Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 Origin of the House of Orleans
 The Exile
 Wanderings in the Old World and...
 The Tomb and the Bridal
 The Restoration
 The Death of Louis XVII, and Reign...
 Charles X. Dethroned
 The Struggles of Diplomacy
 Louis Philippe's Throne
 The Adventures of the Duchess de...
 The Final Struggle
 The Throne Demolished
 Back Cover

Title: History of Louis Philippe, king of the French
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026048/00001
 Material Information
Title: History of Louis Philippe, king of the French
Physical Description: 405, 7, 2 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Abbott, John S. C ( John Stevens Cabot ), 1805-1877
Harper & Brothers ( Publisher )
T. Sinclair's Lith ( Lithographer )
Publisher: Harper and Brothers
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1871
Subject: Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Executions and executioners -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Exile (Punishment) -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- France -- Revolution, 1789-1799   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- France -- Reign of Terror, 1793-1794   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1871   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1871
Genre: Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
individual biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by John S.C. Abbott ; with illustrations.
General Note: Added t.p., illustrated in colors; lithographed by T. Sinclairs.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026048
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002220822
notis - ALG1032
oclc - 00593012
lccn - 04025485

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Half Title
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Title Page
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    List of Illustrations
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Origin of the House of Orleans
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
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        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
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        Page 29
        Page 30
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        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    The Exile
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
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        Page 53
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        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Wanderings in the Old World and the New
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
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        Page 103
        Page 104
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        Page 108
        Page 109
    The Tomb and the Bridal
        Page 110
        Page 111
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        Page 113
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        Page 135
        Page 136
    The Restoration
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
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    The Death of Louis XVII, and Reign of Charles X
        Page 169
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    Charles X. Dethroned
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
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        Page 239
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        Page 241
    The Struggles of Diplomacy
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
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        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
    Louis Philippe's Throne
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
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        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
    The Adventures of the Duchess de Berri
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
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        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
    The Final Struggle
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
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    The Throne Demolished
        Page 380
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    Back Cover
        Page 418
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Full Text
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MThe Baldwin LibraryBIlllll FWR le HI KH ridaRmB f


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Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1871 byHARPER BROTHERSIn the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington

PREFACEIT would be difficult to find in all the range of thepast a man whose career has been so full of wonderful and exciting vicissitude as that of Louis PhilippeHis life covers the most eventful period in French history The storms of 1789 consigned his father to theguillotine his mother and brothers to imprisonmentand himself and sister to poverty and exile There arefew romances more replete with pensive interest thanthe wanderings of Louis Philippe to escape the bloodhounds of the Revolution far away amidst the ices ofNorthern Europe to the huts of the Laplanders andagain through the almost unbroken wilds of NorthAmerica taking refuge in the wigwams of the Indiansand floating with his two brothers in a boat a distanceof nearly two thousand miles through the solemn solitudes of the Ohio and the Mississippi from Pittsburgto the GulfAgain we see the duke on the recovery of a largeportion of his estates enjoying the elegant retreat atTwickenham feted by the nobility of England and caressed by the aristocracy of EuropeAgain the kaleidoscope of changeful life is turnedThe Empire falls The Bourbons are restored LouisPhilippe returns to the palaces of his fathers In rank

viii PREFACEhe takes his stand next to the throne In wealth heis the richest subject in Europe At one moment heis caressed by Royalty hoping to win his support andagain he is persecuted by Royalty fearing his influenceThere is another change The throne of the Bourbons is overthrown Louis Philippe finds himself asby magic King of the French He exchanges hisducal coronet for a royal crown He enters the regalmansions of the Tuileries Versailles Saint Cloud andFontainebleau the acknowledged sovereign of thirtymillions of people All the proud dynasties of Europerecognize him as belonging to the family of kingsEighteen years pass away crowded with the splendorcares toils and perils which seem ever to environ royalty During this period the adventures of the Duchess de Berri to regain the throne for her son the Countde Chambord presents an episode of extraordinary interestThere is another change The tocsin of insurrectiontolls its dismal knell in the towers of Paris Throughscenes surpassing fable the king and his family escapeto the hospitable shores of England Here in obscurity and exile he reaches the end of life s journey andpasses away to the unknown of the spirit land Suchis the wonderful story which we have endeavored tocompress within the limits of these brief pages Everyevent here narrated is sustained by documentary evidence beyond the possibility of a doubtir H n C JOHN S C ABBOTTFair Haven Conn


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LOUIS PHILIPPECHAPTER IORIGIN OF THE HOUSE OF ORLEANSLouis and PhilippeT HE origin of the House of Orleans is involved in some obscurity The city ofOrleans from which the duke takes his titlewas the Aurelium of imperial Rome The firstDuke of Orleans with whom history makes usfamiliar was Philip the only brother of LouisXIV Louis XIII the son and heir of HenryIV married Anne of Austria Two childrenwere born to them Louis and Philippe Thefirst became the world renowned monarch Louis XIV His brother known in history as Monsieur enjoyed the title and the princely revenues of the dukedom of OrleansMonsieur married as his first wife the beautiful Henrietta Stuart daughter of the unfortunate Charles I of England Her mother wasHenrietta of France the daughter of Henry IV

14 Louis PHILIPPE 1669The regentand sister of Louis XIII She died in thebloom of youth and beauty of poison after themost cruel sufferings on the 27th of June1669 Philippe took as his second wife Elizabeth Charlotte daughter of the Elector Charlesof Bavaria By this marriage he left a sonPhilippe who not only inherited his father salmost boundless wealth and princely titlesbut who attained wide spread notoriety not tosay renown as the regent of France after thedeath of Louis XIV and during the minorityof Louis XV The regent was a man df indomitable force of will During his long regency he swayed the sceptre of a tyrant andthe ear of Europe was poisoned with the storyof his debaucheriesHe married a legitimated daughter of LouisXIV Marie Frangoise de Blois a haughty capricious beauty His scandalous immoralitiesalienated his duchess from him and no happijess was to be found amidst the splendors oftheir home Dying suddenly at the age of fiftyone his son Louis succeeded him in the vastopulence the titles and the power of the dukedom of Orleans The following list of his titles may give some idea of the grandeur toSee Abbott s History of Louis XIV p 223

1670 THE HOUSE OF ORLEANS 15Louis de Valoiswhich these ancient nobles were born Louisde Valois De Chartres De Nemours and DeMontpensier First Prince of the blood FirstPeer of France Knight of the Golden FleeceColonel general of the French and Foreign Infantry Governor of Dauphiny and Grand Master of the Orders of Notre Dame of Mount Carmel and of St Lazarus of JerusalemBorn as this young man was in the palaceof splendor and surrounded by every allurement to voluptuous indulgence two domesticcalamities opened his eyes to the vanity of allearthly grandeur and led him to enter thosepaths of piety where his soul found true reposeThe death of his father cut down suddenly inthe midst of his godless revelry and the deceaseof his beloved wife Auguste Marie Jeanne aprincess of Baden in her twenty second yearso impressed him with the uncertainty of allterrestrial good and left his home and his heartso desolate that he retired to the Abbey of StGenevieve and devoted the remainder of hisdays to study to prayer and to active worksof Christian usefulnessHe became a proficient in the fine arts an accomplished scholar and a patron of all thoseliterary men whose works tended to benefit soci

16 Louis PHILIPPE 1724Louis le Grosety He founded hospitals and literary institutions established a college at Versailles endowed a professorship at the Sorbonne for expounding the Hebrew text of the Scriptures andtranslated from the original Greek and Hebrewthe Epistles of Paul and the Psalms of DavidAt the early age of forty eight he died cheerfully fell asleep in Jesus rejoicing in the hopeof a heavenly inheritance Few men who haveever lived have crowded their days with morekind useful and generous actionsHis son Louis Philippe acquired the sobriquet of le Gros or the Fat from his excessivecorpulence His unwieldy body probably contributed to that indolence of mind which inducedhim to withdraw from nearly all participationin political life Louis XV was one of the vilestof men and by a portion of his subjects wasthoroughly detested Exasperated by an act ofgross despotism the deputies from Brittany offered to furnish Louis Philippe with sixty thousand men completely armed to overthrow thereigning dynasty and to establish in its placethe House of Orleans The prince received thedeputation courteously but decidedly declinedembarking in the enterprise avowing that hehad not sufficient energy of character to meet

1785 THE HOUSE OF ORLEANS 17Pride of royaltyits demand and that he was too much attachedto his relative Louis XV to engage in a conspiracy against him He was an amiable upright man avoiding notoriety and devotinghimself to literary pursuits Being of the bloodroyal the etiquette of the French court did notallow him to enter into marriage relations withany one in whose veins the blood of royaltydid not flow His first wife Louise Henriettede Bourbon Conti was a princess of royal lineage Upon her death he married Madame deMontesson a beautiful woman to whom he wasexceedingly attached But the haughty Courtof France refused to recognize the marriageNotwithstanding his earnest solicitations hewas not permitted to confer upon her the titleof Duchess of OrleansEven when he died in the year 1785 courtetiquette would not allow his widow to assumeany public demonstrations of mourning Theblood of a Capet it was said is too pure toadmit of a recognized alliance below the rank ofroyaltySuch in brief was the character and careerof the first four dukes of this illustrious houseWe are thus brought down to the excitingscenes of modern history to scenes in whichB

