly
more adjectives preceding the name of the great group. drained soils in sloughs and poorly defined drainageways
The adjective Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the and on occasionally flooded low ridges surrounded by tidal
great group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. marshes. These soils formed in sandy marine sediments.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on The slopes are less than 2 percent. These soils are
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents.
characteristics that affect management. Generally, the The Basinger soils are closely associated with Malabar,
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where Immokalee, Myakka, and Oldsmar soils. Malabar soils are
there is much biological activity. Among the properties and in landscape positions similar to those of the Basinger






65










Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National characteristics considered are particle-size class, mineral
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (9). Beginning content, temperature regime, depth of the root zone,
with the broadest, these categories are the order, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and permanent
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series, cracks. A family name consists of the name of a subgroup
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the preceded by terms that indicate soil properties. An
field or inferred from those observations or on laboratory example is siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents.
measurements. Table 14 shows the classification of the SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
soils in the survey area. The categories are defined in the horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
following paragraphs. texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-forming There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
processes and the degree of soil formation. Each order is layer or of the substratum within a series.
identified by a word ending in so/. An example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil Soil Series and Their Morphology
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties In this section, each soil series recognized in the survey
that reflect the most important variables within the orders.
area is described. The descriptions are arranged in
The last syllable in the name of a suborder indicates the arphabetic order.
alphabetic order.
order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning water, plus Charater o t s a t m i
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
ent, from Entisol).
ent, from Ent formed are identified for each series. The soil is compared
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
GREAT GROUPe Each suborder is divided into great with similar soils and with nearby soils of other series. A
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic peo a s threeiensi area of soi, that is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and typical of the series in the survey area is described. The
n sol m tre and temperature reg ; ad detailed description of each soil horizon follows standards
base status. Each great group is identified by the name of .
a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the in the "Soil Sre anal" an of te technical
terms used in the descriptions are defined in "Soil
soil. An example is Psammaquent (Psamm, meaning Taxonomy" (9). Unless otherwise stated, colors in the
sandy, plus aquent, the suborder of the Entisols that has descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
an aquic moisture regime). description is the range of important characteristics of the
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
soils in the series.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The typic he is e si serie
iThe map units of each soil series are described in the
is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are transitions section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Extragrades
have some properties that are not representative of the Basinger Series
great group but do not indicate transitions to any other
known kind of soil. Each subgroup is identified by one or The Basinger series consists of nearly level, poorly
more adjectives preceding the name of the great group. drained soils in sloughs and poorly defined drainageways
The adjective Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the and on occasionally flooded low ridges surrounded by tidal
great group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. marshes. These soils formed in sandy marine sediments.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on The slopes are less than 2 percent. These soils are
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents.
characteristics that affect management. Generally, the The Basinger soils are closely associated with Malabar,
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where Immokalee, Myakka, and Oldsmar soils. Malabar soils are
there is much biological activity. Among the properties and in landscape positions similar to those of the Basinger






65










Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National characteristics considered are particle-size class, mineral
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (9). Beginning content, temperature regime, depth of the root zone,
with the broadest, these categories are the order, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and permanent
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series, cracks. A family name consists of the name of a subgroup
Classification is based on soil properties observed in the preceded by terms that indicate soil properties. An
field or inferred from those observations or on laboratory example is siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents.
measurements. Table 14 shows the classification of the SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
soils in the survey area. The categories are defined in the horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
following paragraphs. texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-forming There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
processes and the degree of soil formation. Each order is layer or of the substratum within a series.
identified by a word ending in so/. An example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil Soil Series and Their Morphology
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties In this section, each soil series recognized in the survey
that reflect the most important variables within the orders.
area is described. The descriptions are arranged in
The last syllable in the name of a suborder indicates the arphabetic order.
alphabetic order.
order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning water, plus Charater o t s a t m i
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
ent, from Entisol).
ent, from Ent formed are identified for each series. The soil is compared
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
GREAT GROUPe Each suborder is divided into great with similar soils and with nearby soils of other series. A
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic peo a s threeiensi area of soi, that is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and typical of the series in the survey area is described. The
n sol m tre and temperature reg ; ad detailed description of each soil horizon follows standards
base status. Each great group is identified by the name of .
a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the in the "Soil Sre anal" an of te technical
terms used in the descriptions are defined in "Soil
soil. An example is Psammaquent (Psamm, meaning Taxonomy" (9). Unless otherwise stated, colors in the
sandy, plus aquent, the suborder of the Entisols that has descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon
an aquic moisture regime). description is the range of important characteristics of the
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
soils in the series.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The typic he is e si serie
iThe map units of each soil series are described in the
is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are transitions section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Extragrades
have some properties that are not representative of the Basinger Series
great group but do not indicate transitions to any other
known kind of soil. Each subgroup is identified by one or The Basinger series consists of nearly level, poorly
more adjectives preceding the name of the great group. drained soils in sloughs and poorly defined drainageways
The adjective Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the and on occasionally flooded low ridges surrounded by tidal
great group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. marshes. These soils formed in sandy marine sediments.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on The slopes are less than 2 percent. These soils are
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents.
characteristics that affect management. Generally, the The Basinger soils are closely associated with Malabar,
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where Immokalee, Myakka, and Oldsmar soils. Malabar soils are
there is much biological activity. Among the properties and in landscape positions similar to those of the Basinger








