• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 How this survey was made
 General soil map
 Description of the soils
 Use and management of the...
 Formation, morphology, and classification...
 Additional facts about the...
 Literature cited
 Glossary
 Guide to mapping units
 Index to map
 General soil map
 Map






Group Title: Soil survey of Ocala National Forest area, Florida : parts of Marion, Lake, and Putnam Counties
Title: Soil survey of Ocala National Forest area, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025744/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Ocala National Forest area, Florida parts of Marion, Lake, and Putnam Counties
Physical Description: 64 p. : ill., 18 fold. maps (in pocket) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Aydelott, D. Gray
United States -- Forest Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: [1975]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Marion County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Lake County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Putnam County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Marion County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Lake County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Putnam County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 62.
Statement of Responsibility: by D. Gray Aydelott ... et al., United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service and Forest Service, in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025744
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001701319
oclc - 02136754
notis - AJB3508
lccn - 75603519 //r87

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    How this survey was made
        Page 1
    General soil map
        Page 2
        Astatula-Paola association
            Page 2
        Astatula, dark surface, association
            Page 3
        Immokalee-Sellers association
            Page 3
        Eureka association
            Page 4
        Terra Ceia-Everglades association
            Page 4
    Description of the soils
        Page 4
        Astatula series
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Astor series
            Page 7
        Basinger series
            Page 8
        Delks series
            Page 9
        Dorovan series
            Page 10
        Duplin series
            Page 10
        Eureka series
            Page 11
        Eureka series, thick-surface variant
            Page 12
        Eustis series
            Page 13
        Everglades series
            Page 14
        Iberia series
            Page 14
        Immokalee series
            Page 15
        Made land
            Page 16
        Meggett series
            Page 16
        Myakka series
            Page 17
        Orlando series
            Page 18
        Orlando series, wet variant
            Page 19
        Pamlico series
            Page 20
        Paola series
            Page 21
        Pomello series
            Page 22
        Rains series
            Page 23
        St. Johns series
            Page 23
        St. Lucie series
            Page 24
        Sellers series
            Page 25
        Terra Ceia series
            Page 26
        Wicksburg series
            Page 26
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 27
        Management for cultivated crops and pasture
            Page 28
        Capability groupings
            Page 28
            Page 29
        Predicted yields
            Page 30
        Use of the soils for woodland
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
        Use of the soils for range
            Page 33
        Forest-wildlife management
            Page 34
            Kinds of wildlife
                Page 35
            Management by soil associations
                Page 35
        Engineering uses of the soils
            Page 36
            Engineering classification systems
                Page 37
            Soil properties significant to engineering
                Page 37
                Page 38
                Page 39
                Page 40
                Page 41
                Page 42
                Page 43
                Page 44
                Page 45
                Page 46
                Page 47
                Page 48
                Page 49
                Page 50
                Page 51
                Page 52
                Page 53
            Engineering interpretations of soils
                Page 54
            Engineering test data
                Page 55
            Recreational developments
                Page 55
    Formation, morphology, and classification of the soils
        Page 56
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 57
            Parent material
                Page 57
            Climate
                Page 57
            Living organisms
                Page 58
            Topography
                Page 58
            Time
                Page 58
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 58
        Effect of fire on soil formation
            Page 59
        Classificaion of the soils
            Page 59
    Additional facts about the area
        Page 60
        Physiography
            Page 60
        Drainage
            Page 60
        Water
            Page 60
        Climate
            Page 61
    Literature cited
        Page 62
    Glossary
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Guide to mapping units
        Page 65
    Index to map
        Page 66
    General soil map
        Page 67
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text




SOIL SURVEY OF


Ocala National Forest Area, Florida

Parts of Marion, Lake, and Putnam Counties













h T --q








OUnited States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service and Forest Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Soil Science Department











Major fieldwork for this soil survey was done in the period 1963-67. Soil names and descriptions were
approved in 1968. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in the publication refer to conditions in the
survey area in 1967. This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service, the Forest
Service, and the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations Soil Science Department. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the Soil
Conservation Districts within the Ocala National Forest Area.
Copies of the soil map in this publication can be made by commercial photographers, or they can be
purchased on individual order from the Cartographic Division, Soil Conservation Service, United States
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20250.


HOW TO USE THIS SOIL SURVEY

T HIS SOIL SURVEY contains information those with a moderate limitation can be colored
that can be applied in managing farms and yellow, and those with a severe limitation can
woodlands; in selecting sites for roads, ponds, be colored red.
buildings, and other structures; and in judging Farners and those who work with farmers
the suitability of tracts of land for farming, can learn about use and management of the
industry, and recreation, soils from the soil descriptions and from the
discussions of the capability units. the wood-
Locating Soils land groups, and the range management
groups.
All the soils of the Ocala National Forest Foresters and others can refer to the section
Area are shown on the detailed map at the back "Use of the Soils for Woodland." where the
of this publication. This map consists of many soils of the survey area are grouped according
sheets made from aerial photographs. Each to their suitability for trees.
sheet is numbered to correspond with a number Ranchers and others can find. under "Use of
on the Index to Map Sheets. the Soils for Range." groupings of the soils
On each sheet of the detailed map, soil areas according to their suitability for range. and
are outlined and are identified by symbols. All also the names of many of the plants that grow
areas marked with the same symbol are the on each range site.
same kind of soil. The soil symbol is inside the Game mnawfgers. sportsmen,o and other. can
area if there is enough room; otherwise, it is find information about soils and wildlife in
outside and a pointer shows where the symbol the section "Forest-Wildlife Management."
belongs. Community planners and others can read
about soil properties that affect the choice of
sites for dwellings. industrial buildings. and
Finding and Using Inormation recreation areas in the section "Recreational
The "Guide to Mapping Units" can be used Developments."
to find information. This guide lists all the soils E",i,.e-; -. and builders can find. under
of the county in alphabetic order by map sym- "Engineering Uses of the Soils." tables that
bol and gives the capability classification of contain test data. estimates of soil properties.
each. It also shows the page where each soil is and information about soil features that affect
described and the page for the woodland group engineering practices.
and range site in which the soil has been placed. Scientists and others can read about how the
Individual colored maps showing the relative soils formed and how they are classified in the
suitability or degree of limitation of soils for section "Formation, Morphology. and Classifi-
many specific purposes can be developed by cation of the Soils."
using the soil map and the information in the Newr'omers in the Ore-ala national Fore.st Area
text. Translucent material can be used as an may be especially interested in the section
overlay over the soil map and colored to show "General Soil Map." where broad patterns of
soils that have the same limitation or suitabil- soils are described. They may also be interested
ity. For example, soils that have a slight in the information about the area given in the
limitation for a given use can be colored green, section "Additional Facts About the Area."



Cover picture: Area of prairies where the poorly drained
and very poorly drained soils are frequently covered by
shallow water. The soils are Myakka and Sellers soils, ponded.
The grassy vegetation is dominantly maidencane, which is
one of the better, water-tolerant range grasses.














Contents
Page Page
How this survey was made- ---------- 1 Use and management of the soils ------ 27
General soil map -------------------- 2 Management for cultivated crops and
1. Astatula-Paola association ------- 2 pasture ------------------------ 28
2. Astatula, dark surface, associa- Capability grouping ---------------- 28
tion- ---------------------- 3 Predicted yields ------------------- 30
3. Immokalee-Sellers association ---- 3 Use of the soils for woodland -------- 30
4. Eureka association ------------- 4 Use of the soils for range ----------- 33
5. Terra Ceia-Everglades associa- Forest-wildlife management --------- 34
tion ------------------------ 4 Kinds of wildlife ----------------- 35
Descriptions of the soils -------------- 4 Management by soil associations--- 35
Astatula series--------------------- 5 Engineering uses of the soils --------- 36
Astor series -------------------- 7 Engineering classification systems-_ 37
Basinger series -------------------- 8 Soil properties significant to engi-
Delks series ----------------------- 9 neering ----------------------- 37
Dorovan series- ------------------ 10 Engineering interpretations of soils- 54
Duplin series ---------------------- 10 Engineering test data ------------ 55
Eureka series ---------------------- 11 Recreational developments -------- 55
Eureka series, thick-surface variant-- 12 Formation, morphology, and classifica-
Eustis series ----------------------- 13 tion of the soils ------------------ 56
Everglades series ------------------- 14 Factors of soil formation ------------ 57
Iberia series ----------------------- 14 Parent material ------------------ 57
Immokalee series ------------------ 15 Climate ------------------------- 57
Made land ------------------------ 16 Living organisms ---------------- 58
Meggett series --------------------- 16 Topography ------------------ 58
Myakka series --------------------- 17 Time --------------------------- 58
Orlando series --------------------- 18 Processes of soil formation ---------- 58
Orlando series, wet variant ---------- 19 Effect of fire on soil formation ------- 59
Pamlico series ------------------ 20 Classification of the soils ------------ 59
Paola series ----------------------- 21 Additional facts about the area -------- 60
Pomello series --------------------- 22 Physiography --------------------- 60
Rains series ----------------------- 23 Drainage ------------------------- 60
St. Johns series -------------------- 23 Water ---------------------------- 60
St. Lucie series -------------------- 24 Climate -------------------------- 61
Sellers series ----------------------- 25 Literature cited --------------------- 62
Terra Ceia series ------------------- 26 Glossary --------------------------- 63
Wicksburg series ------------------- 26 Guide to mapping units --------Following 64
i















SOIL SURVEY OF OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA

PARTS OF MARION, LAKE, AND PUTNAM COUNTIES

BY D. GRAY AYDELOTT AND HENRY C. BULLOCK, FOREST SERVICE, AND ALBERT L. FURMAN, HORACE 0. WHITE,
AND JAMES W. SPIETH, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE AND FOREST SERVICE, IN
COOPERATION WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES,
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS SOIL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT



T HE OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA: about 706 square miles, of which 19,570 acres is open water.
PARTS OF MARION, LAKE, AND PUTNAM About 90 percent of the Ocala National Forest Area is
COUNTIES (in this survey called the Ocala National forested, but not all of it is national forest or owned by
Forest Area or the survey area) is in the north-central the Federal Government. Approximately 84,563 acres,
part of the Florida peninsula (fig. 1). It contains parts of mostly in the south and southwest, is privately owned.
Marion, Lake, and Putnam Counties. It is bordered on the Forest products, recreational developments, and wild-
north and west by the Oklawaha River, on the east by the life are the main resources. The principal farm crops are
St. Johns River, on the south by the Marion-Lake County citrus and forage, but a few vegetables are grown for home
line, and on the southeast by Florida State Highway 42. use.
From north to south the survey area is about 38 miles long,
and from east to west near the southern boundary, it is
about 27 miles wide. There are no large communities with- How This Survey Was Made
in the area but Ocala, the nearest city, is a few miles to
the west. Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
The Ocala National Forest Area covers 452,209 acres, or soil are in the Ocala National Forest Area, where they
are located, and how they can be used. The soil scientists
went into the survey area knowing they were likely to
find many soils they had already seen and perhaps some
they had not. They observed the steepness, length, and
TALLAHASSEE 7 shape of slopes, the size and speed of streams, the kinds
JACKSONVILLE of native plants, the kinds of geologic materials, and
4 \many facts about the soils. They dug holes to expose
-GAINESV LLE. soil profiles. A profile is the sequence of natural layers,
or horizons, in a soil: it extends from the surface down
So\into parent material that has not been altered by leaching
or by the action of plant roots.
The soil scientists made comparisons among the profiles
they studied, and they compared these profiles with those
A in counties nearby and in places more distant. They clas-
sified and named the soils according to nationwide, uni-
o form procedures. The soil series and soil phase are the
categories of soil classification most used in a local survey.
Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil
series. Except for different texture in the surface layer,
the major horizons that all the soils of one series have
are similar in thickness, arrangement, and other im-
S portant characteristics. Each soil series is named for a
MIAMI town or other geographic feature near the place where
a soil of that series was first observed and mapped. Asta-
tula and Orlando, for example, are the names of two soil
,.*' series. All the soils in the United States having the same
*s-..Agriu..l.-.... ,ri..Si~.o series name are essentially alike in those characteristics
that affect their behavior in the undisturbed landscape.
Figure 1.-Location of the Ocala National Forest Area in Florida. Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
1








2 SOIL SURVEY

layer and in slope, stoniness, or some other characteristic further study and by consultation with farmers, agrono-
that affects their use by man. On the basis of such differ- mists, engineers, and others. They then adjust the groups
ences, a soil series is divided into phases. The name of a according to the result of their studies and consultation.
soil phase indicates a feature that affects management. Thus, the groups that are finally evolved reflect up-to-
For example, Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 8 percent date knowledge of the soils and their behavior under cur-
slopes, is one of several phases within the Astatula series, rent methods of use and management.
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils had
been worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of
the individual soils on aerial photographs. These photo- General Soil Map
graphs show woodlands, buildings, field borders, trees,
and other details that help in drawing boundaries accu- The general soil map at the back of this survey shows,
rately. The soil map at the back of this publication was in color, the soil associations in the Ocala National
prepared from aerial photographs. Forest Area. A soil association is a landscape that has a
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping distinctive proportional pattern of soils. It normally
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in consists of one or more major soils and at least one minor
planning the management of farms and fields, a mapping soil, and it is named for the major soils. The soils in one
unit is nearly equivalent to a soil phase. It is not exactly association may occur in another, but in a different
equivalent, because it is not practical to show on such a pattern.
map all the small, scattered bits of soil of some other kind A map showing soil associations is useful to people who
that have been seen within an area that is dominantly of a want a general idea of the soils in an area, who want
recognized soil phase. to compare different parts of an area, or who want to
Some mapping units are made up of soils of different know the location of large tracts that are suitable for a
series, or of different phases within a series. One such certain kind of land use. Such a map is a useful general
kind of mapping unit shown on the soil map of the Ocala guide in managing a watershed, a wooded tract, or a
National Forest Area is an undifferentiated group. wildlife area, or in planning engineering works, recrea-
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more tional facilities, and community developments. It is not a
soils that could be delineated individually but are shown suitable map for planning the management of a farm
as one unit because, for the purpose of the soil survey, or field or for selecting the exact location of a road,
there is little value in separating them. The pattern and building, or similar structure, because the soils in any one
proportion of soils are not uniform. An area shown on association ordinarily differ in slope, depths, stoniness,
the map may be made up of only one of the dominant drainage, and other characteristics that affect their
soils, or of two or more. Sellers and Pamlico soils is an management.
undifferentiated soil group in this survey area. The five soil associations in the Ocala National Forest
There are places where the soil material is so variable Area are discussed in the following pages. The terms for
that it has not been classified by soil series. These places texture used in the descriptive heading of the associations
are shown on the soil map and are described in the sur- apply to all layers, unless otherwise noted. For example,
vey, but they are called land types and given descriptive the word "sandy" in association 1 applies to all layers.
names. Made land is a land type in this survey area. 1. Astatula-Paola association
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists take
soil samples needed for laboratory measurements and Excessively drained, sandy soils that have a light-colored
engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kind surface layer; on broad upland ridges
of soil in other places are also assembled. Data on yields This association consists of deep, sandy soils on un-
of crops under defined management practices are assem- dulating, dunelike sandhills where there are widely scat-
bled from farm records and from field or plat experiments tered lakes, sinks, and grassy ponds (prairies). The slopes
on the same kind of soil. Yields under defined manage- are complex, ranging mostly from 0 to 8 percent, but in
ment are predicted for all the soils. some places, especially around the sinks, lakes, and grassy
Soil scientists observe how soils behave when used as ponds, they are as much as 17 percent. This association is
a growing place for native and cultivated plants, and as locally called "The Big Scrub." It extends from near
material for structures, foundations for structures, or Orange Ferry on the north to Pittman on the south.
covering for structures. They relate this behavior to This association averages about 9 miles in width and
properties of the soils. For example, they observe that makes up about 230,600 acres or 51 percent of the survey
filter fields for onsite disposal of sewage fail on a given area. Astatula soils make up about 73 percent of this
kind of soil, and they relate this to the slow permeabil- association; Paola soils, about 12 percent; and Pomello,
ity of the soil or to its high water table. They see that Sellers, Immokalee, and Myakka soils, about 12 percent.
streets, road pavements, and foundations for houses are Lakes and ponds make up the rest of this association.
cracked on a given kind of soil, and they relate this Areas of Astatula sand are uniform and continuous over
failure to the high shrink-swell potential of the soil large tracts. This soil has a thin, grayish-brown, sandy
material. Thus, they use observation and knowledge of surface layer underlain by a brownish-yellow, sandy
soil properties, together with available research data, substratum.
to predict limitations or suitability of soils for present Paola sand has a thin, gray sand surface layer. The
and potential uses. subsurface layer is white sand, 16 inches thick, that is
After data have been collected and tested for the key, underlain by yellowish-brown, very pale-brown, and pale-
or benchmark, soils in a survey area, the soil scientists yellow sand extending to a depth of more than 80 inches.
set up trial groups of soils. They test these groups by The major soils are excessively drained and drought.








2 SOIL SURVEY

layer and in slope, stoniness, or some other characteristic further study and by consultation with farmers, agrono-
that affects their use by man. On the basis of such differ- mists, engineers, and others. They then adjust the groups
ences, a soil series is divided into phases. The name of a according to the result of their studies and consultation.
soil phase indicates a feature that affects management. Thus, the groups that are finally evolved reflect up-to-
For example, Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 8 percent date knowledge of the soils and their behavior under cur-
slopes, is one of several phases within the Astatula series, rent methods of use and management.
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils had
been worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of
the individual soils on aerial photographs. These photo- General Soil Map
graphs show woodlands, buildings, field borders, trees,
and other details that help in drawing boundaries accu- The general soil map at the back of this survey shows,
rately. The soil map at the back of this publication was in color, the soil associations in the Ocala National
prepared from aerial photographs. Forest Area. A soil association is a landscape that has a
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping distinctive proportional pattern of soils. It normally
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in consists of one or more major soils and at least one minor
planning the management of farms and fields, a mapping soil, and it is named for the major soils. The soils in one
unit is nearly equivalent to a soil phase. It is not exactly association may occur in another, but in a different
equivalent, because it is not practical to show on such a pattern.
map all the small, scattered bits of soil of some other kind A map showing soil associations is useful to people who
that have been seen within an area that is dominantly of a want a general idea of the soils in an area, who want
recognized soil phase. to compare different parts of an area, or who want to
Some mapping units are made up of soils of different know the location of large tracts that are suitable for a
series, or of different phases within a series. One such certain kind of land use. Such a map is a useful general
kind of mapping unit shown on the soil map of the Ocala guide in managing a watershed, a wooded tract, or a
National Forest Area is an undifferentiated group. wildlife area, or in planning engineering works, recrea-
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more tional facilities, and community developments. It is not a
soils that could be delineated individually but are shown suitable map for planning the management of a farm
as one unit because, for the purpose of the soil survey, or field or for selecting the exact location of a road,
there is little value in separating them. The pattern and building, or similar structure, because the soils in any one
proportion of soils are not uniform. An area shown on association ordinarily differ in slope, depths, stoniness,
the map may be made up of only one of the dominant drainage, and other characteristics that affect their
soils, or of two or more. Sellers and Pamlico soils is an management.
undifferentiated soil group in this survey area. The five soil associations in the Ocala National Forest
There are places where the soil material is so variable Area are discussed in the following pages. The terms for
that it has not been classified by soil series. These places texture used in the descriptive heading of the associations
are shown on the soil map and are described in the sur- apply to all layers, unless otherwise noted. For example,
vey, but they are called land types and given descriptive the word "sandy" in association 1 applies to all layers.
names. Made land is a land type in this survey area. 1. Astatula-Paola association
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists take
soil samples needed for laboratory measurements and Excessively drained, sandy soils that have a light-colored
engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kind surface layer; on broad upland ridges
of soil in other places are also assembled. Data on yields This association consists of deep, sandy soils on un-
of crops under defined management practices are assem- dulating, dunelike sandhills where there are widely scat-
bled from farm records and from field or plat experiments tered lakes, sinks, and grassy ponds (prairies). The slopes
on the same kind of soil. Yields under defined manage- are complex, ranging mostly from 0 to 8 percent, but in
ment are predicted for all the soils. some places, especially around the sinks, lakes, and grassy
Soil scientists observe how soils behave when used as ponds, they are as much as 17 percent. This association is
a growing place for native and cultivated plants, and as locally called "The Big Scrub." It extends from near
material for structures, foundations for structures, or Orange Ferry on the north to Pittman on the south.
covering for structures. They relate this behavior to This association averages about 9 miles in width and
properties of the soils. For example, they observe that makes up about 230,600 acres or 51 percent of the survey
filter fields for onsite disposal of sewage fail on a given area. Astatula soils make up about 73 percent of this
kind of soil, and they relate this to the slow permeabil- association; Paola soils, about 12 percent; and Pomello,
ity of the soil or to its high water table. They see that Sellers, Immokalee, and Myakka soils, about 12 percent.
streets, road pavements, and foundations for houses are Lakes and ponds make up the rest of this association.
cracked on a given kind of soil, and they relate this Areas of Astatula sand are uniform and continuous over
failure to the high shrink-swell potential of the soil large tracts. This soil has a thin, grayish-brown, sandy
material. Thus, they use observation and knowledge of surface layer underlain by a brownish-yellow, sandy
soil properties, together with available research data, substratum.
to predict limitations or suitability of soils for present Paola sand has a thin, gray sand surface layer. The
and potential uses. subsurface layer is white sand, 16 inches thick, that is
After data have been collected and tested for the key, underlain by yellowish-brown, very pale-brown, and pale-
or benchmark, soils in a survey area, the soil scientists yellow sand extending to a depth of more than 80 inches.
set up trial groups of soils. They test these groups by The major soils are excessively drained and drought.








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 3

They have very low natural fertility, very low available
water capacity, and very low organic-matter content.
Rainwater penetrates so rapidly through the deep, porous
sand that there is little runoff and the leaching of plant
nutrients is high.
Most of this association is used for sand pines (fig. 2).
The association is managed for tree production and for
wildlife and recreation. The lakes are used for fishing,
boating, and swimming.
This association is not suitable for intensive farming,
because the soils are drought, loose, infertile sands. It fits
well, however, into the multiple-use management program
of the Ocala National Forest Area.
Most of this association produces very little grass and,
therefore, is poorly suited to woodland range. The prairies
or grassy ponds within the association, however, are well
suited to forage grasses and range.
2. Astatula, dark surface, association
Figure 3.-Stand of longleaf pines in an area of association 2.
Excessively drained, sandy soils that have a dark-colored The soil is Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 8 percent slopes.
surface layer; on broad upland ridges
This association consists of deep, sandy soils on undu- This association covers about 95,000 acres, or 21 percent
lating sandhills that have large, nearly level ridgetops of the survey area, mostly in the western half of it. Asta-
(fig. 3). Most slopes are 0 to 8 percent, but slopes may tula sand, dark surface, makes up about 56 percent of
be as much as 17 percent near isolated sinks, lakes, and the association; Astatula sand, moderately deep water ta-
grassy ponds, which are common. The lakes range from ble, about 8 percent; and Eustis, Orlando, and Wicksburg
less than an acre to more than 100 acres in size. soils, about 26 percent. Lakes and ponds make up about
10 percent.
Astatula sand, dark surface, is continuous over much of
the association. It has a thin, dark grayish-brown surface
layer over yellow sand that extends to a depth of more
than 7 feet.
Astatula sand, moderately deep water table, is on the
slightly lower, nearly level ridges. It has a sandy, grayish-
brown surface layer over brownish-yellow sand that ex-
tends to a depth of 40 inches. Below this is light-gray
sand. A fluctuating water table ranges from 40 to 70
inches below the surface.
The soils are excessively drained and drought. They
have very low natural fertility, very low available water
capacity, and very low organic-matter content. Rainwater
penetrates the porous sand rapidly, permitting very little
runoff. Few streams have developed.
Most of the association has characteristic parklike
stands of longleaf pine and turkey oak. This association
is managed for tree production, wildlife, and recreation.
A few small areas are cultivated. Recreational facilities
have been developed around some of the ponds that are
suitable for fishing, swimming, and boating.
This association is not suited to intensive farming, be-
cause most of the soils are drought and infertile. It fits
well. however, into the multiple-use program of forest
management.
3. Immokalee-Sellers association
Poorly drained and very poorly drained, sandy soils; in
flaticoods
This association consists of broad, nearly level flat-
woods, throughout which many swamps, small lakes, and
marshes are scattered. Some low places are isolated,
but others are connected by narrow, intermittent
Figure 2.-Typical stand of sand pines and evergreens in an area drainageways.
of association 1. The soil is an Astatula sand. This association covers about 67,800 acres or about 15








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 3

They have very low natural fertility, very low available
water capacity, and very low organic-matter content.
Rainwater penetrates so rapidly through the deep, porous
sand that there is little runoff and the leaching of plant
nutrients is high.
Most of this association is used for sand pines (fig. 2).
The association is managed for tree production and for
wildlife and recreation. The lakes are used for fishing,
boating, and swimming.
This association is not suitable for intensive farming,
because the soils are drought, loose, infertile sands. It fits
well, however, into the multiple-use management program
of the Ocala National Forest Area.
Most of this association produces very little grass and,
therefore, is poorly suited to woodland range. The prairies
or grassy ponds within the association, however, are well
suited to forage grasses and range.
2. Astatula, dark surface, association
Figure 3.-Stand of longleaf pines in an area of association 2.
Excessively drained, sandy soils that have a dark-colored The soil is Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 8 percent slopes.
surface layer; on broad upland ridges
This association consists of deep, sandy soils on undu- This association covers about 95,000 acres, or 21 percent
lating sandhills that have large, nearly level ridgetops of the survey area, mostly in the western half of it. Asta-
(fig. 3). Most slopes are 0 to 8 percent, but slopes may tula sand, dark surface, makes up about 56 percent of
be as much as 17 percent near isolated sinks, lakes, and the association; Astatula sand, moderately deep water ta-
grassy ponds, which are common. The lakes range from ble, about 8 percent; and Eustis, Orlando, and Wicksburg
less than an acre to more than 100 acres in size. soils, about 26 percent. Lakes and ponds make up about
10 percent.
Astatula sand, dark surface, is continuous over much of
the association. It has a thin, dark grayish-brown surface
layer over yellow sand that extends to a depth of more
than 7 feet.
Astatula sand, moderately deep water table, is on the
slightly lower, nearly level ridges. It has a sandy, grayish-
brown surface layer over brownish-yellow sand that ex-
tends to a depth of 40 inches. Below this is light-gray
sand. A fluctuating water table ranges from 40 to 70
inches below the surface.
The soils are excessively drained and drought. They
have very low natural fertility, very low available water
capacity, and very low organic-matter content. Rainwater
penetrates the porous sand rapidly, permitting very little
runoff. Few streams have developed.
Most of the association has characteristic parklike
stands of longleaf pine and turkey oak. This association
is managed for tree production, wildlife, and recreation.
A few small areas are cultivated. Recreational facilities
have been developed around some of the ponds that are
suitable for fishing, swimming, and boating.
This association is not suited to intensive farming, be-
cause most of the soils are drought and infertile. It fits
well. however, into the multiple-use program of forest
management.
3. Immokalee-Sellers association
Poorly drained and very poorly drained, sandy soils; in
flaticoods
This association consists of broad, nearly level flat-
woods, throughout which many swamps, small lakes, and
marshes are scattered. Some low places are isolated,
but others are connected by narrow, intermittent
Figure 2.-Typical stand of sand pines and evergreens in an area drainageways.
of association 1. The soil is an Astatula sand. This association covers about 67,800 acres or about 15








4 SOIL SURVEY

percent of the survey area. Immokalee sand makes up suited to the production of food, water, and shelter for
about 28 percent of the association; Sellers sand, about wildlife. This association fits well into a forest manage-
17 percent; and Paola, Myakka, St. Johns, Pamlico, ment plan. A few areas have been converted to improved
Delks, and Pomello soils, about 49 percent. Lakes make pasture.
up about 6 percent. 5
The Immokalee soils are nearly level and are on low- 5 Terra Ceia-Everglades association
lands. They have a black, sandy surface layer about 5 Very poorly drained, organic soils; in swamps and
inches thick over leached light-gray sand about 29 inches drainageways
thick. The leached layer is underlain by weakly cemented, This association consists of nearly level or slightly
black or dark reddish-brown sand 20 inches thick. Below This association consIsts of earld level or s, y
this is brown sand. These soils have a fluctuating water expressed organic sols It borders makes, rivers, and
table that ranges from near the surface in wet seasons smaller dranageways and makes up the larger swamps
to depths of more than 40 inches in dry seasons. This association covers about 45.200 acres or about 10
The Sellers soils are in depressions and swamps. They Ths association covers about 4Ter5ra00 acres or about 10
have a black sandy surface layer about 28 inches thick about 43 percent of the surve area. Terra Ceiaerades makes up
over dark-gray and light brownish-gray sand that extends about 43 percent of the association; Everglades muck,
to a depth of 80 inches or more. Water is near the sur- about 27 percent; and Dorovan. Pamlico Sellers, and
face most of the time but is at a depth below 20 inches store sols, about 25 percent. Lakes a15d rivers make u
in dry seasons. about 15 percent.
The mador soils are poorly drained and very poorly Terra Ceia muck is in a uniform pattern, especially
drained. Immokalee soils are poorly drained and very poorlyn- along the northern reaches of the Oklawaha River and
drained. Immokalee soils have low organic-matter con-at
tent in the surface layer. They have very low available its junction with the St. Johns River. Large areas
capacity y and low natural fertility. Sellers soils have also occur along the St. Johns River near Kimball Island.
moderate available water capacity and moderately high This soil is made up of 52 inches or more of dark reddish-
organic-matter content in the surface layer. They have brown to black muck that contains a few fibers.
moderate natural fertility. Surface drainage is slow, Everglades muck is along the Okiawaha River near
mainly through broad, nearly level, channelless drainage Starks Bridge, and along the St. Johns River near
ways and swamps. Kimball Island. It also surrounds Lake Jumper and Lake
Most of this association is in flatwoods and swamp Lou. It is made up of 52 inches or more of dark reddish-
vegetation. Slash pines are dominant in the flatwoods, and brown, fibrous muck.
various species of wetland hardwoods grow in the swamps. The swamp areas of this association are covered with
Because they have a good growth of understory shrubs wetland hardw-toods and the marshes are open areas
and grasses, the more open areas of the flatwoods are where water-tolerant grasses and sedges grow. A few
good range. The soils are suitable for the development of areas near Starks Ferry have been drained and are used
high-quality pastures, and fit well into the multiple-use for vegetables.
program of forest management. This association is limited for most uses by excess
water. Once land is reclaimed, there is a constant risk
4. Eureka association of subsidence by oxidation. This association is a natural
Poorly drained and very poorly drained, sandy soils that habitat for many kinds of wildlife.
have a clayey subsoil; in flatwoods
This association consists of nearly level lowlands inter- Descriptions of the Soils
spersed with a few depressed areas, narrow intermittent
drainageways, and swamps. It is mainly in the extreme This section describes the soil series and mapping units
western part of the survey area, near Sharps Ferry. in the Ocala National Forest Area. Each soil series is
The Eureka association covers about 13,560 acres, or described in detail, and then, briefly, each mapping unit
about 3 percent of the survey area. Eureka loamy fine in that series. The description of each mapping unit also
sand makes up about 40 percent of the association. Minor contains suggestions on how the soil can be managed.
soils of the Astor, Delks, Iberia, Meggett, and Rains ser- Unless it is specifically mentioned otherwise, it is to be
ies make up about 60 percent. assumed that what is stated about the soil series holds
The Eureka soils have a black loamy fine sand and sur- true for the mapping units in that series. Thus. to get
face layer about 4 inches thick over about 7 inches of full information about any one mapping unit, it is neces-
grayish-brown loamy fine sand. The subsoil is gray sandy sary to read both the description of the mapping unit
clay and clay that, in places, has red, brown, and gray and the description of the soil series to which it belongs.
mottles. An important part of the description of each soil series
Eureka soils are poorly drained and have a very slowly is the soil profile, that is, the sequence of layers from the
permeable subsoil. They have moderate available water surface downward to rock or other underlying material.
capacity, natural fertility, and organic-matter content. Each series contains two descriptions of this profile. The
The minor soils are mainly poorly drained and very first is brief and in terms familiar to the layman. The
poorly drained. Most of the association is poorly drained second is much more detailed and is for those who need
or very poorly drained. Water ponds in the depressions to make thorough and precise studies of soils. The profile
during a wet season. described in the series is representative of mapping units
The association is used mainly for loblolly pine and in that series. If the profile of a given mapping unit is
slash pine in high areas and wetland hardwoods in lower different from the one described for the series, these dif-
areas. It is excellent for timber and range. It is well ferences are stated in describing the mapping unit. or they








4 SOIL SURVEY

percent of the survey area. Immokalee sand makes up suited to the production of food, water, and shelter for
about 28 percent of the association; Sellers sand, about wildlife. This association fits well into a forest manage-
17 percent; and Paola, Myakka, St. Johns, Pamlico, ment plan. A few areas have been converted to improved
Delks, and Pomello soils, about 49 percent. Lakes make pasture.
up about 6 percent. 5
The Immokalee soils are nearly level and are on low- 5 Terra Ceia-Everglades association
lands. They have a black, sandy surface layer about 5 Very poorly drained, organic soils; in swamps and
inches thick over leached light-gray sand about 29 inches drainageways
thick. The leached layer is underlain by weakly cemented, This association consists of nearly level or slightly
black or dark reddish-brown sand 20 inches thick. Below This association consIsts of earld level or s, y
this is brown sand. These soils have a fluctuating water expressed organic sols It borders makes, rivers, and
table that ranges from near the surface in wet seasons smaller dranageways and makes up the larger swamps
to depths of more than 40 inches in dry seasons. This association covers about 45.200 acres or about 10
The Sellers soils are in depressions and swamps. They Ths association covers about 4Ter5ra00 acres or about 10
have a black sandy surface layer about 28 inches thick about 43 percent of the surve area. Terra Ceiaerades makes up
over dark-gray and light brownish-gray sand that extends about 43 percent of the association; Everglades muck,
to a depth of 80 inches or more. Water is near the sur- about 27 percent; and Dorovan. Pamlico Sellers, and
face most of the time but is at a depth below 20 inches store sols, about 25 percent. Lakes a15d rivers make u
in dry seasons. about 15 percent.
The mador soils are poorly drained and very poorly Terra Ceia muck is in a uniform pattern, especially
drained. Immokalee soils are poorly drained and very poorlyn- along the northern reaches of the Oklawaha River and
drained. Immokalee soils have low organic-matter con-at
tent in the surface layer. They have very low available its junction with the St. Johns River. Large areas
capacity y and low natural fertility. Sellers soils have also occur along the St. Johns River near Kimball Island.
moderate available water capacity and moderately high This soil is made up of 52 inches or more of dark reddish-
organic-matter content in the surface layer. They have brown to black muck that contains a few fibers.
moderate natural fertility. Surface drainage is slow, Everglades muck is along the Okiawaha River near
mainly through broad, nearly level, channelless drainage Starks Bridge, and along the St. Johns River near
ways and swamps. Kimball Island. It also surrounds Lake Jumper and Lake
Most of this association is in flatwoods and swamp Lou. It is made up of 52 inches or more of dark reddish-
vegetation. Slash pines are dominant in the flatwoods, and brown, fibrous muck.
various species of wetland hardwoods grow in the swamps. The swamp areas of this association are covered with
Because they have a good growth of understory shrubs wetland hardw-toods and the marshes are open areas
and grasses, the more open areas of the flatwoods are where water-tolerant grasses and sedges grow. A few
good range. The soils are suitable for the development of areas near Starks Ferry have been drained and are used
high-quality pastures, and fit well into the multiple-use for vegetables.
program of forest management. This association is limited for most uses by excess
water. Once land is reclaimed, there is a constant risk
4. Eureka association of subsidence by oxidation. This association is a natural
Poorly drained and very poorly drained, sandy soils that habitat for many kinds of wildlife.
have a clayey subsoil; in flatwoods
This association consists of nearly level lowlands inter- Descriptions of the Soils
spersed with a few depressed areas, narrow intermittent
drainageways, and swamps. It is mainly in the extreme This section describes the soil series and mapping units
western part of the survey area, near Sharps Ferry. in the Ocala National Forest Area. Each soil series is
The Eureka association covers about 13,560 acres, or described in detail, and then, briefly, each mapping unit
about 3 percent of the survey area. Eureka loamy fine in that series. The description of each mapping unit also
sand makes up about 40 percent of the association. Minor contains suggestions on how the soil can be managed.
soils of the Astor, Delks, Iberia, Meggett, and Rains ser- Unless it is specifically mentioned otherwise, it is to be
ies make up about 60 percent. assumed that what is stated about the soil series holds
The Eureka soils have a black loamy fine sand and sur- true for the mapping units in that series. Thus. to get
face layer about 4 inches thick over about 7 inches of full information about any one mapping unit, it is neces-
grayish-brown loamy fine sand. The subsoil is gray sandy sary to read both the description of the mapping unit
clay and clay that, in places, has red, brown, and gray and the description of the soil series to which it belongs.
mottles. An important part of the description of each soil series
Eureka soils are poorly drained and have a very slowly is the soil profile, that is, the sequence of layers from the
permeable subsoil. They have moderate available water surface downward to rock or other underlying material.
capacity, natural fertility, and organic-matter content. Each series contains two descriptions of this profile. The
The minor soils are mainly poorly drained and very first is brief and in terms familiar to the layman. The
poorly drained. Most of the association is poorly drained second is much more detailed and is for those who need
or very poorly drained. Water ponds in the depressions to make thorough and precise studies of soils. The profile
during a wet season. described in the series is representative of mapping units
The association is used mainly for loblolly pine and in that series. If the profile of a given mapping unit is
slash pine in high areas and wetland hardwoods in lower different from the one described for the series, these dif-
areas. It is excellent for timber and range. It is well ferences are stated in describing the mapping unit. or they








4 SOIL SURVEY

percent of the survey area. Immokalee sand makes up suited to the production of food, water, and shelter for
about 28 percent of the association; Sellers sand, about wildlife. This association fits well into a forest manage-
17 percent; and Paola, Myakka, St. Johns, Pamlico, ment plan. A few areas have been converted to improved
Delks, and Pomello soils, about 49 percent. Lakes make pasture.
up about 6 percent. 5
The Immokalee soils are nearly level and are on low- 5 Terra Ceia-Everglades association
lands. They have a black, sandy surface layer about 5 Very poorly drained, organic soils; in swamps and
inches thick over leached light-gray sand about 29 inches drainageways
thick. The leached layer is underlain by weakly cemented, This association consists of nearly level or slightly
black or dark reddish-brown sand 20 inches thick. Below This association consIsts of earld level or s, y
this is brown sand. These soils have a fluctuating water expressed organic sols It borders makes, rivers, and
table that ranges from near the surface in wet seasons smaller dranageways and makes up the larger swamps
to depths of more than 40 inches in dry seasons. This association covers about 45.200 acres or about 10
The Sellers soils are in depressions and swamps. They Ths association covers about 4Ter5ra00 acres or about 10
have a black sandy surface layer about 28 inches thick about 43 percent of the surve area. Terra Ceiaerades makes up
over dark-gray and light brownish-gray sand that extends about 43 percent of the association; Everglades muck,
to a depth of 80 inches or more. Water is near the sur- about 27 percent; and Dorovan. Pamlico Sellers, and
face most of the time but is at a depth below 20 inches store sols, about 25 percent. Lakes a15d rivers make u
in dry seasons. about 15 percent.
The mador soils are poorly drained and very poorly Terra Ceia muck is in a uniform pattern, especially
drained. Immokalee soils are poorly drained and very poorlyn- along the northern reaches of the Oklawaha River and
drained. Immokalee soils have low organic-matter con-at
tent in the surface layer. They have very low available its junction with the St. Johns River. Large areas
capacity y and low natural fertility. Sellers soils have also occur along the St. Johns River near Kimball Island.
moderate available water capacity and moderately high This soil is made up of 52 inches or more of dark reddish-
organic-matter content in the surface layer. They have brown to black muck that contains a few fibers.
moderate natural fertility. Surface drainage is slow, Everglades muck is along the Okiawaha River near
mainly through broad, nearly level, channelless drainage Starks Bridge, and along the St. Johns River near
ways and swamps. Kimball Island. It also surrounds Lake Jumper and Lake
Most of this association is in flatwoods and swamp Lou. It is made up of 52 inches or more of dark reddish-
vegetation. Slash pines are dominant in the flatwoods, and brown, fibrous muck.
various species of wetland hardwoods grow in the swamps. The swamp areas of this association are covered with
Because they have a good growth of understory shrubs wetland hardw-toods and the marshes are open areas
and grasses, the more open areas of the flatwoods are where water-tolerant grasses and sedges grow. A few
good range. The soils are suitable for the development of areas near Starks Ferry have been drained and are used
high-quality pastures, and fit well into the multiple-use for vegetables.
program of forest management. This association is limited for most uses by excess
water. Once land is reclaimed, there is a constant risk
4. Eureka association of subsidence by oxidation. This association is a natural
Poorly drained and very poorly drained, sandy soils that habitat for many kinds of wildlife.
have a clayey subsoil; in flatwoods
This association consists of nearly level lowlands inter- Descriptions of the Soils
spersed with a few depressed areas, narrow intermittent
drainageways, and swamps. It is mainly in the extreme This section describes the soil series and mapping units
western part of the survey area, near Sharps Ferry. in the Ocala National Forest Area. Each soil series is
The Eureka association covers about 13,560 acres, or described in detail, and then, briefly, each mapping unit
about 3 percent of the survey area. Eureka loamy fine in that series. The description of each mapping unit also
sand makes up about 40 percent of the association. Minor contains suggestions on how the soil can be managed.
soils of the Astor, Delks, Iberia, Meggett, and Rains ser- Unless it is specifically mentioned otherwise, it is to be
ies make up about 60 percent. assumed that what is stated about the soil series holds
The Eureka soils have a black loamy fine sand and sur- true for the mapping units in that series. Thus. to get
face layer about 4 inches thick over about 7 inches of full information about any one mapping unit, it is neces-
grayish-brown loamy fine sand. The subsoil is gray sandy sary to read both the description of the mapping unit
clay and clay that, in places, has red, brown, and gray and the description of the soil series to which it belongs.
mottles. An important part of the description of each soil series
Eureka soils are poorly drained and have a very slowly is the soil profile, that is, the sequence of layers from the
permeable subsoil. They have moderate available water surface downward to rock or other underlying material.
capacity, natural fertility, and organic-matter content. Each series contains two descriptions of this profile. The
The minor soils are mainly poorly drained and very first is brief and in terms familiar to the layman. The
poorly drained. Most of the association is poorly drained second is much more detailed and is for those who need
or very poorly drained. Water ponds in the depressions to make thorough and precise studies of soils. The profile
during a wet season. described in the series is representative of mapping units
The association is used mainly for loblolly pine and in that series. If the profile of a given mapping unit is
slash pine in high areas and wetland hardwoods in lower different from the one described for the series, these dif-
areas. It is excellent for timber and range. It is well ferences are stated in describing the mapping unit. or they








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 5

TABLE 1.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of soils

Soil Acre- Per- Soil Acre- Per-
age cent age cent

Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes ----- -- 164, 689 36.4 Myakka and Sellers soils, ponded ------------- 4, 110 0.9
Astatula sand, 8 to 17 percent slopes---------- 17, 800 3. 9 Orlando sand ------------------------------ 230 (1)
Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 8 percent Orlando sand, wet variant ------------------- 390 1
slopes --------------- ----- 51, 190 11. 3 Pamlico muck_ ----------------------------- 230 (')
Astatula sand, dark surface, 8 to 17 percent Pamlico muck, deep ---------------------- 1,750 /1 .4
slopes----------------------------------- 3, 120 .7 Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes -------------24, 920 5. 5
Astatula sand, banded substratum, 0 to 8 per- Paola sand, 8 to 17 percent slopes ------------2, 170 .5
cent slopes------------------ 8, 140 1.8 Paola sand, moderately deep water table, 0 to
Astatula sand, moderately deep water table, 0 5 percent slopes ----------------------- 10, 010 2. 2
to 8 percent slopes ----------------------- 7, 770 1. 7 Pomello sand ------------------------------ 10, 730 2.4
Astor sand ------------------------------ 4,820 6Pk 1. 1 Rains loamy fine sand ---------------------- 770 .2
Basinger sand------------------------------ 1, 790 .4 St. Johns sand --------------------------- 8,440 1. 9
Delks sand ------------------------------ 5,650 1. 2 St. Lucie sand------------------- 1, 690 .4
Dorovan muck----------------------------- 3, 450 VPD 8 Sellers sand -------------------------------- 11, 170 'P" 2. 5
Duplin loamy sand ------------------------- 350 1 Sellers and Pamlico soils --------------------9, 290 P') 2. 0
Eureka loamy fine sand------------- 5, 710 1. 3 Terra Ceia muck --------------------------- 19, 780 VPt' 4.4
Eureka loamy sand, thick-surface variant ------ 630 VPD 1 Wicksburg sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes --------- 2, 680 .6
Eustis sand ------------------------------- 820 vpp .2 Wicksburg sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes -------- 530 1
Everglades muck --------------------------- 8,020 VPD 1. 8 Submerged marsh --------------------- 5,760 1.2
Iberia clay ------------------------------2,720 .6 Pits and dumps ------------------------ 230 (l)
Immokalee sand ------------------------- 18, 840 4. 2 Kitchen middens ----------------------- 50 (1)
Made land -------------------------------- 360 1 Open water ---------------------------- 19, 570 4. 3
Meggett loamy sand------------------------ 1, 770 .4 --
Myakka sand ------------------------------ 10, 070 2. 2 Total -----------------------------452, 209 100.0

I Less than 0.05 percent.

are differences that are apparent in the name of the map- surface layer and low to very low in underlying layers.
ping unit. Color terms are for moist soil, unless otherwise These soils are drought. They have very low organic-
stated, matter content and natural fertility.
As mentioned in the section "How This Survey Was Representative profile of Astatula sand:
Made," not all mapping units are members of a soil ser- 01-2 inches to 0, undecomposed leaves, twigs, and stems un-
ies. Made land, for example, does not belong to a soil derlain by a loosely matted layer of partly decom-
series, but nevertheless, is listed in alphabetic order along posed leaves, twigs, and roots, mixed with a small
with the soil series. amount of sand.
Following the name of each mapping unit is a symbol A1-0 to 3 inches, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) sand; single
Following the name of each mappingunit is a symbol grained; loose; many large, medium, and fine roots;
in parentheses. This symbol identifies the mapping unit many clean sand grains; strongly acid; clear, smooth
on the detailed soil map. Listed at the end of each de- boundary.
scription of a mapping unit is the capability unit, wood- C1-3 to 6 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) sand; single
land group, and range management group in which the grained; loose; many large, medium, and fine roots;
n gfew faint streaks of gray; many clean sand grains;
mapping unit has been placed. strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
The acreage and proportionate extent of each mapping C2-6 to 84 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) sand; single
unit are shown in table 1. Many of the terms used in grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
describing soils can be found in the Glossary, and more many clean sand grains; strongly acid.
detailed information about the terminology and methods The A horizon ranges from gray or grayish brown to dark
of soil mapping can be obtained from the Soil Survey grayish brown n color and from 2 to 7 inches in thickness.
Manual ( n The C horizon ranges from pale brown or brownish yellow
Manual (8).x to yellowish red and extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
In some profiles, the C horizon has mottles of gray or white
Astatula Serifes and is uncoated sand.
Astatula Series Astatula soils are strongly to very strognly acid throughout
The Astatula series consists of nearly level to moder- and have less than 5 percent silt and clay in the layer 10 to
The Asatula series consists o nearly level to moer- 40 inches below the surface. The water table is at a depth of
ately steep, excessively drained, sandy soils that are on 40 inches to more than 10 feet.
broad ridges and are adjacent to sinks and small lakes. Astatula soils are associated with Paola and St. Lucie soils.
These soils formed in sandy marine, eolian, or fluvial sedi- Astatula soils have a yellowish C horizon below the Al hori-
ments and are more than 95 percent quartz. zon instead of the white A2 horizon that is typical of Paola
In a representative profile the surface layer is grayish- soils. Astatula soils have a yellowish C horizon to a depth of
80 inches or more, whereas St. Lucie soils have a white C
brown sand about 3 inches thick. Below this, and ex- horizon.
tending to a depth of 84 inches, is brownish-yellow sand.
Astatula soils have very rapid permeability in the sur- Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes (AsB).-This is a
face layer and rapid to very rapid permeability in under- nearly level to sloping, excessively drained, sandy soil
lying layers. Available water capacity is very low in the that is on broad undulating ridges. It has a water table
that is always below a depth of 60 inches.
1Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, p. 62. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas,








6 SOIL SURVEY

around sinks and depressions, that have slopes greater have a very dark gray or black surface layer about 8
than 8 percent. Also included are small areas of Astatula inches thick. Also included are small areas of Astatula
sand, moderately deep water table, 0 to 8 percent slopes, sand, banded substratum, 0 to 8 percent slopes; Astatula
and a few scattered areas of Astatula sand, banded sub- sand, moderately deep water table, 0 to 8 percent slopes;
stratum, 0 to 8 percent slopes, and small areas that have steeper slopes.
Natural vegetation consists of sand pine forests that Natural vegetation is forests of longleaf pine and tur-
have scattered sand live oak, myrtle oak, and crooked- key oak that have an understory of gopher apple, paw-
wood, and an understory of rosemary, scrub palmetto, paw, numerous forbs, and native grasses. Forest is the
saw-palmetto, garberia, and lichens. Almost all the areas dominant use.
are in natural vegetation. Because it has poor qualities, this soil is very poorly
Suitability of this soil for cultivated crops is limited suited to cultivated crops, but under intensive manage-
to a few special crops, such as watermelon, that grow ment it can produce a few special crops, such as water-
well in drought soils. The available water capacity and melon. The available water capacity and natural fertility
natural fertility are very low. Very rapid permeability are very low. Permeability is very rapid, and this results
causes plant nutrients to be quickly lost through leaching. in rapid leaching of plant nutrients. All cultivated crops
Cover crops are needed to control soil blowing and to should be rotated with soil-improving cover crops, and
improve the soil. large amounts of fertilizer should be used.
This soil is moderately suited to citrus trees, although This soil is well suited to citrus trees in a few places
some areas are subject to freezing in winter. Citrus groves where trees are protected from freezing in winter. Grow-
require a cover crop or a cover of weeds and grasses be- ing a cover crop between the trees, applying lime and fer-
tween the trees to control soil blowing. Tillage should be tilizer, and irrigating during dry periods are necessary.
kept to a minimum. Sprinkler irrigation is needed for If properly managed, this soil is moderately well suited
the survival of young trees. It also makes the soil better to deep-rooted, improved pasture grasses. Bahiagrass and
suited to the mature trees. other deep-rooted grasses are adapted but need fertilizing,
This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture. It pro- liming, and controlled grazing. Hairy indigo, crotalaria,
duces only fair pastures of bahiagrass and other deep- and other deep-rooted legumes can be grown successfully,
rooted grasses, even if fertilizer is applied frequently but careful management is needed to maintain a good
and grazing is carefully controlled. Capability unit VIs- cover of vegetation. Capability unit IVs-1; woodland
1; woodland group 8; range management group 8. group 7; range management group 7.
Astatula sand, 8 to 17 percent slopes (AsD).-This is Astatula sand, dark surface, 8 to 17 percent slopes
a strongly sloping to moderately steep, excessively (AtD).-This is a strongly sloping to moderately steep,
drained, sandy soil that is on choppy, dunelike terrain excessively drained soil that is mainly in areas leading
and on short slopes adjacent to sinks. It is similar to to sinks and lakes. It has a dark-gray or dark grayish-
Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes, but it has stronger brown, sandy surface layer over yellowish, sandy layers
slopes. It has a profile similar to that described as repre- that extend to a depth of more than 80 inches. It is sim-
sentative of the series, but in places the original surface ilar to Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes, but this soil
layer has been removed through erosion. The water table is has stronger slopes and has a darker colored surface
at a depth of 60 inches or more. layer. The water table is at a depth of 60 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are many small Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
areas of Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes, that are too areas of Astatula sand, banded substratum, 0 to 8 percent
small or are mixed with steeper areas in a pattern that slopes, and Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 8 percent
is too complex to be mapped separately. Also included slopes. Also included are small areas of poorly drained
are a few small areas of Paola sand. soils in depressions.
Natural vegetation is sand pine forests that have scat- Natural vegetation is forests of longleaf pine and
tered sand live oak, myrtle oak, and crookedwood, and turkey oak that have an understory of gopher apple,
an understory of rosemary, scrub palmetto, saw-palmetto, pawpaw, and numerous forbs and native grasses. Nearly
garberia, and lichens. Nearly all areas are in natural all areas are in natural vegetation.
vegetation. This soil is suited mainly to woodland, but it is not
Because of poor soil qualities and strong slopes, this suited to cultivated crops, improved pasture, or citrus
soil is not suited to cultivated crops, improved pasture, or trees. Its use is limited because of its slope and very
citrus trees. It has very low available water capacity and
very low natural fertility. Very rapid permeability causes poor soil qualities. It has very low available water capac-
plant nutrients to be quickly lost through leaching. Capa- ity and very low natural fertility. Permeability is very
ability unit VIIs-1; woodland group 8; range manage- rapid, and plant nutrients are quickly lost through
ment group 8. leaching. Capability unit VIIs-1; woodland group 7;
Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 8 percent slopes range management group 7.
(AtB).-This is a nearly level to sloping, excessively drained Astatula sand, banded substratum, 0 to 8 percent
soil that is on broad, gently undulating ridges. It has a slopes (AuB).-This is a nearly level to sloping, excessively
dark-gray or dark grayish-brown, sandy surface layer drained, sandy soil that has a thin, grayish, sandy surface
above yellowish, sandy layers that extend to a depth of layer over yellowish or brownish, sandy layers that ex-
80 inches or more. It is similar to Astatula sand, 0 to 8 tend to a depth of more than 80 inches. It has numerous,
percent slopes, except that the surface layer is darker in horizontal, discontinuous layers of loamy sand, /8 to %
color. The water table is at a depth of 60 inches or more. inch in thickness, between depths of 50 and 80 inches
Included with this soil in mapping are some areas that The combined thickness of these layers is less than 6