18 Louis PHILIPPE 1747Birth of Egalitethe house of Orleans has acted a part so conspicuous as to attract the attention of the civilized worldThe fourth duke of whom we have spokenand his first wife Henrietta de Bourbon Contihad a son born on the 13th of April 1747 atthe Palace of St Cloud They gave their childthe name of Louis Philippe Joseph D OrleansDuring the life time of his father he bore thetitle of the Duke de Chartres No expense wasspared in his education his parents providingfor him teachers of the highest eminence in allthe branches of knowledge Though the youngprince developed much energy and activity ofmind he was not fond of study and did notmake any remarkable progress in book learningSurrounded by flatterers and in the enjoyment of almost boundless wealth as the appetites and passions of youth grew strong heplunged into the most extravagant excesses ofdissipation He is described at this time as ayoung man of handsome features and gracefulfigure above the average size His skin wasremarkable for its softness and whiteness anda very sweet smile generally played upon hislips Though simple in his ordinary style of

1785 THE HOUSE OF ORLEANS 19Fortune of the Duke of Orleansliving upon all state occasions he displayedgrandeur commensurate with his wealth andrank Immense as was the fortune to which hewas born it was greatly enhanced by his marriage with the Princess Marie Therese Louiseonly daughter of the Duke of PenthiBvre themost richly endowed heiress in Europe Thushe attained wealth which made him the richestsubject in Europe and which enabled him almost to outvie the splendors of royalty Butnotwithstanding this vast wealth he plungedso recklessly into extravagance that his pecuniary affairs became much embarrassedHis father died in the year 1785 just as thestorms of the French Revolution were beginning to darken the horizon The Duke of Chartres then took the title of the Duke of Orleansand rushed into the tumult of revolution witheagerness and energy which caused his nameto resound through all Europe and which finally brought his neck beneath the slide of theguillotineThe court under Louis XV in consequenceof its arbitrary measures about the year 1789was brought into collision with the ancient Parliament which remonstrated and even refusedto register the royal edicts The Duke of Or

20 Louis PHILIPPE 1789Democracy of the Duke of Orleansleans headed the party opposed to the courtAt his magnificent mansion the Palais Royalnearly opposite the Tuileries the leading menin the Opposition Rochefoucault Lafayette andMirabeau were accustomed to meet concertingmeasures to thwart the crown and to compelthe convocation of the States General In thatway alone could the people hope to resist theencroachments of the crown and to claim anyrecognition of popular rights The people accustomed to the almost idolatrous homage ofrank and power were overjoyed in having asthe leading advocate of their claims a prince ofthe blood The court was greatly exasp eratedIt was determined that the high born leader ofthe revolutionary party should feel the heaviestweight of the royal displeasure This severityhowever did but augment the popularity of theduke among the peopleLouis XVI through his advisers orderedthe Parliament to register a loan thus compelling the people to furnish the money it despotically demanded The Opposition in vain urgedthat the States General should be convened asalone competent to impose taxes The royalmeasure was carried notwithstanding the Opposition As the keeper of the seals amidst the

1789 THE HOUSE OF ORLEANS 21Wealth of the Duke of Orleansmost profound emotion of the Parliament readthe decree the Duke of Orleans rose and withmuch agitation of voice and manner inquiredIs this assemblage a lit de justice or a freeconsultationIt is a royal sitting the king answeredsomewhat sternlyThen replied the duke I beg that yourmajesty will permit me to deposit at your feetand in the bosom of the court the declarationthat I regard the registration as illegal and thatit will be necessary for the exculpation of thosepersons who are held to have deliberated uponit to add that it is by express command of thekingThis bold act announced to all France that theDuke of Orleans was ready to place himself atthe head of the opposition to the court and thathe was endowed with the courage and energywhich would be found essential to maintain thatpost The wealth of the Duke of Orleans wasso great that a former loan of twenty five million dollars he had taken up himself Immediately upon the withdrawal of the king fromthe Parliament the Duke of Orleans presentedand carried a resolve declaring the action whichhad taken place as illegal

22 Louis PHILIPPE 1789Banishment of the dukeThe king who was quite under the influenceof the stronger mind of his wife Maria Antoinette was deeply offended The duke wasbanished from Paris to his rural chateau ofVillers Cotterets and his leading friends in theOpposition were exiled to the isles of HieresThe indignation of Parliament was roused andvery vigorous resolutions of remonstrance wereadopted and presented to the king In theseresolves it was writtenThe first prince of the royal family is exiledIt is asked in vain What crime has he committed If the Duke of Orleans is culpable weare all so It was worthy of the first prince ofyour blood to represent to your majesty thatyou were changing the sitting into a lit de justiceIf exile be the reward for fidelity in princeswe may ask ourselves with terror and withgrief What protection is there for law and libertyIn allusion to the universal impression thatthe king was urged to these severe measures bythe influence of Maria Antoinette the Parliament added Such measures sire dwell not inyour own heart Such examples do not originate from your majesty They flow from another source Your Parliament supplicates your

1789 THE HOUSE OF ORLEANS 23Popularity of the Duke of Orleansmajesty to reject those merciless counsels andto listen to the dictates of your own heartThe plea was unavailing The agitationthroughout France was rapidly increasingthe people everywhere struggling against theencroachments of the crown From all parts ofthe kingdom the cry arose for the assemblingof the States General The Duke of Orleansmaddened by his banishment and exasperatedto the highest degree against Maria Antoinettewhom he considered as the author of his exilewas intensely engaged in plotting measures ofrevenge During his banishment he won theaffections of the peasantry by the kindly interest he seemed to take in their welfare He chatted freely with the farmers And the day laborersentered their cottages and conversed withtheir families on the most friendly terms presented dowries to young brides and stood sponsor for infantsThis course rapidly increased the popularityof the duke among the people and the Parliament was unceasing in its solicitations for hisrecall The court became embarrassed and atlength gladly availed itself of the opportunityof releasing him in response to a petition fromthe Duchess of Orleans

24 Louis PHILIPPE 1789Assembling of the States GeneralThe current of the revolution was now beginning to flow with resistless flood The hostility between the court and the people washourly increasing Famine added its horrorsto the general tumult and agitation A winterof unparalleled severity the winter of 1789terribly increased the general suffering TheDuke of Orleans was profuse in his liberalityopening a public kitchen and supplying thewants of famishing thousands The duke having thus embarked without reserve in the causeof the people added to his own popularity andto the exasperation of the court by publicly renouncing all his feudal rights and permittingthe public to hunt and shoot at pleasure overhis vast domains His popularity now becameimmense The journals were filled with hispraises Whenever he appeared in public multitudes followed him with their acclaimOn the 4th of May 1789 the States Generalor National Assembly met The duke followedby about forty others of the nobility renouncedall his aristocratic privileges and took his placeas an equal in the ranks of the tiers etat or thirdestate as the common people were called Theclergy the nobility and the people then constituted the three estates of the realm

1793 THE HOUSE OF ORLEANS 25Commotion in ParisThe French Revolution was now advancingwith rapid strides accompanied by anarchy violence and bloodshed The court party wasincreasingly exasperated against the popularduke and many stories were fabricated againsthim to undermine his influence The situationof the king and royal family became daily moreirksome and perilous He endeavored to escape to join the armies of Austria and Prussiawhich were marching to his relief He wasarrested at Varennes brought back to Parisand held as a prisoner in the Tuileries Thequestion was now discussed of deposing theking and establishing a regency under the Dukeof OrleansThe first National Assembly called the Constituent which was convened to draw up a constitution for France having completed its workwas dissolved and another assembly denominated the Legislative was chosen to enact lawsunder that constitution The allied armies offoreign dynasties were on the march to rob theFrench people of their constitution and to impose upon them the absolute despotism of theold regime Fearful riots ensued in Paris Thepalace of the Tuileries was stormed The kingwith his family fled to the Legislative Assem

26 Louis PHILIPPE 1793Flight of the noblesbly for protection and was imprisoned in theTemple On the 20th of January 1793 he diedupon the scaffoldThe National Convention which speedilysucceeded the Legislative Assembly broughtthe accusation of treason against the kingtried condemned and executed him The Dukeof Orleans a member of this Convention votedfor the death of the king The abolition ofmonarchy and the establishment of a republicimmediately followed The question was withmuch interest discussed whether the republicshould be federal like that of the United Statesor integral like the ancient republics of Greeceand Rome The Duke of Orleans advocatedthe concentration of power and the indivisibility of France Fanaticism usurped the placeof reason the guillotine was busy suspicionsfilled the air no life was safe The Duke ofOrleans was alarmed He sent his daughterunder the care of Madame de Genlis to England The nobles were flying in all directions Severe laws were passed against the emigrants The duke who had assumed the surname of Egalite or Equality excited suspicionby placing his daughter among the emigrantsIt was said that he had no confidence in the


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1792 THE HOUSE OF ORLEANS 29Petition of the Duke of Orleanspeople or in the new order of things To lullthese suspicions the duke sent a petition to theConvention on the 21st of November 1792containing the following statement1 Citizens You have passed a law againstthose cowards who have fled their country inthe moment of danger The circumstance Ihave to lay before you is peculiar My daughter fifteen years of age passed over to Englandin the month of October 1791 with her governess and two companions of her studies Hergoverness Madame de Genlis has early initiated them in liberal views and republican virtues The English language forms a part of theeducation which she has given to my daughterOne of the motives of this journey has been toacquire the pronunciation of that tongue Besides that the chalybeate waters of Englandwere recommended as restoratives of my daughter s health It is impossible under these circumstances to regard the journey of my daughter as emigration I feel assured that the lawis not applicable in this case But the slightestdoubt is sufficient to distress a father I begtherefore fellow citizens that you will relieveme from this uneasinessBut by this time the Convention began to

