Front Cover
 Title Page
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Birth and Childhood
 The Boy-King
 Matrimonial Projects
 The Marriage of the King
 Festivities of the Court
 Death In The Palace
 The War In Holland
 Madame De Maintenon
 The Revocation of the Edict of...
 The Secret Marriage
 Intrigures and Wars
 The Last Days of Louis XIV
 Back Cover

Title: History of Louis XIV
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026047/00001
 Material Information
Title: History of Louis XIV
Physical Description: viii, 410, 6 p., 2 leaves of plates : ill., port. (some col.) ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Abbott, John S. C ( John Stevens Cabot ), 1805-1877
Harper & Brothers ( Publisher )
T. Sinclair's Lith ( Lithographer )
Publisher: Harper & Brothers
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1871, c1870
Copyright Date: 1870
Subject: Kings and rulers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Cardinals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Catholicism -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Marriage -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Warfare -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Politics, Practical -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1871   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1871
Genre: Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
individual biography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by John S.C. Abbott ; with illustrations.
General Note: Added t.p., illustrated in colors; lithographed by T. Sinclairs Lith. after A. Bigot.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026047
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002220821
notis - ALG1031
oclc - 25642938

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Title Page
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Title Page
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Table of Contents
        Page 10
        Page 11
    List of Illustrations
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Birth and Childhood
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    The Boy-King
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
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        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Matrimonial Projects
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
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        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    The Marriage of the King
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
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        Page 151
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        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    Festivities of the Court
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
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        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
    Death In The Palace
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
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        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
    The War In Holland
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
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        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
    Madame De Maintenon
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
    The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
    The Secret Marriage
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
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        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
    Intrigures and Wars
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
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        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
    The Last Days of Louis XIV
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
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        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
    Back Cover
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
Full Text
This page contains no text.

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, byHARPER & BROTHERS,In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

PREFACE.WE all live a double life: the external lifewhich the world sees, and the internal life ofhopes and fears, joys and griefs, temptationsand sins, which the world sees not, and ofwhich it knows but little. None lead. thisdouble life more emphatically than those whoare seated upon thrones.Though this historic sketch contains allu-sions to all the most important events in thereign of Louis XIV., it has been the main ob-ject of the writer to develop the inner life ofthe palace; to lead the reader into the interiorof the Louvre, the Tuileries, Versailles, andMarly, and to exhibit the monarch as a man,in the details of domestic privacy.This can more easily be done in referenceto Louis XIV. than any other king. Verymany of the prominent members of his house-hold left their autobiographies, filled with theminutest incidents of every-day life.It is impossible to give any correct idea ofthe life of this proud monarch without allusion

viii PREFACE.to the corruption in the midst of which hespent his days. Still, the writer, while faithfulto fact, has endeavored so to describe thesescenes that any father can safely read the nar-rative aloud to his family.There are few chapters in history more re-plete with horrors than that which records the" Revocation of the Edict of Nantes." Thefacts given are beyond all possibility of con-tradiction. In the contemplation of thesescenes the mind pauses, bewildered by the re-flection forced upon it, that many of the actorsin these fiend-like outrages were inspired bymotives akin to sincerity and conscientious-ness.The thoughtful reader will perceive that inthis long and wicked reign Louis XIV. wassowing the wind from which his descendantsreaped the whirlwind. It was the despotismof Louis XIV. and of Louis XV. which usheredin that most sublime of all earthly dramas, theFrench Revolution.JoHN S. C. ABBOTT.New Haven, Conn., 1870.

CONTENTS.Chapter PageI. BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD .,_. _.._--------- 13II. THE BOY-KING .--------.-------------.. 49III. MATRIMONIAL PROJECTS ------------------ 86IV. THE MARRIAGE OF THE KING ------------- 121V. FESTIVITIES OF THE COURT ..----------- 159VI. DEATH IN THE PALACE ..--.---.---._-- 194VII. THE WAR IN HOLLAND. ...--.-------- ---. 234VIII. MADAME DE MAINTENON .-------.---.---. 268IX. THE REVOCATION OF THE EDICT OF NANTES 302X. THE SECRET MARRIAGE ...--.------------ 330XI. INTRIGUES AND WARS ------------------- 359XII. LAST DAYS OF LOUIS XIV. ,-.---.--------. 384


ENGRAVINGS.PageLOUIS XIV. -----.--------------------- Frontispiece.THE CASTLE OF BLOIS ------------------------ 18PALACE OF ST. GERMAIN-EN-LAYE --.------------ 23THE PALAIS ROYAL .---. ---------------------- 31PALACE OF THE LUXEMBOURG---- ----------- 52THE TUILERIES .----------------------------- 74THE CASTLE OF VINCENNES --------------- --- 79PALACE OF CHANTILLY .-.....--.-.---.._ ------98VIEW OF FONTAINEBLEAU ------------------- --103ISLE OF PHEASANTS --.------------------------129THE LQUVRE AND THE TUILERIES ..------------ 139PALACE OF FONTAINEBLEAU .------------------ 145CHATEAU MAZARIN .--...-------------------. 157CHATEAU DE VAUX ..---..-------------.------- 176CONVENT OF VAL DE GRACE ------------------198THE PALACE OF ST. CLOUD -----------------_ 201INTERIOR OF ST. DENIS ..--------.------------ -208ST. DENIS .. .--...----------- ---------------- 236PORTE ST. DENIS ,...---- -- ------------------ 254MADAME DE MAINTENON ---------------------- 273PALACE OF VERSAILLES .-------------------.. 297PARTERRE OF VERSAILLES .------------------- 324RACINE AND BOILEAU-------------------------- 339THE TRIANON ...------ ---------------------- 351MARLY ..--.-------------------------------- 354LOUIS XIV. DIRECTING THE SIEGE ------- ------- 362FRONT VIEW OF ST. GERMAIN ------------------ 376ANNOUNCEMEMT OF THE DEATH OF LOUIS XIV. __ 409

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LOUIS XIV.CHAPTER I.BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD.Marriage of Louis XIII.LTOUIS XIII. of France married Anne ofAustria on the 25th of November, 1615.The marriage ceremony was performed withgreat splendor in the Cathedral of Bordeaux.The bride was exceedingly beautiful, tall, andof exquisite proportions. She possessed thewhitest and most delicate hand that ever madean imperious gesture. Her eyes were ofmatchless beauty, easily dilated, and of extra-ordinary transparency. Her small and ruddymouth looked like an opening rose-bud. Longand silky hair, of a lovely shade of auburn,gave to the face it surrounded the sparklingcomplexion of a blonde, and the animation ofa brunette.*The marriage was not a happy one. Louis* Louis XIV. et son Siecle.

14 Louis XIV. [1615.Character of Louis XII.XIII. was not a man of any mental or physicalattractions. He was cruel, petulant, and jeal-ous. The king had a younger brother, Gaston,duke of Anjou. He was a young man of joy-ous spirits, social, frank, a universal favorite.His moody, taciturn brother did not love him.Anne did. She could not but enjoy his socie-ty. Wounded by the coldness and neglect ofher husband, it is said that she was not unwill-ing, by rather a free exhibition of the fascina-tions of her person and her mind, to win theadmiration of Gaston. She hoped thus to in-spire the king with a more just appreciation ofher merits.Louis XIII., at the time of his marriage,was a mere boy fourteen years of age. Hisfather had died when he was nine years old.He was left under the care of his mother, Maryde Medicis, as regent. Anne of Austria wasa maturely developed and precocious child ofeleven years when she gave her hand to theboy-king of France. Not much discretioncould have been expected of two such children,exposed to the idleness, the splendors, and thecorruption of a court.Anne was vain of her beauty, naturally co-quettish, and very romantic in her views of life.

1624.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 15Character of Anne of Austria. Cardinal Richelieu.It is said that the queen dowager, wishing toprevent Anne from gaining much influenceover the mind of the king, did all she could tolure her into flirtations and gallantries, whichalienated her from her husband. For thispurpose she placed near her person MadameChevreuse, an intriguing woman, alike renown-ed for wit, beauty, and unscrupulousness.Quite a desperate flirtation arose betweenAnne and little Gaston, who was but nine yearsof age. Gaston, whom the folly of the timesentitled Duke of Anjou, hated Louis, and de-lighted to excite his jealousy and anger by hisopen and secret manifestation of love for thebeautiful Anne. The king's health failed.He became increasingly languid, morose, ema-ciate. Anne, young as she was, was physicallya fully developed woman of voluptuous beauty.The undisguised alienation which existed be-tween her and the king encouraged othercourtiers of eminent rank to court her smiles.Cardinal Richelieu, notwithstanding his ec-clesiastical vows, became not only the admirer,but the lover of the queen, addressing her inthe most impassioned words of endearment.Thus years of intrigue and domestic wretched-ness passed away until 1624. The queen had

16 Louis XIV. [1628.The Duke of Buckingham. His death.then been married nine years, and was twentyyears of age. She had no children.The reckless, hot-headed George Villiers,duke of Buckingham, visited the French courtto arrange terms of marriage between Henriet-ta Maria, sister of Louis XIII., and the Princeof Wales, son of James I. of England. Hewas what is called a splendid man, of noblebearing, and of chivalric devotion to the fair.The duke, boundlessly rich, displayed greatmagnificence in Paris. He danced with thequeen, fascinated her by his openly avowedadmiration, and won such smiles in return asto induce the king and Cardinal Richelieu al-most to gnash their teeth with rage.This flirtation, if we may not express it bya more emphatic phrase, created much heart-burning and wretchedness, criminations andrecriminations, in the regal palace. In Au-gust, 1628, the Duke of Buckingham, then inEngland, terminated his wretched and guiltylife. He fell beneath the dagger of an assas-sin. Anne, disdaining all dissimulation, weptopenly, and, secluding herself from the gaye-ties of the court, surrendered herself to grief.A mutual spirit of defiance existed betweenthe king and queen. Both were wretched.