66 Soil Survey



soils. They have an argillic horizon at a depth of more than limestone. The slopes are less than 2 percent. These
40 inches. Immokalee, Myakka, and Oldsmar soils are in soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic
slightly higher positions on the flatwoods. Immokalee soils Ochraqualfs.
have a spodic horizon at a depth of 30 to 50 inches. The Boca soils are closely associated with Copeland,
Oldsmar soils have a spodic horizon and an argillic Hallandale, Jupiter, Riviera, and Malabar soils. These soils
horizon at a depth of 30 to 70 inches. Myakka soils have a are in landscape positions similar to those of the Boca
spodic horizon at a depth of 20 to 30 inches. soils. Copeland soils have an argillic horizon within a
Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand, about 3,000 feet depth of 20 inches and limestone bedrock at a depth of 20
east and 300 feet south of the northwest corner of sec. 9, to 50 inches. Hallandale soils have limestone bedrock at a
T. 48 S., R. 26 E. depth of 7 to 20 inches. They do not have an argillic
A-0 to 3 inches; grayish brown (1YR 5/2) fine sand; horizon. Jupiter soils have limestone at a depth of 10 to 20
A-0 to 3 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine inches, and they have a mollie epipedon. Malabar soils
and medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. have an argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to 70 inches.
and medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. .
E-3 to 25 inches; light gray a(1 OYR 7/2) fine sand; Riviera soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40
E-3 to 25 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; inches
common medium to coarse faint splotches of light inches.
S( a ae on Typical pedon of Boca fine sand, about 1,400 feet south
gray (10YR 7/1) and very pale brown (10YR 7/3); and 4,100 feet east of the northwest corner of sec. 16, T. 9
single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy S., R. 28 E.
boundary.
Bh/E-25 to 44 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) (Bh part) and A-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) (E part) fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
common coarse distinct dark brown (5YR 3/3) weakly and medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
cemented bodies; single grained; loose; strongly acid; E-4 to 18 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
clear wavy boundary. common medium to coarse faint splotches of light
C-44 to 80 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single gray (10YR 7/1) and very pale brown (10YR 7/3) at a
grained; loose; strongly acid. depth of about 9 inches; single grained; loose; few
medium roots; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
The thickness of the solum ranges from 25 to 60 EB-18 to 26 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
inches. Soil reaction is extremely acid to neutral. Texture is meray d; cun
generallygrained; loose; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
generally sand or fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or Btg-26 to 30 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
more; however, the surface layer is fine sand.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 to 6, sandy loam; common fine distinct brownish yellow
and chroma of 2 or less. It is 2 to 8 inches thick. (10YR 6/8) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
and chromar of 2 or less. It is 2 to 8 iches thick. structure; friable; sand grains coated and bridged with
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, clay; slightly alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary.
and chroma of 1 to 3 or has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8,30 inches; limestone bedrock.
and chroma of 3. It has common or many, medium to
large faint splotches that have chroma of 1 and 3. The E The thickness of the solum and depth to limestone
horizon is 10 to 30 inches thick. bedrock ranges from 24 to 40 inches. In some pedons,
The Bh part of the Bh/E horizon has hue of 10YR to cavities make up about 20 percent of the limestone
5YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2 to 4. The E part has bedrock to a depth of 50 inches or more. The depth to an
hue of 2.5Y or 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to argillic horizon is highly variable, but it ranges from 20 to
3. Most pedons have few to many mottles or weakly 36 inches in most pedons.
cemented bodies in the Bh/E horizon. The thickness of the The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 to 5,
Bh/E horizon is 6 to 30 inches. and chroma of 1 or 2. If the A horizon has value of less
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 8, than 3.5, it is less than 6 inches thick. Reaction is strongly
and chroma of 1 or 4. Some pedons have thin strata of acid to moderately alkaline.
loamy fine sand. The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1 to 4. Texture is sand or fine sand. Reaction is
Boca Series strongly acid to moderately alkaline. The E horizon has
common or many, medium to coarse faint splotches that
The Boca series consists of level and nearly level, have chroma of 1 and 3 and are at a depth of 6 to 18
poorly drained and very poorly drained soils on the inches. The E horizon is 14 to 20 inches thick.
flatwoods and in sloughs, poorly defined drainageways, If it occurs, the EB horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3
and marshes. These soils formed in moderately thick beds to 7, and chroma of 2 to 8. Texture is fine sand or loamy
of sandy and loamy marine sediments deposited over fine sand. Some pedons have brown, yellow, or gray