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 7

inches. The water table is at a depth of more than 60 the trees may be damaged by a high water table in an
inches. unusually wet season. The tree roots extend into the moist
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas area just above the water table and receive adequate
where the soils have thin loamy sand layers that are amounts of water to sustain them in a dry season. Good
more than 6 inches in total thickness, small areas of soils management of citrus groves requires growing a cover
that are sand throughout and do not have loamy bands, crop between the trees and applying enough fertilizer
and small areas of soils that have slopes of more than 8 and lime.
percent. Also included are small areas of sandy, less well This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Deep-
drained soils. rooted grasses grow well if they are properly established,
Natural vegetation is forests of longleaf pine and tur- fertilized, and limed and if grazing is controlled. Pasture
key oak that have an understory of low shrubs and native is not adversely affected by dry weather to any great
grasses. Forest is the dominant use, but some acreage is extent. Capability unit IIIs-2; woodland group 4; range
in citrus trees and pasture, management group 4.
Because it has poor soil qualities, this soil is poorly
suited to cultivated crops. Available water capacity and Astor Series
natural fertility are very low. Permeability is very rapid,
and this results in rapid leaching of plant nutrients. A The Astor series consists of nearly level, very poorly
few special crops, such as watermelon, are adapted and drained, sandy soils that are in depressions, in low, flat
can be grown if intensive management is used that in- areas, and along poorly defined drainageways. These
eludes liberal use of fertilizer and sprinkler irrigation, soils formed in thick beds of marine sediment.
All cultivated crops should be grown in rotation with In a representative profile the surface layer is black
soil-improving cover crops, sand about 8 inches thick. Below this, and extending to a
This soil is well suited to citrus trees in a few places depth of 80 inches, is very dark gray or very dark grayish-
where trees are protected from freezing, and some areas brown sand.
are used for citrus trees and pasture. Growing a cover Astor soils have rapid permeability in all layers. The
crop between the trees, applying lime and fertilizer, and available water capacity is moderate to a depth of about
irrigating during dry periods are necessary. 24 inches and, below this, low to a depth of 80 inches.
This soil is moderately well suited to deep-rooted, im- These soils have high organic-matter content in the sur-
proved pasture grasses if proper management is used. face layer, and they have moderate natural fertility.
Bahiagrass and other deep-rooted grasses are adapted, Representative profile of Astor sand:
but where these grasses are used, fertilizing, liming, and 01-1 inch to 0, fresh leaves, twigs, stems, and bark.
controlled grazing are needed. Hairy indigo, crotalaria, All-0 to 8 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand, very dark brown
and other deep-rooted legumes can be grown successfully, (10YR 2/2) rubbed; many, medium, distinct, gray
but careful management is needed to maintain good vege- (10YR 6/1) mottles; weak, fine, granular structure;
t cr e aa nt i oan go v friable; many fine, medium, and coarse roots; many
tative cover. Capability unit IVs-1; woodland group 7; sand grains are uncoated; slightly acid; gradual,
range management group 7. wavy boundary.
Astatula sand, moderately deep water table, 0 to 8 A12-8 to 24 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand, very
percent slopes (AwB).-This is a nearly level to sloping, dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) rubbed; many, me-
excessively drained, sandy soil that is mainly on nearly dium, faint, grayish-brown mottles; weak, fine, gran-
excessively drained, sandy soil that is maily on nearly ular structure; friable, nonsticky; common fine, me-
level, low ridges that are intermediate in elevation be- dium, and coarse roots; many uncoated sand grains;
tween areas of flatwoods and the higher ridges. This soil moderately alkaline; gradual, wavy boundary.
is similar to Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes, except C1-24 to 32 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2)
that the water table is closer to the surface and the soil rubbed, sand; many, medium, faint, very dark gray
mottles; single grained; loose; common fine and me-
color below a depth of 40 inches is light gray instead of dium roots; many clean sand grains; moderately
brownish yellow. The water table is at a depth of 40 to alkaline; clear, wavy boundary.
60 inches for longer than 6 months in most years. In wet 02-32 to 80 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2)
seasons it is briefly above a depth of 40 inches, but in rubbed sand; many, medium, faint, black mottles;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; many clean
dry seasons it is below a depth of 60 inches. sand grains; moderately alkaline.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The A horizon ranges from black or very dark gray to very
Immokalee sand and a few other areas where there is a dark grayish brown in color and from 24 to 34 inches in
loamy layer at a depth of less than 80 inches, thickness. The content of organic matter is 3 to 15 percent
Natural vegetation is forests of longleaf pine and slash in the upper part and 1 to 5 percent in the lower part. Small
pine that have an understory of shrubs and grasses. pockets of gray sand are common in some places.
The limitations toThe 1 horizon ranges from black to very dark grayish
The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated brown and from 6 to 18 inches in thickness. In places it is
crops are severe, because of poor soil qualities. Available mottled with shades of gray, yellow, or brown. Organic-
water capacity, natural fertility, and organic-matter con- matter content of the C1 horizon is 1 to 5 percent. The C2
tent are very low. Water moves very rapidly through horizon is very dark grayish brown to gray, and there are
the soil, and little is retained in the upper layers. The mottles in shades of gray, yellow, or brown in many places
Vertical streaks of black to gray are common.
water table is normally near enough to the surface to Astor soils have a slightly acid to moderately alkaline A
supply water to deep-rooted plants, such as improved horizon and a mildly or moderately alkaline C horizon. The
grasses, watermelons, and citrus trees. water table is within 10 inches of the surface for more than
This soil is well suited to citrus trees in places where 6 months in most years. During the wettest seasons it is at
This soil is well suited to citrus trees in places where or on the surface, but in the driest seasons it recedes to a
trees are protected from freezing in winter. Natural drain- depth below 20 inches. Many depressed areas are flooded for
age is generally adequate for good growth of trees, but 3 to 9 months each year.









8 SOIL SURVEY

Astor soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka, Po- brown and reddish-brown mottles. Between depths of
mello, and Sellers soils. They are more poorly drained than about 64 and 80 inches is a layer of brown sand.
all of those soils, except the Sellers soils. They have a thick Bsinger soils have very rapid permeability and very
black Al horizon directly over the C horizon instead of the Basinger soils have very rapid permeability and very
thin Al horizon and weakly cemented black B2h horizon that low available water capacity. Natural fertility and
are typical of Immokalee, Myakka, and Pomello soils. Astor organic-matter content are low.
soils range from slightly acid to alkaline, whereas Sellers Representative profile of Basinger sand:
soils are strongly acid to very strongly acid.
Astor sand (Ax).-Tis is a nearly levl, vy Al-0 to 6 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak, me-
Astor sand (Ax).-This is a nearly level, very poorly dium, granular structure; very friable; many fine,
drained, sandy soil that is in depressions, low nearly level medium, and coarse roots; few, coarse, faint, brown
areas, and poorly defined drainageways. It has a dark- mottles; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
colored surface layer 24 to 34 inches thick over sandy A21-6 to 27 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; few, fne, dis
t extend to a inces or more. tinct, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) root stains and
layers that extend to a depth of 80 inches or more. Some common, medium, faint, dark-gray streaks; single
depressed areas are covered with shallow water for 3 to grained; loose; common fine and medium roots; me-
9 months each year. dium acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
Included with this soil in mapping are a few areas A22-27 to 35 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sand; common,
urfe l r is l a w medium, distinct, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) and
where the surface layer is loamy and other areas where brown (10YR 5/3) mottles; single grained; loose;
the surface layer is less than 24 inches thick. Also in- few fine roots; medium acid; abrupt, wavy boundary.
clouded are spots where there is a dark-colored, weakly C&Bh-35 to 64 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4) sand; corn-
cemented layer below a depth of 30 inches, and spots mon, medium, distinct, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2)
where there is loamy material or marl that contains shells and dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) mottles; few,
medium, dark reddish-brown organic concretions in
between 40 and 60 inches below the surface. Another upper 1 to 2 inches; single grained; loose; few fine
inclusion is a small area of Astor sand, southeast of roots; many uncoated sand grains; medium acid;
Eureka Bridge, that has mixed gray marl and sand gradual, wavy boundary.
layers within 20 inches of the surface and where large C-64 to 80 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single grained;
loose; few fine roots; common,, medium, faint, dark
limestone rocks are on the surface. Also included are reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) mottles; many uncoated
areas of Sellers sand. sand grains; strongly acid.
Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palm, water The Al horizon ranges from black to dark gray or grayish
oak, southern red maple, and sweetgum and an understory brown in color and from 2 to 8 inches in thickness. The A2
of waxmyrtle, gallberry, poison-ivy, smilax, and ferns, horizon ranges from brown to light gray and generally has
The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated grayish or brownish mottles. It is 6 to 31 inches thick.
Streaks of the Al horizon extend into the A2 horizon.
crops are severe because of excessive wetness. Unless The C&Bh horizon is very dark grayish brown, brown,
drained, the soil is not suited to cultivation. A moder- dark brown, or dark yellowish brown and ranges from 6 to
lately high organic-matter content and moderate available 36 inches in thickness. It has few to common light-colored or
water capacity in the surface layer make this an excellent dark-colored mottles. The C horizon is brown to light gray
soil for truck crops, if the water level is properly con- and extends to a depth of iches or strongly acid A
Basinger soils have a medium acid to very strongly acid A
trolled and if other factors make the growing of these horizon and a medium acid to mildly alkaline C&Bh horizon.
crops feasible. Natural fertility is moderate, and the re- In most years the water table is within 10 inches of the sur-
sponse to fertilizer is good. The drainage system must face for 2 to 6 months and within 40 inches of the surface
be properly designed, constructed, and maintained. for 9 months or more.
Basinger soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka,
This soil generally is not suited to citrus trees. Limi- Pomello, and Sellers soils. Basinger soils have a C&Bh hori-
tations affecting the growth of trees are very poor drain- zon or imperfectly developed Bh horizon instead of the well-
age and the risk of freezing temperatures, developed Bh horizon that is typical of Immokalee, Myakka,
S. and Pomello soils. They are more poorly drained than Pomello
With proper management, this soil produces excellent soils. Basinger soils are better drained than Sellers soils, and
pasture of improved grasses or grass-clover mixtures, they lack a thick, dark-colored A horizon, which the Sellers
Good management includes water control that removes soils have.
excess runoff and provides subsurface irrigation. It also Basinger sand (Ba).-This is a nearly level, poorly
includes frequent application of lime and fertilizer and drained soil that is in flatwoods in sloughs or poorly de-
careful control of grazing. Capability unit IIIw-2; wood- fined drainageways and depressions. It has an organic-
land group 5; range management group 6. stained layer that begins within 40 inches of the surface.
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2
to 6 months in most years. It is at the surface after heavy
Basinger Series rains and briefly 40 inches below the surface in unusually
The Basinger series consists of nearly level, poorly dry seasons.
drained soils that are in sloughs of poorly defined drain- Included with this soil in mapping are some areas of
ageways and depressions in the flatwoods. These soils Basinger sand that have a dark-gray surface layer 6 to
10 inches thick. Also included are areas of Basinger sand
formed in sandy marine sediments, that lack brownish-stained layers below the surface and
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark- a few areas where there is loamy material below the
gray sand and about 6 inches thick. The next layer is stained layer.
about 21 inches of gray sand that has dark-gray streaks Natural vegetation consists mainly of slash pine, long-
and yellowish root stains. Below this, to a depth of 35 leaf pine, waxmyrtle, gallberry, saw-palmetto, maiden-
inches, is light-gray sand that has mottles of grayish cane, and wiregrass. Most areas are still in natural vege-
brown and brown. Between depths of about 35 and 64 station, but a few are in improved pasture or citrus trees.
inches is a layer of dark-brown sand that has grayish- The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 9

crops are severe because of wetness and very low available black (5YR 2/1) and dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2)
water capacity. Permeability is very rapid, and this re- weakly cemented concretions consisting of sand
S p coated with organic matter; common, clean sand
sults in rapid leaching of plant nutrients. Unless drained, grains; very strongly acid; clear, irregular boundary.
the soil is not suited to cultivated crops, but if drainage B21h-27 to 38 inches, black (5YR 2/1) sand; common,
and intensive management are used, it is moderately well medium, distinct, dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2) and
suited to some vegetable crops. A properly designed, yellowish-red (5YR 5/6) mottles, moderate, medium,
and maintained water control system that subangular blocky structure; very firm; strongly
constructed, and mated water control system that cemented, few fine roots; sand grains are coated
permits reliable control of the water table and provides with organic material, except along old root chan-
subsurface irrigation is essential. Other important man- nels; very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
agement practices are a system of crop rotation that B22h-38 to 46 inches, mottled dark reddish-brown (5YR
improves the soil and frequent applications of fertilizer. 3/3), reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/6), dark brown
(7.5YR 3/2), and yellowish-red (5YR 5/8) sand;
Because of a high water table and a severe hazard of moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure;
freezing, this soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. A care- very firm; strongly cemented; few fine roots; few,
fully designed, installed, and maintained water control coarse, clean sand grains; very strongly acid;
system is needed if this soil is used for citrus trees. This gradual, wavy boundary.
system is needed i tis soil is used or citrus trees s B'2tg-46 to 60 inches, gray (N 5/0) sandy clay; common,
system should consist of ditches or tiles, control structures, medium, prominent, red (10R 4/8), reddish-yellow
and bedding. Because this soil has low fertility and sandy (7.5YR 6/8), and light-gray (10YR 7/2) mottles;
texture, the maintenance of fertility is difficult, moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure; firm;
Under intensive management, this soil is well suited few fine roots; clay films continuous on ped faces;
few small sand pockets; very strongly acid.
to improved pasture of grass or grass and clover. Among
good management practices for improved pasture are The Al horizon ranges from 2 to 6 inches in thickness
good management practices orand from dark gray to black in color when rubbed. The A2
water control similar to that used for cultivated crops horizon ranges from gray to light gray in color and from
but less intensive, applications of fertilizer as needed, and 16 to 24 inches in thickness. In many places this layer has
careful control of grazing. Capability unit IVw-2; wood- few to common, brownish or yellowish mottles. In places,
land group 4; range management group 4. streaks of the Al horizon extend into it. The entire A
horizon is less than 30 inches thick. The A&Bh horizon is a
thin, discontinuous layer, to 3 inches thick, that has
Delks Series mottles in shades of black, gray, brown, and yellow.
The B2h horizon is black, very dark gray, dark reddish
The Delks series consists of nearly level, somewhat brown, or dark brown, and is 6 to 24 inches thick. This
poorly drained soils that are in broad areas in the flat- horizon has few to common mottles in shades of red, brown,
poorly drained soils that are in broad areas in the flat- or yellow. The organic-matter content is 1 to 6 percent. In
woods. These soils formed in sandy marine sediment places the B2h horizon contains root channels up to 1 inch
over loamy and clayey marine sediment. in diameter. These channels are filled with strongly ce-
In a representative profile the surface layer is about 4 mented, light brownish-gray or light-gray sand. Between
inches of very dark gray sand over about 21 inches of the B2h and B2tg horizons in some profiles, there is a dis-
continuous layer, 1/2 inch to 3 inches thick, of light-gray
light-gray sand. Between depths of about 25 and 30 inches to light-brownish gray, weakly cemented sand, and in some
is strongly cemented, dark grayish-brown and black sand an A'2 horizon of gray sand 2 to 20 inches thick. The B'2tg
that has mottles in shades of red, yellow, and brown. The horizon is dark grayish-brown to dark-brown or gray to
next 8 inches is a layer of strongly cemented sand mottled light-gray sandy clay loam to sandy clay that has mottles
with dar reddish brown, reddish yellow, dark brown, in shades of red, brown, yellow, and gray.
with dark reddish brown, reddish yellow, dark brown, Delks soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid through-
and yellowish red. Between depths of 46 and 60 inches out the profile. In most years the water table is within 10
is gray sandy clay mottled in shades of red, yellow, and inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months and at a depth be-
light gray. tween 10 and 40 inches for 6 months or more. During dry
r y is r id in te s e m e in seasons it is below a depth of 40 inches.
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, moderate in Delks soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka, Eureka,
the upper part of the cemented layer and moderately slow Pomello, and St. Lucie soils. They are better drained than
in the lower part, and slow in the clayey layer. Available Immokalee and Myakka soils and have clayey layers instead
water capacity is moderate in the cemented layer, low to of sand beneath the Bh horizon. Delks soils have a Bh
ver low in the other snd layersnd h in th horizon that is lacking in Eureka and St. Lucie soils. They
very low in the other sandy layers, and high in the clayey are better drained than Eureka soils and are more poorly
layer. These soils have low organic-matter content and drained than Pomello or St. Lucie soils.
low natural fertility. Delks sand (De).-This is a nearly level, somewhat
Representative profile of Delks sand: poorly drained soil in broad areas in the flatwoods, mostly
01-2 inches to 0, fresh pine needles, stems, bark, twigs, and in the western part of the forest area. It has a dark-
about 10 percent live roots, colored, strongly cemented, sandy layer at a depth of less
A1-0 to 4 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; weak, than 30 inches. The dark color comes from organic mat-
medium, granular structure; friable; many fine, me- than 30 mchesT dark color comes from organic mat-
dium, and large roots; many clean sand grains; very ter that coats the sand grains and cements them together.
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. The underlying material is clayey. In most years the
A2-4 to 25 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) sand; common, water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3
medium, faint, pale-brown and few, medium, faint, months and between depths of 10 and 40 inches for 6
brown mottles; single grained; loose; nonsticky; months or more. During dry seasons it may be below a
common fine and medium roots; many clean sand depth of 40 inches.
grains; very strongly acid; clear, irregular bound- Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
ary.
A&Bh-25 to 27 inches, mottled dark grayish-brown (10YR areas where the underlying material is clay instead of
4/2); grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) and dark-brown sandy clay, and a few other small areas where the under-
(7.5YR 3/2) sand; weak, coarse, subangular blocky lying layer is sandy rather than clayey. Also included
structure; firm; weakly cemented; many roots; few are a few small areas where the soil is slightly acid to









10 SOIL SURVEY

medium acid and some areas where there are a few, nar- the surface. In dry seasons, the water table is lower but
row, choppy, low slopes around depressions. seldom below a depth of 30 inches.
The annual temperature of the Dorovan soils mapped in
Natural vegetation is forests of slash pine and long- this survey area is slightly higher than the defined range
leaf pine that have an understory of gallberry, waxmyrtle, for the Dorovan series, but this difference does not alter
saw-palmetto, and grasses, the usefulness and behavior of the soils.
The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated Dorovan soils are associated with Sellers, Astor, Ever-
e because of the periodic wetness and poor glades, Terra Cea, and Pamlico soils. Dorovan soils are
crops are severe because of the periodic wetness and poor organic soils, whereas Sellers and Astor soils are mineral
soil qualities, which reduce the choice of plants and make soils. They are less fibrous and more acid than Everglades
the use of intensive management necessary. This soil is soils and are much more acid than Terra Ceia soils. Dorovan
low in natural fertility and low to very low in available soils have an organic layer that is more than 52 inches
water capacity in the sandy surface layer. For many thick, whereas Pamlico soils hae sad within 0 inches
plants the cemented layer restricts the root zone to the .
sandy surface layer. Dorovan muck (Do).-This is a nearly level, very poor-
This soil is well suited to vegetable crops in those areas ly drained, organic soil on low flats near rivers and lakes
that are relatively free from frost and where irrigation and in large cypress ponds and hardwood swamps. It
water is available. Intensive management practices and consists of highly decoposed organic material 52 inches
careful control of the water tables are needed. Drainage- or more thick. In most years the water table is within
subirrigation systems must be carefully designed, in- 10 inches of the surface for 9 to 12 months. Many areas
stalled, and maintained. are covered with shallow water most of the time. In dry
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. Poor drainage, seasons the water table is 10 to 30 inches below the
susceptibility to freezing, and restriction of the root zone surface.
by a cemented subsurface layer adversely affect tree Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
growth. Under the most favorable local climate and soil areas of Pamlico muck and a few areas that are slightly
variations, citrus trees are moderately well suited, but acid instead of strongly acid. Also included are mineral
careful control of water and good management are soils around the edges of some areas and, in some places,
needed. A careful study of the site should be made before small islands of mineral soils.
the planning for citrus trees is begun. Natural vegetation in wooded areas consists of cypress,
If excess water is removed by a simple drainage sys- loblolly pine, bay, blackgum, and. southern red maple
tem this soil is well suited to pastures of improved grass. and, in open marsh areas, maidencane, sawgrass, button-
Liberal use of fertilizer is necessary. Clover can be grown bush, and smilax. Most areas are still in native vegetation,
with grass but should be irrigated to assure good growth. but a few are in improved pasture grasses.
Capability unit IIIw-1; woodland group 12; range man- The major limitation to the use of this soil for culti-
agement group 9. vated crops is excess water. If drainage and water control
measures are adequate, this soil is excellent for vegetable
crops. Drainage can be established through a system of
Dorovan Series dikes, canals, ditches, and pumps. Control structures are
The Dorovan series consists of nearly level, very poorly needed to keep the water table at proper depth for crops
drained, organic soils. The organic material is more than and to reduce the hazard of subsidence by oxidation of
52 inches thick. These soils are on low flats near rivers and organic matter. Other management practices include the
lakes and in large cypress ponds and hardwood swamps. use of cover crops; the frequent application of fertilizer
They formed in the highly decomposed remains of hy- that is high in content of all plant nutrients, except ni-
drophytic, fibrous, nonwoody plants. trogen; and control of soil reaction.
In a representative profile Dorovan soils are very dark This soil is not suited to citrus trees.
grayish-brown, highly decomposed muck to a depth of If properly managed, the soil is well suited to pastures
about 64 inches. of improved grass or grass and clover mixtures. Manage-
Dorovan soils have rapid permeability throughout. The ment practices include a water control system designed
available water capacity, organic-matter content, and to remove excess surface water and maintain the water
nitrogen content are all very high. table at favorable depths, adequate application of fertil-
Representative profile of Dorovan muck: izer and lime where needed, and control of grazing. Cap-
ability unit IIIw-5; woodland group 1; range manage-
Oa-0 to 64 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2) unrubbed, ment group 1.
very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) rubbed, highly e g p
decomposed organic matter (muck); massive; non-
sticky; about 20 percent fiber unrubbed, but less Duplin Series
than 10 percent rubbed; fibers remaining after
rubbing are less than 3 millimeters in size; many The Duplin series consists of gently sloping, moderately
fine roots in upper few inches; about 10 percent well drained soils in narrow areas around lakes, ponds,
mineral; very strongly acid. and other depressions. These soils formed in unconsoli-
The color of the horizon is somewhat dependent on the dated, dominantly clayey sediments.
kind of decomposed plant tissue, but it ranges from dark
brown to black. Mineral material makes up 10 to 30 per- In a representative profile the surface layer is very
cent of the soil material and is generally sand. Fiber content dark gray loamy sand about 5 inches thick over 8 inches
is between 10 and 40 percent before rubbing and less than of brown loamy sand. Below this, to a depth of 32 inches,
10 percent after rubbing. is sandy clay that is mottled in shades of red, yellow,
Dorovan soils are strongly acid to very strongly acid. In ta i s r e, ylo
most years the water table is within 10 inches of the sur- and brown. At depths between 32 and 50 inches, is mot-
face for 9 to 12 months. Water frequently accumulates on tled gray, yellow, and red sandy clay loam. The under-









10 SOIL SURVEY

medium acid and some areas where there are a few, nar- the surface. In dry seasons, the water table is lower but
row, choppy, low slopes around depressions. seldom below a depth of 30 inches.
The annual temperature of the Dorovan soils mapped in
Natural vegetation is forests of slash pine and long- this survey area is slightly higher than the defined range
leaf pine that have an understory of gallberry, waxmyrtle, for the Dorovan series, but this difference does not alter
saw-palmetto, and grasses, the usefulness and behavior of the soils.
The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated Dorovan soils are associated with Sellers, Astor, Ever-
e because of the periodic wetness and poor glades, Terra Cea, and Pamlico soils. Dorovan soils are
crops are severe because of the periodic wetness and poor organic soils, whereas Sellers and Astor soils are mineral
soil qualities, which reduce the choice of plants and make soils. They are less fibrous and more acid than Everglades
the use of intensive management necessary. This soil is soils and are much more acid than Terra Ceia soils. Dorovan
low in natural fertility and low to very low in available soils have an organic layer that is more than 52 inches
water capacity in the sandy surface layer. For many thick, whereas Pamlico soils hae sad within 0 inches
plants the cemented layer restricts the root zone to the .
sandy surface layer. Dorovan muck (Do).-This is a nearly level, very poor-
This soil is well suited to vegetable crops in those areas ly drained, organic soil on low flats near rivers and lakes
that are relatively free from frost and where irrigation and in large cypress ponds and hardwood swamps. It
water is available. Intensive management practices and consists of highly decoposed organic material 52 inches
careful control of the water tables are needed. Drainage- or more thick. In most years the water table is within
subirrigation systems must be carefully designed, in- 10 inches of the surface for 9 to 12 months. Many areas
stalled, and maintained. are covered with shallow water most of the time. In dry
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. Poor drainage, seasons the water table is 10 to 30 inches below the
susceptibility to freezing, and restriction of the root zone surface.
by a cemented subsurface layer adversely affect tree Included with this soil in mapping are a few small
growth. Under the most favorable local climate and soil areas of Pamlico muck and a few areas that are slightly
variations, citrus trees are moderately well suited, but acid instead of strongly acid. Also included are mineral
careful control of water and good management are soils around the edges of some areas and, in some places,
needed. A careful study of the site should be made before small islands of mineral soils.
the planning for citrus trees is begun. Natural vegetation in wooded areas consists of cypress,
If excess water is removed by a simple drainage sys- loblolly pine, bay, blackgum, and. southern red maple
tem this soil is well suited to pastures of improved grass. and, in open marsh areas, maidencane, sawgrass, button-
Liberal use of fertilizer is necessary. Clover can be grown bush, and smilax. Most areas are still in native vegetation,
with grass but should be irrigated to assure good growth. but a few are in improved pasture grasses.
Capability unit IIIw-1; woodland group 12; range man- The major limitation to the use of this soil for culti-
agement group 9. vated crops is excess water. If drainage and water control
measures are adequate, this soil is excellent for vegetable
crops. Drainage can be established through a system of
Dorovan Series dikes, canals, ditches, and pumps. Control structures are
The Dorovan series consists of nearly level, very poorly needed to keep the water table at proper depth for crops
drained, organic soils. The organic material is more than and to reduce the hazard of subsidence by oxidation of
52 inches thick. These soils are on low flats near rivers and organic matter. Other management practices include the
lakes and in large cypress ponds and hardwood swamps. use of cover crops; the frequent application of fertilizer
They formed in the highly decomposed remains of hy- that is high in content of all plant nutrients, except ni-
drophytic, fibrous, nonwoody plants. trogen; and control of soil reaction.
In a representative profile Dorovan soils are very dark This soil is not suited to citrus trees.
grayish-brown, highly decomposed muck to a depth of If properly managed, the soil is well suited to pastures
about 64 inches. of improved grass or grass and clover mixtures. Manage-
Dorovan soils have rapid permeability throughout. The ment practices include a water control system designed
available water capacity, organic-matter content, and to remove excess surface water and maintain the water
nitrogen content are all very high. table at favorable depths, adequate application of fertil-
Representative profile of Dorovan muck: izer and lime where needed, and control of grazing. Cap-
ability unit IIIw-5; woodland group 1; range manage-
Oa-0 to 64 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2) unrubbed, ment group 1.
very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) rubbed, highly e g p
decomposed organic matter (muck); massive; non-
sticky; about 20 percent fiber unrubbed, but less Duplin Series
than 10 percent rubbed; fibers remaining after
rubbing are less than 3 millimeters in size; many The Duplin series consists of gently sloping, moderately
fine roots in upper few inches; about 10 percent well drained soils in narrow areas around lakes, ponds,
mineral; very strongly acid. and other depressions. These soils formed in unconsoli-
The color of the horizon is somewhat dependent on the dated, dominantly clayey sediments.
kind of decomposed plant tissue, but it ranges from dark
brown to black. Mineral material makes up 10 to 30 per- In a representative profile the surface layer is very
cent of the soil material and is generally sand. Fiber content dark gray loamy sand about 5 inches thick over 8 inches
is between 10 and 40 percent before rubbing and less than of brown loamy sand. Below this, to a depth of 32 inches,
10 percent after rubbing. is sandy clay that is mottled in shades of red, yellow,
Dorovan soils are strongly acid to very strongly acid. In ta i s r e, ylo
most years the water table is within 10 inches of the sur- and brown. At depths between 32 and 50 inches, is mot-
face for 9 to 12 months. Water frequently accumulates on tled gray, yellow, and red sandy clay loam. The under-









OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 11

lying material, to a depth of 64 inches, is light-gray sons it is less than 40 inches from the surface for brief
sandy loam mottled in shades of gray, red, and brown. periods.
Permeability is rapid in the loamy surface layer, slow Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
in the upper part of the subsoil and moderate in the where the surface layer of loamy sand is 20 to 40 inches
lower part, and moderately rapid in the underlying ma- thick.
trial. Available water capacity is moderate in all layers. Natural vegetation consists of slash pine and longleaf
The organic-matter content is low, and natural fertility pine and an understory of gallberry, saw-palmetto, and
is moderate. grasses.
Representative profile of Duplin loamy sand: If the control of water is adequate, this soil is suited
A1-0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy to vegetable crops, but the control of water is difficult
sand; moderate, medium, granular structure; fri- because the subsoil has slow permeability. Both drainage
able; many small, medium, and large roots; very and irrigation are necessary. This soil responds well to
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. fertilizer.
A2-5 to 13 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) loamy sand; weak, This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees because it is
fine, granular, structure; very friable; few, fine,
distinct, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks along wet and in low, cold areas. Careful control of water, pro-
old root channels; common fine and medium roots; tection from cold, and good management are needed in
very strongly acid; abrupt, smooth boundary. areas planted to citrus trees. A careful study of the site
B21t-13 to 29 inches, mottled, brownish-yellow (10YR should be made before trees are planted.
6/6), brown (10YR 5/3), and red (10YR 4/8) If this soil is given proper surface drainage and re-
sandy clay; moderate, medium, subangular blocky If this soil is given proper surface draage and re-
structure; firm; common fine and medium roots; ceives fertilizer in moderate amounts, it is excellent for
very strongly acid; clear, irregular boundary. improved pasture. Bahiagrass and bermudagrass are
B22t-29 to 32 inches, gray (N 5/0) sandy clay; many, adapted grasses. Capability unit IIIw-3; woodland group
medium, prominent mottles of pale brown (10YR 2; range management ro
6/3), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), and red range management group 5.
(2.5YR 4/6) and few, medium, faint mottles of
dark gray (N 4/0) ; moderate, medium, subangular Eureka Series
blocky structure; firm, few patchy clay films on
ped faces; few fine and medium roots; very The Eureka series consists of nearly level, poorly
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B3tg-32 to 50 inches, mottled gray (N 5/0), light-gray (N drained soils in broad, low areas or in small depressions.
6/0), yellow (10YR 7/6), and red (2.5YR 4/8) These soils formed in thick beds of acid, marine sandy
structure; few patchy clay films in pores; few clay or clay.
fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; grad- In a representative profile the surface layer is about 4
Cg-50 tua nche i -gray (5Y 7/1) sandy loam; many, inches of black loamy fine sand and, below this, about 7
medium, distinct and prominent mottles of olive gray inches of grayish-brown loamy fine sand. The next layer
(5Y 5/2), dark red (10R 3/6), strong brown (7.5YR is about 9 inches of gray sandy clay that has red and
5/8), and weak red (10R 5/2) ; weak, medium, gran- brownish mottles. Between depths of 20 and 72 inches
ular structure; firm; very strongly acid. is gray clay that has mottles in shades of brown, red, and
The Al horizon ranges from black to gray in color and gray.
from 3 to 8 inches in thickness. In places where the color Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer,
is black or very dark gray, the Al horizon is less than 6
inches thick. The A2 horizon ranges from dark grayish moderately slow in the upper part of the subsoil, and
brown or brown to pale brown, but not all profiles have an slow to very slow in the lower part of the subsoil. The
A2 horizon. The A horizon ranges from 6 to 20 inches in subsoil extends' to a depth of 72 inches or more. Available
tothe B2 rizon is reticulately mottled with shades of water capacity is moderate in the surface layer and mod-
yellow, brown, red, and gray. It ranges from 8 to 24 inches erately high in the clay layer. Natural fertility and
in thickness and from sandy clay to clay. The B3tg horizon organic-matter content are moderate.
and Cg horizon are gray or light gray and have few to Representative profile of Eureka loamy fine sand:
common mottles in shades of yellow, red, and brown.
Duplin soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid 01-1 inch to 0, fresh litter of leaves, twigs, and needles.
throughout the profile. In most years the water table is 40 A1-0 to 4 inches, black (N 2/0) loamy fine sand; moderate,
to 60 inches below the surface for 6 to 9 months, but in fine, granular structure; friable; common fine and
wet seasons it is only 10 to 40 inches below the surface for medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy
brief periods, boundary.
The annual temperature of the Duplin soils mapped in A2-4 to 11 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) loamy fine
this survey area is slightly higher than the defined range sand; common, medium, faint, gray and pale-brown
for the Duplin series, but this difference does not alter the mottles; moderate, fine granular structure; friable;
usefulness and behavior of the soils, common fine and medium roots; very strongly acid;
Duplin soils are associated with Delks, Eureka, Immoka- abrupt, wavy boundary.
lee, Myakka, Meggett, and Rains soils. They do not have a B21tg-ll to 20 inches, gray (N 5/0) sandy clay; common,
cemented Bh horizon, which is typical of Delks, Immokalee, medium, prominent, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) and
and Myakka soils. They are more acid and better drained red (10R 4/6) mottles; moderate, medium, sub-
than Meggett soils. They are better drained than Eureka angular blocky structure parting to weak, fine,
and Rains soils and have a higher clay content in the sub- angular blocky; firm; common fine and medium
soil than Rains soils have. roots; discontinuous clay films on ped faces; very
strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
Duplin loamy sand (Du).-This is a moderately well B22tg-20 to 57 inches, gray (N 5/0) clay; many, medium,
drained soil that is on narrow rims around lakes, ponds, prominent, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/8) and red (10R
and depressions. It has slopes ranging from 2 to 5 per- 4/6) mottles; moderate, medium, subangular blocky
cent. In most years the water table is 40 to 60 inches be- truture; firm patcd mdiay roms ton sy eds;
low the surface for more than 6 months, but in wet sea- gradual, wavy boundary.









12 SOIL SURVEY

B23tg-57 to 72 inches, gray (N 5/0) clay; many, medium, grow well with pasture grasses. Proper management of
prominent mottles of red (10R 4/6) and strong pasture includes use of adequate fertilizer, control of
brown (7.5YR 5/8) and many, medium, faint mot- eeds and control of grazin. Capability unit IIIw ;
ties of light brownish gray; moderate, medium, weeds, and control of grazing Capability i w-4;
subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots; woodland group 3; range management group 3.
red mottles that decrease with increasing depth;
clay films on peds; strongly acid. Eureka Series, Thick-Surface Variant
The Al horizon ranges from black to dark gray in color
and from 2 to 8 inches in thickness. The A2 horizon ranges The Eureka series, thick-surface variant, consists of
from grayish brown to light gray in color, and from 3 to 12 nearly level, very poorly drained soils in low areas and
inches in thickness. It has few to many mottles in shades
of gray, yellow, and brown. in depressions. These soils formed in thick beds of acid,
The Bt horizon ranges from sandy clay loam to clay and marine sand clay or clay.
from dark gray to light gray. It has few to many mottles In a representative profile the surface layer is about
in shades of yellow, brown, red, and gray. The Btg horizon 11 inches of black loamy sand. Below this, the subsurface
extends below a depth of 60 inches. In places the lower
part of the Btg horizon has lenses and small pockets of layer is about 7 inches of grayish-brown sand. Next is
coarser textured material. gray sandy clay that extends to a depth of about 33 inches
Eureka soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid and that grades gradually to clay, which extends to a
throughout the profile. In most years the water table is depth of more than 64 inches. The sandy clay and clay are
within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months, but it is mottled in shades of gray, brown, ello, orred.
10 to 40 inches below the surface the rest of the time. In mottled shades of gray, brown, yellow, or red.
most years the depressions are covered with shallow water Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer
for 2 to 9 months. and rapid in the sandy subsurface layer, but it decreases
Eureka soils are associated with Delks, Iberia, Meggett, with increasing depth from moderately slow to very slow
Rains, and Sellers soils. Eureka soils are more acid than in the subsoil. Available water capacity is moderate in the
Iberia and Meggett soils. They have a coarser textured A available water capacity is moderate
horizon than Iberia soils. They have a clayey B horizon, surface layer, low in the sandy subsurface layer, but mod-
whereas the Rains soils have a loamy B horizon and Sellers erately high in the subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate.
soils, below the A horizon, have no B horizon but only a Representative profile of Eureka loamy sand, thick-
sandy C horizon to a depth of 80 inches or more. Eureka surface variant:
soils do not have a dark-colored, strongly cemented Bh uace it
horizon, which is typical of Delks soils. A11-0 to 4 inches, black (N 2/0) loamy sand; moderate,
Eureka loamy fine sand (Es).-This is a nearly level, medium, granular structure; friable; many fine and
i medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy
poorly drained soil that is in broad, low areas or in small boundary.
depressions. It has a clayey subsoil within 20 inches of A12-4 to 11 inches, black (10YR 2/1) loamy sand; moder-
the surface. In most years the water table is within 10 ate, medium, granular structure; friable; common
inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months and the depres- fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear,
smooth boundary.
sions are covered with shallow water for 2 months or A2-11 to 18 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; few,
longer. faint mottles of gray and few, fine, distinct mottles
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of brown (7.5YR 4/2); weak, fine, granular struc-
where the surface layer is more than 20 inches thick and ture; very friable; few fine roots; very strongly
acid; abrupt, smooth boundary.
a few other areas where there is a thin, dark-colored, B21tg-l18 to 33 inches, gray (oYR 5/1) sandy clay; many,
weakly cemented layer above the clayey subsoil. Also coarse, faint, mottles of light gray, containing
included are a few areas where the soil is alkaline instead lenses of sand, and many coarse, prominent mottles
of acid and, in several places along the Oklawaha River, of light red (10YR 6/8) and strong brown (7.5YR
a few narrow bands that have slopes of 2 to 8 percent. t5/8; mfoderatew mpaty clay fglar blocn strufce
Natural vegetation is loblolly pine, slash pine, water few fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy
oak, live oak, and sweetgum and an understory of gall- boundary.
berry, smilax, waxmyrtle, scattered palmetto, and grasses. B22tg-33 to 64 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) clay; many,
coarse, prominent mottles of red (IOR 4/8) and
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation, but a strong-brown (7.YR 5/8) and many coarse, faint
few are in improved pasture and vegetable gardens. mottles of light gray; moderate, medium, subangu-
The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated lar blocky structure; firm; clay films complete on
crops are severe because the soil is excessively wet. Unless ped faces; very strongly acid.
drained, the soil is not suited to cultivation. The cla'vey The Al horizon is black, very dark gray, or very dark
subsoil has very slow permeability, and water control is grayish brown in color and ranges from 10 to 20 inches in
thickness. The A2 horizon is gray or grayish-brown sand
difficult. The root zone is restricted and limits the choice oikness. Th 2 2 inhoesthick. I is faintly to distinctly
of crops. This soil has good texture, moderate organic- mottled with shades of gray, yellow, or brown.
matter content, moderate available water capacity in the The Btg horizon ranges from sandy clay loam to day
urface soil, and moderate natural fertility. These are and is dark gray to light gray. It has few to many mottles
surface soil, and moderate natural fertility. These are in shades of yellow, brown, red, and gray.
favorable qualities for cultivated crops and pasture if the Eureka soils, thick-surface variant, are strongly acid or
soil is adequately drained. The choice of cultivated crops very strongly acid throughout the profile. In most years
is limited to those that are shallow rooted. Shallow ditches the water table is within 10 inches of the surface for to 9
months and between 10 and 40 inches below the surface
and bedding of rows are needed to provide surface drain- the rest of the time. Depressions are covered with shallow
age. A cropping system that makes full use of cover water for 3 to 9 months of the year.
crops and crop residue should be used. These soils are similar to Eureka soils, but they have a
This soil is not suited to citrus trees. It is well suited dark-colored surface layer more than 10 inches thick. Be-
cause the acreage is small, no series has been established
to pasture grasses, but simple drainage is needed to re- for these soils, and they are related to the most similar
move excess surface water. Legumes, such as white clover, soils as a variant.









OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 13

Eureka soils, thick-surface variant, are associated with A21-5 to 35 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
Iberia. Meggett, Eureka, Rains, Sellers, and Delks soils. grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
They are more acid than Iberia and Meggett soils and have common streaks of very dark grayish brown (10YR
a thicker, darker colored Al horizon, which in Iberia soils 3/2) along root channels; strongly acid; gradual,
is also coarser textured. Eureka soils have a clayey Btg wavy boundary.
horizon, whereas Rains soils have a loamy one. Eureka A22-35 to 50 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
soils have a clayey Btg horizon, whereas Sellers soils are grained; loose; common fine roots in upper few
sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. They do not have a inches; common, medium, faint, pale-brown mottles;
Bh horizon, at a depth of less than 30 inches, whereas strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
Delks soils do have. A2&B21t-50 to 75 inches, bands of strong-brown (7.5YR
ka am nd thick-surfac variant (Er. 5/6) loamy sand, ranging from 1/2 to 2 inches in
Eureka loamy sand, thick-surface variant (Er).- thickness, alternate with bands of very pale brown
This is a nearly level, very poorly drained soil that is in (10YR 7/3) sand, up to 1 inch thick; loamy sand
broad, low areas and in depressions. It has a thick, black has weak, fine, granular structure, but sand is
surface layer and a clayey subsoil that begins within 20 single grained; common balls of loamy sand up to
inches of the surface. In most years the water table is 1 inch in diameter; sand grains in loamy sand are
coated with clay; strongly acid; gradual, wavy
within 10 inches of the surface for 6 months or more, and boundary.
each year the depressions are covered with shallow water A2&B22t-75 to 84 inches, bands of very pale brown (10YR
for 3 months or more. 8/3) sand, 2 to 4 inches thick, alternate with
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas bands of strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6) loamy sand as
Sn inches thic, lso much as 2 inches thick; sand is single grained, and
where the surface layer is less than 10 inches thick. Also loamy sand has weak, fine, granular structure;
included are areas where the subsoil is sandy clay loam, sand grains in loamy sand are coated with clay;
a few areas where the soil is alkaline rather than acid, strongly acid.
and small areas where the surface layer is clay or clay The Al horizon ranges from grayish brown to very dark
loam. grayish brown in color and from 5 to 7 inches in thickness.
Natural vegetation is mainly maple, bay, and sweetgum The A2 horizon is brown, light yellowish brown, and pale
and an understory of wetland shrubs, vines, and grasses. brown and 9 to 50 inches thick. In places it has splotches
or mottles of gray to very pale brown. These splotches are
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, because it is small and do not indicate wetness. In the A2&B2t horizon,
wet. Because the soil is in low areas and has a very slowly bands of yellowish-brown, strong-brown, or yellowish-red
permeable subsoil, the establishment of a system that loamy sand or coarse sandy loam, 1/ to 2 inches thick,
adequately controls water is not feasible in most places. alternate with bands of gray to very pale brown sand, 1 to
ae ae T6 inches thick.
The risk of periodic flooding is also a limitation. Eustis soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid
This soil is not suited to citrus trees, throughout the profile. The water table is below a depth of
Several kinds of improved pasture grasses and clover 60 inches.
can be grown on this soil, but a drainage system that The annual temperature of Eustis soils in this survey
quickly removes excess surface water is essential. Good area is slightly higher than the defined range for the
quickly removes excess surface water is essential. Good Eustis series, but this difference does not alter the useful-
pasture management also includes use of fertilizer, con- ness and behavior of the soils.
trol of weeds, and control of grazing. Capability unit Eustis soils are associated with Astatula, Orlando, and
Vw-1; woodland group 3; range management group 3. Wicksburg soils. Eustis soils have a laminated A2&B2
horizon, which Astatula and Orlando soils do not have.
They do not have a well-developed B horizon, whereas
Eustis Series Wicksburg soils do. They have a lighter colored A2 horizon,
which is lacking in Orlando soils.
The Eustis series consists of gently sloping, somewhat Eustis sand (Eu).-This is a somewhat excessively
excessively drained, sandy soils on broad, high ridges, drained soil that is on broad, gently undulating, high
These soils formed in thick deposits of coarse-textured ridges. It has a thick, sandy surface layer and a weakly
marine or fluvial sediments. developed subsoil consisting of alternating thin bands of
In a representative profile the surface layer is about 5 loamy sand and sand. Slope ranges from 2 to .5 percent.
inches of very dark grayish-brown sand, and, below this, The water table is below a depth of 60 inches.
about 45 inches of brown sand, the upper part of which Included with this soil in mapping are some areas
has black streaks along old root channels in some places, where the soils are less acid than Eustis soils. Also in-
Between depths of about 50 and 84 inches are alternating clouded are small areas of Astatula sand and areas of sim-
thin bands of strong-brown loamy sand and very pale ilar soils that have a uniform subsoil of loamy sand.
brown sand. The bands of loamy sand and sand are Natural vegetation consists of open, parklike stands of
thicker in the lower part of this layer, longleaf pine and scrub oak and a ground cover of wire-
Eustis soils have very rapid permeability in the sandy grass. Much of the acreage is in citrus groves.
surface layer and rapid or moderately rapid permeability The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated
in the banded layer. The organic-matter content and na- crops are severe because of very low available water ca-
tural fertility are low. Available water capacity is very pacity in the surface layer and rapid leaching of plant
low in the sand layers and low in the bands of sand and nutrients. Natural fertility is low.
loamy sand. Although it is poorly suited to most cultivated crops,
Representative profile of Eustis sand: Eustis sand is well suited to a few special crops, such
01-1 inch to 0, fresh and partly decomposed leaves, twigs, as watermelon. All cultivated crops should be grown in
bark, and stems. rotation with soil-improving cover crops, and liberal use
A1-0 to 5 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) of fertilizer is necessary.
sand; weak, fine, granular structure; very friable;
many fine, medium, and coarse roots; strongly acid; This soil is well suited to citrus trees, but in some places
gradual, wavy boundary. the trees are subject to freezing in winter. If this soil is









14 SOIL SURVEY

used for citrus trees, cover crops between the trees, mini- much of the soil has been drained and now has a less
mum tillage, application of lime and fertilizer, and irri- fibrous surface layer. These areas are near the Oklawaha
nation during dry periods are necessary. River between Moss Bluff and Starks Ferry. Also in-
This soil is moderately well suited to bahiagrass, ber- cluded are a few areas where the soil has sandy or clayey
mudagrass, and other improved pasture grasses. If care- mineral layers at a depth of 40 to 50 inches, and a few
fully managed it is well suited to deep-rooted legumes, areas where the soils are strongly acid. Other inclusions
such as hairy indigo. Careful control of grazing and fre- are narrow areas of mineral soils around the edges of
quent use of fertilizer are necessary. Capability unit IIIs- organic soils, and small islands of mineral soils within
3; woodland group 6; range management group 5. some areas of organic soils.
Natural vegetation consists of thick stands of sawgrass
Everglades Series in some areas and willow, loblolly pine, bay, buttonbush,
and maidencane in others. Some of this soil is used to
The Everglades series consists of nearly level, very grow corn for silage. Excess water is the major limitation
poorly drained, organic soils more than 52 inches thick. to the use of this soil for cultivated crops. If adequate
These soils are in depressions and fresh-water marshes drainage and water control measures are used, this soil
along flood plains of the river. They formed in beds is excellent for vegetable crops. Drainage can be estab-
consisting of the remains of hydrophytic, fibrous, non- lished through a system of dikes, canals, ditches, and
woody plants. pumps. Control structures are needed to keep the water
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark table at the proper depth for crops and to reduce the
reddish-brown, fibrous, organic material about 39 inches hazard of subsidence by oxidation of the organic matter.
thick. Between depths of 39 and 100 inches is a mixture Other management practices include the use of cover
of dark reddish-brown and dark-brown, partly decom- crops; frequent application of fertilizer that is high in
posed, fibrous, organic materials. content of all plant nutrients, except nitrogen; and con-
Everglades soils have rapid permeability. Available trol of soil reaction.
water capacity is very high in all organic layers. The This soil is not suited to citrus trees.
organic-matter content and nitrogen content are very Under intensive management, Everglades muck is well
high. suited to pasture of improved grasses and clover mix-
Representative profile of Everglades muck: tures, and some areas are used for improved pasture.
Oel--0 to 39 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) rubbed Among proper management practices are a water control
and unrubbed, fibrous, partly decomposed organic system designed to remove excess surface water and main-
material (muck); friable; estimated fiber content tain the water table at a favorable depth; adequate ap-
is about 35 percent unrubbed and 20 percent plication of fertilizer and lime, where needed: and con-
rubbed; fibers are less than 3 millimeters in length;
sodium pyrophosphate extract color is light gray trol of grazing. Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland group
(10YR 7/2) ; medium acid; gradual, wavy boundary. 1; range management group 1.
Oe2-39 to 100 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) and
dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2) unrubbed, dark reddish- i i
brown (SYR 2/2) rubbed, fibrous, partly decom- Iberia Series
posed organic material; friable; estimated fiber
content is 45 percent unrubbed and 25 percent The Iberia series consists of nearly level, very poorly
rubbed; fibers are less than 3 millimeters in length; drained, clayey soils that are in low areas and depressions
sodium pyrophosphate extract color is light gray near the Oklawaha River. These soils formed in thick
(10YR 7/2) ; medium acid. deposits of clayey marine sediment.
The Oe horizon is dark reddish brown, dark brown, very In a representative profile the surface is black clay
dark gray, or black and ranges from 52 to more than 100 about 7 inches thick. Below this is about 10 inches of very
inches in thickness. The organic material is 33 to 66 per- dark grayish-brown clay. Between depths of about 1
cent fibrous before rubbing and 10 to 40 percent after dark grayish-brown clay. Between depths of about 17
rubbing, and 38 inches is olive-gray clay that has light olive-brown
Everglades soils are medium acid to moderately alkaline mottles and light-gray lime nodules. Next, and extending
throughout. In most years the water table is within 10 to a depth of about 64 inches, is gray clay that has
inches of the surface for 9 to 12 months, and the water is yellowish-brown and strong-brown mottles.
frequently above the surface. In dry seasons the water yellowish-brown and strong-brown mottles
table is lower but seldom at a depth of more than 30 inches. Iberia soils have very slow permeability and high
Everglades soils are associated with Astor, Sellers, Doro- available water capacity in all layers. Natural fertility
van, Pamlico, and Terra Ceia soils. They are organic soils, and organic-matter content are moderate.
whereas Astor and Sellers soils are mineral soils. Everglades Representative profile of Iberia clay:
soils are more fibrous and less acid than Dorovan and
Pamlico soils. They are thicker than Pamlico soils, which 01-2 inches to 0, fresh litter of leaves, twigs, stems, and
have sand within 52 inches of the surface. Everglades needles.
soils are more fibrous than Terra Ceia soils. A1-0 to 7 inches, black (10YR 2/1) clay; weak, medium
Everglades muck (Ev).-This is nearly level, very and fine, granular structure; friable; many fine,
Everglades muck (Ev.-This is a nearly level very medium, and coarse roots; mildly alkaline; clear,
poorly drained, organic soil that is in depressions and wavy boundary.
fresh-water swamps along flood plains of the river. The B21g-7 to 17 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR
fibrous, partly decomposed organic material is more than 3/2) clay; moderate, coarse, subangular blocky
52 inches thick. In most years the water table is within structure; very firm, very plastic; pressure faces
10 inches of the surface for 9 to 12 months, and shallow are prominent on peds; common fine, medium, and
coarse roots; few fine, distinct, soft to hard, light-
water covers some areas much of the time. In dry seasons gray (10YR 6/1) lime nodules; mildly lkaline;
the water table is 10 to 30 inches below the surface. clear, wavy boundary.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas where B22g-17 to 38 inches, olive-gray (5Y 5/2) clay; few, fine,