1637.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 17Estrangement of the king and queen.Such are always the wages of sin. Ten morejoyless years passed away. The rupture be-tween the royal pair was such that they couldscarcely endure each other. Louis himselfwas the first to inform the queen of the newsso satisfactory to him, so heart-rending to her,that a dagger had pierced the heart of Buck-ingham. After this they met only at unfre-quent intervals. All confidence and sympathywere at an end. It was a bitter disappointmentto the queen that she had no children. Uponthe death of the king, who was in very feeblehealth, her own position and influence woulddepend almost entirely upon her having a sonto whom the crown would descend. Louis re-sided generally at the Castle of Blois. Anneheld her court at the Louvre.A married life of twenty-two years had pass-ed away, and still the queen had no child.Both she and her husband had relinquished allhope of offspring. On the evening of the. 5thof December, 1637, the king, having made avisit to the Convent of the Visitation, beingovertaken by a storm, drove to the Louvre in-stead of Blois. HEe immediately proceeded tothe apartments of the queen. Anne was as-tonished, and did not disguise her astonishmentB

18 Louis XIV. [1637.Joy of the nation.Tr____----=--THE OASTLE OF BLOIS.at seeing him. He, however, remained untilthe morrow.Soon after this, to the inexpressible joy ofthe queen, it appeared that she was to becomea mother. The public announcement of thefact created surprise and joy throughout thenation. The king was equally astonished anddelighted. He immediately hastened to theLouvre to offer the queen his congratulations.The queen repaired to St. Germain-en-Laye,about six miles from Versailles, to await the

1638.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 19Birth of Louis XIV.birth of her child. Here she occupied, in theroyal palace, the gorgeous apartments in whichHenry IV. had formerly dwelt. The kinghimself also took up his abode in the palace.The excitement was so great that St. Germainwas crowded with the nobility, who had flock-ed to the place in anxious expectancy of thegreat event. Others, who could not be accom-modated at St. Germain, stationed couriers onthe road to obtain the earliest intelligence ofthe result.On the 5th of September, 1638, the kingwas greeted with the joyful tidings of the birthof a son. A vast crowd had assembled in frontof the palace. The king, in the exuberance ofhis delight, took the child from the nurse, and,stepping out upon a balcony, exhibited him tothe crowd, exclaiming, "A son! gentlemen, ason !"The announcement was received with a uni-versal shout of joy. The happy father thentook the babe into an adjoining apartment,where the bishops were assembled to performthe ordinance of baptism. These dignitariesof the Church had been kneeling around atemporary altar praying for the queen. TheBishop of Meaux performed the ceremony. A

20 Louis XIV. [1638.Gift of the Pope.Te Deum was then chanted in the chapel ofthe castle. Immediately after this, the kingwrote an autograph letter to the corporationof Paris, announcing the joyful tidings. Acourier was dispatched with the document athis highest possible speed.The enthusiasm excited in the capital sur-passed any thing which had ever before beenwitnessed. The common people, the nobles,the ecclesiastics, and the foreign embassadors,vied with each other in their demonstrationsof joy. A few months after, in July, an extra-ordinary messenger arrived from the pope, toconvey to the august mother and her child theblessing of the holy father. He also present-ed the queen, for her babe, swaddling-clotheswhich had been blessed by his holiness. Thesegarments were exceedingly rich with gold andsilver embroidery. They were inclosed in acouple of chests of red velvet, and elicited theadmiration of the royal pair.The France of that day was very differentfrom that magnificent empire which now standsin intellectual culture, arts, and arms, promi-nent among the nations of the globe. Thecountry was split up into hostile factions, overwhich haughty nobles ruled. The roads in the

1640.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 21Condition of Paris. Reconciliation of the king and queen.rural districts were almost impassable. Parisitself was a small and dirty city, with scarcelyany police regulations, and infested with rob-bers. There were no lamps to light the cityby night. The streets were narrow, ill paved,and choked with mud and refuse. Immedi-ately after nightfall these dark and crookedthoroughfares were thronged with robbers andassassins, whose depredations were of the mostaudacious kind.Socially, morally, and intellectually, Francewas at the lowest ebb. The masses of the peo-ple were in a degraded condition of squalidpoverty and debasement. Still the king, byenormous taxation, succeeded in wresting fromhis wretched subjects an income to meet theexpenses of his court, amounting to about fourmillions of our money. But the outlays wereso enormous that even this income was quiteunavailing, and innumerable measures of ex-tortion were adopted to meet the deficit.The king was so much gratified by the birthof a dauphin that for a time he became quitereconciled to his beautiful and haughty queen.Two years after the birth of the dauphin, onthe 21st of September, 1640, Anne gave birthto a second son, who took the title of Philip,

22 Louis XIV. [1640.Orders of Louis XIII. respecting the dauphin.duke of Anjou. The queen and her two chil-dren resided in the beautiful palace of SaintGermain-en-Laye, where the princes were born.A company of French Guards, commandedby Captain Montigni, protected the castle.Madame de Lausac was the governess of thetwo children. The title by which the king'sbrother was usually designated was simplyMonsieur. But for these children of the king,the crown, upon the death of the monarch,would descend immediately to Monsieur, theking's brother. The morals of the times weresuch that the king was ever apprehensive thatsome harm might come to the children throughthe intrigues of his brother. Monsieur livedin Paris. The king left orders with Madamede Lausac that, should his brother visit thequeen, the officers of the household should im-mediately surround the dauphin for his protec-tion, and that Monsieur should not be permit-ted to enter the palace should he be accompa-nied by more than three persons.To Montigni, the captain of the guard, theking gave half of a gold coin, of which he re-tained the other half. Montigni was com-manded to watch over the persons of the princeswith the utmost vigilance. Should he receiveo



1643.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 25Ill health of Louis XIII.an order to remove them, or to transfer themto other hands, he was enjoined not to obeythat order, even should it be in the handwrit-ing of his majesty himself, unless he at thesame time received the other half of the brokencoin.The king, as we have mentioned, had beenfor some time in feeble health. Early in thespring of 1643 he became seriously ill. Thesymptoms were so alarming as to lead theking, as well as his friends, to think that deathcould not be far distant. There are few menso hardened as to be able to contemplate with-out some degree of anxiety death and the finaljudgment. The king was alarmed. He be-took himself to prayer and to the scrupulousdischarge of his religious duties.In preparation for the great change, he re-paired to Saint Germain to invest the queenwith the regency when he should die. Hisbrother, Monsieur, who had taken the title ofthe Duke of Orleans, and all the leading noblesof the court, were present. The king, pale,emaciate, and with death staring him in theface, was bolstered in his bed. Anne of Aus-tria stood weeping by his side. She did notlove her husband-she did love power; but

26 Louis XIV. [1643.The dauphin declared King Louis XIV.the scene was so solemn and so affecting as toforce tears into all eyes. The dauphin wasthen four and a half years old. He was de-clared king, with the title of Louis XIV., un-der the regency of his mother until he shouldattain his majority.The next day, April 21st, the christening ofthe dauphin with his new title took place withgreat state in the chapel of the palace. Afterthe celebration of the rite, the dauphin wascarried into the chamber of his dying father,and seated upon the bed by his side. Thepoor king, dying in the prime of life, was op-pressed with the profoundest melancholy.There was nothing in the memory of the pastto give him pleasure; nothing in the future toinspire him with well-grounded hope. Turn-ing to the little prince, who had just been chris-tened with the royal title, he inquired,"What is your name, my child ?"" Louis XIV.," the dauphin promptly replied."Not yet," said the king, sadly, shaking hishead; "but pray God that it may soon be so."A few more days of sickness and sufferingpassed away, during which it was almost hour-ly expected that the king would die. Deathoften comes to the palace invested with terrors

1643.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 2Last hours of Louis XIII.unknown in the cottage. Beneath his sceptreall gradations and conditions of rank disap-pear. The sufferings of the king were suchthat he longed for release.On the 13th of May, as the shades of even-ing were gathering around his dying bed, heanxiously inquired of his physicians if it werepossible that he could live until morning.They consulted together, and then informedhim that they did not think it possible."God be praised !" the king replied. " Ithink it is now time that I should take leaveof all whom I love."The royal household was immediately as-sembled around the couch of the dying mon-arch. He had sufficient strength to throw hisarms around the neck of the queen, and to pressher tenderly to his heart. In such an hourpast differences are forgotten. In low andbroken tones of voice, the king addressed thequeen in a few parting words of endearment.The dauphin was then placed in his arms.Silently, but with tearful eyes, he pressed histhin and parched lips to both cheeks and to thebrow of the child, who was too young to com-prehend the solemn import of the scene.His brother, Monsieur, the duke of Orleans,

28 Louis XIV. [1643.Death of Louis XIII.the king had never loved. In these later yearshe had regarded him with implacable hostility.But, subdued by the influences of death, hebade that brother an eternal adieu, with evenfond caresses. Indeed, he had become so farreconciled to Monsieur that he had appointedhim lieutenant general of the kingdom, underthe regency of Anne of Austria, during the mi-nority of the dauphin.Several of the higher ecclesiastics were pres-ent, who had assisted in preparing him to die.He affectionately embraced them all, and thenrequested the Bishop of Meaux to read theservice for the dying. While it was beingread he sank into a lethargy, and never spokeagain. He died in the forty-second year ofhis age, after a reign of thirty-three years, hav-ing ascended the throne when but nine yearsold.Immediately after the death of the king,Anne of Austria held a private interview withMonsieur, in which they agreed to co-operatein the maintenance of each other's authority.The Parliament promptly recognized the queenas regent, and the Duke of Orleans as lieutenantgeneral, during the minority of the dauphin.The Duke de Grammont, one of the highest

1643.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 29Louis XIV. recognized king.nobles of France, and a distinguished memberof the court of Louis XIII., had a son, theCount de Guiche, a few months older than thedauphin. This child was educated as the play-fellow and the companion in study of theyoung king. One of the first acts of Anne ofAustria was to assemble the leading bodies ofthe realm to take the oath of allegiance to herson. The little fellow, four and a half yearsold, arrayed in imperial robes, was seated uponthe throne. The Count de Guiche, a very se-date, thoughtful, precocious child, was placedupon the steps, that his undoubted propriety ofbehavior might be a pattern to the infant king.Both of the children behaved remarkably well.Soon after this, at the close of the year 1643,the queen, with her household, who had residedduring the summer in the palace of the Louvre,took up her residence in what was then calledthe Cardinal Palace. This magnificent build-ing, which had been reared at an enormous ex-pense, had been bequeathed by the CardinalRichelieu to the young king. But it was sug-gested that it was not decorous that the kingshould inhabit a mansion which bore the nameof the residence of a subject. Therefore theinscription of Cardinal Palace was effaced

30 Louis XIV. [1643.Palais Royal. Apartments of the queen regent.from above the doorway, and that of PalaisRoyal placed in its stead. The palace hadcost the cardinal a sum nearly equal to a mil-lion of dollars. This ungrateful disregard ofthe memory of the cardinal greatly displeasedhis surviving friends, and called forth earnestremonstrance. But all expostulations were invain. From that day to this the renownedmansion has been known only as the "PalaisRoyal." The opposite engraving shows thepalace as left by the cardinal. Since his daythe building has been greatly enlarged by ex-tending the wings for shops around the wholeinclosure of the garden.Louis XIV. was at this time five years old.The apartments which had been occupied byRichelieu were assigned to the dauphin. Hismother, the queen regent, selected for herselfrooms far more spacious and elegant. Thoughthey were furnished and embellished with ap-parently every appliance of luxury, Anne, fondof power and display, expended enormous sumsin adapting them to her taste. The cabinet ofthe regent, in the gorgeousness of its adorn-ments, was considered the wonder of Paris.Cardinal Mazarin had also a suite of roomsassigned him in the palace which looked out

--- --.--------. --- ---" TH-- AIS .OYAL -oil.THE PALAIS BOYAL.