Collier County Area, Florida 67



mottles. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to moderately The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
alkaline. chroma of 1 to 3. It is a mixture of fine sand and
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 6, multicolored shell fragments. In some pedons, the C
and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy horizon consists of stratified sand and shell fragments.
clay loam with pockets or lenses of sand or loamy sand. The content, by volume, of shell fragments that are
Some pedons have gray, yellow, or brown mottles, dominantly sand-sized ranges from about 10 to 60
Reaction ranges from strongly acid to moderately alkaline. percent. The content, by volume, of shell fragments is less
The Btg horizon is 4 to 20 inches thick. than 15 percent in the control section.
Many pedons have a layer between the Btg horizon and
the limestone bedrock that is about 1 to 3 inches thick and
is composed of mixed weathered and soft limestone Chobee Series
fragments, masses of carbonate, sandy clay loam, or T ,
sad loam The Chobee series consists of level, very poorly
sandy loam.
drained soils in swamps and marshes. These soils formed
in thick beds of loamy marine sediments. The slopes are
Canaveral Series less than 1 percent. These soils are fine-loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls.
The Canaveral series consists of nearly level, Chobee soils are closely associated with Gator,
moderately well drained soils on the lower ridges adjacent Holopaw, Riviera, and Winder soils on similar landforms.
to the beaches along the Gulf Coast. These soils formed Gator soils have an organic layer more than 16 inches
in marine deposits of sand and shell fragments. The thick. Winder soils do not have a mollic epipedon.
slopes are less than 2 percent. These soils are Holopaw soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of more
hyperthermic, uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments. than 40 inches. Riviera soils have an argillic horizon at a
Canaveral soils are closely associated with Beaches. depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Beaches are flooded by daily tides and are unstable. Typical pedon of Chobee fine sandy loam, in an area of
Typical pedon of Canaveral fine sand, in an area of Chobee, Winder, and Gator soils, depressional; about
Canaveral-Beaches complex; about 5,000 feet west and 2,500 feet south and 2,500 feet west of the northeast
100 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 8, T. 48 S., corner of sec. 1, T. 46 S., R. 30 E.
R. 25 E. A-0 to 13 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy loam;
A-0 to 4 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; single weak medium granular structure; friable; many fine
grained; loose; many very fine, fine, medium, and and very fine roots; moderately acid; clear wavy
coarse roots; about 5 percent, by volume, shell boundary.
fragments; slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline; Btg1-13 to 22 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
abrupt smooth boundary. loam; few fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
C1--4 to 8 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; about 10 friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
percent shell fragments; slightly effervescent; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary. Btg2-22 to 37 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam;
C2-8 to 35 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; sand
single grained; loose; about 5 to 25 percent, by grains coated and bridged with clay; slightly acid; clear
volume, shell fragments in stratified layers; slightly wavy boundary.
effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy Btg3-37 to 47 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam;
boundary, few medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
C3-35 to 70 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
mixed with about 40 percent multicolored, dominantly friable; neutral; sand grains coated and bridged with
sand-sized shell fragments; common medium distinct clay; clear wavy boundary.
white (10YR 8/1) streaks; single grained; loose; Cgl--47 to 62 inches; dark greenish gray (5GY 5/1)
slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline, loamy fine sand; massive; slightly alkaline; clear wavy
Canaveral soils are slightly alkaline or moderately boundary.
alkaline in all horizons. Cg2-62 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) loamy fine sand;
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and massive; slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline;
about 10 percent, by volume, mostly sand-sized
chroma of 1 or 2. It has 5 to 10 percent, by volume, shell about 10 ume most sand-sized
fragments. The thickness of the A horizon ranges from 4 tomesone fragments.
10 inches. The thickness of the solum is more than 40 inches.