14 SOIL SURVEY

used for citrus trees, cover crops between the trees, mini- much of the soil has been drained and now has a less
mum tillage, application of lime and fertilizer, and irri- fibrous surface layer. These areas are near the Oklawaha
nation during dry periods are necessary. River between Moss Bluff and Starks Ferry. Also in-
This soil is moderately well suited to bahiagrass, ber- cluded are a few areas where the soil has sandy or clayey
mudagrass, and other improved pasture grasses. If care- mineral layers at a depth of 40 to 50 inches, and a few
fully managed it is well suited to deep-rooted legumes, areas where the soils are strongly acid. Other inclusions
such as hairy indigo. Careful control of grazing and fre- are narrow areas of mineral soils around the edges of
quent use of fertilizer are necessary. Capability unit IIIs- organic soils, and small islands of mineral soils within
3; woodland group 6; range management group 5. some areas of organic soils.
Natural vegetation consists of thick stands of sawgrass
Everglades Series in some areas and willow, loblolly pine, bay, buttonbush,
and maidencane in others. Some of this soil is used to
The Everglades series consists of nearly level, very grow corn for silage. Excess water is the major limitation
poorly drained, organic soils more than 52 inches thick. to the use of this soil for cultivated crops. If adequate
These soils are in depressions and fresh-water marshes drainage and water control measures are used, this soil
along flood plains of the river. They formed in beds is excellent for vegetable crops. Drainage can be estab-
consisting of the remains of hydrophytic, fibrous, non- lished through a system of dikes, canals, ditches, and
woody plants. pumps. Control structures are needed to keep the water
In a representative profile the surface layer is dark table at the proper depth for crops and to reduce the
reddish-brown, fibrous, organic material about 39 inches hazard of subsidence by oxidation of the organic matter.
thick. Between depths of 39 and 100 inches is a mixture Other management practices include the use of cover
of dark reddish-brown and dark-brown, partly decom- crops; frequent application of fertilizer that is high in
posed, fibrous, organic materials. content of all plant nutrients, except nitrogen; and con-
Everglades soils have rapid permeability. Available trol of soil reaction.
water capacity is very high in all organic layers. The This soil is not suited to citrus trees.
organic-matter content and nitrogen content are very Under intensive management, Everglades muck is well
high. suited to pasture of improved grasses and clover mix-
Representative profile of Everglades muck: tures, and some areas are used for improved pasture.
Oel--0 to 39 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) rubbed Among proper management practices are a water control
and unrubbed, fibrous, partly decomposed organic system designed to remove excess surface water and main-
material (muck); friable; estimated fiber content tain the water table at a favorable depth; adequate ap-
is about 35 percent unrubbed and 20 percent plication of fertilizer and lime, where needed: and con-
rubbed; fibers are less than 3 millimeters in length;
sodium pyrophosphate extract color is light gray trol of grazing. Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland group
(10YR 7/2) ; medium acid; gradual, wavy boundary. 1; range management group 1.
Oe2-39 to 100 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) and
dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2) unrubbed, dark reddish- i i
brown (SYR 2/2) rubbed, fibrous, partly decom- Iberia Series
posed organic material; friable; estimated fiber
content is 45 percent unrubbed and 25 percent The Iberia series consists of nearly level, very poorly
rubbed; fibers are less than 3 millimeters in length; drained, clayey soils that are in low areas and depressions
sodium pyrophosphate extract color is light gray near the Oklawaha River. These soils formed in thick
(10YR 7/2) ; medium acid. deposits of clayey marine sediment.
The Oe horizon is dark reddish brown, dark brown, very In a representative profile the surface is black clay
dark gray, or black and ranges from 52 to more than 100 about 7 inches thick. Below this is about 10 inches of very
inches in thickness. The organic material is 33 to 66 per- dark grayish-brown clay. Between depths of about 1
cent fibrous before rubbing and 10 to 40 percent after dark grayish-brown clay. Between depths of about 17
rubbing, and 38 inches is olive-gray clay that has light olive-brown
Everglades soils are medium acid to moderately alkaline mottles and light-gray lime nodules. Next, and extending
throughout. In most years the water table is within 10 to a depth of about 64 inches, is gray clay that has
inches of the surface for 9 to 12 months, and the water is yellowish-brown and strong-brown mottles.
frequently above the surface. In dry seasons the water yellowish-brown and strong-brown mottles
table is lower but seldom at a depth of more than 30 inches. Iberia soils have very slow permeability and high
Everglades soils are associated with Astor, Sellers, Doro- available water capacity in all layers. Natural fertility
van, Pamlico, and Terra Ceia soils. They are organic soils, and organic-matter content are moderate.
whereas Astor and Sellers soils are mineral soils. Everglades Representative profile of Iberia clay:
soils are more fibrous and less acid than Dorovan and
Pamlico soils. They are thicker than Pamlico soils, which 01-2 inches to 0, fresh litter of leaves, twigs, stems, and
have sand within 52 inches of the surface. Everglades needles.
soils are more fibrous than Terra Ceia soils. A1-0 to 7 inches, black (10YR 2/1) clay; weak, medium
Everglades muck (Ev).-This is nearly level, very and fine, granular structure; friable; many fine,
Everglades muck (Ev.-This is a nearly level very medium, and coarse roots; mildly alkaline; clear,
poorly drained, organic soil that is in depressions and wavy boundary.
fresh-water swamps along flood plains of the river. The B21g-7 to 17 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR
fibrous, partly decomposed organic material is more than 3/2) clay; moderate, coarse, subangular blocky
52 inches thick. In most years the water table is within structure; very firm, very plastic; pressure faces
10 inches of the surface for 9 to 12 months, and shallow are prominent on peds; common fine, medium, and
coarse roots; few fine, distinct, soft to hard, light-
water covers some areas much of the time. In dry seasons gray (10YR 6/1) lime nodules; mildly lkaline;
the water table is 10 to 30 inches below the surface. clear, wavy boundary.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas where B22g-17 to 38 inches, olive-gray (5Y 5/2) clay; few, fine,









OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 15

prominent, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/6) mottles; and the difficulty of obtaining adequate drainage. The
moderate, coarse, subangular blocky structure; very clay surface layer can be tilled safely only within a nar-
firm, very plastic; pressure faces are prominent and e e t
complete on peds; few slickensides that do not inter- row range of moisture content.
sect; common fine, medium, and coarse roots; com- Good pasture can be grown on this soil, but intensive
mon, fine, prominent, soft to hard, light-gray (10YR management is necessary. A drainage system properly
6/1) lime nodules; mildly alkaline; clear, wavy designed to remove excess surface water is essential. If
Bg-38 ouar nhes, gray (N 5/0) clay; common, medium, adequately fertilized, this soil is well suited to grass-
distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) and brown clover pastures. Grazing should be controlled and rotated
(7.5YR 4/4) mottles; moderate, coarse, subangular to permit the growth of healthy plants and to prevent
blocky structure; very firm, very plastic; pressure the puddling or packing of the surface layer by animals.
faces are distinct and broken on peds and in pores; Capability unit Vw-1; woodland group 3; range manage-
common fine and medium roots; common light-gray
(10YR 6/) lime nodules; mildly alkaline; clear, ment group 3.
wavy boundary.
C-48 to 64 inches, gray (N 5/0) clay; reticulate mottles of Immokalee Series
yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and strong brown m ee es
c(7mon fin and massiem erot; rm,ay proasticn The Immokalee series consists of nearly level, poorly
lime nodules; mildly alkaline. drained, sandy soils that are mainly on broad, low ridges
The Al horizon is black, very dark gray, or very dark in flatwoods. Some areas are depressions between high
grayish brown and ranges from 3 to 8 inches in thickness. sand ridges or around ponds and in sloughs. These soils
The B21g horizon ranges from very dark grayish brown to formed in beds of marine sand.
gray in color and from 7 to 10 inches in thickness. The Al In a representative profile the surface layer is black
and B21g horizons range from 10 to 18 inches in combined sand about 5 inches thick and, below this, light-gray sand
thickness. The B22g and B3g horizons are dark grayish,
brown, dark gray, gray, or olive gray and have mottles in about 29 inches thick. Between depths of about 34 and
shades of brown and gray. The Bg horizon is sandy clay or 54 inches is a layer of black sand that is weakly cemented
clay. by organic matter. Below this, and extending to a depth
Iberia soils are neutral to moderately alkaline throughout of 72 inches, is brown sand.
the profile. In most years the water table is within 10 inches
of the surface for 6 to 9 months. Each year the depressions Immokalee soils have moderate to moderately rapid
are covered with shallow water for 3 to 9 months. During permeability in the weakly cemented layers and rapid
dry seasons the soil may be dry and hard to a depth of permeability in all other layers. The available water ca-
30 inches or more. pacity is moderate in the weakly cemented layers but very
The annual temperature of the Iberia soils mapped in low n all other layers. Organic-matter content and na-
this survey area is slightly higher than the defined range low in all other layers. Organc-matter content and na
for the Iberia series, but this difference does not alter the tural fertility are low.
usefulness or behavior of these soils. Representative profile of Immokalee sand:
Iberia soils are associated with Astor, Delks, Eureka,
Meggett, and Rains soils. Iberia soils are clayey throughout, A1-0 to 5 inches, sand, black (10YR 2/1) rubbed; weak,
whereas Astor soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or fine, granular structure; very friable; many fine,
more. They lack a sandy A horizon and a cemented Bh medium, and coarse roots; the color results from the
horizon, which Delks soils have. Iberia soils have a thicker, mixture of light-gray sand grains and black organic
darker colored surface layer than Eureka, Meggett, and matter; very strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
Rains soils. They also have a clayey A horizon, whereas A2-5 to 34 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sand; few,
Eureka. Meggett, and Rains soils have a loamy A horizon, medium, distinct, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) mot-
They are neutral to moderately alkaline, whereas Eureka ties; single grained; loose; common fine, medium,
and Rains soils are acid. and large roots; very strongly acid; clear, wavy
boundary.
Iberia clay (Ib).-This is a nearly level, very poorly B2h-34 to 54 inches, black (5YR 2/1) sand; many, coarse,
drained soil that is in low areas and depressions near the dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) and dark-brown
Oklawaha River. It commonly has a thick, dark-colored (7.5YR 3/2) mottles; common, medium, distinct,
surface layer from which tongues extend into the plastic stark graish-b root chan 42ane d eraey (N 6 ,
material of the subsoil. In most years the water table is subangular blocky structure; firm, weakly ce-
within 10 inches of the surface for 6 months or more, and mented; few fine and medium roots; sand grains
some areas are covered with shallow water for 3 to 9 are coated, except in old root channels; very
strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
months. During dry seasons the water table is 10 to 30 54 to inches, brown (10YR 5/3)bounda ; single grained;
inches below the surface. loose; few fine roots; few, fine, faint dark-brown
Included with this soil in mapping are areas where mottles; sand grains are mostly not coated; very
the surface layer is mucky, and some areas that have a strongly acid.
thin, leached layer between the surface layer and the Where the Al horizon is black or very dark gray when
subsoil. Also included are areas where the subsoil is sandy rubbed, it ranges from 2 to 6 inches in thickness, but where
clay loam and other areas where the subsoil is underlain it is dark gray when rubbed, its thickness ranges from 3 to
at a depth of about 40 inches by lmy sand or sand 12 inches. The A2 horizon is gray to light gray and is 20
at a depth of about 40 inches by loamy sand or sand. to 40 inches thick. Few to many streaks from the Al horizon
Areas of soil that are slightly acid to medium acid are extend into the A2 horizon. The entire A horizon is 30 to 60
also included. inches thick. The B2h horizon is black to dark reddish
Natural vegetation consists of sweetgum, hickory, horn- brown and is 4 to 24 inches thick. In many places there are
beam, magnolia, cabbage palm, wild grape, smilax, and dark-brown to black mottles and lighter-colored streaks
poison-ivy. along old root channels. The Bh horizon ranges from 1 to 6
This soil is enerallnot suited to cultivated cros or percent in content of organic matter. In some places there
s g eray not suited to cultivate cross or is a brown to dark grayish-brown B3 horizon that is 6 to 12
citrus trees. Its use is severely limited by the very slow inches thick and that has common to few, reddish-brown,
permeability of the clay, the risk of periodic flooding, weakly cemented fragments. The C horizon is brown to









16 SOIL SURVEY

white sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. Made Land
It has common streaks or mottles in brownish colors.
Immokalee soils are strongly acid and very strongly acid Made land consists of soil materials that have been re-
in all horizons. In most years the water table is within 10 w d a shaped by earth-moving equipment. Many
inches of the surface for 1 to 2 months. It is within 40 worked and shaped by earth-movg equipment. Many
inches more than half the time, but in dry seasons it is 40 such areas were once low sloughs, marshes, shallow ponds,
to 60 inches below the surface. Occasionally, for a few days or swamps that are now filled with soil materials to the
in wet seasons, water is above the surface of the soils in level of the surrounding ground or higher. A few areas
some e soils are associatedplaces were originally high ridges that have been graded to be-
Immokalee soils are associated with Sellers, Myakka,
Basinger, Pomello, Dekes, and St. Johns soils. Immokalee low the natural level of the ground. In a few places the
soils are better drained than Sellers soils, and they have original soils have been so reworked that they are no
thin Al and Bh horizons, whereas Sellers soils have a longer recognizable.
thick, black Al horizon underlain by a sandy C horizon. Permeability is highly variable and ranges from rapid
They are more poorly drained and have a thicker Al horizon
than Pomello soils. Immokalee soils have a thinner Al hori- to slow. The available water capacity is very low to mod-
zon than St. Johns soils. They have a Bh horizon that begins erately high. Natural fertility and organic-matter content
below a depth of 30 inches, whereas St. Johns, Myakka, and are generally low.
Delks soils have a Bh horizon that begins within 30 inches The soil material in Made land is largely material that
of the surface. Immokalee soils have a well-developed Bh was dredged from river and lake bottoms, and then depos-
horizon, but this horizon is only rudimentary was dredged from river and lake bottoms, and then depos
soils. ited on other soils. Much of this material consists of sand
Immokalee sand (Im).-This is a nearly level, poorly and shell fragments, but some is organic material and
drained soil that has a layer of light-colored, highly clayey material. Areas of Made land do not have an or-
leached sand, 30 or more inches thick, over a layer of derly sequence of layers but are a mixture of lenses,
dark-colored,. weakly cemented sand. The dark color streaks, and pockets. The soil material varies within short
results from organic matter that coats and weakly ce- distances. Sandy to clayey material occurs in the same
ments the sand grains together. This soil is in broad area in many places, but two areas are seldom alike.
areas of fatwoods and in low areas between sand ridges, Transported soil materials that make up Made land gen-
ponds, and sloughs. In most years the water table is rally are 12 to 48 inches thick but. in a few places, are
within 10 inches of the surface for 1 or 2 months. It is thicker than 60 inches. Each area of Made land should be
at a depth of less than 40 inches more than half the time, examined and evaluated before it is used because this
but in dry seasons it is at a depth of more than 40 inches. Iand type is so variable. Most excavated areas are on
Occasionally, for few days in wet seasons, some areas ridges that originally consisted of Astatula, Paola, or St.
are covered with shallow water. Lucie soils. The excavations vary in depth, but generally
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Myakka ey cut deep into the substratum. Drainage is variable:
some areas are well drained: others have a water table
sand and some areas where the weakly cemented layer is somewhat is between 20 and 60 inches from the surface during
underlain by loamy material instead of sand. that s between 20 and 60 chess from the surface during
Natural vegetation is slash pine and longleaf pine and periods of normal rainfall.
an understory of saw-palmetto, gallberry, blueberry, run- Made land (Ma).-This nearly level to gently sloping
ner oak, deerstongue and grasses. Most areas are still in land type is in areas of variable soil materials that have
ner oak, deerstongue and grasses. Most areas are still in been used to fill low sloughs, marshes., shallow ponds, or
natural vegetation, but some are used for improved pas- been used to fir low louehs, marshes shallow ponds, or
ture grasses. swamps to or above the level of the surrounding ground.
The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated A few areas were once high ridges that have been graded
crops are severe because there are periods of excessive or that have been reworked in places. Most areas of Made
wetness and because poor soil qualities reduce the choice land have been leveled and shaped by earth-moving
of plants and require the use of intensive management. equipment. Drainage is variable. Some areas are well
require drained, and some have a water table that is within 20
This soil has low natural fertility and very low available toraed and somf the u rfac e duri perthatis wothm 20
water capacity above the weakly cemented layer, which to 60inches of the surface during periods of normal
restricts the root zone for many plants. rainfall.
restricts the root zone for many plants. Areas of Made land are most common near urban centers
This soil is moderately well suited to special crops, or along major highways, although some are near lakes
such as vegetables, in areas where other factors, such as or along rivers. Smoothing and shaping have made some
availability of irrigation water and freedom from frost, areas better suited to use for building sites, roadways,
make these crops feasible. Intensive management practices recreational areas, and related uses. Most areas are poorly
are necessary, and the water table must be carefully con- suited to cultivated crops. Some of the better areas are
trolled. Drainage-subsurface irrigation systems should suited to improved pasture or pine trees. Not placed in a
be carefully designed, installed, and maintained. capability unit or woodland group; range management
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. Poor drainage, group 10.
susceptibility to freezing, and limited root zone, which
is caused by cementation of subsurface layers, adversely Meggett Series
affect the growth of trees.
This soil is well suited to pasture of improved grasses, The Meggett series consists of nearly level, poorly
but in wet seasons excess water must be removed by a drained soils that are in broad areas in the flatwoods.
simple drainage system. Liberal use of fertilizer is neces- These soils formed in marly and clayey marine sediments.
sary. Clover can be grown with grasses but should be In a representative profile the surface layer is very
irrigated to assure good growth. Capability unit IVw-1; dark gray loamy sand about 5 inches thick and, below
woodland group 11; range management group 9. this, grayish-brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick.









16 SOIL SURVEY

white sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. Made Land
It has common streaks or mottles in brownish colors.
Immokalee soils are strongly acid and very strongly acid Made land consists of soil materials that have been re-
in all horizons. In most years the water table is within 10 w d a shaped by earth-moving equipment. Many
inches of the surface for 1 to 2 months. It is within 40 worked and shaped by earth-movg equipment. Many
inches more than half the time, but in dry seasons it is 40 such areas were once low sloughs, marshes, shallow ponds,
to 60 inches below the surface. Occasionally, for a few days or swamps that are now filled with soil materials to the
in wet seasons, water is above the surface of the soils in level of the surrounding ground or higher. A few areas
some e soils are associatedplaces were originally high ridges that have been graded to be-
Immokalee soils are associated with Sellers, Myakka,
Basinger, Pomello, Dekes, and St. Johns soils. Immokalee low the natural level of the ground. In a few places the
soils are better drained than Sellers soils, and they have original soils have been so reworked that they are no
thin Al and Bh horizons, whereas Sellers soils have a longer recognizable.
thick, black Al horizon underlain by a sandy C horizon. Permeability is highly variable and ranges from rapid
They are more poorly drained and have a thicker Al horizon
than Pomello soils. Immokalee soils have a thinner Al hori- to slow. The available water capacity is very low to mod-
zon than St. Johns soils. They have a Bh horizon that begins erately high. Natural fertility and organic-matter content
below a depth of 30 inches, whereas St. Johns, Myakka, and are generally low.
Delks soils have a Bh horizon that begins within 30 inches The soil material in Made land is largely material that
of the surface. Immokalee soils have a well-developed Bh was dredged from river and lake bottoms, and then depos-
horizon, but this horizon is only rudimentary was dredged from river and lake bottoms, and then depos
soils. ited on other soils. Much of this material consists of sand
Immokalee sand (Im).-This is a nearly level, poorly and shell fragments, but some is organic material and
drained soil that has a layer of light-colored, highly clayey material. Areas of Made land do not have an or-
leached sand, 30 or more inches thick, over a layer of derly sequence of layers but are a mixture of lenses,
dark-colored,. weakly cemented sand. The dark color streaks, and pockets. The soil material varies within short
results from organic matter that coats and weakly ce- distances. Sandy to clayey material occurs in the same
ments the sand grains together. This soil is in broad area in many places, but two areas are seldom alike.
areas of fatwoods and in low areas between sand ridges, Transported soil materials that make up Made land gen-
ponds, and sloughs. In most years the water table is rally are 12 to 48 inches thick but. in a few places, are
within 10 inches of the surface for 1 or 2 months. It is thicker than 60 inches. Each area of Made land should be
at a depth of less than 40 inches more than half the time, examined and evaluated before it is used because this
but in dry seasons it is at a depth of more than 40 inches. Iand type is so variable. Most excavated areas are on
Occasionally, for few days in wet seasons, some areas ridges that originally consisted of Astatula, Paola, or St.
are covered with shallow water. Lucie soils. The excavations vary in depth, but generally
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Myakka ey cut deep into the substratum. Drainage is variable:
some areas are well drained: others have a water table
sand and some areas where the weakly cemented layer is somewhat is between 20 and 60 inches from the surface during
underlain by loamy material instead of sand. that s between 20 and 60 chess from the surface during
Natural vegetation is slash pine and longleaf pine and periods of normal rainfall.
an understory of saw-palmetto, gallberry, blueberry, run- Made land (Ma).-This nearly level to gently sloping
ner oak, deerstongue and grasses. Most areas are still in land type is in areas of variable soil materials that have
ner oak, deerstongue and grasses. Most areas are still in been used to fill low sloughs, marshes., shallow ponds, or
natural vegetation, but some are used for improved pas- been used to fir low louehs, marshes shallow ponds, or
ture grasses. swamps to or above the level of the surrounding ground.
The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated A few areas were once high ridges that have been graded
crops are severe because there are periods of excessive or that have been reworked in places. Most areas of Made
wetness and because poor soil qualities reduce the choice land have been leveled and shaped by earth-moving
of plants and require the use of intensive management. equipment. Drainage is variable. Some areas are well
require drained, and some have a water table that is within 20
This soil has low natural fertility and very low available toraed and somf the u rfac e duri perthatis wothm 20
water capacity above the weakly cemented layer, which to 60inches of the surface during periods of normal
restricts the root zone for many plants. rainfall.
restricts the root zone for many plants. Areas of Made land are most common near urban centers
This soil is moderately well suited to special crops, or along major highways, although some are near lakes
such as vegetables, in areas where other factors, such as or along rivers. Smoothing and shaping have made some
availability of irrigation water and freedom from frost, areas better suited to use for building sites, roadways,
make these crops feasible. Intensive management practices recreational areas, and related uses. Most areas are poorly
are necessary, and the water table must be carefully con- suited to cultivated crops. Some of the better areas are
trolled. Drainage-subsurface irrigation systems should suited to improved pasture or pine trees. Not placed in a
be carefully designed, installed, and maintained. capability unit or woodland group; range management
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. Poor drainage, group 10.
susceptibility to freezing, and limited root zone, which
is caused by cementation of subsurface layers, adversely Meggett Series
affect the growth of trees.
This soil is well suited to pasture of improved grasses, The Meggett series consists of nearly level, poorly
but in wet seasons excess water must be removed by a drained soils that are in broad areas in the flatwoods.
simple drainage system. Liberal use of fertilizer is neces- These soils formed in marly and clayey marine sediments.
sary. Clover can be grown with grasses but should be In a representative profile the surface layer is very
irrigated to assure good growth. Capability unit IVw-1; dark gray loamy sand about 5 inches thick and, below
woodland group 11; range management group 9. this, grayish-brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick.









OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 17

Next is dark-gray clay that extends to about 19 inches poorly drained soil that is in broad areas in the flatwoods.
below the surface. Between depths of about 19 and 29 This soil has a clayey subsoil beginning within 20 inches
inches is gray clay that has mottles in shades of yellow of the surface. There are lime nodules in the subsoil in
and brown. Next, to a depth of 41 inches, is light olive- most areas. In most years the water table is within 10
gray clay that has yellowish and brownish mottles and inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months but is 10 to 40
many, white, soft nodules of lime. Below this is white inches below the surface the rest of the time.
marl that extends to a depth of more than 60 inches. Included with this soil in mapping are areas where
Permeability is moderately rapid in the loamy surface the dark-colored surface layer is more than 8 inches
layer and slow to very slow in the clayey subsoil. Avail- thick, a few areas where the subsoil is thin or entirely
able water capacity is moderate in the surface layer and missing, and some areas where the soils are acid.
high in the clayey subsoil. Organic-matter content and Natural vegetation is mainly cabbage palm, sweetgum,
natural fertility are moderate. magnolia, water oak, southern red maple, and numerous
Representative profile of Meggett loamy sand: vines and shrubs. Much of the acreage, however, is
A1-0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy sand; planted to improved pasture grasses.
weak, medium, granular structure; friable; many The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated
fine and medium roots; slightly acid; clear, smooth crops are severe because the soil is excessively wet. Unless
boundary. drained, it is not suitable for cultivation. The clayey
A2-5 to 10 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) loamy sand; subsoil is slowly to very slowly permeable, and water
weak, fine, granular structure; very friable; com-
mon fine and medium roots; slightly acid; abrupt, control is difficult. Because the root zone is restricted, the
wavy boundary. choice of crops is limited. Good surface texture and mod-
B21tg-10 to 19 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) clay; com- rate organic-matter content, available water capacity, and
mon, medium, distinct, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6) fertility are favorable soil qualities for cultivation and
mottles, and few, fine, prominent, red (2.5YR 4/8)
mottles; moderate, coarse, subangular blockly struc- pasture if the soil is adequately drained.
ture; firm, plastic and sticky; few fine and medium Cultivated crops are limited to those that are shallow-
roots; clay films on ped faces; neutral; gradual, rooted, such as vegetables. The use of shallow ditches
wavy boundary. and the bedding of rows are needed for surface drainage.
B22tg-19 to 29 inches, gray (N 5/0) clay; many, coarse, cr g s m i s c c s
distinct, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) and yellowish- A cropping system that includes cover crops should be
brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; moderate, coarse, sub- used, and full use should be made of the crop residue.
angular blocky structure; firm, plastic and sticky; This soil is not suited to citrus trees.
few fine roots; clay films on ped faces; neutral; Pasture grasses grow well on this soil, but simple drain-
clear, wavy boundary. age is necessary to remove excess surface water. Legumes,
B23tg-29 to 41 inches, light olive-gray (5Y 6/2) clay;
many, coarse, prominent, brownish-yellow (10YR such as white clover, do well with pasture grasses. Good
6/6) and yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; management of pasture includes use of adequate fertilizer,
massive; plastic and sticky; many, medium and control of weeds, and control of grazing. Capability unit
coarse, white (N 8/0), soft lime fragments and IIIw-4; woodland group 3; range management group 3.
nodules; moderately alkaline; gradual, wavy
boundary.
Cca-41 to 60 inches, white (N 8/0) sandy clay (marl) ; Myakka Series
massive; sticky; many, medium and coarse, light
olive-gray (5Y 6/2) mottles; moderately alkaline; The Myakka series consists of nearly level, poorly
calcareous. drained, sandy soils that are mainly in broad areas in the
The Al horizon ranges from dark gray to black in color flatwoods and in low areas between sand ridges, ponds,
and from 3 to 8 inches in thickness. The A2 horizon ranges and sloughs. These soils formed in beds of marine sand.
from light gray to dark grayish brown and from 2 to 6 In a representative profile the surface layer is very
inches in thickness. It is lacking in some places. The Bg
horizon is dark-gray, gray, or light olive-gray sandy clay dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. Below this is about
or clay and ranges from 20 to 50 inches in thickness. It has 15 inches of light-gray sand. At depths between about
few to common, fine to coarse mottles in shades of yellow, 20 and 29 inches is dark reddish-brown, brown, and dark-
brown, and red and, in a few places, a few lenses or pockets brown sand that is weakly cemented by organic matter
of sandy material. In the lower part of this horizon are few that coats the sand grains. The next layer is about 7
to many, light-gray, very pale brown, or white, soft marl tha coats the sand s. The next layer is about 7
concretions or fragments. In some places the marl Cca inches of yellowish-brown sand. Between depths of 36
horizon is lacking, and in these places, the Btg horizon is and 60 inches is light brownish-gray sand.
underlain by stratified sandy clay, clay, and sandy mate- Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid in the
Meggett soils are slightly acid to moderately alkaline in weakly cemented layers but rapid in all other layers. The
all horizons. In most years the water table is within 10 available water capacity is moderate in the weakly ce-
inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months. It is 10 to 40 mented layers and very low in all other layers. Organic-
inches below the surface the rest of the time. matter content and natural fertility are low.
The annual temperature of Meggett soils mapped in this Representative profile of Myakka sand:
survey area is slightly higher than the defined range for
the Meggett series, but this difference does not alter the Al-0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) rubbed, sand;
usefulness or behavior of the soils, weak, fine, granular structure; very friable; mix-
Meggett soils are associated with Eureka, Rains, and ture of light-gray sand grains and black organic
Iberia soils. They are alkaline, whereas Eureka and Rains matter; many fine, medium, and large roots; very
soils are acid. They have a B horizon of sandy clay or clay, strongly acid: clear, smooth boundary.
but Rains soils have a B horizon of sandy clay loam. Meg- A2-5 to 20 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) sand; common,
get soils have a loamy A horizon, whereas Iberia soils have fine, distinct, gray (10YR 5/1) and dark-gray (10YR
a clayey A horizon. 4/1) mottles and streaks along root channels;
Meggett loamy sand (Me).-This is a nearly levelsingle grained; loose; common fine and medium
Meggett loamy sand (Me) .-This is a nearly level, roots; very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.








18 SOIL SURVEY

B2h-20 to 29 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) sand; This soil is moderately well suited to vegetables if other
common, medium, faint, reddish-brown mottles; factors make these specialized crops feasible. Availability
firm; weakly cemented; few fine roots; few un- of irrigation water and freedom from frost greatly affect
coated sand grains; very strongly acid; gradual, the suitability for these crops. Intensive management
wavy boundary. the suitability for these crops. Intensive management
B3&Bh-29 to 36 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) sand; is necessary, and the water table must be carefully con-
single grained; loose; common, medium, distinct, trolled. Drainage-subsurface irrigation systems must be
dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2) mottles; weakly cemented carefully designed, installed, and maintained.
fragments that are well coated with organic matter; Generally, this soil is poorly suited to citrus trees
few fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy Generally, this soil is poorly suited to citrus trees.
boundary. Poor drainage, susceptibility to freezing temperatures,
C-36 to 60 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sand; and a limited root zone, which is caused by cementation
many coarse, faint, pale-olive mottles; single of subsurface layers, adversely affect the growth of
grained, loose; few fine roots; very strongly acid. trees.
The Al horizon ranges from dark gray to black in color Highly productive pasture of improved grasses can
when rubbed and from 4 to 8 inches in thickness. The A2 be maintained, but excess water in wet seasons must be
horizon ranges from gray to light gray in color and from
2 to 22 inches in thickness. Few to many streaks from the removed by a simple drainage system. Liberal use of
Al horizon extend into the A2 horizon. The combined thick- fertilizer is necessary. Clover can be grown with grasses
ness of the Al and A2 horizons ranges from 6 to 30 inches, but must be irrigated to assure good growth. Capability
The B2h horizon ranges from black to dark reddish brown unit IVw-1; woodland group 11; range management
and is 6 to 20 inches thick. In many places there are brown
to black mottles and lighter colored streaks along old root group 9.
channels. The organic-matter content of the Bh horizon is Myakka and Sellers soils, ponded (Ms).-These soils
1 to 6 percent. The B3&Bh horizon ranges from dark grayish are in areas locally known as prairies. These prairies are
brown to yellowish brown in color and from 6 to 12 inches zones of grassy vegetation that grow in the areas between
indd hicn es. t s few to common dark-brown to dark the normal water level and the high water level of ponds
The C horizon ranges from yellowish brown or light and lakes. The width of the prairies is determined by the
brownish gray to white. In many places it has few to many amount that the water level fluctuates. Some prairies
mottles or streaks of brownish colors, cover hundreds of acres, but others are less than an acre
Myakka soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid in in size. On the prairies the water table fluctuates as much
all horizons. The water table is within 10 inches of the sur-
face for 1 or 2 months of most years and within 30 inches as 6 feet. As much as 2 feet of water stands on Myakka
most of the time. In dry seasons it is 30 to 60 inches below soils for a year or more during wet cycles, but the water
the surface. In rainy seasons some areas are briefly covered on Sellers soils is usually deeper than that on Myakka
with shallow water, and in most years the depressions are soils, and it remains for a longer time. During dry cycles
covered with shallow water for 6 to 12 months.
Myakka soils are associated with Immokalee, Pomello, St. the water table is below the soil surface.
Johns, Basinger, and Sellers soils. Myakka and Immokalee One or the other of these soils makes up 75 percent or
soils are similar, but the B2h horizon begins above a depth more of the areas, but the proportion of each soil varies
of 30 inches in Myakka soils and below a depth of 30 inches from place to place. The soils occur irregularly.
in Immokalee soils. Myakka soils are more poorly drained. lar soils They have lighter
than Pomello soils, have a thicker and darker Al horizon, Myakka soils are poorly drained. They have lighter
and have a Bh horizon nearer the surface. They have a colored sandy layers over dark-colored, weakly cemented
better developed Bh horizon than Basinger soils, which have sandy layers that begin within 30 inches of the surface.
only a weakly developed stained layer. They are better Sellers soils are very poorly drained. They have a thick,
drained than Sellers soils and have a lighter colored A dark-colored sandy surface layer over light-colored sandy
S n ).Tis is a nry l layers that extend to a depth of 80 inches.
Myakka sand (Mk).-This is a nearly level, poorly Included in mapping are areas of other soils, such as
drained soil that has a dark-colored, weakly cemented those of the Basinger, St. Johns, and Immokalee series.
layer within 30 inches of the surface. The dark color Combined, these inclusions make up about 25 percent
results from organic matter that coats and weakly ce- of an area.
ments the sand grains together. This soil occurs mainly Natural vegetation is sand cordgrass. maidencane, and
as broad areas in flatwoods and as low areas between sand St.-Johnswort. Almost all areas are still in native vege-
ridges, ponds, and sloughs. The water table is within 10 station. During dry cycles of several years duration, pines
inches of the surface for 1 or 2 months of most years and invade the margins but are killed by flooding in wet
within 30 inches most of the time. In dry seasons it is 30 to cycles.
60 inches below the surface. In rainy seasons low areas are These soils are not suited to special crops or improved
briefly covered with shallow water. Depressions are cov- pasture, because of prolonged wetness and flooding. Es-
ered with shallow water 6 to 12 months in most years. tablishment of an adequate drainage system is difficult,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of and suitable outlets are not available in most places. These
Immokalee sand, areas where there is loamy material be- soils are important feeding grounds for many kinds of
low the weakly cemented layer in places, and areas where wading birds and other wildlife. Capability unit VIIw-1;
a thin, gray, cemented layer occurs just above the dark- woodland group 1; range management group 2.
colored, weakly cemented layer.
Natural vegetation is slash pine and longleaf pine and Orlando Series
an understory of saw-palmetto, gallberry, blueberry, run-
ner oak, deerstongue, and grasses. Most areas are still in The Orlando series consists of nearly level, well-
natural vegetation, but some are planted to improved drained, sandy soils that are on broad ridges. These soils
pasture grasses. formed in thick beds of sandy marine or fluvial sediment.









OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 19

In a representative profile the surface layer is very Orlando Series, Wet Variant
dark gray sand about 27 inches thick. Below this is
brown sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches. The Orlando series, wet variant, consists of nearly
Orlando soils have rapid permeability in all layers, level, somewhat poorly drained, sandy soils that are in
The available water capacity is low in the dark-colored moderately low areas near some of the larger lakes. These
surface layer and very low in the underlying layers. soils formed in thick beds of sandy marine or fluvial
Organic-matter content is moderately low, and natural sediment.
fertility is low. In a representative profile the surface layer is black
Representative profile of Orlando sand: sand about 30 inches thick. Below this is 6 inches of very
dark gray sand. Between depths of 36 and 60 inches is
01-1 inch to 0, undecomposed leaves, twigs, needles, and dark gray sand. Between depths of 36 and 60 inches is
stems. grayish-brown sand. Next, and extending to a depth of
All-0 to 8 inches, very dark gray (N 3/0) sand; weak, 80 inches, is dark grayish-brown sand.
medium, granular structure; very friable; many Permeability is rapid in all layers. Available water ca-
fine, medium, and large roots; strongly acid; grad- pacity is moderate in the dark-colored layer and low in
A12-8 to 27 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; the underlying layers. Organic-matter content is mod-
single grained; loose; common fine, medium, and erate. Natural fertility is low.
large roots; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary. Representative profile of Orlando sand, wet variant:
C-27 to 80 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single grained;
loose; few fine roots; few, medium, distinct, light All-0 to 30 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak, medium
brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) streaks; strongly acid. granular structure; common clean sand grains;
many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; gradual,
The A horizon is black, very dark gray, or very dark wavy boundary.
grayish brown and ranges from 10 to 30 inches in thickness. A12-30 to 36 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
The C horizon is brown, yellowish brown, brownish yellow, single grained; loose; common clean sand grains;
light yellowish brown, yellow, pale brown, or very pale many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear,
brown to a depth of 80 inches or more. In some profiles there wavy boundary.
are few to common mottles or splotches of uncoated, gray to 01-36 to 60 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) sand; single
white sand. The soil is less than 10 percent silt and clay grained; loose; many clean sand grains; common,
between depths of 10 and 40 inches. medium, faint mottles of very dark grayish brown
Orlando soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid (10YR 3/2) ; few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual,
throughout the profile. The water table is below a depth of wavy boundary.
60 inches. C2-60 to 80 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
Orlando soils are associated with Astatula, Myakka, and single grained; loose; common, medium, distinct
Immokalee soils. Orlando soils have a thick, dark-colored mottles of very dark gray (10YR 3/1) ; many clean
A horizon, which is lacking in Astatula soils. Orlando soils sand grains; strongly acid.
are much better drained than Myakka and Immokalee soils The A horizon is black, very dark gray, or very dark gray-
and do not have a Bh horizon. The A horizon is black, very dark gray, or very dark gray-
ish brown and ranges from 24 to 40 inches in thickness. Or-
Orlando sand (Or).-This is a nearly level, well-drained, ganic-matter content ranges from 5 to 8 percent. The C
sandy soil that is on broad ridges. It has a thick, dark- horizon ranges from dark grayish brown to light yellowish
colored surface layer and is sandy to a depth of 80 inches brown, and it has few to common mottles of lighter or darker
colored surface layer and is sandy to a depth of 80 inches colors.
or more. The water table is below a depth of 60 inches. Orlando soils, wet variant, are strongly acid or very
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of strongly acid throughout the profile. In most years the water
Orlando sand, wet variant. table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for periods of 2 to 6
Natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine, turkey months, but in wet seasons it is within 10 inches of the sur-
face. The rest of the time it is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches.
oak, slash pine, pawpaw, redroot, smilax, and wiregrass. These soils are more poorly drained than has been defined
About half the acreage is in citrus trees. as the range for the Orlando series. Because they occupy only
The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated a small acreage, however, no separate series was established.
Orlando soils, wet variant, are associated with Sellers,
crops are severe because the soil qualities are poor. Avail- Myakka, Immokalee, St. Johns, and Basinger soils. They are
able water capacity and natural fertility are low. Perme- better drained than any of these soils. They have a thicker,
ability is rapid, and this results in rapid leaching of plant dark-colored A horizon than any of these except Sellers soils.
These wet variant Orlando soils have an A horizon underlain
nutrients. This soil is suited to special crops, such as water- by a sandy C horizon, whereas Myakka, Immokalee, and St.
melon, if intensive management practices are used. All Johns soils have a Bh horizon directly beneath the A horizon
cultivated crops should be grown in rotation with soil- and Basinger soils have a C&Bh horizon.
improving cover crops. Liberal use of fertilizer is Orlando sand, wet variant (Os).-This is a nearly level,
necessary. somewhat poorly drained, sandy soil that is in moderately
This soil is well suited to citrus trees in areas that are low areas near lakes. It has a thick, dark-colored surface
not subject to damaging frost. Growing a cover crop be- layer and is sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. In
tween the trees, applying lime and fertilizer, and irrigat- most years the water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches
ing during dry periods are good management practices, for 2 to 6 months, but in wet seasons it is within 10 inches
Orlando sand is moderately well suited to bahiagrass of the surface. The rest of the time it is at a depth of
and other deep-rooted, improved pasture grasses if the 40 to 60 inches.
soil is properly managed. Hairy indigo, crotalaria, and Included with this soil in mapping are areas where
other deep-rooted legumes can be grown successfully, but the surface layer is only 10 to 24 inches thick, and a few
careful management is needed to maintain good vegeta- areas where there is a weakly cemented layer beneath the
tive cover. Capability units IIIs-1; woodland group 6; surface layer.
range management group 5. Natural vegetation consists of slash pine, loblolly pine,








20 SOIL SURVEY

bluejack oak, blueberry, smilax, milkpea, and maidencane. Pamlico soils are strongly acid to very strongly acid
Nearly all areas are still in natural vegetation, throughout. In most years the water table is within 10 inches
S *a of the surface for 9 to 12 months, but in dry seasons it is
This soil is poorly suited to general farm crops. Vege- below a depth of 10 inches. It is seldom below a depth of 30
table crops and other special crops are well suited, how- inches. In wet seasons shallow water covers the surface much
ever, if water for irrigation is available and if protection of the time.
from frost is adequate. The level of the water table must The annual temperature of the Pamlico soils mapped in
be carefully controlled, and for this purpose a combined this survey area is slightly higher than the defined range for
the Pamlico series, but this does not alter the usefulness o
system for drainage and subsurface irrigation is needed. behavior of these soils.
This system must be carefully designed, installed, and Pamlico soils are associated with Sellers, Astor, Dorovan,
maintained. Such a system provides rapid removal of ex- Terra Ceia, and Everglades soils. Pamlico soils are organic
cess water during severe rains and a means of irrigation soils, whereas Sellers and Astor soils are mineral soils They
cess water during severe rains an a meanshave a thinner Oa horizon than Dorovan and Terra Ceia
in dry seasons. Fertilizer and lime should be applied ac- soils and are more acid than Terra Ceia soils. Pamlico soils
cording to the needs of the crop. are more acid than Everglades soils, and they have an Oa
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is affected horizon instead of an Oe horizon.
by local drainage difficulties and susceptibility to freez- Pamlico muck (Pa).-This is a nearly level, very poorly
ing. Areas that are not subject to damaging frost are drained, organic soil that is in small marshes and swamps.
moderately well suited to citrus trees. In most areas bed- It has a surface layer of highly decomposed muck 18
ding and a well-designed drainage system are needed, to 36 inches thick. Below this is sandy material that
The site should be carefully studied before it is used for reaches to a depth of more than 50 inches. In most years
citrus trees, the water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 9
If properly managed, this soil is excellent for pasture to 12 months, and the soil is covered with shallow water
of improved grasses or grass and clover mixtures. Man- much of the time. In dry seasons the water table is 10
agement practices include a water control system that to 30 inches below the surface.
removes excess surface water and provides subsurface Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
irrigation, application of adequate fertilizer and lime, where the organic layer is thinner than 18 inches and
and careful control of grazing. Capability unit IIw-1; other areas where it is thicker than 36 inches. Also in-
woodland group 5; range management group 5. clouded are small areas that are slightly acid or neutral.
Natural vegetation in wooded areas consists of black-
Pamlico Series gum, southern red maple, loblolly pine, bay, waxmyrtle,
smilax, wild grape and buttonbush. Maidencane and ferns
The Pamlico series consists of nearly level, very poorly grow in open marsh areas. Nearly all areas are still in
drained, organic soils that are in small marshes and natural vegetation.
swamps. These soils formed in the remains of hydro- Excess water is the major limitation to the use of this
phytic, fibrous, nonwoody plants. soil for cultivated crops but if the soil is adequately
In a representative profile the surface layer is black, drained and water is controlled, Pamlico muck is excellent
highly decomposed muck to a depth of about 14 inches for vegetable crops. Drainage is difficult, but it can be es-
and, below this, very dark brown muck to a depth of tablished through a system of dikes, canals, ditches, and
about 24 inches. Below a depth of about 24 inches is pumps. Control structures are needed to keep the water
dark-brown coarse sand. table at a proper depth for crops and to reduce the hazard
Permeability is rapid in the muck and very rapid in of subsidence by oxidation of organic matter. Other man-
the sand. Available water capacity, organic-matter con- agement practices include use of cover crops; frequent
tent, and nitrogen content are very high in the muck application of fertilizer that is high in content of all plant
but very low in the coarse sand. nutrients, except nitrogen; and control of soil reaction.
Representative profile of Pamlico muck: This soil is not suited to citrus trees.
Oal--0 to 14 inches, black (5YR 2/1), well-decomposed, or- Under intensive management, high-quality pasture that
ganic material (muck) ; weak, coarse, granular consists of improved grasses or grass and clover mixtures
structure; friable; fiber content is less than 33 per- can be grown. Management includes a system of water con-
cent before rubbing and less than 10 percent after
rubbing; about 80 percent organic matter; very trol that is designed to remove excess surface water and
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary. maintain the water table at a favorable depth; adequate
Oa2-14 to 24 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2), well- application of fertilizer and lime, where needed; and the
decomposed, organic material (muck) ; weak, coarse, control of grazing. Capability unit HIw-5; woodland
granular structure; friable; less than 10 percent group 1 rangemanagementgroup 1.
fiber after rubbing; about 20 percent mineral mate- ra n
rial; sodium pyrophosphate extract color is brown Pamlico muck, deep (Pd).-This is a nearly level, very
(10YR 5/3); very strongly acid; abrupt, smooth poorly drained, organic soil that is in small marshes and
boundary. swamps. It has a surface layer of highly decomposed
IIAb-24 to 60 inches, dark-brown (10YR 3/3) coarse sand muck that is more than 36 inches but less than 50 inches
that is gradually paler in color with increasing ck t is underlain b sandy layers thin 50 inches
depth; single grained; loose; very strongly acid. thick. t i underlain by andy layers within 50 inches
of the surface. In most years the water table is within 10
The Oa horizon is black, very dark brown, or dark reddish of the surface. In most years the water table is within 10
brown and ranges from 12 to 50 inches in thickness. The inches o the surface or 9 to 12 months, and the water is
organic-matter content ranges from 30 to 80 percent, and the frequently above the surface. Although lower in dry sea-
fiber content ranges from 10 to 40 percent before rubbing but sons, the water table is seldom below a depth of 30 inches.
is less than 10 percent after rubbing. The IIAb horizon is Included with this soil in mapping are some small
brown, dark-brown, or black sand or coarse sand that begins ni nnr than inches
within 50 inches of the surface and extends below a depth of areas where the organic layer is thinner than 36 inches
60 inches. or thicker than 50 inches. Also included are a few areas








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 21

where there is as much as 14 inches of woody peat on the C2-72 to 86 inches, pale-yellow (2.5Y 8/4) sand; single
surface. grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly
Natural vegetation in wooded areas consists of black- acid.
gum, southern red maple, loblolly pine, bay, waxmyrtle, The Al horizon is dark-gray to light-gray sand and ranges
smilax, wild grape, and buttonbush. Maidencane and ferns from 1 to 3 inches in thickness. The A2 horizon ranges
from light gray to white in color and from 6 to 40 inches
grow in open marsh areas. Nearly all areas are still in in thickness.
natural vegetation. The B horizon is strong brown or yellowish brown to
Excess water is the major limitation to the use of this yellow and ranges from 12 to 60 inches in thickness. Few
soil for cultivated crops, but if drainage is adequate and to common tongues of the A horizon extend into the B
soil or cultivated crops, ut i drainage is adequate anhorizon in some places. The exteriors of these tongues are
water is controlled, this soil is excellent for vegetable black to reddish brown. Many profiles have a thin, discon-
crops. Drainage is difficult but can be established through tinuous, weakly cemented, dark reddish-brown or very dark
a system of dikes, canals, ditches and pumps. Control grayish-brown layer between the A2 and B horizons.
structures are needed to keep the iater table at a proper In many profiles the B horizon has few to common,
rounded concretions that are dark brown to dark reddish
depth for crops and to reduce the hazard of subsidence brown and weakly cemented. The C horizon ranges from
by oxidation of organic matter. Other good management pale brown or pale yellow to white, and in places it has
practices include the use of cover crops; frequent appli- mottles of darker or lighter browns or yellows.
cation of fertilizer high in content of all plant nutrients, Paola soils are strongly acid or very acid throughout the
profile. The water table is below a depth of 60 inches.
except nitrogen; and control of soil reaction. Paola soils are associated with Astatula, Eustis, Immokalee,
This soil is not suited to citrus trees. Myakka, Pomello, and St. Lucie soils. Paola soils are better
Under intensive management, high-quality pasture that drained than Pomello, Myakka, and Immokalee soils and have
consists of improved grasses or grass and clover mixtures a yellowish B horizon instead of a dark-colored Bh horizon.
can be rown. Proper management includes a water con- They have a light-gray or white A2 horizon that is lacking in
can be grown. Proper management includes a water con- Astatula and Eustis soils and a yellowish B horizon that is lack-
trol system that is designed to remove excess surface water ing in St. Lucie soils.
and to maintain the water table at a favorable depth, Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes (PIB).-This is a nearly
adequate application of fertilizer and lime where needed, level to sloping, excessively drained, sandy soil on high,
and control of grazing. Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland broad, gently undulating ridges. The water table is below
group 1; range management group 1. a depth of 60 inches. This soil has the profile described
as representative of the series.
Paola Series Included with this soil in mapping are a few steeper
The Paol c s of n y l l to my areas around sinks and small areas of Astatula sand, 0
The Paola series consists of nearly level to moderately to 8 percent slopes. Also included are a few areas where
steep, excessively drained, sandy soils that are on high, the light-colored surface layer is less than 6 inches thick
undulating ridges and short, steeper slopes leading to and other areas where it is more than 40 inches thick.
ponds and lakes. These soils formed in thick deposit Natural vegetation is dominantly sand pine, but there
marine sand. is generally an understory of crookedwood, scrub live oak,
In a representative profile the surface layer is gray myrtle oak, holly, scrub saw-palmetto, rosemary, and
sand in the first inch and, below this, white sand to a myblueberr
depth of 17 inches. Between depths of about 17 and 36 The suitability of this soil for cultivation is limited to
inches is yellowish-brown sand that contains common, a few special crops, such as watermelon, which may be
dark-brown, rounded concretions weakly cemented by a few special crops, such as watermelon, which may be
dark-brown rounded concretions weakly cemented broy grown if management is intensive. Available water capac-
organic matter. This is underla by very pale brown ity and natural fertility are very low. Permeability is very
sand to a depth of 72 inches and pale-yellow sand that rapid, and this results in rapid loss of plant nutrients.
extends to a depth of 86 inches. Cover crops are needed to control soil blowing and to
Paola soils have very rapid permeability throughout. improve the soil.
Available water capacity is very low. Organic-matter In areas where the local climate is favorable and the
content and natural fertility are very low. soil has a thin subsurface layer of white sand, this soil
Representative profile of Paola sand: is moderately suited to citrus trees. In the groves a cover
01-1 inch to 0, fresh leaves, stems, and twigs, 1/2 inch thick, of weeds and grasses is needed between the trees to con-
over a matted layer of partly decomposed leaves, trol soil blowing. Tillage should be kept to a minimum.
stems, twigs, roots, and mineral soil (sand). b l n. T. e k a i u
A1--0 to 1 inch, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grained; Sprinkler irrigation is needed for the survival of young
loose; many roots of various sizes; sand grains trees and is beneficial to mature trees.
mostly clean; strongly acid; abrupt, smooth bound- This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture, but fair
ary. pastures of bahiagrass and other deep-rooted grasses can
A2-1 to 17 inches, white (10YR 8/1) sand; single grained; be obtained if fertilizer is applied frequently and if graz-
looseabrupt, wavy medium and large roots; strongly acid ing is carefully controlled. Capability unit VIs-1; wood-
B-17 to 36 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) sand; single land group 8; range management group 8.
grained; loose; common, medium, distinct, dark- Paola sand, 8 to 17 percent slopes (PID).-This is a
brown (10YR 4/3) spheroidal concretions that are strongly sloping to moderately steep, excessively drained,
weakly cemented with organic matter; sand grains sandy soil that is in choppy, dunelike areas and in areas
are coated; many medium roots; strongly acid; leading to sinks and ponds. It has a thick surface layer
1-36 radual, wavy bound brown (YR 7/4) sand of light-colored sand over a layer of yellowish sand that
C1--36 to 72 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The water table
many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual, is below a depth of 6 feet.
wavy boundary. Included with this soil in mapping are some areas of