30 Louis PHILIPPE 1792Domestic discordlook upon the Duke of Orleans with suspicionRumors were in circulation that many of thepeople tired of republicanism which wascrowding the prisons and causing blood togush in an incessant flow wished to reinstatethe monarchy and to place the Duke of Orleans upon the throne The Duchess of Orleans the child of one of the highest nobleswas not in sympathy with her husband in hisdemocratic views His boundless profligacyhad also alienated her affections so that therewas no domestic happiness to be found in thegorgeous saloons of the Palais RoyalRobespierre wished to banish the Duke ofOrleans from France as a dangerous manaround whom the not yet extinct spirit of royalty might rally He moved in the Convention That all the relatives of Bourbon Capetshould be obliged within eight days to quit theterritory of France and the countries then occupied by the Republican armiesThe motion was for the time frustrated bythe following expostulation by M LamarqueWould it not be the extreme of injusticeto exile all of the Capets without distinctionI have never spoken but twice to Egalite Iam therefore not open to the suspicion of part

1792 THE HOUSE OF ORLEANS 31Flight of General Dumourieztiality but I have closely observed his conductin the Revolution I have seen him deliverhimself up to it entirely a willing victim for itspromotion not shrinking from the greatest sacrifices and I can truly assert that but for Egalit6 we never should have had the States General we should never have been freeThus public sentiment fluctuated An eventsoon occurred which brought matters to a crisisGeneral Dumouriez a former minister of Louis XVI was in command of the army on thenorthern frontier Disgusted with the violenceof the Convention which was silencing allopposition with the slide of the guillotine andapprehensive of personal danger from the consciousness that he was suspected of not beingvery friendly to the Government he resolved toabandon the country which he thought doomedto destruction and to seek safety in flight LouisPhilippe the eldest son of the Duke of Orleansthen a lad of about 16 was on his staff Theyfled together This aroused popular indignation in Paris to the highest pitch This youngprince Louis Philippe then entitled the Dukeof Chartres and who as subsequently King ofthe French is the subject of this memoir hadwritten in a letter to his father which was in

32 Louis PHILIPPE 1792Arrest of the Duke of Orleanstercepted these words I see the Conventionutterly destroying France It was believedthat Dumouriez had entered into a plot forplacing the Duke of Orleans on the throne andthat the duke was cognizant of the planA decree was immediately passed orderingthe arrest of every Bourbon in France Theduke was arrested and conveyed to Marseilleswith several members of his family Here hewas held in durance for some time and wasthen brought to Paris to be tried for treasonThough there was no evidence whatever againsthim he was declared guilty of being an accomplice in a conspiracy against the unity andindivisibility of the Republic and was condemned to deathThe duke as he heard the sentence repliedSince you were predetermined to put me todeath you ought at least to have sought formore plausible pretexts to attain that end foryou will never persuade the world that youdeem me guilty of what you now declare me tobe convicted However since my lot is decidedI demand that you will not let me languish hereuntil to morrow but order that I be led to execution instantly His request was not granted but he was conducted back to the cells of

1793 THE HOUSE OF ORLEANS 33Execution of Egalitethe Conciergerie to be executed the next dayThe next morning he was placed in the deathcart at the Conciergerie with four others of thecondemned to be conveyed to the guillotinewhich stood in the Place de la Concorde Hewas elaborately dressed in a green frock coatwhite waistcoat doe skin breeches and withboots carefully polished His hair was dressedand powdered with care As the cart passedslowly along in front of his princely abode thePalais Royal and through immense crowdslining the streets who formerly had been fedby his liberality and who now clamored for hisdeath he looked around upon them with apparently perfect indifferenceAt the guillotine the executioner took off hiscoat and was about to draw off his boots whenhe said calmly It is only loss of time youwill remove them more easily from my lifelesslimbs He examined the keen edge of theknife and was bound to the plank The slidefell and his head dropped into the basketThus perished Louis Philippe Egalite in the46th year of his age It was the 6th of November 1793 ten months after Louis XVI hadperished upon the same scaffold The immoralities of the Duke of Orleans were such that itC

34 Louis PHILIPPE 1773Birth of Louis Philippehas often been said of him Nothing becamehis life so much as his manner of leaving itLouis Philippe Egalit inheriting from hisancestors vast opulence had become by hismarriage with the daughteir of the immenselywealthy Duke of PenthiBvre the possessor ofalmost royal domains His wife the duchessthough aristocratic in all her prepossessionsand sympathizing not at all with her husbandin his democratic views was a woman of unblemished character of amiable disposition andof devoted pietyHaving thus given a brief account of theorigin of the Orleans family we must at theexpense of a little repetition turn back to thebirth of Louis Philippe the oldest son of theDuke of Orleans and the subject of this memoirLouis Philippe was born in the Palais Royalin Paris on the 6th of October 1773 In hisearly years he with the other children of theducal family was placed under the care andtuition of the celebrated Madame de GenlisUntil the death of his father he bore the titleof the Duke of ChartresThe Duke of Chartres writes Lamartinehad no youth Education suppressed this age

1780 THE HOUSE OF ORLEANS 35His daily journalin the pupils of Madame de Genlis Reflectionstudy premeditation of every thought and actreplaced nature by study and instinct by willAt seventeen years of age the young princehad the maturity of advanced yearsMadame de Genlis was unwearied in herendeavors to confer upon her illustrious pupilthe highest intellectual and religious education The most distinguished professors wereappointed to instruct in those branches withwhich she was not familiar His conduct wasrecorded in a minute daily journal from whichevery night questions were read subjecting himto the most searching self examination Thequestions were as follows1 Have I this day fulfilled all my duties towards God my Creator and prayed to Himwith fervor and affection2 Have I listened with respect and attention to the instructions which have been givenme to day with regard to my Christian dutiesand in reading works of piety3 Have I fulfilled all my duties this day towards those I ought to love most in the worldmy father and my mother4 Have I behaved with mildness and kindness towards my sister and my brothers

36 Louis PHILIPPE 1780Educational influences5 Have I been docile grateful and attentiveto my teachers6 Have I been perfectly sincere to day disobliging no one and speaking evil of no one7 Have I been as discreet prudent charitable modest and courageous as may be expectedat my age8 Have I shown no proof of that weakness oreffeminacy which is so contemptible in a man9 Have I done all the good I could10 Have I shown all the marks of attentionI ought to the persons present or absent towhom I owe kindness respect and affectionThese questions were read to him everynight from his journal To each one he returned a reply in writing He then kneeledand in prayer implored the forgiveness of hissins and Divine guidance for the future Undersuch training notwithstanding the enjoymentof alrost boundless wealth the influence of adissolute father and the measureless corruptions of the times Louis Philippe developed acharacter embellished by the loftiest principlesand the purest integrityThe Orleans children consisting of three sonsand a daughter were taught in their earliestyears to speak French English German and

1785 THE HOUSE OF ORLEANS 37Mental and physical trainingItalian so that each of these languages becameas it were vernacular At St Leu where theyresided most of the time a garden was laid outwhich they dug and cultivated with their ownhands A German gardner superintendedtheir work while a German valet accompaniedthem in their morning walks A physicianwho was a distinguished chemist instructedthem in botany pointing out the medicinal virtues of the various plants They were taughtto manufacture numerous articles of domesticutility and the boys became skillful in turning weaving basket making and other mechanical employments The Duke of Chartres became a very skillful cabinet maker and aidedby his brother the Duke of Montpensier manufactured a bureau for a poor woman at St Leuwhich was equal to any which could be foundin the market They were also accustomed tofatigue and hardship that they might be prepared for any of the vicissitudes of future lifeMadame de Genlis in reference to this trainingof her pupil and his subsequent trials and privations writesHow often since his misfortunes have Iapplauded myself for the education I havegiven him for having taught him the principal

38 Louis PHILIPPE 1785Testimony of Madame de Genlismodern languages for having accustomed himto wait on himself to despise all kinds of effeminacy to sleep habitually on a wooden bedwith no covering but a mat to expose himselfto heat cold and rain to accustom himself tofatigue by daily and violent exercise by walking ten or fifteen miles with leaden soles to hisshoes and finally for having given him thetaste and habit of travelling He had lost allthat he inherited from birth and fortune andnothing remained but what he had receivedfrom nature and meIn one of her earlier letters she wrote TheDuke of Chartres has greatly improved in disposition during the past year He was bornwith good inclinations and has now become intelligent and virtuous Possessing none of thefrivolities of the age he disdains the puerilitieswhich occupy the thoughts of so many youngmen of rank such as fashions dress trinketsfollies of all kinds and a desire for noveltiesHe has no passion for money is disinteresteddespises glare and is consequently truly noble Finally he has an excellent heart whichis common to his brothers and sister and whichjoined to reflection is capable of producing allother good qualities

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1785 1 THE HOUSE OF ORLEANS 41Demolition of the BastileDuring the boyhood of Louis Philippe revolutionary principles were rapidly spreadingover France and as he approached manhoodthey had reached their maturity The exampleof his father and the teachings of Madame deGenlis inclined him strongly in the direction ofpopular rights though his mother did not at allsympathize with these revolutionary principlesWhen the exasperated people rose and demolished the Bastile the symbol and the instrument of as great despotic power as ever existedupon earth Madame de Genlis took her pupilsinto Paris to witness the sublime drama Indescribing the scene she writes eloquentlyThis redoubtable fortress was covered withmen women and children working with unequalled ardor even on the most lofty parts ofthe building and on its turrets The astonishing number of these voluntary laborers theiractivity their enthusiasm their delight at seeing the fall of that terrible monument of tyranny these avenging hands which seemed consecrated by Providence and which annihilatedwith such rapidity the work of many centuriesall this spoke at once to the imagination andthe heartWhen the Duke of Chartres was informed