Collier County Area, Florida 67



mottles. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to moderately The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
alkaline. chroma of 1 to 3. It is a mixture of fine sand and
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 6, multicolored shell fragments. In some pedons, the C
and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy horizon consists of stratified sand and shell fragments.
clay loam with pockets or lenses of sand or loamy sand. The content, by volume, of shell fragments that are
Some pedons have gray, yellow, or brown mottles, dominantly sand-sized ranges from about 10 to 60
Reaction ranges from strongly acid to moderately alkaline. percent. The content, by volume, of shell fragments is less
The Btg horizon is 4 to 20 inches thick. than 15 percent in the control section.
Many pedons have a layer between the Btg horizon and
the limestone bedrock that is about 1 to 3 inches thick and
is composed of mixed weathered and soft limestone Chobee Series
fragments, masses of carbonate, sandy clay loam, or T ,
sad loam The Chobee series consists of level, very poorly
sandy loam.
drained soils in swamps and marshes. These soils formed
in thick beds of loamy marine sediments. The slopes are
Canaveral Series less than 1 percent. These soils are fine-loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls.
The Canaveral series consists of nearly level, Chobee soils are closely associated with Gator,
moderately well drained soils on the lower ridges adjacent Holopaw, Riviera, and Winder soils on similar landforms.
to the beaches along the Gulf Coast. These soils formed Gator soils have an organic layer more than 16 inches
in marine deposits of sand and shell fragments. The thick. Winder soils do not have a mollic epipedon.
slopes are less than 2 percent. These soils are Holopaw soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of more
hyperthermic, uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments. than 40 inches. Riviera soils have an argillic horizon at a
Canaveral soils are closely associated with Beaches. depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Beaches are flooded by daily tides and are unstable. Typical pedon of Chobee fine sandy loam, in an area of
Typical pedon of Canaveral fine sand, in an area of Chobee, Winder, and Gator soils, depressional; about
Canaveral-Beaches complex; about 5,000 feet west and 2,500 feet south and 2,500 feet west of the northeast
100 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 8, T. 48 S., corner of sec. 1, T. 46 S., R. 30 E.
R. 25 E. A-0 to 13 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy loam;
A-0 to 4 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; single weak medium granular structure; friable; many fine
grained; loose; many very fine, fine, medium, and and very fine roots; moderately acid; clear wavy
coarse roots; about 5 percent, by volume, shell boundary.
fragments; slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline; Btg1-13 to 22 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
abrupt smooth boundary. loam; few fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
C1--4 to 8 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; about 10 friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
percent shell fragments; slightly effervescent; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary. Btg2-22 to 37 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam;
C2-8 to 35 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; sand
single grained; loose; about 5 to 25 percent, by grains coated and bridged with clay; slightly acid; clear
volume, shell fragments in stratified layers; slightly wavy boundary.
effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy Btg3-37 to 47 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay loam;
boundary, few medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
C3-35 to 70 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
mixed with about 40 percent multicolored, dominantly friable; neutral; sand grains coated and bridged with
sand-sized shell fragments; common medium distinct clay; clear wavy boundary.
white (10YR 8/1) streaks; single grained; loose; Cgl--47 to 62 inches; dark greenish gray (5GY 5/1)
slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline, loamy fine sand; massive; slightly alkaline; clear wavy
Canaveral soils are slightly alkaline or moderately boundary.
alkaline in all horizons. Cg2-62 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) loamy fine sand;
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and massive; slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline;
about 10 percent, by volume, mostly sand-sized
chroma of 1 or 2. It has 5 to 10 percent, by volume, shell about 10 ume most sand-sized
fragments. The thickness of the A horizon ranges from 4 tomesone fragments.
10 inches. The thickness of the solum is more than 40 inches.