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1643.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 33Educational arrangements for Louis XIV.upon the Rue des bons Enfans. These house-holds were quite distinct, and they were allsurrounded with much of the pageantry ofroyalty. The superintendence of the educa-tion of the young prince was intrusted to thecardinal. He had also his governor, his sub-governor, his preceptor, and his valet de cham-bre, each of whom must have occupied posts ofhonor rather than of responsibility. The Mar-chioness de Senecey, and other ladies of highrank, were intrusted with the special care ofthe dauphin until he should attain the age ofseven years.Thus the court of the baby-king was quiteimposing. From his earliest years he was ac-customed to the profoundest homage, and wastrained to the most rigid rules of etiquette.The dauphin early developed a fondness formilitary exercises. Very eagerly he shoulder-ed the musket, brandished the sword, and beatthe drum. The temperament of his brotherPhilip, the duke of Anjou, was very different:he was remarkably gentle, quiet, and affection-ate. Gradually the baby-court of the dauphinwas increased by the addition of other lads.The young king was the central luminaryaround whom they all revolved. By them allSC

34 Louis XIV. [1643.Speech of Louis at five years old.the dauphin was regarded with a certain kindof awe, as if he were a being of a superior, al-most of a celestial race. These lads weretermed "children of honor." They alwaysaddressed the king, and were addressed in re-turn, with the formality of full-grown men.One day a little fellow named Lomenie de-lighted the king with a gift. The king wasamusing himself with a cross-bow, which forthe time-being happened to be in special favor.He loaned the bow for a few moments to Lo-menie. Soon, however, anxious to regain thevalued plaything, he held out his hand to takeit back. His governess, the Marchioness deSenecey, said to him, aside,"Sire, kings give what they lend."Louis, immediately approaching his compan-ion, said, calmly, " Monsieur de Lomenie, keepthe cross-bow. I wish that it were somethingof more importance; but, such as it is, I giveit to you with all my heart."This was a speech of a boy of five years oldto a companion of the same age. When thedauphin reached his seventh birthday, a greatchange took place in his household. All hisfemale attendants were withdrawn, and he wasplaced exclusively under the charge of men.

1643.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 35Dislikes the change of teachers. Interest in history.It is said that this change was at first the occa-sion of much grief to him. IHe had becomemuch attached to many of the ladies, who haddevoted themselves to the promotion of hishappiness. We are told that he was greatlychagrined to find that none of the gentlemenof his court could tell him any of those beau-tiful fairy tales with which the ladies had oftenlulled him to sleep. In conference with thequeen upon the subject, it was decided that M.Laporte, his first valet de chambre, should readto him every night a chapter of a very popularhistory of France. The dauphin soon becamegreatly interested in the narrative. He de-clared that he, when he grew up, would be aCharlemagne, a St. Louis, a Francis First, andexpressed great abhorrence of the tyrannicaland slothful kings.The pleasure which the little king took inthese historical readings daily increased. Car-dinal Mazarin accidentally found out what wasgoing on, and was greatly displeased. He wasanxious that the intellectual powers of the kingshould not be developed, for the cardinal de-sired to grasp the reins of government with hisown hands. To do this, it was necessary thatthe king should be kept ignorant, and shouldbe incited only to enervating indulgence.

36 Louis XIV. [1643.Mazarin's wicked policy. Henrietta, queen of Charles I.Scornfully the cardinal remarked, "I pre-sume the governor of the king must put on hisshoes and stockings, as I perceive his valet dechambre is teaching him history."The young king entertained an instinctiveaversion to the proud cardinal,.who assumedimperial airs, and who was living in splendorfar surpassing that of the regent or of the child-king. Those who surrounded the prince wereequally inimical to the cardinal-minister, who,in that age of superstition and fanaticism, hadattained such power that the regent herselfstood in awe of him.Henrietta, queen of England, wife of the un-fortunate Charles I., was a daughter of HenryIV., and sister of Louis XIII. She was con-sequently aunt to the dauphin. The troublesin England, which soon led to the beheadingof the king her husband, rendered it necessaryfor her to escape to France. Her brother,Monsieur, duke of Orleans, went to the coast toreceive his unhappy and-royal sister. As theyapproached Paris, the queen regent and her sonthe king rode out to meet them. Henriettatook a seat in the same carriage with theirmajesties, and returned with them to the Lou-vre. The pallid cheeks and saddened features

1646.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 37Figure and bearing of the king.of the English queen proclaimed so loudly thewoes with which she was stricken as to exertuniversal sympathy.The young king at seven years of age wastall, muscular, and excelled in all physical ex-ercises; but the villainous cardinal had en-deavored in every way to dwarf his intellect,so that his mind remained almost a blank.Both the young king and his brother at thisearly age had acquired a very remarkable de-gree of courtly grace. A chronicler of thetimes, speaking of the bearing of Louis at acour't wedding, says,"The king, with the gracefulness whichshines in all his actions, took the hand of theQueen of Poland, and conducted her to theplatform, where his majesty opened the dance,and was followed by nearly all the princes,princesses, great nobles, and ladies of the court.At its termination, the king, with the samegrace and majestic deportment, conducted theyoung queen to her place. The king thendanced a second time, and led out the Dukeof Anjou with such skill that every one wascharmed with the polite bearing of these twoyoung princes."Early in the year 1646, the king, not yet

38 Louis XIV. [1646.His first campaign. The cardinal's nieces.quite eight years old, was conducted upon whatwas singularly called his first campaign. Thequeen and her son repaired to Amiens, wherethey sojourned for a short time with the army,and established a very brilliant court. Whenthe army left Amiens for Flanders, the regentand her son returned from their campaign."The infant court of the monarch was nowestablished at Paris. The ambitious cardinalhad brought from Italy several little children,his relatives, the eldest of whom had attainedbut her twelfth year. They were immediatelyintroduced to the court of Louis XIV. Thewealth of the cardinal was such, and his influ-ence so great, that, young as these his nieceswere, they were instantly surrounded by ad-mirers. The Duke of Orleans, who hated thecardinal and all that belonged to him, bitterlyremarked,"There is such a throng about those littlegirls that I doubt if their lives are safe, andif they will not be suffocated."The boy-king, however, notwithstanding hisdislike for the cardinal, received the little girlswith that gallantry for which throughout lifehe was distinguished.Very early he began to develop quite a pos-

1646.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 39Anecdote. Feud between Mazarin and the Parliament.itive character. On one occasion the courtierswere speaking in his presence of the absolutepower exercised by the sultans of Turkey.Several very striking examples were given.The young prince, who had listened attentive-ly, remarked," That is as it should be; that is really reign-ing.""Yes, sire," pertinently replied Marshal d'Es-trees, " but two or three of those sultans have,within my memory, been strangled."The Prince de Conde inquired of Laporte,the first valet of the king, respecting the char-acter his young majesty was developing. Uponbeing told that he was conscientious and intel-ligent, he replied, " So much the better. Therewould be no pleasure in obeying a fool, andno honor in being commanded by a bad man."Cardinal Mazarin, the prime minister, wholooked with jealousy upon any development ofsuperior intelligence in the dauphin, said toMarshal de Grammont, " Ah! sir, you do notknow his majesty. There is enough stuff inhim to make four kings and an honest man."There had gradually sprung up a deadlyfeud between the court, headed by the tyran-nical minister Mazarin on the one side, and by

40 Louis XIV. [1648.Alarm of Mazarin.the Parliament on the other. The populaceof Paris were in sympathy with the Parlia-ment. Many of the prominent nobles, someeven of royal blood, detesting the haughtyprime minister, espoused the Parliamentarycause. There were riots in Paris. Affairslooked very threatening. Mazarin was alarm-ed, and decided to escape from Paris with thecourt to the palace of St. Germain. There hecould protect the court with an ample militaryforce. He thought, also, that he should be ableto cut off the supply of provisions from thecapital, and thus starve the city into subjection.It was necessary to move with much caution,as the people were greatly agitated, were fill-ing the streets with surging crowds, and wouldcertainly prevent the removal of the kingshould they suspect the design. The night ofthe 5th of January was selected as a time inwhich to attempt the escape. The matter waskept profoundly secret from most of the mem-bers of the royal household.At three o'clock in the morning a carriagewas drawn up in the gate of the royal garden.The queen regent, who, to avoid suspicion, hadretired to bed at the usual hour, had in themean time risen and was prepared for her

1648.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 41S. *iiiiii ii---^1-ia... --- ---Escape of the royal family from Paris. Flight of the court.flight. The young king and his brother wereawoke from their sleep, hurriedly dressed, andconveyed to the carriage in waiting. Thequeen regent, with several other prominentmembers of the court, descended the backstairs which led from the queen's apartmentand joined the children. Immediately one ortwo other carriages drove up, and the wholeparty entered them, and by different routes,through the dark and narrow streets, left thecity. It was a short ride of about twelvemiles.Other prominent members of the court, re-siding in different parts of the city, had beenapprised of the movement, so that at fiveo'clock in the morning twenty carriages, con-taining one hundred and fifty persons, droveinto the court-yard of the palace. One of theladies who accompanied the expedition, Mad-emoiselle Montpensier, gives the followinggraphic description of the scene:"When we arrived at St. Germain we wentstraight to the chapel to hear mass. All therest of the day was spent in questioning thosewho arrived as to what they were doing inParis. The drums were beating all over thecity, and the citizens had taken up arms. The

42 Louis XIV. [1648.Discomfort of the court at St. Germain.Countess de Fiesque sent me a coach, and amattress, and a little linen. As I was in sosorry a condition, I went to seek help at theChateau Neuf, where MVonsieur and .Madamewere lodged; but Madame had not her clothesany more than myself. Nothing could bemore laughable than this disorder. I lodgedin a large room, well painted and gilded, withbut little fire, which is not agreeable in themonth of January. My mattress was laidupon the floor, and my sister, who had no bed,slept with me. Judge if I were agreeably sit-uated for a person who had slept but little theprevious night, with sore throat and violentcold." Fortunately for me, the beds of Monsieurand Madame arrived. Monsieur had the kind-ness to give me the room which he vacated.As I was in the apartment of Monsieur, whereno one knew that I was lodged, I was awokeby a noise. I drew back my curtain, and wasmuch astonished to find my chamber quitefilled by men in large buff skin collars, who ap-peared surprised to see me, and who knew meas little as I knew them." Ihad no change of linen, and my day che-mise was washed during the night. I had no

1648.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 43Excitement in Paris.women to arrange my hair and dress me, whichis very inconvenient. I ate with Monsieur,who keeps a very bad table. Still I did notlose my gayety, and Monsieur was in admira-tion at my making no complaint. It is true Iam a creature who can make the best of everything, and am greatly above trifles. I remain-ed in this state ten days, at the end of whichtime my equipage arrived, and I was very gladto have all my comforts. I then went to lodgein the chateau Vieux, where the queen was re-siding.'"*At a very early hour in the morning thenews was circulated through the streets ofParis that the court had fled from the city,taking with it the young king. The excite-ment was terrible, creating universal shoutsand tumults. All who were in any way con-nected with the court attempted to escape invarious disguises to join the royal party. Thepopulace, on the other hand, closed the gates,and barricaded the streets, to prevent their"* There were at that time two palaces at St. Germain.The old palace, originally built by Charles V., and in the al-teration of which Louis XIV. spent over a million of dollars,still remains. The new palace, constructed by Henry IV.about a quarter of a mile from the other, is now in ruins.