22 SOIL SURVEY

Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes, on narrow ridges and in lower areas. These soils formed in thick beds of marine
valleys. Also included are other areas where the light- sand.
colored surface layer is thicker than 40 inches. In a representative profile the surface layer is gray sand
Natural vegetation is dominantly sand pine, but there over about 10 inches of dark reddish-brown sand that is
is an understory of crookedwood, scrub oak, saw-palmetto, weakly cemented with organic matter. Next is about 3
rosemary, blueberry, and grass. Nearly all areas are still inches of brown sand underlain by yellowish-brown sand
in natural vegetation, that extends to a depth of 70 inches or more.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus trees, Permeability is very rapid in most layers, but it is mod-
or pasture. It has very low available water capacity and erately rapid in the dark-colored, weakly cemented layers.
natural fertility. Permeability is very rapid, and this re- The available water capacity is very low in the layers
sults in rapid loss of plant nutrients through leaching. above and below the cemented layer but is moderate in
Because this soil is strongly sloping to moderately steep the cemented layer. Organic-matter content and natural
and has poor qualities, it has limited use. Capability unit fertility are very low.
VIIs-1; woodland group 8; range management group 8. Representative profile of Pomello sand:
Paola sand, moderately deep water table, 0 to 5 per- A1-0 to 1 inch, gray (N 6/0) sand; single grained; loose;
cent slopes (PmA).-This is a nearly level to gently slop- many fine, medium, and large roots; strongly acid;
ing, excessively drained, sandy soil that is on low ridges in- clear, smooth boundary.
termediate between the flatwoods and the high ridges. A2-1 to 35 inches, white (10 YR 8/1) sand; single grained;
The water table in this soil is closer to the surface than loose; many fine medium, and large roots in paper
20 inches, few fine and medium roots at a depth
the one in Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This soil has below 20 inches; strongly acid; abrupt, irregular
a surface layer of dark-gray sand to a depth of about 3 boundary.
inches and white sand to a depth of about 26 inches. Be- B2h-35 to 45 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3) sand;
tween depths of about 26 and 50 inches is yellow sand few, medium, faint, brown mottles; massive in
places but parts to weak, medium, subangular blocky
that is mottled with other colors and has a few, dark- structure; firm, weakly cemented; common fine and
colored, weakly cemented concretions. Next, to a depth of medium roots; sand grains coated with organic
about 72 inches, is very pale brown sand, and below this matter; strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
is grayish-brown sand that reaches to a depth of 80 B3-45 to 48 inches, brown (10YR 4/3) sand; single grained;
common fine and medium roots; many uncoated
inches. In most years the water table is 40 to 60 inches sand grains; strongly acid; abrupt, irregular bound-
below the surface for 6 to 9 months, but in wet seasons it ary.
briefly rises above a depth of 40 inches. --48 to 70 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) sand; single
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of grained; loose; strongly acid.
Pomello sand, some small areas where loamy layers are The Al horizon ranges from dark gray to light gray in
just below a depth of 60 inches, and a few areas where color when rubbed and from 1 to 3 inches in thickness.
The A2 horizon ranges from gray to, white, and few to
the subsurface layer of white sand is either very thin or many streaks from the A horizon extend along old root
missing. channels. The Al and A2 horizons range from 30 to 60
Natural vegetation is mainly sand pine, and there is inches in combined thickness.
an understory of scrub live oak, scrub myrtle oak, saw- The B2h horizon is black to dark reddish brown and
almetto, and rosemary. ranges from 7 to 14 inches in thickness. It has an organic-
plmetto and rosemary. matter content of 1 to 6 percent. The B3 horizon ranges
The limitations for growing cultivated crops are very from brown to dark yellowish brown and, in some places,
severe because the soil has poor qualities. Available water has common, black to dark reddish-brown, weakly cemented
capacity, natural fertility, and organic-matter content mottles. A B3 horizon does not occur in all profiles.
are allvery low. Water moves very rapiThe C horizon ranges from yellowish brown to light gray
are all very low. Water moves very rapidly through the and extends to a depth of 70 inches or more.
soil, and not much is retained for shallow-rooted plants. Pomello soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid
The moisture supply for the deeper rooted plants is gen- throughout. In most years the water table is 30 to 40 inches
erally favorably affected by the water table in the lower below the surface for 2 to 6 months and 40 to 60 inches
part of the root zone. below the surface for 4 to 6 months. In dry seasons it is
below a depth of 60 inches, but in high areas in wet seasons,
Most areas of this soil are poorly suited to citrus trees. it is seldom above a depth of 40 inches.
Areas where the white subsurface layer is thinnest are Pomello soils are associated with St. Lucie, Paola, Asta-
moderately well suited to citrus trees if the local climate tula, Immokalee, and Myakka soils. Pomello soils are not
is favorable and if intensive management practices are so well drained as St. Lucie, Paola, and Astatula soils, and
is eavorae an f intensive management practices areq they have a Bh horizon, which the other soils lack. They
used. These practices include irrigation and frequent are better drained and have a thinner Al horizon than
applications of fertilizer. Myakka and Immokalee soils. Pomello soils have a Bh
If managed intensively this soil is moderately well horizon at a greater depth than that of Myakka soils.
suited to improved pasture grasses. Bahiagrass and other Pomello sand (Po).-This is a moderately well drained,
deep-rooted, drought-resistent grasses grow moderately sandy soil that is on broad, low ridges and narrow, gentle
well if they are heavily fertilized and limed and if graz- side slopes leading to lower areas. It has a thick, light-
ing is carefully controlled. Capability IVs-2; woodland colored surface layer over a weakly cemented, dark-
group 10; range management group 8. colored layer that begins at a depth of 20 to 30 inches.
It is sandy to a depth of 70 inches or more. Slopes are 0
Pomello Series to 5 percent. In most years the water table is 30 to 40
inches below the surface for 2 to 6 months but within 60
The Pomello series consists of nearly level and gently inches of the surface the rest of the year. In dry seasons
sloping, moderately well drained, sandy soils that are on it is below a depth of 60 inches, but in the higher areas
broad, low ridges and narrow, gentle slopes that lead to it is seldom above a depth of 40 inches.








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 23

Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The B2tg horizon has few to common mottles of brown,
Myakka sand, small areas where the surface layer is strong brown, red, and dark red. In some places there is
a big horizon of grayish fine sandy loam, 2 to 6 inches
darker than normal for Pomello sand, and some areas hick, between the A2 nd B2tg horizons to iches
that have a loamy rather than a sandy substratum. Also In some places there is a gray to light gray C horizon
included are small areas of Sellers and St. Johns soils in within 60 inches of the surface. It ranges from sand to
low depressions, as well as a few, narrow, more strongly clay.
sloping areas leading to these depressions. Rains soils are strongly acid and very strongly acid
s l g throughout. In most years the water table is within 10
Natural vegetation consists of sand pine, slash pine, inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months. In wet seasons
scrub pine, scrub live oak, myrtle oak, saw-palmetto, scrub the surface in some places is briefly covered with shallow
red bay, crookedwood gerberia, grasses, and pricklypear. water. The rest of the time the water table is 10 to 40
Most areas are in natural vegetation, but a few have been inches below the surface.
The annual temperature of the Rains soils mapped in
cleared and planted to pasture grasses. this survey area is slightly higher than the defined range
This soil is generally not suited to cultivated crops. It for the series, but this difference does not alter usefulness
is porous, highly leached, and drought. It has very low and behavior of the soils.
available water capacity. Permeability is moderate in the Rains soils are associated with Duplin, Eureka, Iberia,
available water capacity. Permeability is moderate in the and Meggett soils. Rains soils have less clay in the subsoil
weakly cemented layer but rapid in all the other layers. than any of those soils. They are wetter and more poorly
Organic-matter content and natural fertility are very low. drained than Eureka soils. Rains soils do not have calcare-
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees and to deep- ous fragments in the subsoil, whereas Meggett soils do.
rooted, drought-resistant grasses, even if a large amount Rains loamy fine sand (Ra).-This is a nearly level,
of fertilizer is applied. Capability unit VIs-2; woodland poorly drained soil that has a loamy subsoil within 20
group 10; range management group 8. inches of the surface. It is in small areas in the flatwoods.
In most years the water table is within 10 inches of the
Rains Series surface for 2 to 6 months, but it is 10 to 40 inches be-
low the surface the rest of the time. In wet seasons shal-
The Rains series consists of nearly level, poorly drained low water briefly covers the lowest areas.
soils that are in small areas in the flatwoods. These soils Included with this soil in mapping are small areas that
formed in loamy marine sediment, have a surface layer of loamy fine sand more than 20
In a representative profile the surface layer is about inches thick. Also included are small areas where the sub-
7 inches of very dark gray loamy fine sand and, below soil is sandy clay or clay instead of sandy clay loam.
this, about 9 inches of grayish-brown loamy fine sand. Natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine, slash pine,
Beneath this is gray sandy clay loam, extending to a live oak, water oak, waxmyrtle, gallberry, and grasses.
depth of 60 inches or more, the upper part of which has Some of the acreage has been planted to improved pasture
brownish mottles and the lower part of which has brown- grasses.
ish and reddish mottles. The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer crops are severe because of excessive wetness. Unless
and moderate in the subsoil. Available water capacity is drained, this soil is not suitable for cultivation. Good sur-
low in the surface layer and moderate in the lower layers, face soil texture, moderate available water capacity within
Natural fertility is moderate. Organic-matter content is the root zone, and moderate fertility are favorable quali-
low. ties for cultivated crops and pasture if the drainage is
Representative profile of Rains loamy fine sand: adequate.
Al-0 to 7 inches, very dark gray (N 3/0) loamy fine sand; The choice of cultivated crops is limited to water-
weak, medium, granular structure; friable; common tolerant crops or shallow-rooted crops, such as vegetables.
fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear, Shallow ditches and bedding of rows are needed to give
smooth boundary.
A2-7 to 16 inches grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) loamy fine surface drainage. A cropping system that makes full use
sand; weak, medium, granular structure; friable; of cover crops and crop residue should be used.
common fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; This soil is not suited to citrus trees.
abrupt, smooth boundary. Pasture grasses grow well on this soil, but simple drain-
B21tg-16 to 30 inches, gray (N 6/0) sandy clay loam; age is necessary to remove the excess surface water. Leg-
firm; patchy clay films on ped surfaces; many,
medium, prominent mottles of strong brown (7.5YR umes, such as white clover, grow well with pasture
5/8); few fine and medium roots; strongly acid; grasses. Good pasture management includes use of ade-
clear, wavy boundary. quate fertilizer, control of weeds, and control of grazing.
B22tg-30 to 60 inches, gray (N 6/0) sandy clay loam; Capability unit IIIw-4; woodland group 3; range man-
common, medium, prominent mottles of strong
brown (7.5YR 5/8) and dark red (2.5 YR 3/6); agement group 3.
moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure;
firm; patchy clay films on ped surfaces; few fine St. Johns Series
and medium roots; strongly acid. hn ri
The Al horizon ranges from dark grayish brown or very The St. Johns series consists of nearly level, poorly
dark gray to black in color and from 4 to 9 inches in drained, sandy soils that are in broad areas in the flat-
thickness. The A2 horizon ranges from dark gray or grayish woods. These soils formed in marine sand.
brown to light brownish gray. Few to many streaks from w these soils armed in marine sand.
the Al horizon extend into the A2 horizon. The combined In a representative profile the surface layer is about 11
thickness of the Al and A2 horizons is less than 20 inches. inches of black sand over about 13 inches of gray sand.
The B2tg horizon ranges from gray or light gray to light Between depths of about 24 and 36 inches is black or
brownish gray. It is dominantly sandy clay loam but ranges
to sandy loam or fine sandy loam. In some profiles there are dark reddish-brown sand that is weakly cemented by
streaks, lenses, or pockets of loamy sand to sandy clay. organic matter that coats the sand grains. Below this,








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 23

Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The B2tg horizon has few to common mottles of brown,
Myakka sand, small areas where the surface layer is strong brown, red, and dark red. In some places there is
a big horizon of grayish fine sandy loam, 2 to 6 inches
darker than normal for Pomello sand, and some areas hick, between the A2 nd B2tg horizons to iches
that have a loamy rather than a sandy substratum. Also In some places there is a gray to light gray C horizon
included are small areas of Sellers and St. Johns soils in within 60 inches of the surface. It ranges from sand to
low depressions, as well as a few, narrow, more strongly clay.
sloping areas leading to these depressions. Rains soils are strongly acid and very strongly acid
s l g throughout. In most years the water table is within 10
Natural vegetation consists of sand pine, slash pine, inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months. In wet seasons
scrub pine, scrub live oak, myrtle oak, saw-palmetto, scrub the surface in some places is briefly covered with shallow
red bay, crookedwood gerberia, grasses, and pricklypear. water. The rest of the time the water table is 10 to 40
Most areas are in natural vegetation, but a few have been inches below the surface.
The annual temperature of the Rains soils mapped in
cleared and planted to pasture grasses. this survey area is slightly higher than the defined range
This soil is generally not suited to cultivated crops. It for the series, but this difference does not alter usefulness
is porous, highly leached, and drought. It has very low and behavior of the soils.
available water capacity. Permeability is moderate in the Rains soils are associated with Duplin, Eureka, Iberia,
available water capacity. Permeability is moderate in the and Meggett soils. Rains soils have less clay in the subsoil
weakly cemented layer but rapid in all the other layers. than any of those soils. They are wetter and more poorly
Organic-matter content and natural fertility are very low. drained than Eureka soils. Rains soils do not have calcare-
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees and to deep- ous fragments in the subsoil, whereas Meggett soils do.
rooted, drought-resistant grasses, even if a large amount Rains loamy fine sand (Ra).-This is a nearly level,
of fertilizer is applied. Capability unit VIs-2; woodland poorly drained soil that has a loamy subsoil within 20
group 10; range management group 8. inches of the surface. It is in small areas in the flatwoods.
In most years the water table is within 10 inches of the
Rains Series surface for 2 to 6 months, but it is 10 to 40 inches be-
low the surface the rest of the time. In wet seasons shal-
The Rains series consists of nearly level, poorly drained low water briefly covers the lowest areas.
soils that are in small areas in the flatwoods. These soils Included with this soil in mapping are small areas that
formed in loamy marine sediment, have a surface layer of loamy fine sand more than 20
In a representative profile the surface layer is about inches thick. Also included are small areas where the sub-
7 inches of very dark gray loamy fine sand and, below soil is sandy clay or clay instead of sandy clay loam.
this, about 9 inches of grayish-brown loamy fine sand. Natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine, slash pine,
Beneath this is gray sandy clay loam, extending to a live oak, water oak, waxmyrtle, gallberry, and grasses.
depth of 60 inches or more, the upper part of which has Some of the acreage has been planted to improved pasture
brownish mottles and the lower part of which has brown- grasses.
ish and reddish mottles. The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer crops are severe because of excessive wetness. Unless
and moderate in the subsoil. Available water capacity is drained, this soil is not suitable for cultivation. Good sur-
low in the surface layer and moderate in the lower layers, face soil texture, moderate available water capacity within
Natural fertility is moderate. Organic-matter content is the root zone, and moderate fertility are favorable quali-
low. ties for cultivated crops and pasture if the drainage is
Representative profile of Rains loamy fine sand: adequate.
Al-0 to 7 inches, very dark gray (N 3/0) loamy fine sand; The choice of cultivated crops is limited to water-
weak, medium, granular structure; friable; common tolerant crops or shallow-rooted crops, such as vegetables.
fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear, Shallow ditches and bedding of rows are needed to give
smooth boundary.
A2-7 to 16 inches grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) loamy fine surface drainage. A cropping system that makes full use
sand; weak, medium, granular structure; friable; of cover crops and crop residue should be used.
common fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; This soil is not suited to citrus trees.
abrupt, smooth boundary. Pasture grasses grow well on this soil, but simple drain-
B21tg-16 to 30 inches, gray (N 6/0) sandy clay loam; age is necessary to remove the excess surface water. Leg-
firm; patchy clay films on ped surfaces; many,
medium, prominent mottles of strong brown (7.5YR umes, such as white clover, grow well with pasture
5/8); few fine and medium roots; strongly acid; grasses. Good pasture management includes use of ade-
clear, wavy boundary. quate fertilizer, control of weeds, and control of grazing.
B22tg-30 to 60 inches, gray (N 6/0) sandy clay loam; Capability unit IIIw-4; woodland group 3; range man-
common, medium, prominent mottles of strong
brown (7.5YR 5/8) and dark red (2.5 YR 3/6); agement group 3.
moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure;
firm; patchy clay films on ped surfaces; few fine St. Johns Series
and medium roots; strongly acid. hn ri
The Al horizon ranges from dark grayish brown or very The St. Johns series consists of nearly level, poorly
dark gray to black in color and from 4 to 9 inches in drained, sandy soils that are in broad areas in the flat-
thickness. The A2 horizon ranges from dark gray or grayish woods. These soils formed in marine sand.
brown to light brownish gray. Few to many streaks from w these soils armed in marine sand.
the Al horizon extend into the A2 horizon. The combined In a representative profile the surface layer is about 11
thickness of the Al and A2 horizons is less than 20 inches. inches of black sand over about 13 inches of gray sand.
The B2tg horizon ranges from gray or light gray to light Between depths of about 24 and 36 inches is black or
brownish gray. It is dominantly sandy clay loam but ranges
to sandy loam or fine sandy loam. In some profiles there are dark reddish-brown sand that is weakly cemented by
streaks, lenses, or pockets of loamy sand to sandy clay. organic matter that coats the sand grains. Below this,









24 SOIL SURVEY

and extending to a depth of 60 inches, is dark grayish- table is within 10 inches of the surface for less than 2
brown sand that has very dark brown mottles, months. In periods of average rainfall the water table is
Permeability is moderate in the weakly cemented layers within 30 inches of the surface, and in dry seasons, it is
and rapid in other layers. Available water capacity is at a depth of 30 to 40 inches.
moderate in the surface layer and the weakly cemented Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
layers but is very low in the other layers. Natural fertility Myakka sand and some areas that have a weakly cemented
and organic-matter content are moderately low. layer below a depth of 30 inches. Also included are a few
Representative profile of St. Johns sand: areas where the substratum is loamy instead of sandy.
A--0 to 11 inches, black (N 2/0) sand; moderate, medium, Natural vegetation is forests of pond pine and slash
granular structure; very friable; many fine, med- pine that have an understory of gallberry, saw-palmetto,
ium, and large roots; very strongly acid; clear, chokeberry, St.-Johns-wort, smilax, and grasses. A few
wavy boundary. areas are used for vegetables.
A21-11 to 15 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; many, medium, The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated
prominent, very dark gray (N 3/0) mottles; single The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots; crops are severe, mainly because of periodic excessive wet-
very strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. ness. If drained, the soil is moderately well suited to
A22-15 to 24 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) sand; common, vegetable crops in areas where other factors make these
medium, aint, arrk gray mottles and few, fine, specialized crops feasible. Availability of irrigation water
faint, very dark gray mottles; single grained;
loose; common fine and medium roots; very strong- and freedom from frost hazard in winter greatly affect
ly acid; abrupt, irregular boundary. soil suitability for these crops. Intensive management that
B21h-24 to 30 inches, black (5YR 2/1) sand; moderate, includes careful control of the water table is needed.
medium, subangular blocky structure; rm; weakly Drainage-subsurface irrigation systems must be carefully
cemented; few fine and medium roots; few un-
coated sand grains; very strongly acid; gradual, designed, installed, and maintained.
wavy boundary. Generally, this soil is poorly suited to citrus trees.
B22h-30 to 36 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2) Poor drainage and susceptibility to freezing temperatures
sand; many, medium, faint, black mottles and few, are among the factors that adversely affect the growth
fine, faint, dark-brown mottles; weak, medium,
subangular blocky structure; firm; weakly ce- of trees. Under the most favorable conditions and where
mented; few fine and medium roots; very strongly the local climate is suitable, the soil is moderately well
acid; few uncoated sand grains; gradual, wavy suited to citrus trees, but careful control of water and
boundary. other good management practices are needed. A careful
B3-36 to 60 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) sand; study of the site should be made be
common, medium, faint mottles of very dark brown udy of the site should be made before planning for
single grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains; citrus is begun.
very strongly acid. This soil is well suited to pasture of improved grasses,
The Al horizon is black or very dark gray when rubbed but a simple drainage system is needed to remove excess
and ranges from 8 to 20 inches in thickness. The A2 horizon water in wet seasons. Liberal use of fertilizer is necessary.
ranges from gray to light gray in color and from 6 to 18 Clover can be grown with grasses but should be irrigated
inches in thickness. Few to many streaks or mottles from to insure good growth. Capability unit TIIw-1; wood-
the Al horizon extend into the A2 horizon. The total
thickness of the A horizon is less than 30 inches. land group 11; range management group 6.
The B2h horizon ranges from black to dark reddish
brown in color and from 4 to 20 inches in thickness. It is St. Lucie Series
weakly cemented with organic matter. The lower part of L rie
this horizon has mottles of brown to black in many places.
This horizon has nges of brown to dark grayish browns. The St. Lucie series consists of nearly level and gently
in color and, in most places, has few to common darker sloping, excessively drained, sandy soils that are on high,
colored mottles. dunelike ridges. These soils formed in thick beds of ma-
In some places below the B3 horizon, there is a C horizon rine or eolian sand.
that ranges from brown to white in color and is mottled. In a representative profile the surface layer is gray
St. Johns soils are strongly acid or very strongly acidn In representative rofile the surface layer is gray
all horizons. In most years the water table is within 10 inches sand about 2 inches thick. This layer is underlain by
of the surface for less than 2 months. In periods of average about 6 inches of light-gray sand and, below this, white
rainfall, the water table is within 10 to 30 inches of the sand that reaches to a depth of 86 inches or more.
surface, but in dry seasons, it is 30 to 40 inches below the These soils have very rapid permeability throughout.
surface.
St. Johns soils are associated with Myakka, Sellers, Available water capacity, organic-matter content, and
Pomello, Immokalee, and Basinger soils. St. Johns soils natural fertility are very low.
have a thicker, darker-colored Al horizon than any of those Representative profile of St. Lucie sand:
soils, except Sellers soils. They are better drained than
Sellers soils, which have a sandy C horizon instead of a Al-0 to 2 inches, gray (N 5/0) sand: single grained; loose;
Bh horizon beneath the A horizon. They are more poorly common fine and medium roots; very strongly acid;
drained than Pomello soils. St. Johns soils have a Bh abrupt, smooth boundary.
horizon that begins at a depth of less than 30 inches, C1-2 to 8 inches, light-gray (10YR. 7/2) sand; single
whereas Pomello and Immokalee soils have a Bh horizon at grained; loose; few. medium, faint, gray mottles
a depth of more than 30 inches and Basinger soils a C&Bh srongly acd; orzon coat d grans very
strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
horizon instead of a Bh horizon. C2-8 to 86 inches, white (N 8/0) sand; single grained;
St. Johns sand (Sa).-This is a nearly level, poorly loose; few, faint, light-gray streaks; uncoated sand
drained soil that is in broad areas in the flatwoods. It grains; very strongly acid.
has a thick, black surface layer and a dark, weakly ce- The A horizon ranges from 1 to 3 inches in thickness.
d l r witin 30 i s of te I i It is white or light-gray sand mixed with a little organic
mented layer within 30 inches of the surface. It is sandy matter. Rubbing this mixture changes its color to gray or
to a depth of 60 inches or more. In most years the water light gray.








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 25

The light-gray to white C horizon extends to a depth The Cg horizon ranges from light gray to dark grayish
of 80 inches or more. There is less than 5 percent silt and brown in color and extends to a depth of 84 inches or more.
clay in the upper 10 to 40 inches of this horizon. It generally has mottles in shades of black, gray, yellow,
St. Lucie soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid in or brown.
all horizons. The water table is below a depth of 80 Sellers soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid. In
inches, most years the water table is within 10 inches of the surface
St. Lucie soils are associated with Astatula, Paola, for 6 to 12 months. During the wettest seasons either the
Pomello, Immokalee, and Myakka soils. They are better water table is at the surface or water is on the surface,
drained than all of those soils, except Astatula and Paola but in the driest seasons the water table is 20 to 40 inches
soils. St. Lucie soils have a white C horizon rather than below the surface. Each year some depressions are covered
the yellowish B and C horizons that are typical of Astatula with shallow water for 3 to 9 months.
and Paola soils or a B2h horizon like that of Pomello, Sellers soils are associated with Pamlico, Astor, Basinger,
Immokalee, and Myakka soils. Myakka, Immokalee, Pomello, Paola, and St. Lucie soils.
Sellers soils are more poorly drained than all of those
St. Lucie sand (Sc).-This is an excessively drained soils, except the Pamlico and Astor soils. They are acid
soil that is on high, dunelike ridges. Slopes are 0 to 5 and mineral soils, whereas Pamlico soils are organic soils,
percent. This soil is mainly quartz sand, and its silt and and Astor soils are alkaline. Sellers soils have a thick,
clay content is very low. The water table is below a depth black A horizon over a sandy C horizon, which Myakka,
of 80 inches. Immokalee, and Pomello soils do not have. They do not
nce s s e s es have a Bh horizon, which is common to Myakka, Im-
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of mokalee, and Pomello soils. Sellers soils are more poorly
Paola sand, Pomello sand, and areas that lack a dark- drained than Paola and St. Lucie soils.
colored cemented layer but where the water table rises to Sellers sand (Ss).-This is a nearly level, very poorly
within 40 inches of the surface in wet seasons. drained soil that is in depressions, low flat areas, and
Natural vegetation consists of sand pine and scrub oak poorly defined drainageways. It has a thick, black surface
and an understory of rosemary, saw-palmetto, cactus, layer over sand that extends to a depth of 84 inches or
grasses, and lichens. Nearly all areas are still in natural more. In most years the water table is within 10 inches
vegetation. of the surface for 6 to 12 months. During the wettest
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus trees, seasons either the water table is at the surface or water is
or improved pastures. It has limited use because it has on the surface. In the driest seasons the water table is 20
poor soil qualities. It has very low available water capac- to 40 inches below the surface. Each year some depressions
ity and natural fertility. Permeability is very rapid, and are covered with shallow water for 3 to 9 months.
this results in the quick loss of plant nutrients through Included with this soil in mapping are areas where the
leaching. Capability unit VIIs-1; woodland group 9; black surface layer is only 10 to 24 inches thick. Also in-
range management group 8. eluded are areas where the lower part of the surface layer
is very dark brown or reddish brown.
Sellers Series Natural vegetation consists mainly of slash pine, pond
pine, loblolly pine, bay, St.-Johns-wort, bladderswort,
The Sellers series consists of nearly level, very poorly waxmyrtle, gallberry maidencane and rushgrass. Most
drained, sandy soils that are in depressions, low areas, areas are still in natural vegetation.
and poorly defined drainageways. These soils formed in The limitations to the use of this soil for cultivated
thick beds of sandy marine sediment. crops are severe because of excessive wetness. The soil is
In a representative profile the surface layer is black not suited to cultivation unless it is drained. It has some
sand about 28 inches thick. Underlying this is about 16 favorable properties, such as moderately high organic-
inches of dark-gray sand. Below this, and extending to matter content and moderate available water capacity in
a depth of 84 inches or more, is light brownish-gray sand. the surface layer. Natural fertility is moderate, and re-
Sellers soils have rapid permeability throughout. The sponse to fertilizer is good. This soil is excellent for truck
available water capacity is moderate to a depth of about crops if the water level is properly controlled and if other
28 inches, but is low between depths of 28 and about factors make the growing of these crops feasible. The
80 inches. Organic-matter content is moderately high in drainage system must be properly designed, constructed,
the surface layer, and natural fertility is moderate. and maintained.
Representative profile of Sellers sand: This soil is generally not suited to citrus trees.
A1-0 to 28 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak, fine, If properly managed, this soil is well suited to pasture
granular structure; friable; nonsticky; many fine of improved grasses or grass and clover mixtures. Good
and medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual, management practices include a water control system that
wavy boundary. drains excess surface water and provides subsurface irri-
lg-28 to inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single nation, frequent application of lime and fertilizer, and
mottles and common, medium, faint streaks of careful control of grazing. Capability class IIIw-2; wood-
black; common fine roots; strongly acid; clear, land group 5; range management group 6.
wavy boundary. Sellers and Pamlico soils (Sp).-This undifferentiated
C2g-44 to 84 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sand; group consists of very poorly drained Sellers and Pamlico
single grained; nonsticky; few fine roots in upper soils that are in low depressions dissected by winding in-
part; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid. termittent drainageways. Sellers soils have a surface layer
The Al horizon is black, very dark gray, or very dark of very thick, black sand over a layer of grayish sand that
brown and ranges from 24 to 40 inches in thickness. In extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. Pamlico soils have
some profiles the A12 horizon has mixed black and gray a layer of black muck more than 18 inches but less than
colors that, when crushed and rubbed, are very dark gray.
Organic-matter content of the A horizon ranges from about 50 inches thick. In most years the water table is within 10
1 to 15 percent. inches of the surface for 6 to 9 months, and each year








26 SOIL SURVEY

many areas are covered with shallow water for 3 to 6 glades, Dorovan, and Pamlico soils. Terra Ceia soils are
months. organic soils, whereas Sellers and Astor soils are mineral
soils. Terra Ceia soils differ from Everglades soils in being
The overall composition of this unit is about 40 percent es is Terr hey are less d acid than Dorovans soils Terra
Sellers soils and 30 percent Pamlico soils, but the propor- Ceia soils have a thicker organic layer than Pamlico soils,
tion of each soil varies from place to place. The soils occur which have a sandy layer 50 inches below the surface.
in irregular patterns. Soils of one or the other series make Terra Ceia muck (Tc).-This is a nearly level, poorly
up no more than 70 percent of any given area. drained, organic soil that is in hardwood swamps on the
Included with this group in mapping are some areas of flood plains of the larger rivers and streams. The organic
other soils, such as Everglades and Astor soils, and soils material is highly decomposed and is 52 or more inches
in which the black surface layer is not as thick as normal. thick. In most years the water table is within 10 inches
Combined, these inclusions make up no more than 30 per- of the surface for 9 to 12 months, and each year shallow
cent of any area. water covers most areas for more than 6 months. In dry
Natural vegetation consists mainly of sand cordgrass, seasons the water table is 10 to 30 inches below the surface.
maidencane, and rushes. Nearly all areas are still in nat- Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
ural vegetation. of Dorovan muck. Also included are areas of mineral soils
The limitations to the use of these soils for cultivated that occur as small islands within the mapping unit.
crops are severe because of excessive wetness. The soils are Natural vegetation consists mainly of cypress, ash, cab-
not suited to cultivation unless they are drained. They bage palm, red maple, bay, smilax, and poison-ivy. Most
have some favorable properties, such as moderately high areas are still in natural vegetation, but a few have been
organic-matter content and moderate available water ca- cleared and are used for improved pasture or vegetables.
pacity in the surface layer. Natural fertility is moderate, Excess water is the major limitation to the use of this
and the response to fertilizer is good. These are excellent soil for cultivated crops. If adequate drainage is estab-
soils for vegetable crops if the water level is properly con- lished and water control measures are used, this soil is ex-
trolled and if other factors make these crops feasible, cellent for vegetable crops. Drainage can be established
These soils are excellent for pasture of improved grasses through a system of dikes, canals, ditches, and pumps.
or grass and clover mixtures, if they are properly man- Control structures are needed to keep the water level at
aged. Management practices include a water control a proper depth for crops and to reduce the hazard of sub-
system that drains excess surface water and provides sub- sidence by oxidation of the organic matter. Other man-
surface irrigation, frequent applications of lime and fer- agement practices include the use of cover crops; frequent
tilizer, and careful control of grazing. Capability unit application of fertilizer that is high in content of all plant
IIIw-2; woodland group 5; range management group 1. nutrients, except nitrogen; and control of soil reaction.
This soil is not suited to citrus trees.
Terra Ceia Series Under intensive management, this soil produces high-
quality pasture of improved grasses or grass and clover
The Terra Ceia series consists of nearly level, very mixtures. Good management practices include use of a
poorly drained, organic soils that are mostly in hardwood water control system designed to drain excess surface
swamps on the flood plains of the larger rivers and water and maintain the water table at a proper depth,
streams. These soils formed in the remains of dominantly adequate applications of fertilizer and lime, and control
nonwoody, fibrous, hydrophytic plants. of grazing. Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland group 1;
In a representative profile dark reddish-brown muck range management group 1.
extends to a depth of about 64 inches.
Permeability is rapid, and the available water capacity, Wicks
organic-matter content, and nitrogen content are very Wicksburg series
high. The Wicksburg series consists of nearly level to strongly
Representative profile of Terra Ceia muck: sloping, well-drained soils that are on narrow ridges and
Oa-0 to 64 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) un- on slopes surrounding lakes, ponds, and marshes. These
rubbed, black (5YR 2/1) rubbed, well-decomposed soils formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine
organic material (muck); weak, medium, subangu- sediment.
lar blocky structure; friable; few to many, woody In a representative profile the surface layer is about 6
chips up to 4 millimeters in length; estimated 25 inches of dark-gray sand and, below this, about 29 inches
percent fiber if unrubbed, 5 percent rubbed; sodium
pyrophosphate extract color is pale brown (10YR of pale-yellow sand. Next is about 3 inches of brownish-
6/3) ; mildly alkaline, yellow loamy sand over 3 inches of yellowish-brown sandy
The Oa horizon is black, dark reddish brown, or very loam. Between depths of about 41 and 78 inches is sandy
dark brown and is more than 52 inches thick over the clay that is mottled in shades of red, brown, yellow, and
mineral layers. Content of mineral material ranges from gray.
about 5 to 40 percent, and fiber content is 10 to 40 percent Permeability is very rapid in the surface layer, moder-
before rubbing and less than 10 percent after rubbing. atelv raid in the npper part of the subsoil, and slow in
Fibers are generally from nonwoody plants, but in some t u p
places fibers from woody plants make up as much as 30 the lower part of the subsoil. Available water capacity is
percent of the volume of unrubbed organic material, very low in the sandy surface layer, moderate in the upper
Terra Ceia soils are medium acid to moderately alkaline part of the subsoil, and high in the lower part of the sub-
throughout. In most years the water table is within 10 soil. Organic-matter content and natural fertility are low.
inches of the surface for 9 to 12 months and water is Representative profile of Wicksburg sand:
frequently on the surface. In dry seasons the water table
is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches. Ap-0 to 6 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak,
Terra Ceia soils are associated with Sellers, Astor, Ever- medium, granular structure; friable; many fine








26 SOIL SURVEY

many areas are covered with shallow water for 3 to 6 glades, Dorovan, and Pamlico soils. Terra Ceia soils are
months. organic soils, whereas Sellers and Astor soils are mineral
soils. Terra Ceia soils differ from Everglades soils in being
The overall composition of this unit is about 40 percent es is Terr hey are less d acid than Dorovans soils Terra
Sellers soils and 30 percent Pamlico soils, but the propor- Ceia soils have a thicker organic layer than Pamlico soils,
tion of each soil varies from place to place. The soils occur which have a sandy layer 50 inches below the surface.
in irregular patterns. Soils of one or the other series make Terra Ceia muck (Tc).-This is a nearly level, poorly
up no more than 70 percent of any given area. drained, organic soil that is in hardwood swamps on the
Included with this group in mapping are some areas of flood plains of the larger rivers and streams. The organic
other soils, such as Everglades and Astor soils, and soils material is highly decomposed and is 52 or more inches
in which the black surface layer is not as thick as normal. thick. In most years the water table is within 10 inches
Combined, these inclusions make up no more than 30 per- of the surface for 9 to 12 months, and each year shallow
cent of any area. water covers most areas for more than 6 months. In dry
Natural vegetation consists mainly of sand cordgrass, seasons the water table is 10 to 30 inches below the surface.
maidencane, and rushes. Nearly all areas are still in nat- Included with this soil in mapping are a few small areas
ural vegetation. of Dorovan muck. Also included are areas of mineral soils
The limitations to the use of these soils for cultivated that occur as small islands within the mapping unit.
crops are severe because of excessive wetness. The soils are Natural vegetation consists mainly of cypress, ash, cab-
not suited to cultivation unless they are drained. They bage palm, red maple, bay, smilax, and poison-ivy. Most
have some favorable properties, such as moderately high areas are still in natural vegetation, but a few have been
organic-matter content and moderate available water ca- cleared and are used for improved pasture or vegetables.
pacity in the surface layer. Natural fertility is moderate, Excess water is the major limitation to the use of this
and the response to fertilizer is good. These are excellent soil for cultivated crops. If adequate drainage is estab-
soils for vegetable crops if the water level is properly con- lished and water control measures are used, this soil is ex-
trolled and if other factors make these crops feasible, cellent for vegetable crops. Drainage can be established
These soils are excellent for pasture of improved grasses through a system of dikes, canals, ditches, and pumps.
or grass and clover mixtures, if they are properly man- Control structures are needed to keep the water level at
aged. Management practices include a water control a proper depth for crops and to reduce the hazard of sub-
system that drains excess surface water and provides sub- sidence by oxidation of the organic matter. Other man-
surface irrigation, frequent applications of lime and fer- agement practices include the use of cover crops; frequent
tilizer, and careful control of grazing. Capability unit application of fertilizer that is high in content of all plant
IIIw-2; woodland group 5; range management group 1. nutrients, except nitrogen; and control of soil reaction.
This soil is not suited to citrus trees.
Terra Ceia Series Under intensive management, this soil produces high-
quality pasture of improved grasses or grass and clover
The Terra Ceia series consists of nearly level, very mixtures. Good management practices include use of a
poorly drained, organic soils that are mostly in hardwood water control system designed to drain excess surface
swamps on the flood plains of the larger rivers and water and maintain the water table at a proper depth,
streams. These soils formed in the remains of dominantly adequate applications of fertilizer and lime, and control
nonwoody, fibrous, hydrophytic plants. of grazing. Capability unit IIIw-5; woodland group 1;
In a representative profile dark reddish-brown muck range management group 1.
extends to a depth of about 64 inches.
Permeability is rapid, and the available water capacity, Wicks
organic-matter content, and nitrogen content are very Wicksburg series
high. The Wicksburg series consists of nearly level to strongly
Representative profile of Terra Ceia muck: sloping, well-drained soils that are on narrow ridges and
Oa-0 to 64 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) un- on slopes surrounding lakes, ponds, and marshes. These
rubbed, black (5YR 2/1) rubbed, well-decomposed soils formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine
organic material (muck); weak, medium, subangu- sediment.
lar blocky structure; friable; few to many, woody In a representative profile the surface layer is about 6
chips up to 4 millimeters in length; estimated 25 inches of dark-gray sand and, below this, about 29 inches
percent fiber if unrubbed, 5 percent rubbed; sodium
pyrophosphate extract color is pale brown (10YR of pale-yellow sand. Next is about 3 inches of brownish-
6/3) ; mildly alkaline, yellow loamy sand over 3 inches of yellowish-brown sandy
The Oa horizon is black, dark reddish brown, or very loam. Between depths of about 41 and 78 inches is sandy
dark brown and is more than 52 inches thick over the clay that is mottled in shades of red, brown, yellow, and
mineral layers. Content of mineral material ranges from gray.
about 5 to 40 percent, and fiber content is 10 to 40 percent Permeability is very rapid in the surface layer, moder-
before rubbing and less than 10 percent after rubbing. atelv raid in the npper part of the subsoil, and slow in
Fibers are generally from nonwoody plants, but in some t u p
places fibers from woody plants make up as much as 30 the lower part of the subsoil. Available water capacity is
percent of the volume of unrubbed organic material, very low in the sandy surface layer, moderate in the upper
Terra Ceia soils are medium acid to moderately alkaline part of the subsoil, and high in the lower part of the sub-
throughout. In most years the water table is within 10 soil. Organic-matter content and natural fertility are low.
inches of the surface for 9 to 12 months and water is Representative profile of Wicksburg sand:
frequently on the surface. In dry seasons the water table
is at a depth of 10 to 30 inches. Ap-0 to 6 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak,
Terra Ceia soils are associated with Sellers, Astor, Ever- medium, granular structure; friable; many fine








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 27

and medium roots; medium acid; clear, wavy pine, and an understory of grasses. However, many areas
boundary. have been cleared and are used for citrus trees and im-
A2-6 to 35 inches, pale-yellow (2.5Y 7/4) sand; few, fine, prved pasture.
distinct, black (10YR 2/1) streaks along root chan- proved pasture.
nels; few, fine, faint, yellow and very pale brown This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The limi-
mottles; single grained; loose; common fine and stations to use of the soil for such crops are severe because
medium roots; strongly acid; gradual, wavy bound- of the very low available water capacity and the rapid
A&B-35 t 38 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) loamy leaching of plant nutrients from the thick surface layer.
sand; weak, medium, granular structure; friable; Natural fertility is low. Good management practices in-
common, medium, faint, yellowish-brown lumps of clude correct use of crop residue and green-manure crops
sandy loam; few fine roots; very strongly acid; and adequate use of fertilizer and lime. Soil blowing is a
clet- ar smooth boundary 5/8) sandy concern in the nearly level areas, and both soil blowing
loam; common, medium, faint, yellowish-brown and water erosion are hazards on unprotected, gentle
mottles; weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure; slopes. Management practices used to improve soil prop-
friable; few, medium, prominent, red (2.5YR 4/8) erties are generally adequate to control erosion.
balls of sandy clay loam; few fine roots; very This soil is well suited to citrus trees, but in some areas
B21t-41 t n5 i ; s,abr pted drred (O 3/6), strong- the trees are subject to frequent damage by cold. Good
brown (7.5YR 5/8), light-gray (10YR 7/2), and management practices include the growing of cover crops
red (2.5YR 4/8) sandy clay; moderate, medium, between the trees, keeping tillage to a minimum, use of
subangular blocky structure; firm; few patchy clay adequate amounts of fertilizer, and, in dry periods, irriga-
films on ped faces; few fine roots; very strongly tion.
acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
B22t-54 to 78 inches, mottled reddish-yellow (7.5YR 6/8), Deep-rooted grasses and legumes that are adapted to
red (2.5YR 4/8), and light-gray (5YR 6/6) sandy this survey area grow well if they are properly estab-
clay; weak, medium, subangular blocky structure; lished and managed. Less drought resistant plants are not
firm few discontinuous clay films on ped faces; few well adapted, because their roots do not penetrate deeply
fine roots; very strongly acid.
enough to obtain adequate moisture in dry seasons. Capa-
The Ap horizon ranges from black to dark gray or brown ability unit IIIs-4; woodland group 2; range management
to dark grayish brown in color and from 7 to 12 inches in
thickness. The A2 horizon ranges from brown or yellowish group 5.
brown to pale yellow in color and from 10 to 30 inches in Wicksburg sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes (WcC).-This
thickness. It commonly has black or gray streaks extending is a sloping to strongly sloping, well-drained soil that is
from the Ap horizon, and few to many, faint, brownish or on the side slopes that lead to lakes, sinks, and depres-
yellowish mottles. The entire A horizon is 20 to 40 inches sions. It has thick, sandy surface layer over a clay
thick. sions. It has a thick, sandy surface layer over a clayey
The B1 horizon is yellowish-brown or brownish-yellow subsoil that begins below a depth of 20 inches but above
sandy loam or sandy clay loam. It is 0 to 5 inches thick a depth of 40 inches. Most of the time the water table is
but is not present in all profiles. The B2t horizon is sandy below a depth of 84 inches, but sometimes after heavy
clay or clay that generally is highly mottled in shades of rains it is above the subsoil for a few hours.
yellow, brown, red, and gray, but in some places it is
yellowish brown or brownish yellow and has few to many Natural vegetation consists of pine forest and wiregrass.
mottles of other colors. Most areas are still in natural vegetation, but a few have
Wicksburg soils are medium acid to very strongly acid been cleared and used for improved pasture.
in all horizons. The permanent water table is below a depth This soil is very poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
of 84 inches, but for brief periods after heavy rains, a
perched water table is 20 to 40 inches below the surface, limitations to use of the soil for cultivated crops are very
The annual temperature of the Wicksburg soils mapped severe because of very low available water capacity, rapid
in this survey area is slightly higher than the defined range leaching of plant nutrients in the thick surface layer, low
for the Wicksburg series, but this does not alter the use- natural fertility, and strong slopes. Water erosion is also
fulness and behavior of these soils.
Wicksburg soils are associated with Astatula, Orlando, a hazard, and adequate control measures should be taken
and Eustis soils. Wicksburg soils have a well-developed, to protect the soil at all times. Among good management
clayey B2t horizon above a depth of 40 inches, whereas practices if cultivated crops are grown are the correct use
Astatula and Orlando soils do not have a B2t horizon but of crop residue and green-manure crops and adequate use
have a sandy C horizon that extends to a depth of 80 of fertilizer and lime.
inches. Wicksburg soils have a subsoil that has a much ertzer and me.
higher content of clay than that of Eustis soils, and their This soil is suited to citrus trees, but because many areas
subsoil lacks the bands that are typical of Eustis soils, are subject to frequent damage by cold, the trees must be
Wicksburg sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (WcA).-This protected. Good management practices include growing
is a nearly level to gently sloping, well-drained soil that is cover crops between the trees, keeping tillage to a mini-
on gently undulating, narrow ridges. It has a thick, sandy mum, using adequate amounts of fertilizer, and, in dry
surface layer over a clayey subsoil. The subsoil begins be- periods, irrigating.
low a depth of 20 inches but above a depth of 40 inches. This soil is well suited to improved pasture. Deep-
The water table is below a depth of 84 inches, but some- rooted, drought-resistant grasses and legumes grow well
times after heavy rains, a perched water table is above if properly established and managed. Capability unit
the subsoil for a few hours. IVs-3; woodland group 2; range management group 5.
Included with this soil in mapping are many areas of
soils where the sandy surface layer is thicker than 40
inches. Some of these included soils have a loamy rather Use and Management of the Soils
than a clayey subsoil. Also included are a few areas of
Wicksburg sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. The soils of the Ocala National Forest Area are used
Natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine and slash extensively for woodland, wildlife habitat, and recreation.