68 Soil Survey



Reaction is moderately acid to neutral in the A horizon, and bridged with clay; few faint discontinuous clay
slightly acid or neutral in the Btg horizon, and neutral to flows in pores; slightly alkaline; clear irregular
moderately alkaline in the C horizon. The depth to boundary.
limestone bedrock is more than 40 inches. 2C-24 to 30 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) marl; weak fine
The A horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 10YR, value of 2 or 3, granular structure; friable; clay and silt-sized
and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral in hue and has value of carbonates coating sand grains; strongly effervescent;
2 or 3. Some depressions have texture of thin muck or moderately alkaline; clear irregular boundary.
mucky fine sand. The A horizon is 4 to 18 inches thick. 2R-30 inches; limestone bedrock.
The upper part of the Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to
5Y, value of 2 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons The solum is 20 to 40 inches thick. The depth to
have mottles. The lower part of the Btg horizon has hue of limestone bedrock is 20 to 50 inches. Reaction ranges
10YR to 2.5Y, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 2. Some from slightly acid to moderately alkaline.
pedons have mottles. The texture of the Btg horizon is fine The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2
sandy loam or sandy clay loam. or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral in hue and has
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 4 to value of 2 or 3. It is 10 to 20 inches thick.
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have mottles. The E horizon has hue of 10YR and 2.5Y, value of 4 or
Texture is loamy sand, loamy fine sand, sandy loam, or 5, and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral in hue. Many pedons
fine sandy loam. In most pedons, the Cg horizon has as have mottles in shades of yellow or brown. Texture is fine
much as 25 percent calcareous nodules of calcium sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. The E horizon is 2
carbonate that are mostly sand-sized. to 6 inches thick.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2; has hue of 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 5 to 7,
Copeland Series and chroma of 1 or 2; or is neutral in hue and has value of
e C d s s c o l p d 5 to 7. Texture is sandy clay loam or sandy loam. The
The Copeland series consists of level, poorly drained
content of silt is less than 15 percent. Many pedons have
and very poorly drained soils in sloughs, poorly defined
lenses or streaks of sand, loamy sand, or sandy loam. The
drainageways, marshes, and swamps. These soils formed horizon is 4 to 20 inches thick.
in sandy and loamy marine sediments overlying limestone.
If it occurs, the 2C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y,
The slopes are less than 1 percent. These soils are fine-
value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral in hue. It
loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls. is dominated by clay and silt-sized carbonates that coat
The Copeland soils are closely associated with Boca, b vu
Holopaw, Pineda, and Riviera soils on similar landforms. the sand grains. It has 5 to 25 percent, by volume,
limestone fragments or, in some pedons, shell. The 2C
Boca, Pineda, and Riviera soils have an argillic horizon at horizon is 0 to 8 inches thick.
horizon is 0 to 8 inches thick.
a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Holopaw soils have an argillic
horizon at a depth of about 40 inches or more. None of
the associated soils have a mollic epipedon. Dania Series
Typical pedon of Copeland fine sand, in an area of
Riviera, limestone substratum-Copeland fine sands; about The Dania series consists of level, very poorly drained,
2,400 feet west and 1,300 feet south of the northeast organic soils in swamps and marshes. These soils formed
corner of sec. 35, T. 46 S., R. 28 E. in thin beds of organic and sandy material that are shallow
Sto 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine over limestone. The slopes are less than 1 percent. These
granular structure; friable; many fine and medium soils are euic, hyperthermic, shallow Lithic Medisaprists.
roots; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. Dania soils are closely associated with Chobee soils in
A2-6 to 14 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) similar landscape positions. Chobee sols do not have
limestone within a depth of 20 inches.
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; many Typical pedo n Dana in n re hee
fine and medium roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy limestone suratm, andDaa uck, depression
boundary. limestone substratum, and Dania mucks, depressional;
boundary.
E-14 to 18 inches; dark gray (1OYR 4/1) fine sand; weak about 700 feet east and 1,400 feet south of the northwest
fine granular structure; friable; many fine and medium corner of sec. 11, T 50 S., R. 28 E.
roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Oa-0 to 10 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; about 10
Btg--18 to 24 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay percent unrubbed fiber; about 2 percent rubbed fiber;
loam; few fine and medium prominent yellow (10YR moderate medium granular structure; friable; brown
7/8) streaks and mottles; weak fine subangular blocky (10YR 5/3) sodium pyrophophosphate extract; many
structure; friable; few fine roots; sand grains coated medium and fine roots; slightly acid (pH 6.0 in 0.01