42 Louis PHILIPPE 1785The Duke of Chartres joins the Jacobin Clubthat the Assembly had annulled all the rightsof primogeniture thus depriving him as thefirst born of his exclusive right to the title andthe estate he threw his arms around his brother the Duke of Montpensier and said Nowindeed we are brothers in every respect Theunconcealed liberal opinions of the youngprince increased the exasperation of the courtagainst the whole Orleans family And whenguided by his radical father and in oppositionto the advice of Madame de Genlis the youngduke became a member of the Jacobin Clubthen numbering as it was estimated four hundred thousand in France the indignation ofthe court reached its highest pitchOn the 20th of November 1785 the youngDuke of Chartres then in his thirteenth yearbecame colonel of the nineteenth regiment ofdragoons He proceeded not long after toVend6me and devoted himself with all the enthusiasm of youth to the duties of his profession His democratic principles led him inopposition to the example of most of his brother officers to associate quite familiarly with thecommon soldiersFar from imitating the example of theseyoung noblemen who disdained to mix or con

1785 THE HOUSE OF ORLEANS 43His affabilityverse with the soldiers the duke was constantlyin the midst of them and the advice and reprimands which they received from his lips haddouble the force of usual orders On everyoccasion he proved himself the soldier s friendHe heard their complaints with kindness andthe generous noble familiarity with which hereplied to their demands in a little time wonfor him all their hearts Strengthened by thoseaffections which he so well knew how to merithe was enabled without any exertion to establish and preserve the strictest discipline Hismen obeyed him with pleasure because his orders were always given with urbanityHis exemplary conduct had the happiestinfluence over the whole garrison of VendomeThe soldiers now forgot his youth the oldestofficers found in him such intelligence andpunctuality as sometimes left their experiencein arrear He frequently reached the stablesin the morning before the lieutenant whoseduty it was to call there and he exhibitedequal energy in every other subject His lieutenant colonel imagining that this too frequentappearance among the men would lessen thatrespect for the dignity of colonel which he considered essential to the maintenance of disci

44 Louis PHILIPPE 1788Noble sentimentpline ventured to remonstrate with him uponhis conduct He repliedI do not think that I shall forfeit the respect of my men or be less entitled to their regard by giving them an example of punctuality and by being the first to submit myselfto the demands of disciplineLife and Times of Louis Philippe King of the Frenchby Rev G N Wright

1791 THE EXILE 45Plans for the invasion of FranceCHAPTER IITHE EXILESN the month of August 1791 the Duke ofChartres left Vendome with his regimentand went to Valenciennes where he spent thewinter He had been appointed commandantof that place and young as he was dischargedthe important duties of the position with ability and firmness which secured for him a veryhigh reputation The emigrant nobles had assembled on the French frontier in the electorate of TrBves where they were organizing theirforces for the invasion of France It was understood that Leopold II then Emperor of Germany was co operating with them and was forwarding large bodies of troops to many pointsalong the German banks of the Rhine for a crusade into FranceThe French government demanded of theemperor an explanation of his intentions Hereplied We do not know of any armamentsin the Austrian states which can be magnified

46 Louis PHILIPPE 1792The campaign of 1792into preparations for war Though LouisXVI was in cordial sympathy with the emigrants and by his secret agents was urging theEmperor of Austria to lend him troops to aidin crushing the revolution in France still hewas compelled not only to dissemble but on the20th of April 1792 publicly to declare waragainst the Emperor of Austria who was brother of his queen Maria AntoinetteThe Duke of Orleans Egalite begged permission of the king to join the armies of revolutionized France in their march against Austriaand to take with him his two oldest sons theDuke of Chartres Louis Philippe and theDuke of Montpensier In the campaign of1792 which ensued both of these young menacquired distinction and promotion GeneralBiron in command wrote to the minister ofwarMessieurs Chartres and Montpensier haveaccompanied me as volunteers and being exposed for the first time to a brisk fire from theenemy behaved with the utmost heroism andintrepidityThe Duke of Chartres in command of a brigade of dragoons was soon after transferred toa corps at Metz under General Kellerman who

1792 THE EXILE 47The invasion of Francesubsequently obtained such renown in the warsof the EmpireWhen the Duke of Chartres first appeared athead quarters General Kellerman not knowing who he was and surprised by his youthfulappearance exclaimedAh monsieur I never before have hadthe pleasure of seeing so young a general officer How have you contrived to be made ageneral so soonThe duke replied By being a son of himwho made a colonel of you They claspedhands cordially and a warm friendship commenced between themIn July 1792 the united armies of Prussiaand Austria commenced their march from theGerman fortresses upon the Rhine into FranceThe emigrant nobles and all their partisanswere received into the ranks of these invadersTheir combined strength amounted to 160 000men The Duke of Brunswick in commandof the united armies issued from Coblentz onon the 15th of July 1792 his famous manifestoin which he declared That he would punishas rebels every Frenchman who should opposethe allied army and that should any attack bemade upon the royal family in the Tuileries the

48 Louis PHILIPPE 1792Proclamation of the Assemblywhole city should be given up to destructionand the rebels to instant deathIn view of these terrible menaces the Legislative Assembly issued a proclamation inwhich it was saidA numerous army has moved upon ourfrontiers All those who are enemies to libertyhave armed themselves against our constitution Citizens the country is in danger Letall those who have had the happiness of takingup arms in the cause of liberty remember thatthey are Frenchmen and free that their fellow citizens enjoy in their homes security ofpersons and property that the magistrates arevigilant that every thing depends on calm resolution that they should take care to acknowledge the majesty of law and the country willstill be safeThe plan of the campaign adopted by theDuke of Brunswick was to press rapidly forward with his combined army from the banksof the Rhine to Paris cut off its supplies andby famine to compel it to surrender Hewould then destroy the liberal constitutionpunish and disperse the friends of popularrights and restore the king to the absolutismof the old regime To oppose this formidable



1792 THE EXILE 51Imprisonment of Lafayettearmy of invasion France had one corps of14 000 men near Metz and another of 33 000at Sedan under General Dumouriez GeneralLafayette had been in command of the latterforce but by his opposition to some of theradical measures of the Convention had excitedthe hostility of the Paris mob and the Jacobinclubs They had burned him in effigy at thePalais Royal accused him of treason before theAssembly and set a price upon his head Argument was of no avail agaiirst the fury of thepopulace in flight only was his safety Whilethus pursued by the Jacobins of Paris as anaristocrat he was arrested by a patrol of theAustrian army as a democrat With the greatest secrecy his captors hurried him to Olmutzwhere he was thrown into close confinementand subjected to the most cruel privations Itwas two years before his friends could discoverthe place of his captivity His wife and daughters then after much difficulty and delay succeeded in obtaining permission to share theglooms of his dungeon It was not until afteran imprisonment of five years that he was setat liberty Napoleon commanding his releasein tones which Austria did not dare to disregard

52 Louis PHILIPPE 1792Measures of defenseThe proclamation by the Assembly that thecountry was in danger caused volunteers inlarge numbers to set out from every portionof France From Paris alon e in three daysan army of 32 000 men completely equippedwere on the advance to the scene of conflictGeneral Dumouriez in command at Sedandrew up his lines of defense before the defilesof Argoun where he thought he could make themost effectual stand against the invading hostThe Duke of Brinswick fell fiercely upon hisleft wing and breaking through poured histroops like a flood into the plains of Champagne For a time a terrific panic spreadthrough the French army and it became needful for Generals Dumouriez and Kellerman tounite their forces In the mean time the triumphant Prussians defiling rapidly by Grandprd and Croix aux Bois were approaching ChaionsThe French troops concentrated at ValmyThere they drew up in line of battle to arrestthe advance of their foes The second line ofthe French army was commanded by the Dukeof Chartes The battle which ensued was oneof the most memorable and hard fought inFrench history In the early morning a dense

1792 THE EXILE 53Battle of Valmymist covered the field of conflict At eleveno clock the fog dispersed and the sun came outbrightly revealing the Prussian columns advancing in beautiful order with a glittering display of caparisoned horses and polished weapons deploying with as much precision as if ona field of parade The eye took in at a glance100 000 men preparing for the death struggleIt was indeed an imposing spectacle for suchhosts had then been rarely collected on anyfield of bloodNeither party seemed disposed to come intoclose contact with the other but each broughtforward its batteries and a terrific cannonadecommenced which continued until the close ofthe day It was estimated that forty thousandballs were hurled by the opposing armies intoeach other s ranks Each army however maintained its position Yet it was considered aFrench victory for the Prussians failed intheir attempt to break through the lines of theFrench and the French succeeded in arrestingthe march of the Prussians Indeed it wasadmitted by the Prussians that their plan washopelessly thwarted The Duke of Brunswickproposed an armistice to the French officersand this was speedily followed by the evacua

54 Louis PHILIPPE 1792Gallantry of the Duke of Chartrestion of the French territory by the whole bodyof Prussian troops Thus for the time theGermanic project of invasion was abandonedThe Duke of Chartres again upon this occasion distinguished himself by bravery and military skill General Kellerman in his officialreport of the battle said I shall only particularize among those who have shown distinguished courage M Chartres and his aid decamp M Montpensier whose extreme youthrenders his presence of mind during one ofthe most tremendous cannonades ever heard sovery remarkableIt will be observed that General Kellermanspeaks of the young dukes as simply M Chartres and M Montpensier At that time all honorary titles were abolished in France and thehighest nobles were addressed as were thehumblest peasants by the only title of CitizenStill the lower classes regarded with greatjealousy those higher orders to whom they hadbeen accustomed to pay the homage whichslaves render their masters The laborers thehumble artisans the toil worn peasants couldnot appear with any thing like equality in thepresence of the high born men and courtlydames who through their ancestry of many

