• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Prime farmland
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Group Title: Soil survey of Gulf County, Florida. 2001.
Title: Soil survey of Gulf County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026058/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Gulf County, Florida
Physical Description: 201 p., 46 folded p. of plates : ill. (some col.), maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Schuster, Joseph N
United States -- Natural Resources Conservation Service
Publisher: United States Dept. of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.
Publication Date: [2001]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Gulf County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Gulf County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026058
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002818288
notis - ANU6811
oclc - 49492969
lccn - 2002320287

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    How to use this soil survey
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Foreword
        Page 9
        Page 10
    General nature of the county
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    How this survey was made
        Page 15
        Page 16
    General soil map units
        Page 17
        Soils on uplands and in areas of flatwoods
            Page 17
            Stilson-Fuquay-Dothan
                Page 17
            Leefield-Albany-Blanton
                Page 17
        Soils in areas of flatwoods, on low flats, in depressions, and on terraces
            Page 18
            Pelham-Plummer-Alapaha
                Page 18
            Rains-Bladen
                Page 19
            Leon-Pickney-Mandarin
                Page 20
            Scranton-Pickney-Leon
                Page 20
            Bladen-Wahee-Kenansville
                Page 21
            Surrency-Pantego-Croatan
                Page 22
            Pickney-Pamlico
                Page 22
        Soils on flood plains and low terraces along rivers
            Page 23
            Meggett-Ocilla
                Page 23
            Brickyard-Chowan-Wahee
                Page 23
            Maurepas-Pamlico
                Page 24
        Soils on the Coastal Strand
            Page 25
            Corolla-Duckston-Kureb
                Page 25
                Page 26
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 27
        Albany sand
            Page 27
        Alapaha loamy fine sand
            Page 28
        Aquents, gently undulating
            Page 29
        Bladen fire sandy loam
            Page 29
            Page 30
        Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 31
        Bayvi and Dirego soils, frequently flooded
            Page 31
        Beaches
            Page 32
        Ridgewood fine sand
            Page 32
        Corolla fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 33
        Clarendon loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 34
        Dothan-Fuquay complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes
            Page 35
        Dorovan-Croatan complex, depressional
            Page 36
        Duckston-Duckston, depressional, complex, frequently flooded
            Page 36
        Wahee fine sandy loam
            Page 37
        Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 38
        Fuquay loamy fine sand
            Page 38
        Lucy loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 39
        Lynn Haven fine sand
            Page 40
        Leefield loamy fine sand
            Page 40
        Leon fine sand
            Page 41
        Maurepas muck, frequently flooded
            Page 42
        Mandarin fine sand
            Page 42
        Meggett fine sandy loam, occasionally flooded
            Page 43
        Ocilla loamy fine sand, overwash, occasionally flooded
            Page 43
        Pelham loamy fine sand
            Page 44
        Plummer fine sand
            Page 45
        Pantego and Bayboro soils, depressional
            Page 46
        Pickney-Pamlico complex, depressional
            Page 46
        Rains fine sandy loam
            Page 47
        Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 47
        Pickney and Rutlege soils, depressional
            Page 48
        Stilson loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 49
        Sapelo sand
            Page 49
        Scranton fine sand
            Page 50
        Meadowbrook fine sand, occasionally flooded
            Page 51
        Surrency mucky fine sand, depressional
            Page 51
        Brickyard silty clay, frequently flooded
            Page 52
        Brickyard, Chowan, and Kenner soils, frequently flooded
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Pottsburg fine sand
            Page 54
        Pamlico-Pickney complex, frequently flooded
            Page 54
        Croatan-Surrency complex, frequently flooded
            Page 55
        Corolla-Duckston complex, gently undulating, flooded
            Page 55
        Newhan-Corolla complex, rolling
            Page 56
        Kureb-Corolla complex, rolling
            Page 57
        Quartzipsamments, undulating
            Page 58
        Wahee-Mantachie-Ochlockonee complex, commonly flooded
            Page 58
        Kenansville-Eulonia complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 59
        Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 60
    Prime farmland
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 63
        Crops and pasture
            Page 63
            Page 64
        Ecological communities
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 71
        Recreation
            Page 71
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 72
            Page 73
        Engineering
            Page 74
            Building site development
                Page 74
            Sanitary facilities
                Page 75
            Construction materials
                Page 76
            Water management
                Page 77
                Page 78
    Soil properties
        Page 79
        Engineering index properties
            Page 79
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 80
        Soil and water features
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
    Classification of the soils
        Page 85
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 85
        Albany series
            Page 86
        Bayboro series
            Page 87
        Bayvi series
            Page 87
        Bladen series
            Page 88
        Blanton series
            Page 88
        Brickyard series
            Page 89
        Chowan series
            Page 90
        Clarendon series
            Page 90
        Corolla series
            Page 91
        Croatan series
            Page 92
        Dirego series
            Page 92
        Dorovan series
            Page 93
        Dothan series
            Page 93
        Duckston series
            Page 94
        Eulonia series
            Page 94
        Fuquay series
            Page 95
        Kenansville series
            Page 96
        Kenner series
            Page 96
        Kureb series
            Page 97
        Leefield series
            Page 98
        Leon series
            Page 98
        Lucy series
            Page 99
        Lynn Haven series
            Page 99
        Mandarin series
            Page 100
        Mantachie series
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
        Maurepas series
            Page 107
        Meadowbrook series
            Page 108
        Meggett series
            Page 108
        Newhan series
            Page 109
        Ochlockonee series
            Page 109
        Ocilla series
            Page 110
        Ortega series
            Page 110
        Pamlico series
            Page 111
        Pantego series
            Page 111
        Pelham series
            Page 112
        Pickney series
            Page 112
        Plummer series
            Page 113
        Pottsburg series
            Page 113
        Rains series
            Page 114
        Resota series
            Page 114
        Ridgewood series
            Page 115
        Rutlege series
            Page 115
        Sapelo series
            Page 116
        Scranton series
            Page 117
        Stilson series
            Page 117
        Surrency series
            Page 118
        Wahee series
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
    Formation of the soils
        Page 121
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 121
            Parent material
                Page 121
            Climate
                Page 121
            Plants and animals
                Page 121
            Relief
                Page 121
            Time
                Page 122
        Processes of horizon differentiation
            Page 122
        Geomorphology
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
        Geology
            Page 125
            Page 126
            Page 127
            Page 128
            Page 129
            Page 130
    Reference
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Glossary
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Tables
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
    General soil map
        Page 202
    Index to map sheets
        Page 203
        Page 204
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
Full Text

USDA


United States
Department of
Agriculture
Natural
Resources
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with
the University of Florida,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil and
Water Science Department,
and the Florida Department
of Agricultural and
Consumer Services


Soil Survey of

Gulf County,

Florida



















How to Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is a color map, shows the survey area divided into groups of associated soils called
general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the map unit in the
area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units for a general description of
the soils in your area.


Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps can be useful in planning the use and
management of small areas.

To find information about your area --- N
of interest, locate that area on the 2_
Index to Map Sheets. Note the Q I ,
number of the map sheet and turn 13
to that sheet.
id.....17 -18-- -
Locate your area of interest on INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
the map sheet. Note the map unit
symbols that are in that area. Turn
to the Contents, which lists the
map units by symbol and name
and shows the page where each-
map unit is described.

The Contents shows which table -
has data on a specific land use for
each detailed soil map unit. Also
see the Contents for sections of
this publication that may address
your specific needs. MAP SHEET


I i

A KoK mo


MAP SHEET


AREA OF INTEREST
NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
survey may consist only of numbers or
letters, or they may be a combination
of numbers and letters.





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort
of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal agencies, State
agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and local agencies. The Natural
Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service) has
leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1991. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1997. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this
publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1991. This soil survey was made
cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service and the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations,
and Soil and Water Science Department, and the Florida Department of Agricultural and
Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the Tupelo Soil
and Water Conservation District. The Gulf County Board of County Commissioners
contributed office space for the soil scientists.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of these
maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If enlarged,
maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have been shown at a
larger scale.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in its
programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability,
political beliefs, sexual orientation, or marital or familial status. (Not all prohibited bases
apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for
communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should
contact USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD).
To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights,
Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C.
20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity
provider and employer.


Cover: The Dead Lakes, near Wewahitchka, which consist of a flood plain that is almost
always flooded near the river channel and is seasonally flooded at its margins. The map unit near
the margin of the flood plain is Croatan-Surrency complex, frequently flooded.


Additional information about the Nation's natural resources is available on the
Natural Resources Conservation Service home page on the World Wide Web. The
address is http://www.nrcs.usda.gov (click on "Technical Resources").


I _

















Contents


How to Use This Soil Survey ............................... 3
Contents ............................................................... 5
Foreword ............................................................... 9
General Nature of the County ............................... 11
How This Survey Was Made ................................. 15
General Soil Map Units ...................................... 17
Soils on Uplands and in Areas of Flatwoods ....... 17
1. Stilson-Fuquay-Dothan .......................... 17
2. Leefield-Albany-Blanton......................... 17
Soils in Areas of Flatwoods, on Low Flats, in
Depressions, and on Terraces.................... 18
3. Pelham-Plummer-Alapaha ..................... 18
4. Rains-Bladen ......................................... 19
5. Leon-Pickney-Mandarin ......................... 20
6. Scranton-Pickney-Leon ......................... 20
7. Bladen-Wahee-Kenansville .................... 21
8. Surrency-Pantego-Croatan..................... 22
9. Pickney-Pamlico.................................... 22
Soils on Flood Plains and Low Terraces along
R ivers ........................................................ 23
10. Meggett-Ocilla ..................................... 23
11. Brickyard-Chowan-Wahee .................... 23
12. Maurepas-Pamlico ............................... 24
Soils on the Coastal Strand .............................. 25
13. Corolla-Duckston-Kureb ....................... 25
Detailed Soil Map Units...................................... 27
2-Albany sand ................................................ 27
3-Alapaha loamy fine sand ............................ 28
4-Aquents, gently undulating ......................... 29
5-Bladen fine sandy loam .............................. 29
6-Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........... 31
7-Bayvi and Dirego soils, frequently flooded ..... 31
8-Beaches ..................................................... 32
9-Ridgewood fine sand ................................... 32
10-Corolla fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes....... 33
11-Clarendon loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes ........................................................ 34
12-Dothan-Fuquay complex, 5 to 8 percent
slopes ........................................................ 35
13-Dorovan-Croatan complex, depressional...... 36
14-Duckston-Duckston, depressional,
complex, frequently flooded ....................... 36
15-Wahee fine sandy loam ............................. 37
16-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes....... 38


17-Fuquay loamy fine sand ............................ 38
19-Lucy loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes ........................................................ 39
20-Lynn Haven fine sand ............................... 40
21 -Leefield loamy fine sand ........................... 40
22-Leon fine sand .......................................... 41
23-Maurepas muck, frequently flooded ............. 42
24-Mandarin fine sand.................................... 42
25-Meggett fine sandy loam, occasionally
flooded ....................................................... 43
26-Ocilla loamy fine sand, overwash,
occasionally flooded .................................. 43
27-Pelham loamy fine sand ............................ 44
28-Plummer fine sand .................................... 45
30-Pantego and Bayboro soils, depressional .... 46
31-Pickney-Pamlico complex, depressional...... 46
32-Rains fine sandy loam .............................. 47
33-Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...... 47
34-Pickney and Rutlege soils, depressional ..... 48
35-Stilson loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes ........................................................ 49
36-Sapelo sand .............................................. 49
37-Scranton fine sand .................................... 50
38-Meadowbrook fine sand, occasionally
flooded ....................................................... 51
39-Surrency mucky fine sand, depressional ..... 51
40-Brickyard silty clay, frequently flooded ........ 52
41 -Brickyard, Chowan, and Kenner soils,
frequently flooded ...................................... 52
42-Pottsburg fine sand ................................... 54
44-Pamlico-Pickney complex, frequently
flooded ....................................................... 54
45-Croatan-Surrency complex, frequently
flooded ....................................................... 55
46-Corolla-Duckston complex, gently
undulating, flooded..................................... 55
47-Newhan-Corolla complex, rolling ............... 56
48-Kureb-Corolla complex, rolling .................. 57
49-Quartzipsamments, undulating ................. 58
50-Wahee-Mantachie-Ochlockonee complex,
commonly flooded ..................................... 58
51-Kenansville-Eulonia complex, 0 to 5
percent slopes ........................................... 59
52-Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ... 60




















Prim e Farm land .................................................. 61
Use and Management of the Soils..................... 63
Crops and Pasture............................................ 63
Ecological Com m unities................................... 65
Woodland Management and Productivity ......... 68
Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings ........... 71
Recreation ........................................................ 71
W wildlife Habitat ................................................. 72
Engineering ...................................................... 74
Building Site Developm ent ........................... 74
Sanitary Facilities ........................................ 75
Construction M materials ................................. 76
W ater M anagem ent ...................................... 77
Soil Properties .................................................... 79
Engineering Index Properties ........................... 79
Physical and Chemical Properties ................... 80
Soil and W ater Features ................................... 81
Classification of the Soils .................................. 85
Soil Series and Their Morphology ......................... 85
Alapaha Series ................................................. 85
Albany Series ................................................... 86
Bayboro Series................................................. 87
Bayvi Series ..................................................... 87
Bladen Series ................................................... 88
Blanton Series.................................................. 88
Brickyard Series ............................................... 89
Chowan Series ................................................. 90
Clarendon Series .............................................. 90
Corolla Series ................................................... 91
Croatan Series ................................................. 92
Dirego Series.................................................... 92
Dorovan Series................................................. 93
Dothan Series................................................... 93
Duckston Series............................................... 94
Eulonia Series .................................................. 94
Fuquay Series .................................................. 95
Kenansville Series............................................ 96
Kenner Series ................................................... 96
Kureb Series .................................................... 97
Leefield Series ................................................. 98
Leon Series ...................................................... 98
Lucy Series ...................................................... 99
Lynn Haven Series ........................................... 99
Mandarin Series ............................................. 100
M antachie Series ........................................... 100


Maurepas Series ............................................... 107
Meadowbrook Series ......................................... 108
Meggett Series .................................................. 1108
Newhan Series .................................................. 1109
Ochlockonee Series ....................................... 1109
Ocilla Series ...................................................... 1110
Ortega Series ................................................. 1110
Pamlico Series .................................................. 1111
Pantego Series .................................................. 1111
Pelham Series ................................................... 1112
Pickney Series .................................................. 1112
Plummer Series................................................. 1113
Pottsburg Series ................................................ 1113
Rains Series ................................................... 1114
Resota Series.................................................... 1114
Ridgewood Series.............................................. 1115
Rutlege Series ................................................... 1115
Sapelo Series .................................................... 1116
Scranton Series................................................. 1117
Stilson Series .................................................... 1117
Surrency Series................................................. 1118
W ahee Series .................................................... 1118
Form ation of the Soils ........................................ 1121
Factors of Soil Formation .................................. 121
Parent Material .............................................. 121
Climate ...................................................... 121
Plants and Animals ................................. ... 121
Relief .......................................................... 121
Time.............................................................. 122
Processes of Horizon Differentiation .............. 122
Geomorphology ................................................. 122
Geology ............................................................. 125
References............................................................ 1131
Glossary ............................................................... 1133
Tables ................................................................... 1141
Table 1.-Temperature and Precipitation ........... 1142
Table 2.-Freeze Dates in Spring and Fall......... 1143
Table 3.-Acreage and Proportionate Extent
of the Soils .............................................. 144
Table 4.-Land Capability Classes and Yields
per Acre of Crops and Pasture................. 145
Table 5.-Woodland Management and
Productivity .............................................. 148
Table 6.-Recreational Development.............. 154
Table 7.- W wildlife Habitat ............................... 159


I




















Table 8.-Building Site Development ............. 163
Table 9.- Sanitary Facilities ........................... 168
Table 10.-Construction Materials.................. 174
Table 11.-Water Management....................... 179
Table 12.-Engineering Index Properties ....... 185


Table 13.-Physical and Chemical Properties
of the Soils .............................................. 192
Table 14.-Soil and Water Features................ 197
Table 15.-Classification of the Soils ............. 201


Issued 2001


I



















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used for land-planning in Gulf
County, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected land uses. The
survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil, practices useful for
overcoming the limitations, and the impact of selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers, foresters,
and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan land use,
select sites for construction, and identify practices that maximize performance.
Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife
management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use the survey to help them
understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Various land use regulations of Federal, State, and local governments may impose
special restrictions on land use or land treatment. The information in this report is
intended to identify soil properties that are used in making various land use or land
treatment decisions. Statements made in this report are intended to help the land users
identify and reduce the effects of soil limitations that affect various land uses. The
landowner or user is responsible for identifying and complying with existing laws and
regulations.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some soils are
seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation
for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank
absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or
underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this soil
survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location of each soil
is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is described.
Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this publication and
additional information are available at the local office of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.




T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Natural Resources Conservation Service















Soil Survey of


Gulf County, Florida


By Joseph N. Schuster, Kenneth W. Monroe, Leland D. Sasser, Robert E. Evon,
Henry J. Ferguson, Matthew W. Havens, Robert N. Pate, and Dale G. Sprankle,
Natural Resources Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil and Water Science Department, and the
Florida Department of Agricultural and Consumer Services


GULF COUNTY is in the Central Florida Panhandle on
the coast of the Gulf of Mexico (fig.1). It is bordered on
the north by Calhoun County, on the west by Franklin
and Liberty Counties, on the east by Bay County, and
on the south by the Gulf of Mexico. The Apalachicola
River forms the eastern border from the northern
county line to Lake Wimico.
The total area of Gulf County is about 366,000
acres, or 571 square miles. About 1,100 acres is
owned by the Federal Government. Port St. Joe, the
county seat, is the largest town in the county. The
county is approximately rectangular. It is about 20
miles wide and about 38 miles long from the northern
county line to Cape San Bias.
According to the decennial census, the population
of Gulf County was about 11,500 in 1990 (USDC,
1990). In 1988, 305,000 acres was woodland and
30,000 acres was cropland or pastureland
(University of Florida, 1988). The largest industries
in the county are the production of timber, the
production of magnesium compounds, and the
transportation of crude oil, coal, and magnesium.
Commercial seafood enterprises, agriculture, and
tourism are also major industries.


General Nature of the County
This section gives general information about the
county. Climate, history and development,
transportation, hydrogeology, and mineral resources
are described.


Figure 1.-Location of Gulf County in Florida.


Climate

Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation
for the survey area as recorded at Wewahitchka,
Florida, in the period 1961 to 1990. Table 2 shows
probable dates of the first freeze in the fall and the last
freeze in spring (USDC, 1991).
Gulf County has a moderate climate. Summers
are long, warm, and humid. Winters are generally
mild. The Gulf of Mexico moderates the maximum
and minimum temperatures. This moderating
influence is greater in the coastal town of Port St.





Soil Survey


Joe and less near the inland community of
Wewahitchka.
In winter, the average temperature is about 53
degrees and the average daily minimum temperature is
about 41 degrees.The lowest temperature on record,
'which occurred on December24, 1990, is 11 degrees. In
summer, the average temperature is about 80 degrees
and the average daily maximum temperature is 91
degrees.The highest recorded temperature, which
occurred on July 10, 1966, is 104 degrees.
The total annual precipitation is about 69 inches.
About 26.5 inches, or 38 percent, falls in the summer,
and about 16.6 inches, or 24 percent, falls in January
through March. October, November, and April are
generally the driest months. The maximum amount of
rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period was 16.22 inches
on September 21,1969.
Most summer rain comes from local thunderstorms.
During the months of June through September,
measurable rainfall can be expected about every other
day. Summer showers are sometimes heavy, but they
rarely last all day. Day-long rains in summer are almost
always associated with a tropical storm.
Winter and spring rains are typically associated with
continental weather developments; they are of longer
duration than the summer rains but are not as intense.
As a winter cold front approaches Gulf County, the cold
northern air is appreciably modified.The coldest weather
generally occurs on the second night after the arrival of a
cold front, after heat is lost through radiation.
The first freezing temperature in the fall generally
occurs in November. Freezing temperatures occur
before November 11 on the average only 2 years in 10.
The last freezing temperature in the spring generally
occurs in March or in late February. Freezing
temperatures occur after March 13 on the average only
2 years in 10.

History and Development

Abundant artifacts found throughout Gulf County
provide evidence of long periods of habitation by
Native Americans. Projectile points found near
Overstreet are suspected to be over 10,000 years
old. The presence of fiber-tempered pottery shards
at various locations in Gulf County confirms
habitation around 1500 B.C., and a large conch
midden on St. Joseph Bay dates to about 1000 B.C.
(Swatts, 1975).
The first documented European occupation of the
area is depicted as a Spanish outpost on St. Joseph
Bay in 1701. In the years prior to the Louisiana
Purchase in 1819, the coastal areas that are now Gulf


County were occupied and abandoned by the Spanish,
French, and English.
The earliest recorded exploration of the area by the
United States was by Andrew Jackson and his troops
in 1818.
In 1835, the U.S. Supreme Court recognized an old
land grant and gave the Apalachicola Land Company
legal rights to over 1 million acres of land. Disgruntled
Apalachicola residents relocated to coastal Gulf
County and founded the city of St. Joseph. By the late
1830's, St. Joseph was the largest city in Florida. In
1838 and 1839, it was honored as the site of Florida's
Constitutional Convention.
The city of St. Joseph was short-lived. Yellow fever,
a severe hurricane, economic depression, and fires
destroyed most of the town by the mid-1840's. Today,
the St. Joseph cemetery is the only remains of the
once thriving town.
The modern city of Port St. Joe is north of the site
of the old city of St. Joseph and was originally named
Indian Pass. Although it was a city of commerce, Port
St. Joe was known to many as a resort town in the
early years. The city changed rapidly after the
completion of a paper mill in 1938. Industrial expansion
in the city created one of the largest chemical
complexes in Florida.
Gulf County now has diverse land uses. Areas to
the north of Wewahitchka are part of the panhandle
agricultural area. Much of the county is used for the
commercial production of pine trees. The Dead Lakes
near Wewahitchka, the Apalachicola River, and the
beaches are popular recreation areas.

Transportation

U.S. Highway 98 crosses the southern part of Gulf
County, connecting Port St. Joe with Apalachicola to
the east and with Panama City to the northwest. State
Highway 71 connects Port St. Joe with Wewahitchka to
the north, and State Highway 22 connects
Wewahitchka with Panama City to the west. Four major
county roads also connect communities in the county.
Several major county roads serve the more remote
areas. County Road 386 provides access from Beacon
Hill through Overstreet to Wewahitchka. County Road
387 provides access from Highway 71 north of White
City to Howard Creek. County Road 381 connects
Highway 71 with Dalkeith and the landings on the flood
plain along the Apalachicola River. County Roads 30A,
30E, and 30B provide access to points along the
coast, including Indian Pass, Cape San Bias, and St.
Joseph Peninsula. Short-stretch county roads provide
access to communities throughout the county.






Gulf County, Florida


The Apalachicola Northern Railroad provides freight
service from Port St. Joe north and east through
Franklin, Liberty, and Gadsden Counties where it
connects with other major rail systems. The Intercostal
Waterway provides access to the Apalachicola River,
the Gulf of Mexico by way of the Gulf County Canal,
and ports to the west through East Bay. Regularly
scheduled air transportation is not available in Gulf
County. Commercial air passenger service is available
at Panama City Airport, which is about 35 miles west
of Port St. Joe, and at Tallahassee Municipal Airport,
which is about 120 miles northeast of Port
St. Joe.

Hydrogeology
Frank R. Rupert, Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology,
Florida Department of Natural Resources, prepared this section.

Ground water is water that fills the pore spaces in
subsurface rocks and sediments. In order of increasing
depth, the three primary ground-water aquifer systems
in Gulf County are the surficial aquifer system, the
intermediate confining unit, and the Florida aquifer
system (Rupert, 1991).
The surficial aquifer system is generally a thin
unit, varying proportionally with the thickness of the
undifferentiated sands and clays. Water in the
shallow undifferentiated Plio-Pleistocene sand and
clay sediments is not confined, and the water level
is free to rise and fall. This unconfined water
comprises the surficial aquifer system, which is
recharged through direct infiltration of rainwater.
Generally, the thickness
of the system ranges from 4 feet in the eastern part
of the county to 90 feet in the northwestern part.
The surface of the system most likely approximates
the surface topography of the land and fluctuates in
elevation due to droughts or seasonal differences in
rainfall.
Water movement within the surficial aquifer system
is generally downhill, or from topographically high areas
to low areas. The system discharges into streams,
bays, and the Gulf of Mexico. A small quantity of water
from the system may percolate down into the
underlying intermediate aquifer system. Some form of
low-permeability confining layer, such as clay or clayey
sand sediments, generally separates the surficial and
intermediate aquifer systems. The surficial aquifer
system is not used extensively for public water supplies
in Gulf County.
The intermediate confining unit in Gulf County lies
below the surficial aquifer system and is contained


within the sediments of the Jackson Bluff, Chipola, and
Intracoastal Formations. This unit functions primarily
as a confining unit to the underlying Floridan aquifer
system but may locally contain minor aquifers,
depending on the thickness and lithology of the host
formations. The minor aquifers, where present, consist
of sands and limestones and generally yield small
quantities of water suitable for domestic use.
The intermediate confining unit generally conforms
to the geometry of the geological formations containing
it. It ranges in thickness from about 150 feet in the
northeastern part of the county to nearly 500 feet near
Cape San Bias. The top of the unit varies from about
10 feet below land surface (BLS) in the northern part of
the county to about 50 feet BLS at the southern edge
of the county. Aquifers within the unit are recharged
primarily from lateral water inflow and from seepage
from the overlying and underlying aquifers. The unit is
not extensively used as a potable water source in Gulf
County.
The Floridan aquifer system is the most important
freshwater aquifer in Florida. It underlies much of the
central and eastern parts of the panhandle and most of
the peninsula. In Gulf County, it is contained within a
number of Eocene through Miocene formations,
including the Lisbon Formation, the Ocala Group, the
Marianna and Suwanne Limestones, the St. Marks
Formation, and the Bruce Creek Limestone. The
Floridan aquifer system is the thickest and most
productive unit in the central part of the panhandle. It
supplies the bulk of the water used for domestic,
urban, and agricultural purposes in Gulf County.
The top of the Floridan aquifer system
corresponds to the top of the Bruce Creek
Limestone. In Gulf County, it ranges from about 150
feet BLS at the northern edge of the county to about
500 feet BLS under St. Joseph Peninsula. The
aquifer thickens to the south-southwest. It ranges
from about 1,000 feet thick at the Gulf-Calhoun
County line to about 2,200 feet thick in the
southeastern part of Gulf County, near Lake Wimico.
The Floridan aquifer system is underlain by the sub-
Floridan confining unit, which is comprised of the
Middle Eocene Tallahatta Formation and older
sediments. These sediments typically contain clays,
shales, and chalk, which act as confining layers.
The Floridan aquifer system is confined in all areas
of Gulf County. Minor recharge may occur through
downward seepage from aquifer units in the overlying
intermediate confining system, but most recharge
occurs from water inflow from adjacent counties. Direct
recharge to the Floridan aquifer system occurs to the
north of Gulf County in Jackson County where the





Soil Survey


porous limestones comprising the aquifer are exposed
at the surface.


Mineral Resources
Frank R. Rupert, Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology,
Florida Department of Natural Resources, prepared this section.

The following material is a general overview of the
near-surface mineral commodities and petroleum
resources in Gulf County (Rupert, 1991). Information in
this section was derived from mineral reports included
in various publications of the Florida Geological
Survey, from data on file at the Florida Geological
Survey, and from data supplied by the Gulf County
Road Department.
Clay occurs as discrete beds in the undifferentiated
sediments covering Gulf County and as a matrix
constituent of the sediments. Most clays represent
Pliocene and Pleistocene deltaic deposits. Although
widespread, many of these deposits contain significant
impurities, such as quartz sand. Relatively pure
Holocene flood plain clays are common along the
Apalachicola River, and one such deposit has been
used for brick making in neighboring Calhoun County.
Other clays are associated with the deeper Pliocene
and Miocene units underlying Gulf County. Most of
these clays are untested. The depth to these units
generally limits their economic potential.
Map units that contain clayey soils are Bladen fine
sandy loam; Wahee fine sandy loam; Meggett fine
sandy loam, occasionally flooded; Pantego and
Bayboro soils, depressional; Brickyard silty clay,
frequently flooded; Brickyard, Chowan, and Kenner
soils, frequently flooded; and Kenansville-Eulonia
complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
The extent to which the clay resources in the county
are explored and utilized largely depends on local
demand. A lack of useable clay deposits and
insufficient demand for clay products preclude
economic development of these resources.
Miocene and Pliocene limestone (CaCO3) and
dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) are present at depth under all of
Gulf County. These materials have not been mined in
the county. The impure nature of most of these units
and the thickness of the overburden make economic
mining impractical.
Quartz sand (SiO2) is a common component of the
undifferentiated Pliocene through Holocene age
surficial sediments in Gulf County. It is also the
primary constituent of the near-shore continental shelf
deposits. Localized gravel deposits are also present in
portions of the undifferentiated sediments in the
northern part of the county. Much of this sand, with the


exception of the marine coastal and eolian deposits, is
interbedded with clays. The beach sand and dune sand
generally have too fine a grain size for practical
industrial use. Map units that are excessively drained
to somewhat poorly drained and contain very deep
sandy materials are Ridgewood fine sand; Corolla fine
sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes; Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5
percent slopes; Mandarin fine sand; Scranton fine
sand; Newhan-Corolla complex, rolling; Kureb-Corolla
complex, rolling; and Quartzipsamments, undulating.
Surficial sand from private borrow pits in the county
is used without processing for local fill projects. Future
development of this resource depends primarily on
local demand.
Heavy minerals consist of sand-sized grains of a
number of different mineral types, including ilmenite,
zircon, rutile, staurolite, monazite, and tourmaline.
They are typically associated with marine sand
deposits and are often concentrated by wave action
along coastal beaches.
Although the heavy mineral deposits in Gulf County
are similar in composition to deposits that could be
mined in northeastern Florida, the deposits in Gulf
County are not wide enough or thick enough to be
commercial grade.
Analyses of the continental shelf sediments in areas
offshore of Gulf County show generally similar heavy
mineral assemblages and proportions. A suite of heavy
minerals comprised of leucoxene, rutile, sphene,
kyanite, tourmaline, staurolite, zircon, epidote,
sillimanite, and amphibole hornblendee) has been
observed. The offshore deposits are most likely from
the same source as the beach deposits, having been
carried into the area from the crystalline belt of the
southern Appalachian Piedmont by the Apalachicola
River.
Magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide are
produced in Gulf County from a mixture of imported
calcined dolomite and seawater from St. Joseph Bay.
Magnesium oxide is used in the production of
chemicals, insulation, pulp, paper, rayon, fertilizers,
medicines, rubber, and building materials and in
refractory processes. Magnesium hydroxide is used in
water purification processes, pharmaceuticals, and
sugar refining.
The oldest oil wells in the county date to the mid-
1940's and early 1950's.These wells targeted
Cretaceous sediments, probably in an attempt to
locate a southeastern extension of the productive
Tuscaloosa trend of southwestern Alabama. None of
these wells exceeded 9,000 feet in depth. All of them
were dry holes.
After the discovery in 1970 of oil in the Jurassic
Smackover Formation and Norphlet Sandstone in the






Gulf County, Florida


Jay Field in Santa Rosa County, several companies
extended an exploration program into the Apalachicola
Embayment area in Gulf County. In the early- to mid-
1970's, these companies drilled a series of wells
trending northwest to southeast through Gulf County.
The wells tested the central panhandle portion of the
Jurassic Smackover Formation and Norphlet
Sandstone units, stopping at depths ranging from
13,284 to 14,570 feet below land surface. Only one well
contained oil. It was in the northwestern part of the
county. The oil was contained in a dense, impermeable
section of Smackover Formation limestone and in
underlying calcareous sandstone. Because of the low
permeability and porosity of the host rock, the oil was
nonrecoverable.The well was plugged and abandoned
in 1974.
The Smackover Formation and Norphlet Sandstone
still offer potential as petroleum sources in Gulf
County. Faulting within the Smackover Formation and
stratigraphic pinchouts along the flanks of the igneous
intrusive bodies on which the Smackover sediments
were deposited may provide traps for economically
viable accumulations of oil.

How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about
the soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape
of slopes; the general pattern of drainage; and the
kinds of crops and native plants growing on the soils
(USDA, 1988). They dug many holes to study the soil
profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or
horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface
down into the unconsolidated material from which the
soil formed. The unconsolidated material is primarily
devoid of roots and other living organisms and has
been relatively unaffected by other biological activity.
The soils in the survey area are distributed in a
pattern that is related to the geology, landforms, relief,
climate, and natural vegetation of the area. Each kind
of soil is associated with a particular kind of landscape
or with a segment of the landscape. By observing the
soils in the survey area and relating their position to
specific segments of the landscape, a soil scientist
develops a concept, or model, of how the soils were
formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables the
soil scientist to predict the kind of soil at a specific
location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually


change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
soil profiles that they studied. They noted soil color,
texture, size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and
amount of rock fragments, distribution of plant roots,
reaction, and other features that enable them to
identify soils. After describing the soils in the survey
area and determining their properties, the soil
scientists assigned the soils to taxonomic classes
(units). Taxonomic classes are concepts. Each
taxonomic class has a set of soil characteristics with
precisely defined limits. The classes are used as a
basis for comparison to classify soils systematically.
The system of taxonomic classification used in the
United States is based mainly on the kind and
character of soil properties and the arrangement of
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they
could confirm data and assemble additional data based
on experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
of the soils in the area are generally collected for
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
scientists interpret the data from these analyses and
tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
the soil properties to determine the expected behavior
of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all
of the soils are field tested through observation of the
soils in different uses under different levels of
management.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only
on soil properties but also on such variables as climate
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can
predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a
given soil will have a high water table within certain
depths in most years, but they cannot assure that a
high water table will always be at a specific level in the
soil on a specific date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area,
they drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,










and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.
A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system was used
to document the type and variability of the soils in the
detailed soil map units (Doolittle, 1982; Johnson,
Glaccum, and Wojtasinski, 1979). More than 180
random transects were made with the GPR system
and by hand. The GPR system was used to detect the
presence of, and measure the depth to, major soil
horizons or other soil features and to determine the
variability of those features. Information from notes,
ground-truth observations made in the field, and radar
data from this study were used to classify the soils
and to determine the composition of the map units. The
map units described in the section "Detailed Soil Map
Units" are based on this data.

Map Unit Composition

A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by two or three kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
the soils are natural objects. In common with other
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong
to other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map
units, these latter soils are called inclusions or
included soils. In the general soil map units, they are
called soils of minor extent.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil
maps because of the scale used in mapping. The
inclusions of contrasting soils are mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. A few inclusions may not


have been observed and consequently are not
mentioned in the descriptions, especially where the
soil pattern was so complex that it was impractical
to make enough observations to identify all of the
kinds of soils on the landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive
uses in small areas.

Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
Information
Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
probability that the composition of a map unit or a
property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
data to determine confidence limits, the natural
variability of soils and the way soil surveys are made
must be considered. The composition of map units and
other information are derived largely from
extrapolations made from a small sample. Also,
information about the soils does not extend below a
depth of about 6 feet. The information presented in the
soil survey is not meant to be used as a substitute for
onsite investigations. Soil survey information can be
used to select alternative practices or general designs
that may be needed to minimize the possibility of soil-
related failures. It cannot be used to interpret specific
points on the landscape.
Specific confidence limits for the composition for
map units in Gulf County were determined by
random transects made with a ground-penetrating
radar system and by hand across mapped areas.
The data are statistically summarized in the
description of each map unit in the section "Detailed
Soil Map Units." Soil scientists made enough
transects and took enough samples to characterize
each map unit at a specific confidence level. For
example, map unit 36, Sapelo sand, was
characterized at a 95 percent confidence level
based on the transect data. This means that on 95
percent of the acreage mapped as Sapelo sand,
Sapelo and similar soils make up about 80 to 100
percent of the mapped areas.

