28 SOIL SURVEY

To a small extent, they are used for pasture or range, dry periods. Bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are
citrus fruits, cultivated crops, and homesites. This section the most widely used pasture grasses. White clover,
discusses the management of soils for cultivated crops and Hubam clover, and clover and grass mixtures are grown
pasture, explains the capability grouping used by the Soil for winter grazing in areas where irrigation facilities are
Conservation Service, and gives the predicted yields of available.
principal crops. It also discusses the management of the Most of the improved pastures in the survey area are
soils for woodland, range, and wildlife habitat. It lists, used for beef cattle in cow-calf type operations. A good
mainly in the form of tables, the soil properties that affect pasture not only supplies forage for livestock but also
engineering practices and the soil limitations that affect controls soil blowing and water erosion, improves soil
recreational development, quality by adding organic matter, makes a better environ-
ment for micro-organisms, and improves tilth.
Management for Cultivated Crops and Pasture The Ocala National Forest Area is in the northern part
of the Florida citrus belt. Some citrus crops are grown on
Cultivated crops are of minor importance in the Ocala the better, well-drained soils in the southern part of the
National Forest Area, most of which is woodland. Only survey area, but this is considered risky because of the
a few privately owned farms are in the southern and hazard of frost. Irrigation is needed for the survival and
southwestern parts of the survey area. growth of trees. In all groves, cover crops and minimum
Most soils in the Ocala National Forest Area have se- tillage are needed to control erosion.
rious limitations or hazards that have to be overcome Special crops, such as watermelon, are grown on some
before cultivated crops, citrus trees, or improved pasture of the excessively drained, deep, sandy soils in the survey
can be grown successfully. In a good management plan, area. Irrigation is necessary to insure an adequate supply
these limitations or hazards are considered and adequate of moisture for this crop on sandy soils. Strips of tall
measures are provided to correct or eliminate them. plants, such as sorghum, are needed to protect the soil
A shallow water table, either continuous or seasonal, and young plants from wind damage. Vegetables are
affects some of the soils. During rainy seasons these soils grown mainly for home use, but the survey area has a
have excess water in the root zone that is harmful to potential for production of vegetables, which could be
crops. In dry seasons crops grown on some of these same grown on a number of soils.
soils are damaged by a shortage of water. A combined The management practices suggested for crops and soils
drainage and irrigation system provides a high degree of can be expected to change as new information is gained
water control by removing excess water in wet seasons and from the experience of farm workers. Current informa-
by supplying water in dry seasons. Soils along the rivers tion concerning crops, improved plant varieties, and spe-
and major streams must be protected from flooding or cific management practices can be obtained from the
overflow if they are used for cultivated crops or pasture, nearest office of the Soil Conservation Service, from the
Many of the soils in the survey area are excessively University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations,
drained, deep, and sandy. During periods of nearly daily or from the County Agricultural Extension Service.
rain, there is generally sufficient moisture for a few crops,
but supplemental sprinkler irrigation is almost always Capability Grouping
necessary. These soils have very rapid permeability and
very low available water capacity. Plant nutrients are Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the suit-
quickly leached, ability of soils for most field crops. The soils are grouped
Most of the soils are nearly level or very rapidly per- according to their limitations when used for field crops,
meable, and there is no rapid runoff during rains. There- the risk of damage when they are so used, and the way
fore, erosion is not a serious problem. Erosion along ditch- they respond to treatment. The grouping does not take
banks can occur, and these areas need the protection of a into account major and generally expensive landforming
vegetative cover. Soil blowing occurs if the excessively that would change slope, depth, or other characteristics
drained soils on ridges are left without cover. If culti- of the soils; does not take into consideration possible but
vated, these soils should be protected by cover crops that unlikely major reclamation projects; and does not apply
require only minimum tillage. Soils that have poor quali- to rice, cranberries, horticultural crops, or other crops
ties can be improved by growing cover crops and green- requiring special management.
m anure crops betre in citrus roves. Turning Those familiar with the capability classification can
manure crops between the trees in citrus groves. Turning infer from it much about the behavior of soils when used
under all plant residues left in cultivated fields is bene- for other-purposes, but this classification is not a substi-
ficial. Response to fertilizer varies, depending on the kind tute for interpretations designed to show suitability and
of soil and type of management. limitations of groups of soils for range. for forest trees,
Improved pasture has been established on many farms or for engineering.
in the survey area. Most of the farms are in flatwoods on In the capability system, all the kinds of soil are
soils that have a clayey subsoil. In the pasture, a system grouped at three levels: the capability class, the subclass,
of water control that removes excess surface water, the and the unit. The eight capability classes in the broadest
use of proper fertilizer as well as lime, and other good grouping are designated by Roman numerals I through
management practices are needed. Soils adjacent to the VIII. In class I are soils that have few limitations, the
rivers and creeks in the survey area must also be pro- widest range of use, and the least risk of damage when
tected from flooding if they are used for improved pas- used. The soils in the other classes have progressively
ture. Irrigation should be used in improved pasture to greater natural limitations. In class VIII are soils and
provide adequate moisture for grasses and clover during landforms so rough, so shallow, or otherwise so limited








28 SOIL SURVEY

To a small extent, they are used for pasture or range, dry periods. Bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are
citrus fruits, cultivated crops, and homesites. This section the most widely used pasture grasses. White clover,
discusses the management of soils for cultivated crops and Hubam clover, and clover and grass mixtures are grown
pasture, explains the capability grouping used by the Soil for winter grazing in areas where irrigation facilities are
Conservation Service, and gives the predicted yields of available.
principal crops. It also discusses the management of the Most of the improved pastures in the survey area are
soils for woodland, range, and wildlife habitat. It lists, used for beef cattle in cow-calf type operations. A good
mainly in the form of tables, the soil properties that affect pasture not only supplies forage for livestock but also
engineering practices and the soil limitations that affect controls soil blowing and water erosion, improves soil
recreational development, quality by adding organic matter, makes a better environ-
ment for micro-organisms, and improves tilth.
Management for Cultivated Crops and Pasture The Ocala National Forest Area is in the northern part
of the Florida citrus belt. Some citrus crops are grown on
Cultivated crops are of minor importance in the Ocala the better, well-drained soils in the southern part of the
National Forest Area, most of which is woodland. Only survey area, but this is considered risky because of the
a few privately owned farms are in the southern and hazard of frost. Irrigation is needed for the survival and
southwestern parts of the survey area. growth of trees. In all groves, cover crops and minimum
Most soils in the Ocala National Forest Area have se- tillage are needed to control erosion.
rious limitations or hazards that have to be overcome Special crops, such as watermelon, are grown on some
before cultivated crops, citrus trees, or improved pasture of the excessively drained, deep, sandy soils in the survey
can be grown successfully. In a good management plan, area. Irrigation is necessary to insure an adequate supply
these limitations or hazards are considered and adequate of moisture for this crop on sandy soils. Strips of tall
measures are provided to correct or eliminate them. plants, such as sorghum, are needed to protect the soil
A shallow water table, either continuous or seasonal, and young plants from wind damage. Vegetables are
affects some of the soils. During rainy seasons these soils grown mainly for home use, but the survey area has a
have excess water in the root zone that is harmful to potential for production of vegetables, which could be
crops. In dry seasons crops grown on some of these same grown on a number of soils.
soils are damaged by a shortage of water. A combined The management practices suggested for crops and soils
drainage and irrigation system provides a high degree of can be expected to change as new information is gained
water control by removing excess water in wet seasons and from the experience of farm workers. Current informa-
by supplying water in dry seasons. Soils along the rivers tion concerning crops, improved plant varieties, and spe-
and major streams must be protected from flooding or cific management practices can be obtained from the
overflow if they are used for cultivated crops or pasture, nearest office of the Soil Conservation Service, from the
Many of the soils in the survey area are excessively University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations,
drained, deep, and sandy. During periods of nearly daily or from the County Agricultural Extension Service.
rain, there is generally sufficient moisture for a few crops,
but supplemental sprinkler irrigation is almost always Capability Grouping
necessary. These soils have very rapid permeability and
very low available water capacity. Plant nutrients are Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the suit-
quickly leached, ability of soils for most field crops. The soils are grouped
Most of the soils are nearly level or very rapidly per- according to their limitations when used for field crops,
meable, and there is no rapid runoff during rains. There- the risk of damage when they are so used, and the way
fore, erosion is not a serious problem. Erosion along ditch- they respond to treatment. The grouping does not take
banks can occur, and these areas need the protection of a into account major and generally expensive landforming
vegetative cover. Soil blowing occurs if the excessively that would change slope, depth, or other characteristics
drained soils on ridges are left without cover. If culti- of the soils; does not take into consideration possible but
vated, these soils should be protected by cover crops that unlikely major reclamation projects; and does not apply
require only minimum tillage. Soils that have poor quali- to rice, cranberries, horticultural crops, or other crops
ties can be improved by growing cover crops and green- requiring special management.
m anure crops betre in citrus roves. Turning Those familiar with the capability classification can
manure crops between the trees in citrus groves. Turning infer from it much about the behavior of soils when used
under all plant residues left in cultivated fields is bene- for other-purposes, but this classification is not a substi-
ficial. Response to fertilizer varies, depending on the kind tute for interpretations designed to show suitability and
of soil and type of management. limitations of groups of soils for range. for forest trees,
Improved pasture has been established on many farms or for engineering.
in the survey area. Most of the farms are in flatwoods on In the capability system, all the kinds of soil are
soils that have a clayey subsoil. In the pasture, a system grouped at three levels: the capability class, the subclass,
of water control that removes excess surface water, the and the unit. The eight capability classes in the broadest
use of proper fertilizer as well as lime, and other good grouping are designated by Roman numerals I through
management practices are needed. Soils adjacent to the VIII. In class I are soils that have few limitations, the
rivers and creeks in the survey area must also be pro- widest range of use, and the least risk of damage when
tected from flooding if they are used for improved pas- used. The soils in the other classes have progressively
ture. Irrigation should be used in improved pasture to greater natural limitations. In class VIII are soils and
provide adequate moisture for grasses and clover during landforms so rough, so shallow, or otherwise so limited








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 29

that they do not produce worthwhile yields of crops, cemented with organic matter at a depth of less
forage, or timber, than 30 inches; and somewhat poorly drained
CAPABILITY SUBCLASSES are soil groups within one class; soils that have clayey layers beneath strongly
they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or c, cemented sandy layers; in flatwoods.
to the class numeral, for example, IIe. The letter e shows Unit IIIw-2. Nearly level, very poorly drained
that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless close- soils that have a very thick, dark-colored sur-
growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that water in face layer and sand to a depth of 80 inches; on
or on the soil interferes with plant growth or cultivation low flats and in depressions.
(in some soils the wetness can be partly corrected by arti- Unit IIIw-3. Nearly level, moderately well
ficial drainage) ; s shows that the soil is limited mainly drained soils that have a surface layer of loamy
because it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in sand and a clayey subsoil within 20 inches of
only some parts of the United States, shows that the chief the surface; on narrow rims around lakes,
limitation is climate that is too cold or too dry. ponds, and depressions.
In class I there are no subclasses, because the soils of Unit IIIw-4. Nearly level, poorly drained soils
this class have few limitations. Class V can contain, at the that have a surface layer of loamy sand and a
most, only the subclasses indicated by w, s, and c, because loamy or clayey subsoil within 20 inches of the
the soils in class V are subject to little or no erosion, surface; in flatwoods and in low depressions.
though they have other limitations that restrict their use Unit IIIw-5. Nearly level, very poorly drained
largely to pasture, range, woodland, wildlife, or peats and mucks; on flood plains along the
recreation. river and in depressions.
CAPABILITY UNITS are soil groups within the subclasses. Subclass IIIs soils have severe limitations because of
The soils in one capability unit are enough alike to be low available water capacity and low capacity to
suited to the same crops and pasture plants, to require hold plant nutrients.
similar management, and to have similar productivity and Unit IIIs-1. Nearly level, well-drained soil
other responses to management. Thus, the capability unit has a thick, black surface layer and is sandy
is a convenient grouping for making many statements to a depth of 80 inches; on drought ridges.
about soil management. Capability units are gen- Unit IIIs-2. Nearly level to sloping, excessively
rally designed by adding an Arabic numeral to the sub- drained, drought sand to a depth of 80 inches
class symbol, for example, IIw-2 or IVs-1. Thus, in one that has a favorable water table; on moder-
symbol, the Roman numeral designates the capability ately low ridges.
class, or degree of limitation; the small letter indicates Unit IIIs-3. Nearly level to gently sloping,
the subclass, or kind of limitation, as defined in the fore- somewhat excessively drained soils that are
going paragraph; and the Arabic numeral specifically sand to a depth of 50 inches and sand and
identifies the capability unit within each subclass, loamy sand to a depth of 80 inches; on ridges.
The classes in the capability system and the subclasses Unit IIIs-4. Nearly level and gently sloping,
in the Ocala National Forest Area are described in the list well-drained, drought soils that have a sur-
that follows. The factors that affect the use of soils for face layer of sand 20 to 40 inches thick over a
cultivated crops and pasture and broad general suggestions clayey subsoil; on uplands.
for use and management of the soil are given in the de- Class IV soils have very severe limitations that restrict
scription of each mapping unit in the section "Descriptions the choice of plants, require very careful management,
of the Soils." The capability classification of each soil can or both.
be found at the end of each mapping unit description in Subclass IVw soils have very severe limitations for
this section, and it is also given in the "Guide to Mapping cultivation because of excessive wetness.
Units." Unit IVw-1. Nearly level, poorly drained soils
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. that have dark-colored, weakly cemented un-
(None in the Ocala National Forest Area.) derlying layers and are sandy to a depth of
Class II soils have some limitations that reduce the choice 60 inches; in flatwoods.
of plants or require moderate conservation practices. Unit IVw-2. Nearly level, poorly drained soils
Subclass IIw soils have slight or moderate limitations that have stained layers above a depth of 40
because of seasonal wetness. inches and are sandy to a depth of 80 inches;
Unit IIw-1. Nearly level, somewhat poorly in sloughs and on low flats.
drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 80 Subclass IVs soils have very severe limitations for
inches. cultivation because of very low available water
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the capacity and very low capacity to hold plant nu-
choice of plants, or require special conservation prac- trients.
tices, or both. Unit IVs-1. Nearly level to sloping, excessively
Subclass IIIw soils have severe limitations because of drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 80
excess water but moderate limitations if the soils inches; on high ridges.
are drained; also in this subclass are organic soils Unit IVs-2. Nearly level and gently sloping,
that subside when drained, moderately well drained, drought soils that
Unit IIIw-1. Nearly level, poorly drained, are sand to a depth of 80 inches and that have a
sandy soils that have a dark-colored surface favorable water table; on moderately high
layer and are underlain by a layer weakly ridges.








30 SOIL SURVEY

Unit IVs-3. Sloping and strongly sloping, well- generally high level of management used in the survey
drained, drought soils that have a surface area. Not included in this table are soils that are used
layer of sand 20 to 30 inches thick and a clayey only for range or recreation.
subsoil; on upland side slopes. Crops other than those shown in table 2 are grown in
Class V soils are not likely to erode. They have other lim- the area, but their predicted yields are not included, be-
itations, impractical to remove without major reclama- cause their acreage is small or because reliable data on
tion, that limit their use largely to pasture or range, yields are not available.
woodland, or wildlife food and cover.
Subclass Vw soils are too wet for cultivation. Use of the Soils for Woodland
Unit Vw-1. Nearly level, very poorly drained
soils that have a surface layer of loamy sand Originally, the Ocala National Forest Area (fig. 4)
or clay and a clayey subsoil to a depth of 60 was wooded, and woodland is still the principal use.
inches or more; on low flats and in depressions. Trees cover 90 percent of the survey area.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them gen- Soils differ greatly in their suitability for trees. The
rally unsuitable for cultivation and that limit use kind of trees that grow on a particular soil and the corn-
largely to pasture or range, woodland, or wildlife food binations of species are determined largely by the ability
and cover. of the soil to maintain favorable moisture and to permit
Subclass VIs soils are generally unsuited to cultiva- the development of adequate root systems. Some soil
tion and limited for other uses by very low avail- characteristics that affect the growth of trees are thick-
able water capacity and very low capacity to hold ness of the surface layer, texture of the soil material,
plant nutrients, available water capacity, natural fertility, aeration, and
Units VIs-1. Nearly level to sloping, exces- depth to the water table.
sively drained, drought soils that are sandy to The soils of the Ocala National Forest Area have been
a depth of 80 inches or more; on high ridges, placed in 12 woodland management groups. These groups
Unit VIs-2. Nearly level, moderately well and the mapping unit symbols are listed in the first
drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 70 column of table 3. Each group is made up of soils that
inches or more and have weakly cemented require similar management practices and that are sim-
layers below a depth of 30 inches, ilar in potential productivity.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation without major recla-
mation and that restrict their use largely to grazing,
woodland, or wildlife habitat.
Subclass VIIw soils are very severely limited by
prolonged flooding.
Unit VIIw-1. Poorly drained and very poorly
drained, nearly level soils having sand texture
and weakly cemented layers above a depth of
30 inches, or a very thick, dark-colored sur-
face layer; in depressions in flatwoods.
Subclass VIIs soils are very severely limited by
very low available water capacity and very low
capacity to hold plant nutrients.
Unit VIIs-1. Nearly level to moderately
steep, excessively drained soils that are sandy
to a depth of 80 inches or more; on broad
ridges and side slopes.
Class VIII soils and landforms have, without major
reclamation, limitations that preclude their use for
commercial production of plants and restrict their use
to recreation, wildlife habitat, water supply, or esthetic
purposes. (None in the Ocala National Forest Area.)

Predicted Yields
Table 2 lists predicted yields of the principal crops
grown in the survey area. The predictions are based on
estimates made by farmers, soil scientists, and others
who have knowledge of yields in the area and on infor-
mation taken from research data. The predicted yields
are an average per acre that can be expected by good
commercial farmers at the level of management that Figure 4.-Area of the Ocala National' Forest, which embraces
tends to produce the highest economic returns, more than 200,000 acres, the largest stand of sand pine (Pina.
tends to produce the highest economic returns. clausa) in existence. The soils are an Astatula sand and a Paola
The yields are those that can be expected with the sand. Sand pine is well suited to the deep, sandy soils.








30 SOIL SURVEY

Unit IVs-3. Sloping and strongly sloping, well- generally high level of management used in the survey
drained, drought soils that have a surface area. Not included in this table are soils that are used
layer of sand 20 to 30 inches thick and a clayey only for range or recreation.
subsoil; on upland side slopes. Crops other than those shown in table 2 are grown in
Class V soils are not likely to erode. They have other lim- the area, but their predicted yields are not included, be-
itations, impractical to remove without major reclama- cause their acreage is small or because reliable data on
tion, that limit their use largely to pasture or range, yields are not available.
woodland, or wildlife food and cover.
Subclass Vw soils are too wet for cultivation. Use of the Soils for Woodland
Unit Vw-1. Nearly level, very poorly drained
soils that have a surface layer of loamy sand Originally, the Ocala National Forest Area (fig. 4)
or clay and a clayey subsoil to a depth of 60 was wooded, and woodland is still the principal use.
inches or more; on low flats and in depressions. Trees cover 90 percent of the survey area.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them gen- Soils differ greatly in their suitability for trees. The
rally unsuitable for cultivation and that limit use kind of trees that grow on a particular soil and the corn-
largely to pasture or range, woodland, or wildlife food binations of species are determined largely by the ability
and cover. of the soil to maintain favorable moisture and to permit
Subclass VIs soils are generally unsuited to cultiva- the development of adequate root systems. Some soil
tion and limited for other uses by very low avail- characteristics that affect the growth of trees are thick-
able water capacity and very low capacity to hold ness of the surface layer, texture of the soil material,
plant nutrients, available water capacity, natural fertility, aeration, and
Units VIs-1. Nearly level to sloping, exces- depth to the water table.
sively drained, drought soils that are sandy to The soils of the Ocala National Forest Area have been
a depth of 80 inches or more; on high ridges, placed in 12 woodland management groups. These groups
Unit VIs-2. Nearly level, moderately well and the mapping unit symbols are listed in the first
drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 70 column of table 3. Each group is made up of soils that
inches or more and have weakly cemented require similar management practices and that are sim-
layers below a depth of 30 inches, ilar in potential productivity.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation without major recla-
mation and that restrict their use largely to grazing,
woodland, or wildlife habitat.
Subclass VIIw soils are very severely limited by
prolonged flooding.
Unit VIIw-1. Poorly drained and very poorly
drained, nearly level soils having sand texture
and weakly cemented layers above a depth of
30 inches, or a very thick, dark-colored sur-
face layer; in depressions in flatwoods.
Subclass VIIs soils are very severely limited by
very low available water capacity and very low
capacity to hold plant nutrients.
Unit VIIs-1. Nearly level to moderately
steep, excessively drained soils that are sandy
to a depth of 80 inches or more; on broad
ridges and side slopes.
Class VIII soils and landforms have, without major
reclamation, limitations that preclude their use for
commercial production of plants and restrict their use
to recreation, wildlife habitat, water supply, or esthetic
purposes. (None in the Ocala National Forest Area.)

Predicted Yields
Table 2 lists predicted yields of the principal crops
grown in the survey area. The predictions are based on
estimates made by farmers, soil scientists, and others
who have knowledge of yields in the area and on infor-
mation taken from research data. The predicted yields
are an average per acre that can be expected by good
commercial farmers at the level of management that Figure 4.-Area of the Ocala National' Forest, which embraces
tends to produce the highest economic returns, more than 200,000 acres, the largest stand of sand pine (Pina.
tends to produce the highest economic returns. clausa) in existence. The soils are an Astatula sand and a Paola
The yields are those that can be expected with the sand. Sand pine is well suited to the deep, sandy soils.









OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 31

TABLE 2.-Predicted average yields per acre of principal crops

[Yields are those that can be expected under a high level of management. Absence of yield indicates that the crop is not suited to the soil
or is not commonly grown on it]

Permanent improved
Corn Water- pasture
Soil name Oranges Grape- Cab- melons
Oranges fruit bage (market-
(Field) (Sweet) able) Grass Grass-
clover

50-pound Animal-unit- Animal-unit-
Boxes Boxes Bushels Crates crate or bag Pounds months 1 months I
Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes --------------_ 375 575 ------ ------- ------------- 3
Astatula sand, 8 to 17 percent slopes---------------------------------------- -------- 3
Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 8 percent slopes---- 425 625 35 -------- -- 7, 200 6. 5
Astatula sand, dark surface, 8 to 17 percent slopes--------------------___ ---------- 6. 5
Astatula sand, banded substratum, 0 to 8 percent
slopes --------------------------------------- 450 650 35 ------ ------- 7,200 6. 5
Astatula sand, moderately deep water table, 0 to 8
percent slopes --------------------------------- 475 675 40 _----- ------- 8, 000 8
Astor sand-------------------------------------- ----------180 480 ---------- 8 10
Basinger sand ----------------------------------- -------------160 400 --------7. 5 9. 5
Delks sand -------------------------------------- --------- 160 320 10, 000 7 9. 5
Dorovan muck---------------------------------------- ----- 100 180 480 ------- 13 16
Duplin loamy sand ------------------------------ 475 675 70 160 460 11,000 10
Eureka loamy fine sand -------------------------- ------------------------------ -10 12
Eureka loamy sand, thick-surface variant ----------- -------- ---- ---- ------- ------ 10 12
Eustis sand ------------------------------------- 450 650 35 -------- ------ 8, 000 6. 5
Everglades muck ------------------------------------- ------ 100 180 480 ---------- 13 16
Iberia clay --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 12
Immokalee sand --------------------- ------------ ---- -------- 160 320 10, 000 7 9. 5
Made land----------------
Meggett loamy sand----------------------------- -------------------------------------------- 10 12
Myakka sand----------------------------------------------------------- 160 320 10, 000 8 11
Myakka and Sellers soils, ponded-------- ___ --
Orlando sand ----------------------------------- 425 625 35 ----------_---- 10, 000 7
Orlando sand, wet variant------------------------ 475 675 35 ---------------- 10, 000 7 -
Pamlico muck ----- --------------------- ------- -------- 100 180 480 ---------- 13 16
Pamlico muck, deep--------------------------------------------- 100 180 480 ---------- 13 16
Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes ------------------ 200 350 ---------------__------ ---------- 3
Paola sand, 8 to 17 percent slopes----------------- -------------- ---------------------------------- 3 -----
Paola sand, moderately deep water table, 0 to 5 per-
cent slopes------------------------------------ 350 450--- --- -------- ---------- -- 4 ...4-----
Pomello sand--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7, 200 4
Rains loamy fine sand----------------------------------------------- ---- ------ --------- 10 12
St. Johns sand----------------------------------------------------- 180 480 10, 000 9 11
St. Lucie sand ------ -------------------- ------------- ----------- ------ ----- -------- ---------
Sellers sand---------------------------------------------------- ---- 180 480 --------- 8 10
Sellers and Pamlico soils------------------------------------------------- 180 480 ---------- 10 13
Terra Ceia muck--------------------------------------------- 100 180 480 ---------- 13 16
Wicksburg sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes -------------- 400 650 45 --------------_ 10, 000 8
Wicksburg sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes ------------- 400 650 40 ---------------- 10, 000 8

1 Animal-unit-months refers to the number of months during a normal growing season that 1 acre will provide grazing for an animal
unit (1 cow, horse, or steer; 5 hogs; or 7 sheep) without injury to the sod.

In the column headed "Tree species" are commercially Class II indicates 85 to 120 cubic feet per acre per
important trees that are adapted to the soil. These are year.
the trees that woodland managers generally favor in Class III indicates 50 to 85 cubic feet per acre per
intermediate or improvement cuttings. Also given is the year.
potential productivity of these trees in terms of site Class IV indicates 20 to 50 cubic feet per acre per
index. The site index is the average height of dominant year.
trees, in feet, at age 50. Seedling mortality ratings indicate the losses of
In the column headed "Productivity class," the poten- planted seedlings to be expected when plant competition
tial productivity of five species of pine is indicated is not a limiting factor. Normal rainfall, good planting
Potential productivity is based on the entire stand (inside stock, and proper planting methods are assumed. A rating
bark, stump to tip) at 100 percent stocking and is ex- of slight indicates that expected mortality is less than
pressed in cubic feet per acre per year at age 50. 25 percent; moderate indicates a loss of 25 to 50 per-
Four timber productivity classes are recognized: cent; and severe indicates a loss of more than 50 percent.
Class I indicates 120 or more cubic feet per acre per Plant competition refers to the invasions or encroach-
year. ment of unwanted species that compete with desired tree










32 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 3.-Woodland groups of soils

Productivity Limitations and hazards
Woodland groups and -
map symbols Average Produc- Plant
Tree species site tivity Seedling mortality competition Equipment limitation
index class

Group 1: Do, Ev, Ms,
Pa, Pd, Tc.1
Group 2: Du, WcA, Slash pine -- 86 II Slight .__ _____-----_ Moderate..... Slight where slopes are
WcC. Loblolly pine---- 91 II not more than 8
Longleaf pine___ 73 III percent. Moderate
to severe where
slopes are more
than 8 percent.

Group 3: Er, Es, lb, Loblolly pine-... 100 I Moderate: water Moderate -. Severe.
Me, Ra. Slash pine ----_ 100 II control is needed
Longleaf pine--- 79 III for regeneration
and growth.
Group 4: AwB, Ba. Slash pine ---__ 84 III Slight _---_--------_ Slight ---- Slight.
Longleaf pine_-- 79 III
Group 5: Ax, Os, Sp, Slash pine -.___- 87 II Severe: water con- Severe ------ Severe.
s. trol is needed for
regeneration and
growth of pine;
excellent hardwood
site.

Group 6: Eu, Or. Longleaf pine_- 86 II Moderate------------- Slight------ Slight to moderate.
Sand pine -.-.-- 85 III 2
Group 7: AtB, AtD, Slash pine 68- III Moderate___ ------- Slight-------- Moderate where slopes
AuB. Longleaf pine_ __ 68 III are not more than 8
Sand pine------_ 78 III percent. Moderate
to severe where
slopes are more
than 8 percent.

Group 8: AsB, AsD, Sand pine -- 65 III Moderate---------- Moderate--- Moderate where slopes
PIB, PIDare not more than 8
percent. Severe
where slopes are
more than 8
percent.

Group 9: Sc.3 Sand pine... -- 58 IV Severe -----.------- Moderate -- Severe.
Group 10: PmA, Po. Slash pine -_-_ 80 III Moderate ---------- Moderate-- Moderate.
Sand pine_ ---- 77 III
Group 11: Im, Mk, Sa. Slash pine---- 70 III Moderate: in the Moderate-- Moderate in Im and
Longleaf pine___ 63 IV wetter areas, water Mk. Severe in Sa.
Pond pine-.---_ 70 III control is needed
for good regenera-
tion and growth.
Group 12: De. Slash pine ---- 81 III Moderate_---------- Moderate---M Moderate.
Longleaf pine-__ 70 III

The organic soils in this group support hardwoods and scattered 2 Productivity for sand pine is based on a site index of 80.
slash pine, pond pine, and loblolly pine in some places, but no 3 Site index for sand pine is below 60.
data on productivity are available. The mineral soils are covered
with water periodically and do not support trees.

species. Slight indicates that plant competition does not desirable brush invades or encroaches, overtops the de-
materially interfere with initial growth or establishment sirable species, and prevents the establishment of ade-
of a desired stand. Moderate indicates that plant compe- quate stands of healthy trees.
tition does not prevent desirable species from becoming Equipment limitation reflects soil conditions that re-
established, but it delays the natural regeneration of strict the use of equipment normally used in woodland
trees and slows initial growth. Severe indicates that un- management or harvesting. Slight indicates equipment








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 33

use is not limited to kind of equipment or time of year. lands, and loblolly-slash pine flatwoods. The other areas
Moderate indicates the limitation is seasonal or that are prairies and marshes.
modification in methods or equipment is needed. Severe Longleaf-wiregrass sandhills consist of excessively
indicates the need for special equipment or operations. drained, sandy soils that support a plant cover that is
Fieldwork for this part of the survey was conducted dominantly longleaf pine and turkey oak. Herbaceous
by soil scientists and foresters working cooperatively, vegetation is seldom dense. Where fire is not frequent,
Careful attention was given to the stand and to the in- clumps of wiregrass become very large. Among other
dividual trees before measuring was begun. Trees that characteristic range plants are dropseed, bluestem, and
were affected abnormally by such influences as fire, in- panicum.
sects, diseases, and management were not measured. Only Longleaf-wiregrass flatwoods consist of poorly drained
dominant or codominant, apparently healthy trees were and moderately well drained, sandy soils that have a
measured. On the average, one to six trees per plot were fluctuating water table. Longleaf pine is the dominant
measured to determine age and height. Among the meas- tree, and shrubby and herbaceous vegetation is dense.
urements were a ring count at breast height obtained by Among the characteristic range plants are three-awn,
increment borings, and total height to the nearest foot dropseed, indiangrass, and stargrass.
measured with an Abney level and tape. To obtain the Loblolly-slash pine flatwoods consist of poorly drained
total age, 3 years were added to the ring count for slash and very poorly drained soils. Water stands near the
pine and loblolly pine, 7 years for longleaf pine, and surface during wet seasons but is 3 feet below the sur-
4 years for sand pine. face during prolonged dry seasons. Loblolly pine and
A site index, based on tree height at 50 years of age, slash pine are the dominant trees. Among characteristic
was determined for each tree, then averaged for each plants are three-awn, bluestem, panicum, three-seeded
plot where more than one tree was present. The site in- mercury, and rushes.
dexes recorded represent the average of all the plots for Prairies and marshes consist of poorly drained and very
each species. Site index curves used for loblolly and sand poorly drained areas that periodically are covered with
pines were from a 1960 publication (4) and for longleaf water (see cover). Very few trees grow in these areas.
pines and slash pines from a 1929 publication (7) of the Among the characteristic range grasses are bluestem, low
U.S. Department of Agriculture. panicum, cordgrass, and maidencane.
Soils were examined and classified at each location. Fieldwork for this part of the survey was conducted
Sites on transitional soils were avoided. Among other on three range allotments according to instructions set
features observed were aspect, slope position, density of forth in Southern Forest Experiment Station Occasional
the stand, and density of the understory. Paper 139, by R. S. Campbell and John T. Cassady (3),
with two exceptions: (1) Timber types were used in set-
Use of the Soils for Range 2 ting up allotments, and (2) a minimum of 20 clipped
plots were required for each suitable type. Two clipped
If forest operations are to be profitable, careful man- plots were required on unsuitable types.
agement of available forage and keeping the damage to Soils for each plot were examined and classified, but
forest soils to a minimum are required. no plot on transitional soil was used. On some soils there
Most forage in the Ocala National Forest Area is pro- were not plots, and for these soils, estimates of produc-
duced on uplands in soils under an open forest and in tion were made on the basis of production on similar
areas locally called prairies. Among the principal range soils.
plants are pineland three-awn, maidencane, switchgrass, The soils of the Ocala National Forest Area have been
bluestem, carpetgrass, panicgrass, paspalum, lopsided placed in 10 range management groups. These groups
indiangrass, and Curtiss dropseed. are listed in the first column of table 4. Each group is
Forage is more nutritious in spring and summer than made up of soils that require similar management prac-
in other seasons, but not all the current growth should tices and that are similar in potential productivity. Five
be used by cattle. Enough must be left so that plants productivity classes are recognized.
can set seed and store food to begin growth the following Class I soils can be expected to produce 4,000 or
year. As a general rule, moderate grazing, or grazing more pounds, air-dry weight per acre;
only about 40 to 50 percent of the current growth, gives Class II soils 2,000 to 4,000 pounds, air-dry weight
each cow better gains per acre than other grazing in- per acre;
tensities. Class III soils 1,000 to 2,000 pounds, air-dry weight
The soils of the Ocala National Forest Area have beenass sois 1000 to 2000 nds
placed in 10 range management groups. These groups are Class IV soils 500 to 1,000 pounds, air-dry weight
shown in table 4. Each group is made up of soils that per acre; and
require similar management practices and that are simi- Class V soils 100 to .500 pounds, air-dry weight per
lar in potential productivity. Productivity is estimated acre.
for both open areas and wooded areas. In open areas Some of the columns in table 4 are discussed in the
crown density is less than 50 percent, and in wooded areas m t 4 a
more than 50 percent. following paragraphs.
Wooded areas that provide range in this survey area Surface compactability refers to the risk of compact-
are longleaf-wiregrass sandhills, longleaf wiregrass flat- ing soil by excessive grazing. thus causing excess runoff,
e l s erosion, reduced plant vigor, and reduced forage produc-
"ELDON G. LuCAS, range and wildlife assistant, Forest Service, tion. The two degrees of surface compactability recognized
U.S. Dept. Agr., helped write this section. are slight and moderate. Slight means that the site can be









34 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 4.-Range management groups of soils
[The symbol > means more than, and the symbol < means less than]

Forage Factors influencing range use and management

Range management
groups and map symbols Plant Surface Brush Soil During
cover Amount compactability encroachment stability critical
(degree) (degree) (degree) use periods

Lb. per acre
(air dry)
Group 1: Do, Ev, Pa, Wooded---- <500 Not rated: de- Not rated: de- Not rated: de- Flooding.
Pd, Sp, Tc. ciduous trees ciduous trees ciduous trees
dominant; her- dominant; her- dominant; her-
baceous vege- baceous vege- baceous vege--
tation sparse, station sparse, station sparse.

Group 2: Ms. Open ----- >4, 000 Slight----------- Slight ----------- Slight -----------Flooding.
Group 3: Er, Es, Ib, Open------ 2,000-4,000 Moderate ------ Moderate ------- Slight----------- Excessive
Me, Ra. Wooded_--- 1, 000-2, 000 wetness.
Group 4: AwB, Ba. Open ----- 2, 000-4, 000 Slight -----------Moderate-------- Slight---------- Excessive
Wooded__- 1, 000-2, 000 wetness.

Group 5: Du, Eu, Or, Open ----- 2, 000-4, 000 Slight -----------Moderate-------- Slight-----------Drought.
Os, WcA, WcC. Wooded-___ 1, 000-2, 000
Group 6: Ax, Sa, Ss. Open------ >4, 000 Slight -----------Severe in most Slight ----------Flooding.
Wooded..-- 500-1, 000 areas. Slight in
open areas
(prairies).

Group 7: AtB, AtD, Open------ 1,000-2,000 Slight -----------Moderate-------- Slight where Drought: mod-
AuB. Wooded --- 500-1, 000 slope is not more rate where
than 8 percent. slope is more
than 8 per-
cent.

Group: AsB, AsD, Wooded---- >100 Slight -----------Severe --------- Slight ----------- Drought.
PIB, PID, PmA, Po,
Sc.1
Group 9: De, Im, Mk. Open------ 1,000-2,000 Slight -----------Severe-----------Slight _------ Wetness.
Wooded---- 500-1,000
Group 10: Ma.
No ratings given
because condi-
tions are ex-
tremely variable.

1 These soils are not suited to range. They support dense stands of pine and evergreen shrubs, but little grass.

grazed with no significant damage to the soil. Moderate the slope is more than 8 percent and in areas where live-
means that a concentration of animals causes moderate stock tend to gather, such as salt blocks and feeders.
compaction, resulting in reduced plant vigor and forage Critical use periods are periods during the grazing
production. year when flooding, wetness, and drought restrict use of
Brush encroachment refers to the degree of plant the range. Flooding means that an area may be flooded
competition from brush and weeds. The three degrees with 1 or more feet of water during some part of the
recognized are slight, moderate, and severe. Slight indi- grazing season. Wetness means that water may stand at
cates that brush encroachment does not materially inter- or near the surface during some part of the grazing sea-
fere with range plant production. Moderate indicates that son. Drought means that plants suffer from lack of
brush encroachment reduces forage production to some moisture and can easily be overgrazed during a pro-
extent. Severe indicates that brush encroachment dras- longed absence of rainfall.
tically reduces forage production.
Soil stability refers to the degree that soil is suscepti- Forest-Wildlife Management
ble to displacement from trampling. The two degrees rec- y
ognized are slight and moderate. Slight indicates that The soil survey provides an ideal meeting ground for
ogmzed are slight and moderate. Slight indicates that coordinating timber and wildlife management. In timber
soil displacement by livestock should not adversely affect
range management. Moderate indicates that soil dis- WILLIAM D. ZEEDYK, forester, Forest Service, U.S. Dept. Agr.,
placement by trampling is evident, particularly where helped write this section.








IOCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 35

management soil information can be used in deciding gum seed, pineseed, black cherry, flowering dogwood,
what commercially desirable trees can be economically magnolia, and cypress seed.
grown. In wildlife management this information can be Turkey, wild.-Turkeys survive only in large wooded
used in determining the potential of the soil for support- areas that generally occupy 2,000 acres or more. They
ing various kinds and amounts of wildlife. This knowl- need surface water for daily drinking. Choice foods are
edge leads to a better understanding of both conflicts and insects, acorns, bahiagrass seed, blackberry, dewberry,
opportunities in management. flowering dogwood, gallberry wild grape and pineseed.
The objectives of timber and wildlife habitat manage- Nongame birds.-Nongame birds vary greatly in the
ment are frequently accomplished by adjusting the rate foods they choose. Several kinds eat nothing but insects;
and direction of natural plant succession. The succession others eat insects, nuts, and fruits; the predators eat fish,
of some plants proceeds at a rapid rate and in only a few rodents, and other birds.
different stages; that of others proceeds very slowly and Fish.-The principal game fish in this area are bluegill,
in many stages. The rate of change and the composition black crappie, redbreast, shellcracker, warmouth, large-
of the stand in the various stages strongly influence the mouth black bass, jackfish, and channel catfish. The
character and stability of the wildlife habitat. As the amount of fish produced is related directly to the fertility
availability of foods and cover varies at each different of the water. This fertility is affected by the soils of the
stage, the potential for different wildlife also varies, watershed and somewhat by the soils at the bottom of
The wildlife manager should know what plant com- the ponds.
munities the soils can support at different times and
under various intensities of forest management. Such Management by soil associations
knowledge helps in- Soil information applied to wildlife management aids
(a) selecting for emphasis the wildlife species most in determining which game species to emphasize in a par-
compatible with timber management objectives, ticular locality. Wildlife management by soil associations
(b) evaluating the likelihood of success for wildlife is discussed in the following paragraphs. The soil associ-
management programs incompatible with a nations are described in the section "General Soil Map."
soils-based timber program, and 1. Astatula-Paola association.-The vegetation in this
(c) determining the feasibility of modifying timber association, which is locally called "The Big Scrub," is
management practices so that the soils can pro- dominated by dense stands of sand pine and evergreen
vide a suitable wildlife habitat. shrubs. The shrubs form a thick understory averaging
6 to 10 feet in height. Mats of lichen are common on
Kinds of wildlife the ground. Among the most important plants for wild-
The feeding habits of wildlife differ greatly. Some ani- life are sand pine, sand live oak, myrtle oak, crooked-
mals eat only insects and small animals; some eat only wood, Chapman oak, turkey oak, scrub palmetto, saw-
plants; and others eat a combination of these. The fol- palmetto, blueberry, milkpea, wildbean, and basidi-
lowing paragraphs are a summary of foods needed by omycetes.
most of the important animals and fish in the area. Clear cutting sand pine at age 40 to 60 in patches and
Bear.-Acorns are the most important fall and winter brush chopping the area after harvesting are practices
food of the Florida bear. Among choice foods are the that benefit deer. These practices result in an increased
fruits of gallberry, cabbage palm, blackgum, and saw-pal- quantity and variety of woody and herbaceous browse
metto. Among other foods are armadillo, carpenter ants, plants while retaining cover. In contrast, most browse
acorn weevils, and waterbugs. A mixture of flatwoods, plants are shaded out in mature stands of sand pine.
swamp, scrub oak ridges, bay heads, and hammocks, Controlled burning is not advisable, because these soils
thoroughly interspersed, makes the best habitat for Flor- have extremely low fertility and because sand pine is not
ida bear. fire tolerant.
Bobwhite (quail).-Choice foods for bobwhite are Wildlife plantings on the soils of this association often
acorns, blackberry, wild black cherry, dewberry, Florida fail because the soils are drought and infertile. Plant-
beggarweed, flowering dogwood, lespedeza, pineseed, ings have less competition and are more successful in
sweetgum, browntop millet, and tickclover. These birds areas that have been completely cleared of all evergreen
also eat many insects. The food must be close to vegeta- vegetation and the roots removed. Some of these areas
tion that can protect the wildlife from predators, ex- are along gaslines.
treme heat, and adverse weather. The isolated lakes and grassy ponds scattered through-
Deer.-Among the choice foods for deer are acorns, out this association provide water within a mile of almost
.-d dany point. Water-tolerant vegetation abounds in shallow
basidiomycetes, smilax, saw-palmetto berry, red maple water and grassy ponds, many of which are surrounded
shoots, and tender oak leaves. by thin borders of Immokalee and Sellers soils. Here
Dove, mourning.-Among choice foods for the mourn- slash pine, pond pine, saw-palmetto, waxmyrtle, dwarf
ing dove are pineseed, three-seeded mercury seed, par- huckleberry, and smilax abound. Water-tolerant vege-
tridgepea, common ragweed, and sweetgum seed. Doves station can be manipulated on these soils with little
do not generally eat insects, green leaves, or fruit. They difficulty.
drink water daily. 2. Astatula, dark surface, association.-The vegeta-
Duck.-Choice foods for ducks are acorns, browntip tion on this association is dominated by parklike stands
millet, corn, and smartweed seed. Their food generally of longleaf pine and turkey oak. The proportion of the
needs to be flooded, plant community occupied by longleaf pine or turkey
Squirrel.-Choice food for squirrels are acorns, black- oak depends mainly on the time and the severity of








IOCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 35

management soil information can be used in deciding gum seed, pineseed, black cherry, flowering dogwood,
what commercially desirable trees can be economically magnolia, and cypress seed.
grown. In wildlife management this information can be Turkey, wild.-Turkeys survive only in large wooded
used in determining the potential of the soil for support- areas that generally occupy 2,000 acres or more. They
ing various kinds and amounts of wildlife. This knowl- need surface water for daily drinking. Choice foods are
edge leads to a better understanding of both conflicts and insects, acorns, bahiagrass seed, blackberry, dewberry,
opportunities in management. flowering dogwood, gallberry wild grape and pineseed.
The objectives of timber and wildlife habitat manage- Nongame birds.-Nongame birds vary greatly in the
ment are frequently accomplished by adjusting the rate foods they choose. Several kinds eat nothing but insects;
and direction of natural plant succession. The succession others eat insects, nuts, and fruits; the predators eat fish,
of some plants proceeds at a rapid rate and in only a few rodents, and other birds.
different stages; that of others proceeds very slowly and Fish.-The principal game fish in this area are bluegill,
in many stages. The rate of change and the composition black crappie, redbreast, shellcracker, warmouth, large-
of the stand in the various stages strongly influence the mouth black bass, jackfish, and channel catfish. The
character and stability of the wildlife habitat. As the amount of fish produced is related directly to the fertility
availability of foods and cover varies at each different of the water. This fertility is affected by the soils of the
stage, the potential for different wildlife also varies, watershed and somewhat by the soils at the bottom of
The wildlife manager should know what plant com- the ponds.
munities the soils can support at different times and
under various intensities of forest management. Such Management by soil associations
knowledge helps in- Soil information applied to wildlife management aids
(a) selecting for emphasis the wildlife species most in determining which game species to emphasize in a par-
compatible with timber management objectives, ticular locality. Wildlife management by soil associations
(b) evaluating the likelihood of success for wildlife is discussed in the following paragraphs. The soil associ-
management programs incompatible with a nations are described in the section "General Soil Map."
soils-based timber program, and 1. Astatula-Paola association.-The vegetation in this
(c) determining the feasibility of modifying timber association, which is locally called "The Big Scrub," is
management practices so that the soils can pro- dominated by dense stands of sand pine and evergreen
vide a suitable wildlife habitat. shrubs. The shrubs form a thick understory averaging
6 to 10 feet in height. Mats of lichen are common on
Kinds of wildlife the ground. Among the most important plants for wild-
The feeding habits of wildlife differ greatly. Some ani- life are sand pine, sand live oak, myrtle oak, crooked-
mals eat only insects and small animals; some eat only wood, Chapman oak, turkey oak, scrub palmetto, saw-
plants; and others eat a combination of these. The fol- palmetto, blueberry, milkpea, wildbean, and basidi-
lowing paragraphs are a summary of foods needed by omycetes.
most of the important animals and fish in the area. Clear cutting sand pine at age 40 to 60 in patches and
Bear.-Acorns are the most important fall and winter brush chopping the area after harvesting are practices
food of the Florida bear. Among choice foods are the that benefit deer. These practices result in an increased
fruits of gallberry, cabbage palm, blackgum, and saw-pal- quantity and variety of woody and herbaceous browse
metto. Among other foods are armadillo, carpenter ants, plants while retaining cover. In contrast, most browse
acorn weevils, and waterbugs. A mixture of flatwoods, plants are shaded out in mature stands of sand pine.
swamp, scrub oak ridges, bay heads, and hammocks, Controlled burning is not advisable, because these soils
thoroughly interspersed, makes the best habitat for Flor- have extremely low fertility and because sand pine is not
ida bear. fire tolerant.
Bobwhite (quail).-Choice foods for bobwhite are Wildlife plantings on the soils of this association often
acorns, blackberry, wild black cherry, dewberry, Florida fail because the soils are drought and infertile. Plant-
beggarweed, flowering dogwood, lespedeza, pineseed, ings have less competition and are more successful in
sweetgum, browntop millet, and tickclover. These birds areas that have been completely cleared of all evergreen
also eat many insects. The food must be close to vegeta- vegetation and the roots removed. Some of these areas
tion that can protect the wildlife from predators, ex- are along gaslines.
treme heat, and adverse weather. The isolated lakes and grassy ponds scattered through-
Deer.-Among the choice foods for deer are acorns, out this association provide water within a mile of almost
.-d dany point. Water-tolerant vegetation abounds in shallow
basidiomycetes, smilax, saw-palmetto berry, red maple water and grassy ponds, many of which are surrounded
shoots, and tender oak leaves. by thin borders of Immokalee and Sellers soils. Here
Dove, mourning.-Among choice foods for the mourn- slash pine, pond pine, saw-palmetto, waxmyrtle, dwarf
ing dove are pineseed, three-seeded mercury seed, par- huckleberry, and smilax abound. Water-tolerant vege-
tridgepea, common ragweed, and sweetgum seed. Doves station can be manipulated on these soils with little
do not generally eat insects, green leaves, or fruit. They difficulty.
drink water daily. 2. Astatula, dark surface, association.-The vegeta-
Duck.-Choice foods for ducks are acorns, browntip tion on this association is dominated by parklike stands
millet, corn, and smartweed seed. Their food generally of longleaf pine and turkey oak. The proportion of the
needs to be flooded, plant community occupied by longleaf pine or turkey
Squirrel.-Choice food for squirrels are acorns, black- oak depends mainly on the time and the severity of








36 SOIL SURVEY

cuttings and fire: cutting is favorable to turkey oak, and oak, sweetgum, and southern red maple, provide fruit
fire is favorable to longleaf pine. Herbaceous vegetation and woody browse for wildlife. Plants on these soils can
is seldom dense. When fire is infrequent, clumps of per- be easily manipulated, and special wildlife plantings im-
ennial wiregrasses become very large and hold back the prove wildlife capacity. In most places water is available
growth of most other herbaceous members of the plant within one-half mile.
community. 5. Terra Ceia-Everglades association.-This associa-
In preparing for pine plantations, strips of oaks are tion includes areas locally called hardwood swamps. It
left throughout the association to promote greater use furnishes important cover and a limited amount of food
by game. Where stands of turkey oak become thick, for most wildlife in the survey area. Among the common
ground cover is shaded out. In these areas thinning of plants important to wildlife are baldcypress, swamp
the oaks is needed to increase the production of shrubby tupelo, southern red maple, water hickory, swamp chest-
vegetation, acorns, and forbs, such as blueberry, aster, nut oak, cabbage palm, buttonbush, waxmyrtle, and
milkweed, partridgepea, and elephantopus. smilax. Most cypress swamps have dense overstory cano-
Controlled burning is important for game manage- pies, and thinning encourages greater production of
ment. Light periodic burns in selected places, along with woody browse vegetation. This association is favorable
occasional rotation of areas to be treated, prevent hot, to turkey, gray squirrel, bear and deer. Many hardwood
damaging fires in the wrong season and favor the growth hammocks border the swamps.
of plants that provide wildlife foods.
Wildlife planting on these soils should be limited Engineering Uses of the Soils
to plants that are drought tolerant.
Minor soils of the association have better moisture This section is useful to those who need information
relationships and the vegetation can be manipulated much about soil used as structural material or as a foundation
easier than on the Astatula soils. In most places small upon which structures are built. Among those who can
lakes, ponds, and marshes are numerous and watering benefit from this section are planning commissions, town
places are available within a mile. and city managers, land developers, engineers, contrac-
3. Immokalee-Sellers association.-The vegetation on tors, and farmers.
this association is predominantly a slash pine flatwoods Among properties of soils highly important in en-
community. There are many small swamps that have gineering are permeability, strength, compaction charac-
the vegetation described for association 5. Some of the teristics, soil drainage, shrink-swell potential, grain size,
major plants in the flatwoods that are significant to wild- plasticity, and soil reaction. Also important are depth to
life are longleaf pine, slash pine, aster, blueberry, deers- the water table, depth to bedrock, and soil slope. These
tongue, gallberry, runner oak, saw-palmetto, waxmyrtle, properties, in various degrees and combinations, affect
wicky, and yellow jasmine. construction and maintenance of roads, airports, pipe-
In the absence of fire, shrubby and herbaceous ground lines, foundations for small buildings, irrigation systems,
cover becomes very dense. In some of the smaller areas, ponds and small dams, and systems for disposal of sew-
fetterbush (Lyonia lucida) is very dense. Wildfire in age and refuse.
these areas burns everything to the ground, but fetter- Information in this section of the soil survey can be
bush sprouts readily from underground stems and even- helpful to those who-
tually crowds out other plants. Controlled burning is 1. Select potential residential, industrial, commer-
needed for better wildlife management. It minimizes hot, cial, and recreational areas.
out-of-season wildfire and is of value to deer in that it 2. Evaluate alternate routes for roads, highways,
produces sprouting, which increases the palatability of pipelines, and underground cables.
the vegetation. Light burning of small areas each year, 3. Seek sources of gravel, sand, or clay.
along with occasional rotation of burned areas, improves 4. Plan farm drainage systems, irrigation systems,
the habitat for quail and turkey. ponds, terraces, and other structures for con-
Clear cutting of pine over large areas and repeated trolling water and conserving soil.
yearly burning of the entire area eventually reduces food 5. Correlate roranc o stuct s
and cover and thus reduces the amount of wildlife in the 5 orrelate performance of structures already
area. In young, dense stands of pine, a selective thinning built with properties of the kinds of soil on
is needed to open the canopy and permit understory vege- which they are built, for the purpose of predict-
tation to develop that can be used for forage. ing performance of structures on the same or
Wildlife plantings are generally successful. In most similar kinds of soil in other places.
places water is available in swamps and lakes within 6. Predict the trafficability of soils for cross-
one-half mile. country movement of vehicles and construction
4. Eureka association.-Stands of loblolly pine and equipment.
slash pine cover most of this association. Sweetgum, live 7. Develop preliminary estimates pertinent to con-
oak, southern red maple, and cabbage palm are scattered struction in a particular area.
throughout. Harvesting merchantable timber and thin- information in this section is presented in
ning in young, dense stands are needed to open the can- Most of the information in this section is presented in
opy and permit a healthy growth of understory plants. tables. Table 5 shows several estimated soil properties
American beautyberry, smilax, aster, three-seeded mer- significant to engineering; table 6 shows interpretations
cury, blueberry, waxmyrtle, and gallberry are among for various engineering uses; table 7 shows results of en-
the important plants for wildlife. Hardwoods, such as gineering laboratory tests on soil samples; and table 8








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 37

shows degree and kinds of limitation for several land mates are based on field observations made in the course
uses. of mapping, on test data for these and similar soils, and
This information, along with the soil map and other on experience with the same kinds of soil in other coun-
parts of this publication, can be used to make interpre- tries. Following are explanations of some of the columns
stations in addition to those given in tables 7 and 8, and in table 5.
it also can be used to make other useful maps. Depth to seasonal high water table is the distance from
This information, however, does not eliminate the need the surface of the soil to the highest level that ground
for further investigations at sites selected for engineer- water reaches in the soil in most years.
ing work, especially work that involves heavy loads or Flooding is described in terms of the frequency and
that requires excavations to depths greater than those the duration of flood hazard.
shown in the tables, generally depths greater than 6 feet. Soil texture is described in table 5 in standard terms
Also, inspection of sites, especially the small ones, is used by the Department of Agriculture. These terms
needed because many delineated areas of a given soil take into account the relative percentages of sand, silt,
mapping unit may contain small areas of other kinds of and clay in soil material the particles of which are less than
soil that have strongly contrasting properties and differ- 2 millimeters in diameter. For example, loam is soil ma-
ent suitabilities or limitations for soil engineering. trial that is 7 to 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt,
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have special and less than 52 percent sand. If the soil contains gravel
meaning to soil scientists that is not known to all en- or other particles coarser than sand, an appropriate modi-
gineers. The Glossary defines many of these terms com- fier is added, such as "gravelly" in "gravelly loamy
only used in soil science. sand." "Sand," "silt," "clay," and some other terms used
in USDA textural classification are defined in the Glos-
Engineering classification systems sary of this soil survey.
The two systems most commonly used in classifying Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect
samples of soils for engineering are the Unified system of water on the strengths and consistence of soil mate-
used by Soil Conservation Service engineers, the Depart- rial. As a dry, clayey soil absorbs water, it changes from
ment of Defense, and others, and the AASHO system, a semisolid to a plastic. If the moisture content is further
adopted by the American Association of State Highway increased, the clay changes from a plastic to a liquid.
Officials. The plastic limit is the moisture content at which the
In the Unified system (11) soils are classified accord- soil material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state,
ing to particle-size distribution, plasticity, liquid limit, and the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the
and organic matter. Soils are grouped in 15 classes. There soil material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
are eight classes of coarse-grained soils, identified as GW, plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six classes of fine- liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of
grained soils, identified as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and moisture content within which a soil remains plastic.
OH; and one class of highly organic soils, identified as Pt. The liquid limit and plasticity index are estimated in
A soil on the borderline between two classes is designated table 5, but are shown on the basis of soil samples in table
by symbols for both classes, for example, SP-SM. 7.
The AASHO system (1) is used to classify soil accord- Permeability is that quality of a soil that enables it
ing to properties that affect highway construction and to transmit water or air. It is estimated on the basis of
maintenance. In this system a soil is placed in one of those soil characteristics observed in the field, particularly
seven basic groups, ranging from A-1 through A-7, on of structure and texture. The estimates in table 5 do not
the basis of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and take into account lateral seepage or transient soil features,
plasticity index. In group A-1 are gravelly soils of high such as plowpans and surface crusts.
bearing strength, the best soils for subgrade (founda- Available water capacity is the ability of a soil to hold
tion). At the other extreme, in group A-7, are clay soils water for use by most plants. It is commonly defined as
that have low strength when wet, the poorest soils for the difference between the amount of water in the soil
subgrade. Where laboratory data are available to justify at field capacity and the amount at the wilting point of
a further breakdown, the A-l, A-2 ,and A-7 groups are most crop plants.
divided as follows: A-i-a, A-l-b, A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-6, Reaction is the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a
A-2-7, A-7-5, and A-7-6. As an additional refinement soil, expressed in pH value. The pH value and terms
the engineering value of a soil material can be indicated used to describe soil reaction are explained in the Glos-
by a group index number. Group indexes range from 0
for the best material to 20 or more for the poorest. The sary.
AASHO classification for tested soil with a group index Shrink-swell potential is the relative change in volume
number in parentheses, is shown in table 7. The estimated to be expected of soil material when its moisture content
classification, without a group index number, is given in changes: that is, the extent to which the soil shrinks as
table 5 for all soils mapped in the survey area. it dries out, or swells when it gets wet. Shrinkage and
swelling are influenced by the amount and kind of clay
Soil properties significant to engineering in the soil, and they cause much damage to building
Several estimated soil properties significant in engin- foundations, roads, and other structures. A high shrink-
eering are given in table 5. These estimates are made for swell potential indicates a hazard to the maintenance of
typical soil profiles, by layers sufficiently different to structures built in, on, or with material having this
have different significance for soil engineering. The esti- rating.