1792 THE EXILE 55Embarrassment of Egalit6generations had been accustomed to wealth andrank and power Thus to the lower orders thedress of a gentleman the polite bearing of theprince the courtly manner of the noble excitedsuspicion and created hostile feelingsEven Egalite himself though he had renounced all his titles all his feudal rights andhad assumed as far as possible the manners ofa blunt plain spoken man was still next tothe king in the enjoyment of the richest revenue in France He could by no possibilityplace himself upon a social equality with hisboot black He manifested no disposition todivide his vast possessions with the mob inParis and to send his wife to work with thewasher women and his daughter to a factoryand to earn himself his daily bread by menialtoil And the washer women were askingWhy should we toil at the tub and CitizenessOrleans ride in her carriage and dress in satinsWe are as good as she and our blood is asred And at the corners of the streets the uncombed mob were beginning to inquire Whyshould Citizen Orleans who by adopting thetitle of Egalit6 has confessed himself to be onlyour equal be in possession of magnificent palaces and of thousands of acres of the public

56 Louis PHILIPPE 1792Continued war against Francedomain and of a revenue of millions of francswhile we dwell in hovels and eat the coarsestfood and by the most menial toil obtain a baresubsistence Citizen Orleans has given up histitles as he ought to have done now let himgive up his enormous estates and divide themamong us his brethren and if he is unwillingto do this let us compel him to do soLouis Philippe accustomed to profound reflection and trained in the school of these tremendous political agitations clearly foresaw allthese menaces He was well aware that it wasno longer safe for him to be in Paris and thatthe perils of the battle field were among theleast he had to encounter Though the Prussian troops had withdrawn from the allianceagainst France the Austrians encouraged bythe intrigues and the gold of the British cabinet still continued the conflict The Austriancourt had an additional motive for perseverance in the war against revolutionary Francein the anxiety it felt for the safety of the Austrian princess Marie AntoinetteOn the 5th of November 1792 the Frencharmy under General Dumouriez found itselfintrenched upon the heights of Jemappes Directly before it was the camp of the Austrians

1792 THE EXILE 57The Battle of Jemappescontaining a veteran force of twenty two thousand men commanded by General ClarfaitThe renowned battle of Jemappes ensuedwhich commenced after a cannonade of threehours by an attack upon the whole of the Austrian lines by the entire French army Againthe young Duke of Chartres who commandedthe centre greatly distinguished himself by hiscoolness bravery and skill The carnage wasserious on both sides and for some hours the result was doubtful At length victory declaredin favor of the French The Austrians drivenfrom all their positions fled leaving the battlefield covered with their dead and abandoningnearly all their cannon to the victorsThe French vigorously pursued the routedAustrians until they again overtook them anddrove them out of the kingdom On the 8thday after the victory of Jemappes Dumouriezadvanced the French standard to Brussels Aswe have mentioned the sister of the Duke ofChartres the Princess Eugene Louise Adelaidewith her governess Madame de Genlis hadbeen included in the proscriptive laws againstemigration The Duke of Chartres visited themin Switzerland where they had taken refugeand conducted them to Tornay

58 Louis PHILIPPE 1792Peril of the Orleans FamilyWhile there a new decree was issued by theAssembly declaring that every member of theBourbon family then in France with the exception of the royal household itself whichwas held in imprisonment in the Temple awaiting trial under the charge of treason shouldleave France and all the territory occupied bythe newly established Republic within eightdays The position of the Orleans branch ofthe Bourbon family now became every hourincreasingly perilous The nation was demanding the life of the king and the banishment ofall who bore his name St Just in urging inthe Assembly this decree of banishment saidAs to the king we shall keep him and youknow for whatThe Duke of Chartres who very fully comprehended the peril in which his father s family was involved urged him to avail himself ofthe decree of banishment which opened anhonorable avenue of escape for him and all hisfamily from FranceYou will assuredly said he to his fatherfind yourself in an appalling situation LouisXVI is about to be accused before an assemblyof which you are a member You must sit before the king as his judge Reject the ungra

1792 THE EXILE 59Decision of the Duke of Orleanscious duty withdraw with your family toAmerica and seek a calm retreat far from theenemies of France and there await the returnof happier daysBut the Duke of Orleans did not deem it consistent with his honor to desert his post in thehour of danger Yet the arguments urged byhis son were so strong that he desired him toconsult an influential member of the Assemblyupon the subject The deputy repliedI am incompetent to give your father anyadvice Our positions are dissimilar I myself seek redress for personal injuries Yourfather the Duke of Orleans ought to obey thedictates of his conscience as a prince and thedictates of duty as a citizenThis undecided answer led the Duke of Orleans to the decision that in the prominent position which he occupied as a citizen of rankand wealth he could not with honor abandonhis country in her hour of peril The Duke ofChartres desisted from any further solicitationand oppressed with much anxiety returned tothe armyThe badge of the Bourbons was a white banner The insurgents if we may so call the opponents of all varieties of opinions who assailed

60 Louis PHILIPPE 1792Origin of the Tri colorthe ancient despotism at the siege of the Bastile wore red cockades But very many werein favor of monarchy who were also in favorof constitutional liberty Blue had been inancient times the royal color and they adoptedthat Others who were in favor of the Bourbons and advocated reform only not revolution adopted white the livery of the Bourbons Thus arose the celebrated tri color flagwhich became the emblem of all in France whoadopted the principles of political liberalismwhether monarchists or republicans The whitebanner of the Bourbons and the tri color of therevolutionists thus became arrayed against eachotherIt was well known that there was a strongparty in favor of placing the Duke of Orleansupon the throne The king was awaiting histrial in the Temple The monarchy was virtually overthrown and a republic was established The Republicans were in great fear ofa reaction which might re establish the thronein favor of the Orleans family It was therefore proposed in the Assembly that the Dukeof Orleans and his sons should be banishedfrom France But it could not be denied thatthe Duke of Orleans had been one of the most

1792 THE EXILE 61The Decree of Banishmentprominent leaders in the revolution He hadgiven all his influence and consecrated hisimmense wealth to the cause He had madegreat sacrifices and had alienated himself entirely from the royal family and from the nobility generally by his bold advocacy of democratic principles Under these circumstancesit seemed peculiarly ungrateful to proscribeand persecute him merely because the bloodof the Bourbons flowed in his veins and because he was born near the throneAfter a violent discussion in the Assemblythe decree of banishment was passed But thefriends of the duke rallied and succeeded aftera struggle of two days in obtaining a reversalof the decree It was known that the Duke ofChartres had urged his father to yield to thedecree and to retire from France This increased the suspicion that the Duke of Chartres was not friendly to the new state of thingsin republican anarchic FranceIt can not be denied says a French historian that upon this occasion the young princeevinced that high sagacity which by foreseeingevents succeeds in dispersing their dangersHe looked upon it that the revocation of thedecree of banishment against his family was a

62 Louis PHILIPPE 1793Battle of Nerwindegreat misfortune because the name of Orleanshaving been once pronounced suspected anddangerous could never again be useful to theircountry and would be infallibly persecutedIfwe can no longer be useful said he and ifwe only give occasion of offense can we hesitatein expatriating ourselvesBut as we have said the duke decided toremain at his post and his son returning tothe army anxiously awaited events The Austrians speedily filled up their depleted rankswith reinforcements and on the 18th of March1793 were again in battle array near the village of Nerwinde Another terrible battle ensued in which the Duke of Orleans again wonmany laurels but victory decided against theFrench The army of Dumouriez was utterlyrouted The Duke of Chartres had a horseshot from under him but he spent the wholenight upon the field struggling to rally the fugitives It was attributed to his heroism thatthe army did not on that occasion experiencean irreparable disasterGeneral Dumouriez now found himself inthe most painful and perilous position It wasnot safe for any leader of the Republican armies to allow himself to be defeated The loss

1793 THE EXILE 63Charges against Dumouriezof a battle was considered equivalent to treasonA committee was sent by the Assembly to spyout his conduct The Moniteur of the 27th ofMarch 1793 contains the following reportWe arrived at Tournay on Tuesday the26th Citizen Proly who was previouslyknown to General Dumouriez waited uponhim He found him at the house of MadameSillery in company with that lady the MissesEgalite and Pamela He was attended alsoby Generals Valence and ChartresAmong other unbecoming observationswhich he did not hesitate to make General Dumouriez said that the Convention was the causeof all the misfortunes of France that it wascomposed of 745 tyrants all regicides that hewas strong enough to bring them to a sense ofpropriety and that if they were to call himCasar Cromwell or Monk he was still resolvedto save his countryThe publication of this report rendered itcertain to Dumouriez and his friends that hewould immediately be arrested and conveyedto Paris under circumstances which would render condemnation and execution inevitableHe had not an hour to lose He was suppingwith the Duke of Chartres anxiously convers

64 Louis PHILIPPE 1793The Flighting upon the peril in which they both wereinvolved when a courier arrived summoninghim immediately to repair to Paris to explainhis conduct to the Convention The Duke ofChartres said sadly to his general This orderis your death warrant As he said this thegeneral was opening another document and replied Now it is your turn my young friendthis letter incloses a similar invitation foryou 7They both mounted their horses and biddingadieu to unhappy France set out with a smallretinue for the frontier A detachment ofdragoons was sent in pursuit of them By theextraordinary sagacity and self possession ofBaudoin the faithful servant of the prince theyeffected their escape It is altogether probablethat Dumouriez was intending by the aid ofthe army to overthrow the Convention andre establish the throne in favor of the Duke ofChartres An anonymous French writer commenting upon these events saysWe do not hesitate to place among thenumber of the plans of Dumouriez a projectwhich did him honor that of abolishing therepublican system and erecting a constitutionalmonarchy in favor of the Duke of Chartres