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the
general soil map defines a specific group of natural
landscapes. Typically, it consists of one or more major
soils and some minor soils. It is named for the major
soils. The soils making up one unit can occur in
another but in a different landscape pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable
for planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or a building or other
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other
characteristics that affect management.

Soils on Uplands and in Areas of
Flatwoods
The two general soil map units in this group consist of
nearly level and gently sloping, well drained to somewhat
poorly drained soils. These soils have a sandy surface
layer and subsurface layer and a loamy subsoil.

1. Stilson-Fuquay-Dothan

Nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well
drained and well drained soils that have a sandy
surface layer and a loamy subsoil; formed in sandy and
loamy sediments
This map unit is on uplands that parallel the flood
plain along the Apalachicola River from Honeyville to
the Calhoun County line. The landscape is well
dissected by small streams and is interspersed with
depressions. The natural vegetation consists of mixed
pines and hardwoods.
This map unit makes up about 1 percent of the
county. It is about 45 percent Stilson soils, 35 percent
Fuquay soils, 10 percent Dothan soils, and 10 percent
soils of minor extent.


Stilson soils are moderately well drained. The
surface layer is dark grayish brown loamy fine sand.
The subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy fine
sand. The upper part of the subsoil is yellowish brown
fine sandy loam. The next part is light yellowish brown
fine sandy loam that has mottles in shades of gray,
brown, red, and yellow and has 5 to 10 percent
plinthite. The lower part is sandy clay loam that is
mottled in shades of gray, brown, and red.
Fuquay soils are well drained. The surface layer is
dark gray loamy fine sand. The subsurface layer is light
yellowish brown loamy fine sand. The upper part of the
subsoil is brownish yellow fine sandy loam. The next
part is brownish yellow sandy clay loam that has mottles
in shades of brown and has 10 percent plinthite. The
lower part is sandy clay loam that is mottled in shades
of gray and brown and has 5 percent plinthite.
Dothan soils are well drained. The surface layer is
dark grayish brown loamy sand. The subsurface layer
is light yellowish brown loamy sand. The upper part of
the subsoil is yellowish brown fine sandy loam that has
10 percent plinthite. The next part is sandy clay loam
that is mottled in shades of gray, brown, yellow, and
red and has 5 percent plinthite. The lower part is sandy
clay loam that is mottled in shades of gray, brown,
yellow, and red.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Clarendon, Leefield, Lucy, Ocilla, Pantego, Plummer,
and Rains soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland or
cropland. Generally, no significant management
concerns affect these uses.

2. Leefield-Albany-Blanton

Nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
and moderately well drained soils that have a thick,
sandy surface layer and a loamy subsoil
This map unit is on low uplands in broad areas in
the northern quarter of the county and along a low
ridge that parallels the flood plain along the
Apalachicola River from Wewahitchka to Howard
Creek. Areas of this unit generally are dissected by

















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the
general soil map defines a specific group of natural
landscapes. Typically, it consists of one or more major
soils and some minor soils. It is named for the major
soils. The soils making up one unit can occur in
another but in a different landscape pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable
for planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or a building or other
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other
characteristics that affect management.

Soils on Uplands and in Areas of
Flatwoods
The two general soil map units in this group consist of
nearly level and gently sloping, well drained to somewhat
poorly drained soils. These soils have a sandy surface
layer and subsurface layer and a loamy subsoil.

1. Stilson-Fuquay-Dothan

Nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well
drained and well drained soils that have a sandy
surface layer and a loamy subsoil; formed in sandy and
loamy sediments
This map unit is on uplands that parallel the flood
plain along the Apalachicola River from Honeyville to
the Calhoun County line. The landscape is well
dissected by small streams and is interspersed with
depressions. The natural vegetation consists of mixed
pines and hardwoods.
This map unit makes up about 1 percent of the
county. It is about 45 percent Stilson soils, 35 percent
Fuquay soils, 10 percent Dothan soils, and 10 percent
soils of minor extent.


Stilson soils are moderately well drained. The
surface layer is dark grayish brown loamy fine sand.
The subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy fine
sand. The upper part of the subsoil is yellowish brown
fine sandy loam. The next part is light yellowish brown
fine sandy loam that has mottles in shades of gray,
brown, red, and yellow and has 5 to 10 percent
plinthite. The lower part is sandy clay loam that is
mottled in shades of gray, brown, and red.
Fuquay soils are well drained. The surface layer is
dark gray loamy fine sand. The subsurface layer is light
yellowish brown loamy fine sand. The upper part of the
subsoil is brownish yellow fine sandy loam. The next
part is brownish yellow sandy clay loam that has mottles
in shades of brown and has 10 percent plinthite. The
lower part is sandy clay loam that is mottled in shades
of gray and brown and has 5 percent plinthite.
Dothan soils are well drained. The surface layer is
dark grayish brown loamy sand. The subsurface layer
is light yellowish brown loamy sand. The upper part of
the subsoil is yellowish brown fine sandy loam that has
10 percent plinthite. The next part is sandy clay loam
that is mottled in shades of gray, brown, yellow, and
red and has 5 percent plinthite. The lower part is sandy
clay loam that is mottled in shades of gray, brown,
yellow, and red.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Clarendon, Leefield, Lucy, Ocilla, Pantego, Plummer,
and Rains soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland or
cropland. Generally, no significant management
concerns affect these uses.

2. Leefield-Albany-Blanton

Nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
and moderately well drained soils that have a thick,
sandy surface layer and a loamy subsoil
This map unit is on low uplands in broad areas in
the northern quarter of the county and along a low
ridge that parallels the flood plain along the
Apalachicola River from Wewahitchka to Howard
Creek. Areas of this unit generally are dissected by

















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the
general soil map defines a specific group of natural
landscapes. Typically, it consists of one or more major
soils and some minor soils. It is named for the major
soils. The soils making up one unit can occur in
another but in a different landscape pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable
for planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or a building or other
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other
characteristics that affect management.

Soils on Uplands and in Areas of
Flatwoods
The two general soil map units in this group consist of
nearly level and gently sloping, well drained to somewhat
poorly drained soils. These soils have a sandy surface
layer and subsurface layer and a loamy subsoil.

1. Stilson-Fuquay-Dothan

Nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well
drained and well drained soils that have a sandy
surface layer and a loamy subsoil; formed in sandy and
loamy sediments
This map unit is on uplands that parallel the flood
plain along the Apalachicola River from Honeyville to
the Calhoun County line. The landscape is well
dissected by small streams and is interspersed with
depressions. The natural vegetation consists of mixed
pines and hardwoods.
This map unit makes up about 1 percent of the
county. It is about 45 percent Stilson soils, 35 percent
Fuquay soils, 10 percent Dothan soils, and 10 percent
soils of minor extent.


Stilson soils are moderately well drained. The
surface layer is dark grayish brown loamy fine sand.
The subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy fine
sand. The upper part of the subsoil is yellowish brown
fine sandy loam. The next part is light yellowish brown
fine sandy loam that has mottles in shades of gray,
brown, red, and yellow and has 5 to 10 percent
plinthite. The lower part is sandy clay loam that is
mottled in shades of gray, brown, and red.
Fuquay soils are well drained. The surface layer is
dark gray loamy fine sand. The subsurface layer is light
yellowish brown loamy fine sand. The upper part of the
subsoil is brownish yellow fine sandy loam. The next
part is brownish yellow sandy clay loam that has mottles
in shades of brown and has 10 percent plinthite. The
lower part is sandy clay loam that is mottled in shades
of gray and brown and has 5 percent plinthite.
Dothan soils are well drained. The surface layer is
dark grayish brown loamy sand. The subsurface layer
is light yellowish brown loamy sand. The upper part of
the subsoil is yellowish brown fine sandy loam that has
10 percent plinthite. The next part is sandy clay loam
that is mottled in shades of gray, brown, yellow, and
red and has 5 percent plinthite. The lower part is sandy
clay loam that is mottled in shades of gray, brown,
yellow, and red.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Clarendon, Leefield, Lucy, Ocilla, Pantego, Plummer,
and Rains soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland or
cropland. Generally, no significant management
concerns affect these uses.

2. Leefield-Albany-Blanton

Nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
and moderately well drained soils that have a thick,
sandy surface layer and a loamy subsoil
This map unit is on low uplands in broad areas in
the northern quarter of the county and along a low
ridge that parallels the flood plain along the
Apalachicola River from Wewahitchka to Howard
Creek. Areas of this unit generally are dissected by

















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the
general soil map defines a specific group of natural
landscapes. Typically, it consists of one or more major
soils and some minor soils. It is named for the major
soils. The soils making up one unit can occur in
another but in a different landscape pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable
for planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or a building or other
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other
characteristics that affect management.

Soils on Uplands and in Areas of
Flatwoods
The two general soil map units in this group consist of
nearly level and gently sloping, well drained to somewhat
poorly drained soils. These soils have a sandy surface
layer and subsurface layer and a loamy subsoil.

1. Stilson-Fuquay-Dothan

Nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well
drained and well drained soils that have a sandy
surface layer and a loamy subsoil; formed in sandy and
loamy sediments
This map unit is on uplands that parallel the flood
plain along the Apalachicola River from Honeyville to
the Calhoun County line. The landscape is well
dissected by small streams and is interspersed with
depressions. The natural vegetation consists of mixed
pines and hardwoods.
This map unit makes up about 1 percent of the
county. It is about 45 percent Stilson soils, 35 percent
Fuquay soils, 10 percent Dothan soils, and 10 percent
soils of minor extent.


Stilson soils are moderately well drained. The
surface layer is dark grayish brown loamy fine sand.
The subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy fine
sand. The upper part of the subsoil is yellowish brown
fine sandy loam. The next part is light yellowish brown
fine sandy loam that has mottles in shades of gray,
brown, red, and yellow and has 5 to 10 percent
plinthite. The lower part is sandy clay loam that is
mottled in shades of gray, brown, and red.
Fuquay soils are well drained. The surface layer is
dark gray loamy fine sand. The subsurface layer is light
yellowish brown loamy fine sand. The upper part of the
subsoil is brownish yellow fine sandy loam. The next
part is brownish yellow sandy clay loam that has mottles
in shades of brown and has 10 percent plinthite. The
lower part is sandy clay loam that is mottled in shades
of gray and brown and has 5 percent plinthite.
Dothan soils are well drained. The surface layer is
dark grayish brown loamy sand. The subsurface layer
is light yellowish brown loamy sand. The upper part of
the subsoil is yellowish brown fine sandy loam that has
10 percent plinthite. The next part is sandy clay loam
that is mottled in shades of gray, brown, yellow, and
red and has 5 percent plinthite. The lower part is sandy
clay loam that is mottled in shades of gray, brown,
yellow, and red.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Clarendon, Leefield, Lucy, Ocilla, Pantego, Plummer,
and Rains soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland or
cropland. Generally, no significant management
concerns affect these uses.

2. Leefield-Albany-Blanton

Nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
and moderately well drained soils that have a thick,
sandy surface layer and a loamy subsoil
This map unit is on low uplands in broad areas in
the northern quarter of the county and along a low
ridge that parallels the flood plain along the
Apalachicola River from Wewahitchka to Howard
Creek. Areas of this unit generally are dissected by






Soil Survey


streams and creeks. The natural vegetation consists of
mixed pines and hardwoods.
This map unit makes up about 8 percent of the
county. It is about 35 percent Leefield soils, 25 percent
Albany soils, 10 percent Blanton soils, and 30 percent
soils of minor extent.
Leefield soils are somewhat poorly drained. The
surface layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand. The
subsurface layer is light yellowish brown and pale
brown loamy fine sand.The upper part of the subsoil is
fine sandy loam that is mottled in shades of gray,
yellow, and red and has 5 percent plinthite. The lower
part is grayish brown sandy clay loam that has mottles
in shades of yellow, gray, and red.
Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. The
surface layer is a very dark gray sand. The upper part
of the subsurface layer is light yellowish brown loamy
sand. The lower part is very pale brown loamy sand
that has mottles in shades of brown and yellow. The
subsoil is light gray sandy loam that has mottles in
shades of yellow, brown, and gray in the upper part and
in shades of brown and pink in the lower part.
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. The surface
layer is dark grayish brown sand. The upper part of the
subsurface layer is light yellowish brown sand. The lower
part is very pale brown sand. The upper part of the
subsoil is brownish yellow loamy sand and sandy loam
having mottles in shades of brown. The lower part is light
gray sandy loam that has mottles in shades of brown.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Alapaha, Clarendon, Ortega, Plummer, Ridgewood,
Sapelo, and Stilson soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland.
Some areas are used for cultivated crops or pasture.
This map unit is suited to slash pine. Droughtiness
and seasonal wetness are management concerns.
This map unit is suited to cultivated crops, pasture,
and hayland. Seasonal droughtiness is a management
concern.
The Blanton soils in this map unit are suited to
urban development. The sandy surface layer and
wetness are management concerns. The Albany and
Leefield soils are poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness and the restricted permeability in the Leefield
soils are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Wetness and the sandy surface layers
are management concerns.

Soils in Areas of Flatwoods, on Low Flats,
in Depressions, and on Terraces
The seven general soil map units in this group
consist of nearly level and gently sloping, very poorly


drained to moderately well drained soils. Some of these
soils have sandy surface and subsurface layers and a
loamy subsoil; some are deep, sandy soils that have
organic material in the subsoil; some have a loamy
surface layer and a clayey subsoil; some are sandy
throughout and do not have a subsoil; and some are
organic soils that have a loamy or sandy substratum.

3. Pelham-Plummer-Alapaha

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
depth of 40 inches or more or to a depth of 20 to 40
inches and that are loamy below the sandy material
This map unit is on low flats and in areas of low
flatwoods. It is in broad, nearly level areas extending
from the northwestern part of the county through the
central part of the county to the Lake Wimico swamps
in the southeastern part of the county. It is the-largest
general soil map unit in the county. The landscape has
low relief and includes numerous swamps,
depressions, and poorly defined drainageways. The
natural vegetation consists of black titi, swamp cyrilla,
sweetbay, blackgum, baldcypress, water oak, and
slash pine and an understory of wiregrass, wax-myrtle,
and saw palmetto.
This map unit makes up about 25 percent of the
county. It is about 40 percent Pelham soils, 40 percent
Plummer soils, 10 percent Alapaha soils, and 10
percent soils of minor extent.
The surface layer of the Pelham soils is black loamy
fine sand. The subsurface layer is grayish loamy fine
sand. Gray fine sandy loam is at a depth of 20 to 40
inches. Below this is gray sandy clay loam.
The surface layer of the Plummer soils is very dark
gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is grayish fine
sand. The subsoil is gray fine sandy loam. It is at a
depth of 40 inches or more.
The surface layer of the Alapaha soils is black
loamy fine sand. The subsurface layer is dark gray
loamy fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
depth of 40 inches, is gray fine sandy loam. The lower
part is sandy clay loam containing soft and hardened
ironstone nodules.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Albany, Bayboro, Bladen, Croatan, Dorovan, Leefield,
Pantego, and Rains soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland.
This map unit is suited to slash pine. Wetness is a
management concern.
Wetness is the main management concern for most
land uses. Drainage and bedding are commonly practical
for the production of specialty crops, such as blueberries
(fig. 2). Filling can help to overcome the wetness on sites
for homes and septic tank absorption fields.






Soil Survey


streams and creeks. The natural vegetation consists of
mixed pines and hardwoods.
This map unit makes up about 8 percent of the
county. It is about 35 percent Leefield soils, 25 percent
Albany soils, 10 percent Blanton soils, and 30 percent
soils of minor extent.
Leefield soils are somewhat poorly drained. The
surface layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand. The
subsurface layer is light yellowish brown and pale
brown loamy fine sand.The upper part of the subsoil is
fine sandy loam that is mottled in shades of gray,
yellow, and red and has 5 percent plinthite. The lower
part is grayish brown sandy clay loam that has mottles
in shades of yellow, gray, and red.
Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. The
surface layer is a very dark gray sand. The upper part
of the subsurface layer is light yellowish brown loamy
sand. The lower part is very pale brown loamy sand
that has mottles in shades of brown and yellow. The
subsoil is light gray sandy loam that has mottles in
shades of yellow, brown, and gray in the upper part and
in shades of brown and pink in the lower part.
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. The surface
layer is dark grayish brown sand. The upper part of the
subsurface layer is light yellowish brown sand. The lower
part is very pale brown sand. The upper part of the
subsoil is brownish yellow loamy sand and sandy loam
having mottles in shades of brown. The lower part is light
gray sandy loam that has mottles in shades of brown.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Alapaha, Clarendon, Ortega, Plummer, Ridgewood,
Sapelo, and Stilson soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland.
Some areas are used for cultivated crops or pasture.
This map unit is suited to slash pine. Droughtiness
and seasonal wetness are management concerns.
This map unit is suited to cultivated crops, pasture,
and hayland. Seasonal droughtiness is a management
concern.
The Blanton soils in this map unit are suited to
urban development. The sandy surface layer and
wetness are management concerns. The Albany and
Leefield soils are poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness and the restricted permeability in the Leefield
soils are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Wetness and the sandy surface layers
are management concerns.

Soils in Areas of Flatwoods, on Low Flats,
in Depressions, and on Terraces
The seven general soil map units in this group
consist of nearly level and gently sloping, very poorly


drained to moderately well drained soils. Some of these
soils have sandy surface and subsurface layers and a
loamy subsoil; some are deep, sandy soils that have
organic material in the subsoil; some have a loamy
surface layer and a clayey subsoil; some are sandy
throughout and do not have a subsoil; and some are
organic soils that have a loamy or sandy substratum.

3. Pelham-Plummer-Alapaha

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
depth of 40 inches or more or to a depth of 20 to 40
inches and that are loamy below the sandy material
This map unit is on low flats and in areas of low
flatwoods. It is in broad, nearly level areas extending
from the northwestern part of the county through the
central part of the county to the Lake Wimico swamps
in the southeastern part of the county. It is the-largest
general soil map unit in the county. The landscape has
low relief and includes numerous swamps,
depressions, and poorly defined drainageways. The
natural vegetation consists of black titi, swamp cyrilla,
sweetbay, blackgum, baldcypress, water oak, and
slash pine and an understory of wiregrass, wax-myrtle,
and saw palmetto.
This map unit makes up about 25 percent of the
county. It is about 40 percent Pelham soils, 40 percent
Plummer soils, 10 percent Alapaha soils, and 10
percent soils of minor extent.
The surface layer of the Pelham soils is black loamy
fine sand. The subsurface layer is grayish loamy fine
sand. Gray fine sandy loam is at a depth of 20 to 40
inches. Below this is gray sandy clay loam.
The surface layer of the Plummer soils is very dark
gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is grayish fine
sand. The subsoil is gray fine sandy loam. It is at a
depth of 40 inches or more.
The surface layer of the Alapaha soils is black
loamy fine sand. The subsurface layer is dark gray
loamy fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
depth of 40 inches, is gray fine sandy loam. The lower
part is sandy clay loam containing soft and hardened
ironstone nodules.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Albany, Bayboro, Bladen, Croatan, Dorovan, Leefield,
Pantego, and Rains soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland.
This map unit is suited to slash pine. Wetness is a
management concern.
Wetness is the main management concern for most
land uses. Drainage and bedding are commonly practical
for the production of specialty crops, such as blueberries
(fig. 2). Filling can help to overcome the wetness on sites
for homes and septic tank absorption fields.







Gulf County, Florida


Figure 2.-Blueberries in an area of the Pelham-Plummer-Alapaha general soil map unit. Bedding is used to elevate the plants
above the seasonal high water table.


4. Rains-Bladen
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that have a thin,
loamy surface layer and a clayey subsoil or that have
a loamy surface layer, a loamy subsoil, and a clayey
substratum
This map unit is on low flats in pitcher plant bogs
and wet savannas. It occurs as a cluster of several
areas that are separated from each other by Cypress
Creek and its tributaries. The landscape has low relief
and includes numerous swamps, depressions, and
poorly defined drainageways. The natural vegetation
consists of scattered slash pine, sweetbay, water oak,
and red maple and an understory of wiregrass, pitcher
plant, black titi, St. Johnswort, and saw palmetto.
This map unit makes up about 5 percent of the


county. It is about 70 percent Rains soils, 10
percent Bladen soils, and 20 percent soils of minor
extent.
The surface layer of the Rains soils is very dark
grayish brown fine sandy loam. The subsurface layer is
light gray fine sandy loam. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 36 inches, is gray fine sandy
loam. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is gray sandy clay loam.
The surface layer of the Bladen soils is very dark
grayish brown fine sandy loam. The subsurface layer is
light brownish gray fine sandy loam. The upper part of
the subsoil, to a depth of 50 inches, is gray clay loam.
The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is light
gray clay.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include






Soil Survey


Albany, Bayboro, Croatan, Dorovan, Leefield, Plummer,
and Pantego soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland.
Potential productivity is high for slash pine. Wetness is
the main management concern. Bedding is commonly
used to overcome the wetness.
Wetness is the main management concern for most
land uses. Drainage is commonly practical for the
production of cultivated crops. Filling can help to
overcome the wetness on sites for homes and septic
tank absorption fields.

5. Leon-Pickney-Mandarin

Nearly level, poorly drained, very poorly drained, and
somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
depth of at least 80 inches
This map unit is in areas of flatwoods, in
depressions, and on low ridges. It extends from the
extreme southern part of the county on the Gulf of
Mexico northwest along the coast through Port St. Joe
to the western county line. The landscape is a
repeating sequence of low ridges and depressions
parallel to the coast. Maximum development of this
sequence occurs nearest to the coast. The
development is less pronounced farther inland. The
natural vegetation on the ridges and in the areas of
flatwoods consists of slash pine, longleaf pine, water
oak, turkey oak, saw palmetto, gallberry, wiregrass,
broomsedge, and bluestem. The natural vegetation in
the depressions consists of slash pine, black titi,
swamp cyrilla, baldcypress, and sweetbay and an
understory of titi, St. Johnswort, and pitcher plants.
This map unit makes up about 6 percent of the
county. It is about 45 percent Leon soils, 30 percent
Pickney soils, 10 percent Mandarin soils, and 15
percent soils of minor extent.
Leon soils are poorly drained.The surface layer is
dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is light gray
fine sand to a depth of 21 inches. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 29 inches, is very dark brown
fine sand. The lower part, to a depth 35 inches, is very
pale brown fine sand. The underlying material is light
gray and white fine sand.
Pickney soils are very poorly drained. The surface
layer is black to very dark grayish brown fine sand. It
extends to a depth of 51 inches.The underlying
material is grayish brown fine sand.
Mandarin soils are somewhat poorly drained.The
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand. The
subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a
depth of 13 inches. The subsoil is dark brown or brown
fine sand to a depth of 30 inches. The underlying
material is white fine sand.


The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Lynn Haven, Maurepas, Ridgewood, Resota,
Pottsburg, Pamlico, and Scranton soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland.
A few areas have been developed for homesites. Some
areas are suited to slash pine.
Wetness is a management concern. Pickney soils
are not suited to woodland because of ponding.
This map unit is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness is a management concern. Draining, filling,
and mounding are commonly used to overcome the
wetness. This map unit generally is not used for
cultivated crops because of the wetness in some areas
and droughtiness in others.

6. Scranton-Pickney-Leon

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained,
sandy soils that have a stained subsoil, do not have a
develop subsoil, or have a thick, dark surface layer
This map unit is in areas of flatwoods and in
depressions. The landscape has broad flats
interspersed with numerous elongated depressions that
commonly are tenuously connected by intermittent
drains (fig. 3). Areas are generally parallel to the
coastline and are located several miles inland. One
small area is adjacent to the coastline of St. Joseph
Bay. The natural vegetation in the areas of flatwoods
includes slash pine, laurel oak, and water oak and an
understory of saw palmetto, wax-myrtle, and wiregrass.
The natural vegetation in the depressions includes
pondcypress and sweetbay and an understory of black
titi, swamp cyrilla, and sawgrass.
The map unit makes up about 8 percent of the
county. It is about 45 percent Scranton soils, 20
percent Pickney soils, 10 percent Leon soils, and 25
percent soils of minor extent.
Scranton soils are poorly drained.The surface layer
is very dark brown fine sand. The underlying material is
brownish and grayish fine sand.
Pickney soils are very poorly drained. The surface
layer is black to very dark grayish brown fine sand. It
ranges from 24 to 60 inches in thickness. The
underlying material is brownish and grayish fine sand.
Leon soils are poorly drained. The surface layer is
dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is light gray
fine sand to a depth of 21 inches. The subsoil is very
dark brown and very pale brown fine sand to a depth of
35 inches.The underlying material is grayish and white
fine sand.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Lynn Haven, Mandarin, Pamlico, Pottsburg, Resota,
and Rutlege soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland.






Soil Survey


Albany, Bayboro, Croatan, Dorovan, Leefield, Plummer,
and Pantego soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland.
Potential productivity is high for slash pine. Wetness is
the main management concern. Bedding is commonly
used to overcome the wetness.
Wetness is the main management concern for most
land uses. Drainage is commonly practical for the
production of cultivated crops. Filling can help to
overcome the wetness on sites for homes and septic
tank absorption fields.

5. Leon-Pickney-Mandarin

Nearly level, poorly drained, very poorly drained, and
somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
depth of at least 80 inches
This map unit is in areas of flatwoods, in
depressions, and on low ridges. It extends from the
extreme southern part of the county on the Gulf of
Mexico northwest along the coast through Port St. Joe
to the western county line. The landscape is a
repeating sequence of low ridges and depressions
parallel to the coast. Maximum development of this
sequence occurs nearest to the coast. The
development is less pronounced farther inland. The
natural vegetation on the ridges and in the areas of
flatwoods consists of slash pine, longleaf pine, water
oak, turkey oak, saw palmetto, gallberry, wiregrass,
broomsedge, and bluestem. The natural vegetation in
the depressions consists of slash pine, black titi,
swamp cyrilla, baldcypress, and sweetbay and an
understory of titi, St. Johnswort, and pitcher plants.
This map unit makes up about 6 percent of the
county. It is about 45 percent Leon soils, 30 percent
Pickney soils, 10 percent Mandarin soils, and 15
percent soils of minor extent.
Leon soils are poorly drained.The surface layer is
dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is light gray
fine sand to a depth of 21 inches. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 29 inches, is very dark brown
fine sand. The lower part, to a depth 35 inches, is very
pale brown fine sand. The underlying material is light
gray and white fine sand.
Pickney soils are very poorly drained. The surface
layer is black to very dark grayish brown fine sand. It
extends to a depth of 51 inches.The underlying
material is grayish brown fine sand.
Mandarin soils are somewhat poorly drained.The
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand. The
subsurface layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a
depth of 13 inches. The subsoil is dark brown or brown
fine sand to a depth of 30 inches. The underlying
material is white fine sand.


The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Lynn Haven, Maurepas, Ridgewood, Resota,
Pottsburg, Pamlico, and Scranton soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland.
A few areas have been developed for homesites. Some
areas are suited to slash pine.
Wetness is a management concern. Pickney soils
are not suited to woodland because of ponding.
This map unit is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness is a management concern. Draining, filling,
and mounding are commonly used to overcome the
wetness. This map unit generally is not used for
cultivated crops because of the wetness in some areas
and droughtiness in others.

6. Scranton-Pickney-Leon

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained,
sandy soils that have a stained subsoil, do not have a
develop subsoil, or have a thick, dark surface layer
This map unit is in areas of flatwoods and in
depressions. The landscape has broad flats
interspersed with numerous elongated depressions that
commonly are tenuously connected by intermittent
drains (fig. 3). Areas are generally parallel to the
coastline and are located several miles inland. One
small area is adjacent to the coastline of St. Joseph
Bay. The natural vegetation in the areas of flatwoods
includes slash pine, laurel oak, and water oak and an
understory of saw palmetto, wax-myrtle, and wiregrass.
The natural vegetation in the depressions includes
pondcypress and sweetbay and an understory of black
titi, swamp cyrilla, and sawgrass.
The map unit makes up about 8 percent of the
county. It is about 45 percent Scranton soils, 20
percent Pickney soils, 10 percent Leon soils, and 25
percent soils of minor extent.
Scranton soils are poorly drained.The surface layer
is very dark brown fine sand. The underlying material is
brownish and grayish fine sand.
Pickney soils are very poorly drained. The surface
layer is black to very dark grayish brown fine sand. It
ranges from 24 to 60 inches in thickness. The
underlying material is brownish and grayish fine sand.
Leon soils are poorly drained. The surface layer is
dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is light gray
fine sand to a depth of 21 inches. The subsoil is very
dark brown and very pale brown fine sand to a depth of
35 inches.The underlying material is grayish and white
fine sand.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Lynn Haven, Mandarin, Pamlico, Pottsburg, Resota,
and Rutlege soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland.






Gulf County, Florida


ii A


Figure 3.-A typical landscape in the Scranton-Pickney-Leon general soil map unit. The Leon and Scranton soils are in the flat,
nearly level area, which has pine savanna vegetation. The Pickney soils are in the densely wooded depressions in the
background.


These areas are suited to slash pine. Wetness is a
management concern. Pickney soils are not suited to
woodland because of ponding.
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited to
urban development. Wetness is a management
concern. Draining, filling, and mounding are commonly
used to overcome the wetness.
This map unit generally is not used for cultivated
crops because of the wetness.

7. Bladen-Wahee-Kenansville

Nearly level, poorly drained to moderately well drained
soils that have a loamy surface layer and a loamy and
clayey subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more or that
have a sandy surface layer, are loamy to a depth of less
than 60 inches, and are sandy below the loamy material


This map unit is on low flats that are dissected by
oxbow depressions and interspersed with low uplands.
Most areas of this map unit are between the Dead
Lakes and the flood plain along the Apalachicola River
north of the Chipola River cutoff. The natural vegetation
consists of spruce pine, sweetgum, live oak, dogwood,
water oak, and red maple.
This unit makes up about 2 percent of the county. It
is about 45 percent Bladen soils, 20 percent Wahee
soils, 5 percent Kenansville soils, and 30 percent soils
of minor extent.
Bladen soils are poorly drained. The surface layer is
very dark grayish brown fine sandy loam. The subsurface
layer is light brownish gray sandy loam to a depth of 18
inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 50
inches, is grayish sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is grayish clay.






Soil Survey


Wahee soils are poorly drained. The surface layer is
dark grayish brown fine sandy loam. The subsurface
layer is light yellowish brown loam to a depth of 12
inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 43
inches, is light yellowish brown sandy clay. The lower
part, to depth of 72 inches, is light gray clay. The
underlying material is brownish sandy loam to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
Kenansville soils are moderately well drained. The
surface layer is very dark grayish brown loamy fine
sand. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy
fine sand to a depth of 23 inches. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 59 inches, is yellowish sandy
clay loam. The lower part, to a depth of 71 inches, is
reddish fine sandy loam. The underlying material is
yellowish fine sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are
Brickyard, Clarendon, Bayboro, Chowan, Kenner,
Eulonia, Pantego, and Meggett soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland.
This map unit is suited to hardwoods and slash pine.
Wetness is a management concern.
Wetness is a management concern for cultivated
crops.
This map unit is generally not suited to most land
uses. Wetness, restricted permeability in the subsoil,
and shrink-swell potential are management concerns
for urban development.

8. Surrency-Pantego-Croatan

Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that have a
sandy or mucky sand surface layer and a loamy
subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches or that have a 20-
to 50-inch-thick organic surface layer and a loamy
substratum
This map unit is in broad depressions and narrow
swamps along small streams and creeks throughout
the northern and central parts of the county. Some of
the streams have well defined channels and a constant
flow throughout the year. Other streams have no
discernible channel, and water flows only seasonally or
during flash floods following heavy rains. Most areas of
this map unit are ponded for long periods. The natural
vegetation consists of water tupelo, baldcypress,
sweetbay, and red maple and an understory of ferns
and grasses.
This map unit makes up about 12 percent of the
county. It is about 50 percent Surrency soils, 15
percent Pantego soils, 15 percent Croatan soils, and
20 percent soils of minor extent.
The surface layer of the Surrency soils is black
mucky fine sand to a depth of 18 inches. The


subsurface layer is very dark grayish brown loamy fine
sand to a depth of 34 inches. The subsoil is grayish to
brownish sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The surface layer of the Pantego soils is very dark
gray sandy loam. The subsurface layer is grayish
sandy loam to a depth of 18 inches. The upper part of
the subsoil, to a depth of 44 inches, is gray clay loam.
The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is light
gray clay.
The surface layer of the Croatan soils, to a depth of
40 inches, is dark brown to very dark grayish brown
muck. Below this are layers of brownish and grayish
mucky sandy loam, sandy clay, loam, and clay loam.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Aquents and
Alapaha, Bayboro, Bladen, Clarendon, Dorovan,
Maurepas, Meadowbrook, Pelham, Pickney, Plummer,
Rutlege, and Stilson soils.
Most areas of this map unit support natural
vegetation. A few areas are used as woodland. This
map unit generally is not suited to most land uses.
Ponding, flooding, and low bearing strength are
management concerns.

9. Pickney-Pamlico

Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are sandy to
a depth of 80 inches or more or that are organic to a
depth of 16 to 50 inches and are underlain by sandy
mineral layers
This map unit is in large depressions and swamps
between the coastal ridge and the interior flatwoods.
Areas of this map unit are generally parallel to the
coast. The natural vegetation consists of sweetbay,
pondcypress, slash pine, swamp cyrilla, and black -iti.
This unit makes up about 6 percent of the county. It
is about 40 percent Pickney soils, 25 percent Pamlico
soils, and 35 percent soils of minor extent.
The surface layer of the Pickney soil is black, very
dark brown, and very dark grayish brown fine sand to a
depth of 51 inches. The underlying material is grayish
brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The upper part of the surface layer of the Pamlico
soils, to a depth of 7 inches, is dark brown muck. The
lower part, to a depth of 22 inches, is black muck. The
upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of 28
inches, is very dark grayish brown fine sand. The next
part, to a depth of 69 inches, is very dark brown and
very dark grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is dark grayish brown fine
sand.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Dorovan, Rutlege, Croatan, Lynn Haven, Scranton,
Leon, and Pottsburg soils.
Most areas of this map unit support natural






Soil Survey


Wahee soils are poorly drained. The surface layer is
dark grayish brown fine sandy loam. The subsurface
layer is light yellowish brown loam to a depth of 12
inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 43
inches, is light yellowish brown sandy clay. The lower
part, to depth of 72 inches, is light gray clay. The
underlying material is brownish sandy loam to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
Kenansville soils are moderately well drained. The
surface layer is very dark grayish brown loamy fine
sand. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy
fine sand to a depth of 23 inches. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 59 inches, is yellowish sandy
clay loam. The lower part, to a depth of 71 inches, is
reddish fine sandy loam. The underlying material is
yellowish fine sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are
Brickyard, Clarendon, Bayboro, Chowan, Kenner,
Eulonia, Pantego, and Meggett soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used as woodland.
This map unit is suited to hardwoods and slash pine.
Wetness is a management concern.
Wetness is a management concern for cultivated
crops.
This map unit is generally not suited to most land
uses. Wetness, restricted permeability in the subsoil,
and shrink-swell potential are management concerns
for urban development.

8. Surrency-Pantego-Croatan

Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that have a
sandy or mucky sand surface layer and a loamy
subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches or that have a 20-
to 50-inch-thick organic surface layer and a loamy
substratum
This map unit is in broad depressions and narrow
swamps along small streams and creeks throughout
the northern and central parts of the county. Some of
the streams have well defined channels and a constant
flow throughout the year. Other streams have no
discernible channel, and water flows only seasonally or
during flash floods following heavy rains. Most areas of
this map unit are ponded for long periods. The natural
vegetation consists of water tupelo, baldcypress,
sweetbay, and red maple and an understory of ferns
and grasses.
This map unit makes up about 12 percent of the
county. It is about 50 percent Surrency soils, 15
percent Pantego soils, 15 percent Croatan soils, and
20 percent soils of minor extent.
The surface layer of the Surrency soils is black
mucky fine sand to a depth of 18 inches. The


subsurface layer is very dark grayish brown loamy fine
sand to a depth of 34 inches. The subsoil is grayish to
brownish sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The surface layer of the Pantego soils is very dark
gray sandy loam. The subsurface layer is grayish
sandy loam to a depth of 18 inches. The upper part of
the subsoil, to a depth of 44 inches, is gray clay loam.
The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is light
gray clay.
The surface layer of the Croatan soils, to a depth of
40 inches, is dark brown to very dark grayish brown
muck. Below this are layers of brownish and grayish
mucky sandy loam, sandy clay, loam, and clay loam.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Aquents and
Alapaha, Bayboro, Bladen, Clarendon, Dorovan,
Maurepas, Meadowbrook, Pelham, Pickney, Plummer,
Rutlege, and Stilson soils.
Most areas of this map unit support natural
vegetation. A few areas are used as woodland. This
map unit generally is not suited to most land uses.
Ponding, flooding, and low bearing strength are
management concerns.