68 Soil Survey



Reaction is moderately acid to neutral in the A horizon, and bridged with clay; few faint discontinuous clay
slightly acid or neutral in the Btg horizon, and neutral to flows in pores; slightly alkaline; clear irregular
moderately alkaline in the C horizon. The depth to boundary.
limestone bedrock is more than 40 inches. 2C-24 to 30 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) marl; weak fine
The A horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 10YR, value of 2 or 3, granular structure; friable; clay and silt-sized
and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral in hue and has value of carbonates coating sand grains; strongly effervescent;
2 or 3. Some depressions have texture of thin muck or moderately alkaline; clear irregular boundary.
mucky fine sand. The A horizon is 4 to 18 inches thick. 2R-30 inches; limestone bedrock.
The upper part of the Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to
5Y, value of 2 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons The solum is 20 to 40 inches thick. The depth to
have mottles. The lower part of the Btg horizon has hue of limestone bedrock is 20 to 50 inches. Reaction ranges
10YR to 2.5Y, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 2. Some from slightly acid to moderately alkaline.
pedons have mottles. The texture of the Btg horizon is fine The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2
sandy loam or sandy clay loam. or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral in hue and has
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 4 to value of 2 or 3. It is 10 to 20 inches thick.
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have mottles. The E horizon has hue of 10YR and 2.5Y, value of 4 or
Texture is loamy sand, loamy fine sand, sandy loam, or 5, and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral in hue. Many pedons
fine sandy loam. In most pedons, the Cg horizon has as have mottles in shades of yellow or brown. Texture is fine
much as 25 percent calcareous nodules of calcium sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. The E horizon is 2
carbonate that are mostly sand-sized. to 6 inches thick.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2; has hue of 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 5 to 7,
Copeland Series and chroma of 1 or 2; or is neutral in hue and has value of
e C d s s c o l p d 5 to 7. Texture is sandy clay loam or sandy loam. The
The Copeland series consists of level, poorly drained
content of silt is less than 15 percent. Many pedons have
and very poorly drained soils in sloughs, poorly defined
lenses or streaks of sand, loamy sand, or sandy loam. The
drainageways, marshes, and swamps. These soils formed horizon is 4 to 20 inches thick.
in sandy and loamy marine sediments overlying limestone.
If it occurs, the 2C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y,
The slopes are less than 1 percent. These soils are fine-
value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral in hue. It
loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls. is dominated by clay and silt-sized carbonates that coat
The Copeland soils are closely associated with Boca, b vu
Holopaw, Pineda, and Riviera soils on similar landforms. the sand grains. It has 5 to 25 percent, by volume,
limestone fragments or, in some pedons, shell. The 2C
Boca, Pineda, and Riviera soils have an argillic horizon at horizon is 0 to 8 inches thick.
horizon is 0 to 8 inches thick.
a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Holopaw soils have an argillic
horizon at a depth of about 40 inches or more. None of
the associated soils have a mollic epipedon. Dania Series
Typical pedon of Copeland fine sand, in an area of
Riviera, limestone substratum-Copeland fine sands; about The Dania series consists of level, very poorly drained,
2,400 feet west and 1,300 feet south of the northeast organic soils in swamps and marshes. These soils formed
corner of sec. 35, T. 46 S., R. 28 E. in thin beds of organic and sandy material that are shallow
Sto 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine over limestone. The slopes are less than 1 percent. These
granular structure; friable; many fine and medium soils are euic, hyperthermic, shallow Lithic Medisaprists.
roots; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. Dania soils are closely associated with Chobee soils in
A2-6 to 14 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) similar landscape positions. Chobee sols do not have
limestone within a depth of 20 inches.
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; many Typical pedo n Dana in n re hee
fine and medium roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy limestone suratm, andDaa uck, depression
boundary. limestone substratum, and Dania mucks, depressional;
boundary.
E-14 to 18 inches; dark gray (1OYR 4/1) fine sand; weak about 700 feet east and 1,400 feet south of the northwest
fine granular structure; friable; many fine and medium corner of sec. 11, T 50 S., R. 28 E.
roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Oa-0 to 10 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; about 10
Btg--18 to 24 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay percent unrubbed fiber; about 2 percent rubbed fiber;
loam; few fine and medium prominent yellow (10YR moderate medium granular structure; friable; brown
7/8) streaks and mottles; weak fine subangular blocky (10YR 5/3) sodium pyrophophosphate extract; many
structure; friable; few fine roots; sand grains coated medium and fine roots; slightly acid (pH 6.0 in 0.01




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