1793 THE XILE 65Supposed Plan of DumouriezMany persons have imagined that the Duke ofChartres was aware of this design It is certain that in the army as well as among themoderates of the interior the prince wouldhave found a crowd of adherents But he wastoo conscientious to usurp a crown which hadjust fallen in blood too good a son to authorize proceedings which would have endangeredthe life of his father in short too enlightened too prudent notwithstanding his extremeyouth to be instrumental in any ambitious orill conceived scheme emanating from such aman as Dumouriez However whether theDuke of Chartres was conscious or not of thedesigns of General Dumouriez a stern necessityrendered a union of their fortunes indispensable for a timeThe fugitives repaired first to Mons the headquarters of the Austrians to obtain their passports Prince Charles urged the duke to enter the service of the Empire and to co operatewith foreign armies and the emigrants in restoring monarchy to France The duke emphatically declined Indeed such an act wouldprobably have brought his father s head andthe head of every member of the family withinreach of the Convention beneath the slide ofE

66 Louis PHILIPPE 1793Wanderings on the Rhinethe guillotine Nothing now remained for theprince but exile and povertyIn the month of April 1793 the duke assuming the name of Mr Corby and the appearanceof an English traveller accompanied only bya servant and his aid de camp Caesar Ducrestcommenced travelling in Germany While theRepublicans assailed him from suspicion of hissecret hostility to Republican principles the emigrants thoroughly hated both him and his father for the countenance which they had givento the Revolution The region was full ofemigrants who would gladly surrender him tohis enemies It was necessary for him to practise the utmost caution that he might preservehis incognito In the cities of Liege Aix laChapelle and Cologne he did not dare to dineat the table d h6te lest he should be recognizedThe duke had reached Frankfort when heread the account in the journals of the arrestof his father and brothers Lafayette ladenwith irons was pining in the dungeons of 01mutz Such was the reward which these patriots received for their devotion to the causeof popular libertyDeparting from Frankfort the duke proceeded to Basle From an eminence in the

1793 THE EXILE 67Arrest of the Orleans familyenvirons of the town the tri color flag was visible floating in the distance above the battlements of the fortress of Huninguen Withdeep emotion the duke saluted the flag of liberty for which he had suffered so much andcontinued his sad journey At Basle he learned that his sister accompanied by Madame deGenlis had taken refuge at Schaffhausen inSwitzerland His mother and two brothers aswell as his father had been arrested and wereimprisoned in France Joining his sister andMadame de Genlis the little party of exilesproceeded oppressed with anxiety and grief toZurich Here it became necessary for themto acquaint the magistrates with their realnamesThe emigrant royalists who had taken refuge there ostentatiously displayed their detestation of the democratic prince At the sametime the Helvetic magistrates trembled lestthey should incur the wrath of RevolutionaryFrance by affording a refuge to the illustriousexiles The Moniteur of the 12th of June1793 contained the following noticeThe ci devant Duke of Chartres and hissuite are not in Italy as had been supposedbut reside in a solitary house on the margini

68 Louis PHILIPPE 1793Life in Switzerlandof Lake Zug in Switzerland They pass foran Irish familyIt was on the 14th of May that the sorrowfulexiles took up their residence upon the banksof this silent lake In Zurich where they wererecognized they had been exposed to many insults One evening as they were walking outan emigrant cavalier purposely caught his spurin a portion of the dress of Mademoiselle d Orleans rudely tearing itSoon they were again discovered by someemigrants who were passing through Zug Adispatch from Berne reproached the authoritiesfor their imprudence in allowing the noblewanderers an asylum The magistrates calledupon the duke and respectfully but with muchembarrassment entreated him to depart fromtheir coasts It was now evident that the party could no longer with safety reside togetherThe duke succeeded through some influentialfriends in obtaining admission for his sisterinto the convent of Sainte Claire near BremgartenAs for you said M de Montjoie to theDuke of Chartres there is no alternative butto wander in the mountains not sojourninglong in any place but pursuing this life 6i sorL

1793 THE EXILE 69Letter from General Dumouriezrow until the circumstances of your countryshall assume a more favorable aspect If fortune shall prove propitious your wanderingswill be an Odyssey the details of which willone day be collected with avidityGeneral Dumouriez who was also wandering in obscurity and exile at this time wrote toGeneral Montesquieu who was a friend of theDuke of Chartres and a gentleman possessedof much influence and power in SwitzerlandEmbrace for me our excellent young friendWhat you are doing to serve him is worthy ofyou Let him derive instruction and strengthfrom his adversity This frenzy will pass awayand then he will find his place Induce himto make a circumstantial diary of his travelsIt will be curious to see the diary of a Bourbon treating of other subjects than the chasewomen and the table I am convinced thatthis work which he will one day produce willserve as a certificate for life either when heshall have re entered it or to make him returnto itDarker and darker grew the path of the exiled prince His funds became very low Hewas separated from all his friends except hisfaithful servant Baudoin who absolutely re

70 Louis PHILIPPE 1793Hardships of travelfused to leave him He retained but one horseHis servant chanced to be so sick that he couldnot walk The duke left Basle on foot leadingby the hand the horse upon which his humblebut faithful companion in exile was mountedPassing through Neufchatel Zellen Blatt andKussnacht he reached the ruins of HalsburgHere in the midst of silence and solitude thegreat grandson of the brother of Louis XIVsought a refuge from his countrymen who werethirsting for his bloodDuring one of his adventurous excursionsamong the Alps on foot accompanied only byhis servant he approached the hospitium ofSaint Gothard It was on the 28th of August1793 Having rung the bell a Capuchin friarappeared at the casement and inquired Whatdo you want I request replied the dukesome nourishment for my companion andmyself My good young men said the friarwe do not admit foot passengers here particularly of your description But reverendfather replied the duke we will pay whatever you demand No no added the Capuchin pointing to a shed where some muleVie Anecdotique de Louis Philippe Par MM A Laugier et Carpentier p 108e


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1793 THE EXILE 73A college professorteers were partaking of Alpine cheese thatlittle inn there is good enough for youAt Gordona the duke and his servant metwith a similar repulse Covered with the dustof travel and with knapsacks on their backswith night and storm approaching they foundthe door of a hostlery closed against them Itwas not until after much entreaty that the wayworn travellers were allowed shelter with abed of straw in an outhouseWhile engaged in these wanderings the dukereceived a letter from M de Montesquieu offering him the situation of professor at the collegeof Reichenau This was a chateau near the confluence of the upper and lower Rhine He wasthen but twenty years of age Assuming thename of M Chabaud he underwent a very rigid examination without exciting the slightestsuspicion as to his real character For eightmonths he discharged the duties of teaching theFrench and English languages with markedsuccess and so secured the respect of the inhabitants of Reichenau that they elected himtheir deputy to the Assembly at CoireHere the tidings reached him of the sadfate of his father Overwhelmed with griefand restless in view of the peril of other mem

74 Louis PHILIPPE 1794Political divisions in Francebers of the family he resumed his wanderingsProceeding to Bremgarten the residence ofhis influential friend M de Montesquieu he remained with him as aid de camp until sometime in the year 1794But it was impossible for a man so widelyknown to remain long concealed in any placeThere was still an energetic and increasinglypowerful party in France opposed to the disorders which the Republic had introduced andanxious to restore monarchical forms Thesituation of the sister of the Duke of Orleans asLouis Philippe now became on the death ofhis father was considered so unsafe in the convent of Bremgarten that she was removed toHungaryOne day as the duke was sitting silentlylost in thought in a parlor adjoining the oneoccupied by his generous host he overheardsome conversation which led him to fear thatthe hospitality which he was receiving mightendanger the safety of his friend He immediately resolved to withdraw from Bremgartenand to seek refuge in Hamburg Here findinghis position very insecure he resolved to hidehimself in the cheerless climate of NorthernEurope Accustomed to the severest priva

1794 THE EXILE 75The wilds of Scandinaviations he was enabled to recommence his wanderings with the slender funds at his disposalAssuming the character of a Swiss traveller hemade arrangements to disappear from SouthernEurope and seek refuge in the wilds of Scandinavia He obtained passports from the Kingof Denmark which allowed him to take withhim his steadfast friend Count Montjoie andhis faithful servant Baudoin who had sharedall the sufferings of his exile A letter ofcredit upon a banker at Copenhagen suppliedhis immediate pecuniary wants

76 Louis PHILIPPE 1794Louis Philippe in SwedenCHAPTER IIIWANDERINGS IN THE OLD WORLDAND THE NEWT HE peninsula of Scandinavia can be explored at a very slight expense The exiled prince with his companions travelled inthe most unostentatious manner He felt quitesecure in his wanderings as but few of the emigrants had penetrated those distant regionsFrom Copenhagen he passed to Elsineur visiting all objects of historic interest Crossingthe Sound at Helsinbourg he entered the hospitable realms of Sweden After a brief tarryat Gottenburg and ascending Lake Wener hedirected his steps towards Norway remainingfor a short period at Friedrichsthal where in1718 the half mad Charles XII after perhapsthe most stormy life through which a mortalever passed breathed his lastProceeding to Christiania he was received asan intelligent and affable traveller with muchdistinction though no one suspected his rank

1794 WANDERINGS 77His incognitoWherever he went the purity of his characterimpressed itself upon the community M Monod subsequently a distinguished pastor ofone of the Protestant churches in Paris wasthen at Christiania He fully appreciated theunusual virtues of his countryman who inevery word and action manifested the spirit oftrue ChristianityM Monod has repeatedly since been heardto declare write A Laugier and Carpentierthat the more the virtuous and instructivelife of this traveller was examined the moreexalted and exemplary it appeared Whatmust have been his surprise when subsequently in his own country he recognized in theyoung Frenchman of Christiania so gentle andmodest a prince of the blood standing uponthe very steps of the throne of FranceFor some time the duke remained at Christiania receiving many kind attentions On oneoccasion he dined with a numerous party at abanker s in the city In the evening at theclose of the entertainment as the guests weredeparting the duke was startled and alarmedby hearing the son of the banker in a loud andsomewhat playful tone call out The carriageof the Duke of Orleans For a moment he