9. Pickney-Pamlico

Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are sandy to
a depth of 80 inches or more or that are organic to a
depth of 16 to 50 inches and are underlain by sandy
mineral layers
This map unit is in large depressions and swamps
between the coastal ridge and the interior flatwoods.
Areas of this map unit are generally parallel to the
coast. The natural vegetation consists of sweetbay,
pondcypress, slash pine, swamp cyrilla, and black -iti.
This unit makes up about 6 percent of the county. It
is about 40 percent Pickney soils, 25 percent Pamlico
soils, and 35 percent soils of minor extent.
The surface layer of the Pickney soil is black, very
dark brown, and very dark grayish brown fine sand to a
depth of 51 inches. The underlying material is grayish
brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The upper part of the surface layer of the Pamlico
soils, to a depth of 7 inches, is dark brown muck. The
lower part, to a depth of 22 inches, is black muck. The
upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of 28
inches, is very dark grayish brown fine sand. The next
part, to a depth of 69 inches, is very dark brown and
very dark grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is dark grayish brown fine
sand.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Dorovan, Rutlege, Croatan, Lynn Haven, Scranton,
Leon, and Pottsburg soils.
Most areas of this map unit support natural






Gulf County, Florida


vegetation or are used for the commercial production of
pine. Many areas of this unit are not suited to most
land uses. Ponding and low bearing strength are
management concerns.

Soils on Flood Plains and Low Terraces
along Rivers

The three general soil map units in this group
consist of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained to
very poorly drained soils that are subject to flooding.
Some of these soils have a loamy surface layer and a
clayey subsoil, some have sandy surface and
subsurface layers and a loamy subsoil, some are
clayey throughout, some are clayey and are underlain
by loamy materials, some are organic throughout, and
some are organic and are underlain by sandy
materials.

10. Meggett-Ocilla

Nearly level, poorly drained and somewhat poorly
drained soils that have a loamy surface layer and a
clayey subsoil or that have a sandy surface layer and
a loamy subsoil
This map unit is on low terraces adjacent to the flood
plain along the Apalachicola River. The landscape has
broad, nearly level areas that are lightly interspersed with
low knolls and shallow depressions. Low, dissected
ridges parallel the junction of the terrace and swamps
on flood plains. The natural vegetation consists of
cypress, red maple, water oak, cabbage palm,
blackgum, sweetbay, river birch, and slash pine.
This map unit makes up about 4 percent of the
county. It is about 50 percent Meggett soils, 20 percent
Ocilla soils, and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
Meggett soils are poorly drained. The surface layer
is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 5
inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 15
inches, is grayish sandy clay loam. The next part, to a
depth of 32 inches, is sandy clay. The lower part, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is clay.
Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained. The
surface layer is very dark grayish brown loamy fine
sand. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy
fine sand to a depth of 30 inches. The subsoil is light
olive brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 64 inches.
The underlying material is a stratified layer of sand and
loamy sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Alapaha, Brickyard, Chowan, Croatan, Leefield,
Meadowbrook, Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, and Wahee
soils.


Most areas of this map unit are used as cropland.
Although these soils are poorly suited to most
cultivated crops because of wetness, restricted
permeability, and flooding, the production of water-
tolerant crops is possible. The restricted permeability in
the subsoil of the Meggett soils is beneficial to the
construction of shallow ponds.
This map unit is well suited to woodland. Wetness
and occasional flooding are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness, flooding, and restricted permeability are
management concerns.

11. Brickyard-Chowan-Wahee

Nearly level, very poorly drained to somewhat poorly
drained soils that have a surface layer of silty clay
underlain by clayey layers or that have a surface layer
of silt loam underlain by stratified loamy and organic
layers
This map unit is on the flood plain along the
Apalachicola River. The landscape has broad, nearly
level swamps interspersed with low, elongated knolls
and bordered by low, natural levees along the river and
its distributaries. The natural vegetation consists of
cypress, tupelos, sweetgum, river birch, slash pine,
and cabbage palm and an understory of sawgrass and
other water-tolerant plants.
This map unit makes up about 16 percent of the
county. It is about 50 percent Brickyard soils, 20
percent Chowan soils, 5 percent Wahee soils, and 25
percent soils of minor extent.
Brickyard soils are poorly drained. The surface layer
is very dark grayish brown and brown silty clay. The
subsoil is brownish clay to a depth of 22 inches. The
underlying material is brownish and grayish clay.
Chowan soils are very poorly drained. The surface
layer is very dark grayish brown silt loam to a depth of
8 inches. Below this are stratified layers of loam, silty
clay loam, and muck.
Wahee soils are somewhat poorly drained.The
surface layer is dark brown silty clay to a depth of 5
inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 33
inches, is olive clay. The next part, to a depth of 52
inches, is brownish and grayish clay. The lower part, to
a depth of 80 inches, is grayish sandy clay loam.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Meadowbrook, Meggett, Ocilla, Kenner, Mantachie,
Pamlico, Pickney, Maurepas, Rutlege, and Surrency
soils.
Most areas of this map unit support natural
vegetation. This map unit is not suited to most land
uses. Frequent flooding and low bearing strength are
management concerns.






Gulf County, Florida


vegetation or are used for the commercial production of
pine. Many areas of this unit are not suited to most
land uses. Ponding and low bearing strength are
management concerns.

Soils on Flood Plains and Low Terraces
along Rivers

The three general soil map units in this group
consist of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained to
very poorly drained soils that are subject to flooding.
Some of these soils have a loamy surface layer and a
clayey subsoil, some have sandy surface and
subsurface layers and a loamy subsoil, some are
clayey throughout, some are clayey and are underlain
by loamy materials, some are organic throughout, and
some are organic and are underlain by sandy
materials.

10. Meggett-Ocilla

Nearly level, poorly drained and somewhat poorly
drained soils that have a loamy surface layer and a
clayey subsoil or that have a sandy surface layer and
a loamy subsoil
This map unit is on low terraces adjacent to the flood
plain along the Apalachicola River. The landscape has
broad, nearly level areas that are lightly interspersed with
low knolls and shallow depressions. Low, dissected
ridges parallel the junction of the terrace and swamps
on flood plains. The natural vegetation consists of
cypress, red maple, water oak, cabbage palm,
blackgum, sweetbay, river birch, and slash pine.
This map unit makes up about 4 percent of the
county. It is about 50 percent Meggett soils, 20 percent
Ocilla soils, and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
Meggett soils are poorly drained. The surface layer
is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 5
inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 15
inches, is grayish sandy clay loam. The next part, to a
depth of 32 inches, is sandy clay. The lower part, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is clay.
Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained. The
surface layer is very dark grayish brown loamy fine
sand. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy
fine sand to a depth of 30 inches. The subsoil is light
olive brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 64 inches.
The underlying material is a stratified layer of sand and
loamy sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Alapaha, Brickyard, Chowan, Croatan, Leefield,
Meadowbrook, Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, and Wahee
soils.


Most areas of this map unit are used as cropland.
Although these soils are poorly suited to most
cultivated crops because of wetness, restricted
permeability, and flooding, the production of water-
tolerant crops is possible. The restricted permeability in
the subsoil of the Meggett soils is beneficial to the
construction of shallow ponds.
This map unit is well suited to woodland. Wetness
and occasional flooding are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness, flooding, and restricted permeability are
management concerns.

11. Brickyard-Chowan-Wahee

Nearly level, very poorly drained to somewhat poorly
drained soils that have a surface layer of silty clay
underlain by clayey layers or that have a surface layer
of silt loam underlain by stratified loamy and organic
layers
This map unit is on the flood plain along the
Apalachicola River. The landscape has broad, nearly
level swamps interspersed with low, elongated knolls
and bordered by low, natural levees along the river and
its distributaries. The natural vegetation consists of
cypress, tupelos, sweetgum, river birch, slash pine,
and cabbage palm and an understory of sawgrass and
other water-tolerant plants.
This map unit makes up about 16 percent of the
county. It is about 50 percent Brickyard soils, 20
percent Chowan soils, 5 percent Wahee soils, and 25
percent soils of minor extent.
Brickyard soils are poorly drained. The surface layer
is very dark grayish brown and brown silty clay. The
subsoil is brownish clay to a depth of 22 inches. The
underlying material is brownish and grayish clay.
Chowan soils are very poorly drained. The surface
layer is very dark grayish brown silt loam to a depth of
8 inches. Below this are stratified layers of loam, silty
clay loam, and muck.
Wahee soils are somewhat poorly drained.The
surface layer is dark brown silty clay to a depth of 5
inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 33
inches, is olive clay. The next part, to a depth of 52
inches, is brownish and grayish clay. The lower part, to
a depth of 80 inches, is grayish sandy clay loam.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Meadowbrook, Meggett, Ocilla, Kenner, Mantachie,
Pamlico, Pickney, Maurepas, Rutlege, and Surrency
soils.
Most areas of this map unit support natural
vegetation. This map unit is not suited to most land
uses. Frequent flooding and low bearing strength are
management concerns.






Gulf County, Florida


vegetation or are used for the commercial production of
pine. Many areas of this unit are not suited to most
land uses. Ponding and low bearing strength are
management concerns.

Soils on Flood Plains and Low Terraces
along Rivers

The three general soil map units in this group
consist of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained to
very poorly drained soils that are subject to flooding.
Some of these soils have a loamy surface layer and a
clayey subsoil, some have sandy surface and
subsurface layers and a loamy subsoil, some are
clayey throughout, some are clayey and are underlain
by loamy materials, some are organic throughout, and
some are organic and are underlain by sandy
materials.

10. Meggett-Ocilla

Nearly level, poorly drained and somewhat poorly
drained soils that have a loamy surface layer and a
clayey subsoil or that have a sandy surface layer and
a loamy subsoil
This map unit is on low terraces adjacent to the flood
plain along the Apalachicola River. The landscape has
broad, nearly level areas that are lightly interspersed with
low knolls and shallow depressions. Low, dissected
ridges parallel the junction of the terrace and swamps
on flood plains. The natural vegetation consists of
cypress, red maple, water oak, cabbage palm,
blackgum, sweetbay, river birch, and slash pine.
This map unit makes up about 4 percent of the
county. It is about 50 percent Meggett soils, 20 percent
Ocilla soils, and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
Meggett soils are poorly drained. The surface layer
is dark grayish brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 5
inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 15
inches, is grayish sandy clay loam. The next part, to a
depth of 32 inches, is sandy clay. The lower part, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is clay.
Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained. The
surface layer is very dark grayish brown loamy fine
sand. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy
fine sand to a depth of 30 inches. The subsoil is light
olive brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 64 inches.
The underlying material is a stratified layer of sand and
loamy sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Alapaha, Brickyard, Chowan, Croatan, Leefield,
Meadowbrook, Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, and Wahee
soils.


Most areas of this map unit are used as cropland.
Although these soils are poorly suited to most
cultivated crops because of wetness, restricted
permeability, and flooding, the production of water-
tolerant crops is possible. The restricted permeability in
the subsoil of the Meggett soils is beneficial to the
construction of shallow ponds.
This map unit is well suited to woodland. Wetness
and occasional flooding are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness, flooding, and restricted permeability are
management concerns.

11. Brickyard-Chowan-Wahee

Nearly level, very poorly drained to somewhat poorly
drained soils that have a surface layer of silty clay
underlain by clayey layers or that have a surface layer
of silt loam underlain by stratified loamy and organic
layers
This map unit is on the flood plain along the
Apalachicola River. The landscape has broad, nearly
level swamps interspersed with low, elongated knolls
and bordered by low, natural levees along the river and
its distributaries. The natural vegetation consists of
cypress, tupelos, sweetgum, river birch, slash pine,
and cabbage palm and an understory of sawgrass and
other water-tolerant plants.
This map unit makes up about 16 percent of the
county. It is about 50 percent Brickyard soils, 20
percent Chowan soils, 5 percent Wahee soils, and 25
percent soils of minor extent.
Brickyard soils are poorly drained. The surface layer
is very dark grayish brown and brown silty clay. The
subsoil is brownish clay to a depth of 22 inches. The
underlying material is brownish and grayish clay.
Chowan soils are very poorly drained. The surface
layer is very dark grayish brown silt loam to a depth of
8 inches. Below this are stratified layers of loam, silty
clay loam, and muck.
Wahee soils are somewhat poorly drained.The
surface layer is dark brown silty clay to a depth of 5
inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 33
inches, is olive clay. The next part, to a depth of 52
inches, is brownish and grayish clay. The lower part, to
a depth of 80 inches, is grayish sandy clay loam.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Meadowbrook, Meggett, Ocilla, Kenner, Mantachie,
Pamlico, Pickney, Maurepas, Rutlege, and Surrency
soils.
Most areas of this map unit support natural
vegetation. This map unit is not suited to most land
uses. Frequent flooding and low bearing strength are
management concerns.







Soil Survey


Figure 4.-A typical landscape in the Corolla-Duckston-Kureb general soil map unit. The Corolla soils are on the low dunes
adjacent to the swales. The Duckston soils are in the swales in the foreground. The Kureb soils are on the high dunes in
the background.


12. Maurepas-Pamlico

Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are organic
throughout or that have an organic surface layer that is
at least 16 inches thick and is underlain by fine sand or
sand
This map unit is in broad marshes and swamps
surrounding Lake Wimico and along connecting rivers
and streams in the southern part of the county. The
natural vegetation consists of a sparse overstory of
cypress, tupelo gum, and slash pine and an understory
of sawgrass and other water-tolerant grasses and
shrubs.
This map unit makes up about 4 percent of the
county. It is about 75 percent Maurepas soils,


10 percent Pamlico soils, and 15 percent soils of minor
extent.
The upper part of the surface layer of the Maurepas
soils, to a depth of 5 inches, is very dark brown muck.
The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches, is black muck.
The upper part of the surface layer of the Pamlico
soils, to a depth of 7 inches, is dark brown muck. The
lower part, to a depth of 22 inches, is black muck. The
underlying material is brownish and grayish fine sand
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Pickens, Croatan, and Chowan soils.
Most areas of this map unit support natural
vegetation. This map unit generally is not suited to
most land uses. Frequent flooding and low bearing
strength are management concerns.






Gulf County, Florida


Soils on the Coastal Strand

The general soil map unit in this group consists of
nearly level to steep, very poorly drained to
excessively drained soils that are sandy throughout.


13. Corolla-Duckston-Kureb

Nearly level to steep, very poorly drained to
excessively drained coastal soils that are sandy to a
depth of 80 inches of more
This map unit is on dunes, swales, and flats on the
coastal strand (fig. 4). The landscape is a repeating
sequence of dunes and swales parallel to the coast.
Beaches are common along the edges of this map unit
where it meets the Gulf of Mexico or St. Joseph Bay.
Primary dunes commonly are high, steep, and actively
moving. Secondary dunes are broader than the primary
dunes and are stabilized by vegetation. They are
commonly less sloping than the primary dunes. Swales
vary considerably in width and depth. Bayside flats are
typically tidal marshes. Gulfside flats are low overwash
plains that are subject to frequent, but not daily,
flooding.They commonly merge with dune swales.
Some gulfside flats are interspersed with low dune
ridges or low, isolated dunes. One mapped area of this
unit includes all of St. Joseph Peninsula and Indian
Peninsula. The other mapped area is a narrow strip of
land stretching from Beacon Hill to Highland View.
The natural vegetation is highly variable. In areas
adjacent to the gulf or bay, the natural vegetation on
dunes, swales, and flats consists of sparse
populations of salt-tolerant grasses and scattered


shrubs. In most of the protected areas, the natural
vegetation consists of slash pine, live oak, myrtle oak,
Chapman's oak, and rosemary and an understory of
grasses and forbs.
This map unit makes up about 3 percent of the
county. It is about 30 percent Corolla soils, 20 percent
Duckston soils, 10 percent Kureb soils, and 40 percent
soils of minor extent.
Corolla soils are somewhat poorly drained to
moderately well drained.They are fine sand throughout.
They are mostly white to a depth of 45 inches and are
grayish below this depth.
Duckston soils are very poorly drained. The surface
layer is black sand. The next layer is yellowish brown
sand.The underlying material, to a depth of 80 inches
or more, is light gray sand.
Kureb soils are excessively drained. The surface
layer is gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is white
fine sand to a depth of 12 inches. The subsoil is light
yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of 35 inches. The
underlying material, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
white fine sand.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Bayvi, Dirego, Leon, Lynn Haven, Mandarin, Maurepas,
Newhan, Pottsburg, Resota, and Ridgewood soils.
Some areas of this map unit have been developed
for homesites. The other areas support natural
vegetation.
This map unit generally is not suited to cropland and
woodland because of salt spray, shifting sands,
coastal flooding, and wetness in the Duckston soils.
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited to
urban and recreational development. Flooding and
wetness are management concerns.






Gulf County, Florida


Soils on the Coastal Strand

The general soil map unit in this group consists of
nearly level to steep, very poorly drained to
excessively drained soils that are sandy throughout.


13. Corolla-Duckston-Kureb

Nearly level to steep, very poorly drained to
excessively drained coastal soils that are sandy to a
depth of 80 inches of more
This map unit is on dunes, swales, and flats on the
coastal strand (fig. 4). The landscape is a repeating
sequence of dunes and swales parallel to the coast.
Beaches are common along the edges of this map unit
where it meets the Gulf of Mexico or St. Joseph Bay.
Primary dunes commonly are high, steep, and actively
moving. Secondary dunes are broader than the primary
dunes and are stabilized by vegetation. They are
commonly less sloping than the primary dunes. Swales
vary considerably in width and depth. Bayside flats are
typically tidal marshes. Gulfside flats are low overwash
plains that are subject to frequent, but not daily,
flooding.They commonly merge with dune swales.
Some gulfside flats are interspersed with low dune
ridges or low, isolated dunes. One mapped area of this
unit includes all of St. Joseph Peninsula and Indian
Peninsula. The other mapped area is a narrow strip of
land stretching from Beacon Hill to Highland View.
The natural vegetation is highly variable. In areas
adjacent to the gulf or bay, the natural vegetation on
dunes, swales, and flats consists of sparse
populations of salt-tolerant grasses and scattered


shrubs. In most of the protected areas, the natural
vegetation consists of slash pine, live oak, myrtle oak,
Chapman's oak, and rosemary and an understory of
grasses and forbs.
This map unit makes up about 3 percent of the
county. It is about 30 percent Corolla soils, 20 percent
Duckston soils, 10 percent Kureb soils, and 40 percent
soils of minor extent.
Corolla soils are somewhat poorly drained to
moderately well drained.They are fine sand throughout.
They are mostly white to a depth of 45 inches and are
grayish below this depth.
Duckston soils are very poorly drained. The surface
layer is black sand. The next layer is yellowish brown
sand.The underlying material, to a depth of 80 inches
or more, is light gray sand.
Kureb soils are excessively drained. The surface
layer is gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is white
fine sand to a depth of 12 inches. The subsoil is light
yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of 35 inches. The
underlying material, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
white fine sand.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Bayvi, Dirego, Leon, Lynn Haven, Mandarin, Maurepas,
Newhan, Pottsburg, Resota, and Ridgewood soils.
Some areas of this map unit have been developed
for homesites. The other areas support natural
vegetation.
This map unit generally is not suited to cropland and
woodland because of salt spray, shifting sands,
coastal flooding, and wetness in the Duckston soils.
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited to
urban and recreational development. Flooding and
wetness are management concerns.



















Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area.
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with
the soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability
and potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can
be used to plan the management needed for those
uses. More information on each map unit, or soil, is
given under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more
soils for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description
includes general facts about the soil and gives the
principal hazards and limitations to be considered in
planning for specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make
up a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils
of a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material. They also
can differ in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree
of erosion, and other characteristics that affect their
use. On the basis of such differences, a soil series is
divided into soil phases. Most of the areas shown on
the detailed soil maps are phases of soil series. The
name of a soil phase commonly indicates a feature
that affects use or management. For example,
Surrency mucky fine sand, depressional, is one of
several phases in the Surrency series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or
undifferentiated groups.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat
similar in all areas. Pickney-Pamlico complex,
depressional, is an example.
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
soils or miscellaneous areas that could be mapped
individually but are mapped as one unit because
similar interpretation can be made for use and


management. The pattern and proportion of the soils or
miscellaneous areas in a mapped area are not uniform.
An area can be made up of only one of the major soils
or miscellaneous areas, or it can be made up of all of
them. Pickney and Rutlege soils, depressional, is an
undifferentiated group in this survey area.
Most map units include small, scattered areas of
soils other than those for which the map unit is named.
Some of these included soils have properties that
differ substantially from those of the major soil or soils.
Such differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils. The included soils are
identified in each map unit description. Some small
areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by a
special symbol on the soil maps.
Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
of each map unit. Other tables give properties of the
soils and the limitations, capabilities, and potentials for
many uses. The Glossary defines many of the terms
used in describing the soils.


2-Albany sand
This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is on
broad flats and knolls on the southern Coastal Plain.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
elongated or irregular in shape. They range from 5 to
100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of 41 inches, is loamy sand. It is light yellowish brown
in the upper part and very pale brown in the lower part.
The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches. In the
upper part, it is light gray sandy loam that has
brownish yellow and yellowish brown mottles. In the
lower part, it is light gray sandy clay loam that has
light olive brown, light reddish brown, and pink mottles.
Albany and similar soils make up 72 to 88 percent
of the map unit in 80 percent of the areas mapped as
Albany sand. Included in mapping are Blanton,
Leefield, Ortega, Plummer, Ridgewood, and Sapelo
soils. The moderately well drained Blanton and Ortega
soils are on the higher ridges and knolls. Leefield soils
are in positions similar to those of the Albany soil and
have plinthite in the subsoil. The poorly drained
















Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area.
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with
the soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability
and potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can
be used to plan the management needed for those
uses. More information on each map unit, or soil, is
given under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more
soils for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description
includes general facts about the soil and gives the
principal hazards and limitations to be considered in
planning for specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make
up a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils
of a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material. They also
can differ in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree
of erosion, and other characteristics that affect their
use. On the basis of such differences, a soil series is
divided into soil phases. Most of the areas shown on
the detailed soil maps are phases of soil series. The
name of a soil phase commonly indicates a feature
that affects use or management. For example,
Surrency mucky fine sand, depressional, is one of
several phases in the Surrency series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or
undifferentiated groups.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat
similar in all areas. Pickney-Pamlico complex,
depressional, is an example.
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
soils or miscellaneous areas that could be mapped
individually but are mapped as one unit because
similar interpretation can be made for use and


management. The pattern and proportion of the soils or
miscellaneous areas in a mapped area are not uniform.
An area can be made up of only one of the major soils
or miscellaneous areas, or it can be made up of all of
them. Pickney and Rutlege soils, depressional, is an
undifferentiated group in this survey area.
Most map units include small, scattered areas of
soils other than those for which the map unit is named.
Some of these included soils have properties that
differ substantially from those of the major soil or soils.
Such differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils. The included soils are
identified in each map unit description. Some small
areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by a
special symbol on the soil maps.
Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
of each map unit. Other tables give properties of the
soils and the limitations, capabilities, and potentials for
many uses. The Glossary defines many of the terms
used in describing the soils.


2-Albany sand
This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is on
broad flats and knolls on the southern Coastal Plain.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
elongated or irregular in shape. They range from 5 to
100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
of 41 inches, is loamy sand. It is light yellowish brown
in the upper part and very pale brown in the lower part.
The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches. In the
upper part, it is light gray sandy loam that has
brownish yellow and yellowish brown mottles. In the
lower part, it is light gray sandy clay loam that has
light olive brown, light reddish brown, and pink mottles.
Albany and similar soils make up 72 to 88 percent
of the map unit in 80 percent of the areas mapped as
Albany sand. Included in mapping are Blanton,
Leefield, Ortega, Plummer, Ridgewood, and Sapelo
soils. The moderately well drained Blanton and Ortega
soils are on the higher ridges and knolls. Leefield soils
are in positions similar to those of the Albany soil and
have plinthite in the subsoil. The poorly drained








Soil Survey


Plummer soils are in depressions. Ridgewood soils are
sandy throughout.The poorly drained Sapelo soils are
in slight depressions and along the edges of the lower
depressions.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12 to
30 inches from December through March. Available
water capacity is low. Permeability is moderate or
moderately slow in the subsoil.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak,
laurel oak, and sweetgum and an understory of saw
palmetto, huckleberry, greenbrier, and wiregrass.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine or for pasture.
This soil is suited to most cultivated crops. The
main management concerns are periodic wetness,
seasonal droughtiness, and wind erosion. A soil
management system and a well designed irrigation
system can increase yields. Returning all crop residue
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
grasses, legumes, or a mixture of grasses and
legumes help maintain fertility and tilth. A good ground
cover of close-growing plants, reduced tillage, and the
establishment of wind strips can help to control
erosion. Planting water-tolerant crops and using
shallow surface drainage ditches help to overcome the
wetness.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Deep-rooted
plants, such as improved bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly
fertilized and limed. Overgrazing on this soil quickly
reduces the extent of the plant cover and promotes the
growth of undesirable species. Proper stocking rates,
pasture rotation, and controlled grazing help to keep
the soil and pasture in good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for loblolly
pine and slash pine. The main management concerns
are a moderate equipment limitation, moderate
seedling mortality, and moderate plant competition.
Dry-season harvesting helps to overcome the
equipment limitation and reduces the extent of
compaction. Bedding helps to minimize the seedling
mortality caused by wetness. Plant competition can be
controlled by herbicides and prescribed burning.
Chopping also helps to control competing vegetation
and facilitates both hand planting and mechanical
planting.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness and seasonal droughtiness are management
concerns. Septic tank absorption fields can be
mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal
high water table. Placement of suitable fill material can
elevate building sites. Mulching, fertilizing, and


irrigating help establish lawn grasses and other small-
seeded plants. This soil is poorly suited to local roads
and streets. Drainage and placement of suitable fill for
elevating roadbeds can help to overcome wetness
affecting road construction.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational
development. Wetness and the sandy texture of the
surface layer are management concerns. Placing
suitable topsoil over the soil or resurfacing the sandy
surface layer minimizes erosion and improves
trafficability.
The capability subclass is 111w. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.


3-Alapaha loamy fine sand

This very deep, poorly drained soil is on broad flats
and low knolls on the southern Coastal Plain. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
elongated or irregular in shape. They range from 5 to
100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is black loamy fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray
loamy fine sand to a depth of 22 inches. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches. In the upper part, it is
gray and light brownish gray fine sandy loam that has
olive yellow mottles and has about 10 percent, by
volume, plinthite. In the next part, it is light gray fine
sandy loam that has yellowish brown and yellowish red
mottles. In the lower part, it is gray sandy clay loam
that has yellowish red and yellowish brown mottles.
Alapaha and similar soils make up 78 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas mapped as
Alapaha loamy fine sand. Included in mapping are
Albany, Leefield, and Pelham soils. Albany and Leefield
soils are on the lower knolls. The poorly drained
Pelham soils are in landscape positions similar to
those of the Alapaha soil and have less than 5 percent,
by volume, plinthite in the subsoil.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 12 inches from December through May.
Available water capacity is moderate. Permeability is
moderately slow in the subsoil.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, water oak, and red
maple and an understory of black titi, gallberry,
scattered saw palmetto, and wiregrass.
Most areas of this soil are used for woodland. A few
areas are used for cultivated crops, pasture, hay, or
specialty crops.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness is a management concern. If a water-control





Gulf County, Florida


system and soil improving measures are used, this soil
is suited to a number of crops. A water-control system
that removes excess water in wet seasons and
provides surface irrigation in dry seasons helps to
increase productivity. Seedbed preparation can include
bedding of rows. Soil fertility management can
increase yields.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Surface
drainage helps remove excess water during wet
periods and increases productivity. Management of
fertility and proper selection of water-tolerant grasses
and legumes help to ensure optimum yields. Proper
stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing
during wet periods help to keep the pasture and soil in
good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for loblolly
pine and slash pine. The main management concerns
are a moderate equipment limitation and moderate
plant competition. Using special equipment, such as
equipment that has large rubber tires or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
the root damage caused by thinning operations and
reduce the extent of compaction. Soil compaction
restricts water infiltration, aeration, and root growth.
Heavy thinning increases the windthrow hazard. Site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, minimizes
plant competition and seedling mortality and increases
early growth.
This soil is not suited to urban or recreational
development. Wetness is a severe limitation.
The capability subclass is Vw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

4-Aquents, gently undulating

These somewhat poorly drained to very poorly
drained, modified soils are on low landscapes adjacent
to canals, coastal bays, and marshes and in shallow
excavated areas. These soils formed in loamy and
sandy dredge spoil, reworked natural soils, and fill of
variable composition. In some areas they formed in the
subsoil and underlying material where fill material had
been excavated. Slopes generally range from 0 to 5
percent. Individual areas are elongated and generally
rectangular in shape. They range from 3 to several
hundred acres in size.
No single pedon is typical of this map unit. In a
commonly encountered profile, the surface layer, to
depth of 4 inches, is pale brown fine sand that contains
shell fragments. The underlying material, to a depth of
28 inches, is very pale brown and light brownish gray
fine sand that contains shell fragments and woody
debris. A buried surface layer of black sandy muck
extends to a depth of 39 inches. Below this to a depth


of 80 inches are buried underlying layers of very dark
gray and gray sand.
Aquents and similar soils make up 90 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Aquents, gently undulating. Included in
mapping are gently undulating to steep, well drained
soils on dikes and levees.
The chemical and physical characteristics of the
Aquents are too variable to be adequately predicted
without onsite investigation. In most areas the
seasonal high water table is at the surface to a depth
of 12 inches from June through November.
This map unit cannot be categorized into an
ecological community. In many areas, the vegetation
includes species that typically occur in abandoned
sites in North Florida or it resembles that of plant
communities on adjacent landscapes.
Most areas of this map unit are idle.
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops,
pasture, hay, or woodland. Wetness is a severe
limitation.
This map unit is not suited to urban or recreational
development. Wetness is a severe limitation.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8W.


5-Bladen fine sandy loam

This very deep, poorly drained soil is on broad flats
and in slight depressions on the southern Coastal
Plain. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual
areas are elongated or irregular in shape. They range
from 5 to 150 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of 18 inches, is light
brownish gray sandy loam. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches. In the upper part, it is gray clay
loam that has mottles in shades of red, yellow, and
brown. In the lower part, it is light gray clay that has
mottles in shades of yellow.
Bladen and similar soils make up 95 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas mapped as
Bladen fine sandy loam. Included in mapping are
Pantego, Pelham, Rains, Surrency, and Wahee soils.
The poorly drained Pantego soils are in slight
depressions. Pelham soils are in positions similar to
those of the Bladen soil and have a thicker sandy
surface layer and a loamy subsoil. Rains soils are also
in positions similar to those of the Bladen soil and
have a loamy subsoil. The very poorly drained
Surrency soils are in depressions. The somewhat
poorly drained Wahee soils are on low knolls.





Gulf County, Florida


system and soil improving measures are used, this soil
is suited to a number of crops. A water-control system
that removes excess water in wet seasons and
provides surface irrigation in dry seasons helps to
increase productivity. Seedbed preparation can include
bedding of rows. Soil fertility management can
increase yields.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Surface
drainage helps remove excess water during wet
periods and increases productivity. Management of
fertility and proper selection of water-tolerant grasses
and legumes help to ensure optimum yields. Proper
stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing
during wet periods help to keep the pasture and soil in
good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for loblolly
pine and slash pine. The main management concerns
are a moderate equipment limitation and moderate
plant competition. Using special equipment, such as
equipment that has large rubber tires or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
the root damage caused by thinning operations and
reduce the extent of compaction. Soil compaction
restricts water infiltration, aeration, and root growth.
Heavy thinning increases the windthrow hazard. Site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, minimizes
plant competition and seedling mortality and increases
early growth.
This soil is not suited to urban or recreational
development. Wetness is a severe limitation.
The capability subclass is Vw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

4-Aquents, gently undulating

These somewhat poorly drained to very poorly
drained, modified soils are on low landscapes adjacent
to canals, coastal bays, and marshes and in shallow
excavated areas. These soils formed in loamy and
sandy dredge spoil, reworked natural soils, and fill of
variable composition. In some areas they formed in the
subsoil and underlying material where fill material had
been excavated. Slopes generally range from 0 to 5
percent. Individual areas are elongated and generally
rectangular in shape. They range from 3 to several
hundred acres in size.
No single pedon is typical of this map unit. In a
commonly encountered profile, the surface layer, to
depth of 4 inches, is pale brown fine sand that contains
shell fragments. The underlying material, to a depth of
28 inches, is very pale brown and light brownish gray
fine sand that contains shell fragments and woody
debris. A buried surface layer of black sandy muck
extends to a depth of 39 inches. Below this to a depth


of 80 inches are buried underlying layers of very dark
gray and gray sand.
Aquents and similar soils make up 90 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Aquents, gently undulating. Included in
mapping are gently undulating to steep, well drained
soils on dikes and levees.
The chemical and physical characteristics of the
Aquents are too variable to be adequately predicted
without onsite investigation. In most areas the
seasonal high water table is at the surface to a depth
of 12 inches from June through November.
This map unit cannot be categorized into an
ecological community. In many areas, the vegetation
includes species that typically occur in abandoned
sites in North Florida or it resembles that of plant
communities on adjacent landscapes.
Most areas of this map unit are idle.
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops,
pasture, hay, or woodland. Wetness is a severe
limitation.
This map unit is not suited to urban or recreational
development. Wetness is a severe limitation.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8W.


5-Bladen fine sandy loam

This very deep, poorly drained soil is on broad flats
and in slight depressions on the southern Coastal
Plain. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual
areas are elongated or irregular in shape. They range
from 5 to 150 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of 18 inches, is light
brownish gray sandy loam. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches. In the upper part, it is gray clay
loam that has mottles in shades of red, yellow, and
brown. In the lower part, it is light gray clay that has
mottles in shades of yellow.
Bladen and similar soils make up 95 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas mapped as
Bladen fine sandy loam. Included in mapping are
Pantego, Pelham, Rains, Surrency, and Wahee soils.
The poorly drained Pantego soils are in slight
depressions. Pelham soils are in positions similar to
those of the Bladen soil and have a thicker sandy
surface layer and a loamy subsoil. Rains soils are also
in positions similar to those of the Bladen soil and
have a loamy subsoil. The very poorly drained
Surrency soils are in depressions. The somewhat
poorly drained Wahee soils are on low knolls.







Soil Survey


-~- -6
Z`71


7.j 4


a~j :'-,*j*-.C


nr-


Figure 5.-An area of Bladen fine sandy loam. Planting loblolly pine or slash pine in raised beds is a common management
practice in areas of this poorly drained soil.


The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 12 inches from December through May in
most years. Available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is slow.
This soil is in the Pitcher Plant Bogs ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes scattered slash pine, bay trees,
and red maple and an understory of wiregrass, pitcher
plants, and scattered black titi and St. Johnswort.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine or still support the natural
vegetation.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. Wetness
is a severe limitation.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay.
Wetness is a management concern. Drainage helps
remove excess water during wet periods. Management
of fertility and proper selection of water-tolerant


grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum yields.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and
soil in good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for loblolly
pine, slash pine, and hardwoods.The main
management concerns are a severe equipment
limitation, severe seedling mortality, and moderate
plant competition. Using special equipment, such as
equipment that has large rubber tires or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
the root damage caused by thinning operations and
reduce the extent of compaction. Site preparation,
such as harrowing and bedding, reduces the seedling
mortality rate (fig. 5). Avoiding heavy thinning can
minimize the windthrow hazard. Plant competition can
be minimized by herbicides and prescribed burning.
This soil is not suited to urban development.