44 Louis XIV. [1648.Issue of a parliamentary decree.flight. In the midst of this confusion, a letterwas received by the municipal magistrates,over the signature of the boy-king, stating thathe had been compelled to leave the capital toprevent the seizure of his person by the Par-liament, and urging the magistrates to do allin their power for the preservation of orderand for the protection of property. The kingalso ordered the Parliament immediately toretire from the city to Montargis.The Parliament refused to recognize the or-der, declaring "that it did not emanate fromthe monarch himself, but from the evil coun-selors by whom he was held in captivity."Upon the reception of this reply, the queen re-gent, who had surrounded her palace at St.Germain with a thousand royal troops, actingunder the guidance of Mazarin, issued a decreeforbidding the villages around Paris sendinginto the capital either bread, wine, or cattle.Troops were also stationed to cut off such sup-plies. This attempt to subdue the people bythe terrors of famine excited intense exasper-ation. A decree was promptly issued by theParliament stating,"Since Cardinal Mazarin is notoriously theauthor of the present troubles, the Parliament

1648.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 45Origin of the names Fronde and Mazarins.declares him to be the disturber of the publicpeace, the enemy of the king and the state,and orders him to retire from the court in thecourse of this day, and in eight days more fromthe kingdom. Should he neglect to do this, atthe expiration of the appointed time all thesubjects of the king are called upon to hunthim down."At the same time, men-at-arms were leviedin sufficient numbers to escort safely into thecity all those who would bring in provisions.The Parliament, from the populace of Paris,could bring sixty thousand bayonets upon anyfield of battle. Thus very serious civil warwas inaugurated.As we have mentioned, many of the nobles,some of whom were allied to the royal family,assuming that they were not contending againsttheir legitimate sovereign, the young king, butagainst the detested Mazarin, were in cordialco-operation with the Parliament. The peoplein the rural districts were also in sympathywith the party in Paris.The court party was now called " The Maz-arins," and those of the Parliament "TheFronde." The literal meaning of the wordfronde is sling. It is a boy's plaything, and,

46 Louis XIV. [1648.Two rival courts. Straw scarce.when skillfully used, an important weapon ofwar. It was with the sling that David slewGoliath. During the Middle Ages this was theusual weapon of the foot soldiers. Mazarinhad contemptuously remarked that the Parlia-ment were like school-boys, fronding in theditches, and who ran away at the approach ofa policeman. The Parliament accepted thetitle, and adopted the fronde or sling as theemblem of their party.There were now two rival courts in France.The one at St. Germain was in a state of greatdestitution. The palace was but partially fur-nished, and not at all capable of affordingcomfortable accommodations for the crowdwhich thronged its apartments. Nothing couldbe obtained from Paris. Their purses wereempty. The rural population was hostile, and,while eager to carry their products to Paris,were unwilling to bring them to St. Germain.Madame de Motteville states in her memoirs" that the king, queen, and cardinal were sleep-ing upon straw, which soon became so scarcethat it could not be obtained for money;"The court of the Fronde was assembled atthe Hotel de Ville in Paris. There all wassplendor, abundance, festive enjoyment. The

1650.] BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD. 47Character of Mazarin. Termination of the war.high rank of the leaders and the beauty of theladies gave eclat to the gathering.Cardinal Mazarin was not only extortionate,but miserly. He had accumulated an enor-mous property. All this was seized and ap-propriated by the Fronde. Though there wereoccasional skirmishes between the forces of.thetwo factions, neither of them seemed disposedto plunge into the horrors of civil war.The king sent a herald, clad in complete ar-mor and accompanied by two trumpeters, tothe Parliament. The Fronde refused to re-ceive the herald, but decided to send a deputa-tion to the king to ascertain what overtures hewas willing to make. After a lengthy confer-ence a not very satisfactory compromise wasagreed, upon, and the royal fugitives returnedto Paris. It was the 5th of April, 1650. ATe Deum was chanted with great pomp at thecathedral of Notre Dame."Thus terminated the first act of the mostsingular, bootless, and, we are almost temptedto add, burlesque war which, in all probability,Europe ever witnessed. Throughout its wholeduration society appeared to have been smittenwith some moral hallucination. Kings andcardinals slept on mattresses, princesses and

48 Louis XIV.: [1650.Society reversed.duchesses on straw. Market-women embracedprinces, prelates governed armies, court ladiesled the mob, and the mob, in its turn, ruled thecity."** Louis XIV. and the Court of France, vol. i., p. 262.

1650.] THE BOY-KING. 49M. de Retz. Fears of Mazarin.CHAPTER II.THE BOY-KING.THE reconciliation between the court andthe Fronde was very superficial. The oldantagonism soon reappeared, and daily grewmore rancorous. To add to the embarrass-ment of the court, Monsieur, the duke of Or-leans, became alienated from Mazarin, andseemed inclined to join the Fronde. The mostformidable antagonist of the cardinal in theParliament was M. de Retz. He was coadju-tor of the Archbishop of Paris, a man of con-summate address and great powers of elo-quence.The struggle between De Retz and Mazarinsoon became one of life and death. The co-adjutor was at length imboldened to offer adecree in Parliament urging the king to ban-ish from his presence and his councils Cardi-nal Mazarin. This measure threw the courtinto consternation. The cardinal was appre-hensive of arrest. Some of his friends urgedhim to retire immediately to a fortress. Oth-D

50 Louis XIV. [1650.Escape of the cardinal.ers proposed to garrison the Palais Royal andits neighborhood with an efficient guard.From the saloons of the palace the shoutswere heard of the excited populace swarmingthrough the streets. No one could tell to whatextremes of violence they might proceed.Warned by these hostile demonstrations, thecardinal decided to escape from Paris. Atten o'clock at night he took leave of the queenregent, hastened to his apartments, exchangedhis ecclesiastical costume for a dress in whichhe was entirely disguised, and on foot thread-ed the dark streets to escape from the city.Two of his friends accompanied him. At theRichelieu Gate they took horses, which wereawaiting them there, and in two hours alightedat the palace of St. Germain.M. de Retz, through his spies, was immedi-ately informed of the flight of the cardinal.He at once hastened to communicate the in-telligence to IMonsieur. The duke at firstcould not credit the statement, as he felt as-sured that Mazarin would not have left with-out taking the young king with him. Shouldthe cardinal, in his retreat, gain possession ofthe king, in whose name he would issue all hisorders, it would be hardly possible to avoid the

1650.] THE BOY-K ING. 51Dangers of civil war. Alarm and energy of De Retz.horrors of a desolating civil war. All mindsin Paris, from the highest to the lowest, werethrown into a state of the most intense excite-ment.On the night of the second day after thecardinal's flight, M. de Retz was awakened bya messenger, who informed him that the Dukeof Orleans was anxious to see him immediate-ly at the palace of the Luxembourg. The co-adjutor rose, hastily dressed, and in great anx-iety repaired to the palace. The duke, thoughlieutenant general of the kingdom, was a verytimid man, and exceedingly inefficient in ac-tion. As they entered the chamber of theduke, he listlessly said to M. de Retz,"It is just as you said. The king is aboutto leave Paris; what shall we do ? I do notsee what can be done to prevent it."The resolute coadjutor replied, "We mustimmediately take possession of the city gates."But the inert and weak duke brought for-ward sundry silly excuses. He had not suffi-cient force of character or moral courage tocommit himself to any decisive course of ac-tion. The only measure he could be inducedto adopt was to send a message to the queenregent, imploring her to reflect upon the con-

52 Louis XIV. [1650.The populace aroused. Palace of the Luxembourg.sequences which would inevitably result fromthe removal of the king from Paris. In themean time, the resolute and fearless coadjutorsent his emissaries in all directions. The pop-ulace were aroused with the cry that Mazarinwas about to carry off the king. The gates ofS.... ~ ~-:- --- .__..-_, iI m tii if--:--t-- ... .U lll-:PALACE OF THE LUXEMBOURG.the city were seized. Mounted patrols trav-ersed the streets urging the citizens to arms.An enormous crowd of excited men and womren rushed toward the Palais Royal.The carriages were, in fact, at that hour, atthe appointed rendezvous for the midnightflight of the king and his attendants. Theyoung monarch was already in his traveling

1650.] THE BOY-KING. 53Discovery of the attempted flight of the royal family.dress, just about to descend the stairs of thepalace, when the queen was apprised, by thetumult in the streets, that, the design was dis-covered, and that consequently its executionwas impracticable."With the utmost precipitancy, the travelingdress of the king was removed, and he wasrobed in his night garments, replaced in bed,and urged to feign that he was asleep. Scarce-ly was this.accomplished ere one of the officersof the household entered and announced to thequeen that the exasperated mob was threaten-ing the palace, insisting upon seeing the king,that they might satisfy themselves that he hadnot been carried away. While he was speak-ing, another messenger entered with the an-nouncement that the mob had already proceed-ed to violence, and were tearing down the pal-isades of the palace. While he was yet speak-ing, a messenger from the Duke of Orleans ar-rived, imploring the queen regent not to at-tempt the removal of the king, and assuringher that it was impossible to do so, since thecitizens were resolved to prevent it.The queen, with dignity, listened to all. Tothe messenger of the Duke of Orleans shehaightily replied,