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 37

shows degree and kinds of limitation for several land mates are based on field observations made in the course
uses. of mapping, on test data for these and similar soils, and
This information, along with the soil map and other on experience with the same kinds of soil in other coun-
parts of this publication, can be used to make interpre- tries. Following are explanations of some of the columns
stations in addition to those given in tables 7 and 8, and in table 5.
it also can be used to make other useful maps. Depth to seasonal high water table is the distance from
This information, however, does not eliminate the need the surface of the soil to the highest level that ground
for further investigations at sites selected for engineer- water reaches in the soil in most years.
ing work, especially work that involves heavy loads or Flooding is described in terms of the frequency and
that requires excavations to depths greater than those the duration of flood hazard.
shown in the tables, generally depths greater than 6 feet. Soil texture is described in table 5 in standard terms
Also, inspection of sites, especially the small ones, is used by the Department of Agriculture. These terms
needed because many delineated areas of a given soil take into account the relative percentages of sand, silt,
mapping unit may contain small areas of other kinds of and clay in soil material the particles of which are less than
soil that have strongly contrasting properties and differ- 2 millimeters in diameter. For example, loam is soil ma-
ent suitabilities or limitations for soil engineering. trial that is 7 to 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt,
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have special and less than 52 percent sand. If the soil contains gravel
meaning to soil scientists that is not known to all en- or other particles coarser than sand, an appropriate modi-
gineers. The Glossary defines many of these terms com- fier is added, such as "gravelly" in "gravelly loamy
only used in soil science. sand." "Sand," "silt," "clay," and some other terms used
in USDA textural classification are defined in the Glos-
Engineering classification systems sary of this soil survey.
The two systems most commonly used in classifying Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect
samples of soils for engineering are the Unified system of water on the strengths and consistence of soil mate-
used by Soil Conservation Service engineers, the Depart- rial. As a dry, clayey soil absorbs water, it changes from
ment of Defense, and others, and the AASHO system, a semisolid to a plastic. If the moisture content is further
adopted by the American Association of State Highway increased, the clay changes from a plastic to a liquid.
Officials. The plastic limit is the moisture content at which the
In the Unified system (11) soils are classified accord- soil material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state,
ing to particle-size distribution, plasticity, liquid limit, and the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the
and organic matter. Soils are grouped in 15 classes. There soil material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
are eight classes of coarse-grained soils, identified as GW, plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six classes of fine- liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of
grained soils, identified as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and moisture content within which a soil remains plastic.
OH; and one class of highly organic soils, identified as Pt. The liquid limit and plasticity index are estimated in
A soil on the borderline between two classes is designated table 5, but are shown on the basis of soil samples in table
by symbols for both classes, for example, SP-SM. 7.
The AASHO system (1) is used to classify soil accord- Permeability is that quality of a soil that enables it
ing to properties that affect highway construction and to transmit water or air. It is estimated on the basis of
maintenance. In this system a soil is placed in one of those soil characteristics observed in the field, particularly
seven basic groups, ranging from A-1 through A-7, on of structure and texture. The estimates in table 5 do not
the basis of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and take into account lateral seepage or transient soil features,
plasticity index. In group A-1 are gravelly soils of high such as plowpans and surface crusts.
bearing strength, the best soils for subgrade (founda- Available water capacity is the ability of a soil to hold
tion). At the other extreme, in group A-7, are clay soils water for use by most plants. It is commonly defined as
that have low strength when wet, the poorest soils for the difference between the amount of water in the soil
subgrade. Where laboratory data are available to justify at field capacity and the amount at the wilting point of
a further breakdown, the A-l, A-2 ,and A-7 groups are most crop plants.
divided as follows: A-i-a, A-l-b, A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-6, Reaction is the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a
A-2-7, A-7-5, and A-7-6. As an additional refinement soil, expressed in pH value. The pH value and terms
the engineering value of a soil material can be indicated used to describe soil reaction are explained in the Glos-
by a group index number. Group indexes range from 0
for the best material to 20 or more for the poorest. The sary.
AASHO classification for tested soil with a group index Shrink-swell potential is the relative change in volume
number in parentheses, is shown in table 7. The estimated to be expected of soil material when its moisture content
classification, without a group index number, is given in changes: that is, the extent to which the soil shrinks as
table 5 for all soils mapped in the survey area. it dries out, or swells when it gets wet. Shrinkage and
swelling are influenced by the amount and kind of clay
Soil properties significant to engineering in the soil, and they cause much damage to building
Several estimated soil properties significant in engin- foundations, roads, and other structures. A high shrink-
eering are given in table 5. These estimates are made for swell potential indicates a hazard to the maintenance of
typical soil profiles, by layers sufficiently different to structures built in, on, or with material having this
have different significance for soil engineering. The esti- rating.










38 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 5.-Estimated engineering

[An asterisk in the first column indicates that at least one mapping unit in this series is made up of two or more kinds of soil. The soils
for referring to other series that appear in the first column of this table.

Classification
Depth
Soil series and map Depth to seasonal Flooding 2 from
symbols high water table surface USDA
texture Unified AASHO



Astatula: Inches
As B, AsD, AtB, AtD_ Deeper than 60 inches None. 0-84 Sand-------- SP, SP-SM A-3
continuously.

AuB ------- Deeper than 60 inches None. 0-50 Sand---------- SP, SP-SM A-3
continuously. 50-80 Sand to loamy SP-SM, SM A-3, A-2-4
sand.

Aw B ___--------- 40 to 60 inches for 6 None. 0-80 Sand--------- SP, SP--SM A-3
months or more of
the year.

Astor: Ax ------------- 0 to 10 inches for 6 to More often than once 0-24 Sand---------- SP, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4
12 months. every year for 1 to 24-80 Sand---------- SP, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4
6 months.

Basinger: Ba -----------0 to 10 inches for 2 to More often than once 0-80 Sand----------- SP-SM A-3, A-2-4
6 months. every year for 1 to
6 months.

Delks: De -------- 0 to 10 inches for 1 to Once in 5 to 20 years 0-25 Sand---------- SP, SP--SM A-3
3 months. for 7 days to 1 25-38 Sand----------- SM, SP-SM A-2-4, A-3
month. 38-46 Sand ----------SM, SP-SM A-2-4, A-3
46-60 Sandy clay- SC A-2-6, A-6

Dorovan: Do----------- 0 to 10 inches for 9 to More often than once 0-64 Muck---------- Pt Organic
12 months. every year for
longer than 6
months.

Duplin: Du ------------10 to 40 inches for 1 None. 0-13 Loamy sand.. SM A-2-4
to 2 months. 13-32 Sandy clay __-- SC A-6
32-50 Sandy clay SC, SM-SC A-2-4
loam.
50-64 Sandy loam---- SM, SM-SC A-2-4

Eureka: Es ------------0 to 10 inches for 2 to Once in 1 to 5 years 0-11 Loamy fine SM A-2-4
6 months. for 7 days to 1 sand.
month. 11-20 Sandy clay----- SC A-6
20-72 Clay ---------- CH, SC A-7-6

Eureka, thick-surface 0 to 10 inches for 6 to More often than once 0-11 Loamy sand__-_ SM A-2-4
variant: Er. 9 months, every year for 3 to 11-18 Sand------------ SP-SM, SM A-3, A-2-4
6 months. 18-33 Sandy clay---- SC A-6
33-64 Clay_ -------- CH A-7-6

Eustis: Eu------------Deeper than 120 None. 0-50 Sand-------- SP-SM A-3, A-2-4
inches continuously. 50-84 Loamy sand --- SM A-2-4

Everglades: Ev--------- 0 to 10 inches for 9 to More often than once 0-100 Muck---------- Pt Organic
12 months, every year for
longer than 6
months.

Iberia: Ib-------------- 0 to 10 inches for 6 to More often than once 0-64 Clay----------- CH A-7-6
9 months, every year for 3 to
9 months.

Immokalee: Im ------- 0 to 10 inches for 1 Once in 5 to 20 years 0-34 Sand------ SP, SP-SM A-3
to 2 months, for 7 days in 1 34-54 Sand .---. SM, ST-SM A-3, A-2-
month. 54-72 Sand ------- SP, SP-SM A-3
See footnotes at end of table.










OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 39

properties of soils
in such mapping units may have different properties and limitations, and for this reason it is necessary to follow carefully the instructions
The symbol > means more than; the symbol < means less than]

Percentage passing sieve- 3 Corrosivity to-
Liq- Plastic- Available
uid ity Permea- water Reaction Shrink-swell
No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 limit index ability capacity potential Uncoated
(4.7 (2.0 (0.42 (0.074 steel Concrete
mm.) mm.) mm.) mm.)

Inches per inch
Inches per hour of soil pH
100 100 75-100 2-7 (4) (4) >20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Low- .__ Moderate.

100 100 80-100 2-7 (4) (4) >20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Low------- Moderate.
100 100 80-90 5-15 (4) (4) 6. 3-20. 0 0. 05-0. 10 4.5-5. 5 Low------ Low------- Moderate.

100 100 80-100 2-7 (4) (4) >20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Low------- High.


100 100 90-100 2-15 (4) (4) 6. 3-20. 0 0.10-0. 15 6. 1-8. 4 Low-- ---- High------. Moderate.
100 100 85-95 2-15 (4) (4) 6. 3-20. 0 0.05-0. 10 7.4-8. 4 Low------- High------ Low.

100 100 80-95 5-12 (4) (4) >20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-7. 8 Low------- Low to Low to
high. high.

100 100 75-95 2-8 (4) (4) 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High ------ High.
100 100 80-95 8-20 (4) (4) 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High.--.-- High.
100 100 80-95 8-20 (4) (4) 0.20-0. 63 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------ High------ High.
100 100 85-100 25-50 <40 >11 0. 06-0. 20 0. 15-0. 20 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High------ High.
--- -- 6. 3-20.0 >0. 25 4. 5-5.5 (5) -- ----High ------ High.



100 100 75-95 15-20 <40 4-10 6. 3-20. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Low------- High.
100 100 85-95 36-50 <40 >11 0. 06-0. 20 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Moderate__ High.
100 100 80-90 25-35 <40 -10 0.63-2.0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High ------ High.
100 100 60-70 20-30 <40 4-10 2. 0-6. 3 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High----- -High.
100 100 75-95 15-20 <40 4-10 2. 0-6. 3 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Moderate__ High.
100 100 85-95 36-50 <40 >11 0. 20-0. 63 0. 15-0. 20 4. 5-5. 5 Moderate.__ High------ High.
100 100 90-100 45-80 >41 >11 <0. 06 0. 15-0. 20 4. 5-5. 5 Moderate___ High ------ High.
100 100 75-95 15-20 <40 4-10 2.0-6. 3 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Moderate_ High.
100 100 80-90 5-15 (4) (4) 6. 3-20. 0 0. 05-0. 10 4. 5-5. 5 Low ----_ Moderate High.
100 100 85-95 36-50 <40 >11 0. 20-0. 63 0. 15-0. 20 4. 5-5. 5 Moderate__ High------ High.
100 100 90-100 50-80 >41 >11 <0. 06 0. 15-0. 20 4. 5-5. 5 Moderate-_ High ------ High.
100 100 80-95 5-12 (4) (4) >20. 0 <0. 05 4.5-5.5 Low------- Low------- High.
100 100 75-95 15-20 >40 4-10 2.0-20. 0 0. 05-0. 10 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Low------- High.
------ -- -- 6. 3-20.0 >0. 25 5. 6-8.4 (5) ----- High ------ Moderate
to low.


100 100 90-100 50-80 >41 >11 <0. 06 0. 15-0. 20 6. 6-8. 4 High ------ Very high-__ Low.


100 100 80-95 2-8 (4) (4) 6. 3-20.0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High------ High.
100 100 85-100 8-20 (4) (4) 0. 63-6. 3 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low ----- High ----- High.
100 100 80-95 2-8 (4) (4) 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High------ High.










40 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 5.-Estimated engineering

Classification
Depth
Soil series and map Depth to seasonal Flooding 2 from
symbols high water table surface USDA
texture Unified AASHO



Inches
Made land: Ma.
Properties too vari-
able to be
estimated.
Meggett: Me---------- 0 to 10 inches for 2 More often than once 0-10 Loamy sand .-- SM A-2-4
to 6 months, every year for 1 to 10-41 Clay----------- CH A-7-6
6 months. 41-60 Sandy clay----- SC A-6
*Myakka: Mk, Ms--- 0 to 10 inches for 1 Once in 5 to 20 years 0-20 Sand---------- SP, SP-SM A-3
For Sellers part of to 2 months. for 7 days to 1 20-29 Sand--------- SM, SP-SM A-3, A-2-4
Ms, see Sellers month. 29-60 Sand--------- SP, SP-SM A-3
series.

Orlando: Or ----------More than 120 inches None. 0-27 Sand ----------SP-SM A-3, A-2-4
continuously. 27-80 Sand --------P, SP-SM A-3
Orlando, wet variant: 10 to 40 inches for 2 None. 0-36 Sand---------- SP-SM A-3, A 2-4
Os. to 6 months.
36-80 Sand--------- SP, SP--SM A-3
Pamlico:
Pa---------------- 0 to 10 inches for 9 More often than once 0-24 Muck---------- Pt Organic
to 12 months. every year for 24-60 Coarse sand --- SP A-3
longer than 6
months.
Pd ------_-------- 0 to 10 inches for 9 More often than once 0-45 Muck---------- Pt Organic
to 12 months, every year for 45-60 Coarse sand --- SP A-3
longer than 6
months.
Paola:
PIB, PID----------- More than 120 inches None. 0-86 Sand---------- SP A-3
continuously.
PmA --------------40 to 60 inches for None. 0-80 Sand-------- SP A-3
6 to 9 months.
Pomello: Po----------30 to 40 inches for None. 0-35 Sand---------- SP, SP-SM A-3
2 to 6 months.
35-45 Sand--------- SM, SP-SM A-3,
A-2-4
45-70 Sand-------- SP, SP-SM A-3
Rains: Ra_---------- 0 to 10 inches for 2 to Once in 1 to 5 years 0-16 Loamy fine SM A-2-4
6 months. for 7 days to 1 sand.
month.
month 16-60 Sandy clay SC, SM-SC A-2-4
loam.

St. Johns: Sa ------- 0 to 10 inches Once in 1 to 5 years 0-11 Sand---------- SP, SP-SM A-3,
for 2 to 6 months. for 7 days to 1 A-2-4
month.
month11-24 Sand -------- SP, SP-SM,SM A-3, A-2-4
24-60 Sand_---- SP, SP-SM A-3,
A-2-4

St. Lucie: Sc---------- More than 120 None. 0-86 Sand------- SP A-3
inches continuously.
Sellers: Sp, Ss ------- 0 to 10 inches for 6 More often than once 0-28 Sand--------- SP, SP--SM A-3,
to 12 months, every year for 1 to A-2
6 months. 28-80 Sand -------- SP, SP--SM A-3,
A-2-4
See footnotes at end of table.









OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 41

properties of soils-Continued

Percentage passing sieve- 3 Corrosivity to-
SLiq- Plastic- Available
uid ity Permea- water Reaction Shrink-swell
No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 limit index ability capacity potential Uncoated
(4.7 (2.0 (0.42 (0.074 steel Concrete
mm.) mm.) mm.) mm.)

Inches per inch
Inches per hour of soil pH




100 100 75-95 15-20 <40 4-10 2. 0-6. 3 0. 10-0. 15 6. 1-8. 4 Low------- High------- Low.
100 100 90-100 50-80 >41 >11 <0. 20 0. 15-0. 20 6. 1-8. 4 High------ High------ Low.
100 100 85-95 36-50 <40 >11 <0. 20 0. 15-0. 20 6. 1-8. 4 Moderate High ----- Low.
100 100 80-90 2-8 (4) (4) 6. 3-20.0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High ------ High.
100 100 85-95 8-20 (4) (4) 0. 63-6. 3 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High ---- High.
100 100 85-95 2-10 (4) (4) 6. 3-20.0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High------ High.

100 100 80-95 5-12 (4) (4) 6. 3-20. 0 0. 05-0. 10 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Low------- Moderate.
100 100 80-95 2-8 (4) (4) 6. 3-20.0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Low------- Moderate.
100 100 80-95 5-12 (4) (4) 6. 3-20. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Moderate __Moderate
to high.
100 100 80-95 2-8 (4) (4) 6. 3-20. 0 0.05-0. 10 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High ------ High.
------------------ 6. 3-20.0 >0. 25 4. 5-5. 5 () ------- High ----- High.
100 100 50-70 2-4 (4) (4) >20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High ----- High.


------------------ 6. 3-20. 0 >0. 25 4. 5-5. 5 (5) _----- High ------ High.
100 100 50-70 2-4 (4) (4) >20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High------ High.



100 100 75-100 1-4 (4) (4) >20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Low------- Moderate.
100 100 80-100 1-4 (4) (4) >20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5.5 Low------- Low------- Moderate.

100 100 75-95 2-8 (4) (4) >20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Low------- High.
100 100 85-95 8-20 (4) (4) 2. 0-6.3 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Low------- High.
100 100 75-95 2-8 (4) (4) >20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5.5 Low------- Low------- High.
100 100 75-95 15-20 <40 4-10 2.0-6.3 0.05-0. 10 4.5-5.5 Low ------ Moderate_ Moderate.

100 100 80-90 25-35 <40 4-10 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High ----- High.

100 100 90-100 2-12 (4) (4) 6.3-20. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High ------ High.

100 100 90-100 2-15 (4) (4) 6. 3-20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High ----.. High.
100 100 85-95 2-12 (4) (4) 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High ------ High.

100 100 80-100 1-4 (4) (4) >20. O <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- Low------- Moderate.

100 100 90-100 2-15 (4) (4) 6. 3-20. 0 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High ----- High.
100 100 85-95 2-15 (4) (4) 6. 3-20. 0 0.05-0. 10 4. 5-5. 5 Low------- High ------ High.










42 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 5.-Estimated engineering

Classification
Depth
Soil series and map Depth to seasonal Flooding 2 from
symbols high water table' surface USDA
texture Unified AASHO



Inches
Terra Ceia: Tc--------- 0 to 10 inches for More often than once 0-64 Muck---------- Pt Organic
9 to 12 months. every year for
longer than 6
months.
Wicksburg: WcA, WcC-- More than 120 inches None. 0-35 Sand --------- SP, SP-SM A-3
continuously. 35-41 Sandy loam ...- SM, SM-SC A-2-4
41-78 Sandy clay----- SC A-6

SLevel expected during a normal wet season.
2 Water standing or flowing above the surface of the soil under natural conditions without artificial drainage.
3 Fragments of 3 inches or more in diameter were discarded in field sampling.



TABLE 6.-Engineering

Suitability as source of-
Soil series and map
symbols
Road fill Sand Topsoil Beach sand



Astatula:
AsB, AtB ------_ Good----------------- Good -----------------Poor: sand texture; Fair-------------
very low fertility.
AsD, AtD --------- Good -----------------Good -----------------Poor: sand texture; Fair---------
thickness; very low
fertility; slope.
AuB__----------_ Good -----------------Good----------------- Poor: sand texture; Fair------ ------
thickness; very low
fertility.



AwB-------------- Good -----------------Good----------------- Poor: sand texture; Fair-----------------
very low fertility.


Astor: Ax------------- Good -----------------Fair: organic-matter Fair: high water Unsuited--------
content. table.


Basinger: Ba---------- Good----------------- Fair: organic-matter Poor: sand texture; Unsuited-------------
content. thickness; low
fertility.

Delks: De ------------ Good above a depth of Poor: excessive fines __- Sand texture; thickness; Unsuited_------------
46 inches. Fair below: low fertility.
sandy clay subsoil.

Dorovan: Do---------- Poor: organic materials; Unsuited: organic Poor: organic materials; Unsuited-------------
high water table. materials. high water table;
flooding.









OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 43

properties of soils-Continued

Percentage passing sieve- 3 Corrosivity to-
Liq- Plastic- Available
uid itv Permea- water Reaction Shrink-swell
No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 limit index ability capacity potential Uncoated
(4.7 (2.0 (0.42 (0.074 steel Concrete
mm.) mm.) mm.) mm.)

Inches per inch
Inches per hour of soil pH
------ ._-----------------_ .. .. ---. 6.3-20.0 >0. 25 5. 6-8.4 (5) -------- High ------ Low to
mod-
erate.

100 100 80-100 2-7 (4) (4) >20. 0 <0. 05 4. 5-6. 0 Low------- Low------- Moderate.
100 100 60-70 20-30 <40 4-10 2. 0-6. 3 0. 10-0. 15 4. 5-6. 0 Low ------- Low -------Moderate.
100 100 85-95 36-50 <40 >11 0. 06-0. 63 0. 15-0. 20 4. 5-6. 0 Low------- Moderate._ Moderate.

4 Nonplastic.
5 High potential subsidence.




interpretations of soils

Soil features affecting-

Aquifer-fed ex- Irrigation
cavated ponds Embankments Drainage

Sprinkler Subsurface


Deep towatertable;very Loose, very rapidly per- Deep to water table--- Very low available wa- Very rapid permeability;
rapid permeability. meable sand; erodible. ter capacity. deep to water table.
Deep to water table; Loose, very rapidly per- Deep to water table--- Very low available wa- Very rapid permeability;
strong slopes; very meable sand; erodible; ter capacity, deep to water table;
rapid permeability, strong slopes, strong slopes.

Deep to water table; Loose, very rapidly per- Deep to water table----- Very low available wa- Very rapid permeability;
very rapid permea- meable sand at a ter capacity, deep to water table.
ability. depth above 50 inches;
thin bands of loamy
sand at a depth be-
low 50 inches.
Seasonally deep water Loose, very rapidly per- Deep to water table--- Very low available wa- Very rapid permeability;
table; loose sand; meable sand. ter capacity. seasonally high water
very rapid permea- table.
ability.
Loose sand, unstable Rapid permeability; Low position; some High water table; High water table;
side slopes; rapid moderately high areas lack drainage flooding, flooding.
permeability, organic-matter con- outlets.
tent.
Loose sand, unstable Very rapid permea- Low position; some High water table; low Flooding; seasonally
side slopes; very ability; unstable side areas lack drainage available water ca- deep to water table.
rapid permeability. slopes, outlets. pacity; flooding.
Periodically deep to Rapid permeability High water table; Low available water Periodically deep to
water table; loose above substratum, strongly cemented capacity, water table.
sand, unstable side layers; low permea-
slopes. ability of subsoil.
Organic materials; Organic materials ------- Low position; inadequate High water table; flood- Flooding; organic
rapid permeability; outlets; rapid ing; very high avail- materials.
flooding. oxidation. able water capacity.










44 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 6.--Engineering

Suitability as source of-
Soil series and map
symbols
Road fill Sand Topsoil Beach sand



Duplin: Du---------- Fair: sandy clay sub- Poor: sandy clay Fair: thickness; mod- Unsuited-------
soil. materials, erate fertility.

Eureka: Es----------- Poor: clay subsoil; Poor: clay materials---- Fair: thickness; mod- Unsuited--------
moderate shrink-swell erate fertility; high
potential; high water water table.
table.
Eureka, thick-surface Poor: clay subsoil; Poor: clayey materials-- Fair: high water table; Unsuited--------
variant: Er. moderate shrink-swell flooding.
potential; high water
table; flooding.
Eustis: Eu----------- Good ----------------- Fair: loamy sand Poor: sand texture; Unsuited ----
below a depth of 50 low fertility.
inches.
Everglades: Ev-------- Poor: organic materials_ Unsuited: organic Poor: organic materials; Unsuited--------
materials, high water table.

Iberia: b ----------- Poor: high shrink-swell Unsuited: clayey Poor: clay texture; Unsuited----
potential; high water materials, high water table;
table; flooding; clay flooding.
texture.
Immokalee: Im.------- Good----------------- Fair: organic matter Poor: texture; low Unsuited ----
in weakly cemented fertility.
layer.
Made land: Ma.
No interpretations
made. Properties
too variable.
Unsuited as a
source of beach
sand.

Meggett: Me---------- Poor: clay texture; Poor: clay texture ---- Fair: clay texture; Unsuited --------
high shrink-swell flooding.
potential; high water
table; flooding.
Myakka:
Mk-------------- Fair to good----------- Fair: organic matter in Poor: sand texture; Unsuited ---------
weakly cemented layer. low fertility.

Ms --------------- Poor: high water table; Poor: organic matter in Poor: sand texture; Unsuited ---------
flooding, weakly cemented flooding.
layer.

Orlando: Or--------- Good----------------- Good----------------Fair: sand texture; low Unsuited---------
fertility.

Orlando,wet variant:
Os------------------ Good----------------- Good----------------- Poor: sand texture; Unsuited ---------
low fertility.



Pamlico: Pa, Pd------ Poor: organic materials_ Unsuited: organic Poor: organic materials; Unsuited ---
materials, high water table;
flooding.










:OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 45

interpretations of soils-Continued

Soil features affecting-

Aquifer-fed ex- Irrigation
cavated ponds Embankments Drainage

Sprinkler Subsurface

Deep to water table --- Sandy clay loam subsoil__ Slow permeability of Moderate available Slow permeability of
subsoil, water capacity, subsoil; deep to water
table.
Very slow permeability. Moderate shrink-swell Very slow permeability Moderate available Very slow permeability
potential; clayey of subsoil, water capacity, of subsoil.
subsoil.

Very slow permeability; Poor stability; clay Lack of suitable outlets Flooding; moderate Flooding.
flooding, texture. in places; very slow available water
permeability; flooding, capacity.

Deep to water table; Loose sand; very rapid Deep to water table----- Very low available Deep, permeable sand;
very rapid permea- permeability. water capacity, deep to water table.
ability.

Organic materials; Organic materials------- Low position; inadequate High water table; very Flooding; organic
rapid permeability; outlets; flooding; high available water materials.
flooding. rapid oxidation. capacity; flooding.

Clayey texture; very Clayey texture; very Clayey texture; very Flooding; slow infiltra- Flooding; very slow
slow permeability; slow permeability, slow permeability; tration rate; very permeability.
flooding. flooding. slow permeability.

Loose sand; unstable Loose sand; rapid perme- Loose sand; high water Very low available water Favorably high water
slopes; rapid per- ability; erodible. table. capacity, table; rapid perme-
meability. ability.








Flooding: very slow Clay texture; high Low position; very slow Flooding; very slow Very slow permeability;
permeability, shrink-swell potential. permeability; lack of permeability, flooding.
outlets in places;
flooding.

Loose sand; unstable Loose sand; rapid Loose sand; high water Very low available water High water table; rapid
side slopes; rapid permeability; table. capacity. permeability.
permeability. erodible.
Unstable side slopes---- Loose sand; rapid High water table; Low available water Flooding.
permeability; flooding; lack of capacity; flooding.
erodible. gravity outlets.
Deep to water table; Loose sand; very rapid Deep to water table----- Low available water Deep to water table.
rapid permeability, permeability. capacity.

Loose, rapidly per- Loose sand; rapid Moderately deep to Low available water Moderately deep to water
meable sand, un- permeabillity. water table. capacity, table; rapid permea-
stable side slopes; ability.
moderately deep to
water table.

Organic materials; Organic materials-------- Low position; inadequate Very high available water Rapid permeability;
rapid permeability; outlets; rapid oxida- capacity; flooding. flooding; high water
flooding, tion; rapid permeabil- table.
ity.










46 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 6.-Engineering

Suitability as source of-
Soil series and map
symbols
Road fill Sand Topsoil Beach sand


Paola:
PIB-------------- Good -----------------Good ---------------- Poor: sand texture; Fair--------
very low fertility.

PID-------------- Good -----------------Good -----------------Poor: sand texture; Fair---------
very low fertility;
slope.
Pm A-------------- Good ----------------- Good----------------- Poor: sand texture; Unsuited-------
very low fertility.


Pomello: Po__------- Fair to good: mod- Good to fair: excessive Poor: sand texture; Unsuited-------
erately high water fines in some places. low fertility.
table.


Rains: Ra------------ Poor: high water table-- Poor: clayey subsoil---- Poor: thickness; high Unsuited-------
water table.

St. Johns: Sa--------- Fair: high water table; Fair: organic matter in Fair: thickness; texture_ Unsuited-------
high organic-matter weakly cemented
content in surface layer.
layer.
St. Lucie: Sc---------- Good----------------- Good----------------- Poor: sand texture; Good-----------
very low fertility.

Sellers:
Ss--------------- Poor: high water table-- Poor: moderately high Fair: high water table_ Unsuited---------------
organic-matter con-
tent.


Sp--------------- Poor: high water table; Poor: pockets of organ- Fair: high water table__ Unsuited-
pockets of organic ma- ic material.
trial.
Terra Ceia: Tc ------ Poor: organic materials_ Unsuited: organic ma- Poor: organic materials; Unsuited------------
terials. high water table;
flooding.
Wicksburg:
WcA-------------- Good -----------------Poor: loamy or clayey Poor: sand texture; low Unsuited------------
subsoil. fertility.
WcC------------- Good ----------------Poor: loamy or clayey Poor: sand texture; low Unsuited-------------
subsoil; slope, fertility; slope.









OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 47

interpretations of soils-Continued

Soil features affecting-

Aquifer-fed ex- Irrigation
cavated ponds Embankments Drainage
Sprinkler Subsurface


Deep to water table; Loose sand; very rapid Deep to water table----- Very low available water Very rapid permeability;
very rapid perme- permeability; erodible. capacity, deep to water table.
ability.

Deep to water table; Loose sand; very rapid Deep to water table -__-_ Very low available water Deep to water table;
very rapid perme- permeability; erodible; capacity, strong slopes; very
ability, strong slopes, rapid permeability.

Seasonally deep to Loose sand; very rapid Very rapid permeability; Very low available water Very rapid permeability;
water table; loose permeability, moderately deep water capacity. moderately deep water
sand; very rapid table, table.
permeability.
Very rapid permeabil- Loose sand; very rapid Loose sand; unstable Very low available water Seasonally deep to water
ity; seasonally deep permeability, side slopes. capacity, table; very rapid
to water table; loose permeability.
sand, unstable side
slopes.

High water table; Moderately permeable Moderately permeable Moderate available water Moderately permeable
flooding; moderate subsoil, subsoil; flooding, capacity; flooding, subsoil; high water
permeability, table; flooding.

Loose sand; unstable Very rapid permeability_- Loose sand; high water Moderate available water Rapid permeability;
side slopes; rapid table; low position; capacity, high water table.
permeability, inadequate drainage
outlets.

Deep to water table; Loose sand; very rapid Deep to water table----- Very low available water Deep to water table; very
very rapid perme- permeability, capacity, rapid permeability.
ability.

Loose sand; unstable Rapid permeability; Loose sand; unstable Moderate available wa- Rapid permeability;
side slopes; rapid high organic-matter side slopes; low posi- ter capacity; flooding, flooding.
permeability; flood- content. tion; some areas lack
ing. suitable outlets; flood-
ing.
Loose sand; unstable Rapid permeability; Low position; lack of Moderate available wa- Rapid permeability;
side slopes; rapid pockets of organic ma- suitable outlets, ter capacity; flooding, flooding.
permeability. trial.
Organic materials; Organic materials-----_- Low position; inadequate Very high available wa- Rapid permeability; high
rapid permeability; outlets; rapid oxida- ter capacity; flooding, water table; flooding.
flooding. tion.

Deep to water table; Loose sand in upper Deep to water table----- Very low available water Deep to water table.
slow permeability, layers. capacity.
Deep to water table; Loose sand in upper Deep to water table----. Very low available water Deep to water table;
moderate slope; slow layers; slope, capacity; slope. slope.
permeability.









48 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 7.-Engineering
[Tests performed by Florida State Department of Transportation in accordance with

Moisture density 1
Sample
Soil name and location Parent material number Depth
S65-Fla Maximum Optimum
dry moisture
density


Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes: Inchs b. per c. ft. Percent
SW/4NW/4 sec. 18, T. 17 S., R. 26 E. (Modal profile).__ Unconsolidated sandy 30-1-4 6-69 107 14
sediments. 20-1-5 69-85 105 14
Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 8 percent slopes:
SW/4SW/I sec. 13, T. 17 S., R. 25 E. (Dark surface Unconsolidated sandy 42-31-2 4-25 103 15
horizon), sediments. 42-31-4 47-103 102 15
NW SE/ sec. 7, T. 15 S., R. 23 E. (Pale-colored C Unconsolidated sandy 33-1-2 6-22 107 14
horizon), sediments. 33-1-4 56-98 106 13
Astatula sand, moderately deep water table, 0 to 8 percent
slopes:
NW'NE4 sec. 16, T. 15 S., R. 24 E. (Water table Unconsolidated sandy 32-1-2 4-38 108 14
moderately deep). sediments. 32-1-3 38-67 108 13
Delks sand:
SESE% sec. 17, T. 14 S., R. 24 E. (Thin Al horizon)__ Unconsolidated sandy 42-27-2 1-36 105 15
and clayey sediments. 42-27-3 36-41 114 11
42-27-7 55-65 108 17
SE/4NE/4 sec. 4, T. 14 S., R. 24 E. (Thin Al horizon)------ Unconsolidated sandy 36-1-2 2-25 101 15
and clayey sediments. 36-1-5 48-74 103 20
Eureka loamy fine sand:
SENE/4 sec. 18, T. 14 S., R. 24 E. (Modal profile)... Unconsolidated sandy 37-1-4 21-57 105 19
and clayey sediments.
Eureka loamy sand, thick-surface variant:
SWSW% sec. 18, T. 14 S., R. 24 E. (Modal profile) Unconsolidated sandy 39-1-2 5-20 115 10
and clayey sediments. 39-1-4 24-52 95 25
Eustis sand: 1
NE%4NE4 sec. 34, T. 13 S., R. 25 E. (Modal profile) __ Unconsolidated sandy 41-1-2 4-21 106 14
and loamy sediments. 41-1-6 67-97 114 12
Immokalee sand:
NW part of Arredondo Grant (Modal profile) ------_-- Unconsolidated 35-1-2 5-34 101 15
sediments. 35-1-3 34-54 99 16
Myakka sand:
NENE%4 sec. 17, T. 15 S., R. 26 E. (Modal profile) __Unconsolidated 34-1-2 5-20 101 15
sediments. 34-1-3 20-36 100 17
34-1-6 36-65 107 14
Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes:
SE4SE% sec. 9, T. 17 S., R. 26 E. (Modal profile)----- Unconsolidated sandy 42-28-2 1-17 100 15
sediments. 42-28-4 36-72 105 14
Paola sand, moderately deep water table, 0 to 5 percent
slopes:
SESEl Y sec. 16, T. 17 S., R. 26 E. (Water table moder- Unconsolidated sandy 25-1-2 2-21 101 16
ately deep). sediments. 25-1-5 33-45 108 14
Pomello sand:
NENEY sec. 28, T. 14 S., R. 24 E. (Modal profile) --- Unconsolidated sandy 42-26-2 1-35 101 15
sediments. 42-26-3 35-45 105 16
42-26-5 48-68 105 14

Based on the moisture-density relations of soils using 5.5-lb. Rammer and 12-in. Drop, AASHO Designation T 99, Method (1).
2 Mechanical analyses according to AASHO Designation T 88 (1). Results by this procedure frequently may differ from results that
would have been obtained by the soil survey procedures of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS). In the AASHO procedure, fine material is
analyzed by the hydrometer method and various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis of all material, including that coarser than
2 millimeters in diameter. In the SCS soil survey procedure, fine material is analyzed by the pipette method and material coarser than 2
millimeters in diameter is excluded from calculations of grain-size fractions. The mechanical analyses used in this table are not suitable for
use in naming textural classes for soil.









OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 49

test data
standard procedure of the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO)]

Mechanical analysis 2 Classification

Percentage passing sieve- Percentage smaller than- Liquid Plasticity
limit index
AASHO 3 Unified 4
No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 0.05 mm. 0.02 mm. 0.005 0.002
(2.0 mm.) (0.42 mm.) (0.074 mm.) mm. mm.


100 76 5 5 5 2 1 (5) (5) A-3(0) SP-SM
100 76 3 3 3 1 1 (5) (5) A-3(0) SP

100 80 3 3 3 1 0 (5) (5) A-3(0) SP
100 82 3 3 3 1 1 (5) (5) A-3(0) SP
100 86 5 5 5 2 1 (6) (5) A-3(0) SP-SM
100 81 3 3 3 2 1 (6) (5) A-3(0) SP


100 87 7 6 5 2 1 (5) () A-3(0) SP-SM
100 83 5 5 5 3 2 (5) (5) A-3(0) SP-SM

100 79 6 5 5 1 0 (5) (5) A-3(0) SP-SM
100 84 11 10 9 4 3 (5) (5) A-2-4(0) SP-SM
100 85 29 29 29 25 24 29 12 A-2-6(3) SC
100 94 5 4 3 2 1 (5) (6) A-3(0) SP-SM
100 96 34 33 32 31 30 29 13 A-2-6(6) SC

100 94 48 45 41 37 35 49 32 A-7-6(10) SC


100 84 21 17 10 5 3 (5) (5) A-2-4(0) SM
100 93 56 53' 49 45 43 50 29 A-7-6(12) CL or CH

100 93 9 7 4 1 1 (5) (5) A-3(0) SP-SM
100 91 16 15 13 13 12 (6) (6) A-2-4(0) SM

100 95 2 2 2 0 0 (6) (5) A-3(0) SP
100 92 8 7 6 4 3 (5) (5) A-3(0) SP-SM

100 91 2 2 2 0 0 (5) (5) A-3(0) SP
100 91 9 8 7 5 3 (s) (5) A-3(0) SP-SM
100 91 4 4 3 0 0 (6) (5) A-3(0) SP
100 79 2 2 0 0 0 (5) (5) A-3(0) SP
100 82 3 3 3 1 1 (6) (5) A-3(0) SP


100 84 2 2 2 0 0 () () A-3(0) SP
100 85 5 5 5 3 3 () () A-3(0) SP-SM

100 89 4 4 3 0 0 (6) (5) A-3(0) SP
100 87 10 10 10 6 5 (1) (5) A-3(0) SP-SM
100 88 4 3 2 1 1 (5) (5) A-3(0) SP

3Based on Standard Specifications for Highway Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing (Pt. 1, Ed. 8): The Classification of
Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes, AASHO Designation M 145-49 (1).
4 Based on U.S. Department of Defense MIL-STD-619B (11).
5 Nonplastic.










50 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 8.-Degree and kind of limitations

Soil series and map symbols Buildings Landscape plantings Septic tank absorption fields

Astatula:
AsB, AtB, Au B---______ Slight---------------------- Moderate: very low available Slight 1-------------------
water capacity; very low
natural fertility.
AsD, AtD_--------___-- Moderate: slope------------- Moderate: very low available Moderate:1 slope -----------
water capacity; very low
natural fertility.
AwB------_____________ Slight---------------------- Moderate: very low available Moderate:' seasonal moder-
water capacity; very low ately high water table.
natural fertility.
Astor: Ax ------------------ Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table;
flooding. flooding, flooding.
Basinger: Ba --------------- Severe: high water table-_---- Severe: high water table----- Severe: high water table------

Delks: De---------------__ Severe: high water table------ Moderate: low available water Severe: high water table ---_-
capacity; low natural fertility.
Dorovan: Do ---------------Severe: high water table; Very severe: high water table; Severe: high water table;
flooding; low supporting ca- flooding, flooding.
pacity.
Duplin: Du- --------------_ Slight---------------------- Slight---------------------- Severe: slow permeability;
high water table.
Eureka:
Es--------------------_ Moderate: high water table--.. Moderate: high water table.-- Severe: high water table; very
slow permeability.
Er----------_--------_- Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table;
flooding, flooding, very slow permeability; flood-
ing.
Eustis: Eu----------------- Slight---------------------- Moderate: very low available Slight 1-------------------
water capacity; low natural
fertility.
Everglades: Ev-------------- Severe: high water table; Very severe: high water table; Severe: high water table;
flooding; low supporting ca- flooding, flooding.
pacity.
Iberia: Ib------------------ Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table;
flooding; high shrink-swell flooding, very slow permeability; flood-
potential. ing.
Immokalee: Im--------------Moderate: high water table-- Moderate: very low available Severe: high water table -----
water capacity; low natural
fertility.
Made land: Ma.
No interpretations made.
Properties too variable.

Meggett: Me --------------- Severe: high water table; Moderate: high water table_-- Severe: high water table;
high shrink-swell potential, slow permeability.
Myakka:
Mk -------------------- Moderate: high water table-- Moderate: very low available Severe: high water table-----
water capacity; low natural
fertility.

Ms-------_------------ Moderate: high water table; Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood-
flooding. ing. ing.
Orlando: Or---------------- Slight---------------------- Moderate: low available water Slight 1 '-------------------
capacity; low natural fertility.

Orlando, wet variant: Os ----- Moderate: high water table--- Moderate: low available water Severe: high water table------
capacity; low natural fertility.
See footnote at end of table.









OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 51

for recreational developments

Local roads Campsites and picnic areas Paths and trails Playgrounds


Slight----------------------- Severe: loose sand----------- Severe: loose sand----------- Severe: loose sand.


Moderate: slope; loose sand-..- Severe: loose sand; slope ------ Severe: loose sand; slope _---- Severe: loose sand; slope.


Slight----------------------- Severe: loose sand------------ Severe: loose sand----------- Severe: loose sand.


Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table;
ing; mucky surface. flooding. flooding, flooding.
Severe: high water table------- Severe: high water table ----- Severe: high water table _---_ Severe: high water table.

Severe: high water table .----- Severe: high water table ----- Severe: high water table ---___ Severe: high water table.

Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table;
ing; low traffic-supportingC ca- flooding. flooding, flooding.
pacity.
Moderate: clayey subsoil------- Slight---------------------- Slight---------------------- Slight.

Severe: high water table------- Severe: high water table------ Severe: high water table------ Severe: high water table.

Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table;
ing. flooding. flooding, flooding.

Slight---------------------- Moderate: sand texture------- Moderate: sand texture _----- Severe: sand texture.


Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table;
ing; low traffic-supporting ca- flooding. flooding, flooding.
pacity.
Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table; Severe: high water table;
ing; high shrink-swell poten- flooding. flooding, flooding.
tial.
Severe: high water table------- Severe: high water table----- Severe: high water table ----- Severe: high water table.





Severe: high water table; high Severe: high water table ----_ Severe: high water table------ Severe: high water table.
shrink-swell potential.

Severe: high water table ------- Severe: high water table ------ Severe: high water table______ Severe: high water table.


Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table;
ing. ing. ing. flooding.
Slight----------------------- Severe: loose sand----------- Severe: loose sand -----------Severe: loose sand.

Moderate: high water table --- Severe: loose sand; high water Severe: loose sand; high water Severe: loose sand; high wa-
table. table. ter table.










52 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 8.-Degree and kind of limitation

Soil series and map symbols Buildings Landscape plantings Septic tank absorption fields

Pamlico: Pa, Pd ------- Severe: high water table; flood- Very severe: high water table; Severe: high water table; flood-
ing; low supporting capacity, flooding. ing.

Paola:
PI -------------------- Slight---------------------- Moderate: very low available Slight -------------------
water capacity; very low nat-
ural fertility.

PID-------------------- Moderate: slope------------- Moderate: slope------------ Moderate:' slope------
PmA -------------------Slight --------------------Moderate: very low available Moderate:I moderately high
water capacity; very low nat- water table.
ural fertility.

Pomello: Po ---------------- Moderate: moderately high Severe: very low available wa- Moderate: moderately high
water table. ter capacity; very low natural water table.
fertility.
Rains: Ra ------------------Severe: high water table; flood- Moderate: high water table--- Severe: high water table; flood-
ing. ing.
St. Johns: Sa--------------- Severe: high water table; flood- Moderate: high water table; Severe: high water table; flood-
ing. flooding. ing.
St. Lucie: Sc ---------------Slight ---------------------Severe: very low available Slight '_-------------------
water capacity; very low na-
tural fertility.
Sellers: Sp, Ss -------------- Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood-
ing; mucky surface, ing. ing.
Terra Ceia: Tc -------------- Severe: high water table; flood- Very severe: high water table; Severe: high water table; flood-
ing; low supporting capacity. flooding. ing.

Wicksburg:
WcA ------------------- Slight---------------------- Moderate: low available water Slight--- --------------
capacity; low natural fertility.

WcC ------------------- Slight --------------------- Moderate: low available water Moderate: slope-----------
capacity; low natural fertility.

Severe in all sloping areas where there is risk of contaminating the ground-water supply.











OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 53

or recreational developments-Continued

Local roads Campsites and picnic areas Paths and trails Playgrounds

Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table;
ing; low traffic-supporting ing. ing. flooding.
capacity.

Slight----------------------- Severe: loose sand------------ Severe: loose sand----------- Severe: loose sand.


Severe: slope; loose sand------- Severe: loose sand; slope ----- Severe: loose sand------------ Severe: loose sand; slope.

Slight------------------- Severe: loose sand -----------Severe: loose sand---------- Severe: loose sand.


Moderate: moderately high wa- Severe: loose sand --------.. Severe: loose sand----------- Severe: loose sand.
ter table.

Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table;
ing. ing. ing. flooding.

Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table;
ing. ing. ing. flooding.

Slight .----_---- --------------Severe: loose sand------------ Severe: loose sand----------- Severe: loose sand.


Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table;
ing; mucky surface. ing. ing. flooding.
Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table; flood- Severe: high water table;
ing; low traffic-supporting ca- ing. ing. flooding.
pacity.

Slight----------------------- Severe: loose sand -----------Severe: loose sand -----------Severe: loose sand.

Slight to moderate: slope---- Severe: looseand; sloppee --- Severe: loosesand; slope------- Severe: loosesand; slope.










54 SOIL SURVEY

Corrosivity pertains to potential soil-induced chemi- "I
cal action that dissolves or weakens uncoated steel and
concrete. The rate of corrosion of uncoated steel is related
to soil properties, such as drainage, texture, total acidity,
and electrical conductivity. Corrosivity for concrete is
influenced mainly by the content of sodium or magnesium
sulfate, but it is also influenced by texture and acidity.
Installations of uncoated steel that intersect soil boun-
daries or soil horizons are more susceptible to corrosion
than steel entirely in one kind of soil or one soil horizon. -
A corrosivity rating of low means that there is a low
probability of soil-induced corrosion damage. Since a
rating of high indicates a high probability of damage,
protective measures should be used to avoid or minimize Figure 5.-Area where white sand brought in for a beach has
damage to steel, and more resistant concrete should be greatly improved bathing facilities. This is one of many areas
used. where the potential of the site was good, but the use of the
original soil for recreation was severely limited by the poor
Engineering interpretations of soils quality of the soil material. The sand was obtained in an area of
St. Lucie sand.
The suitability ratings and comments in table 6 are
for modal soil profiles and are to be used only as a guide.
They are not intended to replace field tests or laboratory embankment ponds where the depth of water impounded
analyses in planning for specific uses where exacting against the embankment is more than 3 feet. It is assumed
determinations are required. that the pond is properly designed, located, and con-
Table 6 rates the soils according to their suitability as structed, and that the water is of good quality. Properties
sources of road fill, all-purpose sand, topsoil, and beach affecting the use of soil for aquifer-fed ponds are the
sand. It also gives features that affect the construction existence of a permanent water table, permeability of the
of excavated aquifer-fed farm ponds, embankments, aquifer, and properties that interfere with excavation,
drainage, and irrigation systems. These interpretations such as stoniness and rockiness.
are for normal, undisturbed soil profiles and are deter- For embankments, dikes, and levees, soil material is
mined partly by studying the properties of the soil, needed that is resistant to seepage and piping and that
partly by studying test data, and partly by analyzing has favorable stability, shrink-swell potential, shear
the results of actual field experience. strength, and compatibility. The presence of stones or
Road fill is soil material used in road embankments. organic material in the soil are among unfavorable
Suitability ratings reflect (1) the predicted performance factors.
of soil after it has been placed in an embankment that Drainage is affected by permeability. texture. and
has been properly compacted and provided with adequate structure; depth to clay or to other layers that affect the
drainage, and (2) the relative ease of excavating the rate of water movement: depth to the water table; slope;
material at borrow areas. stability and ditchbanks: susceptibility to flooding;
Sand is used in great quantities in many kinds of con- salinity or alkalinity; and availability of outlets for
struction. The ratings in table 6 provide guidance about drainage.
where to look for probable sources. A soil rated as a good Irrigation of soil is affected by slope: susceptibility to
source of sand generally has a layer at least 3 feet thick, stream overflow, water erosion, or soil blowing; soil
the top of which is within 6 feet of the surface. The texture; depth of root zone: rate of water intake at the
ratings do not take into account thickness of overburden, surface; permeability of soil layers below the surface
depth to the water table, or other factors that affect the layer or of any layers that restrict movement of water;
excavation of sand, nor do they indicate the quality of amount of water held available to plants; and depth to
the deposit. water table, which may indicate a need for drainage.
Topsoil is used for topdressing an area where vegeta- Two kinds of irrigation systems are used in the survey
tion is to be established and maintained. Suitability area-sprinkler irrigation and subsurface irrigation.
is affected mainly by ease of working and spreading the WT ere sprinkler irrigation is used. the water is pumped
soil material, as for example in preparing a seedbed. It th e r oe e ihes a i p a
is also affected by the natural fertility of the soil or through pipes and applied by sprinklers in a way that
response to fertilizer as well as by the absence of sub- simulates rain. Soil features that affect suitability of the
stances toxic to plants. Other characteristics that affect soil for sprinkler irrigation are rate of infiltration, rate
suitability are the texture of the soil material and content of permeability, available water capacity. slope, and
of stone fragments. Damage to the area from which top- erodibility. If soils have moderate permeability and
soil is removed is also considered, moderate available water capacity and are not subject to
Beach sand is clean, white sand that is suitable for use erosion, they are suited to irrigation.
on the edges of a lake or stream (fig. 5). It is used to In subsurface irrigation the water table is maintained
improve bathing and swimming facilities where a body within controlled limits. This method of irrigation per-
of water is developed as a recreation site. mits adequate capillary movement of water from the
An aquifer-fed excavated pond is a body of water water table into the root zone. Open ditches are generally
created by excavating a pit or dugout that retains water used for this kind of irrigation. The same system can be
fed by an aquifer. Excluded are ponds fed by runoff and used to remove excess water after a severe rain. Subsur-










IOCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 55

face irrigation is feasible only where the soils are nearly Recreational developments
level and have a water table near the surface. Soil Recreation sites should be in areas that have a com-
features that affect subsurface irrigation are depth to fortable environment and a pleasant view. The soils
water table and permeability, should be well drained, have good trafficability, and be
Engineering test data free of flooding. Loose, dry, sandy soils are not suited,
because they are easily displaced, have poor trafficability,
Table 7 gives engineering test data for some soil series and do not support a cover of grass under extensive use.
in the Ocala National Forest Area. These tests were made Wet soils are often ponded and have poor trafficability.
to help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The Fine-textured soils become hard and crack when dry
engineering classifications given are based on data ob- and soft and sticky when wet. They have poor traffic-
tained by mechanical analyses and by tests that determine ability. The best areas for recreational developments are
the liquid limit and the plastic limit. The mechanical on deep, fertile, friable, well-drained soils, but there are
analyses were made by combined sieve and hydrometer only a few of these soils in the Ocala National Forest
methods. Area.
Moisture-density (or compaction) data are important All the recreation areas in the Ocala National Forest
in earthwork. If a soil material is compacted at success- Area present some special problems of design and man-
ively higher moisture content, assuming that the com- agement. Many areas require stabilization or surfacing
active effort remains constant, the density of the com- of roads and trails. The areas around many campsites
pacted material increases until the optimum moisture and picnic tables need to be stabilized (fig. 6). In many
content is reached. After that, density decreases with places, plantings of grass, shrubs, and trees need to be
any increase in moisture content. The highest dry density fertilized and irrigated.
obtained in the compactive test is termed maximum dry Knowledge of the soils and how they behave is basic
density. As a rule, maximum strength of earthwork is to good planning for recreational developments. The soil
obtained if the soil is compacted to the maximum dry survey gives basic information, but a more detailed on-
density. site investigation is needed for intensively used recrea-
Tests to determine liquid limit and plastic index meas- tion areas. The survey does show enough detail to be
ure the effect of water on the consistence of soil material, useful in selecting recreation areas and planning their
as has been explained for table 5. development and management.































Figure 6.-Campsite in the "Big Scrub." The soil is an Astatula sand, and the dominant vegetation is sand pine. Areas of this deep,
loose, sandy soil used for roadways and parking areas should be surfaced with sand-clay materials.










IOCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 55

face irrigation is feasible only where the soils are nearly Recreational developments
level and have a water table near the surface. Soil Recreation sites should be in areas that have a com-
features that affect subsurface irrigation are depth to fortable environment and a pleasant view. The soils
water table and permeability, should be well drained, have good trafficability, and be
Engineering test data free of flooding. Loose, dry, sandy soils are not suited,
because they are easily displaced, have poor trafficability,
Table 7 gives engineering test data for some soil series and do not support a cover of grass under extensive use.
in the Ocala National Forest Area. These tests were made Wet soils are often ponded and have poor trafficability.
to help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The Fine-textured soils become hard and crack when dry
engineering classifications given are based on data ob- and soft and sticky when wet. They have poor traffic-
tained by mechanical analyses and by tests that determine ability. The best areas for recreational developments are
the liquid limit and the plastic limit. The mechanical on deep, fertile, friable, well-drained soils, but there are
analyses were made by combined sieve and hydrometer only a few of these soils in the Ocala National Forest
methods. Area.
Moisture-density (or compaction) data are important All the recreation areas in the Ocala National Forest
in earthwork. If a soil material is compacted at success- Area present some special problems of design and man-
ively higher moisture content, assuming that the com- agement. Many areas require stabilization or surfacing
active effort remains constant, the density of the com- of roads and trails. The areas around many campsites
pacted material increases until the optimum moisture and picnic tables need to be stabilized (fig. 6). In many
content is reached. After that, density decreases with places, plantings of grass, shrubs, and trees need to be
any increase in moisture content. The highest dry density fertilized and irrigated.
obtained in the compactive test is termed maximum dry Knowledge of the soils and how they behave is basic
density. As a rule, maximum strength of earthwork is to good planning for recreational developments. The soil
obtained if the soil is compacted to the maximum dry survey gives basic information, but a more detailed on-
density. site investigation is needed for intensively used recrea-
Tests to determine liquid limit and plastic index meas- tion areas. The survey does show enough detail to be
ure the effect of water on the consistence of soil material, useful in selecting recreation areas and planning their
as has been explained for table 5. development and management.































Figure 6.-Campsite in the "Big Scrub." The soil is an Astatula sand, and the dominant vegetation is sand pine. Areas of this deep,
loose, sandy soil used for roadways and parking areas should be surfaced with sand-clay materials.










56 soL SURVEY
Some important soil characteristics that influence cement; and a flexible or rigid surface, commonly asphalt
recreational development are texture, slope, permeability, or concrete. These roads are graded to shed water, and
available water capacity, thickness of the soil, depth to they have ordinary provisions for drainage. They ae
rock or slowly permeable material, depth to water table built mainly from soil at hand, and most cuts and fills
(wetness), flood hazard, bearing capacity, trafficability, are less than 6 feet deep. They also include access roads
and natural productivity, in the forest. These roads have a surface treated with
In table 8 the soils of the Ocala National Forest Area sand and clay materials.
are rated according to limitations that affect their suit- Soil properties that most affect design and construc-
ability for buildings, landscape plantings, septic tanks, tion of roads and streets are the load-supporting capacity
local roads, campsites and picnic areas, paths and trails, and stability of the subgrade, as well as the workability
and playgrounds. The degrees of limitation are given as and quantity of cut and fill material available. The
slight, moderate, severe, and very severe. For all of these AASHO and Unified classifications of soil material and
degrees of limitation, it is assumed that a good cover the shrink-swell potential indicate load-supporting ca-
of vegetation can be established and maintained. Slight pacity. Wetness and flooding affect the stability of soil
means that the soil properties are generally favorable material. Slope, depth to hard rock, content of stones
and that the limitations are so minor that they can easily and rocks, and wetness affect ease of excavation and the
be overcome. Moderate means that the limitations can be amount of cut and fill needed to reach an even grade.
overcome or modified by planning, design, or special Campsites are used intensively for tents, small camp
maintenance. Severe means that costly soil reclamation, trailers, and the accompanying activities of outdoor
special design, intensive maintenance, or a combination living. Little preparation of the site is required, other
of these is needed. For some uses, a rating of severe is than shaping and leveling for tenting and parking areas.
divided to obtain ratings of severe and very severe. Very Campsites are subject to heavy foot traffic and limited
severe means that one or more soil properties are so vehicular traffic. The best soils have mild slopes, good
unfavorable for a particular use that overcoming the drainage, a surface that is free of rocks and coarse
limitations is most difficult and costly and commonly not fragments, freedom from flooding during periods of
practical for the specified use. heavy use, and a surface that is firm after rain but not
Buildings refer to cottages, washrooms, bathhouses, dusty when dry.
and service buildings that are supported by foundation Picnic areas are attractive natural or landscaped tracts
footings placed in undisturbed soil. The features that used mainly for preparing food and outdoor eating.
affect use of soil for buildings are those that relate to These areas are subject to heavy foot traffic, but most
capacity to support load and to resist settlement under of the vehicular traffic is confined to access roads. The
that load as well as those that relate to ease of excava- best soils are firm when wet but not dusty when dry, are
tion. Soil properties that affect capacity to support load free of flooding during the season of use, and do not
are wetness, susceptibility to flooding, density, plasticity, have slopes or stoniness that greatly increase the cost
texture, and shrink-swell potential. Those that affect of leveling the site or of building access roads.
excavation are wetness, slope, depth to bedrock, and Paths and trails are used for local and cross-country
content of stones and rocks. travel by foot or horseback. Design and layout should
Landscape plantings are vital to most landscaping require little or no cutting and filling. The lest soils are
efforts. The ability of the soil to support grass, orna- at least moderately well drained, are firm when wet but
mental trees, and shrubs is especially important at camp- not dusty when dry, are flooded not more than once
sites and picnic areas, and it affects use of the soil for during the season of use, and have slopes of less than
highway beautification and for most recreational facil- 15 percent. Few or no rocks or stones are on the surface.
cities. A wide range of adapted plants is available for Playgrounds are areas used intensively for baseball,
landscaping, but local variations in the soils may limit football, badminton, and other organized games. Soils
the kinds of plants that can be grown in a specific area. that are suitable for this use must be able to withstand
water capacity, depth to the water a pin are available intensive foot traffic. The best soils are nearly level, have
water capacity, depth to the water table, productivity, a surface that is free of coarse fragments and rock out-
effective root depth, and susceptibility to flooding. a surface that is free of coarse fragments and rock out-
Seetic tank absorption fields are subsurface systems crops, have good drainage, are free from flooding during
of tile or perforated pipe that distribute effluent from periods of use, and have a surface that is firm after rains
a septic tank into natural soil. Soil material at a depth but not dusty when dry. In areas where grading and
between 18 inches and 6 feet is evaluated. Soil properties leveling are needed, the depth to rock is important.
considered are, those that affect both absorption of effluent
and construction and operation of the system. Properties
that affect absorPtion are permeabilit y depth of water Formation. Morphology, and
table or rock, and susceptibility to ooin. Slope affects Classification of the Soils
difficulty of layout and construction as well as the hazard
of soil erosion and the risks of lateral seepage and down- This section discusses the factors of soil formation as
lope flow osf effluent. Large rocks or boulders increase they affect soils in the Ocala National Forest Area.
Local roads hte an Morphology of the soils is explained by describing major
Local roads have an all-weather surface expected to horizons or soil layers and the processes involved in their
carry automobile traffic all year. Thev have a subgrade development. The classification of the soils is also dis-
of underlying soil material; a base consisting of ravel, cussed. Table 9 shows the classification of the soils by
crushed rock, or soil material stabilized with lime or higher categories.








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 57

TABLE 9.-Classification of soils by higher categories

Series Family Subgroup Order

Astatula ----------- Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated ------_ ---------_ Typic Quartzipsamments------------ Entisols.
Astor-------------- Sandy, siliceous, noncalcareous, hyperthermic---- ---_ Cumulic Haplaquolls--------------- Mollisols.
Basinger -----------Siliceous, hyperthermic ------------------- Spodic Psammaquents -------------Entisols.
Delks -------------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic, ortstein-------------- Ultic Haplaquods------------------ Spodosols.
Dorovan 1----- Dysic, hyperthermic---------------------------- Typic Medisaprists----------------- Histosols.'
Duplin 1 ------ Clayey, kaolinitic, thermic ----------------------- Aquic Paleudults------------------- Ultisols.
Eureka------------ Clayey, mixed, hyperthermic --------------------_ Typic Albaqualfs ------------------ Alfisols.
Eureka, thick-surface Clayey, mixed, hyperthermic ---------------------- Typic Umbraqualfs----------------- Alfisols.
variant.
Eustis 1 --------- Sandy, siliceous, thermic ------------------------- Psammentic Paleudults__------------ Ultisols.
Everglades----------Euic, hyperthermic----------------------------- Typic Medihemists ----------------- Histosols.
Iberia ------------- Fine, montmorillonitic, noncalcareous, thermic ---_--- Vertic Haplaquolls ----------------- Mollisols.
Immokalee ---------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Arenic Haplaquods----------------- Spodosols.
Meggett 1------ Fine, mixed, thermic ---------------------------- Typic Albaqualfs ------------------Alfisols.
Myakka -----------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Aeric Haplaquods----------------- Spodosols.
Orlando------------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic---------------- Quartzipsammentic Haplumbrepts----- Inceptisols.
Orlando, wet variant_ Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Cumulic Haplumbrepts --------------Inceptisols.
Pamlico 1 -----Sandy, siliceous, dysic, thermic-------------------- Terric Medisaprists----------------- Histosols.'
Paola --------------Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated ------------------ Spodic Quartzipsamments ------------ Entisols.
Pomello------------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Arenic Haplohumods---------------- Spodosols.
Rains------------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic --------------------- Typic Ochraquults----------------- Ultisols.
St. Johns----------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Typic Haplaquods----------------- Spodosols.
St. Lucie-----------Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated ------------------ Typic Quartzipsamments ------------Entisols.
Sellers ------------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Cumulic Humaquepts--------------- Inceptisols.
Terra Ceia---------- Euic, hyperthermic------------------------------ Typic Medisaprists----------------- Histosols.
Wicksburg----------Clayey, kaolinitic, thermic ----------------------- Arenic Paleudults_ ---------------- Ultisols.

These soils are taxadjuncts to their respective series because of soil temperature. Soils of the Dorovan, Duplin, Eustis, Iberia, and
Pamlico series are taxadjuncts because they have a mean annual temperature about 20 F. higher than is defined for the series. Soils of the
Meggett series are taxadjuncts because they have a mean annual temperature about 10 F. higher than is defined for the series. These differ-
ences do not alter the use and behavior of these soils.


Factors of Soil Formation rials, and Paola sand formed in the thick deposits of
sand.
Soil is produced by the forces of weathering and of soil Limestone, which is sedimentary, underlies the entire
formation acting on the geologic materials at the surface. survey area. It it too deeply buried to be parent material
The kind of soil that forms depends on the composition for any of the soils, but the solution of this limestone and
of the parent material, the climate under which the soil the subsequent collapse of overlying marine sand and
material accumulated and weathered, the living organ- clay has caused the undulating physiography of the
isms on and in the soil, the topography, and the length survey area.
of time the forces of soil development have acted on the On flood plains along the St. Johns River and the
soil material. Oklawaha River, and in other scattered areas, recent
These factors are interdependent, and each modifies accumulations of organic materials cover the sand and
the effect of the others. Any one factor may have more clay. One of the soils that formed in these organic ac-
influence than the others on soil development and may cumulations is Dorovan muck.
account for most of the soil properties. For example, in Climate
most areas where soils have formed in almost pure quartz, The climate of the Ocala National Forest Area is warm
they have only weakly developed horizons because other and humid. The present climate is considered similar to
factors, except for composition of the parent material, that which prevailed during most of the period of soil
have had little effect. In contrast, where soils have formed formation. The summer climate is uniform throughout
in more complex, more easily weathered parent material, the survey area, but winters are slightly milder in the
they have been modified to a greater extent by the effect southern part than in the northern part. The climate
of climate, topography, and living organisms in and on accounts for few differences among the soils. Rainfall
the soil. In these areas of more complex parent material, averages about 52 inches, and more than half falls in
a modification or variation in any one of the five factors summer.
results in a different soil. This climate promotes the rapid decomposition of
organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the soil.
Parent material Abundant rainfall leaches the soil of most plant nutrients
In most places the parent material of the soils in the and has produced strongly acid reaction in most of the
Ocala National Forest Area is unconsolidated sand that sandy soils. It also carries the less soluble fine particles
has been transported by wind and redeposited, but in a downward. Consequently, many of these soils are sandy
few places it is clayey sediments. For example, Eureka and are very low in organic-matter content, natural
loamy fine sand formed in the deposits of clayey mate- fertility, and available water capacity.








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 57

TABLE 9.-Classification of soils by higher categories

Series Family Subgroup Order

Astatula ----------- Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated ------_ ---------_ Typic Quartzipsamments------------ Entisols.
Astor-------------- Sandy, siliceous, noncalcareous, hyperthermic---- ---_ Cumulic Haplaquolls--------------- Mollisols.
Basinger -----------Siliceous, hyperthermic ------------------- Spodic Psammaquents -------------Entisols.
Delks -------------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic, ortstein-------------- Ultic Haplaquods------------------ Spodosols.
Dorovan 1----- Dysic, hyperthermic---------------------------- Typic Medisaprists----------------- Histosols.'
Duplin 1 ------ Clayey, kaolinitic, thermic ----------------------- Aquic Paleudults------------------- Ultisols.
Eureka------------ Clayey, mixed, hyperthermic --------------------_ Typic Albaqualfs ------------------ Alfisols.
Eureka, thick-surface Clayey, mixed, hyperthermic ---------------------- Typic Umbraqualfs----------------- Alfisols.
variant.
Eustis 1 --------- Sandy, siliceous, thermic ------------------------- Psammentic Paleudults__------------ Ultisols.
Everglades----------Euic, hyperthermic----------------------------- Typic Medihemists ----------------- Histosols.
Iberia ------------- Fine, montmorillonitic, noncalcareous, thermic ---_--- Vertic Haplaquolls ----------------- Mollisols.
Immokalee ---------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Arenic Haplaquods----------------- Spodosols.
Meggett 1------ Fine, mixed, thermic ---------------------------- Typic Albaqualfs ------------------Alfisols.
Myakka -----------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Aeric Haplaquods----------------- Spodosols.
Orlando------------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic---------------- Quartzipsammentic Haplumbrepts----- Inceptisols.
Orlando, wet variant_ Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Cumulic Haplumbrepts --------------Inceptisols.
Pamlico 1 -----Sandy, siliceous, dysic, thermic-------------------- Terric Medisaprists----------------- Histosols.'
Paola --------------Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated ------------------ Spodic Quartzipsamments ------------ Entisols.
Pomello------------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Arenic Haplohumods---------------- Spodosols.
Rains------------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic --------------------- Typic Ochraquults----------------- Ultisols.
St. Johns----------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Typic Haplaquods----------------- Spodosols.
St. Lucie-----------Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated ------------------ Typic Quartzipsamments ------------Entisols.
Sellers ------------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Cumulic Humaquepts--------------- Inceptisols.
Terra Ceia---------- Euic, hyperthermic------------------------------ Typic Medisaprists----------------- Histosols.
Wicksburg----------Clayey, kaolinitic, thermic ----------------------- Arenic Paleudults_ ---------------- Ultisols.

These soils are taxadjuncts to their respective series because of soil temperature. Soils of the Dorovan, Duplin, Eustis, Iberia, and
Pamlico series are taxadjuncts because they have a mean annual temperature about 20 F. higher than is defined for the series. Soils of the
Meggett series are taxadjuncts because they have a mean annual temperature about 10 F. higher than is defined for the series. These differ-
ences do not alter the use and behavior of these soils.


Factors of Soil Formation rials, and Paola sand formed in the thick deposits of
sand.
Soil is produced by the forces of weathering and of soil Limestone, which is sedimentary, underlies the entire
formation acting on the geologic materials at the surface. survey area. It it too deeply buried to be parent material
The kind of soil that forms depends on the composition for any of the soils, but the solution of this limestone and
of the parent material, the climate under which the soil the subsequent collapse of overlying marine sand and
material accumulated and weathered, the living organ- clay has caused the undulating physiography of the
isms on and in the soil, the topography, and the length survey area.
of time the forces of soil development have acted on the On flood plains along the St. Johns River and the
soil material. Oklawaha River, and in other scattered areas, recent
These factors are interdependent, and each modifies accumulations of organic materials cover the sand and
the effect of the others. Any one factor may have more clay. One of the soils that formed in these organic ac-
influence than the others on soil development and may cumulations is Dorovan muck.
account for most of the soil properties. For example, in Climate
most areas where soils have formed in almost pure quartz, The climate of the Ocala National Forest Area is warm
they have only weakly developed horizons because other and humid. The present climate is considered similar to
factors, except for composition of the parent material, that which prevailed during most of the period of soil
have had little effect. In contrast, where soils have formed formation. The summer climate is uniform throughout
in more complex, more easily weathered parent material, the survey area, but winters are slightly milder in the
they have been modified to a greater extent by the effect southern part than in the northern part. The climate
of climate, topography, and living organisms in and on accounts for few differences among the soils. Rainfall
the soil. In these areas of more complex parent material, averages about 52 inches, and more than half falls in
a modification or variation in any one of the five factors summer.
results in a different soil. This climate promotes the rapid decomposition of
organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the soil.
Parent material Abundant rainfall leaches the soil of most plant nutrients
In most places the parent material of the soils in the and has produced strongly acid reaction in most of the
Ocala National Forest Area is unconsolidated sand that sandy soils. It also carries the less soluble fine particles
has been transported by wind and redeposited, but in a downward. Consequently, many of these soils are sandy
few places it is clayey sediments. For example, Eureka and are very low in organic-matter content, natural
loamy fine sand formed in the deposits of clayey mate- fertility, and available water capacity.








OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 57

TABLE 9.-Classification of soils by higher categories

Series Family Subgroup Order

Astatula ----------- Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated ------_ ---------_ Typic Quartzipsamments------------ Entisols.
Astor-------------- Sandy, siliceous, noncalcareous, hyperthermic---- ---_ Cumulic Haplaquolls--------------- Mollisols.
Basinger -----------Siliceous, hyperthermic ------------------- Spodic Psammaquents -------------Entisols.
Delks -------------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic, ortstein-------------- Ultic Haplaquods------------------ Spodosols.
Dorovan 1----- Dysic, hyperthermic---------------------------- Typic Medisaprists----------------- Histosols.'
Duplin 1 ------ Clayey, kaolinitic, thermic ----------------------- Aquic Paleudults------------------- Ultisols.
Eureka------------ Clayey, mixed, hyperthermic --------------------_ Typic Albaqualfs ------------------ Alfisols.
Eureka, thick-surface Clayey, mixed, hyperthermic ---------------------- Typic Umbraqualfs----------------- Alfisols.
variant.
Eustis 1 --------- Sandy, siliceous, thermic ------------------------- Psammentic Paleudults__------------ Ultisols.
Everglades----------Euic, hyperthermic----------------------------- Typic Medihemists ----------------- Histosols.
Iberia ------------- Fine, montmorillonitic, noncalcareous, thermic ---_--- Vertic Haplaquolls ----------------- Mollisols.
Immokalee ---------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Arenic Haplaquods----------------- Spodosols.
Meggett 1------ Fine, mixed, thermic ---------------------------- Typic Albaqualfs ------------------Alfisols.
Myakka -----------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Aeric Haplaquods----------------- Spodosols.
Orlando------------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic---------------- Quartzipsammentic Haplumbrepts----- Inceptisols.
Orlando, wet variant_ Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Cumulic Haplumbrepts --------------Inceptisols.
Pamlico 1 -----Sandy, siliceous, dysic, thermic-------------------- Terric Medisaprists----------------- Histosols.'
Paola --------------Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated ------------------ Spodic Quartzipsamments ------------ Entisols.
Pomello------------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Arenic Haplohumods---------------- Spodosols.
Rains------------- Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic --------------------- Typic Ochraquults----------------- Ultisols.
St. Johns----------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Typic Haplaquods----------------- Spodosols.
St. Lucie-----------Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated ------------------ Typic Quartzipsamments ------------Entisols.
Sellers ------------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic -------------------- Cumulic Humaquepts--------------- Inceptisols.
Terra Ceia---------- Euic, hyperthermic------------------------------ Typic Medisaprists----------------- Histosols.
Wicksburg----------Clayey, kaolinitic, thermic ----------------------- Arenic Paleudults_ ---------------- Ultisols.

These soils are taxadjuncts to their respective series because of soil temperature. Soils of the Dorovan, Duplin, Eustis, Iberia, and
Pamlico series are taxadjuncts because they have a mean annual temperature about 20 F. higher than is defined for the series. Soils of the
Meggett series are taxadjuncts because they have a mean annual temperature about 10 F. higher than is defined for the series. These differ-
ences do not alter the use and behavior of these soils.


Factors of Soil Formation rials, and Paola sand formed in the thick deposits of
sand.
Soil is produced by the forces of weathering and of soil Limestone, which is sedimentary, underlies the entire
formation acting on the geologic materials at the surface. survey area. It it too deeply buried to be parent material
The kind of soil that forms depends on the composition for any of the soils, but the solution of this limestone and
of the parent material, the climate under which the soil the subsequent collapse of overlying marine sand and
material accumulated and weathered, the living organ- clay has caused the undulating physiography of the
isms on and in the soil, the topography, and the length survey area.
of time the forces of soil development have acted on the On flood plains along the St. Johns River and the
soil material. Oklawaha River, and in other scattered areas, recent
These factors are interdependent, and each modifies accumulations of organic materials cover the sand and
the effect of the others. Any one factor may have more clay. One of the soils that formed in these organic ac-
influence than the others on soil development and may cumulations is Dorovan muck.
account for most of the soil properties. For example, in Climate
most areas where soils have formed in almost pure quartz, The climate of the Ocala National Forest Area is warm
they have only weakly developed horizons because other and humid. The present climate is considered similar to
factors, except for composition of the parent material, that which prevailed during most of the period of soil
have had little effect. In contrast, where soils have formed formation. The summer climate is uniform throughout
in more complex, more easily weathered parent material, the survey area, but winters are slightly milder in the
they have been modified to a greater extent by the effect southern part than in the northern part. The climate
of climate, topography, and living organisms in and on accounts for few differences among the soils. Rainfall
the soil. In these areas of more complex parent material, averages about 52 inches, and more than half falls in
a modification or variation in any one of the five factors summer.
results in a different soil. This climate promotes the rapid decomposition of
organic matter and hastens chemical reactions in the soil.
Parent material Abundant rainfall leaches the soil of most plant nutrients
In most places the parent material of the soils in the and has produced strongly acid reaction in most of the
Ocala National Forest Area is unconsolidated sand that sandy soils. It also carries the less soluble fine particles
has been transported by wind and redeposited, but in a downward. Consequently, many of these soils are sandy
few places it is clayey sediments. For example, Eureka and are very low in organic-matter content, natural
loamy fine sand formed in the deposits of clayey mate- fertility, and available water capacity.







58 SOIL SURVEY

Living organisms of a soil that has well-defined, genetically related hori-
Both plants and animals have an important role in the zons.
formation of soils. The kinds and numbers of plants and Soils formed in material that is resistant to weathering
animals that live in and on the soil are governed largely require more time to reach a particular stage of develop-
by climate and to lesser and varying degrees by each of ment than do soils formed in easily weathered material.
the other soil-forming factors. The translocation of fine particles within soils to form
The major soil-forming functions of living organisms distinct horizons varies under different conditions. Most
are furnishing organic matter to soil, altering soil of the soil-forming processes. however, require a rela-
through natural mixing and stirring, and moving plant tively long time. The dominant soil material in the Ocala
nutrients from the lower horizons to the upper horizons. National Forest Area is almost pure quartz sand, which
Living organisms also promote changes in structure and is highly resistant to weathering.
porosity of the soil. Relatively little geologic time has elapsed for well-
Micro-organisms, including bacteria and fungi, help defined, genetically related horizons to develop in the
to weather and break down minerals and decompose parent material laid down in the Ocala National Forest
organic matter. They are most numerous in the upper Area. Horizons of sandy loam and sandy clay have
few inches of the soil. Earthworms and some other small formed through the translocation of silt and clay. These
animals live in soil material, alter its chemical composi- horizons have been only slightly altered by weathering.
tion, and mix it with other soil material. The native Some distinct genetic horizons, such as a layer of sand
vegetation also acts on the soil chemically and churns cemented with organic materials and a thick black sur-
it by root penetration, face layer, have formed in some soils; however, the time
Topgraph required for this development was relatively short.
Topography
Topography has affected the formation of soils in the Processes of Soil Formation
Ocala National Forest Area, mainly through its in-
fluence on relationships of soil and water. Other factors The processes involved in horizon differentiation, or
of soil formation normally associated with topography, in the formation of soil horizons, are accumulation of
such as erosion, temperature, and plant cover, are of organic matter, leaching of calcium carbonates and bases,
less importance, reduction and transfer of iron, and formation and trans-
The three general topographic features in the survey location of silicate clay minerals. In the formation of
area are the swamps and marshes, along the St. Johns most soils in the Ocala National Forest Area. more than
River and the Oklawaha River, that are very wet or one of these processes has been active.
flooded much of the time; an area of pine flatwoods Most soils have three main horizons: A. B, and C.
forest which is between the river lowlands and the high The A horizon is the surface laver. It can be either
ridge area and where the water table fluctuates but is the horizon of maximum organic-matter content, called
generally high; and the high dunelike central ridges the Al horizon, or the horizon of maximum leaching
that are, interspersed with lakes and poii(ns. This area of soluble or suspended materials, called the A2 horizon.
of central dunelike ridges is the highest and most strongly The B horizon lies immediately below the A horizon
sloping in the Ocala National Forest Area. and here and is often called the subsoil. It is the horizon of max-
depth to the water table is greater than in other areas. imnm accumulation of dissolved or suspended materials,
In each of these general areas the formation of soils such as organic matter, iron, or clay. The B horizon is
is influenced by the topography and its relationship to generally firmer than the horizons immediately above
lepthl to the water table. For example. Astatula soils. and below, and it may have blocky structure. In many
which are on the high d(unelike ridges. are deep to the young soils that are sand, the B horizon has not yet
water table. very low il organic matter, aid very highly developed.
leached. M vaknka soils, which are in the pine flatwoods. The C horizon is the substratum. It is very little af-
aret muc 1shll(ower to a water tal)le are periodically fected by the soil-forming processes but may have been
wt, anlnd have layers that are cemented with organic somewhat modified by weathering.
material. Astor soils, which are on lowlands along the Some organic matter has accumulated in the surface
river, have a thick surface layer that is high in organic- layer of all soils in the survey area to form an Al hori-
matter content, and are shallow to a water table most zon. The content of organic matter varies in different
of the time. This illustrates how soils that formed in soils and ranges from very low to high as a result of
the same parent material but in different topographic relief and wetness.
positions differ in organicmatter content. These differ- Leaching of carbonates and bases has occurred in
(bece in contend t of o(rganic Imatteri were broglt about nearly all the soils. The leaching of bases in soils usually
because difference in toporanic Position re sllt in differ- precedes translocation of silicate clay materials. Most
becas in degree of wetposition reslt in difness.fer- of the soils in the survey area are leached to varying
Time degrees. This has contributed to the development of
horizons.

Timportant or ine process of chemical reduction and transfer of iron.
Tf ime is ae impors fatoril formation areof soils, or gleing is evident in some soils in the Ocala national
If all other factors of soil formation are equal, the (deree Forest Area: however tile high dry soils do not show
of soil development is in direct proportion to time. evidence of this process. Gleving is brought about by the
Geologically, a long tine is required for the formation generally wet conditions that exist in many of the soils.







58 SOIL SURVEY

Living organisms of a soil that has well-defined, genetically related hori-
Both plants and animals have an important role in the zons.
formation of soils. The kinds and numbers of plants and Soils formed in material that is resistant to weathering
animals that live in and on the soil are governed largely require more time to reach a particular stage of develop-
by climate and to lesser and varying degrees by each of ment than do soils formed in easily weathered material.
the other soil-forming factors. The translocation of fine particles within soils to form
The major soil-forming functions of living organisms distinct horizons varies under different conditions. Most
are furnishing organic matter to soil, altering soil of the soil-forming processes. however, require a rela-
through natural mixing and stirring, and moving plant tively long time. The dominant soil material in the Ocala
nutrients from the lower horizons to the upper horizons. National Forest Area is almost pure quartz sand, which
Living organisms also promote changes in structure and is highly resistant to weathering.
porosity of the soil. Relatively little geologic time has elapsed for well-
Micro-organisms, including bacteria and fungi, help defined, genetically related horizons to develop in the
to weather and break down minerals and decompose parent material laid down in the Ocala National Forest
organic matter. They are most numerous in the upper Area. Horizons of sandy loam and sandy clay have
few inches of the soil. Earthworms and some other small formed through the translocation of silt and clay. These
animals live in soil material, alter its chemical composi- horizons have been only slightly altered by weathering.
tion, and mix it with other soil material. The native Some distinct genetic horizons, such as a layer of sand
vegetation also acts on the soil chemically and churns cemented with organic materials and a thick black sur-
it by root penetration, face layer, have formed in some soils; however, the time
Topgraph required for this development was relatively short.
Topography
Topography has affected the formation of soils in the Processes of Soil Formation
Ocala National Forest Area, mainly through its in-
fluence on relationships of soil and water. Other factors The processes involved in horizon differentiation, or
of soil formation normally associated with topography, in the formation of soil horizons, are accumulation of
such as erosion, temperature, and plant cover, are of organic matter, leaching of calcium carbonates and bases,
less importance, reduction and transfer of iron, and formation and trans-
The three general topographic features in the survey location of silicate clay minerals. In the formation of
area are the swamps and marshes, along the St. Johns most soils in the Ocala National Forest Area. more than
River and the Oklawaha River, that are very wet or one of these processes has been active.
flooded much of the time; an area of pine flatwoods Most soils have three main horizons: A. B, and C.
forest which is between the river lowlands and the high The A horizon is the surface laver. It can be either
ridge area and where the water table fluctuates but is the horizon of maximum organic-matter content, called
generally high; and the high dunelike central ridges the Al horizon, or the horizon of maximum leaching
that are, interspersed with lakes and poii(ns. This area of soluble or suspended materials, called the A2 horizon.
of central dunelike ridges is the highest and most strongly The B horizon lies immediately below the A horizon
sloping in the Ocala National Forest Area. and here and is often called the subsoil. It is the horizon of max-
depth to the water table is greater than in other areas. imnm accumulation of dissolved or suspended materials,
In each of these general areas the formation of soils such as organic matter, iron, or clay. The B horizon is
is influenced by the topography and its relationship to generally firmer than the horizons immediately above
lepthl to the water table. For example. Astatula soils. and below, and it may have blocky structure. In many
which are on the high d(unelike ridges. are deep to the young soils that are sand, the B horizon has not yet
water table. very low il organic matter, aid very highly developed.
leached. M vaknka soils, which are in the pine flatwoods. The C horizon is the substratum. It is very little af-
aret muc 1shll(ower to a water tal)le are periodically fected by the soil-forming processes but may have been
wt, anlnd have layers that are cemented with organic somewhat modified by weathering.
material. Astor soils, which are on lowlands along the Some organic matter has accumulated in the surface
river, have a thick surface layer that is high in organic- layer of all soils in the survey area to form an Al hori-
matter content, and are shallow to a water table most zon. The content of organic matter varies in different
of the time. This illustrates how soils that formed in soils and ranges from very low to high as a result of
the same parent material but in different topographic relief and wetness.
positions differ in organicmatter content. These differ- Leaching of carbonates and bases has occurred in
(bece in contend t of o(rganic Imatteri were broglt about nearly all the soils. The leaching of bases in soils usually
because difference in toporanic Position re sllt in differ- precedes translocation of silicate clay materials. Most
becas in degree of wetposition reslt in difness.fer- of the soils in the survey area are leached to varying
Time degrees. This has contributed to the development of
horizons.

Timportant or ine process of chemical reduction and transfer of iron.
Tf ime is ae impors fatoril formation areof soils, or gleing is evident in some soils in the Ocala national
If all other factors of soil formation are equal, the (deree Forest Area: however tile high dry soils do not show
of soil development is in direct proportion to time. evidence of this process. Gleving is brought about by the
Geologically, a long tine is required for the formation generally wet conditions that exist in many of the soils.







58 SOIL SURVEY

Living organisms of a soil that has well-defined, genetically related hori-
Both plants and animals have an important role in the zons.
formation of soils. The kinds and numbers of plants and Soils formed in material that is resistant to weathering
animals that live in and on the soil are governed largely require more time to reach a particular stage of develop-
by climate and to lesser and varying degrees by each of ment than do soils formed in easily weathered material.
the other soil-forming factors. The translocation of fine particles within soils to form
The major soil-forming functions of living organisms distinct horizons varies under different conditions. Most
are furnishing organic matter to soil, altering soil of the soil-forming processes. however, require a rela-
through natural mixing and stirring, and moving plant tively long time. The dominant soil material in the Ocala
nutrients from the lower horizons to the upper horizons. National Forest Area is almost pure quartz sand, which
Living organisms also promote changes in structure and is highly resistant to weathering.
porosity of the soil. Relatively little geologic time has elapsed for well-
Micro-organisms, including bacteria and fungi, help defined, genetically related horizons to develop in the
to weather and break down minerals and decompose parent material laid down in the Ocala National Forest
organic matter. They are most numerous in the upper Area. Horizons of sandy loam and sandy clay have
few inches of the soil. Earthworms and some other small formed through the translocation of silt and clay. These
animals live in soil material, alter its chemical composi- horizons have been only slightly altered by weathering.
tion, and mix it with other soil material. The native Some distinct genetic horizons, such as a layer of sand
vegetation also acts on the soil chemically and churns cemented with organic materials and a thick black sur-
it by root penetration, face layer, have formed in some soils; however, the time
Topgraph required for this development was relatively short.
Topography
Topography has affected the formation of soils in the Processes of Soil Formation
Ocala National Forest Area, mainly through its in-
fluence on relationships of soil and water. Other factors The processes involved in horizon differentiation, or
of soil formation normally associated with topography, in the formation of soil horizons, are accumulation of
such as erosion, temperature, and plant cover, are of organic matter, leaching of calcium carbonates and bases,
less importance, reduction and transfer of iron, and formation and trans-
The three general topographic features in the survey location of silicate clay minerals. In the formation of
area are the swamps and marshes, along the St. Johns most soils in the Ocala National Forest Area. more than
River and the Oklawaha River, that are very wet or one of these processes has been active.
flooded much of the time; an area of pine flatwoods Most soils have three main horizons: A. B, and C.
forest which is between the river lowlands and the high The A horizon is the surface laver. It can be either
ridge area and where the water table fluctuates but is the horizon of maximum organic-matter content, called
generally high; and the high dunelike central ridges the Al horizon, or the horizon of maximum leaching
that are, interspersed with lakes and poii(ns. This area of soluble or suspended materials, called the A2 horizon.
of central dunelike ridges is the highest and most strongly The B horizon lies immediately below the A horizon
sloping in the Ocala National Forest Area. and here and is often called the subsoil. It is the horizon of max-
depth to the water table is greater than in other areas. imnm accumulation of dissolved or suspended materials,
In each of these general areas the formation of soils such as organic matter, iron, or clay. The B horizon is
is influenced by the topography and its relationship to generally firmer than the horizons immediately above
lepthl to the water table. For example. Astatula soils. and below, and it may have blocky structure. In many
which are on the high d(unelike ridges. are deep to the young soils that are sand, the B horizon has not yet
water table. very low il organic matter, aid very highly developed.
leached. M vaknka soils, which are in the pine flatwoods. The C horizon is the substratum. It is very little af-
aret muc 1shll(ower to a water tal)le are periodically fected by the soil-forming processes but may have been
wt, anlnd have layers that are cemented with organic somewhat modified by weathering.
material. Astor soils, which are on lowlands along the Some organic matter has accumulated in the surface
river, have a thick surface layer that is high in organic- layer of all soils in the survey area to form an Al hori-
matter content, and are shallow to a water table most zon. The content of organic matter varies in different
of the time. This illustrates how soils that formed in soils and ranges from very low to high as a result of
the same parent material but in different topographic relief and wetness.
positions differ in organicmatter content. These differ- Leaching of carbonates and bases has occurred in
(bece in contend t of o(rganic Imatteri were broglt about nearly all the soils. The leaching of bases in soils usually
because difference in toporanic Position re sllt in differ- precedes translocation of silicate clay materials. Most
becas in degree of wetposition reslt in difness.fer- of the soils in the survey area are leached to varying
Time degrees. This has contributed to the development of
horizons.

Timportant or ine process of chemical reduction and transfer of iron.
Tf ime is ae impors fatoril formation areof soils, or gleing is evident in some soils in the Ocala national
If all other factors of soil formation are equal, the (deree Forest Area: however tile high dry soils do not show
of soil development is in direct proportion to time. evidence of this process. Gleving is brought about by the
Geologically, a long tine is required for the formation generally wet conditions that exist in many of the soils.







58 SOIL SURVEY

Living organisms of a soil that has well-defined, genetically related hori-
Both plants and animals have an important role in the zons.
formation of soils. The kinds and numbers of plants and Soils formed in material that is resistant to weathering
animals that live in and on the soil are governed largely require more time to reach a particular stage of develop-
by climate and to lesser and varying degrees by each of ment than do soils formed in easily weathered material.
the other soil-forming factors. The translocation of fine particles within soils to form
The major soil-forming functions of living organisms distinct horizons varies under different conditions. Most
are furnishing organic matter to soil, altering soil of the soil-forming processes. however, require a rela-
through natural mixing and stirring, and moving plant tively long time. The dominant soil material in the Ocala
nutrients from the lower horizons to the upper horizons. National Forest Area is almost pure quartz sand, which
Living organisms also promote changes in structure and is highly resistant to weathering.
porosity of the soil. Relatively little geologic time has elapsed for well-
Micro-organisms, including bacteria and fungi, help defined, genetically related horizons to develop in the
to weather and break down minerals and decompose parent material laid down in the Ocala National Forest
organic matter. They are most numerous in the upper Area. Horizons of sandy loam and sandy clay have
few inches of the soil. Earthworms and some other small formed through the translocation of silt and clay. These
animals live in soil material, alter its chemical composi- horizons have been only slightly altered by weathering.
tion, and mix it with other soil material. The native Some distinct genetic horizons, such as a layer of sand
vegetation also acts on the soil chemically and churns cemented with organic materials and a thick black sur-
it by root penetration, face layer, have formed in some soils; however, the time
Topgraph required for this development was relatively short.
Topography
Topography has affected the formation of soils in the Processes of Soil Formation
Ocala National Forest Area, mainly through its in-
fluence on relationships of soil and water. Other factors The processes involved in horizon differentiation, or
of soil formation normally associated with topography, in the formation of soil horizons, are accumulation of
such as erosion, temperature, and plant cover, are of organic matter, leaching of calcium carbonates and bases,
less importance, reduction and transfer of iron, and formation and trans-
The three general topographic features in the survey location of silicate clay minerals. In the formation of
area are the swamps and marshes, along the St. Johns most soils in the Ocala National Forest Area. more than
River and the Oklawaha River, that are very wet or one of these processes has been active.
flooded much of the time; an area of pine flatwoods Most soils have three main horizons: A. B, and C.
forest which is between the river lowlands and the high The A horizon is the surface laver. It can be either
ridge area and where the water table fluctuates but is the horizon of maximum organic-matter content, called
generally high; and the high dunelike central ridges the Al horizon, or the horizon of maximum leaching
that are, interspersed with lakes and poii(ns. This area of soluble or suspended materials, called the A2 horizon.
of central dunelike ridges is the highest and most strongly The B horizon lies immediately below the A horizon
sloping in the Ocala National Forest Area. and here and is often called the subsoil. It is the horizon of max-
depth to the water table is greater than in other areas. imnm accumulation of dissolved or suspended materials,
In each of these general areas the formation of soils such as organic matter, iron, or clay. The B horizon is
is influenced by the topography and its relationship to generally firmer than the horizons immediately above
lepthl to the water table. For example. Astatula soils. and below, and it may have blocky structure. In many
which are on the high d(unelike ridges. are deep to the young soils that are sand, the B horizon has not yet
water table. very low il organic matter, aid very highly developed.
leached. M vaknka soils, which are in the pine flatwoods. The C horizon is the substratum. It is very little af-
aret muc 1shll(ower to a water tal)le are periodically fected by the soil-forming processes but may have been
wt, anlnd have layers that are cemented with organic somewhat modified by weathering.
material. Astor soils, which are on lowlands along the Some organic matter has accumulated in the surface
river, have a thick surface layer that is high in organic- layer of all soils in the survey area to form an Al hori-
matter content, and are shallow to a water table most zon. The content of organic matter varies in different
of the time. This illustrates how soils that formed in soils and ranges from very low to high as a result of
the same parent material but in different topographic relief and wetness.
positions differ in organicmatter content. These differ- Leaching of carbonates and bases has occurred in
(bece in contend t of o(rganic Imatteri were broglt about nearly all the soils. The leaching of bases in soils usually
because difference in toporanic Position re sllt in differ- precedes translocation of silicate clay materials. Most
becas in degree of wetposition reslt in difness.fer- of the soils in the survey area are leached to varying
Time degrees. This has contributed to the development of
horizons.

Timportant or ine process of chemical reduction and transfer of iron.
Tf ime is ae impors fatoril formation areof soils, or gleing is evident in some soils in the Ocala national
If all other factors of soil formation are equal, the (deree Forest Area: however tile high dry soils do not show
of soil development is in direct proportion to time. evidence of this process. Gleving is brought about by the
Geologically, a long tine is required for the formation generally wet conditions that exist in many of the soils.







OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 59
Gray color in the subsoil and grayish mottles in other Classification of the Soils
horizons indicate the reduction and loss of iron in many
soils. However, in many sandy soils, gray is the color Soils are classified so that we can more easily remem-
of the clean sand grains and has no relationship to gley- ber their significant characteristics. Classification enables
ing. Some horizons have reddish-brown mottles and con- us to assemble knowledge about soils, to see their rela-
cretions, indicating a segregation of iron. tionships to each other and to the whole environment,
The translocation of clay, organic matter, or iron and to develop principles that help us understand their
oxides has contributed to horizon development in some behavior and response to manipulation. First through
of the soils in this survey area. The movement of clay, classification, and then through the use of soil maps, we
organic matter, or iron is evident in many of the soils. can apply our knowledge of soils to specific fields or to
This evidence consists mainly of A2 horizons that are larger tracts of land.
light colored and leached, B2 horizons that have sand Two systems of classifying soils have been used in
grains bridged and coated with clay or organic matter, the United States in recent years. The older system was
and a few patchy clay films on ped faces and in root adopted in 1938 (2) and revised later (6). The system
channels. A thin B1 horizon that is intermediate between currently used by the National Cooperative Soil Survey
the A2 and B2t horizons is also present in some soils, was developed in the early sixties (9) and adopted in
Translocation of silicate clays is of minor importance 1965 (5). It is under continual study.
in only a few soils, but all the other processes involved in The current system of classification has six categories.
soil formation have been important in the development Beginning with the most inclusive, these categories are
of horizons in all the soils. the order, the suborder, the great group, the subgroup,
the family, and the series. The criteria for classification
Effect of Fire on Soil Formation are soil properties that are observable or measurable,
but the properties are selected so that soils of similar
The effect of fire (fig. 7) on the soils of this survey genesis are grouped together. The placement of some
area is not readily apparent, but the subtle effect of fire soil series in the current system of classification, particu-
causes a great loss in productivity. larly in families, may change as more precise information
Fire acts directly on the soil by releasing mineral becomes available.
nutrients present in the litter. This results in volatilizing Table 9 shows the classification of each soil series of
nitrogen and returning it to the atmosphere. Other nutri- the Ocala National Forest Area by family, subgroup,
ents, such as phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium, and order, according to the current system.
become immediately available for plant growth, but if ORDERs.-Ten soil orders are recognized in the current
not used, they are quickly leached beyond the depth of system: Entisols, Vertisols, Inceptisols, Aridisols, Molli-
most roots. Nutrients taken up by plants after a fire sols, Spodosols, Alfisols, Ultisols, Oxisols, and Histosols.
represent only a part of the original total; therefore, the The properties used to differentiate soil orders are those
loss of essential elements proceeds in the same manner that tend to give broad climatic groupings of soils. The
as the half-life of radioactive elements. two exceptions to this, Entisols and Histosols, occur in
Intense fire often oxidizes humus within the soil, and many different climates.
this changes its physical as well as its chemical proper- Seven of the 10 soil orders occur in the Ocala National
ties. Humus can normally hold two or three times its Forest Area: Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Spodosols,
own weight in water. Similarly, its colloidal properties Alfisols, Ultisols, and Histosols. Entisols are recent soils
enable it to retain twice as many cations as an equal in which there has been little, if any, horizon develop-
weight of clay (montmorillonite). Plants then are able ment. Inceptisols are on young land surfaces. Mollisols
to exchange hydrogen ions for elements essential to their have a thick, dark-colored surface layer, moderate to
growth. In sandy soils, which are naturally drought and strong structure, and a base saturation of more than
infertile, loss of humus may prevent the return of the 50 percent. Spodosols have an iron-enriched and humus-
original vegetation. enriched B horizon. Alfisols have a clay-enriched B hori-
zon and a base saturation of more than 35 percent. Ulti-
sols are mineral soils that contain a clay-enriched B
horizon that has less than a 35 percent base saturation.
The base saturation decreases with increased depth. His-
tosols have high organic-matter content. They developed
from plant remains and some mineral matter, in water.
SUBORDEns.-Each order is divided into suborders
mainly on the basis of those soil characteristics that seem
to prdouce classes with the greatest genetic similarity.
r. The soil properties used are mainly those that reflect
S.either the presence or absence of waterlogging, or differ-
S ences in climate or vegetation. The climatic range of the
suborders is narrower than that of the orders.
GREAT GROUPs.-Each suborder is divided into great
Figure 7.-Wildfire in a forest destroys vegetation and wildlife, groups on the basis of uniformity in the kinds and se-
It also destroys vital humus in the surface layer of deep sandy q of major horizons and soil features. The horizons
soils and thus seriously affects soil suitability. The soils are quencer ar those in which clay, iron, or humus has
Astatula and Paola soils.in which clay, iron, or humus has







OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 59
Gray color in the subsoil and grayish mottles in other Classification of the Soils
horizons indicate the reduction and loss of iron in many
soils. However, in many sandy soils, gray is the color Soils are classified so that we can more easily remem-
of the clean sand grains and has no relationship to gley- ber their significant characteristics. Classification enables
ing. Some horizons have reddish-brown mottles and con- us to assemble knowledge about soils, to see their rela-
cretions, indicating a segregation of iron. tionships to each other and to the whole environment,
The translocation of clay, organic matter, or iron and to develop principles that help us understand their
oxides has contributed to horizon development in some behavior and response to manipulation. First through
of the soils in this survey area. The movement of clay, classification, and then through the use of soil maps, we
organic matter, or iron is evident in many of the soils. can apply our knowledge of soils to specific fields or to
This evidence consists mainly of A2 horizons that are larger tracts of land.
light colored and leached, B2 horizons that have sand Two systems of classifying soils have been used in
grains bridged and coated with clay or organic matter, the United States in recent years. The older system was
and a few patchy clay films on ped faces and in root adopted in 1938 (2) and revised later (6). The system
channels. A thin B1 horizon that is intermediate between currently used by the National Cooperative Soil Survey
the A2 and B2t horizons is also present in some soils, was developed in the early sixties (9) and adopted in
Translocation of silicate clays is of minor importance 1965 (5). It is under continual study.
in only a few soils, but all the other processes involved in The current system of classification has six categories.
soil formation have been important in the development Beginning with the most inclusive, these categories are
of horizons in all the soils. the order, the suborder, the great group, the subgroup,
the family, and the series. The criteria for classification
Effect of Fire on Soil Formation are soil properties that are observable or measurable,
but the properties are selected so that soils of similar
The effect of fire (fig. 7) on the soils of this survey genesis are grouped together. The placement of some
area is not readily apparent, but the subtle effect of fire soil series in the current system of classification, particu-
causes a great loss in productivity. larly in families, may change as more precise information
Fire acts directly on the soil by releasing mineral becomes available.
nutrients present in the litter. This results in volatilizing Table 9 shows the classification of each soil series of
nitrogen and returning it to the atmosphere. Other nutri- the Ocala National Forest Area by family, subgroup,
ents, such as phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium, and order, according to the current system.
become immediately available for plant growth, but if ORDERs.-Ten soil orders are recognized in the current
not used, they are quickly leached beyond the depth of system: Entisols, Vertisols, Inceptisols, Aridisols, Molli-
most roots. Nutrients taken up by plants after a fire sols, Spodosols, Alfisols, Ultisols, Oxisols, and Histosols.
represent only a part of the original total; therefore, the The properties used to differentiate soil orders are those
loss of essential elements proceeds in the same manner that tend to give broad climatic groupings of soils. The
as the half-life of radioactive elements. two exceptions to this, Entisols and Histosols, occur in
Intense fire often oxidizes humus within the soil, and many different climates.
this changes its physical as well as its chemical proper- Seven of the 10 soil orders occur in the Ocala National
ties. Humus can normally hold two or three times its Forest Area: Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Spodosols,
own weight in water. Similarly, its colloidal properties Alfisols, Ultisols, and Histosols. Entisols are recent soils
enable it to retain twice as many cations as an equal in which there has been little, if any, horizon develop-
weight of clay (montmorillonite). Plants then are able ment. Inceptisols are on young land surfaces. Mollisols
to exchange hydrogen ions for elements essential to their have a thick, dark-colored surface layer, moderate to
growth. In sandy soils, which are naturally drought and strong structure, and a base saturation of more than
infertile, loss of humus may prevent the return of the 50 percent. Spodosols have an iron-enriched and humus-
original vegetation. enriched B horizon. Alfisols have a clay-enriched B hori-
zon and a base saturation of more than 35 percent. Ulti-
sols are mineral soils that contain a clay-enriched B
horizon that has less than a 35 percent base saturation.
The base saturation decreases with increased depth. His-
tosols have high organic-matter content. They developed
from plant remains and some mineral matter, in water.
SUBORDEns.-Each order is divided into suborders
mainly on the basis of those soil characteristics that seem
to prdouce classes with the greatest genetic similarity.
r. The soil properties used are mainly those that reflect
S.either the presence or absence of waterlogging, or differ-
S ences in climate or vegetation. The climatic range of the
suborders is narrower than that of the orders.
GREAT GROUPs.-Each suborder is divided into great
Figure 7.-Wildfire in a forest destroys vegetation and wildlife, groups on the basis of uniformity in the kinds and se-
It also destroys vital humus in the surface layer of deep sandy q of major horizons and soil features. The horizons
soils and thus seriously affects soil suitability. The soils are quencer ar those in which clay, iron, or humus has
Astatula and Paola soils.in which clay, iron, or humus has







60 SOIL SURVEY

accumulated, those that have pans that interfere with Drainage
the growth of roots, the movement of water, or both, and
thick, dark-colored surface horizons. The features con- The Ocala National Forest Area lies within the water-
sidered are the self-mulching properties of clays, soil tem- shed of the Oklawaha River and the St. Johns River.
perature, chemical composition (mainly calcium, mag- These two rivers form all but the southern boundary of
nesium, sodium, and potassium), and the like. the area. The Oklawaha River flows north along the
ScBGRours.-Each great group is divided into sub- western boundary of the survey area to Orange Springs
groups, one representing the central typicc) segment Ferry and then in an east-southeast direction until it
of the group, and other groups, called intergrades, that empties into the St. Johns River near Welaka. The St.
have properties of one great group and also one or more Johns River extends from the southeast corner of the
properties of another great group, suborder, or order, survey area at Crows Bluff Bridge and flows in a north-
Subgroups may also be made in those instances where erly direction along the eastern boundary for a distance
soil properties intergrade outside the range of any other of about 35 miles. Lake George, near the center of the
great group, suborder, or order, east boundary, is part of the St. Johns River.
FAMILIEs.-Families are established within a subgroup Alexander Springs Creek, Juniper Creek, Salt Springs
primarily on the basis of properties that affect the growth Branch, and Blackwater Creek are important streams
of plants or the behavior of soils when used for engineer- that originate within the survey area. Most of these
ing purposes. Among the properties considered are streams are spring fed and flow in a northerly and easter-
texture, mineralogy, reaction, soil temperature, perme- ly direction.
ability, thickness of horizons, and consistence. The ridge area is drained mainly through porous sand
SERIES.-The series is a group of soils that have major into the underlying aquifer. and from there through
horizons that, except for texture of the surface layer, are springs into the Oklawaha River and the St. Johns
similar in important characteristics and in arrangement River. The flatwoods area is drained principally through
in the profile. wide, poorly defined, shallow waterways or through
sandy soils.

Additional Facts About the Area Water
This section discusses physiography, drainage, and Lakes.-More than 195 ponds and lakes are in the
water in the Ocala National Forest Area. It also gives Ocala National Forest Area. They range from less than
important facts about the climate, one acre to many hundreds of acres in size. They are
scattered throughout most of the area, but most are in
Physiography the west-central part. Most of the numerous. small, shal-
low, grassy ponds in the flatwoods are isolated and not
The Ocala National Forest Area is in two major phys- connected by surface inlets or outlets. Their water sup-
iographic regions of Florida. About 72 percent of it is ply comes mainly from the seepage and the surface runoff
a high ridge that lies in a north-south direction between from surrounding flatwoods and sandhill areas. The water
the Oklawaha River and the St. Johns River. This part level in these ponds fluctuates with the seasons, and some
is within the Central Highlands physiographic region. of the ponds dry up during prolonged dry seasons. The
The remaining 28 percent is in the Coastal Lowlands, water is generally clear but has a brownish color because
which surrounds the Central Highlands on the west, of dissolved organic matter.
north, and east. This part ranges from less than half The deepest lakes are mainly in the sand ridge section.
a mile wide in the north to more than 7 miles wide in They were formed after the underlying limestone had
the southeast. A few other small areas are within the dissolved and the overlaying sandy layers had collapsed.
Central Highlands. Some are surrounded by extensive. poorly drained, grassy
Dissolution of limestone and the collapse of overlaying prairies, and others are bordered by forest. The water
sandy strata have resulted in an undulating surface with- in these lakes is clear.
out a well-defined drainage system. Many lakes and Most of the shallow ponds and lakes are surrounded
shallow ponds are the result of dissolution of underlying by grassy prairies, which lie between the normal water
limestone. level and the high water level that is marked by a char-
The Central Highlands consist of gently undulating, acteristic ring of saw-palmetto. The width of the grassy
hih sand ries and mny smll to l e ons n zone is determined by fluctuations in the water level of
high sandy ridges and many small to large ponds and the ponds. and this zone indicates the zone between low
lakes. Few well-defined streams exist, and this area is water nd high water.
drained principally through the porous sand into under- water and hilah waaater.
ground waterways. Abundant lakes and ponds in the area provide many
e oasta owands opportunities for recreation. Swimming and boating
The Coastal Lowlands consist of nearly level, poorly are popular. and picnic areas and campsites are along
drained areas that have not been much dissected by many of the lakes.
streams. Large and small, poorly defined drainageways, Slrings.--There are numerous spring in the Ocala
grassy sloughs, and depressions are common. National Forest Area. They are of two general types.
The elevation of the survey area ranges rom less than In one, water that has fallen as rain enters the soil and
t10 feet above sea level near Lake George to slightly more moes down throluh permeable formations until it
than 160 feet near Orange Spring Ferry. reaches an intersection of land surface where it issues







60 SOIL SURVEY

accumulated, those that have pans that interfere with Drainage
the growth of roots, the movement of water, or both, and
thick, dark-colored surface horizons. The features con- The Ocala National Forest Area lies within the water-
sidered are the self-mulching properties of clays, soil tem- shed of the Oklawaha River and the St. Johns River.
perature, chemical composition (mainly calcium, mag- These two rivers form all but the southern boundary of
nesium, sodium, and potassium), and the like. the area. The Oklawaha River flows north along the
ScBGRours.-Each great group is divided into sub- western boundary of the survey area to Orange Springs
groups, one representing the central typicc) segment Ferry and then in an east-southeast direction until it
of the group, and other groups, called intergrades, that empties into the St. Johns River near Welaka. The St.
have properties of one great group and also one or more Johns River extends from the southeast corner of the
properties of another great group, suborder, or order, survey area at Crows Bluff Bridge and flows in a north-
Subgroups may also be made in those instances where erly direction along the eastern boundary for a distance
soil properties intergrade outside the range of any other of about 35 miles. Lake George, near the center of the
great group, suborder, or order, east boundary, is part of the St. Johns River.
FAMILIEs.-Families are established within a subgroup Alexander Springs Creek, Juniper Creek, Salt Springs
primarily on the basis of properties that affect the growth Branch, and Blackwater Creek are important streams
of plants or the behavior of soils when used for engineer- that originate within the survey area. Most of these
ing purposes. Among the properties considered are streams are spring fed and flow in a northerly and easter-
texture, mineralogy, reaction, soil temperature, perme- ly direction.
ability, thickness of horizons, and consistence. The ridge area is drained mainly through porous sand
SERIES.-The series is a group of soils that have major into the underlying aquifer. and from there through
horizons that, except for texture of the surface layer, are springs into the Oklawaha River and the St. Johns
similar in important characteristics and in arrangement River. The flatwoods area is drained principally through
in the profile. wide, poorly defined, shallow waterways or through
sandy soils.

Additional Facts About the Area Water
This section discusses physiography, drainage, and Lakes.-More than 195 ponds and lakes are in the
water in the Ocala National Forest Area. It also gives Ocala National Forest Area. They range from less than
important facts about the climate, one acre to many hundreds of acres in size. They are
scattered throughout most of the area, but most are in
Physiography the west-central part. Most of the numerous. small, shal-
low, grassy ponds in the flatwoods are isolated and not
The Ocala National Forest Area is in two major phys- connected by surface inlets or outlets. Their water sup-
iographic regions of Florida. About 72 percent of it is ply comes mainly from the seepage and the surface runoff
a high ridge that lies in a north-south direction between from surrounding flatwoods and sandhill areas. The water
the Oklawaha River and the St. Johns River. This part level in these ponds fluctuates with the seasons, and some
is within the Central Highlands physiographic region. of the ponds dry up during prolonged dry seasons. The
The remaining 28 percent is in the Coastal Lowlands, water is generally clear but has a brownish color because
which surrounds the Central Highlands on the west, of dissolved organic matter.
north, and east. This part ranges from less than half The deepest lakes are mainly in the sand ridge section.
a mile wide in the north to more than 7 miles wide in They were formed after the underlying limestone had
the southeast. A few other small areas are within the dissolved and the overlaying sandy layers had collapsed.
Central Highlands. Some are surrounded by extensive. poorly drained, grassy
Dissolution of limestone and the collapse of overlaying prairies, and others are bordered by forest. The water
sandy strata have resulted in an undulating surface with- in these lakes is clear.
out a well-defined drainage system. Many lakes and Most of the shallow ponds and lakes are surrounded
shallow ponds are the result of dissolution of underlying by grassy prairies, which lie between the normal water
limestone. level and the high water level that is marked by a char-
The Central Highlands consist of gently undulating, acteristic ring of saw-palmetto. The width of the grassy
hih sand ries and mny smll to l e ons n zone is determined by fluctuations in the water level of
high sandy ridges and many small to large ponds and the ponds. and this zone indicates the zone between low
lakes. Few well-defined streams exist, and this area is water nd high water.
drained principally through the porous sand into under- water and hilah waaater.
ground waterways. Abundant lakes and ponds in the area provide many
e oasta owands opportunities for recreation. Swimming and boating
The Coastal Lowlands consist of nearly level, poorly are popular. and picnic areas and campsites are along
drained areas that have not been much dissected by many of the lakes.
streams. Large and small, poorly defined drainageways, Slrings.--There are numerous spring in the Ocala
grassy sloughs, and depressions are common. National Forest Area. They are of two general types.
The elevation of the survey area ranges rom less than In one, water that has fallen as rain enters the soil and
t10 feet above sea level near Lake George to slightly more moes down throluh permeable formations until it
than 160 feet near Orange Spring Ferry. reaches an intersection of land surface where it issues







60 SOIL SURVEY

accumulated, those that have pans that interfere with Drainage
the growth of roots, the movement of water, or both, and
thick, dark-colored surface horizons. The features con- The Ocala National Forest Area lies within the water-
sidered are the self-mulching properties of clays, soil tem- shed of the Oklawaha River and the St. Johns River.
perature, chemical composition (mainly calcium, mag- These two rivers form all but the southern boundary of
nesium, sodium, and potassium), and the like. the area. The Oklawaha River flows north along the
ScBGRours.-Each great group is divided into sub- western boundary of the survey area to Orange Springs
groups, one representing the central typicc) segment Ferry and then in an east-southeast direction until it
of the group, and other groups, called intergrades, that empties into the St. Johns River near Welaka. The St.
have properties of one great group and also one or more Johns River extends from the southeast corner of the
properties of another great group, suborder, or order, survey area at Crows Bluff Bridge and flows in a north-
Subgroups may also be made in those instances where erly direction along the eastern boundary for a distance
soil properties intergrade outside the range of any other of about 35 miles. Lake George, near the center of the
great group, suborder, or order, east boundary, is part of the St. Johns River.
FAMILIEs.-Families are established within a subgroup Alexander Springs Creek, Juniper Creek, Salt Springs
primarily on the basis of properties that affect the growth Branch, and Blackwater Creek are important streams
of plants or the behavior of soils when used for engineer- that originate within the survey area. Most of these
ing purposes. Among the properties considered are streams are spring fed and flow in a northerly and easter-
texture, mineralogy, reaction, soil temperature, perme- ly direction.
ability, thickness of horizons, and consistence. The ridge area is drained mainly through porous sand
SERIES.-The series is a group of soils that have major into the underlying aquifer. and from there through
horizons that, except for texture of the surface layer, are springs into the Oklawaha River and the St. Johns
similar in important characteristics and in arrangement River. The flatwoods area is drained principally through
in the profile. wide, poorly defined, shallow waterways or through
sandy soils.

Additional Facts About the Area Water
This section discusses physiography, drainage, and Lakes.-More than 195 ponds and lakes are in the
water in the Ocala National Forest Area. It also gives Ocala National Forest Area. They range from less than
important facts about the climate, one acre to many hundreds of acres in size. They are
scattered throughout most of the area, but most are in
Physiography the west-central part. Most of the numerous. small, shal-
low, grassy ponds in the flatwoods are isolated and not
The Ocala National Forest Area is in two major phys- connected by surface inlets or outlets. Their water sup-
iographic regions of Florida. About 72 percent of it is ply comes mainly from the seepage and the surface runoff
a high ridge that lies in a north-south direction between from surrounding flatwoods and sandhill areas. The water
the Oklawaha River and the St. Johns River. This part level in these ponds fluctuates with the seasons, and some
is within the Central Highlands physiographic region. of the ponds dry up during prolonged dry seasons. The
The remaining 28 percent is in the Coastal Lowlands, water is generally clear but has a brownish color because
which surrounds the Central Highlands on the west, of dissolved organic matter.
north, and east. This part ranges from less than half The deepest lakes are mainly in the sand ridge section.
a mile wide in the north to more than 7 miles wide in They were formed after the underlying limestone had
the southeast. A few other small areas are within the dissolved and the overlaying sandy layers had collapsed.
Central Highlands. Some are surrounded by extensive. poorly drained, grassy
Dissolution of limestone and the collapse of overlaying prairies, and others are bordered by forest. The water
sandy strata have resulted in an undulating surface with- in these lakes is clear.
out a well-defined drainage system. Many lakes and Most of the shallow ponds and lakes are surrounded
shallow ponds are the result of dissolution of underlying by grassy prairies, which lie between the normal water
limestone. level and the high water level that is marked by a char-
The Central Highlands consist of gently undulating, acteristic ring of saw-palmetto. The width of the grassy
hih sand ries and mny smll to l e ons n zone is determined by fluctuations in the water level of
high sandy ridges and many small to large ponds and the ponds. and this zone indicates the zone between low
lakes. Few well-defined streams exist, and this area is water nd high water.
drained principally through the porous sand into under- water and hilah waaater.
ground waterways. Abundant lakes and ponds in the area provide many
e oasta owands opportunities for recreation. Swimming and boating
The Coastal Lowlands consist of nearly level, poorly are popular. and picnic areas and campsites are along
drained areas that have not been much dissected by many of the lakes.
streams. Large and small, poorly defined drainageways, Slrings.--There are numerous spring in the Ocala
grassy sloughs, and depressions are common. National Forest Area. They are of two general types.
The elevation of the survey area ranges rom less than In one, water that has fallen as rain enters the soil and
t10 feet above sea level near Lake George to slightly more moes down throluh permeable formations until it
than 160 feet near Orange Spring Ferry. reaches an intersection of land surface where it issues







60 SOIL SURVEY

accumulated, those that have pans that interfere with Drainage
the growth of roots, the movement of water, or both, and
thick, dark-colored surface horizons. The features con- The Ocala National Forest Area lies within the water-
sidered are the self-mulching properties of clays, soil tem- shed of the Oklawaha River and the St. Johns River.
perature, chemical composition (mainly calcium, mag- These two rivers form all but the southern boundary of
nesium, sodium, and potassium), and the like. the area. The Oklawaha River flows north along the
ScBGRours.-Each great group is divided into sub- western boundary of the survey area to Orange Springs
groups, one representing the central typicc) segment Ferry and then in an east-southeast direction until it
of the group, and other groups, called intergrades, that empties into the St. Johns River near Welaka. The St.
have properties of one great group and also one or more Johns River extends from the southeast corner of the
properties of another great group, suborder, or order, survey area at Crows Bluff Bridge and flows in a north-
Subgroups may also be made in those instances where erly direction along the eastern boundary for a distance
soil properties intergrade outside the range of any other of about 35 miles. Lake George, near the center of the
great group, suborder, or order, east boundary, is part of the St. Johns River.
FAMILIEs.-Families are established within a subgroup Alexander Springs Creek, Juniper Creek, Salt Springs
primarily on the basis of properties that affect the growth Branch, and Blackwater Creek are important streams
of plants or the behavior of soils when used for engineer- that originate within the survey area. Most of these
ing purposes. Among the properties considered are streams are spring fed and flow in a northerly and easter-
texture, mineralogy, reaction, soil temperature, perme- ly direction.
ability, thickness of horizons, and consistence. The ridge area is drained mainly through porous sand
SERIES.-The series is a group of soils that have major into the underlying aquifer. and from there through
horizons that, except for texture of the surface layer, are springs into the Oklawaha River and the St. Johns
similar in important characteristics and in arrangement River. The flatwoods area is drained principally through
in the profile. wide, poorly defined, shallow waterways or through
sandy soils.

Additional Facts About the Area Water
This section discusses physiography, drainage, and Lakes.-More than 195 ponds and lakes are in the
water in the Ocala National Forest Area. It also gives Ocala National Forest Area. They range from less than
important facts about the climate, one acre to many hundreds of acres in size. They are
scattered throughout most of the area, but most are in
Physiography the west-central part. Most of the numerous. small, shal-
low, grassy ponds in the flatwoods are isolated and not
The Ocala National Forest Area is in two major phys- connected by surface inlets or outlets. Their water sup-
iographic regions of Florida. About 72 percent of it is ply comes mainly from the seepage and the surface runoff
a high ridge that lies in a north-south direction between from surrounding flatwoods and sandhill areas. The water
the Oklawaha River and the St. Johns River. This part level in these ponds fluctuates with the seasons, and some
is within the Central Highlands physiographic region. of the ponds dry up during prolonged dry seasons. The
The remaining 28 percent is in the Coastal Lowlands, water is generally clear but has a brownish color because
which surrounds the Central Highlands on the west, of dissolved organic matter.
north, and east. This part ranges from less than half The deepest lakes are mainly in the sand ridge section.
a mile wide in the north to more than 7 miles wide in They were formed after the underlying limestone had
the southeast. A few other small areas are within the dissolved and the overlaying sandy layers had collapsed.
Central Highlands. Some are surrounded by extensive. poorly drained, grassy
Dissolution of limestone and the collapse of overlaying prairies, and others are bordered by forest. The water
sandy strata have resulted in an undulating surface with- in these lakes is clear.
out a well-defined drainage system. Many lakes and Most of the shallow ponds and lakes are surrounded
shallow ponds are the result of dissolution of underlying by grassy prairies, which lie between the normal water
limestone. level and the high water level that is marked by a char-
The Central Highlands consist of gently undulating, acteristic ring of saw-palmetto. The width of the grassy
hih sand ries and mny smll to l e ons n zone is determined by fluctuations in the water level of
high sandy ridges and many small to large ponds and the ponds. and this zone indicates the zone between low
lakes. Few well-defined streams exist, and this area is water nd high water.
drained principally through the porous sand into under- water and hilah waaater.
ground waterways. Abundant lakes and ponds in the area provide many
e oasta owands opportunities for recreation. Swimming and boating
The Coastal Lowlands consist of nearly level, poorly are popular. and picnic areas and campsites are along
drained areas that have not been much dissected by many of the lakes.
streams. Large and small, poorly defined drainageways, Slrings.--There are numerous spring in the Ocala
grassy sloughs, and depressions are common. National Forest Area. They are of two general types.
The elevation of the survey area ranges rom less than In one, water that has fallen as rain enters the soil and
t10 feet above sea level near Lake George to slightly more moes down throluh permeable formations until it
than 160 feet near Orange Spring Ferry. reaches an intersection of land surface where it issues







OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 61

as a spring. In the other type, rainwater enters the soil temperature, largely because of the periodic invasions
and moves rapidly into underlying porous bedrock. The of cold dry air masses from the north. Winter cold
water is confined in the aquifer under hydrostatic pres- spells are short and seldom last for more than 2 or 3
sure. Springs issue from this aquifer at a lower elevation days. Because most of the air masses affecting this
where bedrock lies near or is exposed at the land surface, survey area in summer have passed over extensive water
The major springs in the survey area are of this type. surfaces, relative humidity is seldom below 50 percent
Their flow is perennial and relatively uniform, while the in the period June through September.
water is very clear, even during heavy rainfall. Table 10 shows weather data summarized from records
The major springs in the survey area are Alexander, from the Federal-State Warning Service at the Palatka
Juniper, Salt, and Silver Glen. For Alexander Springs and Eustis stations. Table 11 shows probabilities of low
the average daily flow is about 78 million gallons and temperatures in spring and fall, based on records from
the average temperature is 740 F. For Silver Glen the Pierson and Weirsdale stations. Generally, these data
Springs the average daily flow is 72 million gallons and are representative of the colder sections of the survey
water temperature is 740. For Salt Springs, the average area, and the freeze hazards for the warmer sections are
daily flow is about 52 million gallons and the water less than those shown in table 11.
temperature is 750. For Juniper Springs the average During June, July and August, daily maximum tem-
daily flow is 8.3 million gallons and the water tempera- peratures are close to 92 F.; daily minimums during
ture is 710 (10). the same period average near 72". Although afternoon
temperatures reach 900 or higher with great regularity
Climate' during the warmest months, temperatures of 1000 or
higher seldom occur. Daytime high temperatures in
The Ocala National Forest Area has long, warm, winter average in the low 70's, and daily readings range
relatively humid summers and mild, dry winters. Rain- from the middle 50's on the cooler days to the low and
fall averages about 52 inches annually but is quite un- middle 80's on the warmer days. Early morning low
evenly distributed. In an average year more than half temperatures in winter average in the high 40's, and
the rain falls in the period June through September. most of the daily readings in winter are between 400 and
The Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, together 60. Frost or freezing temperatures in the colder sections
with numerous inland lakes, have a moderating effect of the survey area occur at least once every winter and
on both summer and winter temperatures. Summer tem- average 8 to 10 times a year. Temperatures in the colder
peratures are fairly uniform from year to year. In sections drop to 280 two or three times during an average
winter there" is considerable day to day variation in winter, and to 250 or lower in about half the winters.
Temperatures as low as 20 are rare. The coldest weather
in recent times occurred in December 1962; records from
KEITH D. BUTSON, climatologist for Florida, National Weath- in recent tines shored temperatures between 15 and
er Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, helped write this surrounding areas showed temperatures between 15' and
section. 200 on December 13, 1962.


TABLE 10.-Temperature and precipitation data

Temperature Precipitation

Average number of Largest total at 2-
Month days with- Average
Average Average Avrae number of
daily daily total' days with
maximum minimum Maximum Minimum 0.10 inch
of 900 or of 320 or Palatka Eustis or more'
higher lower

F. oF. In. In. In.
January ------ 71.3 48. 9 0 2 2.20 9.24 6. 00 4
February ------- 73. 6 49. 9 () 1 2. 83 10. 74 8. 02 5
March ---------- 77. 8 53. 4 2 (3) 3. 71 10. 09 10. 54 5
April ------- 83. 2 59. 0 4 0 3. 30 9. 07 6. 62 4
May---------------- 89.0 65. 2 16 0 3. 54 7. 07 9. 69 6
June ------------- 91. 9 70. 5 23 0 6. 27 14. 89 16. 47 9
July ----------------- 92. 8 72. 4 26 0 7. 38 15. 57 13. 73 12
August --------------- 92. 7 72. 5 26 0 6. 96 14. 30 16. 44 10
September------------- 90. 0 70. 9 18 0 6. 92 14. 98 13. 87 9
October --------------- 83. 7 63. 3 4 0 4. 22 11. 78 11.85 6
November__ ------------ 76. 6 54. 3 (3) 1 1. 71 7. 20 6. 32 3
December ----------- 71.4 49. 4 0 2 2.34 10. 61 5. 36 4

1 Average from the Palatka and Eustis stations during the 30-year period 1931 to 1960.
2 For the period 1931 to 1964.
3 Average less than one-half day.







62 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 11.--Probabilities of low temperatures in spring and not so intense as the thundershower-type rains. Occasion-
fall ally, they do release relatively large amounts of rainfall
[Based on records from the Federal-State Frost Warning Service over large areas. A 24-hour period when the total rain-
stations at Pierson (No. 1428) and Weirsdale (No. 1724-B)] fall is more than 7 inches may be expected about 1 year
in 10.
Dates for given probability and Tropical storms, which occasionally occur between
temperature- early June and mid-November, cause widespread ex-
Probability cessive rainfall and flooding by streams and lakes. Since
these storms diminish in intensity quite rapidly as they
280 F. or lower 320 F. or lower move inland, the winds are seldom of hurricane force
(75 miles per hour or higher). However, the heavy rains
Spring: associated with these storms cause considerable local
2 years in 10 later than ----- February 18 March 11 flooding.
3 years in 10 later than ----- February 8 March 5 The Oc tional Forest e an even
5 years in 10 later than -.--- January 27 February 22 The Ocala National Forest Area does not have an even
7 years in 10 later than------ January 10 February 12 distribution of rainfall, and as a result there are extended
8 years in 10 later than----. January 1 February 4 dry periods when the growth of trees is seriously threat-
2 years in 10 earlier than November 25 November 17 ened and there is a serious risk of fire. A dry period is de-
3 years in 10 earlier than_ December 2 November 23 fined as a period of consecutive days when each day has less
5 years in 10 earlier than ___ December 13 December 1 than 0.20 inch of rainfall. By this definition, according
7 years in 10 earlier than --- December 30 December 11 to the records at Eustis. at least one dry period of 50
8 years in 10 earlier than ..- (1) December 24 days or more can be expected about 1 year in 4.
Prevailing winds in the survey area are generally
SIn some years the first 280 F. freeze of the fall-winter season does southerly in spring and summer and northerly in fail
not occur until mid-January or later; hence, no date has been and winter. Windspeeds during the day usually range
indicated. and winter. W speeds during the day usually range
between 8 and 15 miles per hour, but nearly always drop
below 8 miles per hour at night.
The dates of the last freezing temperature in spring
and the first freezing temperature in fall vary consider-
ably from year to year. The dates recorded for the latest Literature Cited
freezing temperatures in spring were 32 on March 31
and 28 on March 10; those recorded for the earliest (1) AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY OFFICrALS.
freezing temperatures in fall were 32 on November 1 1971. STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY MATERIALS
and 28' on November 3. Table 11 shows a probability AN) METHODS OF SAMPLING AND TESTING. Ed. 10. 2
that, in about 3 years in 10, the first temperature of 32 v. illus.
or lower will occur before November 23 and, in about (2) BALDWIN. MARK KELLOC-G. CHARLES E.. and THOBP. JAMES.
5 years in 10, the first temperature of 28 or lower will 1938. soIL cLass1 CT- U.S. Dpt. Agr. Ybk.. pp. 979-
occur before December 13. Other probabilities are that, (3) CAMPBELL. R. S.. and CAssADY. JOHN T.
in spring in about 2 years in 10, a temperature of 32 1955. FORAGE WEIGHT INVENTORIES ON SOUTHEBN FOREST
or lower will occur after March 11 and, in about 3 years RANGES. Occasional Paper 139. T.S. Dept. Agr. For.
in 10, temperatures will drop to 280 or lower after Serv.. Southern Forest Expt. Sta. 1i pp.
February 8. (4) COILE. T. .. and SCH-UMACHER. F. X.
1960. GROWTH AND YIELDS OF NATURAL STANDS OF THE SOUTiH-
Precipitation varies for any one month from year ERN1 PIN ES. pp. 31 and 91.
to year. In an average year, nearly 55 percent of the. (5) SIMON.so. ROT W.
average annual total falls between June and September. 1962. SOIL CLASSIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES. Science
On the average, November is the driest month, but the (6) TIIORP .A13-: 102d T-1034. Y
4-month period of November through February generally 1969. IIGHER CATEGORIES OF SOIL CLASSIFICATIONG: ORDER,
has less than 20 percent of the annual total rainfall. SUBORDER AXND GREAT SOIL GROUPS. Solil Sci. 67:
Although the fact is not reflected in the averages in 117-126.
St STA) UNITFSTATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICILULTURE.
table 10, the survey area does receive a slight secondary () 9O ITED STATES IDEARTMENT OF AGRICTO.TURE.
maximum of rainfall in March and early in April. The 1029. VOLUME. YIELD. AND STAND TABLES FOR SECOND-GROWTH
maximum of rainfall in March ad early in April. The SOUTHERN PINES. U.S. Dept. Ar. Misc. Pu. 0. 202
period mid-April to late May is often drought, and i.. illus. I Out of print.)
within this period are 3 to 4 weeks without appreciable S.H -
rainfall. 19.51. SOIL SURVEY MANUAL U.s. ]oei,r. \zr. Handltik P1.
Most summer rainfall comes from afternoon or early (9) 503 pp.. illus. [Supplement issued in May 1962].
Most slimmer rainfall comes from afternoon or early (9I

evening local tlundrshoers. During Tne throu 1960. SOIL CLASSIFICATION. A COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM. 7TH
September. measurable rainfall cn be expected on about APPROXIMATION, 2,5 pp.. illus. [Supplements issued
half the dnays Summer showers are sometimes heavy (10O1 ERNO. R. 0., LOVE. S. K.. LINGHAMs. C. W.. and FERGUSON.
and 2r 3 inches of rain falls in an hour or two. Day- G. E.
locng ,i in sln l are are and are almost always 1947. SPRINGS OF FLORIDA. U.S. Dept. Int.. Geol. Survey Bul.
associated with a tropical storm. Winter and spring rains 31. pi. 196. illus.
are usnallv associated with large-scale continental weather (11) TNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE.
developments anl are of longer duration. Some last 196. xIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR ROADS. AIR-
for 24 hours or longer. Rains of long duration are usually Sri -. aM N X, Min
STI)-619R. 30 1,1).. ill-.









OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA 63

Glossary Ground water (geology). Water that fills all the unblocked pores
of underlying material below the water table, which is the
Available water capacity (also termed available moisture capac- upper limit of saturation.
ity). The capacity of soils to hold water available for use by Hardpan. A hardened or cemented soil horizon, or layer. The soil
most plants. It is commonly defined as the difference between material may be sandy or clayey, and it may be cemented by
the amount of soil water at field capacity and the amount at iron oxide, silica, calcium carbonate, or other substance.
wilting point. It is commonly expressed as inches of water per Horizon, soil. A layer of soil, approximately parallel to the surface,
inch of soil. that has distinct characteristics produced by soil-forming proc-
Calcareous soil. A soil containing enough calcium carbonate (often esses. These are the major horizons:
with magnesium carbonate) to effervesce (fizz) visibly when 0 horizon.-The layer of organic matter on the surface of a
treated with cold, dilute hydrochloric acid. mineral soil. This layer consists of decaying plant residues.
Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less than 0.002 A horizon.-The mineral horizon at the surface or just below an
millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural class, soil material O horizon. This horizon is the one in which living organisms
that is 40 percent or more clay, less than 45 percent sand, and are most active and therefore is marked by the accumulation
less than 40 percent silt. of humus. The horizon may have lost one or more of soluble
Claypan. A compact, slowly permeable soil horizon that contains salts, clay, and sesquioxides (iron and aluminum oxides).
Claypan. A compact, slowly permeable soil horizon that contains B horizon.-The mineral horizon below an A horizon. The B
more clay than the horizon above and below it. A claypan is horizon is in part a layer of change from the overlying A to
commonly hard when dry and plastic or stiff when wet. horiis parta laye of chan front lhe haerdiing A to
Concretions. Grains, pellets, or nodules of various sizes, shapes, and the underising C horizon Te c horizon also has distinctive
colors consisting of concentrations of compounds, or of soil characteristics caused (1) by accumulation of these; (2) by sesq-
grains cemented together. The composition of some concretions oxides, omus ory som cor bination of these (2) by rrrr r rs-
is unlike that of the surrounding soil. Calcium carbonate and than the A horizbloky structure () by redder or stronger colors
iron oxide are examples of material commonly found in con- Combined A and B horizons ae usually called the solum, o
cretions. true soil. If a soil lacks a B horizon, the A horizon alone is
Consistence, soil. The feel of the soil and the ease with which a the solum. a soil lacs aB horizo the A horizon alone is
lump can be crushed by the fingers. Terms commonly used to C horizon.-The weathered rock material immediately beneath
escribe consistence are- the solum. In most soils this material is presumed to be like
Loose.-Noncoherent when dry or moist; does not hold together that from which the overlying horizons were formed. If the
in a mass. material is known to be different from that in the solum, a
Friable.-When moist, crushes easily under gentle pressure be- Ronan numeral precedes the letter C.
tween thumb and forefinger and can be pressed together into R layer.-Consolidated rock beneath the soil. The rock usually
a lump. underlies a C horizon but may be immediately beneath an
Firn.-When moist, crushes under moderate pressure between A or B horizon.
thumb and forefinger, but resistance is distinctly noticeable. Humus The well-decomposed, more or less stable part of the
Plastic.-When wet, readily deformed by moderate pressure but organic matter in mineral soils.
can be pressed into a lump; will form a "wire" when rolled Mottling, soil. Irregularly marked with spots of different colors
between thumb and forefinger. that vary in number and size. Mottling in soils usually indicates
Sticky-When wet, adheres to other material, and tends to poor aeration and lack of drainage. Descriptive terms are as
stretch somewhat and pull apart, rather than to pull free follows: Abundance-few, common, and many; size-fine, me-
from other material. dium, and coarse; and contrast-faint, distinct, and prominent.
Hard.-When dry, moderately resistant to pressure; can be The size measurements are these: fine, less than 5 millimeters
broken with difficulty between thumb and forefinger. (about 0.2 inch) in diameter along the greatest dimension;
Soft.-When dry, breaks into powder or individual grains under medium, ranging from 5 millimeters to 15 millimeters (about
very slight pressure. 0.2 to 0.6 inch) in diameter along the greatest dimension; and
Cemented.-Hard and brittle; little affected by moistening. coarse, more than 15 millimeters (about 0.6 inch) in diameter
Drainage class (natural). Drainage that existed during the develop- along the greatest dimension.
meant of the soil, as opposed to altered drainage, which is com- Muck. An organic soil consisting of fairly well decomposed organic
only the result of artificial drainage or irrigation but may be material that is relatively high in mineral content, finely di-
caused by the sudden deepening of channels or the blocking of vided, and dark in color.
drainage outlets. Seven different classes of natural soil drain- Munsell notation. A system for designating color by degrees of the
age are recognized. three simple variables-hue, value, and chroma. For example,
Excessively drained soils are commonly very porous and rapidly a notation of 10YR 6/4 is a color with a hue of 10YR, a value
permeable and have a low water-holding capacity, of 6, and a chroma of 4.
Somewhat excessively drained soils are also very permeable and Organic soil. A general term applied to a soil or to a soil horizon
are free from mottling throughout their profile. that consists primarily of organic matter, such as peat soils,
Well-drained soils are nearly free from mottling and are com- muck soils, and peaty soil layers. In chemistry, organic refers
only of intermediate texture, to the compounds of carbon.
Moderately well drained soils commonly have a slowly permeable Ortstein. The B horizon in a Podzol or Spodosol that is cemented
layer in or immediately beneath the solum. They have uni- by accumulated sesquioxides, by organic matter, or by both.
form color in the A horizon and upper part of the B horizons Parent material. Disintegrated and partly weathered rock from
and have mottling in the lower part of the B horizon and in which soil has formed.
the C horizon. Peat. Unconsolidated soil material, largely undecomposed organic
Somewhat poorly drained soils are wet for significant periods but matter, that has accumulated where there has been excess
not all the time, and some soils commonly have mottling at moisture.
a depth below 6 to 16 inches. Ped. An individual natural soil aggregate, such as a crumb, a prism,
Poorly drained soils are wet for long periods; they are light gray or a block, in contrast to a clod.
and generally mottled from the surface downward, but some Permeability. The quality that enables the soil to transmit water
have few or no mottles. or air. Terms used to describe permeability are as follows:
Very poorly drained soils are wet nearly all the time. They have very slow, slow, moderately slow, moderate, moderately rapid,
a dark-gray or black surface layer and are gray or light gray, rapid, and very rapid.
with or without mottling, in the deeper parts of the profile. Profile, soil. A vertical section of the soil through all its horizons
Fertility, soil. The quality of a soil that enables it to provide com- and extending into the parent material. See Horizon, soil.
pounds, in adequate amounts and in proper balance, for the Plowpan. A compacted layer formed in the soil immediately below
growth of specified plants, when other growth factors such as the plowed layer.
light, moisture. temperature, and the physical condition of the Reaction, soil. The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a soil, expressed
soil are favorable, in pH values. A soil that tests to pHI 7.0 is precisely neutral in







64 SOIL SURVEY

reaction because it is neither acid nor alkaline. An acid, or Soil separates. Mineral particles, less than 2 millimeters in equiva-
"sour," soil is one that gives an acid reaction; an alkaline soil lent diameter and ranging between specified size limits. The
is one that is alkaline in reaction. In words, the degrees of names and sizes of separates recognized in the United States
acidity or alkalinity are expressed thus: are as follows: Very coarse sand (2.0 to 1O millimeter);
coarse sand (1.0 to 0.5 millimeter); medium sand (0.5 to 0.25
pH pH millimeter) ; fine sand (025 to 0.10 millimeter) ; very fine sand
Extremely acid-_ Below 4.5 Neutral ------------6.6 to 7.3 (0.10 to 0.05 millimeter) ; silt (0.05 to 0.002 millimeter); and
Very strongly acid_ 4.5 to 5.0 Mildly alkaline --- 7.4 to 7.8 clay (less than 0.002 millimeter). The separates recognized by
Strongly acid -- 5.1 to 5.5 Moderately alkaline- 7.9 to 8.4 the International Society of Soil Science are as follows: I (2.0
Medium acid --- 5.6 to 6.0 Strongly alkaline--- 8.5to 9.0 to 0.2 millimeter); II (0.2 to 0.02 millimeter); III (0.02 to
Slightly acid--- 6.1 to 6.5 Very strongly alka- 0.002 millimeter) ; IV (less than 0.002 millimeter).
line -------- 9.1 and Structure, soil. The arrangement of primary soil particles into com-
higher pound particles or clusters that are separated from adjoining
aggregates and have properties unlike those of an equal mass
Reticulate mottling. A type of mottling distinguished by a network of unaggregated primary soil particles. The principal forms of
deeper parts of la liored streaks; most frequently occurs n the soil structure are-platy (laminated), prismatic (vertical axis
Runoff (hydraulics). The part of the precipitation upon a drainage of aggregates longer than horizontal), columnar (prisms with
Runoff (hydraulics). The part of the arecipita in stream channels. T drainage rounded tops), blocky (angular or subangular), and granular.
after that i s discharged from the area in stream channels. The Structurelcss soils are either single grain (each grain by itself,
callethat flows off the ld surface runoff; that which enters the ground beforein is as in dune sand) or masse (the particles adhering together
rachingalled surface streams is calledunoff; that which enters the grounder runoff or without any regular cleavage, as in many claypans and hard-
reaching surface streams is called ground-water runoff or pans).
seepage flow from ground water. Texture, soil. The relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay
Sand. Individual rock or mineral fragments in a soil that range in particles in a mass of soil. The basic textural classes, in order
diameter from 0.05 to 2.0 millimeters. Most sand grains con- of increasing proportion of fine particles, are sand, loamy sand,
sist of quartz, but they may be of any mineral composition, sandy loam, lotdm, silt loam, silt, sandy clay loam, clay loam,
The textural class name of any soil that contains 85 percent silty clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay, and clay. The sand,
or more sand and not more than 10 percent clay. loamy sand, and sandy loam classes may be further divided by
Silt. Individual mineral particles in a soil that range in diameter specifying "coarse," "fine," or "very fine."
from the upper limit of clay (0.002 millimeter) to the lower Variant, soil. A soil having properties sufficiently different from
limit of very fine sand (0.05 millimeter). Soil of the silt tex- those of other known soils to suggest establishing a new soil
'tural class is 80 percent or more silt and less than 12 percent series, but a soil of such limited known area that creation of a
Soilay. new series is not believed to be justified.
Soil. A natural, three-dimensional body on the earth's surface that Water table. The highest part of the soil or underlying rock ma-
supports plants and that has properties resulting from the trial that is wholly saturated with water. In some places an
integrated effect of climate and living matter acting on earthy upper, or perched, water table may be separated from a lower
parent material, as conditioned by relief over periods of time, one by a dry zone.








GUIDE TO MAPPING UNITS

For a full description of a mapping unit, read both the description of the mapping unit and that of the soil series to
which the mapping unit belongs. A discussion of the capability classification system begins on page 28, and
forest-wildlife management begins on page 34. Other information is given in tables as follows:


Acreage and extent, table 1, page 5. Range groups, table 4, page 34.
Predicted yields, table 2, page 31. Engineering uses of the soils, tables 5, 6,
Woodland groups, table 3, page 32. 7, and 8, pages 38 through 53.



Capability unit Woodland group Range
management
Described group
Map on
symbol Mapping unit page Symbol Number Number

AsB Astatula sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes--------------- S VIs-1 8 8
AsD Astatula sand, 8 to 17 percent slopes-------------- 6 VIIs-l 8 8
AtB Astatula sand, dark surface, 0 to 8 percent
slopes------------------------------------------ 6 IVs-1 7 7
AtD Astatula sand, dark surface, 8 to 17 percent
slopes------------------------------------------- 6 VIIs-1 7 7
AuB Astatula sand, banded substratum, 0 to 8
percent slopes----------------------------------- 6 IVs-1 77
AwB Astatula sand, moderately deep water table, 0 to
8 percent slopes--------------------------------- 7 IIIs-2 4 4
Ax Astor sand----------------------------------------- 8 IIIw-2 5 6
Ba Basinger sand-------------------------------------- 8 IVw-2 4 4
De Delks sand----------------------------------------- 9 IIIw-1 12 9
Do Dorovan muck--------------------------------------- 10 IIIw-5 1 1
Du Duplin loamy sand---------------------------------- 11 IIIw-3 2 5
Er Eureka loamy sand, thick-surface variant----------- 12 Vw-1 3 3
Es Eureka loamy fine sand----------------------------- 13 IIIw-4 3 3
Ru Eustis sand---------------------------------------- 13 IIIs-3 6 5
Ev Everglades muck------------------------------------ 14 IIIw- 1 1
Ib Iberia clay---------------------------------------- 15 Vw-1 3 3
Im Immokalee sand------------------------------------- 16 IVw-1 11 9
Ma Made land------------------------------------------ 16 ---- -- 10
Me Meggett loamy sand--------------------------------- 17 IIIw-4 3 3
Mk Myakka sand---------------------------------------- 18 IVw-1 11 9
Ms Myakka and Sellers soils, ponded------------------- 18 VIIw-1 1
Or Orlando sand--------------------------------------- 19 IIIs-1 6 5
Os Orlando sand, wet variant-------------------------- 19 IIw- 5
Pa Pamlico muck--------------------------------------- 20 IIIw-5 1 1
Pd Pamlico muck, deep--------------------------------- 20 IIIw-5 1 ]
PIB Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes------------------ 21 Is- 8 8
P1D Paola sand, 8 to 17 percent slopes----------------- 21 VIIs-1 8 8
PmA Paola sand, moderately deep water table, 0 to 5
percent slopes----------------------------------- 22 IVs-2 10 8
Po Pomello sand--------------------------------------- 22 VIs-2 10 8
Ra Rains loamy fine sand------------------------------ 23 IIIw-4 3 3
Sa St. Johns sand------------------------------------- 24 IIIw-1 11 6
Sc St. Lucie sand------------------------------------ 25 IIs-1 9 8
Sp Sellers and Pamlico soils-------------------------- 25 IIw-2 5 1
Ss Sellers sand------------------------------------- 25 IIIw-2 5 1
Tc Terra Ceia muck---------- --------------------- 2 w-2 1 6
WcA Wicksburg sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes-------------- 27 IIIs-4 1
WcC Wicksburg sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes------------- 27 IVs-3 2



a U. S. GOVERNMENh PRHITDNG OFFICE :1975 O 525-044
























NDE'X MAP SHiEl'S
R. 24 E. R.25 E. OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA

DlAI ^ Parts of Marion, Lake, and Putnam Counties
_- 2930'
Scale 1:190,080
1 0 1 2 3 4 Mes
-6 3- 1 R. 26 E.
River





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31 32 33 34 35 36. _-























U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
FOREST SERVICE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS

GENERAL SOIL MAP
.24E. R.25E. OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA
koWal RODMAN
^. o%. Parts of Marion, Lake, and Putnam Counties
T. 11 S.
29*30'
Scale 1:190,080
11 0 1 2 3 4Mles
1 i- 19 R. 26 E. I I sandy sos
River














E K The t freuusitedcpvhanotes iana























































































TOWNSHIP
T 1 1S




Eureka

T 13S






36131 1 1 1

.,L .F- SOIL ASSOCIATIONS*
', Astatula-Paola association: Excessively drained, sandy soils that
[ have a light-colored surface layer; on broad upland ridges
Astatula, dark surface, association: Excessively drained, sandy soils
Sthat have a dark-colored surface layer; on broad upland ridges
T 14 S .Immokalee-Sellers association: Poorly drained and very poorly drained,
.W,/" ,/// sandy soils; in flatwoods
Eureka association: Poorly drained and very poorly drained, sandy soils
3fo ft that have a clayey subsoil; in flatwoods
"Terra Ceia-Everglades association: Very poorly drained, organic soils; in
;.. swamps and drainageways

...- 1. 1 s ^The terms for texture used in the descriptive heading of the associations apply
O /f?.. ?/,, ','to all layers, unless otherwise noted.
i ,,'Land !a\ ',n R. 27 E Compiled 1968


SHARPS
FERRY

T. 15 S.
2 3 -29-10I











i': BOMBING RANGE







S 1AR. 29 E.







T 17S-
"- 2 '9 00




















7 8 9 10 11 12
18 17 16 15 14 13
more than one kind of soil. The rnap is thus
31 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 323 43 3 eisoso h ueo pcii rcs






u.& DEPARTMENT OF AGMCULTURE OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA--SHEET NUMBER 1 SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 0

530000 FEET N















Bq1
























































































































560000 FEET

Photobase from 1968 aerial photography flown by This map is one of a set published in 1973 as
Park Aerial Surveys, Inc. Map compilation by the 1 % X M 0 1 2 3 Miles part of a soil survey by the United States


10,000-foot grid ticks are approximate and are Scale 1:31680 University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
IpI



































































































based on the Florida coordinate system, west zone. Stations.
Grid coordinate system, county boundaries, and
county names compiled by the Soil Conservation OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA NO. 1
Service, 1972.
Photoase fom 198 aeral phtogrphy fown b Thismap i oneof a et publish in 173 a









































Service, 1972.





U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA- SHEET NUMBER 2 SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 0

570000 FEET N






























































































































610000 FEET
This map is one of a set published in 1973 as
Park Aerial Surveys, Inc. Map compilation by the 1 0 1 2 3 Miles part of a soil survey by the United States
5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 00 10000 15000Feet and Soil Conservation Service, and the
10,000-foot grid ticks are approximate and are Scale 1:31680 University of Florida Agricultaral Experiment
based on the Florida coordinate system, west zone. Stations.
Grid coordinate system, county boundaries, and
county names compiled by the Soil Conservation OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA NO. 2
Service, 1972.





U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA1 FLORIDA-SHEET NUMBER 3 SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 0



































































































































Photobase from 1968 aerial photography flown by This map is one of a set published in 1973 as
Park Aerial Surveys, Inc. Map compilation by the 1 % X X 0 1 2 3 Miles part of a soil survey by the United States
5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 5000 10000 5000Feet and Soil Conservation Service, and the
10,000-foot grid ticks are approximate and are Scale :31680 University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
based on the Florida coordinate system, west zone. Stations.
Grid coordinate system, county boundaries, and i
county names compiled by the Soil Conservation OCALA NATIONAL FORESiT AREA, FLORIDA NO. 3
Service, 1972.






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51oFE IIOisthe )i









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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OCALA NATIONAL FOREST ARE4, FLORIDA- SHEET NUMBER 5 SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE O














4''"e
ooroO FEET ~1' /oins sheef 3)











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S "540000 FEET
Photobase from 1968 aerial photography flown by This map is one of a set published in 1973 as
Park Aerial Surveys, Inc. Map compilation by the 1 0% lO 1 2 3 Miles part of a soil survey by the United States
U.S. Forest Service, 1971. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service
5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 5000 10000 15000Feet and Soil Conservation Service, and the
10,000-foot grid ticks are approximate and are Scale 1 31680 University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
based on the Florida coordinate system, west zone. Stations.
Grid coordinate system, county boundaries, and
county names compiled by the Soil Conservation OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA NO. 5
Service. 1972.
'it

Xv '























.. .. .. ... ...
























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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA- SHEET NUMBER 6 SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE

550000 FEET ( s heet 3) .oins sheet 4)





























































































































I (Joins sheet 10) I s oooo FEET
Photobase from 1968 aerial photography flown by I This map is one of a set published in 1973 as
Park Aerial Surveys, Inc. Map compilation by the 1 K 0 1[ 2 3 Miles part of a soil survey by the United States
U.S. Forest Service, 1971. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service
5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 5000 10000 15000Feet and Soil Conservation Service, and the
10,000-foot grid ticks are approximate and are Scale 1 31680 University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
based on the Florida coordinate system, west zone. Stations.
Grid coordinate system, county boundaries, and
county names compiled by the Soil Conservation OCALA NATIONAL FOREST!AREA, FLORIDA NO. 6
Service, 1972.





U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA! FLORIDA-SHEET NUMBER 7 SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 0

590000 FEET I


















































































Wi/dcoI


























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(Joins sheet 0) 630000oo FEET
Photobase from 1968 aerial photography flown by This map is one of a set published in 1973 as
Park Aerial Surveys, Inc. Map compilation by the 1 % L 0 1 2 3 Miles part of a soil survey by the United States
U.S. Forest Servce, 1971. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service
5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 5000 10000 15000Feet and Soil Conservation Service, and the
10,000-foot grid ticks are approximate and are Scale 1 31680 University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
based on the Florida coordinate system, west zone. Stations.
Grid coordinate system, county boundaries, and
county names compiled by the Soil Conservation OCALA NATIONAL FOREST AREA, FLORIDA NO. 7
Service, 1972.




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