LAAL Lh I






Gulf County, Florida


Wetness, the slow permeability, and a moderate
shrink-swell potential are severe limitations. This soil is
not suited to local roads and streets.The wetness and
low strength are severe limitations.
This soil is not suited to recreational development.
Wetness is a severe limitation.
The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9W.


6-Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes

This moderately well drained soil is on uplands on
the southern Coastal Plain. Individual areas are
irregular in shape. They range from 3 to 100 acres in
size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface extends to
a depth of 60 inches. In the upper part, it is light
yellowish brown sand. In the lower part, it is very pale
brown sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80
inches. In the upper part, it is brownish yellow loamy
sand that has pockets of sandy loam and has strong
brown, light yellowish brown, and very pale brown
mottles. In the lower part, it is light gray sandy loam
that has strong brown mottles.
Blanton and similar soils make up 75 to 94 percent
of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas mapped as
Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Included in
mapping are Albany, Leefield, Ridgewood, Ortega, and
Stilson soils. The somewhat poorly drained Albany,
Leefield, and Ridgewood soils are on the lower side
slopes and in slight depressions. Ortega and Stilson
soils are in landscape positions similar to those of the
Blanton soil. Also included are soils that are similar to
the Blanton soil but have thin, loamy bands below a
depth of 40 inches or have plinthite in the subsoil.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 48 to
72 inches from March through August. It can be
perched above the subsoil for short periods after heavy
rains during any part of the year. Available water
capacity is very low. Permeability is moderate or
moderately slow in the subsoil.
This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the
natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash pine,
turkey oak, and live oak and an understory of
wiregrass, ferns, huckleberry, and scattered saw
palmetto.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine or for pasture.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and
wind erosion are management concerns. A soil fertility


management system and a well designed irrigation
system can increase yields. Returning all crop residue
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help
maintain fertility and tilth. A good ground cover of
close-growing plants, reduced tillage, and the
establishment of wind strips help to control wind
erosion.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Droughtiness
and rapid leaching of nutrients are management
concerns. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more drought
tolerant if properly fertilized and limed. Overgrazing on
this soil quickly reduces the extent of the plant cover
and promotes the growth of undesirable species.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and controlled
grazing help to keep the soil and pasture in good
condition.
This soil is suited to slash pine, loblolly pine, and
longleaf pine. The main management concerns are a
moderate equipment limitation and moderate seedling
mortality. Site preparation, such as applying herbicides
and chopping, facilitates mechanical planting and
minimizes the equipment limitation. Containerized
stock can reduce the seedling mortality rate.
This soil is suited to urban development. Wetness is
a management concern affecting septic tank
absorption fields. The design and use of mound
systems help to overcome the wetness. Mulching,
fertilizing, and irrigating help to establish lawn grasses
and other small-seeded plants and help to overcome
droughtiness.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational
development. The sandy texture of the surface layer is
a management concern. Placing suitable topsoil or
resurfacing the sandy surface layer minimizes erosion
and improves trafficability.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination is 11S.


7-Bayvi and Dirego soils, frequently
flooded
These very deep, very poorly drained soils are in
salt marshes and tidal bays along the coast. Slopes
are 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas are generally
elongated. They range from 5 to 600 acres in size. The
composition of this map unit is variable, but the
mapping was sufficiently controlled to evaluate the
soils for expected uses. Some areas consist mainly of
one of the soils, and other areas contain both soils in
variable proportions.
The Bayvi soil makes up about 45 percent of the






Gulf County, Florida


Wetness, the slow permeability, and a moderate
shrink-swell potential are severe limitations. This soil is
not suited to local roads and streets.The wetness and
low strength are severe limitations.
This soil is not suited to recreational development.
Wetness is a severe limitation.
The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9W.


6-Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes

This moderately well drained soil is on uplands on
the southern Coastal Plain. Individual areas are
irregular in shape. They range from 3 to 100 acres in
size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface extends to
a depth of 60 inches. In the upper part, it is light
yellowish brown sand. In the lower part, it is very pale
brown sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80
inches. In the upper part, it is brownish yellow loamy
sand that has pockets of sandy loam and has strong
brown, light yellowish brown, and very pale brown
mottles. In the lower part, it is light gray sandy loam
that has strong brown mottles.
Blanton and similar soils make up 75 to 94 percent
of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas mapped as
Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Included in
mapping are Albany, Leefield, Ridgewood, Ortega, and
Stilson soils. The somewhat poorly drained Albany,
Leefield, and Ridgewood soils are on the lower side
slopes and in slight depressions. Ortega and Stilson
soils are in landscape positions similar to those of the
Blanton soil. Also included are soils that are similar to
the Blanton soil but have thin, loamy bands below a
depth of 40 inches or have plinthite in the subsoil.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 48 to
72 inches from March through August. It can be
perched above the subsoil for short periods after heavy
rains during any part of the year. Available water
capacity is very low. Permeability is moderate or
moderately slow in the subsoil.
This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the
natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash pine,
turkey oak, and live oak and an understory of
wiregrass, ferns, huckleberry, and scattered saw
palmetto.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine or for pasture.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and
wind erosion are management concerns. A soil fertility


management system and a well designed irrigation
system can increase yields. Returning all crop residue
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help
maintain fertility and tilth. A good ground cover of
close-growing plants, reduced tillage, and the
establishment of wind strips help to control wind
erosion.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Droughtiness
and rapid leaching of nutrients are management
concerns. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more drought
tolerant if properly fertilized and limed. Overgrazing on
this soil quickly reduces the extent of the plant cover
and promotes the growth of undesirable species.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and controlled
grazing help to keep the soil and pasture in good
condition.
This soil is suited to slash pine, loblolly pine, and
longleaf pine. The main management concerns are a
moderate equipment limitation and moderate seedling
mortality. Site preparation, such as applying herbicides
and chopping, facilitates mechanical planting and
minimizes the equipment limitation. Containerized
stock can reduce the seedling mortality rate.
This soil is suited to urban development. Wetness is
a management concern affecting septic tank
absorption fields. The design and use of mound
systems help to overcome the wetness. Mulching,
fertilizing, and irrigating help to establish lawn grasses
and other small-seeded plants and help to overcome
droughtiness.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational
development. The sandy texture of the surface layer is
a management concern. Placing suitable topsoil or
resurfacing the sandy surface layer minimizes erosion
and improves trafficability.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination is 11S.


7-Bayvi and Dirego soils, frequently
flooded
These very deep, very poorly drained soils are in
salt marshes and tidal bays along the coast. Slopes
are 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas are generally
elongated. They range from 5 to 600 acres in size. The
composition of this map unit is variable, but the
mapping was sufficiently controlled to evaluate the
soils for expected uses. Some areas consist mainly of
one of the soils, and other areas contain both soils in
variable proportions.
The Bayvi soil makes up about 45 percent of the





Soil Survey


map unit. Typically, the surface layer extends to a
depth of 26 inches. In the upper part, it is very dark
brown fine sand. In the lower part, it is very dark
grayish brown fine sand.The underlying material
extends to a depth of 80 inches. In the upper part, it is
dark gray fine sand that has light gray mottles. In the
lower part, it is light brownish gray fine sand.
The Dirego soil makes up about 40 percent of the
map unit. Typically, the surface layer extends to a
depth of 19 inches. In the upper part, it is very dark
grayish brown muck. In the lower part, it is very dark
brown muck. The underlying material extends to a
depth of 80 inches. In the upper part, it is dark brown
mucky sand. In the lower part, it is grayish brown sand
that has dark grayish brown mottles.
Bayvi, Dirego, and similar soils make up 85 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Bayvi and Dirego soils, frequently flooded.
Included in mapping are poorly drained Duckston and
Leon soils. Duckston soils are on the edges of tidal
marshes on low coastal flats. Leon soils are in the
slightly higher positions and have dark subsoil layers.
Also included are soils that are similar to the Bayvi soil
but have either a thin surface layer or a loamy
underlying layer.
The water table is at the surface to a depth of 12
inches year around. Flooding occurs daily during
normal high tides. Available water capacity is very low.
Permeability is very rapid in the Bayvi soil and rapid in
the Dirego soil. The Bayvi soil is very slightly saline to
strongly saline. The Dirego soil is strongly saline. The
content of sulfur in the surface layer of the Dirego soil
ranges from 0.75 to 5.5 percent.
These soils are in the Salt Marsh ecological
community (USDA 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes black needlerush, marshhay
cordgrass, and smooth cordgrass. Nearly all areas of
these soils support the natural vegetation.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,
pasture, hay, or woodland. Tidal flooding, salinity, and
wetness are severe limitations.
These soils are not suited to urban or recreational
development. Wetness, the flooding, excess salt, and
subsidence in the Dirego soil are severe limitations.
The capability subclass is VlllIw. A woodland
ordination symbol has not been assigned.


8-Beaches

Beaches are narrow strips of nearly level, mixed
deposits of sand and shell fragments along the Gulf
of Mexico and adjacent bays. Beaches range in
width from less than 100 feet to more than 300 feet.


As much as half of a mapped area may be flooded
daily by high tides, and all of the area can be
flooded by storm tides. The most extensive areas of
this map unit are on the coast near Cape San Bias,
St. Joe Peninsula, and St. Joe Beach. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Beaches typically consist of loose, gray and white
fine sand or sand containing various quantities of
broken shells throughout. Shell fragments are mostly
sand sized but may be larger in some parts of the
profile. Layers differ primarily in color or in shell
content. Some profiles appear uniform throughout.
Included in mapping are small areas of Corolla and
Duckston soils. These soils are on the landward edges
of the mapped areas.The moderately well drained
Corolla soils are on low dunes. The poorly drained and
very poorly drained Duckston soils are in swales.
Beaches are partly or entirely covered by saltwater
daily during high tides and are subject to movement by
the wind and tide. The water table is dependent on tide
and elevation and is too variable to predict.
Permeability generally is rapid or very rapid.
This map unit is not categorized into an ecological
community. Most areas either do not have vegetation
or are only sparsely vegetated by salt-tolerant plants.
This map unit is not suited to agriculture or
woodland.
Beaches are used intensively for recreation.
Although homes and commercial buildings have been
built on the edges of mapped areas in many places,
Beaches are not suitable for homesite development,
small commercial buildings, or local roads and streets
because of the frequent tidal flooding and the instability
of the land surface.
The capability subclass is VIIIw. A woodland
ordination symbol has not been assigned.


9-Ridgewood fine sand

This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is on
slightly convex knolls on the southern Coastal Plain.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
elongated or irregular in shape. They range from 5 to
100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying material
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. In the upper
part, it is brownish yellow fine sand that has yellowish
brown mottles. In the lower part, it is white fine sand
that has light brownish gray mottles.
Ridgewood and similar soils make up 82 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Ridgewood fine sand. Included in mapping





Soil Survey


map unit. Typically, the surface layer extends to a
depth of 26 inches. In the upper part, it is very dark
brown fine sand. In the lower part, it is very dark
grayish brown fine sand.The underlying material
extends to a depth of 80 inches. In the upper part, it is
dark gray fine sand that has light gray mottles. In the
lower part, it is light brownish gray fine sand.
The Dirego soil makes up about 40 percent of the
map unit. Typically, the surface layer extends to a
depth of 19 inches. In the upper part, it is very dark
grayish brown muck. In the lower part, it is very dark
brown muck. The underlying material extends to a
depth of 80 inches. In the upper part, it is dark brown
mucky sand. In the lower part, it is grayish brown sand
that has dark grayish brown mottles.
Bayvi, Dirego, and similar soils make up 85 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Bayvi and Dirego soils, frequently flooded.
Included in mapping are poorly drained Duckston and
Leon soils. Duckston soils are on the edges of tidal
marshes on low coastal flats. Leon soils are in the
slightly higher positions and have dark subsoil layers.
Also included are soils that are similar to the Bayvi soil
but have either a thin surface layer or a loamy
underlying layer.
The water table is at the surface to a depth of 12
inches year around. Flooding occurs daily during
normal high tides. Available water capacity is very low.
Permeability is very rapid in the Bayvi soil and rapid in
the Dirego soil. The Bayvi soil is very slightly saline to
strongly saline. The Dirego soil is strongly saline. The
content of sulfur in the surface layer of the Dirego soil
ranges from 0.75 to 5.5 percent.
These soils are in the Salt Marsh ecological
community (USDA 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes black needlerush, marshhay
cordgrass, and smooth cordgrass. Nearly all areas of
these soils support the natural vegetation.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,
pasture, hay, or woodland. Tidal flooding, salinity, and
wetness are severe limitations.
These soils are not suited to urban or recreational
development. Wetness, the flooding, excess salt, and
subsidence in the Dirego soil are severe limitations.
The capability subclass is VlllIw. A woodland
ordination symbol has not been assigned.


8-Beaches

Beaches are narrow strips of nearly level, mixed
deposits of sand and shell fragments along the Gulf
of Mexico and adjacent bays. Beaches range in
width from less than 100 feet to more than 300 feet.


As much as half of a mapped area may be flooded
daily by high tides, and all of the area can be
flooded by storm tides. The most extensive areas of
this map unit are on the coast near Cape San Bias,
St. Joe Peninsula, and St. Joe Beach. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Beaches typically consist of loose, gray and white
fine sand or sand containing various quantities of
broken shells throughout. Shell fragments are mostly
sand sized but may be larger in some parts of the
profile. Layers differ primarily in color or in shell
content. Some profiles appear uniform throughout.
Included in mapping are small areas of Corolla and
Duckston soils. These soils are on the landward edges
of the mapped areas.The moderately well drained
Corolla soils are on low dunes. The poorly drained and
very poorly drained Duckston soils are in swales.
Beaches are partly or entirely covered by saltwater
daily during high tides and are subject to movement by
the wind and tide. The water table is dependent on tide
and elevation and is too variable to predict.
Permeability generally is rapid or very rapid.
This map unit is not categorized into an ecological
community. Most areas either do not have vegetation
or are only sparsely vegetated by salt-tolerant plants.
This map unit is not suited to agriculture or
woodland.
Beaches are used intensively for recreation.
Although homes and commercial buildings have been
built on the edges of mapped areas in many places,
Beaches are not suitable for homesite development,
small commercial buildings, or local roads and streets
because of the frequent tidal flooding and the instability
of the land surface.
The capability subclass is VIIIw. A woodland
ordination symbol has not been assigned.


9-Ridgewood fine sand

This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is on
slightly convex knolls on the southern Coastal Plain.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
elongated or irregular in shape. They range from 5 to
100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying material
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. In the upper
part, it is brownish yellow fine sand that has yellowish
brown mottles. In the lower part, it is white fine sand
that has light brownish gray mottles.
Ridgewood and similar soils make up 82 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Ridgewood fine sand. Included in mapping





Gulf County, Florida


are Albany, Ortega, Plummer, and Scranton soils.
Albany soils have a loamy subsoil. The moderately well
drained Ortega soils are on knolls and ridges. The
poorly drained Plummer and Scranton soils are on low
flats and in slight depressions.
The seasonal high water table generally is at a
depth of 24 to 42 inches from June through November.
It can, however, rise to a depth of 15 to 24 inches for
brief periods. Available water capacity is low or very
low. Permeability is rapid throughout.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf pine, and
scattered oaks and an understory of wiregrass and
scattered saw palmetto.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine or for pasture.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness, seasonal droughtiness, leaching of plant
nutrients, and wind erosion are management concerns.
A soil fertility management system and a well
designed irrigation system can increase yields.
Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a
cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a
grass-legume mixture help maintain fertility and tilth. A
good ground cover of close-growing plants, reduced
tillage, and the establishment of wind strips help to
control wind erosion.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Deep-rooted
plants, such as improved bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly
fertilized and limed. Overgrazing on this soil quickly
reduces the extent of the plant cover and promotes the
growth of undesirable species. Proper stocking rates,
pasture rotation, and controlled grazing help to keep
the soil and pasture in good condition.
This soil has medium potential productivity for slash
pine and longleaf pine. The main management
concerns are a moderate equipment limitation,
moderate seedling mortality, and moderate plant
competition. Plant competition can be controlled by
herbicides and prescribed burning.
This soil is moderately suited to urban development.
Wetness, rapid permeability, and occasional
droughtiness are management concerns. Because of
the rapid permeability, careful selection of onsite waste
disposal areas is needed to prevent contamination of
shallow ground water. This management concern
should preclude the practice of clustering homes close
together or installing the disposal site adjacent to any
body of water. Septic tank absorption fields can be
mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal
high water table. Mulching, fertilizing, and irrigating


help establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded
plants.
This soil is moderately suited to local roads and
streets. Drainage and placement of suitable fill for
elevating roadbeds can help to overcome wetness
affecting road construction. This soil is also only
moderately suited to small commercial buildings
because of the wetness. Placement of suitable fill
material can elevate building sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.

10-Corolla fine sand, 1 to 5 percent
slopes
This very deep, moderately well drained and
somewhat poorly drained soil is on nearly level flats,
on small dunes, and in swales on large dunes along
the gulf coast beaches. Slopes generally are less than
3 percent but range to 5 percent. Individual areas are
narrow and elongated. They range from 5 to 100 acres
in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very pale brown fine
sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of the
substratum, to a depth of 24 inches, is very pale brown
fine sand. Below this, from a depth of 24 to 29 inches,
is a buried surface horizon of light gray fine sand that
has black pockets and streaks. The next part of the
substratum, from a depth of 29 to 45 inches, is white
fine sand. It has mottles in shades of brown below a
depth of 39 inches. Below this, from a depth of 45 to
52 inches, is a second buried surface horizon of very
dark gray fine sand. The lower part of the substratum,
to a depth of 80 inches, is light gray and gray sand that
has black pockets and streaks.
Corolla and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas mapped as
Corolla fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes. Included in
mapping are Beaches and Duckston, Kureb, Newhan,
and Resota soils. The poorly drained Beaches are on
low flats adjacent to the gulf and bays. The poorly
drained and very poorly drained Duckston soils are in
low swales and on low, broad flats. The excessively
drained Kureb soils and the moderately well drained
Resota soils are on high, stable, remnant dunes. The
excessively drained Newhan soils are on high coastal
dunes.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to





Soil Survey


36 inches from November through May. Available water
capacity is very low. Permeability is very rapid
throughout.
This soil is in the North Florida Coastal Strand
ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the
natural vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf pine,
and live oak and an understory of wiregrass and
scattered saw palmetto. The mapped areas nearest to
the gulf coast commonly do not have trees and are
sparsely vegetated with seaoats, other beach grasses,
and scattered shrubs.
Many areas of this soil have been used for homesite
development.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, pasture,
or woodland because of low fertility, salt spray, and
shifting sands and because the soil is located so near
to the coast.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and
streets. Wetness, droughtiness, flooding during storm
tides, shifting sands, and very rapid permeability are
management concerns. In areas used for septic tank
absorption fields, the effective depth to the seasonal
high water table can be lowered by constructing a
filter mound of suitable soil material. In areas used
as homesites, filling can help to overcome the
wetness. Because of the very rapid permeability and
the location of the soil near the coast, septic systems
should be installed only for low-density use. Mulching,
fertilizing, and irrigating help establish lawn grasses
and other small-seeded plants. Care should be taken to
protect the natural vegetation because it helps to
control the erosion caused by coastal winds. Salt- and
drought-tolerant plants are the best-adapted plants for
landscaping.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability. Access walkways can limit foot
traffic in areas where natural vegetation grows and
stabilizes the soil.
The capability subclass is VIls. A woodland
ordination symbol has not been assigned.

11-Clarendon loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
percent slopes

This very deep, moderately well drained soil is on
low uplands on the southern Coastal Plain. Individual
areas are blocky or irregular in shape. They range from
3 to 30 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray


loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand to
a depth of 10 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth
of 80 inches. In sequence downward, it is light
yellowish brown fine sandy loam; very pale brown
sandy clay loam; mixed yellowish, grayish, and reddish
sandy clay loam; and mixed yellowish, grayish, and
reddish sandy clay. The subsoil contains soft and hard
nodules of iron oxide.
Clarendon and similar soils make up 95 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Clarendon loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. Included in mapping are Wahee soils and a
poorly drained soil that is similar to the Clarendon soil
but has less clay in the subsoil. The poorly drained
inclusion is in slight depressions. The somewhat poorly
drained Wahee soils have a clayey subsoil. They are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Clarendon
soils.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 24 to
36 inches from December through March. Available
water capacity is moderate. Permeability is moderately
slow.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood-Pine ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak,
laurel oak, post oak, dogwood, and sweetgum and an
understory of saw palmetto, blackberry, and wiregrass.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is well suited to the production of most
cultivated crops. It is classified as prime farmland. A
soil fertility management system can increase yields.
Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a
cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a
grass-legume mixture help maintain fertility and tilth.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay plants,
such as improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and
legumes. Controlled grazing helps to keep the plants
vigorous. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and
controlled grazing help to keep the soil and pasture in
good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for loblolly
pine.The main management concerns are moderate
seedling mortality and moderate plant competition.
Plant competition can be controlled by herbicides and
prescribed burning.The content of organic matter in the
surface layer commonly is very low. Logging systems
that leave residue on the site can improve fertility.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and
streets. Wetness and the moderately slow permeability
in the subsoil are management concerns. Septic tank
absorption fields can be mounded to maintain the






Gulf County, Florida


system above the seasonal high water table. The
absorption field can be enlarged to accommodate the
restricted permeability. This soil is well suited to lawns
and landscaping. Fertilizing helps establish lawn
grasses and other small-seeded plants.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is lie. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9W.

12-Dothan-Fuquay complex, 5 to 8
percent slopes
These very deep, well drained soils are on uplands
on the southern Coastal Plain. This map unit consists
of about 60 percent Dothan soil and 30 percent Fuquay
soil. Individual areas of these soils are so intermingled
on the landscape that it was impractical to separate
them at the scale selected for mapping. Mapped areas
are blocky or irregular in shape and range from 3 to 100
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Dothan soil is dark
grayish brown loamy sand about 9 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light yellowish brown loamy sand to
a depth of 16 inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to
a depth of 33 inches, is yellowish brown fine sandy
loam. The lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is sandy clay loam that is
reticulately mottled in shades of gray, brown, yellow,
and red.
Typically, the surface layer of the Fuquay soil is
dark gray loamy fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light yellowish brown loamy fine
sand to a depth of 21 inches. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches. In the upper part, it is brownish
yellow fine sandy loam. In the next part, it is brownish
yellow sandy clay loam. In the lower part, it is mixed
light gray, reddish brown, dark yellowish brown, and
light olive brown sandy clay loam.
Dothan, Fuquay, and similar soils make up 95 to
100 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Dothan-Fuquay complex, 5 to 8 percent
slopes. Included in mapping are Leefield, Rains, and
Wahee soils.The somewhat poorly drained Leefield and
Wahee soils are on toeslopes.The poorly drained Rains
soils are in depressions.
The seasonal high water table is perched at a
depth of 36 to 60 inches from January through April
in the Dothan soil and at a depth of 48 to 72 inches
from January through March in the Fuquay soil.
Available water capacity is moderate. Permeability is


moderately slow in the Dothan soil and slow in the
Fuquay soil.
These soils are in the Mixed Hardwood-Pine
ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the
natural vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf pine,
live oak, laurel oak, post oak, dogwood, and sweetgum
and an understory of saw palmetto, blackberry, and
wiregrass.
Most areas of these soils are used for the
commercial production of pine.
These soils are moderately suited to most cultivated
crops. The main limitation is the slope. Erosion-control
measures are needed. Planting on the contour,
alternating strips of close-growing crops with row
crops, using a crop rotation that includes close-
growing crops at least two-thirds of the time, and
leaving crop residue on the surface help to control
erosion. A soil fertility management system can
increase yields.
These soils are well suited to pasture and hay
plants, such as improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass,
and legumes. Controlled grazing helps to keep the
plants vigorous. Proper stocking rates, pasture
rotation, and controlled grazing help to keep the soils
and pasture in good condition.
These soils have high potential productivity for
loblolly pine and slash pine. The main management
concerns are a moderate equipment limitation,
moderate seedling mortality, and moderate plant
competition. Plant competition can be controlled by
herbicides and prescribed burning. The content of
organic matter in the surface layer commonly is very
low. Logging systems that leave residue on the site
can improve fertility.
These soils are moderately suited to urban
development. The main limitations are the seasonal
high water table and the restricted permeability in the
subsoil. Septic tank absorption fields can be mounded
to maintain the system above the subsoil, or they can
be enlarged to accommodate the restricted
permeability. They can also be placed on contour.
These soils are well suited to lawns and landscaping.
Fertilizing helps establish lawn grasses and other
small-seeded plants.
These soils are moderately suited to small
commercial buildings and local roads and streets.
Slope and the restricted permeability are management
concerns. The slope can be reduced by cutting and
filling.The amount of runoff can be reduced by limiting
the extent of impermeable surfaces, such as parking
lots. Vegetated islands, grassed swales, and well-
designed water conveyance structures can also help to
control runoff.
If these soils are used as sites for recreational






Soil Survey


development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soils or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is Ille in areas of the
Dothan soil and Ills in areas of the Fuquay soil. The
woodland ordination symbol is 9A in areas of the
Dothan soil and 8S in areas of the Fuquay soil.


13-Dorovan-Croatan complex,
depressional

These very deep, very poorly drained soils are in
depressions. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. This
map unit consists of about 55 percent Dorovan soil and
40 percent Croatan soil. Individual areas of these soils
are so intermingled on the landscape that it was
impractical to separate them at the scale selected for
mapping. Mapped areas are irregular in shape and
range from 10 to 500 acres in size.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of the
Dorovan soil, to a depth of 2 inches, is very dark brown
mucky peat. The lower part, to a depth of 54 inches, is
black and very dark gray muck. The underlying material
is gray sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of the
Croatan soil, to a depth of 42 inches, is dark brown,
very dark brown, and very dark grayish brown muck.
The lower part of the surface layer, to a depth of 46
inches, is very dark grayish brown mucky sandy loam.
The substratum extends to a depth of 80 inches. It is
grayish brown sandy clay loam in the upper part and
gray clay loam in the lower part.
Dorovan, Croatan, and similar soils make up 85 to
100 percent of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas
mapped as Dorovan-Croatan complex, depressional.
Included in mapping are very poorly drained Pantego
and Surrency soils on slight rises, commonly near the
edges of the mapped areas.
The seasonal high water table is 12 inches above
the surface to a depth 6 inches year around in the
Dorovan soil and at the surface to a depth of 12 inches
from November through May in the Croatan soil.
Permeability is moderate in the Dorovan soil and
moderately slow in the Croatan soil.
These soils are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes blackgum, cypress, sweetbay,
swamp tupelo, black titi, sawgrass, and scattered slash
pine. Most areas still support the natural vegetation.
Areas of these soils provide cover for deer and excellent
habitat for wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,


woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development. Ponding, wetness, and low bearing
strength are severe limitations.
The capability subclass is VIIw. A woodland
ordination symbol has not been assigned.


14-Duckston-Duckston, depressional,
complex, frequently flooded

These poorly drained and very poorly drained, very
deep soils are on level flats adjacent to coastal dunes
and marshes and in low dune swales.The poorly
drained Duckston soil is on broad flats between dune
ridges. The very poorly drained Duckston,
depressional, soil is in closed or seasonally closed
depressions on the broad flats or in low, flat areas that
are transitional to the coastal marshes. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. This map unit consists of about 60
percent poorly drained Duckston soil and 35 percent
very poorly drained Duckston, depressional, soil.
Individual areas are so intermingled on the landscape
that it was impractical to separate them at the scale
selected for mapping. Mapped areas are elongated in
shape and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Duckston soil is
very dark gray sand about 2 inches thick. The
substratum extends to a depth of 80 inches. In the
upper part, it is light brownish gray sand. In the lower
part, it is light gray sand that has 5 to 10 percent, by
volume, shell fragments.
Typically, the surface layer of the Duckston,
depressional, soil is black mucky sand about 2 inches
thick. The substratum extends to a depth of 80 inches.
It is light brownish gray sand in the upper part and
white sand in the lower part.
Duckston and similar soils make up 75 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Duckston-Duckston, depressional,
complex, frequently flooded. Included in mapping are
somewhat poorly drained Corolla soils in the higher
positions on low dunes.
The poorly drained Duckston soil has a continuous
high water table at the surface to a depth of 6 inches
year around. The very poorly drained Duckston,
depressional, soil has a continuous high water table 12
inches above the surface to the surface year around.
The depth to the water table fluctuates slightly
because of the tides. Flooding is likely when heavy rain
occurs in combination with high tides or during strong
coastal storms. Some areas are flooded by high tides
several times each month. Available water capacity is
very low. Permeability is very rapid throughout.
These soils are dominantly in the Salt Marsh






Soil Survey


development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soils or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is Ille in areas of the
Dothan soil and Ills in areas of the Fuquay soil. The
woodland ordination symbol is 9A in areas of the
Dothan soil and 8S in areas of the Fuquay soil.


13-Dorovan-Croatan complex,
depressional

These very deep, very poorly drained soils are in
depressions. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. This
map unit consists of about 55 percent Dorovan soil and
40 percent Croatan soil. Individual areas of these soils
are so intermingled on the landscape that it was
impractical to separate them at the scale selected for
mapping. Mapped areas are irregular in shape and
range from 10 to 500 acres in size.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of the
Dorovan soil, to a depth of 2 inches, is very dark brown
mucky peat. The lower part, to a depth of 54 inches, is
black and very dark gray muck. The underlying material
is gray sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of the
Croatan soil, to a depth of 42 inches, is dark brown,
very dark brown, and very dark grayish brown muck.
The lower part of the surface layer, to a depth of 46
inches, is very dark grayish brown mucky sandy loam.
The substratum extends to a depth of 80 inches. It is
grayish brown sandy clay loam in the upper part and
gray clay loam in the lower part.
Dorovan, Croatan, and similar soils make up 85 to
100 percent of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas
mapped as Dorovan-Croatan complex, depressional.
Included in mapping are very poorly drained Pantego
and Surrency soils on slight rises, commonly near the
edges of the mapped areas.
The seasonal high water table is 12 inches above
the surface to a depth 6 inches year around in the
Dorovan soil and at the surface to a depth of 12 inches
from November through May in the Croatan soil.
Permeability is moderate in the Dorovan soil and
moderately slow in the Croatan soil.
These soils are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes blackgum, cypress, sweetbay,
swamp tupelo, black titi, sawgrass, and scattered slash
pine. Most areas still support the natural vegetation.
Areas of these soils provide cover for deer and excellent
habitat for wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,


woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development. Ponding, wetness, and low bearing
strength are severe limitations.
The capability subclass is VIIw. A woodland
ordination symbol has not been assigned.


14-Duckston-Duckston, depressional,
complex, frequently flooded

These poorly drained and very poorly drained, very
deep soils are on level flats adjacent to coastal dunes
and marshes and in low dune swales.The poorly
drained Duckston soil is on broad flats between dune
ridges. The very poorly drained Duckston,
depressional, soil is in closed or seasonally closed
depressions on the broad flats or in low, flat areas that
are transitional to the coastal marshes. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. This map unit consists of about 60
percent poorly drained Duckston soil and 35 percent
very poorly drained Duckston, depressional, soil.
Individual areas are so intermingled on the landscape
that it was impractical to separate them at the scale
selected for mapping. Mapped areas are elongated in
shape and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Duckston soil is
very dark gray sand about 2 inches thick. The
substratum extends to a depth of 80 inches. In the
upper part, it is light brownish gray sand. In the lower
part, it is light gray sand that has 5 to 10 percent, by
volume, shell fragments.
Typically, the surface layer of the Duckston,
depressional, soil is black mucky sand about 2 inches
thick. The substratum extends to a depth of 80 inches.
It is light brownish gray sand in the upper part and
white sand in the lower part.
Duckston and similar soils make up 75 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Duckston-Duckston, depressional,
complex, frequently flooded. Included in mapping are
somewhat poorly drained Corolla soils in the higher
positions on low dunes.
The poorly drained Duckston soil has a continuous
high water table at the surface to a depth of 6 inches
year around. The very poorly drained Duckston,
depressional, soil has a continuous high water table 12
inches above the surface to the surface year around.
The depth to the water table fluctuates slightly
because of the tides. Flooding is likely when heavy rain
occurs in combination with high tides or during strong
coastal storms. Some areas are flooded by high tides
several times each month. Available water capacity is
very low. Permeability is very rapid throughout.
These soils are dominantly in the Salt Marsh







Gulf County, Florida


ecological community (USDA, 1989). They are also in
the North Florida Coastal Strand ecological plant
community, primarily in areas buffered by high sand
dunes. The vegetation in these areas resembles the
hammock component of the ecological plant
community. In most areas, this hammock vegetation
includes cabbage palm, eastern redcedar, live oak,
laurel oak, slash pine, gallberry, wax-myrtle, scattered
saw palmetto, fetterbush, and marshay cordgrass. The
soils are in the Salt Marsh ecological plant community
primarily in areas that are unprotected by high sand
dunes. The vegetation in these areas is dominantly
marshay cordgrass, seaoats, gulf muhly, sand
cordgrass, and various other low grasses and widely
scattered slash pine and shrubs. Most areas of this
unit still support the natural vegetation and are
managed for recreation and wildlife habitat.
A few areas of these soils have been developed for
home and building sites. These soils are not suited to
cultivated crops, woodland, pasture, or hay. Ponding,
wetness, and the flooding are severe limitations.
Areas of the very poorly drained and poorly drained
Duckston soils are not suited to urban development.
Ponding, wetness, and the flooding are severe
limitations.
If these soils are used as sites for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soils or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is Vw in areas of the poorly
drained Duckston soil and VIIw in areas of the very
poorly drained Duckston, depressional, soil.The
woodland ordination symbol is 7W.


15-Wahee fine sandy loam

This very deep, poorly drained soil is on terraces on
the southern Coastal Plain. Slopes range from 0 to 2
percent. Individual areas are elongated or irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 150 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is light yellowish brown loamy fine sand to a
depth of 12 inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
depth of 43 inches, is light yellowish brown sandy clay.
The lower part, to a depth of 72 inches, is light gray
sandy clay. The underlying material is-grayish brown
sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Wahee and similar soils make up 75 to 95 percent of
the map unit in 80 percent of the areas mapped as
Wahee fine sandy loam. Included in mapping are
Bladen, Clarendon, and Leefield soils. The poorly


drained Bladen soils are in landscape positions similar
to those of the Wahee soil. The moderately well drained
Clarendon soils are on knolls. The somewhat poorly
drained Leefield soils are on low knolls.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to
18 inches from December through March. Available
water capacity is moderate. Permeability is moderately
slow.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood-Pine ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf pine, water
oak, live oak, sweetgum, dogwood, and red maple and
an understory of saw palmetto and wiregrass.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine or still support the natural
vegetation.
This soil is moderately suited to most cultivated
crops. Wetness is a management concern. A water-
control system helps remove excess water in wet
seasons and provides surface irrigation in dry seasons.
Crop residue management and soil improving crops
help maintain the content of organic matter and tilth.
Seedbed preparation can include bedding of rows.
A soil fertility management system can increase
yields.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Drainage
helps remove excess water during wet periods.
Management of fertility and proper selection of adapted
grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum yields.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and
soil in good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for loblolly
pine and slash pine.The main management concerns
are a moderate equipment limitation, moderate
seedling mortality, and severe plant competition. Site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, reduces
the seedling mortality rate and increases early growth.
Using special equipment, such as equipment that has
large rubber tires or crawler machinery, and harvesting
during dry periods minimize the root damage caused
by thinning operations and reduce the extent of
compaction. Soil compaction restricts water infiltration,
aeration, and root growth.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness, restricted permeability, and the moderate
shrink-swell potential in the subsoil are management
concerns. Septic tank absorption fields can be
mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal
high water table and the subsoil. Housing pads can be
elevated using suitable fill material. Onsite
investigation is needed to determine if special
structural precautions can prevent the damage caused
by shrinking and swelling of the soil. If adequate water







Soil Survey


outlets are available, an area drainage system can
lower the water table. A drainage system and adapted
plant species can help in the establishment of lawns
and landscaping.
This soil is poorly suited to local roads and streets
and to small commercial buildings. Wetness and a
moderate shrink-swell potential in the subsoil are
management concerns. A drainage system and
placement of suitable fill for elevating roadbeds can
help to overcome the wetness. Onsite investigation is
needed to determine if special precautions can prevent
the damage caused by shrinking and swelling of the
subsoil.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is I Iw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9W.