54 Louis XIV. [1650.Haughty reply of Anne of Austria. Courage of the queen mother." Say to the duke that he, instigated by thecoadjutor, has caused this tumult, and that hehas power to allay it. That nothing can bemore unfounded than the idea that there hasbeen any design to remove the king. Thatboth his majesty and his brother, the Duke ofAnjou, are asleep in their beds, as I myself hadbeen until the uproar in the streets had causedme to rise." To satisfy the messenger, M. deSouches, she led him into the chamber of theking, and showed him his majesty apparentlysoundly asleep.As they were softly retiring from the room,the outcry of the populace filling the court-yard was heard shouting " The king! theking! we must see the king." The queen re-gent hesitated for a moment, and then, withwonderful presence of mind, and with moraland physical courage rarely equaled, turningto the envoy of Mionsieur, said," Say to the people that the doors of thepalace shall be immediately thrown open, andthat every one who wishes may enter thechamber of the king. But inform them thathis majesty is asleep, and request them to beas quiet as is possible."M. Souches obeyed. The doors were open-

1650.] THE BOY-KING. 55Respectful conduct of the populace.ed. The mob rushed in. Nevertheless, con-trary to all expectation, they had no soonerreached the royal apartment than their leaders,remembering that their king was sleeping, de-sired the untimely visitors to proceed in per-fect quiet. As the human tide moved onward,their very breathing was suppressed. Theytrod the floor with softest footsteps. Thesame tumultuous multitude that had howled,and yelled, and threatened outside the gates,now, in the chamber of the sovereign, becamecalm, respectful, and silent. They approachedthe royal bed with a feeling of affectionatedeference, which restrained every intruderfrom drawing back the curtains.The queen herself performed this office.She stood at the pillow of her son, beautiful infeatures, of queenly grace in form and stature.Pale, calm, and dignified as though she wereperforming some ordinary court ceremonial,she gathered back the folds of the velvet dra-pery, and revealed to the gaze of the peopletheir young sovereign in all the beauty ofyouth, and apparently in profound slumber.This living stream of men and women fromthe streets of Paris continued to flow throughthe chamber until three o'clock in the morn-

56 Louis XIV. [1650.Fortitude of the regent. The queen regent dissembles.ing, entering at one door and passing out at itsopposite. Through this trying scene the queennever faltered." Like a marble statue," writes Miss Pardoe," she retained her position, firm and motionless,her majestic figure drawn haughtily to its fullheight, and her magnificent arm resting inbroad relief upon the crimson draperies. Andstill the boy-king, emulating the example ofhis royal parent, remained immobile, withclosed eyes and steady breathing, as thoughhis rest had remained unbroken by the incur-sion of his rebellious subjects. It was a sin-gular and marked passage in the life of bothmother and son."In those days and at that court falsehoodwas deemed an indispensable part of diploma-cy. In the afternoon of the same day inwhich the scene we have described occurred,the queen assembled in her saloon in the pal-ace the prominent magistrates of the city.With firm voice and undaunted eye, she as-sured them that she had never entertained theslightest idea of removing his majesty fromthe city. She enjoined it upon them vigilant-ly to continue to guard the gates, that the pop-"* Louis XIV. and the Court of France, vol. i., page 351.

1650.] THE BOY- KING. 57Vigilance of Monsieur.ulace might be convinced that no design ofescape was cherished. Her words were notbelieved; her directions were obeyed. Thegates were rigidly closed. Thus the king wasa prisoner.The apprehensions of the Fronde, that bysome stratagem the king might be removed,were so great that ilMonsieur dispatched a gen-tleman of his household every night to ascer-tain if the king were quietly in his bed. Themessenger, M. Desbuches, carried a nightlygreeting to the queen, with orders not to leavethe Palais Royal without seeing the youngsovereign. The excuse for this intrusion was,that Monsieur could not, without this evidence,satisfy the excited citizens that the king wassafe. This was a terrible humiliation to thequeen regent.Cardinal Mazarin, having passed the nightat St. Germain, commenced traveling by slowstages toward Havre. He was expecting everyhour to be joined by the queen regent andother members of the royal household. Heivas, however, overtaken by a courier, who an-nounced to him what had transpired in Paris,and that the escape of the royal family wasimpossible. The cardinal thus found himself

58 Louis XIV. [1651.Cardinal Mazarin in exile. Majority of the dauphin attained.really in exile, and earnest endeavors weremade by the Fronde to induce the queen re-gent to secure a cardinal's hat for M. de Retz,and make him her prime minister. The lastact of the queen regent was the issuing of adecree that Mazarin was banished forever fromthe kingdom.Such was the posture of affairs when, on the5th of September, 1651, the minority of thedauphin ceased. He now entered upon hisfourteenth year, and, immature boy as he was,was declared to be the absolute monarch ofFrance.It was immediately announced to. the Par-liament by the grand master of ceremoniesthat on the seventh day of the month the kingwould hold his bed of justice. This name wasgiven to the throne which the king took at ex-traordinary meetings of Parliament. The bed,or couch, was furnished with five cushions, andstood under a gorgeous canopy. Upon thiscouch the king extended himself, leaning uponthe cushions.The ceremony was attended with all thepomp which the wealth and taste of the em-pire could create. As, in the morning, thecourt left the Palais Royal, a band of trumpet-

1651.] THE BOY-KING. 59Imposing ceremony. Appearance of Louis XIV.ers led the van, causing the air to resound withtheir bugle peals. These were followed by atroop of light-horse, succeeded by two hundredof the highest nobility of France, splendidlymounted and in dazzling array. But it is vainto attempt to describe the gorgeous- processionof dignitaries, mounted on tall war-horses, ca-parisoned with housings embroidered with sil-ver and gold, and accompanied by numerousretainers. The attire of these attendants, fromthe most haughty man of arms to the humblestpage, was as varied, picturesque, and glitteringas human ingenuity could devise.The young king himself rode upon a mag-nificent cream-colored charger. He was abeautiful boy, well formed and tall for his age.Apparently deeply impressed with the grand-eur of the occasion, he appeared calm and dig-nified to a degree which attracted the admira-tion of every beholder. As he sat gracefullyupon his horse, he appeared almost like a gold-en statue, for his dress was so elaborately em-broidered with gold that neither its materialor its color could be distinguished. His high-mettled charger became frightened by theshouts of " Long live the king" which burst soenthusiastically from the lips of the crowd.

60 Louis XIV. [1651.Address of Louis. Address of the queen regent.But Louis managed the animal with so muchskill and self-possession as to increase the ad-miration with which all seemed to regard him.After attending mass, the young monarch tookhis seat in the Parliament. Here the boy ofthirteen, covering his head, while all the nota-bilities of France stood before him with headsuncovered, repeated the following words:"GENTLEMEN,-I have attended my Parlia-ment in order to inform you that, accordingto the law of my kingdom, I shall myself as-sume its government. I trust that, by thegoodness of God, it will be with piety and jus-tice. My chancellor will inform you moreparticularly of my intentions."The chancellor then made a long address.At its conclusion the queen mother rose andsaid to her son:" SIRE,-This is the ninth year in which, bythe last will of the deceased king, my muchhonored lord, I have been intrusted with thecare of your education and the government ofthe state. God having by his will blessed myendeavors, and preserved your person, whichis so precious to your subjects, now that thelaw of the kingdom calls you to the rule ofthis monarchy, I transfer to you, with great

1651.] THE BOY-KING. 61Reply of Louis. Power of the King of France.satisfaction, the power which had been grantedme to govern. I trust that God will aid youwith his strength and wisdom, that your reignmay be prosperous."To this the king replied, "I thank you, ma-dame, for the care which it has pleased you totake of my education and the administrationof my kingdom. I pray you to continue tome your good advice, and desire that, after my-self, you should be the head of my council."The mother and the son embraced each oth-er, and then resumed their conspicuous seatson the platform. The king's brother, Philip,duke of Anjou, next rose, and, sinking uponhis knee, took the oath of allegiance to his roy-al brother. He was followed in this act byall the civil and ecclesiastical notabilities. Theroyal procession returned to the gates of thePalais Royal, greeted apparently by the unani-mous acclamations of the people.Thus a stripling, who had just completed histhirteenth year, was accepted by the noblesand by the populace as the absolute and un-trammeled sovereign of France. He held inhis hands virtually, unrestrained by constitu-tion or court, their liberties, their fortunes, andtheir lives. It is often said that every nation

62 Louis XIV. [1651.Gallantry of Louis.has as good a government as it deserves. Inrepublican America, it seems incredible that anation of twenty millions of people could havebeen guilty of the folly of surrendering them-selves to the sway of a pert, weak, immatureboy of thirteen years.The young king, in those early years, wascelebrated for his gallantry. A bevy of youngbeauties, from the most illustrious families inthe realm, crowded his court. The matter ofthe marriage of the king was deemed of verygreat moment. According to the etiquette ofthe times, it was thought necessary that heshould marry a lady of royal blood. It wouldhave been esteemed a degradation for him toselect the daughter of the highest noble, unlessthat noble were of the royal family. But thesepretty girls were not unconscious of the powerof their charms. The haughty Anne of Aus-tria was constantly harassed by the flirtationsin which the young king was continually en-gaging with these lovely maidens of the court.Louis by nature, and still more by education,was egotistical, haughty, and overbearing. Hisbrother Philip, on the contrary, was gentle, re-tiring, and effeminate. The young king wish-ed to be the handsomest man of his court, the

1651.] THE BOY-KING. 63Influence of Anne and Mazarin upon Louis.most brilliant in wit, and the most fascinatingin the graces of social life. He was very jeal-ous of any one of his companions who mightbe regarded as his rival in personal beauty, orin any intellectual or courtly accomplishment.His mother encouraged this feeling. She de-sired that her son should stand in his courtwithout a peer.Still Anne of Austria, in conjunction withCardinal Mazarin, had done what she could tocheck the intellectual growth of her son.Wishing to retain power as long as possible,they had manifested no disposition to with-draw young Louis from the frivolities of child-hood. His education had been grossly neglect-ed. Though entirely familiar with the routineof his devotional exercises, and all the punctil-ios of court etiquette, he was in mental cultureand general intelligence far below ordinaryschool-boys of his age.Though the king was nominally the absoluteruler of France, still there were outside influ-ences which exerted over him a great control.There is no such thing as independent power.All are creatures of circumstances. Therewere two antagonistic forces brought to bearupon the young king. Anne of Austria for