78 Louis PHILIPPE 1794Journeying northwardwas much embarrassed But perceiving thatneither the young man nor any of the companyturned their eyes to him he recovered his selfpossession and calmly inquired of the youngman Why do you call for the carriage of theDuke of Orleans What have you to do withhimNothing at all he replied with a smilebut in a journey which we not long agomade to Paris every evening as we were coming out of the opera we heard the peopleshouting on all sides and with the greatesteagerness La voiture de Monseigneur le Ducd Orleans les gens de son Altesse Royale I wasalmost stunned by the noise At the momentit occurred to me to imitate them instead ofsimply calling for the carriageContinuing his journey to the north theprince passed through Drontheim and Hamersfeldt which latter place was then the mostnorthern town in Europe Some years afterwhen Louis Philippe had ascended the throneof France he sent a clock to the church towerin Hamersfeldt in graceful recognition of hishospitable reception there as a strangerContinuing along the coast of Norway heVie Anecdotique de Louis Philippe p 120

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1795 WANDERINGS 81Court ball of King Gustavusreached the Gulf of Salten and visited theworld renowned Maelstrom Taking an Icelander by the name of Holm as his guide heentered Lapland Thus journeying he onthe 24th of August 1795 reached North Capethe extreme northern point of Europe withineighteen degrees of the North Pole It is saidthat no Frenchman had ever before visitedthose distant and frigid regions Here theduke remained for several weeks enjoying thehospitality of the simple hearted inhabitantswinning their confidence by his affability anddeeply interested in studying their mannersand customsThen turning directly south accompaniedby several of the natives he reached Tornevon the extreme northern shore of the Gulf ofBothnia Thence he traversed the easternshores of the gulf for many weary leagues toAbo in Finland where he embarked for theAland Islands and reached Stockholm the latter part of October Here notwithstanding allhis endeavors to preserve his incognito his curiosity to witness a grand court ball given inhonor of the birth day of King Gustavus IIled to his recognition by the French envoy atthat court though he had adopted the precauF

82 Louis PHILIPPE 1795Despotism of the Directorytion of entering the highest gallery in the ballroomThe king being informed of his presenceimmediately dispatched a messenger to saythat his majesty would be happy to see theduke The kindest attentions were lavishedupon him From such attentions he deemedit prudent to escape and speedily resumed hiswanderings searching out and carefully examining all objects of historical interest Recrossing the Sound he returned to Hamburgby the way of Copenhagen and Eubeck TheRevolution was still running riot in FranceThe duke having exhausted the resources athis disposal found himself in truly an embarrassing situationThe Directory was at that time ruling Francewith despotic sway Ever trembling in fearof a reaction the Directors would gladly placebeneath the slide of the guillotine any one inwhose veins there ran a drop of royal bloodFearful of the great influence of the house ofOrleans even when its property was sequestered and its members were in prison or inexile the greatest efforts had been made bymeans of secret agents to find out the retreatof Louis Philippe At length by some means

1795 WANDERINGS 83The duke urged to join the emigrantsthey discovered him in the small town of Frederichstadt in Holstein His two brothers werethen in prison in Marseilles in hourly dangerof being dragged to the guillotine upon whichtheir father had perishedThe Directory proposed to the Duchess ofOrleans who was imprisoned in Paris and toLouis Philippe now the head of the familythat if the duke and his brothers would embarkfor America leaving Europe the two imprisoned princes should be restored to liberty andthe sequestrated property of the family shouldbe refundedLouis XVIII also an emigrant in the bosom of the armies of Austria and surroundedby the armed nobility of France had previously through an envoy urged Louis Philippeto join the emigrants in their attempt by theaid of the sword of foreigners to re establishthe throne of France But the prince was notwilling to bear arms against his native landThe agents of the Directory who now approached the prince presented him a letterfrom his mother Her husband had suffered acruel death from the executioner Her twosons were in hourly peril of the same fateHer eldest son and her daughter were in exile

84 Louis PHILIPPE 1795Letter from the duchess to her sonwandering in poverty she knew not whereShe herself was a captive cruelly separatedfrom all her family exposed to many insultsand liable at any hour to suffer upon the scaffold the same fate which her queen Maria Antoinette and many others of the noblest ladiesof France had already enduredThe affectionate heart of this amiable woman was lacerated with anguish She wrote aletter to her son which was intrusted to theagents in search of him imploring him in themost affecting terms to rescue the family by avoluntary exile to America from its dreadfulwoes and perils In the letter she wroteMay the prospect of relieving the misfortunes of your distressed mother of mitigatingthe sorrows of your family and of contributingto restore peace to your unhappy country reward your generosityThe duke upon the reception of this letterdecided at once to embark for America Tohis mother he wrote 1When my belovedmother shall have received this letter her commands will have been executed and I shallhave sailed for America I shall embark inthe first vessel destined for the United StatesI no longer think that happiness is lost to me

1796 WANDERINGS 85Embarkation for Americawhile I have it in my power to alleviate thesorrows of a cherished mother whose situationand sufferings have for a long time rent myheartOn the 24th of September 1796 the Dukeof Orleans embarked at Hamburg in an American vessel The America then a regularpacket plying between that port and Philadelphia Still retaining his incognito he represented himself as a Dane and obtained Danishpassports He paid thirty five guineas for hispassage and took with him his ever faithfulservant Baudoin for whom he paid seventeenand a half guineas A favorable passage oftwenty seven days landed them at Philadelphia on the 21st of October 1796We have not space here to describe thecruel sufferings of the two younger brothers ofLouis Philippe during their captivity Theelder of the two the Duke of Montpensier wasbut seventeen years of age the younger CountBeaujolais was but thirteen The brotherswere confined separately in dark fetid dungeons and were not allowed any communication with each other The health of Beaujolais soon began to suffer and it was evidentA Laugier et Carpentier p 132

86 LouIs PHILIPPE 1796Sufferings of the young princesthat he must die unless he could have freshair The Duke of Montpensier writes in histouching autobiographyMy brother Beaujolais was consequentlypermitted to spend two or three hours eachday in the open air and was then remandedto his dungeon His cell being above mine hewas obliged to pass my door on his way outand he never failed to call out Good dayMontpensier how are you It is impossibleto describe the effect his gentle voice had uponme or the distress I felt when a day passedwithout my hearing it for he was sometimesactually forbidden to utter these words andwas always hurried by so quickly that he hadscarce time to hear my answer Once however that he was permitted to remain until mydinner was brought he kept so close to theheels of the basket bearer that in spite of theadministrators who tried to hold him back hedarted into my cell and embraced me It wassix weeks since I had seen him six wretchedweeks The moment was precious but howshort He was torn from me forthwith withthreats of being no more allowed to go outshould the same scene be repeated I myselfwas not afterwards permitted when my cell

1796 WANDERINGS 87Their destitutiondoor was opened to go near enough to catchthe breeze which passed up the narrow staircaseThe princes were not allowed to see thepublic journals or to receive from their friendsany letters which had not been previously examined by their jailers They were left in entire ignorance of their father s execution untilsome time after his head had fallen When theawful tidings were conveyed to them both ofthe young princes weakened by imprisonmentand misery fainted away The hatred withwhich they were pursued is evinced by theepithet of wolves cubs which was ever appliedto them in the clubs of the Jacobins Eightfrancs a day were allowed for their supportTheir mother had sent to them for their immediate necessities twelve thousand francs2400 but the magistrates had seized thewhole sum As the weary months rolled onthere were variations in the treatment of theillustrious prisoners it sometimes being moreand sometimes less brutal but ever markedwith almost savage ferocity After the fall ofRobespierre a decree was passedThat the imprisoned members of the Orleans family should have the outer walls of the

88 Louis PHILIPPE 1796The attempt to escapefort as the limits of their captivity the privilegeof ranging about within those bounds and infuture they were not to be locked up in theircellsThe mother of the princes the Duchess ofOrleans who had been in close surveillance inthe palace of the Luxembourg in Paris alsoexperienced very considerable alleviation in theseverity of her treatment From various quarters the captives at length obtained funds sothat their pecuniary wants were supplied Onthe 18th of November 1795 the princes madea desperate but unavailing effort to escapeThe breaking of a rope by which Montpensierwas endeavoring to let himself down outsideof the walls precipitated him from a greatheight to the ground very seriously breakingone of his legs He was recaptured and suffered terribly from mental and bodily anguishHis brother Beaujolais having effected hisescape learning of the misfortune which hadbefallen his brother returned with true brotherly love to voluntary captivity that he mightdo something to cheer the suffererUpon the return of Beaujolais the commandant of the prison said exultingly to theDuke of Montpensier who was writhing upon

1796 WANDERINGS 89Strong affection for each othera bed of bodily suffering and of mental anguishYour young brother is again my prisonerin the fortress and burns with anxiety to seeyou You are henceforth to be confined separately and will no longer have an opportunityto communicate with each otherThe two brothers were allowed one short inoterview Ah brother said Beaujolais Ifear we shall derive no benefit from what Ihave done for we are to be confined separately But without you it was impossible for meto enjoy libertyFor forty days Montpensier was confined tohis bed It was a year and a half before heentirely recovered the use of his broken limbThus three years of almost unmitigated wretchedness passed away There were many massacres in the prison and often it seemed thatmiraculous interposition alone had saved themfrom a bloody death Gradually the horrorsof the Reign of Terror seemed to subside Thecaptive princes were allowed to occupy a roomtogether and that a comfortably furnishedapartment in the fort overlooking the sea Itwas under these circumstances that the motherconsented to their banishment to America as