16-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes

This very deep, moderately well drained soil is on
uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 7
inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material,
to a depth of 38 inches, is brownish yellow fine sand.
The next part, to a depth of 61 inches, is light
yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of
80 inches or more, is very pale brown fine sand.
Ortega and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 80 percent of the areas mapped as
Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Included in
mapping are somewhat poorly drained Albany,
Ridgewood, and Mandarin soils in slight depressions.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 42 to
60 inches from June through January. Available water
capacity is very low. Permeability is rapid throughout.
This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological community (UDSA, 1989). In most areas the
natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash pine,
and turkey oak and an understory of wiregrass and
scattered saw palmetto.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and
wind erosion are management concerns. A soil fertility
management system and a well designed irrigation
system can increase yields. Returning all crop residue


to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help
maintain fertility and tilth. A good ground cover of
close-growing plants, reduced tillage, and the
establishment of wind strips help to control wind
erosion.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Droughtiness
and rapid leaching of nutrients are the main limitations.
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass
and bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly
fertilized and limed. Overgrazing on this soil quickly
reduces the extent of the plant cover and promotes the
growth of undesirable species. Proper stocking rates,
pasture rotation, and controlled grazing help to keep
the soil and pasture in good condition.
This soil has medium potential productivity for slash
pine, loblolly pine, and long leaf pine. The main
management concerns are a moderate equipment
limitation, moderate seedling mortality, and moderate
plant competition. Site preparation, such as applying
herbicides and chopping, facilitates mechanical
planting. Plant debris left on the site helps to maintain
the content of organic matter. Containerized stock can
reduce the seedling mortality rate.
This soil is well suited to homesite development.
Because of the rapid permeability, however, careful
selection of onsite waste disposal areas is needed to
prevent contamination of shallow ground water. This
management concern should preclude the practice of
clustering homes close together or installing the
disposal site adjacent to any body of water. Mulching,
fertilizing, and irrigating help establish lawn grasses
and other small-seeded plants.
This soil is well suited to small commercial buildings
and to local roads and streets.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10S.


17-Fuquay loamy fine sand

This very deep, well drained soil is on uplands.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
elongated or irregular in shape and range from 3 to 50
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy fine
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
yellowish brown loamy fine sand to a depth of 21
inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 27







Soil Survey


outlets are available, an area drainage system can
lower the water table. A drainage system and adapted
plant species can help in the establishment of lawns
and landscaping.
This soil is poorly suited to local roads and streets
and to small commercial buildings. Wetness and a
moderate shrink-swell potential in the subsoil are
management concerns. A drainage system and
placement of suitable fill for elevating roadbeds can
help to overcome the wetness. Onsite investigation is
needed to determine if special precautions can prevent
the damage caused by shrinking and swelling of the
subsoil.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is I Iw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9W.


16-Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes

This very deep, moderately well drained soil is on
uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 7
inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material,
to a depth of 38 inches, is brownish yellow fine sand.
The next part, to a depth of 61 inches, is light
yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of
80 inches or more, is very pale brown fine sand.
Ortega and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 80 percent of the areas mapped as
Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Included in
mapping are somewhat poorly drained Albany,
Ridgewood, and Mandarin soils in slight depressions.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 42 to
60 inches from June through January. Available water
capacity is very low. Permeability is rapid throughout.
This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological community (UDSA, 1989). In most areas the
natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash pine,
and turkey oak and an understory of wiregrass and
scattered saw palmetto.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and
wind erosion are management concerns. A soil fertility
management system and a well designed irrigation
system can increase yields. Returning all crop residue


to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help
maintain fertility and tilth. A good ground cover of
close-growing plants, reduced tillage, and the
establishment of wind strips help to control wind
erosion.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Droughtiness
and rapid leaching of nutrients are the main limitations.
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass
and bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly
fertilized and limed. Overgrazing on this soil quickly
reduces the extent of the plant cover and promotes the
growth of undesirable species. Proper stocking rates,
pasture rotation, and controlled grazing help to keep
the soil and pasture in good condition.
This soil has medium potential productivity for slash
pine, loblolly pine, and long leaf pine. The main
management concerns are a moderate equipment
limitation, moderate seedling mortality, and moderate
plant competition. Site preparation, such as applying
herbicides and chopping, facilitates mechanical
planting. Plant debris left on the site helps to maintain
the content of organic matter. Containerized stock can
reduce the seedling mortality rate.
This soil is well suited to homesite development.
Because of the rapid permeability, however, careful
selection of onsite waste disposal areas is needed to
prevent contamination of shallow ground water. This
management concern should preclude the practice of
clustering homes close together or installing the
disposal site adjacent to any body of water. Mulching,
fertilizing, and irrigating help establish lawn grasses
and other small-seeded plants.
This soil is well suited to small commercial buildings
and to local roads and streets.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10S.


17-Fuquay loamy fine sand

This very deep, well drained soil is on uplands.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
elongated or irregular in shape and range from 3 to 50
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy fine
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
yellowish brown loamy fine sand to a depth of 21
inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 27







Gulf County, Florida


inches, is brownish yellow fine sandy loam. The next
part, to a depth of 52 inches, is brownish yellow sandy
clay loam. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is light gray, reddish brown, dark yellowish
brown, and light olive brown sandy clay loam.
Fuquay and similar soils make up 68 to 92 percent
of the map unit in 80 percent of the areas mapped as
Fuquay loamy fine sand. Included in mapping are
moderately well drained Blanton, Clarendon, and
Stilson soils. Blanton soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Fuquay soil. Clarendon and
Stilson soils are in slightly depressional areas on flats.
A seasonal high water table is perched in the
subsoil at a depth of 48 to 72 inches for short periods
after heavy rains. Available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is slow.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood-Pine ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes live oak and longleaf pine and an
understory of wiregrass, ferns, huckleberry, and
scattered saw palmetto.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine or for cultivated crops.
This soil is moderately suited to most cultivated
crops. Droughtiness is a management concern.
Irrigation can help to overcome the droughtiness during
extended dry periods. A soil fertility management
system can increase yields. Returning all crop residue
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help
maintain fertility and tilth.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Proper
stocking rates, pasture rotation, and controlled
grazing help to keep the soil and pasture in good
condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for loblolly
pine, longleaf pine, and slash pine. The main
management concerns are a moderate equipment
limitation, moderate seedling mortality, and moderate
plant competition. Careful site preparation, such as
chopping, minimizes debris, helps to control competing
vegetation, and facilitates hand planting and mechanical
planting. The content of organic matter in the surface
layer commonly is very low. Logging systems that leave
residue on the site can improve fertility.
This soil is well suited to homesite development.
Septic tank absorption fields can be mounded to
maintain the system above the slowly permeable
layers or can be enlarged to accommodate the slow
permeability. Mulching, fertilizing, and irrigating help
establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded plants.
This soil is well suited to small commercial buildings
and to local roads and streets.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational


development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IIs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8S.


19-Lucy loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes

This very deep, well drained soil is on uplands.
Individual areas are elongated or irregular in shape and
range from 3 to 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown loamy fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy fine sand to
a depth of 30 inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to
a depth of 37 inches, is strong brown sandy loam. The
lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
yellowish red sandy clay loam.
Lucy and similar soils make up 62 to 97 percent of
the map unit in 80 percent of the areas mapped as
Lucy loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Included
in mapping are Blanton, Dothan, and Stilson soils. The
moderately well drained Blanton and Stilson soils and
the well drained Dothan soils are on upland side slopes
and in very slight depressions. Also included are soils
that are similar to the Lucy soil but have a loamy
subsoil below a depth of 40 inches.
A seasonal high water table does not occur within a
depth of 72 inches in most years. A water table can be
perched above the subsoil for short periods after heavy
rains. Available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is also moderate.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood-Pine ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes live oak and longleaf pine and an
understory of wiregrass, ferns, huckleberry, and
scattered saw palmetto.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is moderately suited to most cultivated
crops. Droughtiness is a management concern.
Irrigation can help to overcome the droughtiness during
extended dry periods. A soil fertility management
system can increase yields. Returning all crop residue
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help
maintain fertility and tilth.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Proper
stocking rates, pasture rotation, and controlled grazing
help to keep the soil and pasture in good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for slash







Soil Survey


pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. The main
management concerns are a moderate equipment
limitation, moderate seedling mortality, and moderate
plant competition. Careful site preparation, such as
chopping, minimizes debris, helps to controls
competing vegetation, and facilitates hand planting and
mechanical planting. The content of organic matter in
the surface layer commonly is very low. Logging
systems that leave residue on the site can improve
fertility.
This soil is well suited to homesite development.
Mulching, fertilizing, and irrigating help establish lawn
grasses and other small-seeded plants.
This soil is well suited to small commercial buildings
and to local roads and streets.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable fill over the soil or
resurfacing the surface layer can improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IIs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8S.

20-Lynn Haven fine sand

This very deep, poorly drained soil is in low areas of
flatwoods on the southern Coastal Plain. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown fine sand about 14 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 25
inches. The upper subsoil is fine sand to a depth of 48
inches. The first 15 inches of the upper subsoil is
black, the lower 8 inches is dark brown. Below this is
pale brown sand to a depth of 61 inches.The lower
subsoil is dark brown sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Lynn Haven and similar soils make up 95 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Lynn Haven fine sand. Included in mapping
are very poorly drained Rutlege and Pickney soils in
depressions.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 6 inches from February through September.
Available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderately rapid.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine and bay trees and an
understory of wax-myrtle, black titi, gallberry, scattered
saw palmetto, and fetterbush.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.


Wetness is a management concern. If a water-control
system and soil improving measures are used, this soil
is suited to a number of crops. A water-control system
helps to remove excess water in wet seasons and
provides surface irrigation in dry seasons. Seedbed
preparation can include bedding of rows. A soil fertility
management system can increase yields.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Drainage
helps remove excess water during wet periods.
Management of fertility and proper selection of adapted
grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum yields.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and
soil in good condition.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for
slash pine and loblolly pine. The main management
concerns are a moderate equipment limitation,
moderate seedling mortality, and severe plant
competition. Plant competition can be controlled by
herbicides and prescribed burning. Using special
equipment, such as equipment that has large rubber
tires or crawler machinery, and harvesting during dry
periods minimize the root damage caused by thinning
operations and reduce the extent of compaction. Soil
compaction restricts water infiltration, aeration, and
root growth. Logging systems that leave residue on the
site help to maintain the content of organic matter.
This soil is not suited to urban or recreational
development. Wetness is a severe limitation.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

21-Leefield loamy fine sand

This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is on
low uplands and on narrow ridges in areas of flatwoods
on the southern Coastal Plain. Slopes range from 0 to
2 percent. Individual areas are elongated or irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy
fine sand about 9 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsurface layer, to a depth of 20 inches, is light
yellowish brown loamy fine sand. The lower part, to a
depth of 28 inches, is pale brown loamy fine sand. The
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 51 inches, is
fine sandy loam that is reticulately mottled in shades
of gray, yellow, red, and brown. The lower part, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is grayish brown sandy
clay loam.
Leefield and similar soils make up 80 to 95 percent
of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas mapped as
Leefield loamy fine sand. Included in mapping are
Albany, Pelham, and Stilson soils. The somewhat
poorly drained Albany soils are in landscape positions







Soil Survey


pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. The main
management concerns are a moderate equipment
limitation, moderate seedling mortality, and moderate
plant competition. Careful site preparation, such as
chopping, minimizes debris, helps to controls
competing vegetation, and facilitates hand planting and
mechanical planting. The content of organic matter in
the surface layer commonly is very low. Logging
systems that leave residue on the site can improve
fertility.
This soil is well suited to homesite development.
Mulching, fertilizing, and irrigating help establish lawn
grasses and other small-seeded plants.
This soil is well suited to small commercial buildings
and to local roads and streets.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable fill over the soil or
resurfacing the surface layer can improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IIs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8S.

20-Lynn Haven fine sand

This very deep, poorly drained soil is in low areas of
flatwoods on the southern Coastal Plain. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown fine sand about 14 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 25
inches. The upper subsoil is fine sand to a depth of 48
inches. The first 15 inches of the upper subsoil is
black, the lower 8 inches is dark brown. Below this is
pale brown sand to a depth of 61 inches.The lower
subsoil is dark brown sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Lynn Haven and similar soils make up 95 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Lynn Haven fine sand. Included in mapping
are very poorly drained Rutlege and Pickney soils in
depressions.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 6 inches from February through September.
Available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderately rapid.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine and bay trees and an
understory of wax-myrtle, black titi, gallberry, scattered
saw palmetto, and fetterbush.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.


Wetness is a management concern. If a water-control
system and soil improving measures are used, this soil
is suited to a number of crops. A water-control system
helps to remove excess water in wet seasons and
provides surface irrigation in dry seasons. Seedbed
preparation can include bedding of rows. A soil fertility
management system can increase yields.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Drainage
helps remove excess water during wet periods.
Management of fertility and proper selection of adapted
grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum yields.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and
soil in good condition.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for
slash pine and loblolly pine. The main management
concerns are a moderate equipment limitation,
moderate seedling mortality, and severe plant
competition. Plant competition can be controlled by
herbicides and prescribed burning. Using special
equipment, such as equipment that has large rubber
tires or crawler machinery, and harvesting during dry
periods minimize the root damage caused by thinning
operations and reduce the extent of compaction. Soil
compaction restricts water infiltration, aeration, and
root growth. Logging systems that leave residue on the
site help to maintain the content of organic matter.
This soil is not suited to urban or recreational
development. Wetness is a severe limitation.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

21-Leefield loamy fine sand

This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is on
low uplands and on narrow ridges in areas of flatwoods
on the southern Coastal Plain. Slopes range from 0 to
2 percent. Individual areas are elongated or irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy
fine sand about 9 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsurface layer, to a depth of 20 inches, is light
yellowish brown loamy fine sand. The lower part, to a
depth of 28 inches, is pale brown loamy fine sand. The
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 51 inches, is
fine sandy loam that is reticulately mottled in shades
of gray, yellow, red, and brown. The lower part, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is grayish brown sandy
clay loam.
Leefield and similar soils make up 80 to 95 percent
of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas mapped as
Leefield loamy fine sand. Included in mapping are
Albany, Pelham, and Stilson soils. The somewhat
poorly drained Albany soils are in landscape positions







Gulf County, Florida


similar to those of the Leefield soil. The poorly drained
Pelham soils are in slight depressions. The moderately
well drained Stilson soils are on the higher ridges and
knolls. Also included in various landscape positions are
soils that have a loamy subsoil at various depths and
that have cobble- to boulder-sized fragments of
hardened ironstone in the subsurface layer and subsoil.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18
to 30 inches from December through March.
Available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderately slow.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood-Pine ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak,
laurel oak, dogwood, and sweetgum and an understory
of saw palmetto, greenbrier, and wiregrass.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is suited to most cultivated crops. The
main management concerns are periodic wetness and
seasonal droughtiness. A soil fertility management
system and a well designed irrigation system can
increase yields. Returning all crop residue to the soil
and using a cropping system that includes grasses,
legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help maintain
fertility and tilth.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Deep-rooted
plants, such as improved bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly
fertilized and limed. Overgrazing on this soil quickly
reduces the extent of the plant cover and promotes the
growth of undesirable species. Proper stocking rates,
pasture rotation, and controlled grazing help to keep
the soil and pasture in good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for loblolly
pine and slash pine.The main management concerns
are a moderate equipment limitation, moderate
seedling mortality, and moderate plant competition.
Plant competition can be controlled by herbicides
and prescribed burning.The content of organic
matter in the surface layer commonly is very low.
Logging systems that leave residue on the site can
improve fertility.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness and seasonal droughtiness are management
concerns. Septic tank absorption fields can be
mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal
high water table. Placement of suitable fill material can
elevate building sites.
This soil is suited to local roads and streets.
Drainage and placement of suitable fill for elevating
roadbeds can help to overcome the wetness affecting
road construction.
This soil is also poorly suited to small commercial


buildings because of the wetness. Placement of
suitable fill material can elevate building sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is lIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8W.

22-Leon fine sand

This very deep, poorly drained soil is in areas of
flatwoods on the southern Coastal Plain. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 300 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
fine sand to a depth of 21 inches. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 29 inches, is very dark brown
fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 35 inches, is
very pale brown fine sand. The upper part of the
underlying material, to a depth of 55 inches, is light
gray fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches
or more, is white fine sand.
Leon and similar soils make up 95 to 100 percent of
the map unit in 95 percent of the areas mapped as
Leon fine sand. Included in mapping are Sapelo and
Mandarin soils. The poorly drained Sapelo soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Leon soil.
The somewhat poorly drained Mandarin soils are on
low knolls and narrow ridges in the areas of flatwoods.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to
18 inches from March through September. Available
water capacity is low. Permeability is moderately slow.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine and longleaf pine and an
understory of saw palmetto, wax-myrtle, gallberry,
wiregrass, and fetterbush.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness and low fertility are management concerns. A
water-control system helps to remove excess water in
wet seasons and provides surface irrigation in dry
seasons. Row crops can be rotated with close-growing,
soil improving crops. Crop residue management and
soil improving crops help maintain the content of
organic matter. Seedbed preparation can include
bedding of rows. A soil fertility management system
can increase yields.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Drainage
helps to remove excess water during wet periods.






Soil Survey


Management of fertility and proper selection of adapted
grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum yields.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and
soil in good condition.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for
slash pine. The main management concerns are a
moderate equipment limitation, moderate seedling
mortality, and moderate plant competition. Plant
competition can be controlled by herbicides and
prescribed burning. Using special equipment, such as
equipment that has large rubber tires or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
the root damage caused by thinning operations and
reduce the extent of compaction. Soil compaction
restricts water infiltration, aeration, and root growth.
Logging systems that leave residue on the site help to
maintain the content of organic matter.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness is a management concern. Septic tank
absorption fields can be mounded to maintain the
system above the seasonal high water table.
Placement of suitable fill material can elevate building
sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.

23-Maurepas muck, frequently flooded

This very deep, very poorly drained soil is on flood
plains consisting of slightly brackish swamps and
marshes. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas
are elongated or irregular in shape and range from 5 to
several hundred acres in size. This soil is flooded at
least several times each month by high tides. The
elevation and frequency of flooding generally are
greater in the areas closer to the coast.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown muck
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is black
muck to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Maurepas and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Maurepas muck, frequently flooded.
Included in mapping are very poorly drained Bayvi and
Pickney soils on slight rises.
The seasonal high water table is 12 inches above
the surface to a depth of 6 inches year around. The
depth to the water table fluctuates slightly because of
the tide. This soil is flooded by high tides at least


several times each month. Available water capacity is
very high. Permeability is rapid throughout.
This soil is in the Salt Marsh ecological community
(USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural vegetation
includes sawgrass, big cordgrass, and black
needlerush. In a few small areas, it includes scattered
cypress, bay, and gum trees. Most areas still support
the natural vegetation. Areas of this soil provide excellent
habitat for wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, pasture,
hay, woodland, or urban or recreational development.
The flooding, ponding, and low bearing strength are
severe limitations.
The capability subclass is VIIIw. A woodland
ordination symbol has not been assigned.

24-Mandarin fine sand

This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is on
low ridges and knolls in areas of flatwoods on the
southern Coastal Plain. Slopes range from 0 to 2
percent. Individual areas are narrow and elongated in
shape and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 13 inches. The
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 17 inches, is
dark brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 30
inches, is brown fine sand. The underlying material is
white fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Mandarin and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas
mapped as Mandarin fine sand. Included in mapping
are moderately well drained Ortega and Resota soils
on knolls and ridges. Also included on low flats are
poorly drained soils that have a weakly developed,
stained subsoil.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to
42 inches from June through December. Available
water capacity is low. Permeability is moderate.
This soil is dominantly in the North Florida
Flatwoods ecological community (USDA, 1989). In
most areas the natural vegetation includes slash pine,
longleaf pine, and turkey oak and an understory of
wiregrass, pennyroyal, and scattered saw palmetto.
Some areas of this soil are in the Sand Pine Scrub
ecological plant community. Additional species in this
plant community include sand pine, Chapman's oak,
and scrub oak.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine or still support the natural
vegetation. Some areas have been used for homesite
development.
This soil is not suited to most cultivated crops.






Soil Survey


Management of fertility and proper selection of adapted
grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum yields.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and
soil in good condition.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for
slash pine. The main management concerns are a
moderate equipment limitation, moderate seedling
mortality, and moderate plant competition. Plant
competition can be controlled by herbicides and
prescribed burning. Using special equipment, such as
equipment that has large rubber tires or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
the root damage caused by thinning operations and
reduce the extent of compaction. Soil compaction
restricts water infiltration, aeration, and root growth.
Logging systems that leave residue on the site help to
maintain the content of organic matter.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness is a management concern. Septic tank
absorption fields can be mounded to maintain the
system above the seasonal high water table.
Placement of suitable fill material can elevate building
sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.

23-Maurepas muck, frequently flooded

This very deep, very poorly drained soil is on flood
plains consisting of slightly brackish swamps and
marshes. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Individual areas
are elongated or irregular in shape and range from 5 to
several hundred acres in size. This soil is flooded at
least several times each month by high tides. The
elevation and frequency of flooding generally are
greater in the areas closer to the coast.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown muck
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is black
muck to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Maurepas and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Maurepas muck, frequently flooded.
Included in mapping are very poorly drained Bayvi and
Pickney soils on slight rises.
The seasonal high water table is 12 inches above
the surface to a depth of 6 inches year around. The
depth to the water table fluctuates slightly because of
the tide. This soil is flooded by high tides at least


several times each month. Available water capacity is
very high. Permeability is rapid throughout.
This soil is in the Salt Marsh ecological community
(USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural vegetation
includes sawgrass, big cordgrass, and black
needlerush. In a few small areas, it includes scattered
cypress, bay, and gum trees. Most areas still support
the natural vegetation. Areas of this soil provide excellent
habitat for wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, pasture,
hay, woodland, or urban or recreational development.
The flooding, ponding, and low bearing strength are
severe limitations.
The capability subclass is VIIIw. A woodland
ordination symbol has not been assigned.

24-Mandarin fine sand

This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is on
low ridges and knolls in areas of flatwoods on the
southern Coastal Plain. Slopes range from 0 to 2
percent. Individual areas are narrow and elongated in
shape and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 13 inches. The
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 17 inches, is
dark brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 30
inches, is brown fine sand. The underlying material is
white fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Mandarin and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas
mapped as Mandarin fine sand. Included in mapping
are moderately well drained Ortega and Resota soils
on knolls and ridges. Also included on low flats are
poorly drained soils that have a weakly developed,
stained subsoil.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to
42 inches from June through December. Available
water capacity is low. Permeability is moderate.
This soil is dominantly in the North Florida
Flatwoods ecological community (USDA, 1989). In
most areas the natural vegetation includes slash pine,
longleaf pine, and turkey oak and an understory of
wiregrass, pennyroyal, and scattered saw palmetto.
Some areas of this soil are in the Sand Pine Scrub
ecological plant community. Additional species in this
plant community include sand pine, Chapman's oak,
and scrub oak.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine or still support the natural
vegetation. Some areas have been used for homesite
development.
This soil is not suited to most cultivated crops.







Gulf County, Florida


Droughtiness is a severe limitation.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay. Deep-
rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly
fertilized and limed. Overgrazing on this soil quickly
reduces the extent of the plant cover and promotes the
growth of undesirable species. Proper stocking rates,
pasture rotation, and controlled grazing help to keep
the soil and pasture in good condition.
This soil has medium potential productivity for slash
pine and longleaf pine. The main management
concerns are a moderate equipment limitation, severe
seedling mortality, and moderate plant competition.
Plant competition can be controlled by herbicides and
prescribed burning. The content of organic matter in the
surface layer commonly is very low. Logging systems
that leave residue on the site can improve fertility.
This soil is moderately suited to urban development.
Wetness and seasonal droughtiness are management
concerns. Septic tank absorption fields can be
mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal
high water table. Placement of suitable fill material can
elevate building sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is VIs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8S.


25-Meggett fine sandy loam,
occasionally flooded
This very deep, poorly drained soil is on low
terraces, primarily along the Apalachicola River and its
tributaries and distributaries. Slopes range from 0 to 2
percent. Individual areas are elongated or irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 150 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches. It is dark grayish
brown sandy clay loam in the upper part, gray sandy
clay loam in the next part, and dark gray and gray clay
in the lower part.
Meggett and similar soils make up 95 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas mapped as
Meggett fine sandy loam, occasionally flooded.
Included in mapping are Brickyard, Leefield, and Ocilla
soils. The very poorly drained Brickyard soils are in
slight depressions and in areas that are transitional to
low backswamps.The somewhat poorly drained
Leefield and Ocilla soils are on low knolls.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a


depth of 12 inches from November through April.
Available water capacity is moderate. Permeability is
slow.
This soil is in the Bottomland Hardwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes scattered slash pine, bay trees,
water oak, sweetgum, cabbage palm, Carolina water
ash, and red maple and an understory of scattered saw
palmetto, various low, herbaceous plants, and
wiregrass.
Most areas of this soil are used for woodland and
still support the natural vegetation. A few small areas
are used for cropland and pasture.
This soil is not suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness and the occasional flooding are severe
limitations.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Drainage
helps to remove excess water during wet periods.
Management of fertility and proper selection of
adapted grasses and legumes help to ensure
optimum yields. Proper stocking rates, pasture
rotation, and restricted grazing during wet periods help
to keep the pasture and soil in good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for slash
pine and loblolly pine.The main management concerns
are a severe equipment limitation, severe seedling
mortality, and severe plant competition. Site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, reduces
the seedling mortality rate and increases early growth.
Using special equipment, such as equipment that has
large rubber tires or crawler machinery, and harvesting
during dry periods minimize the root damage caused
by thinning operations and reduce the extent of
compaction. Soil compaction reduces water infiltration,
aeration, and root growth.
This soil is not suited to urban development. The
flooding and wetness are severe limitations.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 13W.


26-Ocilla loamy fine sand, overwash,
occasionally flooded
This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is on
low river terraces and stream terraces. It consists of
overwash material. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Individual areas are elongated or irregular in shape and
range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish







Gulf County, Florida


Droughtiness is a severe limitation.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay. Deep-
rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly
fertilized and limed. Overgrazing on this soil quickly
reduces the extent of the plant cover and promotes the
growth of undesirable species. Proper stocking rates,
pasture rotation, and controlled grazing help to keep
the soil and pasture in good condition.
This soil has medium potential productivity for slash
pine and longleaf pine. The main management
concerns are a moderate equipment limitation, severe
seedling mortality, and moderate plant competition.
Plant competition can be controlled by herbicides and
prescribed burning. The content of organic matter in the
surface layer commonly is very low. Logging systems
that leave residue on the site can improve fertility.
This soil is moderately suited to urban development.
Wetness and seasonal droughtiness are management
concerns. Septic tank absorption fields can be
mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal
high water table. Placement of suitable fill material can
elevate building sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is VIs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8S.


25-Meggett fine sandy loam,
occasionally flooded
This very deep, poorly drained soil is on low
terraces, primarily along the Apalachicola River and its
tributaries and distributaries. Slopes range from 0 to 2
percent. Individual areas are elongated or irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 150 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches. It is dark grayish
brown sandy clay loam in the upper part, gray sandy
clay loam in the next part, and dark gray and gray clay
in the lower part.
Meggett and similar soils make up 95 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas mapped as
Meggett fine sandy loam, occasionally flooded.
Included in mapping are Brickyard, Leefield, and Ocilla
soils. The very poorly drained Brickyard soils are in
slight depressions and in areas that are transitional to
low backswamps.The somewhat poorly drained
Leefield and Ocilla soils are on low knolls.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a


depth of 12 inches from November through April.
Available water capacity is moderate. Permeability is
slow.
This soil is in the Bottomland Hardwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes scattered slash pine, bay trees,
water oak, sweetgum, cabbage palm, Carolina water
ash, and red maple and an understory of scattered saw
palmetto, various low, herbaceous plants, and
wiregrass.
Most areas of this soil are used for woodland and
still support the natural vegetation. A few small areas
are used for cropland and pasture.
This soil is not suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness and the occasional flooding are severe
limitations.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Drainage
helps to remove excess water during wet periods.
Management of fertility and proper selection of
adapted grasses and legumes help to ensure
optimum yields. Proper stocking rates, pasture
rotation, and restricted grazing during wet periods help
to keep the pasture and soil in good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for slash
pine and loblolly pine.The main management concerns
are a severe equipment limitation, severe seedling
mortality, and severe plant competition. Site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, reduces
the seedling mortality rate and increases early growth.
Using special equipment, such as equipment that has
large rubber tires or crawler machinery, and harvesting
during dry periods minimize the root damage caused
by thinning operations and reduce the extent of
compaction. Soil compaction reduces water infiltration,
aeration, and root growth.
This soil is not suited to urban development. The
flooding and wetness are severe limitations.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 13W.


26-Ocilla loamy fine sand, overwash,
occasionally flooded
This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is on
low river terraces and stream terraces. It consists of
overwash material. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Individual areas are elongated or irregular in shape and
range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish







Soil Survey


brown loamy fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy fine sand to
a depth of 30 inches. The subsoil is light olive brown
sandy clay loam to a depth of 64 inches. The
underlying material is olive yellow stratified sand and
loamy sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Ocilla and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 80 percent of the areas mapped as
Ocilla loamy fine sand, overwash, occasionally
flooded. Included in mapping are Albany and Rains
soils. The somewhat poorly drained Albany soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the Ocilla soil.
The poorly drained Rains soils are in slight depressions.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12 to 30
inches from December through April. Available water
capacity is low. Permeability is moderately slow.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood-Pine
ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas
the natural vegetation includes slash pine, live oak,
laurel oak, dogwood, sweetgum, and cabbage palm
and an understory of saw palmetto, greenbrier, and
wiregrass.
Most areas of this soil are used for pasture or
cropland. Many other areas are used for woodland and
still support the natural vegetation.
This soil is moderately suited to most cu tivated
crops. Wetness and the occasional flooding are
management concerns. A soil fertility mana ement
system and a well designed irrigation system can
increase yields. Returning all crop residue to the soil
and using a cropping system that includes grasses,
legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help maintain
fertility and tilth.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Deep-rooted
plants, such as improved bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly
fertilized and limed. Overgrazing on this soil quickly
reduces the extent of the plant cover and promotes the
growth of undesirable species. Proper stocking rates,
pasture rotation, and controlled grazing help to keep
the soil and pasture in good condition.
This soil has medium potential productivity for
loblolly pine and slash pine. The main management
concerns are a moderate equipment limitation,
moderate seedling mortality, and moderate plant
competition. The seedling mortality rate can be higher
in years when flooding occurs. Plant competition can
be controlled by herbicides and prescribed burning.The
content of organic matter in the surface layer
commonly is very low. Logging systems that leave
residue on the site can improve fertility.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness and seasonal droughtiness are management
concerns. Septic tank absorption fields can be


mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal
high water table. Placement of suitable fill material can
elevate building sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8W.

27-Pelham loamy fine sand

This very deep, poorly drained soil is in low areas of
flatwoods and on low flats on the southern Coastal
Plain. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual
areas are elongated or irregular in shape and range
from 5 to 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is black loamy fine sand
about 7 inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface
layer, to a depth of 16 inches, is dark gray loamy fine
sand. The lower part, to a depth of 31 inches, is
grayish brown loamy fine sand. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 52 inches, is gray fine sandy
loam. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is gray sandy clay loam.
Pelham and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas mapped as
Pelham loamy fine sand. Included in mapping are
Plummer, Pantego, and Leefield soils.The poorly
drained Plummer soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Pelham soil. The poorly drained
Pantego soils are in slight depressions. The somewhat
poorly drained Leefield soils are on low knolls.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to
a depth of 12 inches from January through April.
Available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderately slow.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, water oak, and red
maple and an understory of black titi, gallberry,
scattered saw palmetto, and wiregrass.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness is a management concern. If a water-control
system and soil improving measures are used, this soil
is suited to a number of crops. A water-control system
helps remove excess water in wet seasons and
provides surface irrigation in dry seasons. Seedbed
preparation can include bedding of rows. A soil fertility
management system can increase yields.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Drainage






Gulf County, Florida


helps remove excess water during wet periods.
Management of fertility and proper selection of adapted
grasses and legumes help ensure optimum yields.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and
soil in good condition.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for
slash pine and loblolly pine. The main management
concerns are a severe equipment limitation, severe
seedling mortality, and moderate plant competition.
Site preparation, such as harrowing and bedding,
reduces the seedling mortality rate and increases early
growth. Using special equipment, such as equipment
that has large rubber tires or crawler machinery, and
harvesting during dry periods minimize the root
damage caused by thinning operations and reduce the
extent compaction. Soil compaction restricts water
infiltration, aeration, and root growth.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness is a management concern. Septic tank
absorption fields can be mounded to maintain the
system above the seasonal high water table.
Placement of suitable fill material can elevate building
sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is Vw.The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.


28-Plummer fine sand

This very deep, poorly drained soil is in low areas of
flatwoods and in broad, slightly depressional areas on
flats. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas
are irregular in shape and range from 15 to 500 acres in
size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 10 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsurface layer, to a depth of 15 inches, is gray fine
sand. The next part, to a depth of 28 inches, is light
gray and dark gray fine sand. The lower part, to a depth
of 42 inches, is gray loamy fine sand. The upper part of
the subsoil, to a depth of 60 inches, is grayish brown
fine sandy loam. The next part, to a depth of 72
inches, is gray and light brownish gray fine sandy
loam. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is light gray fine sandy loam.
Plummer and similar soils make up 75 to 100
percent of the map unit in 80 percent of the areas
mapped as Plummer fine sand. Included in mapping


are Albany, Pelham, Leefield, and Surrency soils. The
somewhat poorly drained Albany and Leefield soils are
on low knolls. Pelham soils are in landscape positions
similar to those of the Plummer soil but have thinner
surface and subsurface layers. The very poorly drained
Surrency soils are in the slightly lower depressions and
have a dark surface layer.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 12 inches from December through July.
Available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderately slow.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, a few widely scattered
baldcypress, and sweetbay and an understory of
scattered saw palmetto, gallberry, wax-myrtle, pitcher
plants, black titi, and fetterbush.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness is a management concern. If a water-control
system and soil improving measures are used, this soil
is suited to a number of crops. A water-control system
helps remove excess water in wet seasons and
provides surface irrigation in dry seasons. Seedbed
preparation can include bedding of rows. A soil fertility
management system can increase yields.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Drainage
helps to remove excess water during wet periods.
Management of fertility and proper selection of adapted
grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum yields.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and
soil in good condition.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for
loblolly pine and slash pine. The main management
concerns are a severe equipment limitation, severe
seedling mortality, and severe plant competition. Site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, reduces
the seedling mortality rate and increases early growth.
Using special equipment, such as equipment that has
large rubber tires or crawler machinery, and harvesting
during dry periods minimize the root damage caused
by thinning operations and reduce the extent
compaction. Soil compaction restricts water infiltration,
aeration, and root growth.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness is a management concern. Septic tank
absorption fields can be mounded to maintain the
system above the seasonal high water table.
Placement of suitable fill material can elevate building
sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and






Soil Survey


paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.