64 Louis XIV. [1651.Conflict between the court and Parliament.nine years had been regent. With the aid ofher prime minister, Cardinal Mazarin, she hadgoverned the realm. This power could not atonce and entirely pass from their hands to theignorant boy who was dallying with the littlebeauties in the saloons of the Palais Royal.Though Mazarin was in exile-an exile towhich the queen regent had been compelled toassent--still he retained her confidence, andan influence over her mind.On the other hand, there was the Parlia-ment, composed mainly of proud, haughty,powerful nobles, the highest dignitaries ofChurch and State. This body was under theleadership of the coadjutor, M. de Retz. Theantagonism between the Parliament and thecourt was by no means appeased. The greatconflict now rose, which continued throughmonths and years, between them, as to whichshould obtain the control of the king. Im-pelled by the action of the Parliament, theking had applied to the pope for a cardinal'shat to be conferred upon M. de Retz. Thisdignity attained would immeasurably increasethe power of the coadjutor.In the mean time, Cardinal Mazarin, whohad fled to Spain, had re-entered France with

1652.] THE BOY-KING. 65Mazarin arrives in France.an army of six thousand men. Paris wasthrown into a state of great agitation. Par-liament was immediately assembled. The kingsent them a message requesting the Parlia-ment not to regard the movements of the car-dinal with any anxiety, "since the intentionsof his eminence were well known by the court."This, of course, increased rather than diminish-ed the fears of the nobles. Notwithstandingthe message of the king, a decree was immedi-ately passed declaring the cardinal and his ad-herents disturbers of the public peace. Thecardinal was outlawed. A sum equal to thir-ty thousand dollars, the proceeds of the sale ofsome property of the cardinal, was offered toany one who should deliver him either deador alive. Unintimidated, Mazarin continuedhis march toward Paris, arriving at Poictiersat the end of January, one month after havingre-entered France. The king, the queen re-gent, and the whole court advanced there tomeet him. They received him with the great-est demonstrations of joy.When the news reached the capital thatMazarin had thus triumphantly returned, Par-liament and the populace were thrown into astate of great excitement. The Duke of Or-E

66 Louis XIV. [1652.Civil war inaugurated. Mazarin's army defeated.leans was roused as never before. The hostiledemonstrations in Paris became so alarming,that the royal family adopted the bold resolveto return immediately to the capital. Theking commenced his march at the head of thetroops of the cardinal. When he reachedBlois, he tarried there for a couple of days toconcentrate his forces.. Civil wa'r was now in-augurated, though on rather a petty scale, be-tween the hostile forces in various parts of thekingdom. The Prince of Conde was the prom-inent leader of the Parliamentary troops.The city of Blois is situated on the rightbank of the River Loire, about forty-five milesbelow the city of Orleans, which is also on thenorthern side of the same stream. At Blois,the court learned to its consternation that theMazarin army had been attacked at Orleansby the Prince de Cond6 and utterly routed,with the loss of many prisoners, nearly threethousand horses, and a large part of its ord-nance stores. The royal party, which was atthis time in a state of great destitution, wasquite overwhelmed by the disaster. The queenordered all the equipages and baggage to betransported to the'south side of the Loire, andthe bridge to be broken down. At midnight,

1652.] THE BO3Y-KING. 67Depression of the regent. Monsieur.in the midst of a scene of great terror andconfusion, this movement was accomplished.As the morning dawned, the carriages, crowd-ed with the ladies of the court, were seen onthe left bank of the stream, ready for flight.The queen was, for the only time in her life,so dejected as to seem utterly in despair. Shefeared that the triumph of the Fronde at Or-leans would induce every city in the kingdomto close its gates against the court.The royal fugitives retreated to Montereau.In the disorder of the flight they were exposedto great privation. Even the young king lostseveral of his best horses. Thence they pro-ceeded to Corbeil, on the right bank of theSeine, about twelve leagues from Versailles.Here a scene occurred which is graphicallydescribed by M. Laporte, an eye-witness, whowas a prominent attendant of his majesty." The king," writes Laporte, " insisted thatMonsieur* should sleep in his room, whichwas so small that but one person could pass ata time. In the morning, as they lay awake,"* As Louis XIV. was now king, his brother Philip, elevenyears of age, according to usage, took the title of Monsieur.The title for a time adhered still to the Duke of Orleans,brother of Louis XIII.*

68 Louis XIV. [1652.Ludicrous quarrel of Louis and his brother.the king inadvertently spat upon the bed ofilMonsieur, who immediately spat upon theking's bed in return. Thereupon Louis, get-ting angry, spat in his brother's face. Whenthey could spit no longer, they proceeded todrag each other's sheets upon the floor, afterwhich they prepared to fight. During thisquarrel I did what I could to restrain the king.As I could not succeed, I sent for M. de Vil-leroi, who re-established peace. JMonsieur losthis temper sooner than the king, but the kingwas much more difficult to appease."It is very evident that aristocratic titles, andall the formalities of court etiquette, do notchange the nature of boyhood. Though oneof these little belligerents bore the title ofLouis XIV., king of France, and the other wascalled Monsieur, the duke of Anjou, they werein character like all other ungoverned and un-governable boys.The court, not venturing to enter Paris, pur-sued its way by a circuitous route to St. Ger-main, leaving the city on the left. Here anadditional gloom was cast over their spirits bythe intelligence of very decided acts of hostil-ity manifested against them by the inhabitantsof the metropolis. The court was in a state

1652.] THE BOY-KING. 69Embarrassment of the court. Conflict at Etampes.of great embarrassment, without any money,and without possibility of obtaining stores fromthe capital. It was supposed that CardinalMazarin, noted for his selfishness, had takengood care of himself. But he declared thathe was as poor as the meanest soldier in theranks.While at St..Germain, there was another pet-ty conflict between the Parliamentary forcesand those of the court in the vicinity ofEtampes, about forty miles from Versailles.The Fronde was routed with loss. The gladtidings was brought by a courier at night to St.Germain. The news was too good to be kepttill morning. M. Villeroi, to whom it was atfirst comm-unicated, hastened to the chamberof the king and the Duke of Anjou, to awakethem from sleep and inform them of the vic-tory. They both, Laporte informs us, sprangfrom their beds, and rushed, in their slippers,night-caps, and dressing-gowns, to the chamberof the cardinal, whom they awakened with thejoyful tidings. He hurried in his turn withthem, and in the same unsophisticated costume,to the chamber of the queen, to announce theintelligence to her.The destitution of Louis XIV. while at St.

70 Louis XIV. [1652.Destitution of Louis XIV. Scenes of the conflict at Etampes.Germain was such that he borrowed one hun-dred and ten francs from Moreau, one of hisvalets, for some replenishment of his wardrobe.Subsequently the valet, learning that the kinghad obtained possession of one hundred louisd'or, applied for payment of the debt; but theking had already expended the coin.The routed troops of Conde took refugewithin the walls of Etampes. The court, in itselation, immediately proceeded from St. Ger-main to the scene of conflict, to take part inthe siege. This was the first serious campaignof the young king. As, attended by his suite,he examined the works, he was at one timeunder fire, and several bullets passed near him.Still young as he was, he had sufficient regardfor his reputation and control over himself notto manifest the slightest fear.The scenes of war which here presentedthemselves to the young monarch were painfulin the extreme. He was every where sur-rounded by sick and dying soldiers. But hehad no money with which to relieve their mis-ery, and when finally the city of Etampes wastaken, the spectacle of starvation, woe, anddeath was more awful than words can express.As the king was entering the city, he passed

1652.] THE BOY-KING. 71Retreat of Cond6. Battle at St. Antoine.a group lying upon the ground, consisting ofa mother and three children, huddled closelytogether. The -mother had died of starvation.Two of the skeleton children were also deadby her side, and the third,.a babe, was strain-ing at the exhausted breast, which could nolonger afford it any nourishment.SThe Prince de Cond6 retreated to Paris withabout three thousand men. The royal troops,eight thousand in number, pursued. Each par-ty gathered re-enforcements, so that the Princede Conde, with about five thousand men, heldat bay the royal troops, then numbering aboutten thousand. The citizens, as we have men-tioned, were in sympathy with the Parliament.They hated Cardinal Mazarin, and with goodreason regarded the king as a prisoner in hishands. The king also detested Mazarin per-sonally, while the force of circumstances com-pelled him to regard the cardinal as the advo-cate of the royal cause.A very severe battle was fought betweenthe two parties in the Faubourg St.Antoine.The ranks of the Fronde, shattered by over-powering numbers, were, in a disordered re-treat, hotly pursued by their foes under Mar-shal Turenne. The carnage was dreadful.

72 Louis XIV. [1652.Cardinal Mazarin forced to retire.Suddenly the cannon of the Bastile flamed outin rapid succession, hurling their deadly shotthrough the compact masses of the Royalists.They recoiled and fled in confusion. Pariswas in the hands of the Fronde. The popu-lace surged through the streets, shouting " Longlive the king! Death to Mazarin !"The cardinal, taking the king with him, re-tired to St. Denis. Turenne re-collected hisscattered forces at Pontoise, about twenty milesnorth from Versailles. The cardinal, with theking, took refuge at that place in the centreof Turenne's army. Here the king issued anordinance, transferring the Parliament fromParis to Pontoise; but the Parliament replied"that they could not obey the royal commandso long as Cardinal Mazarin, whom they hadoutlawed, remained in France." They also is-sued an ordinance of their own, forbidding anymember of the Parliament to leave Paris. Theking, we know not under what influences, ac-quiesced in both of these decrees. This ledthe cardinal immediately to tender his resigna-tion and retire. This important step changedthe whole aspect of affairs. After the removalof the cardinal, all opposition to the court be-came rebellion against the king, to whom theFronde professed entire allegiance.