90 Louis PHILIPPE 1796The release of the captivesthe condition of their liberation The Directory however would not open their prison doorsuntil it had received official intelligence of theembarkation of Louis PhilippeImmediately upon being satisfied that theDuke of Orleans had sailed from Hamburgthe authorities prepared to release the princesfrom their captivity and to send them also tothe New World When all things were readyGeneral Willot a humane man who had arrived at Marseilles with extensive powers informed them that the hour for their release hadcomeThe prisoners at first could scarcely credittheir senses They looked steadfastly at eachother then throwing themselves into eachother s arms they began to cry laugh leapabout the room and for several minutes continued to manifest a temporary derangementIt would still be a few days before the vessel would sail Jacobinical fury was such inMarseilles that it was not safe for the princesto appear in public lest they should be torn inpieces by the mob They were therefore removed to the house of the American consulMr Cathalan who had manifested almost abrotherly interest in their welfare

1796 WANDERINGS 91The contrastIt is impossible to describe writes theDuke Montpensier in his autobiography thesensations I experienced in crossing the drawbridge and contrasting the present momentwith the frightful occasions on which I hadpassed it before the first time on my entranceinto that dismal fortress where I had been immured for nearly three years of my life andthe second on my unfortunate attempt to escape from it and recover my liberty Thegratifying reflection that I now trod on it forthe last time could with difficulty impress itself upon my mind and I could not avoid fancying that the whole was a sleeping vision theillusion of which I was every moment apprehensive of seeing dissipated On our exitfrom the fort we were received by a strong detachment of grenadiers who conducted us tothe sloopBeing thus placed under the protection ofthe stars and stripes the soldiers of the Directory left them and they repaired immediately from the vessel to the house of the American consul where several friends had assembled to greet themHere continues M Montpensier in hisjournal we passed very agreeably the few

92 Louis PHILIPPE 1796Blending of joy and anxietydays that remained before the departure ofthe vessel for America We were indeed truebirds of the night only venturing out afterdusk but our days passed happily enoughStill we were too near that abode of misery thefort which we never ceased to think of withoutanguish And so apprehensive were we of asudden change in the sentiments of the existing Government or an actual revolution in theGovernment itself that our anxiety to departwas almost insupportable At last we were informed that the vessel would sail the followingday The effect of this joyous news was thetotal loss of our rest during the night Seveno clock in the morning of the 5th of November 1796 found us awake and in transports ofdelight at being permitted to take wings andfly to some land of toleration and liberty sinceour own had ceased to be suchThe citizens of Marseilles being informedof our intended departure assembled in crowdsto see us embark The ramparts of the fortwere lined the windows filled Almost allcongratulated us upon the recovery of our liberty Some envied us our lot while a fewundoubtedly wished that the sea might ingulfus where its depth was greatest and rid France

1797 WANDERINGS 93The long and stormy voyageof two members of the proscribed and hatedrace The anchor was raised and the sailswere set A favorable breeze springing upwe soon lost sight of that country in which wehad been victims of a persecution so relentlessbut for whose prosperity and happiness wenever ceased to offer up our prayers to heavenThe voyage was long and stormy It wasnot until after the expiration of ninety twodays that the vessel the Jupiter reachedPhiladelphia in February 1797 Here withinexpressible emotions of joy they found theirbrother awaiting their arrival They took uptheir residence in a humble house in WalnutStreet between Fourth and Fifth streets adjoining the church from which they soon removed to a house which they rented from theSpanish consul in Sixth StreetPhiladelphia was then the seat of the Federal Government The incognito of the princeswas removed and they were received withmarked respect and attentions They werepresent when Washington delivered his Farewell Address to Congress and also witnessedthe inauguration of President Adams Thefunds of the princes though not large enabledthem to meet their frugal expenses In the

94 Louis PHILIPPE 1797Visit to Mount Vernonearly summer the three princes accompaniedby the faithful servant Baudoin who had accompanied Louis Philippe in all his wanderings set out on horseback to visit Baltimoreand other Southern cities The present Cityof Washington did not then exist Theyhowever visited Georgetown where they werehospitably entertained by Mr LawPassing through Alexandria they took theroad to Mount Vernon where they had been invited to pass a few days with perhaps the mostillustrious man of modern ages Washingtonwith whom they had become acquainted inPhiladelphia and who had invited them to hishouse received them with the greatest kindness The modest gentlemanly heroic character of these remarkable young men deeply impressed him He furnished them with lettersof introduction and drew up an itinerary oftheir journey south and west directing theirattention to especial objects of interestIn those early days and through that wildalmost uncultivated country travelling wasattended with not a little difficulty and withsome danger Mounted on horseback with alltheir baggage in saddle bags the princes tookleave of their honored host and rode by the

1797 WANDERINGS 95The republican landlordway of Leesburg and Harper s Ferry to Winchester where they were entertained in the celebrated inn of Mr Bush An American hasin the following terms described the characterand appearance of this celebrated landlordI have him in my mind s eye as he was thenportly ruddy though advanced in life with alarge broad brimmed hat and with his fullclothes of the olden time looking the verypatriarch of his establishment He had twohouses one for his family and the other forhis guests and there was no resting place inall that rich valley more frequented by travellers than his It was a model of neatness andcomfort and the excellent man who built it upand who continued it more from the desire ofemployment than from the love of gain seemedto consider the relations subsisting between thetraveller and himself as a favor to the formerrather than to the latterMr Bush had been in Manheim which Louis Philippe had recently visited and he couldspeak German This created quite an intimacybetween guest and host and led to a long conversation The journey had been rough theexposure great and the youngest brother unaccustomed to such fatigue was greatly ex

96 Louis PHILIPPE 1797Driven from the innhausted The Duke of Orleans who watchedover his brother with parental tenderness outof regard to his prostration asked the privilege so common in Europe of having theirdinner served to them in their own room Thepride of the republican inn keeper was touchedSuch a request writes G N Wright hadnever been heard in the fair and fertile vale ofShenandoah or at all events within the limitsof Bush s Winchester Hotel It infringed hisrules it wounded his professional pride itassailed his very honor The recollection ofManheim and the pleasant days he had passedIhere the agreeable opportunity of living overthose hours again in the conversation of theDuke of Orleans the gentle conduct of thethree young strangers were all in a momentof extravagant folly passion and intractableness forgotten flung to the winds when witha scornful air he addressed Louis Philippe1 Since you are too good to eat at the sametable with my guests you are too good to eat inmy house I desire therefore that you leaveit instantly 5In vain did the Duke of Orleans endeavor toLife and Times of Louis Philippe by Rev G N Wright1 21

1797 WANDERINGS 97Journeying in the wildernessexplain and convince his irate host that heintended no disrespect The weary travellerswere compelled immediately to leave and toseek hospitality elsewhere Continuing theirjourney through a variety of adventures someamusing and some painful they passed throughStaunton Abington and Knoxville and reached Nashville in Tennessee After a short tarryhere they continued their ride through Louisville Lexington Maysville Chilicothe Lancaster Zanesville Wheeling to Pittsburg in Pennsylvania Their accommodations in these vastwilds were often of the humblest kind Thethree brothers often slept on the floor wrappedin their cloaks in some wretched hut withtheir feet towards the blazing fire while theirlandlord and his wife occupied the only bed inthe only roomAt Pittsburg the travellers rested for severaldays From that place the princes directedtheir steps to Buffalo skirting for some distance the shores of Lake Erie At Cattaraugus they were the guests for one night of theSeneca Indians They felt some anxiety inreference to their baggage the loss of which inthose distant regions would have been a serious calamity The chief perceiving their soG

98 Louis PHILIPPE 1797Indian hospitalitylicitude said that he would be personally responsible for every article which might be committed to his care but for nothing else Aftera little reflection the duke placed in his handssaddles bridles blankets clothes and moneyevery thing except a beautiful dog which hedid not think of including in the inventoryAll were restored in the morning exceptingthat the dog was missing If the dog saidthe chief had been intrusted to my care itwould have been waiting your departureWith some difficulty the favorite animal wasreclaimedAt Buffalo the travellers crossed the head ofthe Niagara River and passing down the Canadian shore visited the world renowned fallsOn their way they passed a night in the hutsof the Chippewa Indians The following extracts written by the Duke of Montpensier tohis sister throw much light upon the characterof these excellent young men It was datedAugust 14 1797I hope you have received the letters whichwe wrote to you from Pittsburg about twomonths ago We were then in the midst of along journey which we have terminated onlyfifteen days since It occupied us four months

1797 WANDERINGS 99Letter from the Duke of MontpensierWe journeyed during all that time a thousandleagues and always upon the same horses except the last hundred leagues which we performed partly by water partly on foot partlyon hired horses and partly by stage or thepublic conveyanceWe have seen many Indians and we remained even many days in their country Theyare in general the best people in the worldexcept when they are intoxicated or inflamedby passion They received us with great kindness and our being Frenchmen contributednot a little to this reception for they are veryfond of our nation The most interesting object we visited after the Indian villages wascertainly the Cataract of Niagara which Iwrote you word from Pittsburg that we weregoing to see It is the most astonishing andmajestic spectacle I have ever witnessed Ihave made a sketch of it from which I intendto make a water color drawing which our dearlittle sister shall certainly see at our belovedmother s homeTo give you an idea of the agreeable manner in which they travel in this country I musttell you dear sister that we passed fourteennights in the woods devoured by all kinds of0Y

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