30-Pantego and Bayboro soils,
depressional

These very deep, very poorly drained soils are in
depressions and along poorly defined streams. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are elliptical
or irregular in shape and range from 3 to 200 acres in
size. This map unit consists of about 50 percent
Pantego soil and 30 percent Bayboro soil. These soils
were not mapped separately because they have similar
use and management requirements.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pantego soil is
very dark gray and very dark grayish brown loamy
sand about 18 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 45 inches, is light gray sandy
loam. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is light gray sandy clay loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Bayboro soil is
fine sandy loam to a depth of 10 inches. The upper 6
inches is very dark gray, and the lower 4 inches is very
dark grayish brown. The subsurface layer is light
brownish gray and gray fine sandy loam to a depth of
18 inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
44 inches, is gray clay loam. The lower part, to a depth
of 80 inches or more, is gray clay.
Pantego, Bayboro, and similar soils make up 75 to
95 percent of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas
mapped as Pantego and Bayboro soils, depressional.
Included in mapping are poorly drained Bladen and
Rains soils on slight rises.
The seasonal high water table is above the surface
for about 6 to 9 months in most years. Available water
capacity is moderate. Permeability is moderately slow
in the Pantego soil and slow in the Bayboro soil.
These soils are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes blackgum, cypress, sweetbay,
swamp tupelo, black titi, swamp cyrilla, sawgrass, and
scattered slash pine. The understory consists mostly
of titi, St. Johnswort, and pitcher plants. Cypress is a
more dominant component of the vegetation in the
northern part of the county. Most areas of this unit still
support the natural vegetation. Pine trees have been
planted in a few areas that have a water-control
system and bedding. Areas of these soils provide
cover for deer and excellent habitat for wading birds
and other wetland wildlife.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,


woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development. Ponding and wetness are severe
limitations.
The capability subclass is VIIw in areas of the
Pantego soil and VIw in areas of the Bayboro soil.The
woodland ordination symbol is 2W in areas of the
Pantego soil and 8W in areas of the Bayboro soil.


31-Pickney-Pamlico complex,
depressional

These very deep, very poorly drained soils are in
depressions. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. This
map unit consists of about 50 percent Pickney soil and
35 percent Pamlico soil. Individual areas of these soils
are so intermingled on the landscape that it was
impractical to separate them at the scale selected for
mapping. Mapped areas are irregular in shape and
range from 10 to 500 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pickney soil is
black, very dark brown, and very dark grayish brown
fine sand about 51 inches thick. The underlying
material is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of Pamlico soil is muck
to a depth of 22 inches. The upper 7 inches is brown,
and the lower 15 inches is black. The upper part of the
underlying material, to a depth of 28 inches, is very
dark grayish brown fine sand. The next part, to a depth
of 69 inches, is very dark brown fine sand.The lower
part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is dark grayish
brown fine sand.
Pickney, Pamlico, and similar soils make up 85 to
100 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Pickney-Pamlico complex, depressional.
Included in mapping are poorly drained Lynn Haven
and Scranton soils on slight rises, commonly near the
edges of the mapped areas.
The seasonal high water table is above the surface
for about 6 to 9 months in most years. Available water
capacity is very high in the Pamlico soil and low in the
Pickney soil. Permeability is moderate in the Parnlico
soil and rapid in the Pickney soil.
These soils are in the Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamp
ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the
natural vegetation includes blackgum, cypress,
sweetbay, swamp cyrilla, black titi, and scattered slash
pine. Most areas still support the natural vegetation.
Areas of these soils provide cover for deer and excellent
habitat for wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,
woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development. Ponding, wetness, and low bearing
strength are severe limitations.






Soil Survey


paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.


30-Pantego and Bayboro soils,
depressional

These very deep, very poorly drained soils are in
depressions and along poorly defined streams. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are elliptical
or irregular in shape and range from 3 to 200 acres in
size. This map unit consists of about 50 percent
Pantego soil and 30 percent Bayboro soil. These soils
were not mapped separately because they have similar
use and management requirements.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pantego soil is
very dark gray and very dark grayish brown loamy
sand about 18 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 45 inches, is light gray sandy
loam. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is light gray sandy clay loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Bayboro soil is
fine sandy loam to a depth of 10 inches. The upper 6
inches is very dark gray, and the lower 4 inches is very
dark grayish brown. The subsurface layer is light
brownish gray and gray fine sandy loam to a depth of
18 inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
44 inches, is gray clay loam. The lower part, to a depth
of 80 inches or more, is gray clay.
Pantego, Bayboro, and similar soils make up 75 to
95 percent of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas
mapped as Pantego and Bayboro soils, depressional.
Included in mapping are poorly drained Bladen and
Rains soils on slight rises.
The seasonal high water table is above the surface
for about 6 to 9 months in most years. Available water
capacity is moderate. Permeability is moderately slow
in the Pantego soil and slow in the Bayboro soil.
These soils are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes blackgum, cypress, sweetbay,
swamp tupelo, black titi, swamp cyrilla, sawgrass, and
scattered slash pine. The understory consists mostly
of titi, St. Johnswort, and pitcher plants. Cypress is a
more dominant component of the vegetation in the
northern part of the county. Most areas of this unit still
support the natural vegetation. Pine trees have been
planted in a few areas that have a water-control
system and bedding. Areas of these soils provide
cover for deer and excellent habitat for wading birds
and other wetland wildlife.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,


woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development. Ponding and wetness are severe
limitations.
The capability subclass is VIIw in areas of the
Pantego soil and VIw in areas of the Bayboro soil.The
woodland ordination symbol is 2W in areas of the
Pantego soil and 8W in areas of the Bayboro soil.


31-Pickney-Pamlico complex,
depressional

These very deep, very poorly drained soils are in
depressions. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. This
map unit consists of about 50 percent Pickney soil and
35 percent Pamlico soil. Individual areas of these soils
are so intermingled on the landscape that it was
impractical to separate them at the scale selected for
mapping. Mapped areas are irregular in shape and
range from 10 to 500 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pickney soil is
black, very dark brown, and very dark grayish brown
fine sand about 51 inches thick. The underlying
material is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of Pamlico soil is muck
to a depth of 22 inches. The upper 7 inches is brown,
and the lower 15 inches is black. The upper part of the
underlying material, to a depth of 28 inches, is very
dark grayish brown fine sand. The next part, to a depth
of 69 inches, is very dark brown fine sand.The lower
part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is dark grayish
brown fine sand.
Pickney, Pamlico, and similar soils make up 85 to
100 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Pickney-Pamlico complex, depressional.
Included in mapping are poorly drained Lynn Haven
and Scranton soils on slight rises, commonly near the
edges of the mapped areas.
The seasonal high water table is above the surface
for about 6 to 9 months in most years. Available water
capacity is very high in the Pamlico soil and low in the
Pickney soil. Permeability is moderate in the Parnlico
soil and rapid in the Pickney soil.
These soils are in the Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamp
ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the
natural vegetation includes blackgum, cypress,
sweetbay, swamp cyrilla, black titi, and scattered slash
pine. Most areas still support the natural vegetation.
Areas of these soils provide cover for deer and excellent
habitat for wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,
woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development. Ponding, wetness, and low bearing
strength are severe limitations.






Gulf County, Florida


The capability subclass is VIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W in areas of the Pickney soil
and 4W in areas of the Pamlico soil.


32-Rains fine sandy loam

This very deep, poorly drained soil is on low flats.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
elongated or irregular in shape and range from 5 to 400
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown fine sandy loam about 9 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light gray fine sandy loam to a
depth of 21 inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
depth of 60 inches, is gray fine sandy loam. The lower
part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is gray and dark
gray sandy clay loam.
Rains and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas mapped as
Rains fine sandy loam. Included in mapping are
Pantego, Plummer, and Surrency soils. The very poorly
drained Pantego soils are in slight depressions. The
very poorly drained Surrency soils are in depressions.
The poorly drained Plummer soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Rains soil.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 12 inches from November through April.
Available water capacity is moderate. Permeability is
also moderate.
This soil is in the Pitcher Plant Bogs ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, sweetbay, water oak,
and red maple and an understory of wiregrass,
trumpets, red pitcher plants, and scattered black titi,
St. Johnswort, and saw palmetto.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine or still support the natural
vegetation.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness is a management concern. If a water-control
system and soil improving measures are used, this soil
is suited to a number of crops. Where suitable outlets
are available, a water-control system can help remove
excess water in wet seasons. Row crops can be
rotated with close-growing, soil improving crops. Crop
residue management and soil improving crops can help
to maintain the content of organic matter and tilth.
Seedbed preparation can include bedding of rows.
A soil fertility management system can increase
yields.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Drainage
helps to remove excess water during wet periods.
Management of fertility and proper selection of adapted
grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum yields.


Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and
soil in good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for loblolly
pine. The main management concerns are a moderate
equipment limitation, moderate seedling mortality, a
severe hazard of windthrow, and severe plant
competition. Site preparation, such as harrowing and
bedding, reduces the seedling mortality rate and
increases early growth. Using special equipment, such
as equipment that has large rubber tires or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
the root damage caused by thinning operations and
reduce the extent of compaction. Soil compaction
restricts water infiltration, aeration, and root growth.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness is a management concern. Septic tank
absorption fields can be mounded to maintain the
system above the seasonal high water table.
Placement of suitable fill material can elevate building
sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.


33-Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes
This very deep, moderately well drained soil is on
coastal ridges and remnant dunes. Individual areas
generally are elongated in shape and range from 3 to
150 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is light gray fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine
sand to a depth of 15 inches. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 19 inches, is strong brown fine
sand that has discontinuous dark brown bands and
nodules. The lower part, to a depth of 40 inches, is
light yellowish brown fine sand. The underlying material
is white fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Resota and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas mapped as
Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Included in
mapping are Corolla, Leon, Mandarin, and Ridgewood
soils.The somewhat poorly drained and moderately
well drained Corolla soils are in slight, coastward
swales and on low ridges. The poorly drained Leon and
somewhat poorly drained Mandarin and Ridgewood
soils are in slight swales, on side slopes, and on the
lower ridges.






Gulf County, Florida


The capability subclass is VIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W in areas of the Pickney soil
and 4W in areas of the Pamlico soil.


32-Rains fine sandy loam

This very deep, poorly drained soil is on low flats.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are
elongated or irregular in shape and range from 5 to 400
acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown fine sandy loam about 9 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light gray fine sandy loam to a
depth of 21 inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
depth of 60 inches, is gray fine sandy loam. The lower
part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is gray and dark
gray sandy clay loam.
Rains and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas mapped as
Rains fine sandy loam. Included in mapping are
Pantego, Plummer, and Surrency soils. The very poorly
drained Pantego soils are in slight depressions. The
very poorly drained Surrency soils are in depressions.
The poorly drained Plummer soils are in landscape
positions similar to those of the Rains soil.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 12 inches from November through April.
Available water capacity is moderate. Permeability is
also moderate.
This soil is in the Pitcher Plant Bogs ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, sweetbay, water oak,
and red maple and an understory of wiregrass,
trumpets, red pitcher plants, and scattered black titi,
St. Johnswort, and saw palmetto.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine or still support the natural
vegetation.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness is a management concern. If a water-control
system and soil improving measures are used, this soil
is suited to a number of crops. Where suitable outlets
are available, a water-control system can help remove
excess water in wet seasons. Row crops can be
rotated with close-growing, soil improving crops. Crop
residue management and soil improving crops can help
to maintain the content of organic matter and tilth.
Seedbed preparation can include bedding of rows.
A soil fertility management system can increase
yields.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Drainage
helps to remove excess water during wet periods.
Management of fertility and proper selection of adapted
grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum yields.


Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and
soil in good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for loblolly
pine. The main management concerns are a moderate
equipment limitation, moderate seedling mortality, a
severe hazard of windthrow, and severe plant
competition. Site preparation, such as harrowing and
bedding, reduces the seedling mortality rate and
increases early growth. Using special equipment, such
as equipment that has large rubber tires or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
the root damage caused by thinning operations and
reduce the extent of compaction. Soil compaction
restricts water infiltration, aeration, and root growth.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness is a management concern. Septic tank
absorption fields can be mounded to maintain the
system above the seasonal high water table.
Placement of suitable fill material can elevate building
sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.


33-Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes
This very deep, moderately well drained soil is on
coastal ridges and remnant dunes. Individual areas
generally are elongated in shape and range from 3 to
150 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is light gray fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine
sand to a depth of 15 inches. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 19 inches, is strong brown fine
sand that has discontinuous dark brown bands and
nodules. The lower part, to a depth of 40 inches, is
light yellowish brown fine sand. The underlying material
is white fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Resota and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas mapped as
Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Included in
mapping are Corolla, Leon, Mandarin, and Ridgewood
soils.The somewhat poorly drained and moderately
well drained Corolla soils are in slight, coastward
swales and on low ridges. The poorly drained Leon and
somewhat poorly drained Mandarin and Ridgewood
soils are in slight swales, on side slopes, and on the
lower ridges.





Soil Survey


The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 42 to
60 inches from December through April. Available water
capacity is very low. Permeability is very rapid
throughout.
This soil is dominantly in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey
Oak Hills ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most
areas the natural vegetation includes longleaf pine,
turkey oak, sand pine, and live oak and an understory
of wiregrass, rosemary, and scattered saw palmetto.
Some areas near the coast are in the Sand Pine Scrub
ecological plant community, which is dominated by
sand pine and sand live oak. Most areas of this soil
still support the natural vegetation.
Some areas of this soil have been used for
homesite development.
This soil is not suited to most cultivated crops.
Droughtiness is a severe limitation.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay. The
amount of moisture this soil can store and make
available to grasses and legumes is limited. Deep-
rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly
fertilized and limed. Overgrazing on this soil quickly
reduces the extent of the plant cover and promotes the
growth of undesirable species. Proper stocking rates,
pasture rotation, and controlled grazing help to keep
the soil and pasture in good condition.
This soil has low to medium potential productivity
for slash pine and longleaf pine. The main management
concerns are a moderate equipment limitation, severe
seedling mortality, and moderate plant competition.
Using special nursery stock that is larger than usual or
that is containerized can reduce the seedling mortality
rate. Logging systems that leave residue on the site
help to maintain the content of organic matter in the
soil.
This soil is well suited to homesite development.
Because of the rapid permeability, however, careful
selection of onsite waste disposal areas is needed to
prevent contamination of shallow ground water. This
management concern should preclude the practice of
clustering homes close together or locating the
absorption field adjacent to any body of water.
Mulching, fertilizing, and irrigating help establish lawn
grasses and other small-seeded plants.
This soil is well suited to local roads and streets and
to small commercial buildings. This drought soil is
subject to wind erosion if the natural vegetation is
removed. Limiting the removal of the natural vegetation
and revegetating using fertilizer, irrigation, and drought-
adapted plants help to control wind erosion.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or


resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is VIs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8S.

34-Pickney and Rutlege soils,
depressional

These very deep, very poorly drained soils are in
broad, shallow depressions. Individual areas are
elongated or irregular in shape and range from :25 to
500 acres in size. This map unit consists of about
40 percent Pickney soil and 35 percent Rutlege soil.
These soils were not mapped separately because
they have similar use and management
requirements.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pickney soil is
black, very dark brown, and very dark grayish brown
fine sand about 51 inches thick. The underlying
material is grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Rutlege soil is
black fine sand about 19 inches thick. The upper part
of the underlying material, to a depth of 39 inches, is
light brownish gray fine sand. The next part, to a depth
of 65 inches, is grayish brown fine sand. The lower
part, to a depth of the 80 inches or more, is dark gray
fine sand.
Pickney, Rutlege, and similar soils make up 90 to
100 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Pickney and Rutlege soils, depressional.
Included in mapping are poorly drained Lynn Haven,
Pottsburg, and Scranton soils on slight knolls.
The seasonal high water table is above the surface
from November through May. Available water capacity
is low. Permeability is rapid throughout.
These soils are in the Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamp
ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the
natural vegetation includes blackgum, cypress,
sweetbay, swamp cyrilla, black titi, and scattered slash
pine. Most areas still support the natural vegetation. A
few areas that have a water-control system and
bedding have been planted to pines or are used for
pasture and hay. Areas of these soils provide cover for
deer and excellent habitat for wading birds and other
wetland wildlife.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,
woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development. Ponding, wetness, and low bearing
strength are severe limitations.
The capability subclass is VIw in areas of the
Pickney soil and VIIw in areas of the Rutlege soil. The
woodland ordination symbol is 7W in areas of the
Pickney soil and 2W in areas of the Rutlege soil.






Gulf County, Florida


35-Stilson loamy fine sand, 0 to 5
percent slopes

This very deep, moderately well drained soil is on
uplands. Individual areas are elongated or irregular in
shape and range from 3 to 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is yellowish brown loamy fine sand to a depth of
25 inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
32 inches, is yellowish brown fine sandy loam. The
next part, to a depth of 61 inches, is light yellowish
brown fine sandy loam. The lower part, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is sandy clay loam that is reticulately
mottled in shades of gray, red, and brown.
Stilson and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas mapped as
Stilson loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Included in mapping are Blanton, Clarendon, Dothan,
and Leefield soils. The moderately well drained Blanton
and Clarendon soils and the well drained Dothan soils
are on ridges and knolls. The somewhat poorly drained
Leefield soils are in slight depressions.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 30 to
36 inches from December through April. The water
table may be perched for short periods after heavy
rains during any time of the year. Available water
capacity is low. Permeability is moderate.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood-Pine ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes live oak and longleaf pine and an
understory of wiregrass, ferns, huckleberry, and
scattered saw palmetto.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is moderately suited to most cultivated
crops. Droughtiness is a management concern.
Irrigation can help to overcome the droughtiness during
extended dry periods. A soil fertility management
system can increase yields. Returning all crop residue
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help
maintain fertility and tilth.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Proper
stocking rates, pasture rotation, and controlled grazing
help to keep the soil and pasture in good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for slash
pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. The main
management concern is a moderate equipment
limitation. Using special equipment, such as equipment
that has large rubber tires or crawler machinery, and
harvesting during dry periods minimize the root
damage caused by thinning operations and reduce the
extent of compaction. The content of organic matter in


the surface layer commonly is very low. Logging
systems that leave residue on the site can improve
fertility.
This soil is well suited to homesite development.
Septic tank absorption fields can be mounded to
maintain the system above the seasonal high water
table. Mulching, fertilizing, and irrigating help establish
lawn grasses and other small-seeded plants.
This soil is well suited to small commercial buildings
and to local roads and streets.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is Ils. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9W.

36-Sapelo sand

This very deep, poorly drained soil is in areas of
flatwoods on the southern Coastal Plain. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are elongated or
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
brown sand to a depth of 12 inches. The upper part of
the subsoil extends to a depth of 17 inches. The first 3
inches of the upper part of the subsoil is very dark
grayish brown loamy sand, and the lower 2 inches is
dark brown sand. Below this is pale brown sand to a
depth of 34 inches. Next is light gray sand to a depth
of 47 inches. The lower part of the subsoil is fine sandy
loam to a depth of 80 inches. It is light brownish gray
to a depth of 66 inches and gray below this depth.
Sapelo and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas mapped as
Sapelo sand. Included in mapping are poorly drained
Pelham and Plummer soils in landscape positions
similar to those of the Sapelo soil and in slightly
depressional areas.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to
18 inches from November through April. Available water
capacity is low. Permeability is rapid throughout.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine and longleaf pine and an
understory of saw palmetto, wax-myrtle, gallberry,
wiregrass, running oak, black titi, and fetterbush.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness and low fertility are management concerns. A
water-control system helps remove excess water in






Gulf County, Florida


35-Stilson loamy fine sand, 0 to 5
percent slopes

This very deep, moderately well drained soil is on
uplands. Individual areas are elongated or irregular in
shape and range from 3 to 50 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is yellowish brown loamy fine sand to a depth of
25 inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
32 inches, is yellowish brown fine sandy loam. The
next part, to a depth of 61 inches, is light yellowish
brown fine sandy loam. The lower part, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is sandy clay loam that is reticulately
mottled in shades of gray, red, and brown.
Stilson and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas mapped as
Stilson loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Included in mapping are Blanton, Clarendon, Dothan,
and Leefield soils. The moderately well drained Blanton
and Clarendon soils and the well drained Dothan soils
are on ridges and knolls. The somewhat poorly drained
Leefield soils are in slight depressions.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 30 to
36 inches from December through April. The water
table may be perched for short periods after heavy
rains during any time of the year. Available water
capacity is low. Permeability is moderate.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood-Pine ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes live oak and longleaf pine and an
understory of wiregrass, ferns, huckleberry, and
scattered saw palmetto.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is moderately suited to most cultivated
crops. Droughtiness is a management concern.
Irrigation can help to overcome the droughtiness during
extended dry periods. A soil fertility management
system can increase yields. Returning all crop residue
to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help
maintain fertility and tilth.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Proper
stocking rates, pasture rotation, and controlled grazing
help to keep the soil and pasture in good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for slash
pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. The main
management concern is a moderate equipment
limitation. Using special equipment, such as equipment
that has large rubber tires or crawler machinery, and
harvesting during dry periods minimize the root
damage caused by thinning operations and reduce the
extent of compaction. The content of organic matter in


the surface layer commonly is very low. Logging
systems that leave residue on the site can improve
fertility.
This soil is well suited to homesite development.
Septic tank absorption fields can be mounded to
maintain the system above the seasonal high water
table. Mulching, fertilizing, and irrigating help establish
lawn grasses and other small-seeded plants.
This soil is well suited to small commercial buildings
and to local roads and streets.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is Ils. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9W.

36-Sapelo sand

This very deep, poorly drained soil is in areas of
flatwoods on the southern Coastal Plain. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are elongated or
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
brown sand to a depth of 12 inches. The upper part of
the subsoil extends to a depth of 17 inches. The first 3
inches of the upper part of the subsoil is very dark
grayish brown loamy sand, and the lower 2 inches is
dark brown sand. Below this is pale brown sand to a
depth of 34 inches. Next is light gray sand to a depth
of 47 inches. The lower part of the subsoil is fine sandy
loam to a depth of 80 inches. It is light brownish gray
to a depth of 66 inches and gray below this depth.
Sapelo and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent
of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas mapped as
Sapelo sand. Included in mapping are poorly drained
Pelham and Plummer soils in landscape positions
similar to those of the Sapelo soil and in slightly
depressional areas.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to
18 inches from November through April. Available water
capacity is low. Permeability is rapid throughout.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine and longleaf pine and an
understory of saw palmetto, wax-myrtle, gallberry,
wiregrass, running oak, black titi, and fetterbush.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness and low fertility are management concerns. A
water-control system helps remove excess water in






Soil Survey


wet seasons and provides surface irrigation in dry
seasons. Row crops can be rotated with close-growing,
soil improving crops. Crop residue management and
soil improving crops can help to maintain the content
of organic matter. Seedbed preparation can include
bedding of rows. A soil fertility management system
can increase yields.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Drainage
helps to remove excess water during wet periods.
Management of fertility and proper selection of adapted
grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum yields.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and
soil in good condition.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for
loblolly pine and slash pine. The main management
concerns are a moderate equipment limitation and
severe plant competition. Using special equipment,
such as equipment that has large rubber tires or
crawler machinery, and harvesting during dry periods
minimize the root damage caused by thinning
operations and reduce the extent of soil compaction.
Logging systems that leave residue on the site help to
maintain the content of organic matter. Plant
competition can be controlled by herbicides and
prescribed burning.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness is a management concern. Septic tank
absorption fields can be mounded to maintain the
system above the seasonal high water table. Placement
of suitable fill material can elevate building sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.


37-Scranton fine sand

This very deep, poorly drained soil is in areas of
flatwoods on the southern Coastal Plain. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are elongated or
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 300 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown fine
sand about 9 inches thick. The underlying material is
also fine sand. In sequence downward, it is dark gray
and brown to a depth of 18 inches, grayish brown and
dark gray to a depth of 40 inches, light brownish gray
to a depth of 50 inches, and gray to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Scranton and similar soils make up 75 to 100


percent of the map unit in 80 percent of the areas
mapped as Scranton fine sand. Included in mapping
are Leon, Ridgewood, and Rutlege soils. The poorly
drained Leon soils are in landscape positions similar to
those of Scranton soil. The somewhat poorly drained
Ridgewood soils are on low knolls and narrow ridges in
areas of flatwoods.The very poorly drained Rutlege
soils are in depressions.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 6 to 18 inches from November through April.
Available water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid
throughout.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine and longleaf pine and an
understory of saw palmetto, wax-myrtle, gallberry,
wiregrass, runner oak, swamp cyrilla, and fetterbush.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness and low fertility are management concerns. A
water-control system helps remove excess water in
wet seasons and provides surface irrigation in dry
seasons. Row crops can be rotated with close-growing,
soil improving crops. Crop residue management and
soil improving crops can help to maintain the content
of organic matter. Seedbed preparation can include
bedding of rows. A soil fertility management system
can increase yields.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Drainage
helps to remove excess water during wet periods.

Management of fertility and proper selection of adapted
grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum yields.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and
soil in good condition.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for
loblolly pine and slash pine. The main management
concerns are a moderate equipment limitation and
severe plant competition. Using special equipment,
such as equipment that has large rubber tires or
crawler machinery, and harvesting during dry periods
minimize the root damage caused by thinning
operations and reduce soil compaction. Logging
systems that leave residue on the site help to maintain
the content of organic matter in the soil. Plant
competition can be controlled by herbicides and
prescribed burning.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness is a management concern. Septic tank
absorption fields can be mounded to maintain the
system above the seasonal high water table.
Placement of suitable fill material can elevate building
sites.





Gulf County, Florida


If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.


38-Meadowbrook fine sand, occasionally
flooded

This very deep, poorly drained soil is on flood plains
along shallow, intermittent streams. Slopes range from
0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are irregular in shape
and range from 15 to 500 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
light gray, dark grayish brown, and grayish brown fine
sand to a depth of 61 inches. The subsoil is light gray
fine sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Meadowbrook and similar soils make up 75 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Meadowbrook fine sand, occasionally
flooded. Included in mapping are poorly drained Pelham
and Scranton soils in landscape positions similar to
those of the Meadowbrook soil and on very slight knolls.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 12 inches from August through March. Slowly
moving, shallow water may flood this unit for short
periods following heavy rains at any time of the year.
Available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderately slow.
This soil is in the Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamp
ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the
natural vegetation includes slash pine, Atlantic white
cedar, scattered cypress, gums, and sweetbay and an
understory of wax-myrtle, swamp cyrilla, black titi, and
fetterbush. Most areas of this soil still support the
natural vegetation.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness and the occasional flooding are management
concerns. If a water-control system and soil improving
measures are used, this soil is suited to a number of
crops. A water-control system helps remove excess
water in wet seasons and provides surface irrigation in
dry seasons. Seedbed preparation can include bedding
of rows. A soil fertility management system can
increase yields.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay.
Drainage helps to remove excess water during wet
periods. Management of fertility and proper selection of
adapted grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum
yields. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and


restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep the
pasture and soil in good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for slash
pine and loblolly pine.The main management concerns
are a severe equipment limitation, severe seedling
mortality, and severe plant competition. Site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, reduces
the seedling mortality rate and increases early growth.
Using special equipment, such as equipment that has
large rubber tires or crawler machinery, and harvesting
during dry periods minimize the root damage caused
by thinning operations and reduce the extent of
compaction. Soil compaction restricts water infiltration,
aeration, and root growth.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness and the occasional flooding are management
concerns. Septic tank absorption fields can be
mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal
high water table. Placement of suitable fill material can
elevate building sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.


39-Surrency mucky fine sand,
depressional
This very deep, very poorly drained soil is in shallow
depressions and along poorly defined streams and
drainageways. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Individual areas are elliptical or irregular in shape and
range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
The surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 18
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish
brown loamy fine sand to a depth of 34 inches. The
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 65 inches, is
dark grayish brown sandy loam. The lower part, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is gray sandy loam.
Surrency and similar soils make up 75 to 100
percent of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas
mapped as Surrency mucky fine sand, depressional.
Included in mapping are poorly drained Pelham and
Plummer soils on slight rises.
The seasonal high water table is 12 inches above
the surface to a depth of 6 inches year around.
Available water capacity is moderate. Permeability is
also moderate.
This soil is in the Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamp
ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas,





Gulf County, Florida


If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.


38-Meadowbrook fine sand, occasionally
flooded

This very deep, poorly drained soil is on flood plains
along shallow, intermittent streams. Slopes range from
0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are irregular in shape
and range from 15 to 500 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
light gray, dark grayish brown, and grayish brown fine
sand to a depth of 61 inches. The subsoil is light gray
fine sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Meadowbrook and similar soils make up 75 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Meadowbrook fine sand, occasionally
flooded. Included in mapping are poorly drained Pelham
and Scranton soils in landscape positions similar to
those of the Meadowbrook soil and on very slight knolls.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 12 inches from August through March. Slowly
moving, shallow water may flood this unit for short
periods following heavy rains at any time of the year.
Available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderately slow.
This soil is in the Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamp
ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the
natural vegetation includes slash pine, Atlantic white
cedar, scattered cypress, gums, and sweetbay and an
understory of wax-myrtle, swamp cyrilla, black titi, and
fetterbush. Most areas of this soil still support the
natural vegetation.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness and the occasional flooding are management
concerns. If a water-control system and soil improving
measures are used, this soil is suited to a number of
crops. A water-control system helps remove excess
water in wet seasons and provides surface irrigation in
dry seasons. Seedbed preparation can include bedding
of rows. A soil fertility management system can
increase yields.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay.
Drainage helps to remove excess water during wet
periods. Management of fertility and proper selection of
adapted grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum
yields. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and


restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep the
pasture and soil in good condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for slash
pine and loblolly pine.The main management concerns
are a severe equipment limitation, severe seedling
mortality, and severe plant competition. Site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, reduces
the seedling mortality rate and increases early growth.
Using special equipment, such as equipment that has
large rubber tires or crawler machinery, and harvesting
during dry periods minimize the root damage caused
by thinning operations and reduce the extent of
compaction. Soil compaction restricts water infiltration,
aeration, and root growth.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness and the occasional flooding are management
concerns. Septic tank absorption fields can be
mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal
high water table. Placement of suitable fill material can
elevate building sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.


39-Surrency mucky fine sand,
depressional
This very deep, very poorly drained soil is in shallow
depressions and along poorly defined streams and
drainageways. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Individual areas are elliptical or irregular in shape and
range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
The surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 18
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish
brown loamy fine sand to a depth of 34 inches. The
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 65 inches, is
dark grayish brown sandy loam. The lower part, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is gray sandy loam.
Surrency and similar soils make up 75 to 100
percent of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas
mapped as Surrency mucky fine sand, depressional.
Included in mapping are poorly drained Pelham and
Plummer soils on slight rises.
The seasonal high water table is 12 inches above
the surface to a depth of 6 inches year around.
Available water capacity is moderate. Permeability is
also moderate.
This soil is in the Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamp
ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas,






Soil Survey


the natural vegetation includes blackgum, cypress,
sweetbay, swamp tupelo, black titi, swamp cyrilla,
sawgrass, and scattered slash pine and the understory
consists mostly of scrub-sized titi, St. Johnswort, and
pitcher plants. Cypress is a more dominant component
of the vegetation in the northern part of the county.
Most areas of this map unit still support the natural
vegetation. Pine trees have been planted in a few
areas that have a water-control system and bedding.
Areas of this soil provide cover for deer and excellent
habitat for wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops,
woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development. Ponding and wetness are severe
limitations.
The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10w.

40-Brickyard silty clay, frequently
flooded
This very deep, very poorly drained soil is on flood
plains in backswamps along the Apalachicola River
and its distributaries. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
Individual areas are elongated in shape and range from
25 to several thousand acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
and brown silty clay about 4 inches thick. The upper
part of the subsoil, to a depth of 10 inches, is grayish
brown clay. The lower part, to a depth of 22 inches, is
light brownish gray clay. The upper part of the
underlying material, to a depth of 35 inches, is grayish
brown clay. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is gray clay.
Brickyard and similar soils make up 75 to 90
percent of the map unit in 80 percent of the areas
mapped as Brickyard silty clay, frequently flooded.
Included in mapping are Bladen, Mantachie, and
Wahee soils.The poorly drained Bladen soils are on
toeslopes of terrace scarps. The somewhat poorly
drained Mantachie and Wahee soils are on natural
levees. Also included on landscapes that have been
altered by human activity are high areas of sandy
dredge spoil.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 6 inches from December through August. The
depth to the water table fluctuates slightly because of
the daily tides. The influence of the tide increases with
proximity to estuarine marshes near the mouth of the
river. This soil is flooded in the spring of most years for
1 month or more. Available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is very slow throughout.
This soil is dominantly in the Swamp Hardwoods


ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the
natural vegetation includes water ogeechee, swamp
tupelo, Carolina water ash, cabbage palm, and cypress.
Most areas still support the natural vegetation. Areas
of this soil provide cover for deer and excellent habitat
for wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, woodland,
pasture, hay, or urban or recreational development. The
flooding and low bearing strength are severe limitations
(fig. 6).
The capability subclass is VIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W.

41-Brickyard, Chowan, and Kenner soils,
frequently flooded
These very deep, very poorly drained soils are on
the flood plain along the Apalachicola River and its
distributaries. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Individual
areas are elongated in shape and range from 25 to
several thousand acres in size. This map unit consists
of about 30 percent Brickyard soil, 25 percent Chowan
soil, and 25 percent Kenner soil. Individual areas of
these soils were not mapped separately because they
have similar use and management requirements.
Typically, the surface layer of the Brickyard soil is
very dark grayish brown silt loam about 5 inches thick.
The subsoil is dark grayish brown clay to a depth of 34
inches. The upper part of the underlying material, to a
depth of 71 inches, is very dark grayish brown silty
clay. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
dark gray silty clay.
Typically, the surface layer of the Chowan soil is
very dark grayish brown silt loam about 8 inches thick.
The upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of
17 inches, is dark grayish brown loam. The lower part,
to a depth of 38 inches, is gray silty clay loam. Below
this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is a buried layer
of very dark grayish brown muck that has stratified
layers of loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Kenner soil is
muck to a depth of 38 inches. The upper 10 inches of
the surface layer is dark brown, and the lower 28
inches is very dark grayish brown. In sequence
downward, the underlying material is dark grayish
brown silty clay to a depth of 42 inches, very dark gray
muck to a depth of 46 inches, gray silty clay to a depth
65 inches, and very dark gray muck to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Brickyard, Chowan, Kenner, and similar soils make
up 95 to 100 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of
the areas mapped as Brickyard, Chowan, and Kenner
soils, frequently flooded. Included in mapping are






Soil Survey


the natural vegetation includes blackgum, cypress,
sweetbay, swamp tupelo, black titi, swamp cyrilla,
sawgrass, and scattered slash pine and the understory
consists mostly of scrub-sized titi, St. Johnswort, and
pitcher plants. Cypress is a more dominant component
of the vegetation in the northern part of the county.
Most areas of this map unit still support the natural
vegetation. Pine trees have been planted in a few
areas that have a water-control system and bedding.
Areas of this soil provide cover for deer and excellent
habitat for wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops,
woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development. Ponding and wetness are severe
limitations.
The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10w.

40-Brickyard silty clay, frequently
flooded
This very deep, very poorly drained soil is on flood
plains in backswamps along the Apalachicola River
and its distributaries. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
Individual areas are elongated in shape and range from
25 to several thousand acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
and brown silty clay about 4 inches thick. The upper
part of the subsoil, to a depth of 10 inches, is grayish
brown clay. The lower part, to a depth of 22 inches, is
light brownish gray clay. The upper part of the
underlying material, to a depth of 35 inches, is grayish
brown clay. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is gray clay.
Brickyard and similar soils make up 75 to 90
percent of the map unit in 80 percent of the areas
mapped as Brickyard silty clay, frequently flooded.
Included in mapping are Bladen, Mantachie, and
Wahee soils.The poorly drained Bladen soils are on
toeslopes of terrace scarps. The somewhat poorly
drained Mantachie and Wahee soils are on natural
levees. Also included on landscapes that have been
altered by human activity are high areas of sandy
dredge spoil.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 6 inches from December through August. The
depth to the water table fluctuates slightly because of
the daily tides. The influence of the tide increases with
proximity to estuarine marshes near the mouth of the
river. This soil is flooded in the spring of most years for
1 month or more. Available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is very slow throughout.
This soil is dominantly in the Swamp Hardwoods


ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the
natural vegetation includes water ogeechee, swamp
tupelo, Carolina water ash, cabbage palm, and cypress.
Most areas still support the natural vegetation. Areas
of this soil provide cover for deer and excellent habitat
for wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, woodland,
pasture, hay, or urban or recreational development. The
flooding and low bearing strength are severe limitations
(fig. 6).
The capability subclass is VIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W.