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[1652. THE BOY- KING. 75The king invited to return. The Duke of Orleans retires to Blois.Parliament immediately issued a decree,thanking the king for banishing the cardinal,and imploring him to return to his good cityof Paris. After some negotiation the king ac-ceded to their wishes, and on the 17th of Octo-ber arrived at St. Germain. Here a numerouscivic guard and deputation hastened to greethim, and .to conduct him to the metropolis.On the 20th he proceeded to Ruel, where hepassed the night.The king decided to enter the city at thehead of his army. In order to render thescene more imposing, it was to take place atnight, by the light of thousands of torches.The spectacle was such as Paris had rarelywitnessed. The fickle people, ever ready tovibrate between the cry of hosanna and cruci-fy, pealed forth their most enthusiastic rejoic-ings. The triumphant boy-king took posses-sion of the Tuileries. Cardinal de Retz, whohad now gained his long-coveted ecclesiasticaldistinction, hastened to congratulate the kingand his mother upon their return to the city,from which they had so long been banished.The Duke of Orleans, chagrined and humilia-ted, retired to Blois.The king soon held what was called a bed

76 Louis XIV. [1652.Doom of the leaders of the Fronde. Respectful refusal of De Retz.of justice, in which, instead of granting a gen-eral amnesty, he denounced the princes Condeand Conti, and other of the prominent leadersof the Fronde, as. traitors to their king, to bepunished by death. These doomed ones werenobles of high rank, vast wealth, with thou-sands of retainers. Many throughout the king-dom were in sympathy with them. Theywould not die without a struggle. Hence thewar, which had hitherto raged between Maza-rin and the Fronde, was renewed between theking and the Fronde. All over the provincesthe hostile forces were rallying themselves forthe conflict.It was necessary that the Parliament shouldregister this decree of the king. It did so, butCardinal de Retz refused to give his vote. Hevery respectfully declared to the king that he,having been on friendly terms and in co-oper-ation with the Prince de Conde, it would beneither courteous nor just for him to vote hiscondemnation.This enraged both the king and his mother.They said it proved that he was in sympathywith their enemies. The court did not ventureat once to strike down one so formidable. Amission was assigned the cardinal at Rome, to

1652.] THE BOY-KING. 77Orders for his arrest.remove him from the country. He refused toaccept it. The boy-king was growing reckless,passionate, self-willed. He began to feel thepower that was in his hand. The cardinalwas warned of his danger. He smiled, andsaid " that, sustained by his ecclesiastical rank,he had nothing to fear."The court issued an order for the arrest ofthe cardinal. It was placed in the hands ofPradelle for execution. But the king was toldthat the cardinal would never suffer himselfto be arrested without resistance; that, to se-cure his seizure, it might be necessary to takehis life. The king seized a pen and wrote atthe bottom of the order," I have commanded Pradelle to execute thepresent order on the person of De Retz, andeven to arrest him, dead or alive, in the eventof resistance on'his part. Louis."It was deemed very important to arrest thecardinal, if possible, without exciting a populartumult. The palace of the cardinal was wellguarded. He never went out without a-nu-merous retinue. Should the populace of Parissee him endangered, they would spring to hisrescue.At length De Retz was earnestly invited to

78 Louis XIV. [1652.Treachery of Anne of Austria. Arrest of De Retz.visit the queen at the Louvre, in token that hewas not hostile to the court. It was one of themost dishonorable of stratagems. The cardi-nal was caught in the trap. As he was enter-ing the antechamber of the queen upon thisvisit of friendship, all unsuspicious of treach-ery, the captain of the guard, who had beenstationed there for the purpose with severalgendarmes, seized him, hurried him throughthe great gallery of the Louvre, and down thestairs to the door. Here a royal carriage wasawaiting him. He was thurst into the car-riage, and five or six officers took seats by hisside. To guard against any possibility of res-cue, a numerous military escort was at hand.The horses were driven rapidly through thestreets, and out through the Porte St. Antoine.At nine o'clock the cardinal found himselfa prisoner at the castle of Vincennes. Theapartment assigned him was cold and dreary,without furniture and without a bed. Herethe prisoner remained a fortnight, in the mid-dle of- December, with no fire.The arrest of the cardinal created a greatsensation throughout Paris. But the chateauwas too strong, and too vigilantly guarded bythe royal troops, to encourage any attempt ata rescue.

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1652.] THE BOY-KING. 81Return of Mazarin. First care of Mazarin.In the mean time, Mazarin had placed him-self at the head of the royal troops in one ofthe provinces, where he gained several unim-portant victories over the bands of the Fronde.These successes were trumpeted abroad asgreat achievements, so as to invest the cardi-nal with the renown of a great conqueror.Mazarin was well aware of the influence ofmilitary glory upon the populace in Paris.The king also began to feel the need of hisdominant mind. He was invited to return toParis. Louis himself rode out six miles be-yond the walls to receive him. The cardinalentered the city in triumph, in the same car-riage with his sovereign, and seated by his side.All the old idols were forgotten, and the oncedetested Mazarin was received as though hewere an angel from heaven. Bonfires and il-luminations blazed through the streets; thewhole city resounded with demonstrations ofrejoicing. Thus terminated the year 1652.The first care of Cardinal Mazarin, after hisreturn to Paris, was to restore the finances,which were in a deplorable condition. Louiswas fond of pleasure. It was one great objectof the cardinal to gratify him in this respect,in every possible way. Notwithstanding theF

82 LouIs XIV. [1653.Festivities at court. Approaching coronation.penury of the court, the cardinal contrived tosupply the king with money. Thus, duringthe winter, the royal palaces resounded withfestivity and dissipation. The young king be-came very fond of private theatricals, in whichhe, his brother Philip, and the young ladies ofthe court took prominent parts. Louis oftenappeared upon the stage in the character of aballet-dancer. He was proud of the gracewith which he could perform the most difficultpirouettes. He had plays written, with partsexpressly composed for his aristocratic troop.The scene of these masqueradings was thetheatre of the Hotel du Petit Bourbon, whichwas contiguous to the Louvre. When royaltyplays and courtiers fill pit and gallery, applauseis without stint. The boy-king was much ela-ted with his theatric triumphs. The queen andCardinal Mazarin were well pleased to see theking expending his energies in that direction.These entertainments cost money, whichMazarin was greatly embarrassed in obtaining.The hour was approaching for the coronationof Louis. The pageant would require largesums of money to invest the occasion with thedesirable splendor. But gold was not all thatwas wanted. Rank, brilliance, beauty were

1653.] THE BOY-KING. 83Paucity of notabilities at the coronation.requisite suitably to impress the masses of thepeople. But the civil war had robbed thecourt of many of its most attractive ornaments.Monsieur, the duke of Orleans, was sullenlyresiding at Blois. Here he held a somewhatrival court to the king. He refused to attendthe coronation unless certain concessions weregranted, to which Mazarin could not give hisconsent. Mademoiselle, the duchess of Mont-pensier, daughter of Monsieur by his first wife,a young lady of wonderful heroism and attrac-tions, who possessed an enormous property inher own right, and who was surrounded by abrilliant court of her own, could not consistent-ly share in festivities at which her father re-fused to appear.The Prince of Conde, one of the highest no-bles of the realm, and who had many adherentsof the most illustrious rank, was in arms againsthis king at the head of the Spanish forces, andsentence of death had been pronounced uponhim.Cardinal de Retz was a prisoner at Vincen-nes. His numerous followers in Church andState refused to sanction by their presence anymovements of a court thus.persecuting theirbeloved cardinal.

84: Louis XIV. [1653.The king repairs to Stenay. Louis in the trenches.It was thus impossible to invest the corona-tion with the splendor which the occasionseemed to demand.The coronation took place, however, atRheims. Cardinal Mazarin exerted all hisingenuity to render the pageant imposing;but the absence of so many of the most illus-trious of the realm cast an atmosphere ofgloom around the ceremonies.France was at the time at war with Spain.The Fronde co-operated with the Spanishtroops in the civil war. Immediately afterthe coronation, the king, then sixteen years ofage, left Rheims to place himself at the headof the army. He repaired to Stenay, on theMeuse, in the extreme northeastern frontier ofFrance. This ancient city, protected by strongfortifications, was held by Conde. The royaltroops were besieging it. The poverty of thetreasury was such that Mazarin could not fur-nish Louis even with the luxury of a carriage.He traveled on horseback. He had no tableof his own, but shared in that of the Marquisde Fabert, the general in command.It seems difficult to account for the factthat the young king was permitted to enterthe trenches, and to engage in skirmishes,

1653.] THE BOY-KING. 85Defeat of Cond6.where he was so exposed to the fire of the en-emy that the wounded and the dead were con-tinually falling around him. He displayedmuch courage on these occasions.The Prince of Conde left a garrison in oneof the strong fortresses, and marched with themain body of his troops to Arras. The move-ments of the two petty armies, their skirmishesand battles, are no longer of any interest. Thebattles were fought and the victories gainedby the direction of the generals Turenne andFabert. Though the boy-king displayed in-trepidity which secured for him the respect ofthe soldiers, he could exert but little influenceeither in council or on the field. Both Stenayand Arras were soon taken. The army of thePrince of Cond6 was driven from all its posi-tions.The king returned to Paris to enjoy the grat-ulation of the populace, and to offer publicthanksgiving in the cathedral of Notre Dame.4-

86 Louis XIV. [1648.Gayeties in Paris. Poverty of the court.CHAPTER III.MATRIMONIAL PROJECTS." T HERE is nothing so successful as suc-_L cess." The young king returned to Parisfrom his coronation and his brief campaign ahero and a conqueror. The courage he haddisplayed won universal admiration. The ex-citable populace were half frenzied with enthu-siasm. The city resounded with shouts of glad-ness, and the streets were resplendent with thedisplay of gorgeous pageants.The few nobles who still rallied around thecourt endeavored to compensate by the mag-nificence of their equipages, the elegance oftheir attire, and the splendor of their festiv-ities, for their diminished numbers. Therewere balls and tournaments, where the dressand customs of the by-gone ages of chivalrywere revived. Ladies of illustrious birth, glit-tering in jewels, and proud in conscious beau-ty, contributed to the gorgeousness of the spec-tacle. Still, in the midst of all this splendor,the impoverished court was greatly embarrass-ed by straitened circumstances.

1648.] MATRIMONIAL PROJECTS. 87Death of the Archbishop of Paris. Murmurings.Cardinal Mazarin, eager to retain his holdupon the king, did every thing he could togratify the love of pleasure which his royalmaster developed, and strove to multiply se-ductive amusements to engross his time andthoughts.But a few days after Cardinal de Retz hadbeen conducted a prisoner to Vincennes, hisuncle, the Archbishop of Paris, died. The car-dinal could legally claim the succession. Themetropolitan clergy, who had been almostroused to rebellion by his arrest, were now stillmore deeply moved, since he had become theirarchbishop. They regarded his captivity aspolitical martyrdom, and their murmurs weredeep and prolonged. The pope also addressedseveral letters to the court, soliciting the liber-ation of his cardinal. The excitement dailyincreased. Nearly all the pulpits more or lessopenly denounced his captivity. At length apamphlet appeared urging the clergy to closeall their churches till their archbishop shouldbe released.Mazarin was frightened. He sent an envoyto the captive cardinal presenting terms ofcompromise. We have not space to describethe diplomacy which ensued, but the confer-

88 Louis XIV. [1653.Escape of Cardinal de Retz. Manoeuvres of Anne of Austria.ence was unavailing. The cardinal was soonafter removed, under an escort of dragoons, tothe fortress of Nantes. From this place healmost miraculously escaped to his own terri-tory of Retz, where he was regarded as sov-ereign, and where he was surrounded by re-tainers who, in impregnable castles, wouldfight to the death for their lord. These scenestook place early in the summer of 1653.In the mean time, the young king was amus-ing himself in his various palaces with themany beautiful young ladies who embellishedhis court. Like other lads of fifteen, he wasin the habit of falling in love with one andanother, though the transient passion did notseem very deeply to affect his heart. Some ofthese maidens were exceedingly beautiful. Inothers, vivacity and intellectual brilliance quiteeclipsed the charms of the highest physicalloveliness.Anne of Austria, forgetting that the all-dominant passion of love had led her to regretthat she was the wife of the king, that shemight marry the Duke of Buckingham, didnot deem it possible that her son could stoopso low as to marry any one who was not ofroyal blood. She therefore regarded without

1653.] MATRIMONIAL PROJECTS. 89Olympia de Mancini. Henrietta of England.much uneasiness his desperate flirtations, whileshe was scanning the courts of Europe insearch of an alliance which would add to thepower and the renown of her son.One of the nieces of Cardinal Mazarin, anItalian girl by the name of Olympia Mancini,was among the first to whom the boy-king offifteen became specially attached. Olympiawas very beautiful, and her personal fascina-tions were rivaled by her mental brilliance,wit, and tact. She was by nature and educa-tion a thorough coquette, amiable and endear-ing to an unusual degree. She had a sister alittle older than herself, who was also extreme-ly beautiful, who had recently become theDuchess of Mercoeur. Etiquette required thatin the balls which the king attended everyevening he should recognize the rank of theduchess by leading her out first in the dance.After this, he devoted himself exclusively, forthe remainder of the evening, to Olympia.It will be remembered that Henrietta, thewidowed queen of Charles II., who was daugh-ter of Henry IV. and sister of Louis XIII.,was then residing in France. She had no pe-cuniary means of her own, and, chagrrined andhumiliated, was a pensioner upon the bounty

90 Louis XIV. [1653.Embarrassment of Henrietta.of the impoverished French court. Henriettahad with her a very pretty daughter, elevenyears of age. Being the granddaughter ofHenry IV. and daughter of Charles II., shewas entitled, through the purity of her royalblood, to the highest consideration in the eti-quette of the court. But the mother and thedaughter, from their poverty and their misfor-tunes, were precluded from any general partic-ipation in the festivities of the palace.The queen, Anne of Austria, on one occa-sion, gave a private ball in honor of these un-fortunate guests in her own apartments. Nonewere invited but a few of her most intimatefriends. Henrietta attended with her daugh-ter, who bore her mother's name. There arefew situations more painful than that of poorrelatives visiting their more prosperous friends,who in charity condescend to pay them somelittle attention. The young Henrietta was afragile and timid girl, who keenly felt the em-barrassment of her situation. As, with herface suffused with blushes, and her eyes moist-ened with the conflicting emotions of joyous-ness and fear, she entered the brilliant saloonof Anne of Austria, crowded with those belowher in rank, but above her in prosperity and

1654.] MATRIMONIAL PROJECTS. 91Rudeness of Louis XIV.all worldly aggrandizement, she was receivedcoldly, with no marks of sympathy or attention.As the music summoned the dancers to thefloor, the king, neglecting his young and royalcousin, advanced, according to his custom, tothe Duchess of Mercceur, to lead her out.The queen, shocked at so gross a breach of eti-quette, and even of kindly feeling, rose fromher seat, and, advancing, withdrew the hand ofthe duchess from her son, and said to him, ina low voice, " You should dance first with theEnglish princess." The boy-king sulkily re-plied, "I am not fond of little girls." BothHenrietta and her daughter overheard this un-courteous and cruel remark.Henrietta, the mother, hastened to the queen,and entreated her not to attempt to constrainthe wishes of his majesty. It was an exceed-ingly awkward position for all the parties.The spirit of Anne of Austria was aroused.Resuming her maternal authority, she declaredthat if her niece, the Princess of England, wereto remain a spectator at the ball, her son shoulddo the same. Thus constrained, Louis very un-graciously led out Henrietta upon the floor.The young princess, tender in years, sensi-tive through sorrow, wounded and heart-crush-

92 Louis XIV. [1654.Royal quarrel. Independence of the king.ed, danced with tears streaming down hercheeks.Upon the departure of the guests, the moth-er and the son had their first serious quarrel.Anne rebuked Louis severely for his shamefulconduct. The king rebelled. Haughtily fac-ing his mother, he said, " I have long enoughbeen guided by your leading-strings. I shallsubmit to it no longer." It was a final decla-ration of independence. Though there weretears shed on both sides, and the queen madestrenuous efforts at conciliation, she felt, andjustly felt, that the control of her son had pass-ed from her forever. It was a crisis in thelife of the king. From that hour he seemeddisposed on all occasions to assert his manhood.A remarkable indication of this soon occur.-red. It was customary, when the king, throughhis ministers, issued any decrees, that theyshould be registered by the Parliament, to givethem full authority. Some very oppressivedecrees had been issued to raise funds for thecourt. It was deemed very important that theyshould be registered. The king in person at-tended Parliament, that the influence of hispresence might carry the measure. No onedared to oppose in the presence of the king.

1654.] MATRIMONIAL PROJECTS. 93Order of the king.Louis had now established his summer resi-dence at the castle of Vincennes. Arrange-ments had been made for a magnificent huntin the forest the next day, to be attended byall the ladies and gentlemen of the court. Theking, after leaving the Parliament, returned toVincennes, which is about three miles fromParis. He had scarcely arrived at the castlewhen he received information that, immediate-ly upon his leaving the Parliament, a motionhad been made to reconsider the approval ofthe decrees.The king dispatched a courier ordering theChamber to reassemble the next morning.The pleasure-loving courtiers were dismayedby this order, as they thought it would inter-fere with the hunt. But the king assuredthem that business should not be allowed tointerfere with his pleasures.At half past nine o'clock the next morningthe king entered the chamber of deputies inhis hunting-dress. It consisted of a scarletcoat, a gray beaver hat, and high military boots.He was followed by a large retinue of the no-bles of his court in a similar costume."In this unusual attire," writes the Marquisde Montglat, " the king heard mass, took his

94 Louis XIV. [1654.Audacity of Louis. Submission of Parliament.place with the accustomed ceremonies, and,with a whip in his hand, declared to the Par-liament that in future it was his will that hisedicts should be registered, and not discussed.He threatened them that, should the contraryoccur, he would return and enforce obedience."How potent must have been the circumstan-ces which the feudalism of ages had created.These, assembled nobles yielded without amurmur to this insolence from a boy of eigh-teen. Parliament had ventured to try itsstrength against Cardinal Mazarin, but did notdare to disobey its king.Soon after this, Louis, having learned thatTurenne had gained some important victoriesover the Fronde, decided to join the army towitness the siege of the city of Conde and ofSt. Quilain. Both of these places soon fellinto the hands of the Royalist troops. Theking had looked on. Rapidly he returned toParis to enjoy almost a Roman triumph forhis great achievement.As one of the festivities of the city, the kingarranged a tournament in honor of his avowedlady-love, Olympia Mancini. She occupied aconspicuous seat among the ladies of the court,her lovely person decorated with a dress of ex-

1654.] MATRIMONIAL PROJECTS. 95A tournament. Christina of Sweden.quisite taste and beauty. The king was prom-inent in his attire among all the knights as-sembled to contest the palm of chivalry. Hewas dressed in robes of brilliant scarlet. Awhite scarf encircled his waist, and snow-whiteplumes waved gracefully from his hat.The scene was as gorgeous as the wealth anddecorative art of the court could create. Therewere retainers surrounding the high lords, andheralds, and pages, and trumpeters, all arrayedin the most picturesque costume. No onecould be so discourteous or impolitic as to van-quish the king. He consequently bore awayall the laurels. This magnificent tournamentgave the name of " The Carousal" to the spacewhere it was held, between the Louvre and theTuileries.Early in the summer the court removed toCompiBgne, to spend the season in rural amuse-ments there. Christina, the young queen ofSweden, who had just abdicated the throne,and whose eccentricities had attracted the at-tention of Europe, came to the frontiers ofFrance with an imposing retinue, and, announ-cing her arrival, awaited the invitation of theking to visit his court. She was one of themost extraordinary personages of that or any

96 Louis XIV. [1654.Reception of Christina.age. Good looking, "strong minded" to thehighest degree, masculine in dress and address,always self-possessed, absolutely fearing noth-ing, proud, haughty, speaking fluently eightlanguages, familiar with art, and a consummateintriguante, she excited astonishment and acertain degree of admiration wherever she ap-peared.The curiosity of Louis was so greatly excitedand so freely expressed to see this extraordi-nary personage as to arouse the jealousy ofOlympia. The king perceived this. It is oneof the most detestable traits in our fallen na-ture that one can take pleasure in making an-other unhappy. The unamiable king amusedhimself in torturing the feelings of Olympia.Christina proceeded at first to Paris. Hereshe was received with the greatest honor.For a distance of nearly six miles from theLouvre the streets were lined with armed citi-zens, who greeted her with almost unintermit-ted applause. The crowd was so great that,though she reached the suburbs of Paris at twoo'clock in the afternoon, she did not alight atthe Louvre until nine o'clock in the evening.This eccentric princess was then thirty yearsof age, and, though youthful in appearance, in


* *__~_* _, ~ -~~PALACE---" OF- OHNIL_ ____ 1---

1654.] MATRIMONIAL PROJECTS. 99Her eccentric character.dress and manners she affected the Amazon.She had great powers of pleasing, and her wit,her entire self-reliance, and extensive informa-tion, enabled her to render herself very attract-ive whenever she wished to do so.After spending a few days in Paris, she pro-ceeded to Compidgne to visit the king andqueen. Louis and his brother, with Mazarinand a crowd of courtiers, rode out as far asChantilly, a distance of nearly twenty miles, tomeet her. Christina also traveled in state, ac-companied by an imposing retinue. Herethere was, at that time, one of the largest andfinest structures in France. The castle belong-ed to the family of Conde. The opposite cutpresents it to the reader as it then appeared.The king and his brother, from some freak,presented themselves to her at first incognito.They were introduced by Mazarin as two ofthe most nobly born gentlemen in France.Christina smiled, and promptly replied," Yes, I have no doubt of it, since their birth-right is a crown."She had seen their portraits in the Louvre theday before, and immediately recognized them.Christina was to be honored with quite atriumphal entrance to Compiegne. The king

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