41-Brickyard, Chowan, and Kenner soils,
frequently flooded
These very deep, very poorly drained soils are on
the flood plain along the Apalachicola River and its
distributaries. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Individual
areas are elongated in shape and range from 25 to
several thousand acres in size. This map unit consists
of about 30 percent Brickyard soil, 25 percent Chowan
soil, and 25 percent Kenner soil. Individual areas of
these soils were not mapped separately because they
have similar use and management requirements.
Typically, the surface layer of the Brickyard soil is
very dark grayish brown silt loam about 5 inches thick.
The subsoil is dark grayish brown clay to a depth of 34
inches. The upper part of the underlying material, to a
depth of 71 inches, is very dark grayish brown silty
clay. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
dark gray silty clay.
Typically, the surface layer of the Chowan soil is
very dark grayish brown silt loam about 8 inches thick.
The upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of
17 inches, is dark grayish brown loam. The lower part,
to a depth of 38 inches, is gray silty clay loam. Below
this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is a buried layer
of very dark grayish brown muck that has stratified
layers of loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Kenner soil is
muck to a depth of 38 inches. The upper 10 inches of
the surface layer is dark brown, and the lower 28
inches is very dark grayish brown. In sequence
downward, the underlying material is dark grayish
brown silty clay to a depth of 42 inches, very dark gray
muck to a depth of 46 inches, gray silty clay to a depth
65 inches, and very dark gray muck to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Brickyard, Chowan, Kenner, and similar soils make
up 95 to 100 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of
the areas mapped as Brickyard, Chowan, and Kenner
soils, frequently flooded. Included in mapping are







Gulf County, Florida


Figure 6.-An area of Brickyard silty clay, frequently flooded. Flooding is a hazard affecting most land uses in areas of this soil.


somewhat poorly drained Mantachie soils in slightly
higher positions. Also included on landscapes that
have been altered by human activities are high areas
of sandy dredge spoil.
The seasonal high water table is 12 inches above
the surface to a depth of 6 inches for 6 to 9 months in
most years. These soils are flooded in the spring of
most years for 1 month or more. The depth to the water
table fluctuates slightly because of the tide. The
influence of the tide increases with proximity to
estuarine marshes near the mouth of the river.
Available water capacity ranges from very high to
moderate. Permeability is moderately slow in the
Chowan soil and very slow in the Brickyard and Kenner
soils.


This map unit is in the Swamp Hardwoods
ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas
the natural vegetation includes water ogeechee,
swamp tupelo, Carolina water ash, cabbage palm,
and cypress. Most areas still support the natural
vegetation. Areas of these soils provide cover for deer
and excellent habitat for wading birds and other
wetland wildlife.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,
woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development. The flooding and low bearing strength are
severe limitations.
The capability subclass is VIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W in areas of the Brickyard soil
and 9W in areas of the Chowan soil. A woodland






Soil Survey


ordination symbol has not been assigned for areas of
the Kenner soil.


42-Pottsburg fine sand

This very deep, poorly drained soil is in low areas of
flatwoods on the southern Coastal Plain. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsurface layer, to a depth of 13 inches, is light
brownish gray fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of
53 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 67 inches, is dark brown fine
sand. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is grayish brown fine sand.
Pottsburg and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Pottsburg fine sand. Included in mapping
are very poorly drained Rutlege and Pickney soils in
depressions. Also included on low knolls are somewhat
poorly drained, sandy soils that have a weakly
developed subsoil.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 6 inches from February through September.
Available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderate.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine and bay trees and an
understory of saw palmetto, wax-myrtle, gallberry,
wiregrass, black titi, and fetterbush.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness is a management concern. A water-control
system helps remove excess water in wet seasons
and provides surface irrigation in dry seasons. Row
crops can be rotated with close-growing, soil improving
crops. Crop residue management and soil improving
crops can help to maintain the content of organic
matter. Seedbed preparation can include bedding of
rows.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Drainage
helps to remove excess water during wet periods.
Management of fertility and proper selection of adapted
grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum yields.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and
soil in good condition.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for
slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. The main
management concerns are a moderate equipment


limitation, moderate seedling mortality, and severe
plant competition. Using special equipment, such as
equipment that has large rubber tires or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
the root damage caused by thinning operations and
reduce the extent of soil compaction. Soil compaction
restricts water infiltration, aeration, and root growth.
Logging systems that leave residue on the site help to
maintain the content of organic matter. Plant
competition can be controlled by herbicides and
prescribed burning.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness and seasonal droughtiness are management
concerns. Septic tank absorption fields can be
mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal
high water table. Placement of suitable fill material can
elevate building sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8W.


44-Pamlico-Pickney complex, frequently
flooded

These very deep, very poorly drained soils are on
flood plains. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. This map unit
consists of about 55 percent Pamlico soil and 40
percent Pickney soil. Individual areas of these soils are
so intermingled on the landscape that it was
impractical to separate them at the scale selected for
mapping. Mapped areas are elongated in shape and
range from 10 to several hundred acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is
muck to a depth of 22 inches. The upper 7 inches of
the surface layer is very dark grayish brown, and the
lower 15 inches is black. The upper part of the
underlying material, to a depth of 28 inches, is very
dark grayish brown fine sand. The next part, to a depth
of 69 inches, is very dark brown fine sand. The lower
part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is dark grayish
brown fine sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pickney soil is
black, very dark brown, and very dark grayish brown
fine sand about 51 inches thick. The underlying
material is brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Pamlico, Pickney, and similar soils make up 95 to
100 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Pamlico-Pickney complex, frequently
flooded. Included in mapping are poorly drained Lynn






Soil Survey


ordination symbol has not been assigned for areas of
the Kenner soil.


42-Pottsburg fine sand

This very deep, poorly drained soil is in low areas of
flatwoods on the southern Coastal Plain. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. Individual areas are irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsurface layer, to a depth of 13 inches, is light
brownish gray fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of
53 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 67 inches, is dark brown fine
sand. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is grayish brown fine sand.
Pottsburg and similar soils make up 80 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Pottsburg fine sand. Included in mapping
are very poorly drained Rutlege and Pickney soils in
depressions. Also included on low knolls are somewhat
poorly drained, sandy soils that have a weakly
developed subsoil.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 6 inches from February through September.
Available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderate.
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine and bay trees and an
understory of saw palmetto, wax-myrtle, gallberry,
wiregrass, black titi, and fetterbush.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is poorly suited to most cultivated crops.
Wetness is a management concern. A water-control
system helps remove excess water in wet seasons
and provides surface irrigation in dry seasons. Row
crops can be rotated with close-growing, soil improving
crops. Crop residue management and soil improving
crops can help to maintain the content of organic
matter. Seedbed preparation can include bedding of
rows.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay. Drainage
helps to remove excess water during wet periods.
Management of fertility and proper selection of adapted
grasses and legumes help to ensure optimum yields.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and restricted
grazing during wet periods help to keep the pasture and
soil in good condition.
This soil has moderate potential productivity for
slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. The main
management concerns are a moderate equipment


limitation, moderate seedling mortality, and severe
plant competition. Using special equipment, such as
equipment that has large rubber tires or crawler
machinery, and harvesting during dry periods minimize
the root damage caused by thinning operations and
reduce the extent of soil compaction. Soil compaction
restricts water infiltration, aeration, and root growth.
Logging systems that leave residue on the site help to
maintain the content of organic matter. Plant
competition can be controlled by herbicides and
prescribed burning.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
Wetness and seasonal droughtiness are management
concerns. Septic tank absorption fields can be
mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal
high water table. Placement of suitable fill material can
elevate building sites.
If this soil is used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8W.


44-Pamlico-Pickney complex, frequently
flooded

These very deep, very poorly drained soils are on
flood plains. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. This map unit
consists of about 55 percent Pamlico soil and 40
percent Pickney soil. Individual areas of these soils are
so intermingled on the landscape that it was
impractical to separate them at the scale selected for
mapping. Mapped areas are elongated in shape and
range from 10 to several hundred acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is
muck to a depth of 22 inches. The upper 7 inches of
the surface layer is very dark grayish brown, and the
lower 15 inches is black. The upper part of the
underlying material, to a depth of 28 inches, is very
dark grayish brown fine sand. The next part, to a depth
of 69 inches, is very dark brown fine sand. The lower
part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is dark grayish
brown fine sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pickney soil is
black, very dark brown, and very dark grayish brown
fine sand about 51 inches thick. The underlying
material is brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Pamlico, Pickney, and similar soils make up 95 to
100 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Pamlico-Pickney complex, frequently
flooded. Included in mapping are poorly drained Lynn






Gulf County, Florida


Haven, Plummer, and Scranton soils on knolls and in
areas of flatwoods that are transitional to the mapped
areas.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to 12
inches above the surface throughout the year in areas
of the Pamlico soil. It ranges from 12 inches above the
surface to 18 inches below the surface from November
through July in areas of the Pickney soil. Flooding
occurs during times of heavy rainfall. Available water
capacity is very high in the Pamlico soil and low in the
Pickney soil. Permeability is moderate in the Pamlico
soil and rapid in the Pickney soil.
These soils are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes blackgum, cypress, sweetbay, red
maple, and scattered slash pine and an understory of
ferns and grasses. Most areas still support the natural
vegetation. Areas of these soils provide cover for deer
and excellent habitat for wading birds and other
wetland wildlife.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,
woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development. The flooding, ponding, wetness, and low
bearing strength are severe limitations.
The capability subclass is Vllw in areas of the
Pamlico soil and VIw in areas of the Pickney soil. The
woodland ordination symbol is 2W in areas of the
Pamlico soil and 7W in areas of the Pickney soil.

45-Croatan-Surrency complex,
frequently flooded
These very deep, very poorly drained soils are in
backswamps on flood plains. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
This map unit consists of about 45 percent Croatan
soil and 35 percent Surrency soil. Individual areas of
these soils are so intermingled on the landscape that it
was impractical to separate them at the scale selected
for mapping. Mapped areas are elongated in shape and
range from 50 to several hundred acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Croatan soil is
muck to a depth of 42 inches. The upper 21 inches of
the surface layer is dark brown, the next 15 inches is
very dark brown, and the lower 6 inches is very dark
grayish brown. Below this is very dark grayish brown
mucky sandy loam to a depth of 46 inches. The upper
part of the underlying material, to a depth of 65 inches,
is grayish brown sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is gray clay loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Surrency soil is
black mucky fine sand about 18 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is very dark grayish brown loamy fine
sand to a depth of 34 inches. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 65 inches, is dark grayish brown


sandy loam. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is gray sandy loam.
Croatan, Surrency, and similar soils make up 80 to
100 percent of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas
mapped as Croatan-Surrency complex, frequently
flooded. Included in mapping are poorly drained Pelham
and Plummer soils on slight knolls near the edges of
the mapped areas.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 12 inches for 6 to 9 months in most years.
Flooding occurs during periods of heavy rainfall.
Available water capacity is very high in the Croatan soil
and moderate in the Surrency soil. Permeability is very
slow in the Croatan soil and moderate in the Surrency
soil.
These soils are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes blackgum, cypress, sweetbay, red
maple, swamp tupelo, and scattered slash pine and an
understory of ferns and grasses. Most areas still
support the natural vegetation. Areas of these soils
provide cover for deer and excellent habitat for wading
birds and other wetland wildlife.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,
woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development.The flooding, ponding, wetness, and low
bearing strength are severe limitations.
The capability subclass is VIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W in areas of the Croatan soil
and 10W in areas of the Surrericy soil.

46-Corolla-Duckston complex, gently
undulating, flooded
These very deep, moderately well drained to poorly
drained soils are on low ridges, on flats, and in swales.
They are on the coast. The somewhat poorly drained to
moderately well drained Corolla soil is on low ridges.
The poorly drained Duckston soil is on broad flats.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent in areas of the
Duckston soil and from 0 to 6 percent in areas of the
Corolla soil. This map unit consists of about 50 percent
Corolla soil, 40 percent poorly drained Duckston soil,
and 10 percent very poorly drained Duckston soil.
Individual areas of these soils are so narrow that it was
impractical to separate them at the scale selected for
mapping. Mapped areas are elongated in shape and
range from 15 to several hundred acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Corolla soil is very
pale brown sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part
of the substratum, to a depth of 24 inches, is very pale
brown fine sand. Below this, from a depth of 24 to 29
inches, is a buried surface horizon of very dark gray
fine sand that has black pockets and streaks. The next






Gulf County, Florida


Haven, Plummer, and Scranton soils on knolls and in
areas of flatwoods that are transitional to the mapped
areas.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to 12
inches above the surface throughout the year in areas
of the Pamlico soil. It ranges from 12 inches above the
surface to 18 inches below the surface from November
through July in areas of the Pickney soil. Flooding
occurs during times of heavy rainfall. Available water
capacity is very high in the Pamlico soil and low in the
Pickney soil. Permeability is moderate in the Pamlico
soil and rapid in the Pickney soil.
These soils are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes blackgum, cypress, sweetbay, red
maple, and scattered slash pine and an understory of
ferns and grasses. Most areas still support the natural
vegetation. Areas of these soils provide cover for deer
and excellent habitat for wading birds and other
wetland wildlife.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,
woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development. The flooding, ponding, wetness, and low
bearing strength are severe limitations.
The capability subclass is Vllw in areas of the
Pamlico soil and VIw in areas of the Pickney soil. The
woodland ordination symbol is 2W in areas of the
Pamlico soil and 7W in areas of the Pickney soil.

45-Croatan-Surrency complex,
frequently flooded
These very deep, very poorly drained soils are in
backswamps on flood plains. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent.
This map unit consists of about 45 percent Croatan
soil and 35 percent Surrency soil. Individual areas of
these soils are so intermingled on the landscape that it
was impractical to separate them at the scale selected
for mapping. Mapped areas are elongated in shape and
range from 50 to several hundred acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Croatan soil is
muck to a depth of 42 inches. The upper 21 inches of
the surface layer is dark brown, the next 15 inches is
very dark brown, and the lower 6 inches is very dark
grayish brown. Below this is very dark grayish brown
mucky sandy loam to a depth of 46 inches. The upper
part of the underlying material, to a depth of 65 inches,
is grayish brown sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is gray clay loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Surrency soil is
black mucky fine sand about 18 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is very dark grayish brown loamy fine
sand to a depth of 34 inches. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 65 inches, is dark grayish brown


sandy loam. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is gray sandy loam.
Croatan, Surrency, and similar soils make up 80 to
100 percent of the map unit in 90 percent of the areas
mapped as Croatan-Surrency complex, frequently
flooded. Included in mapping are poorly drained Pelham
and Plummer soils on slight knolls near the edges of
the mapped areas.
The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
depth of 12 inches for 6 to 9 months in most years.
Flooding occurs during periods of heavy rainfall.
Available water capacity is very high in the Croatan soil
and moderate in the Surrency soil. Permeability is very
slow in the Croatan soil and moderate in the Surrency
soil.
These soils are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes blackgum, cypress, sweetbay, red
maple, swamp tupelo, and scattered slash pine and an
understory of ferns and grasses. Most areas still
support the natural vegetation. Areas of these soils
provide cover for deer and excellent habitat for wading
birds and other wetland wildlife.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,
woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development.The flooding, ponding, wetness, and low
bearing strength are severe limitations.
The capability subclass is VIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W in areas of the Croatan soil
and 10W in areas of the Surrericy soil.

46-Corolla-Duckston complex, gently
undulating, flooded
These very deep, moderately well drained to poorly
drained soils are on low ridges, on flats, and in swales.
They are on the coast. The somewhat poorly drained to
moderately well drained Corolla soil is on low ridges.
The poorly drained Duckston soil is on broad flats.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent in areas of the
Duckston soil and from 0 to 6 percent in areas of the
Corolla soil. This map unit consists of about 50 percent
Corolla soil, 40 percent poorly drained Duckston soil,
and 10 percent very poorly drained Duckston soil.
Individual areas of these soils are so narrow that it was
impractical to separate them at the scale selected for
mapping. Mapped areas are elongated in shape and
range from 15 to several hundred acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Corolla soil is very
pale brown sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part
of the substratum, to a depth of 24 inches, is very pale
brown fine sand. Below this, from a depth of 24 to 29
inches, is a buried surface horizon of very dark gray
fine sand that has black pockets and streaks. The next





Soil Survey


part of the substratum, from a depth of 29 to 45
inches, is white fine sand. This part of the substratum
has mottles in shades of brown below a depth of 39
inches. A second buried surface horizon is at a depth
of 45 to 52 inches. It is very dark gray fine sand. The
lower part of the substratum, to a depth of 80 inches,
is light gray and gray sand that has black pockets and
streaks.
Typically, the surface layer of the Duckston soil is
very dark gray sand about 2 inches thick. The upper
part of the substratum is light brownish gray sand to a
depth of 7 inches. The lower part to a depth of 80
inches or more is light gray sand containing shell
fragments.
Corolla, Duckston, and similar soils make up 95 to
100 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Corolla-Duckston complex, 0 to 6 percent
slopes, flooded. Included in mapping are Bayvi and
Kureb soils. The very poorly drained Bayvi soils are in
the tidal marshes. The excessively drained Kureb soils
are on high, stable, secondary dunes.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to
36 inches from November through May in the Corolla
soil. The Duckston soil has a continuous high water
table at the surface to a depth of 6 inches throughout
most years. The depth to the water table in the
Duckston soil fluctuates slightly because of the tide.
Flooding on the Duckston soil is likely when heavy rain
occurs in combination with high tides or during coastal
storms. The Corolla soil is subject to rare flooding
during strong coastal storms. Available water capacity
is low or very low. Permeability is very rapid
throughout.
These soils are in the North Florida Coastal Strand
ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most areas of
the Corolla soil, the natural vegetation includes live
oak, myrtle oak, rosemary, and wax-myrtle. In most
areas of the Duckston soil, the natural vegetation
includes slash pine, water oak, laurel oak, cabbage
palm, gallberry, and marshhay cordgrass.Willow
sawgrass, cabbage palm, slash pine, black
needlerush, and cattails are in the wettest parts of the
map unit. Most areas still support the natural
vegetation.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,
woodland, pasture, hay, or urban development.
Wetness, the flooding, and droughtiness are severe
limitations.
If these soils are used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soils or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is Vlls in areas of the


Corolla soil and VIIw in areas of the Duckston soil.
A woodland ordination symbol has not been
assigned.


47-Newhan-Corolla complex, rolling

These very deep, excessively drained and
somewhat poorly drained soils are on remnant coastal
dunes and in swales. Slopes generally are 5 to 15
percent but range from 2 to 20 percent. Individual areas
are long and narrow and range from 25 to 250 acres in
size. The Newhan soil is in the higher dune positions.
The Corolla soil is on low dunes and in high swales
between dunes. This map unit consists of about 65
percent Newhan soil and 30 percent Corolla soil.
Individual areas of these soils are so narrow and
intermingled that it was impractical to separate them at
the scale selected for mapping.
Typically, the surface layer of the Newhan soil is
gray fine sand about 1 inch thick. The substratum is
white fine sand to depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Corolla soil is gray
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying material
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is light gray
fine sand in the upper part, white fine sand in the next
part, and light gray fine sand that has coarse white
patches in the lower part.
Newhan, Corolla, and similar soils make up 95 to
100 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Newhan-Corolla complex, rolling. Included
in mapping are poorly drained and very poorly drained
Duckston soils in low swales and depressions.
The seasonal high water table is below a depth of 72
inches throughout the year in areas of the Newhan soil.
It is at a depth of 18 to 36 inches from November
through May in areas of the Corolla soil. Available
water capacity is very low. Permeability is very rapid.
These soils are in the Sand Pine Scrub ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation is sparse and includes sand pine, scattered
slash pine, sand live oak, Chapman oak, myrtle oak,
wax-myrtle, saw palmetto, and seaoats and various
woody shrubs, grasses, and herbaceous plants.
Many areas of these soils have been used for
homesites, commercial development, or recreational
development. Some areas still support the natural
vegetation.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,
pasture, or woodland. The slope, the loose consistency
of the surface layer, and droughtiness are severe
limitations.
These soils are poorly suited to urban development.
Wind erosion, the slope, the very rapid permeability,






Gulf County, Florida


and shifting sands are management concerns. The
Corolla soil may be flooded during extreme coastal
storms. The slope can be reduced by cutting and filling.
Because of the risk of ground water pollution, septic
systems should be installed only for low-density use
and should not be located close to any body of water.
Mulching, fertilizing, and irrigating help establish
landscape plants and lawn grasses. Care should be
taken to protect the natural vegetation because it is
adapted to these soils and helps to control erosion.
Artificial or adapted vegetative barriers also help to
control wind erosion.
If these soils are used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soils or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is Vlls in areas of the
Newhan soil and Vile in areas of the Corolla soil. A
woodland ordination symbol has not been assigned.


48-Kureb-Corolla complex, rolling

These very deep, excessively drained to somewhat
poorly drained soils are on remnant coastal dunes and
in swales. Slopes generally are 5 to 15 percent but
range from 2 to 20 percent. Individual areas are
elongated and range from 25 to 250 acres in size. The
Kureb soil is on high dunes. The Corolla soil is on low
dunes and in high swales between dunes.This map
unit consists of about 65 percent Kureb soil and 30
percent Corolla soil. Individual areas of these soils are
so narrow and intermingled that it was impractical to
separate them at the scale selected for mapping.
Typically, the surface layer of the Kureb soil is gray
fine sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
white fine sand to a depth of 12 inches. It tongues into
the subsoil, which is light yellowish brown fine sand to
a depth of 35 inches. The upper part of the underlying
material, to a depth of 50 inches, is white fine sand
that has thin strata of light yellowish brown sand. The
lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is white
fine sand that has strata of black heavy minerals.
Typically, the surface layer of the Corolla soil is very
pale brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper
part of the substratum, to a depth of 24 inches, is very
pale brown fine sand. Below this, from a depth of 24 to
29 inches, is a buried surface horizon. It is light gray
fine sand that has black pockets and streaks. The next
part of the substratum, from a depth of 29 to 45
inches, is white fine sand. It has mottles in shades of
brown below a depth of 39 inches. Below this, from a
depth of 45 to 52 inches, is a second buried surface


horizon. It is very dark gray fine sand. The lower part of
the substratum, to a depth of 80 inches, is light gray
and gray sand that has black pockets and streaks.
Kureb, Corolla, and similar soils make up 95 to 100
percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Kureb-Corolla complex, rolling. Included in
mapping are poorly drained and very poorly
drained Duckston soils in low swales and in
depressions.
The seasonal high water table is below a depth of 72
inches throughout the year in the Kureb soil. It is at a
depth of 18 to 36 inches from November through May
in the Corolla soil. Available water capacity is very low.
Permeability is rapid in the Kureb soil and very rapid in
the Corolla soil.
These soils are in the Sand Pine Scrub ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the sparse
natural vegetation consists of sand pine, scattered
slash pine, sand live oak, Chapman oak, myrtle oak,
wax-myrtle, saw palmetto, and seaoats and various
woody shrubs, grasses, and herbaceous plants.
Many areas of these soils have been used for
homesites or for commercial or recreational
development. Some areas still support the natural
vegetation.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,
pasture, or woodland. The slope, the loose consistency
of the surface layer, and droughtiness are severe
limitations.
These soils are poorly suited to urban
development. Wind erosion, the slope, the rapid and
very rapid permeability, and shifting sands are
management concerns.The Corolla soil may be
flooded during extreme coastal storms. The slope can
be reduced by cutting and filling. Because of the risk of
ground water pollution, septic systems should be
installed only for low-density use and should not be
located close to any body of water. Mulching,
fertilizing, and irrigating help establish landscape
plants and lawn grasses. Care should be taken to
protect the natural vegetation because it is adapted to
these soils and helps to control erosion. Artificial or
adapted vegetative barriers also help to control wind
erosion.
If these soils are used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soils or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is Vlls in areas of the Kureb
soil and Vile in areas of the Corolla soil. The woodland
ordination symbol is 6S in areas of the Kureb soil. A
woodland ordination symbol has not been assigned for
areas of the Corolla soil.






Soil Survey


49-Quartzipsamments, undulating

These very deep, somewhat poorly drained to
excessively drained, modified soils are on high
deposits of sandy dredge spoil, primarily along the Gulf
County Canal. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent.
Individual areas are elongated and blocky in shape and
range from 15 to 100 acres in size.
Quartzipsamments formed in sandy dredge spoil.
No single pedon is typical of this map unit. In a
commonly encountered profile, however, the surface
layer is light gray coarse sand about 4 inches thick.
The underlying material is very pale brown coarse sand
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Quartzipsamments and similar soils make up 90 to
100 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Quartzipsamments, undulating. Included in
mapping are poorly drained Duckston soils on low flats.
Also included are soils that are similar to
Quartzipsamments but have thin loamy layers within a
depth of 60 inches. These similar soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the
Quartzipsamments.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of more
than 72 inches. Other soil properties are so variable
that they cannot be adequately predicted without onsite
investigation.
This map unit cannot be categorized into an
ecological community. The vegetation in areas of this
map unit is highly variable. At one site it included slash
pine, sand pine, wax-myrtle, and various grasses and
forbs. Many areas are unvegetated or very sparsely
vegetated.
This map unit is so variable that suitability for most
land uses cannot be determined without onsite
investigation. Some areas, however, are extremely acid
because of the oxidation of sulfides in the dredge spoil.
This condition can be highly corrosive to metal and
concrete, and many plants can not tolerate this
condition.
The capability subclass is VIs. A woodland
ordination symbol has not been assigned.

50-Wahee-Mantachie-Ochlockonee
complex, commonly flooded
These very deep, somewhat poorly drained and
moderately well drained soils are on natural levees, in
swales, and on low terraces on the flood plain along
the Apalachicola River and its major tributaries and
distributaries, primarily in the far northern parts of the
county.The Wahee soil is on intermediate levees. The
Mantachie soil is on the lower slopes of levees and in
swales. The Ochlockonee soil is on high levees. In


places, the levees coalesce to form a low river terrace.
The Wahee and Mantachie soils are somewhat poorly
drained. The Ochlockonee soil is moderately well
drained. Slopes generally are less than 3 percent. This
map unit consists of about 45 percent Wahee soil, 25
percent Mantachie soil, and 20 percent Ochlockonee
soil. Individual areas are so intermingled on the
landscape that it was impractical to separate them at
the scale selected for mapping. Mapped areas are
elongated in shape and range from 50 to several
hundred acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Wahee soil is dark
grayish brown fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick.
The subsurface layer, to a depth of 12 inches, is light
yellowish brown loamy fine sand. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 43 inches, is light yellowish
brown sandy clay that has mottles in shades of red
and gray. The lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of 72
inches, is light gray sandy clay that has mottles in
shades of brown. The substratum, to a depth of 80
inches, is grayish brown sandy loam that has mottles
in shades of brown.
Typically, the surface layer of the Mantachie soil is
dark grayish brown and dark yellowish brown fine sandy
loam about 5 inches thick. In sequence downward, the
subsoil is brown loam to a depth of 12 inches, pale
brown silty clay loam to a depth of 20 inches, reddish
yellow fine sandy loam to a depth of 28 inches, and light
gray loam to a depth of 42 inches. The upper part of the
underlying material, to a depth of 65 inches, is gray fine
sandy loam. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is grayish brown sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Ochlockonee soil
is very dark grayish brown silt loam about 4 inches
thick. In sequence downward, the underlying material is
yellowish brown loamy sand to a depth of 16 inches,
brownish yellow coarse sand to a depth of 21 inches,
dark yellowish brown silt loam to a depth of 25 inches,
brownish yellow loamy fine sand to a depth of 42
inches, yellowish brown loam to a depth of 55 inches,
and gray loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Wahee, Mantachie, Ochlockonee, and similar soils
make up 75 to 95 percent of the map unit in 85 percent
of the areas mapped as Wahee-Mantachie-
Ochlockonee complex, commonly flooded. Included in
mapping are Brickyard and Meggett soils. The very
poorly drained Brickyard soils are in backswamps. The
poorly drained Meggett soils are in landscape positions
similar those of the Mantachie soil.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12 to
18 inches in the Mantachie soil, 18 to 30 inches in the
Wahee soil, and 36 to 60 inches in the Ochlockonee
soil from November through April. The Mantachie soil is
flooded almost every year. The Wahee soil is flooded






Soil Survey


49-Quartzipsamments, undulating

These very deep, somewhat poorly drained to
excessively drained, modified soils are on high
deposits of sandy dredge spoil, primarily along the Gulf
County Canal. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent.
Individual areas are elongated and blocky in shape and
range from 15 to 100 acres in size.
Quartzipsamments formed in sandy dredge spoil.
No single pedon is typical of this map unit. In a
commonly encountered profile, however, the surface
layer is light gray coarse sand about 4 inches thick.
The underlying material is very pale brown coarse sand
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Quartzipsamments and similar soils make up 90 to
100 percent of the map unit in 95 percent of the areas
mapped as Quartzipsamments, undulating. Included in
mapping are poorly drained Duckston soils on low flats.
Also included are soils that are similar to
Quartzipsamments but have thin loamy layers within a
depth of 60 inches. These similar soils are in
landscape positions similar to those of the
Quartzipsamments.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of more
than 72 inches. Other soil properties are so variable
that they cannot be adequately predicted without onsite
investigation.
This map unit cannot be categorized into an
ecological community. The vegetation in areas of this
map unit is highly variable. At one site it included slash
pine, sand pine, wax-myrtle, and various grasses and
forbs. Many areas are unvegetated or very sparsely
vegetated.
This map unit is so variable that suitability for most
land uses cannot be determined without onsite
investigation. Some areas, however, are extremely acid
because of the oxidation of sulfides in the dredge spoil.
This condition can be highly corrosive to metal and
concrete, and many plants can not tolerate this
condition.
The capability subclass is VIs. A woodland
ordination symbol has not been assigned.

50-Wahee-Mantachie-Ochlockonee
complex, commonly flooded
These very deep, somewhat poorly drained and
moderately well drained soils are on natural levees, in
swales, and on low terraces on the flood plain along
the Apalachicola River and its major tributaries and
distributaries, primarily in the far northern parts of the
county.The Wahee soil is on intermediate levees. The
Mantachie soil is on the lower slopes of levees and in
swales. The Ochlockonee soil is on high levees. In


places, the levees coalesce to form a low river terrace.
The Wahee and Mantachie soils are somewhat poorly
drained. The Ochlockonee soil is moderately well
drained. Slopes generally are less than 3 percent. This
map unit consists of about 45 percent Wahee soil, 25
percent Mantachie soil, and 20 percent Ochlockonee
soil. Individual areas are so intermingled on the
landscape that it was impractical to separate them at
the scale selected for mapping. Mapped areas are
elongated in shape and range from 50 to several
hundred acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Wahee soil is dark
grayish brown fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick.
The subsurface layer, to a depth of 12 inches, is light
yellowish brown loamy fine sand. The upper part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 43 inches, is light yellowish
brown sandy clay that has mottles in shades of red
and gray. The lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of 72
inches, is light gray sandy clay that has mottles in
shades of brown. The substratum, to a depth of 80
inches, is grayish brown sandy loam that has mottles
in shades of brown.
Typically, the surface layer of the Mantachie soil is
dark grayish brown and dark yellowish brown fine sandy
loam about 5 inches thick. In sequence downward, the
subsoil is brown loam to a depth of 12 inches, pale
brown silty clay loam to a depth of 20 inches, reddish
yellow fine sandy loam to a depth of 28 inches, and light
gray loam to a depth of 42 inches. The upper part of the
underlying material, to a depth of 65 inches, is gray fine
sandy loam. The lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is grayish brown sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Ochlockonee soil
is very dark grayish brown silt loam about 4 inches
thick. In sequence downward, the underlying material is
yellowish brown loamy sand to a depth of 16 inches,
brownish yellow coarse sand to a depth of 21 inches,
dark yellowish brown silt loam to a depth of 25 inches,
brownish yellow loamy fine sand to a depth of 42
inches, yellowish brown loam to a depth of 55 inches,
and gray loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Wahee, Mantachie, Ochlockonee, and similar soils
make up 75 to 95 percent of the map unit in 85 percent
of the areas mapped as Wahee-Mantachie-
Ochlockonee complex, commonly flooded. Included in
mapping are Brickyard and Meggett soils. The very
poorly drained Brickyard soils are in backswamps. The
poorly drained Meggett soils are in landscape positions
similar those of the Mantachie soil.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12 to
18 inches in the Mantachie soil, 18 to 30 inches in the
Wahee soil, and 36 to 60 inches in the Ochlockonee
soil from November through April. The Mantachie soil is
flooded almost every year. The Wahee soil is flooded






Gulf County, Florida


about once in every ten years. The Ochlockonee soil is
flooded about once in every twenty years. Available
water capacity is moderate in the Wahee and
Ochlockonee soils and high in the Mantachie soil.
Permeability is moderate in the Ochlockonee and
Mantachie soils and slow in the Wahee soil.
These soils are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, sycamore, hickory,
sweetgum, water oak, river birch, overcup oak, and
black maple and an understory of ferns, greenbrier,
poison ivy, and various herbaceous plants and
grasses. Most areas still support the natural
vegetation. Areas of these soils provide excellent
habitat for woodland wildlife.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops,
woodland, pasture, hay, or urban or recreational
development because of the flooding, wetness, the
narrowness of the areas, and isolation by
backswamps.
The capability subclass is IIIw in areas of the
Wahee soil and IIw in areas of the Mantachie and
Ochlockonee soils. The woodland ordination symbol is
8W in areas of the Wahee soil, 10W in areas of the
Mantachie soil, and 11A in areas of the Ochlockonee
soil.

51-Kenansville-Eulonia complex, 0 to 5
percent slopes
These very deep, moderately well drained soils are
on upland terrace ridges between the Dead Lakes and
the Apalachicola River. This map unit consists of about
45 percent Kenansville soil and 35 percent Eulonia soil.
Individual areas are so intermingled on the landscape
that it was impractical to separate them at the scale
selected for mapping. Mapped areas are blocky or
irregular in shape and range from 3 to 100 acres in
size.
Typically, the surface layer of the Kenansville soil is
very dark grayish brown loamy fine sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown
loamy fine sand to a depth of 23 inches. The upper part
of the subsoil, to a depth of 59 inches, is brownish
yellow sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a depth of
71 inches, is yellowish red fine sandy loam. The
underlying material is brownish yellow fine sandy loam
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the surface layer of the Eulonia soil is
dark grayish brown fine sandy loam about 7 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is light olive brown fine
sandy loam to a depth of 11 inches. The upper part of
the subsoil, to a depth of 35 inches, is yellowish brown
clay. The next part, to a depth of 55 inches, is


yellowish brown sandy clay. The lower part, to a depth
of 66 inches, is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The
underlying material is olive yellow fine sandy loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Kenansville, Eulonia, and similar soils make up 75
to 95 percent of the map unit in 80 percent of the areas
mapped as Kenansville-Eulonia complex, 0 to 5
percent slopes. Included in mapping are Blanton and
Wahee soils. The moderately well drained Blanton soils
are in landscape position similar to those of the
Kenansville and Eulonia soils. The somewhat poorly
drained Wahee soils are in slight depressions.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of more
than 72 inches in the Kenansville soil. It is at a depth
of 18 to 42 inches in the Eulonia soil for about 1 to 3
months in most years. Available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate in the Kenansville soil and
moderately slow in the Eulonia soil.
These soils are in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak
Hills ecological community (USDA, 1989). In most
areas the natural vegetation includes longleaf pine,
turkey oak, and live oak and an understory of
wiregrass, ferns, huckleberry, and scattered saw
palmetto.
Most areas of this map unit are used for the
commercial production of pine.
These soils are moderately suited to most cultivated
crops. Droughtiness, wind erosion, and rapid leaching
of plant nutrients are management concerns. A soil
fertility management system and a well designed
irrigation system can increase yields. Returning all crop
residue to the soil and using a cropping system that
includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture
help maintain fertility and tilth. A good ground cover of
close-growing plants, reduced tillage, and the
establishment of wind strips and wind breaks can help
to control wind erosion.
These soils are suited to pasture and hay.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of nutrients are the
main management concerns. Deep-rooted plants, such
as improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more
drought tolerant if properly fertilized and limed.
Overgrazing on these soils reduces the extent of the
plant cover and promotes growth of undesirable
species. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and
controlled grazing help to keep these soils and the
pasture in good condition.
These soils have high potential productivity for
loblolly pine and slash pine. The main management
concerns are a moderate equipment limitation,
moderate seedling mortality, and moderate plant
competition. Plant competition can be controlled by
herbicides and prescribed burning.The content of
organic matter in the surface layer commonly is very









low. Logging systems that leave residue on the site
can improve fertility.
These soils are well suited to homesite
development. Septic tank absorption fields can be
placed on contour, or the slope can be reduced by
cutting and filling. Absorption fields can be mounded to
lower the effective depth to the water table. Cutting and
filling can help to control water erosion on homesites
and in areas adjacent to roads. Mulching, fertilizing,
and irrigating help establish lawn grasses and other
small-seeded plants.
These soils are well suited to small commercial
buildings and to local roads and streets.
If these soils are used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soils or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is Ils in areas of the
Kenansville soil and lie in areas of the Eulonia soil.
The woodland ordination symbol is 8S in areas of
the Kenansville soil and 9W in areas of the Eulonia
soil.

52-Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes
This very deep, well drained soil is on uplands.
Individual areas are blocky or irregular in shape and
range from 3 to 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
loamy sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is yellowish brown loamy sand to a depth of 16
inches. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
33 inches, is yellowish brown fine sandy loam. The
lower part, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
reticulately mottled.
Dothan and similar soils make up 70 to 100
percent of the map unit in 80 percent of the areas
mapped as Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. Included in mapping are poorly drained Rains
soils in depressions.
The seasonal high water table is not within a depth
of 60 inches in most years. It can be perched,
however, at a depth of 36 to 60 inches after periods of


heavy rainfall. Available water capacity is moderate.
Permeability is moderately slow.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood-Pine ecological
community (USDA, 1989). In most areas the natural
vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak,
laurel oak, post oak, sweetgum, and dogwood and an
understory of saw palmetto, blackberry, and wiregrass.
Most areas of this soil are used for the commercial
production of pine.
This soil is well suited to the production of most
cultivated crops. A soil fertility management system
and an irrigation system can increase yields.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay plants, such
as improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes.
Controlled grazing helps to keep the plant vigorous..
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and controlled
grazing help to keep the soil and pasture in good
condition.
This soil has high potential productivity for
loblolly pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine. The main
management concern is moderate plant competition.
Plant competition can be controlled by herbicides
and prescribed burning. The content of organic
matter in the surface layer commonly is very low.
Logging systems that leave residue on the site can
improve fertility.
This soil is moderately suited to urban development.
The seasonal high water table and restricted
permeability are management concerns. Septic tank
absorption fields can be mounded to maintain the
system above the subsoil, can be enlarged to
accommodate the restricted permeability, or can be
placed on the contour.
This soil is moderately suited to small commercial
buildings and to local roads and streets. The restricted
permeability is a management concern. Vegetated
islands, grassed swales, and well-designed water
conveyance structures can help to control the runoff.
If this soil used as a site for recreational
development, such as playgrounds, picnic areas, and
paths or trails, placing suitable topsoil over the soil or
resurfacing the sandy areas can minimize erosion and
improve trafficability.
The capability subclass is lie. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9A.
















Prime Farmland


In this section, prime farmland is defined and the
soils in Gulf County that are considered prime farmland
are listed.
Prime farmland is one of several kinds of important
farmland defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
It is of major importance in meeting the Nation's short-
and long-range needs for food and fiber. The acreage of
high-quality farmland is limited, and the U.S.
Department of Agriculture recognizes that government at
local, State, and Federal levels, as well as individuals,
must encourage and facilitate the wise use of our
Nation's prime farmland.
Prime farmland soils, as defined by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture, are soils that are best
suited to food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops.
Such soils have properties that favor the economic
production of sustained high yields of crops. The soils
need only to be treated and managed by acceptable
farming methods. The moisture supply must be
adequate, and the growing season must be sufficiently
long. Prime farmland soils produce the highest yields
with minimal expenditure of energy and economic
resources. Farming these soils results in the least
damage to the environment.
Prime farmland soils may presently be used as
cropland, pasture, or woodland or for other purposes.
They are used for food or fiber or are available for
these uses. Urban or built-up land, public land, and
water areas cannot be considered prime farmland.
Urban or built-up land is any contiguous unit of land 10
acres or more in size that is used for such purposes as
housing, industrial, and commercial sites, sites for
institutions or public buildings, small parks, golf


courses, cemeteries, railroad yards, airports, sanitary
landfills, sewage treatment plants, and water-control
structures.
Prime farmland soils usually receive an adequate
and dependable supply of moisture from precipitation
or irrigation.The temperature and growing season are
favorable. The acidity or alkalinity level of the soils is
acceptable. The soils have few or no rocks and are
permeable to water and air. They are not excessively
erodible or saturated with water for long periods and are
not frequently flooded during the growing season.The
slope ranges mainly from 0 to 8 percent.
The following map units are considered prime
farmland in Gulf County. The location of each map unit
is shown on the detailed soil maps at the back of this
publication. The extent of each unit is given in table 3.
The soil qualities that affect use and management are
described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units." This
list does not constitute a recommendation for a
particular land use.
Some soils that have a high water table and all soils
that are frequently flooded during the growing season
qualify as prime farmland only in areas where these
limitations have been overcome by drainage measures
or flood control. Onsite evaluation is necessary to
determine if the limitations have been overcome by
corrective measures.
The soils identified as prime farmland in Gulf County
are:

11 Clarendon loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes
52 Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes




















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of
the soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust
land uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to
prevent soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavior of
the soils. They collect data on erosion, water tables,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses
and management. Field experience and collected data
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis
for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks
and other recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat.
It can be used to identify the potentials and limitations
of each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent
soil-related failures.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain
or create a land use pattern in harmony with the natural
soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where wetness or very firm soil layers
can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey
can help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and
locate sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture

General management needed for crops and pasture
is suggested in this section. The system of land
capability classification used by the Natural Resources
Conservation Service is explained, and the estimated
yields of the main hay and pasture plants are listed for
each soil.


Planners of management systems for individual
fields or farms should consider the detailed information
given in the description of each soil under the heading
"Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific information can be
obtained from the local office of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service.
In 1987, Gulf County had 30,000 acres of crops and
pasture. This acreage is decreasing somewhat
because of conversion to woodland. Rice, wheat,
soybeans, corn, and watermelons are commonly grown
field crops. Most of the pastureland is used to produce
forage for grazing cattle. Blueberries and pecans are
also produced in the county, primarily by one large
agricultural operation.
Small acreages of vegetables and small livestock
herds produce food and extra income for a number of
Gulf County residents. Bee-keeping is conducted
extensively on the flood plain along the Apalachicola
River. Large stands of tupelo trees contribute to a
superior honey crop. When the tupelo trees are not in
bloom, palmetto, titi, and other species contribute to
the honey crop. Large aquaculture operations are
located near Howard Creek. Crawfish, catfish, and
telapia are the main species produced (fig. 7).
Yields per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal hay and pasture crops under a high level
of management are shown in table 4. In any given year,
yields may be higher or lower than those indicated in
the table because of variations in rainfall and other
climatic factors.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain maximum yields
of various crops depends on the kind of soil and the
crop. Management can include drainage, erosion
control, and protection from flooding; the proper
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop
varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable

















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of
the soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust
land uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to
prevent soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavior of
the soils. They collect data on erosion, water tables,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses
and management. Field experience and collected data
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis
for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks
and other recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat.
It can be used to identify the potentials and limitations
of each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent
soil-related failures.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain
or create a land use pattern in harmony with the natural
soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where wetness or very firm soil layers
can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey
can help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and
locate sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture

General management needed for crops and pasture
is suggested in this section. The system of land
capability classification used by the Natural Resources
Conservation Service is explained, and the estimated
yields of the main hay and pasture plants are listed for
each soil.


Planners of management systems for individual
fields or farms should consider the detailed information
given in the description of each soil under the heading
"Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific information can be
obtained from the local office of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service.
In 1987, Gulf County had 30,000 acres of crops and
pasture. This acreage is decreasing somewhat
because of conversion to woodland. Rice, wheat,
soybeans, corn, and watermelons are commonly grown
field crops. Most of the pastureland is used to produce
forage for grazing cattle. Blueberries and pecans are
also produced in the county, primarily by one large
agricultural operation.
Small acreages of vegetables and small livestock
herds produce food and extra income for a number of
Gulf County residents. Bee-keeping is conducted
extensively on the flood plain along the Apalachicola
River. Large stands of tupelo trees contribute to a
superior honey crop. When the tupelo trees are not in
bloom, palmetto, titi, and other species contribute to
the honey crop. Large aquaculture operations are
located near Howard Creek. Crawfish, catfish, and
telapia are the main species produced (fig. 7).
Yields per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal hay and pasture crops under a high level
of management are shown in table 4. In any given year,
yields may be higher or lower than those indicated in
the table because of variations in rainfall and other
climatic factors.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain maximum yields
of various crops depends on the kind of soil and the
crop. Management can include drainage, erosion
control, and protection from flooding; the proper
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop
varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable







Soil Survey


Figure 7.--Crawfish traps protruding from the shallow water of an impoundment constructed and managed for the production
of crawfish.


soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures
the smallest possible loss.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
likely to increase as new production technology is
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to
change.
The local office of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service or of the Cooperative Extension
Service can provide information about the management
and productivity of the soils. Yields for pasture and hay
crops are expressed in animal-unit-months per acre.
One animal-unit-month is the amount of forage needed
to feed one animal unit (one cow, one horse, one mule,
five sheep, or five goats) for one month.


Land Capability Classification

Land capability classification shows, in a general
way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops
that require special management are excluded.The
soils are grouped according to their limitations for field
crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops,
and the way they respond to management. The criteria
used in grouping the soils do not include major and
generally expensive landforming that would change
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor
do they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for
interpretations designed to show suitability and
limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for
woodland, or for engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
at three levels-capability class, subclass, and unit.
Only class and subclass are used in this survey.






Gulf County, Florida


Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII.The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
use. There are no class I soils in Gulf County.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate
conservation practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require special
conservation practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make
them generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that
make them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for
commercial crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
class. They are designated by adding a small letter,
e, w, or s, to the class numeral, for example, lie.
The letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk
of erosion unless a close-growing plant cover is
maintained; shows that water in or on the soil
interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some
soils the wetness can be partly corrected by
artificial drainage); and s shows that the soil is
limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or
stony.
The soils in class V are subject to little or no
erosion, but they have other limitations that restrict
their use to pasture, rangeland, woodland, wildlife
habitat, or recreation.

Ecological Communities
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, and Gregory R. Brannon, soil data
quality specialist, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
helped prepare this section.
The ecological community concept is based on
the knowledge that a soil type commonly supports a
specific vegetative community, which in turn
provides the habitat needed by specific wildlife
species.
Vegetative communities form recognizable units
on the landscape, most of which are apparent to the


casual observer after only a little training. Even
without prior botanical training, an observer can quickly
learn to distinguish between pine flatwoods and pine-
turkey oak sandhills, between hardwood hammocks
and cypress swamps, and between mangrove swamps
and salt marsh. Once a community is recognized,
information can be found concerning the general
characteristics of the soil on which it occurs and the
types of plants and animals it supports.
Although some plants are found only within a very
narrow range of conditions, many plants can survive
throughout a wide range of conditions. Individual plants
that have a wide tolerance level can occur in many
different communities and on a variety of soils. When
describing ecological communities, plant scientists
study the patterns in which vegetation occurs. They
study what species occur, the relative abundance of
each species, the stage of plant succession, the
dominance of species, the position of species on the
landscape, and the soil or soils on which the patterns
occur. Recognizable patterns of vegetation are usually
found in a small group of soil types that have common
characteristics. During many years of field
observations while conducting soil surveys, the Natural
Resources Conservation Service determined which
vegetative communities commonly occur on which
soils throughout Florida. This information is
summarized in the booklet "26 Ecological Communities
of Florida" (USDA, 1989).
In the following paragraphs, the vegetative
community occurring on individual map units during the
climax state of plant succession is described. The
community described is based on relatively natural
conditions. Human activities, such as commercial
production of pine, agriculture, urbanization, and fire
suppression, can alter the community on a specific
site and should be considered. Miscellaneous map
units are not classified.
North Florida Coastal Strand
Areas of the North Florida Coastal Strand
ecological community generally are large, narrow
and long, and parallel to the coastal beaches. Small,
isolated communities can also be found along some
bays and sounds. These areas are affected by salt
spray from the Gulf of Mexico and saltwater bays.
The vegetation is dominated by cabbage palm, sand
live oak, live oak, saw palmetto, Spanish bayonet,
yaupon holly, and redbay. Herbaceous plants and
grasses include blanket flower, fiddleleaf
morningglory, largeleaf pennywort, seapurslane,
greenbrier, gulf bluestem, sandbur, seaoats,
seashore panicum, low panicum, and seashore
saltgrass. The map units that support the North





Soil Survey


Florida Coastal Strand ecological community in Gulf
County are:
10 Corolla fine sand, 1 to 5 percent slopes
46 Corolla-Duckston, complex, gently undulating,
flooded
Sand Pine Scrub
Areas of the Sand Pine Scrub ecological community
generally are small, no larger than a few hundred acres.
These areas are typically dominated by even-aged
sand pine trees. Other trees include bluejack oak,
Chapman's oak, myrtle oak, sand live oak, and sand
pine. The dense understory of oaks, saw palmetto, and
other shrubs is dominated by dwarf huckleberry, gopher
apple, pricklypear, saw palmetto, grassleaf goldaster,
deermoss, cat greenbrier, yellow Indiangrass, and low
panicum. The map units that support the Sand Pine
Scrub ecological community in Gulf County are:
47 Newhan-Corolla complex, rolling
48 Kureb-Corolla complex, rolling

Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
The Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological
community is dominated by longleaf pine and by turkey
oak, bluejack oak, and sand post oak. Common shrubs
include Adam's needle, coontie, coralbean, shining
sumac, and yaupon. Pricklypear cactus, partridge pea,
blazingstar, elephantsfoot, wiregrass, grassleaf
goldaster, yellow Indiangrass, and dropseed are
common. The map units that support the Longleaf
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological community in Gulf
County are:
6 Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
16 Ortega fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
33 Resota fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
51 Kenansville-Eulonia complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes

Mixed Hardwood-Pine
The Mixed Hardwood-Pine ecological community is
an extension of the middle coastal plains hardwoods
forest. Individual communities vary in size and are
interspersed with other communities and natural
drainageways. The type and amount of vegetation vary
depending on the successional stage. In the early
successional stages, pine is present and shortleaf pine
and loblolly pine are the dominant species. As the
system matures, hardwoods replace pines and the
natural climax vegetation is a beech-magnolia-maple
association. The dominant trees and shrubs are
American beech, American holly, eastern
hophornbeam, flowering dogwo6d, hawthorns, loblolly


pine, mockernut hickory, pignut hickory, southern red
oak, southern magnolia, white oak, water oak, shining
sumac, and sparkle berry. Herbaceous plants and
grasses include aster, common ragweed,
partridgeberry, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, wild
grape, broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low
panicum, and spike uniola. The map units that support
the Mixed Hardwood-Pine ecological community in Gulf
County are:
11 Clarendon loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes
12 Dothan-Fuquay complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes
15 Wahee fine sandy loam
17 Fuquay loamy fine sand
19 Lucy loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
21 Leefield loamy fine sand
26 Ocilla loamy fine sand, overwash, occasionally
flooded
35 Stilson loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
52 Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes

North Florida Flatwoods
The North Florida Flatwoods ecological community
is normally dominated by slash pine and by live oak
and sand live oak on the slightly higher ridges and an
understory of saw palmetto, gallberry, and grasses.
Scattered pond pine, water oak, laurel oak, sweetgum,
wax-myrtle, and several species of blueberry are also
common. Chalky bluestem, broomsedge bluestem,
lopsided Indiangrass, low panicums, switchgrass, and
wiregrass are the common grasses. Other common
plants include grassleafed goldaster, blackberry,
brackenfern, deertongue, gayfeather, milkworts, and a
variety of seed producing legumes. The map units that
support the North Florida Flatwoods ecological
community in Gulf County are:
2 Albany sand
3 Alapaha loamy fine sand
9 Ridgewood fine sand
20 Lynn Haven fine sand
22 Leon fine sand
24 Mandarin fine sand
27 Pelham loamy fine sand
28 Plummer fine sand
36 Sapelo sand
37 Scranton fine sand
42 Pottsburg fine sand

Salt Marsh
The Salt Marsh ecological community is
dominated by grasses and grasslike plants, such as
smooth cordgrass, black needlerush, gulf cordgrass,







Gulf County, Florida


Figure 8.-An area of Bayvi and Dirego soils, frequently flooded. This map unit is in the Salt Marsh ecological community and is
subject to daily tidal fluctuations.


marshhay cordgrass, Olney's bulrush, and seashore
dropseed. Sea blite, seaoxeye, and seapurslane are
the herbaceous plants and vines (fig. 8).The map
units that support the Salt Marsh ecological
community in Gulf County are:
7 Bayvi and Dirego soils, frequently flooded
14 Duckston-Duckston, depressional, complex,
frequently flooded
23 Maurepas muck, frequently flooded

Bottomland Hardwoods
The Bottomland Hardwoods ecological community
occurs on the flood plains along the Apalachicola and
Ochlockonee Rivers. It is in areas characterized by
rapid rise and fall of floodwater and little or no
inundation during the growing season. Vegetation is
extremely variable. It is dominated by hardwoods and a
relatively clean understory. Shrubs, vines, grasses,


and herbaceous plants grow profusely where sunlight
penetrates the canopy. The overstory is dominated by
American Elm, American hornbeam, black willow,
green ash, overcup oak, river birch, swamp chestnut
oak, Shumard's oak, sweetgum, water hickory, water
oak, and willow oak. Herbaceous plants include
crossvine, greenbriers, poison ivy, trumpet creeper,
and wild grape. The map unit that supports the
Bottomland Hardwoods ecological community in Gulf
County is:
25 Meggett fine sandy loam, occasionally flooded

Swamp Hardwoods
The Swamp Hardwoods ecological community is
dominated by blackgum, red maple, Ogeechee lime,
cypress, and bay trees. Common shrubs include
fetterbush, Virginia willow, buttonbush, and wax-myrtle.
Common herbaceous plants and vines include wild





Soil Survey


grape, greenbrier, and poison ivy. Maidencane grass,
cinnamon fern, and Sphagnum moss are also common.
The map units that support the Swamp Hardwoods
ecological community in Gulf County are:
13 Dorovan-Croatan complex, depressional
30 Pantego and Bayboro soils, depressional
40 Brickyard silty clay, frequently flooded
41 Brickyard, Chowan, and Kenner soils, frequently
flooded
44 Pamlico-Pickney complex, frequently flooded
45 Croatan-Surrency complex, frequently flooded
50 Wahee-Mantachie-Ochlockonee complex,
commonly flooded

Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamp
The Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamp ecological
community is dominated by a dense mass of
evergreen shrubby vegetation. It is dominated by
large gallberry, fetterbush, myrtleleaved holly,
swamp cyrilla (titi), greenbriers, sweetpepperbush,
and sweetbay. Scattered slash pine and pond pine
are present. Cinnamon fern, maidencane grass, and
club moss commonly fill in open areas. Shrub bogs
are predominantly dense masses of evergreen,
shrubby vegetation that seldom exceeds 25 feet in
height. Bay swamps are forested wetlands
dominated by one or two species of evergreen trees.
The bay swamp is considered to be a climax
community that has mature trees; the shrub bogs
are in the earlier stages of plant succession.
Periodic fires help to keep some areas in the shrub
bog, or subclimax, stage, especially the titi types.
The shrubs have many stems and thick foliage and
commonly appear impenetrable. The map units that
support the Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamp ecological
community in Gulf County are:
31 Pickney-Pamlico complex, depressional
34 Pickney and Rutlege soils, depressional
38 Meadowbrook fine sand, occasionally flooded
39 Surrency mucky fine sand, depressional

Pitcher Plant Bogs
The Pitcher Plant Bogs ecological community is
dominated by pitcher plants and scattered slash pine,
longleaf pine, and wax-myrtle. It is characterized by open
areas of grasses, sedges, and pitcher plants and
scattered areas of pine and cypress. At times, it is
covered with wildflowers. Most areas of this ecological
community are no more than 100 acres in size. Other
herbaceous plants and grasses include rush feathering,
sundews, blue maidencane, Florida threeawn, pineland
threeawn, toothache grass, and warty panicum.The map


units that support the Pitcher Plant Bogs ecological
community in Gulf County are:
5 Bladen fine sandy loam
32 Rains fine sandy loam


Woodland Management and Productivity

Approximately 322,000 acres, or 87 percent of Gulf
County, is woodland. About 60 percent of the county is
owned by large woodland products companies. The
remaining woodland is owned by smaller land owners.
Slash pine is the dominant woodland species grown
in the county, especially in areas of the flatwoods
(fig. 9). The flatwoods make up about 55 percent of the
woodland in the county. Most sparse pine stands have
been clear-cut and planted with improved slash pine.
The primary plant species in areas of the flatwoods
and wet flats in the southern coastal part of the county
are gallberry, wax-myrtle, black titi, fetterbush, saw
palmetto, and wiregrass. The primary plant species in
areas of the flatwoods and drainageways in the interior
and northern parts of the county are laurel oak,
gallberry, sweetbay, wax-myrtle, saw palmetto, and
wiregrass. The major soils in areas of the flatwoods are
Plummer, Pelham, Scranton, Leon, Albany, Alapaha,
Lynn Haven, and Mandarin soils.
The depressions, sloughs, and small creeks in the
county support black titi, baldcypress, pondcypress,
sweetbay, slash pine, and blackgum. These areas
make up about 20 percent of the woodland in the
county. They are planted and harvested when the
seasonal high water table is low so that heavy
equipment can be used. In natural condition, many of
the soils in these areas are marginal or unsuited to
pine growth because of wetness. The major soils in
these areas are Surrency, Pantego, Rutlege, Pickney,
Pamlico, and Croatan soils.
The areas on flood plains along the Apalachicola
River support water tupelo, blackgum, red maple,
sweetgum, magnolia, baldcypress, slash pine, laurel
oak, and overcup oak. These areas makes up about
12 percent of the woodland in the county. They were
used extensively for logging in the past, but most of
the acreage is not currently managed for commercial
uses. Tree size, low commercial value of many
species, and difficulty in working on flood plain soils
are contributing factors to low harvest feasibility in
these areas. Also, much of the extensive flood
plains along the Apalachicola River is owned by the
Federal and State Governments. A small part of the
flood plains in the northeastern part of the county is
managed for hardwoods. The major soils on the flood
plains are Brickyard, Chowan, Kenner, Mantachie,







Gulf County, Florida


II j~7


Figure 9.-A well managed stand of slash pine in an area of Albany sand.


Meggett, Meadowbrook, Ochlockonee, and Wahee
soils.
The upland areas north and south of Wewahitchka
support longleaf pine, loblolly pine, and mixed
hardwoods. These areas make up about 7 percent of
the woodland in the county. Many of these areas have
been cleared for agriculture and urban development.
The major soils on the uplands are Leefield, Stilson,
Blanton, Fuquay, and Dothan soils.
The northeast corner of the county between the
Dead Lakes and the flood plain along the Apalachicola
River supports loblolly pine, longleaf pine, spruce pine,
and mixed hardwoods. This area is used for the
commercial production of pines and hardwoods. It
makes up about 4 percent of the woodland in the
county.


Sandhill areas in the county support longleaf
pine, sand pine, and mixed hardwoods. These areas
make up about 2 percent of the woodland in the
county. Small, localized areas of sandhills are in the
west-central part of the county and on the remnant
dunes near the gulf coast. The major soils in the
sandhill areas are Kureb, Resota, Ridgewood, and
Ortega soils.
Timber management in the county ranges from
intensive clear-cutting, bedding, and planting to
selective cutting. In many areas used for pine,
prescribed burning is important for minimizing plant
competition and for exposing mineral soils as a bed for
young seedlings.
Some of the pine wood grown in Gulf County is
processed at a paper mill located in nearby Panama City.





Soil Survey


Several small lumber mills are located in the county.
They process timber primarily for specialty uses.
More detailed information regarding woodland and
forest management can be obtained at the local offices
of the Florida Division of Forestry, the Natural
Resources Conservation Service, the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, and the Farm Service
Agency.
This soil survey can be used by managers planning
ways to increase the productivity of woodland. Some
soils respond better to applications of fertilizer than
others, and some are more susceptible to erosion after
roads are built and timber is harvested. Some soils
require special efforts to reforest. For each map unit in
the survey area suitable for producing timber, the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units" presents information
about productivity, limitations for harvesting timber, and
management concerns for producing timber. The
common forest understory plants are also listed. Table
5 summarizes this forestry information and rates the
soils for a number of factors to be considered in
management. Slight, moderate, and severe are used to
indicate the degree of the major soil limitations to be
considered in forest management.
The first tree listed for each soil under the column
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil.
An indicator species is a tree that is common in the
area and that is generally the most productive on a
given soil.
Table 5 lists the ordination symbolfor each soil. The
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential
productivity is based on the site index and the point
where mean annual increment is the greatest.
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and
management. The letter Windicates a soil in which
excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes
a significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry
sandy soil. The letter A indicates that a soil has no
significant restrictions or limitations for forest use and
management. If a soil has more than one limitation, the
priority is W and then S.
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the
probability that damage may occur if site preparation
activities or harvesting operations expose.the soil.
The risk is slight if no particular preventive
measures are needed under ordinary conditions;
moderate if erosion-control measures are needed for
particular silvicultural activities; and severe if
special precautions are needed to control erosion for
most silvicultural activities. Ratings of moderate or


severe indicate the need for construction of higher
standard roads, additional maintenance of roads,
additional care in planning of harvesting and
reforestation operations, or use of specialized
equipment.
Ratings of the equipment limitation indicate limits on
the use of forest management equipment, year-round
or seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as
slope, wetness, or susceptibility of the surface layer to
compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On
the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be used.
On the steepest slopes, even tracked equipment
cannot be operated; more sophisticated systems are
needed. The rating is slight if equipment use is
restricted by soil wetness for less than 2 months and if
special equipment is not needed.The rating is
moderate if slopes are steep enough that wheeled
equipment cannot be operated safely across the slope,
if soil wetness restricts equipment use from 2 to 6
months per year, or if special equipment is needed to
avoid or reduce soil compaction. The rating is severe if
slopes are steep enough that tracked equipment
cannot be operated safely across the slope, if soil
wetness restricts equipment use for more than 6
months per year, or if special equipment is needed to
avoid or reduce soil compaction. Ratings of moderate
or severe indicate a need to choose the most suitable
equipment and to carefully plan the timing of
harvesting and other management operations.
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability
of death of naturally occurring or properly planted
seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as
influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features.
Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much
water or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil
for seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer,
depth and duration of the water table, rooting depth,
and the aspect of the slope. Mortality generally is
greatest on soils that have a sandy or clayey surface
layer. The risk is slight if, after site preparation,
expected mortality is less than 25 percent; moderate if
expected mortality is between 25 and 50 percent; and
severe if expected mortality exceeds 50 percent.
Ratings of moderate or severe indicate that it may be
necessary to use containerized or larger than usual
planting stock or to make special site preparations,
such as bedding, furrowing, or installing surface
drainage. Reinforcement planting is often needed if the
risk is moderate or severe.
Ratings of the windthrow hazard indicate the
likelihood of trees being uprooted by the wind.
Restricted rooting depth is the main reason for
windthrow. Rooting depth can be restricted by a high







Gulf County, Florida


water table or by such factors as soil wetness, texture,
structure, and depth. The risk is slight if strong winds
cause trees to break but do not uproot them; moderate
if strong winds cause an occasional tree to be blown
over and many trees to break; and severe if moderate
or strong winds commonly blow trees over. Ratings of
moderate or severe indicate the need for care in
thinning or possibly not thinning. Specialized
equipment may be needed to avoid damage to shallow
root systems in partial cutting operations. A plan for
periodic salvage of windthrown trees and the
maintenance of a road and trail system may be
needed.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood
of the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
competition becomes more severe on the more
productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils
having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The
risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants
inhibits adequate natural or artificial reforestation but
does not necessitate intensive site preparation and
maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from
undesirable plants inhibits natural or artificial
reforestation to the extent that intensive site
preparation and maintenance are needed.The risk is
severe if competition from undesirable plants prevents
adequate natural or artificial reforestation unless the
site is intensively prepared and maintained. A
moderate or severe rating indicates the need for site
preparation to ensure the development of an
adequately stocked stand. Site preparation measures
are needed to ensure reforestation without delays.
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil
is expressed as a site index and a productivity class.
Common trees are listed in the order of their observed
general occurrence. Generally, only two or three tree
species dominate.
The site index is determined by taking height
measurements and determining the age of selected
trees within stands of a given species. This index is
the average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a
specified number of years. This index applies to fully
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands.
The productivity class represents the expected
volume produced by the most important trees,
expressed in cubic meters per hectare per year at the
age of culmination of mean annual increment. Cubic
meters per hectare can be converted to cubic feet per
acre by multiplying by 14.3. Cubic feet can be
converted to board feet by multiplying by a factor of
about 5. For example, a productivity class of 8 means
the soil can be expected to produce 114 cubic feet per
acre per year at the point where mean annual


increment culminates, or about 570 board feet per acre
peryear.
Trees to plant are those that are used for
reforestation or, if suitable conditions exist, natural
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and can
produce a commercial wood crop. The desired
product, topographic position (such as a low, wet
area), and personal preference are three factors of
many that can influence the choice of trees used for
reforestation.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings

Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens,
and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of
low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees
and shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and on planting and caring for trees and
shrubs can be obtained from the local office of the
Natural Resources Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service or from a nursery.

Recreation

In table 6, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability
for recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational uses by the duration and intensity of
flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of







Gulf County, Florida


water table or by such factors as soil wetness, texture,
structure, and depth. The risk is slight if strong winds
cause trees to break but do not uproot them; moderate
if strong winds cause an occasional tree to be blown
over and many trees to break; and severe if moderate
or strong winds commonly blow trees over. Ratings of
moderate or severe indicate the need for care in
thinning or possibly not thinning. Specialized
equipment may be needed to avoid damage to shallow
root systems in partial cutting operations. A plan for
periodic salvage of windthrown trees and the
maintenance of a road and trail system may be
needed.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood
of the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
competition becomes more severe on the more
productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils
having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The
risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants
inhibits adequate natural or artificial reforestation but
does not necessitate intensive site preparation and
maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from
undesirable plants inhibits natural or artificial
reforestation to the extent that intensive site
preparation and maintenance are needed.The risk is
severe if competition from undesirable plants prevents
adequate natural or artificial reforestation unless the
site is intensively prepared and maintained. A
moderate or severe rating indicates the need for site
preparation to ensure the development of an
adequately stocked stand. Site preparation measures
are needed to ensure reforestation without delays.
The potential productivity of common trees on a soil
is expressed as a site index and a productivity class.
Common trees are listed in the order of their observed
general occurrence. Generally, only two or three tree
species dominate.
The site index is determined by taking height
measurements and determining the age of selected
trees within stands of a given species. This index is
the average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a
specified number of years. This index applies to fully
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands.
The productivity class represents the expected
volume produced by the most important trees,
expressed in cubic meters per hectare per year at the
age of culmination of mean annual increment. Cubic
meters per hectare can be converted to cubic feet per
acre by multiplying by 14.3. Cubic feet can be
converted to board feet by multiplying by a factor of
about 5. For example, a productivity class of 8 means
the soil can be expected to produce 114 cubic feet per
acre per year at the point where mean annual


increment culminates, or about 570 board feet per acre
peryear.
Trees to plant are those that are used for
reforestation or, if suitable conditions exist, natural
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and can
produce a commercial wood crop. The desired
product, topographic position (such as a low, wet
area), and personal preference are three factors of
many that can influence the choice of trees used for
reforestation.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings

Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens,
and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of
low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees
and shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and on planting and caring for trees and
shrubs can be obtained from the local office of the
Natural Resources Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service or from a nursery.

Recreation

In table 6, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability
for recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational uses by the duration and intensity of
flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of






Soil Survey


the height, duration, intensity, and frequency of
flooding is essential.
In the table, the degree of soil limitation is
expressed as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means
that soil properties are generally favorable and that
limitations, if any, are minor and easily overcome.
Moderate means that limitations can be overcome or
alleviated by planning, design, or special maintenance.
Severe means that soil properties are unfavorable and
that limitations can be offset by soil reclamation,
special design, intensive maintenance, limited use, or
a combination of these measures.
The information in the table can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
9 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
and for local roads and streets in table 8.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as
shaping and leveling the tent and parking areas,
stabilizing roads and intensively used areas, and
installing sanitary facilities and utility lines. Camp
areas are subject to heavy foot traffic and some
vehicular traffic. The best soils have gentle slopes and
are not wet or subject to flooding during the period of
use. The surface has few or no stones, absorbs rainfall
readily but remains firm, and is not dusty when dry.
Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and
parking areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, are not subject to
flooding during the period of use, and do not have
steep slopes that increase the cost of shaping sites or
of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand
intensive foot traffic. The best soils are almost level
and are not wet or subject to flooding during the
season of use. The surface is firm after rains and is not
dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the depth of the
soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and few or no stones on the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are
firm when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not
subject to prolonged flooding during the period of use.
They have moderate slopes. The suitability of the soil
for tees or greens is not considered in rating the soils.


Wildlife Habitat

Fish and wildlife resources are valuable to both the
local economy and to the lifestyles of Gulf County
residents. Fishing and hunting attract tourists
throughout the county, and numerous commercial
vessels bring their catch to the docks in Gulf County.
Habitat diversity is a prime factor contributing to the
diverse and abundant fish and wildlife resources in the
county.
In many areas in the county, the wildlife habitat is
characterized by the interspersion of diverse natural
communities, including pine flatwoods, swamps,
marshes, rivers, hammocks, and sandhills. Other
areas are vast and relatively uniform, such as the
forested flood plain along the Apalachicola River. Some
areas feature a gradual transition from one natural
community to another. An example is the transition
from forested flood plain to tidal marshes along the
Jackson River and Lake Wimico.
The pattern of land use and ownership is a major
factor affecting the large extent of wildlife habitat. In
1992, over 300,000 acres was woodland. Much of this
woodland is owned by a single company. Numerous
shallow ponds that are owned by aquacultural
operations in the southern part of the county are major
contributors of habitat for waterfowl and other water
birds. State lands include the 2,300 acre St. Joseph
T.H. Stone Memorial State Park and the adjacent St.
Joseph Wilderness Preserve, the St. Joseph Bay
Buffer Preserve, the Edward Ball Wildlife Management
Area in the southeastern part of the county, the Dead
Lakes State Recreation Area, the St. Joseph Bay
Aquatic Preserve, and the Apalachicola River Wildlife
and Environmental Area. Other smaller tracts have
been acquired by the State and local governments as
environmental buffers or preservation areas.
Primary game species in Gulf County include white-
tailed deer, squirrels, rabbit, turkey, bobwhite quail,
mourning dove, feral hogs, and waterfowl. Common
nongame species include raccoon, opossum, skunk,
otter, gray fox, red fox, and bobcat and a variety of
song birds, wading birds, shore birds, raptors, reptiles,
and amphibians.
Only a few freshwater lakes and ponds are in the
county. Most are smaller than 25 acres and are near
Wewahitchka. The Dead Lakes are not really lakes but
are actually a drowned flood plain of the Chipola River
and have a flowing channel. Lake Wimico is also not a
lake. It is a large, shallow bay. The lakes, ponds, and
river provide good sport fishing. Game and nongame
species include largemouth bass, channel catfish,
bullhead catfish, bluegill, redear sunfish, spotted
sunfish, warmouth, black crappie, chain pickerel, gar,




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs