• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils - Soil...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Maps














Title: Soil survey of Union County, Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025743/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Union County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 143 p., 3, 37 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1991]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Union County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Union County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 89-90).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 92-093-P.
General Note: "Issued October 1991"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025743
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001720277
oclc - 25310358
notis - AJD2721

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    How this survey was made
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    General soil map units
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Soil properties
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Classification of the soils - Soil series and their morphology
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Formation of the soils
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Reference
        Page 89
        Page 90
    Glossary
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Tables
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    General soil map
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Index to map sheets
        Page 147
    Maps
        Map 1
        Map 2
        Map 3
        Map 4
        Map 5
        Map 6
        Map 7
        Map 8
        Map 9
        Map 10
        Map 11
        Map 12
        Map 13
        Map 14
        Map 15
        Map 16
        Map 17
        Map 18
        Map 19
        Map 20
        Map 21
        Map 22
        Map 23
        Map 24
        Map 25
        Map 26
        Map 27
        Map 28
        Map 29
        Map 30
        Map 31
        Map 32
        Map 33
        Map 34
        Map 35
        Map 36
        Map 37
Full Text


*. United States
Department of
Agriculture
Soil
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with
the University of Florida,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences.
Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil
Science Department; and
the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services


Soil Survey of

Union County,

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How To Use This Soil Survey


AW General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps


The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas.


To find information about
your area of interest,
locate that area on the
Index to Map Sheets,
which precedes the soil
maps. Note the number of
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet.


Locate your area of
interest on the map
sheet. Note the map unit
symbols that are in that
area. Turn to the Index
to Map Units (see Con-
tents), which lists the map
units by symbol and
name and shows the
page where each map
unit is described.


Kok mo ,



MAP SHEET


AREA OF INTEREST
NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
survey may consist only of numbers or
letters, or they may be a combination
of numbers and letters.


MAP SHEET


The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.


*i 17 l. 1 .o
INDEX TO MAP SHEETS




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal part
of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1987. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1989. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1987. This survey was
made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the University of Florida,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services. The Union County Board of Commissioners contributed
funds for the publication of the interim soil survey report. The survey is part of
the technical assistance furnished by the Union County Soil and Water
Conservation District. Additional assistance was provided by the Florida
Department of Transportation.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
This survey supersedes the soil survey of Bradford County published in 1914,
which included Union County within its legal boundaries (18).
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: An area of the very poorly drained Surrency and Pantego soils, depressional, in the
foreground. Albany and Wampee soils are in the background.
















Contents


Index to map units ............................... iv
Summary of tables ............................... v
Foreword .......................... ............ vii
General nature of the county ....................... 1
How this survey was made......................... 7
Map unit composition .......................... 10
Confidence limits of soil survey information ....... 10
General soil map units ......................... 13
Detailed soil map units ......................... 17
Use and management of the soils.............. 45
Crops and pasture ............................ 45
Woodland management and productivity ........ 48
Grazeable woodland ................ ........ 50
Windbreaks and environmental plantings........ 50
Recreation .................................. 51
Wildlife habitat ................................ 51
Engineering ................... .............. 53
Soil properties .................................. 59
Engineering index properties .................. 59
Physical and chemical properties .............. 60
Soil and water features ........................ 61
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses
of selected soils ... ......................... 62
Engineering index test data ..................... 65
Classification of the soils ... ................... 67
Soil series and their morphology ................. 67
Albany series .................................. 67
Blanton series ................................. 68


Bonneau series ...............................
Chipley series ..............................
Croatan series .............................
Dorovan series ................................
Elloree series ..... .............. .........
Foxworth series ..............................
Goldhead series ............................
Grifton series ................. ............
Lakeland series ................. ..........
Mascotte series ................... ....
Ocilla series .................................
Osier series ...................... ....
O usley series ..................................
Pamlico series .............................
Pantego series .............................
Pelham series ........................
Plummer series ............................
Sapelo series .................. .............
Starke series .................................
Surrency series ............................
Troup series ................................
Wampee series ...............................
Formation of the soils .........................
Factors of soil formation ......................
Processes of horizon differentiation ..............
References .....................................
Glossary ...............................
Tables ................................


Issued October 1991















Index to Map Units


2-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .........
3-Ocilla fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ..........
4-Mascotte sand .. ........................
6-Plummer-Plummer, wet, sands ................
7-Surrency and Pantego soils, depressional.......
8-Surrency and Pantego soils, frequently
flooded...... ..........................
10-Osier sand .............. ...... ............
12-Sapelo sand ... .........................
14-Pamlico and Croatan mucks ..................
16-Foxworth fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......
17-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......
18-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes..........
20-Grifton and Elloree soils, frequently
flooded....................................
22-Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......
23-Pelham-Pelham, wet, fine sands ..............


24-Starke mucky fine sand, depressional ......... 35
25-Fluvaquents-Ousley association, occasionally
flooded ..................................... 35
28-Arents, moderately wet, 0 to 5 percent
slopes............ ....................... .. 37
29-Dorovan muck, frequently flooded ............. 37
30-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 38
34-Goldhead fine sand ...................... 38
35-Wampee loamy fine sand, 5 to 12 percent
slopes.................................. 39
37-Pamlico and Croatan mucks, frequently
flooded .................................... 40
39-Blanton fine sand, 5 to 12 percent
slopes. ................... ......... .. 41
41-Bonneau fine sand, 6 to 10 percent
slopes...................................... 42
43-Dorovan muck............... ............ 43
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) .............. ................ 100

Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2) .................................. 100

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3) .................. 101
Acres. Percent.

Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 4)... 102
Land capability. Bahiagrass. Corn. Grass hay. Pecans.
Soybeans. Watermelons.

Woodland management and productivity (table 5)........................ 104
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.

Recreational development (table 6) ..................................... 109
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.

Wildlife habitat (table 7) ........................................... 112
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.

Building site development (table 8) ...................................... 114
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.

Sanitary facilities (table 9) .................. ........................... 117
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.

Construction materials (table 10) ....................................... 120
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.

W ater management (table 11) ................................... ...... 123
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.




















Engineering index properties (table 12) ................................. 127
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 13).................. 132
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Shrink-swell potential.
Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.

Soil and water features (table 14) ................... ................... 135
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.

Physical analyses of selected soils (table 15) ............................. 137
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.

Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 16)........................... 139
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate-dithionite extractable.

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 17) ............................. 141
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay minerals.

Engineering index test data (table 18) ................................. 142
Classification-AASHTO, Unified. Mechanical analysis.
Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Moisture density.

Classification of the soils (table 19).................... ............... 143
Family or higher taxonomic class.















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Union County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected
land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the
management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and
pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are too unstable to be used
as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to
use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly
suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service















Soil Survey of

Union County, Florida


By David A. Dearstyne, Darrell E. Leach, and Kevin S. Sullivan, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services


UNION COUNTY is in north-central Florida (fig. 1). It is
bordered on the north by Baker County, on the east by
Bradford County, on the south by Alachua County, and
on the west by Columbia County. The New River forms
the eastern boundary of the county, the Santa Fe River
forms the southern boundary, and Olustee Creek forms
the western boundary, except for the extreme northern
part.
The total area of Union County is 159,847 acres, or
about 250 square miles. Lake Butler, the county seat, is
the largest town in the county.

General Nature of the County
This section gives general information about the
county. It describes history and development, climate,
geomorphology, stratigraphy, ground water, mineral
resources, natural resources, recreation, and
transportation facilities.

History and Development
This section is based on a history of the county published in 1971
(17).
The early history of Union County centered around
Providence Village, a settlement that was a stopover for
stages in pioneer days. During the Second Seminole
War, from 1835 to 1842, Fort Call, in the western part
of the county, a fort on the north side of Lake Butler,
and one near Providence were built to protect the
settlers from the Indians. Wandering tribes of the
Seminoles regularly raided settlements in southern


Figure 1.-Location of Union County in Florida.


Georgia and northern Florida, then scattered into the
wilds before a sufficient force could organize. A lake
and the settlement on its shore were both named Lake
Butler in honor of Captain Robert Butler, an officer killed
during one such encounter with the Seminoles. A town






Soil Survey


on the south side of the lake grew faster and had an inn
that accommodated travelers from Providence Village to
St. Augustine and other points along the coast.
In 1858, New River County, which included the
present Bradford, Baker, and Union Counties, was
established. Lake Butler was chosen as the county
seat. In 1861, an act of the Florida Legislature formed
Baker and Bradford Counties from New River County.
Bradford County was made up of what is now Bradford
and Union Counties. It was named for Captain Richard
Bradford, the first Confederate officer from the state of
Florida killed in the Civil War. In 1921, Union County
was formed from that part of Bradford County west of
the New River. This county, the 63rd and smallest
county in the State of Florida, was formed after a
dispute over whether Lake Butler or Starke would be
the county seat of Bradford County. The name Union is
derived from the common term expressing unity.
In the early 1900's, this area of the state was known
as the "Florida Cotton Empire." Sea island cotton was
king. Several cotton gins in the area did a tremendous
business. Infestation by the boll weevil brought an end
to the cotton industry. Orange trees also grew
prolifically, some as high as rooftops, but severe
freezes in the 1890's and 1930's destroyed them. The
county currently has few orange trees.
In the early years the railroad was important in
developing the county. In 1880, the Georgia Southern
and Florida Railroad was extended across the county
from Palatka to Valdosta, Georgia, and a short time
later the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad was extended
from Jacksonville to St. Petersburg. These two railroads
crossed in Lake Butler. They generated development
along their paths, and many small stations evolved into
small communities. The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad no
longer operates in the county, and the Georgia
Southern and Florida Railroad is used only for freight.
Most of the acreage in the county is planted to pine.
About 75,000 acres is owned by a packaging company.
A large sawmill adds to the economy of the county.
Forestry and timber play an important role in the
economy, as well as farming and cattle and swine
production (26). Other commercial enterprises include
several trucking companies, a clothing factory, egg and
poultry contractors, a fertilizer plant, and nurseries. The
largest employer is the Department of Corrections,
which includes the North Florida Reception Center and
the Union Correction Institution, in the Raiford area.
The small communities of Worthington Springs and
Raiford are incorporated as municipal governments.
Raiford is known for the prison system that has been a
part of this community for over a century. Worthington
Springs was noted in earlier years for its medicinal
sulphur water and cooling springs, where people came


in the summer for swimming and recreation. The
springs have not been flowing for many years.

Climate
The climate of Union County is characterized by
long, warm summers and relatively mild winters (24).
The Atlantic Ocean, the' Gulf of Mexico, and large inland
lakes moderate the temperatures.
In summer the temperature is fairly uniform with little
day-to-day variation. In the afternoon the temperature
generally is in the upper 80's and low 90's.
Temperatures of 100 degrees or more are rare. Late at
night and early in the morning, temperatures are
generally in the upper 60's to upper 70's. In winter the
temperature varies considerably. When cold fronts that
have large masses of following cold air pass, the
temperature late at night and early in the morning often
drops to 32 degrees or less. Warm air from the south
can raise the temperature to 80 degrees or more for
several days. Table 1 gives data on temperature and
precipitation for the survey area.
Frost and freezing temperatures generally occur
several times a year. The temperature can stay below
freezing from less than one day to several days. The
duration of temperatures below 32 degrees can be from
1 to 12 consecutive hours but is rarely 15 hours or
more. During an average winter the temperature is 32
degrees or less about 40 to 50 times and is 28 degrees
or less about 30 to 40 times. Temperatures of less than
20 degrees are rare (25).
The first killing frost generally occurs early in
December. It is rarely as early as November. The last
killing frost generally is near the beginning of March. It
is rarely as late as early in April (25). Table 2 shows
freeze data for the survey area.
The total annual precipitation is 54.2 inches. A large
part of this rainfall occurs in summer as locally heavy
afternoon or early evening thundershowers. As much as
2 or 3 inches of rain can fall in an hour. Daylong rains
in the summer are rare and generally accompany
tropical depressions. These rains can be heavy and of
long duration. As much as several inches of rain can fall
in a 24-hour period. The annual frequency of tropical
depressions ranges from none to several. Rainfall
during the winter generally is more moderate. This
precipitation usually occurs as cold fronts pass and can
last from a few hours to a few days.
Some tropical depressions intensify into tropical
storms or hurricanes. Hurricane-force winds rarely
develop because of the inland location of the county.
These storms can occur at any time of the year but
normally are between June and mid-November. The
wind and rain associated with these storms can cause






Union County, Florida


timber and crop damage along with local flooding.
Extended dry periods can occur at any time during
the year but are most common in spring and fall. These
periods can adversely affect plants and crops. Higher
temperatures in summer can also affect plants during
dry periods of several days because of increased
evaporation.
Hail sometimes accompanies thunderstorms.
Hailstorms generally are small and seldom cause
extensive damage. Snow is very rare and generally
melts as it hits the ground.
Heavy fog forms from 30 to 60 days per year,
generally during the winter (24). The fog usually forms
from late at night to midmorning. The sun shines 60 to
65 percent of the time possible during the year. Relative
humidity varies daily and seasonally. It is generally
highest during the summer, when it is about 90 percent
early in the morning. The relative humidity in winter
generally is less than 50 percent during the day. The
prevailing wind is from the south in spring and summer
and from the north or west in fall and winter.
Tornados occasionally accompany heavy
thunderstorms or tropical storms. They generally cause
limited damage in local areas.

Geomorphology
Frank R. Rupert, geologist, Florida Department of Natural
Resources, Florida Geological Survey, prepared this section and the
sections on stratigraphy, ground water, and mineral resources.
Union County is situated in the Northern Highlands
physiographic province (27). This province extends from
eastern Bradford County in northern Florida westward
into Alabama. The topographically high clayey sandhills
making up this province are thought to be dissected
remnants of a more extensive highland plain, possibly
an ancient delta that covered much of the Gulf Coastal
Plain (27). Elevations of the surface in Union County
range from about 50 feet above mean sea level in
stream valleys at the southern edge of the county to
about 165 feet on the flat plains in the central and
northern areas.
Large sandy swamps, bays, and shallow swampy
lakes cover much of north-central Union County. The
numerous drainage streams in this area are generally
sluggish and flow in poorly defined channels. In areas
adjacent to the larger streams, such as Olustee Creek,
Swift Creek, and the Santa Fe River, along the western
and southern edges of the county, the small dendritic
drainage creeks are more deeply incised in channels in
the surrounding terrain, resulting in a series of steeply
sloped ravines cut in the otherwise flat topography.
Bluffs about 50 feet high border the wide flood plain
along the Santa Fe River near Worthington Springs and


along Olustee Creek between Union and Columbia
Counties.
The major lakes in Union County are Lake Butler,
Palestine Lake, and Swift Creek Pond. These lakes are
generally shallow and have low, swampy shorelines and
sand or mud bottoms. They have outflow channels that
are tributaries to Olustee Creek or the Santa Fe River
(5).

Stratigraphy
Union County is underlain by hundreds of feet of
alluvial and marine sands, clays, limestones, and
dolomites (5). The oldest rock penetrated by water wells
is Middle Eocene Epoch limestone (42 to 49 million
years before the present) in the Avon Park Formation.
The youngest sediments are undifferentiated surficial
sands and clays of Pliocene to Holocene age (5 million
years old and younger). The Avon Park Formation and
the younger limestone units overlying it are important
freshwater aquifers. The discussion of the geology of
Union County will be confined to sediments of Eocene
age and younger. Figure 2 shows geologic cross
sections in Union County, and figures 3 and 4 illustrate
the underlying statigraphy of these cross sections.

Avon Park Formation
The Avon Park Formation (11) in Union County is
typically a dense, tan to dark brown, porous dolomite
that in many areas is interbedded with tan, gray, or
cream limestones and dolomitic limestones of varying
hardness (5). Foraminifera are the dominant fossils.
Dolomitization has destroyed or altered many of the
fossils. The Avon Park Formation is a component of the
Floridan aquifer system. It underlies Union County at a
depth of 400 to 600 feet (5).

Ocala Group
Marine limestones of the Ocala Group (12)
unconformably overlie the Avon Park Formation under
all of Union County (5). The Ocala Group is made up of,
in ascending order, the Inglis Formation, the Williston
Formation, and the Crystal River Formation. These
formations are differentiated on the basis of lithology
and fossil content. Typically, the lithology of the Ocala
Group grades from the alternating soft and hard, white
to tan, fossiliferous and dolomitic limestone of the Inglis
Formation and the lower part of the Williston Formation
to the white to pale orange, abundantly fossiliferous,
chalky limestones of the upper part of the Williston
Formation and the Crystal River Formation.
Foraminifera, mollusks, bryozoans, and echinoids are
the most abundant fossil types in sediments in the
Ocala Group.









BAKER COUNTY

PALESTINE B W-5297 SWIFT CREEK POND
LAKE




W-3813

W 2763 RAIFORD A:


DECKLES MILL
POND


WORTHINGTON


Figure 2-Geologic cross sections in Union County, Flor
Figure 2.--Geologic cross sections in Union County, Flor


The thickness of the Ocala Group sediments under
Union County averages about 250 feet. The depth to
the top of the Ocala Group ranges from about 40 feet
directly west of Worthington Springs to nearly 300 feet
near Raiford.
The porous and cavernous nature of the Ocala
Group limestones make them important freshwater-
bearing units of the Floridan aquifer system. Many wells
in Union County draw drinking water from the Crystal
River Formation.

Suwannee Limestone
The Oligocene age (24 to 37 million years before the
present) Suwannee Limestone (6) is underlain by the
Ocala Group sediments in most of Union County west
of Lake Butler (5). Generally, the Suwannee Limestone
consists of tan, white, or cream marine limestone, which
in many areas is dolomitic and coquinoid in parts and
which varies considerably in hardness. In some wells
this limestone is lithologically similar to the Ocala Group
limestone and is identified mainly by the last occurrence
of the foraminifera Dictyoconus cooked. The thickness of
the limestones ranges from 20 to 40 feet, and the beds


"-




MILES
01 2 3 4 5

0 2 4 6 8
KILOMETERS
ida.


can be discontinuous in the subsurface. This unit does
not occur in wells east of Lake Butler (5). In northern
Florida, the Suwannee Limestone is a freshwater-
bearing unit of the Floridan aquifer system.

Hawthorn Group
Phosphatic sands, clays, limestones, and dolomites
of the Miocene-age (5 to 24 million years before the
present) Hawthorn Group (14) unconformably overlie
the Suwannee Limestone in western Union County.
East of Lake Butler, the Hawthorn Group sediments
directly overlie limestones of the Ocala Group. The
Hawthorn Group is dominantly a series of marine
deposits consisting of varying and interbedded
lithologies and characterized by phosphatic sands,
granules, and pebbles.
Although not differentiated to date in Union County,
formations of the Hawthorn Group are distinguishable in
surrounding counties. In order of decreasing age, these
formations are the Penney Farms Formation of
interbedded phosphatic quartz sand, clay, and
carbonate; the Marks Head Formation of thin, complex,
interbedded phosphatic clay, sand, and carbonate; and


Soil Survey


4,
Al


C0






Union County, Florida


A' counties, it is derived mainly from precipitation. Most of
i A the water consumed in Union County is drawn from
Ground water aquifers. In order of increasing depth, the
5o0 main aquifer systems under the county are the surficial
0 150 aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system, and
40 l UNDIFFERENTIATED the Floridan aquifer system (16).
20 GROUP Surficial Aquifer System
0o s 0THO The surficial aquifer system is the highest freshwater
S UWANNE aquifer in Union County. The sediments making up this
-5MESTONE OCALA GROUP aquifer are mainly the sands and thin limestone layers
-0 \ in the highest part of the Hawthorn Group and the
-lOo '1 overlying Pliocene to Holocene sands. The surficial
-40.0 aquifer system averages about 40 feet thick throughout
-o MILES most of the county (5). It is unconfined, and its upper
-60 -200 I- I I.- I
KILOMETERS
S-250T
-80B B'
T D. T.D.
600 440 B B'
-300 FEET FEET
CO
Figure 3.-Geologic cross section A-A' in Union County. The W PLOCENE TO HOLOCENE
numbers preceded by "W" are well numbers. W W UNDIFFERENTIATED o
L 00
60- 200


the Coosawhatchie Formation, a green to tan, -150
phosphatic quartz sand with varying amounts of clay 40
and dolomite. -100
The Hawthorn Group sediments have a generally
northeastward dip and range in thickness from about 50 20-
feet in parts of western Union County to at least 260 HAWTHORN O -
feet in the northeastern part, near Raiford. The thick,
relatively impermeable clays in the Hawthorn Group are 0 MSL SUWANNEE
the main confining beds for the underlying Floridan LIMESTONE
aquifer system. Undifferentiated sands of Pliocene to -50I
Holocene age form a thin veneer over the Hawthorn -20
Group sediments in most of Union County, although the
larger river valleys in the southern and western parts of
the county can cut down into the Hawthorn Group. -40
-150
Pliocene to Holocene Undifferentiated OCALA GROUP
Undifferentiated quartz sands and clays make up the -60---200
surficial sediments in most of Union County.
Determining the age of these unfossiliferous deposits is -250
virtually impossible. The deposits include unnamed -80
reddish coarse clastics, relict Pleistocene (2.8 million to MILES
10 thousand years before the present) marine terrace -300 -- 0 1 2 3 4 5
sands, and Holocene (10 thousand years to the -100- 0 4 6 8
present) eolian, lacustrine, and alluvial material. -35o AVON PARK FORMATION KILOMETERS

Ground Water -120 1 -400 T.D..24FEET

Ground water fills the pore spaces in subsurface Figure 4.-Geologic cross section B-B' in Union County. The
rocks and sediments. In Union County and nearby numbers preceded by "W" are well numbers.






Soil Survey


surface is the water table. Generally, the elevation of
the water table fluctuates with the precipitation rate and
conforms to the topography of the land surface. In
Union County, the water table is normally 10 feet or
less below the surface of the soil.
The surficial aquifer system is recharged mainly by
rainfall percolating downward through the surficial
sediments and to a lesser extent by upward leakage
from the deeper aquifers. Water naturally discharges
from the aquifer through evaporation, transpiration,
spring flow, and downward seepage into the lower
aquifers. The surficial aquifer system yields water of
suitable quality for consumption and is normally tapped
by shallow dug or sand point wells. Because of the
relatively thin units making up this aquifer, however,
only limited amounts of water are available before the
local water table is lowered.

Intermediate Aquifer System
The intermediate aquifer system is made up of water-
bearing sand and limestone layers in the Hawthorn
Group. Slowly permeable clays above the sand and
carbonate layers generally confine the intermediate
aquifer system under artesian conditions. Water yields
from this aquifer vary locally, depending on the quantity
of sand and the porosity of the carbonate. In some
areas the Hawthorn Group carbonates are very dense,
yielding little water.
Recharge to the intermediate aquifer system occurs
chiefly through downward leakage from the surficial
aquifer system and through upward seepage from the
Floridan aquifer system in areas where the
potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer system is
higher than that of the intermediate aquifer system.
Numerous rural and domestic wells draw water from the
intermediate aquifer system. As in the surficial aquifer
system, the available volume of water depends mainly
on the local thickness of the aquifer units.

Floridan Aquifer System
The Floridan aquifer system is made up of several
hundred feet of Eocene- to Oligocene-age porous
marine limestones, including the Avon Park Formation,
the Ocala Group, and Suwannee Limestone. It is by far
the most productive aquifer system in Union County. In
the extreme southwestern part of the county, the upper
part of the Floridan aquifer system is unconfined and
under water table conditions. In the rest of the county,
the aquifer is confined by slowly permeable clays of the
overlying Hawthorn Group and is under artesian
conditions. West of Lake Butler, Suwannee Limestone
makes up the upper unit of the Floridan aquifer system.
East of Lake Butler, the Crystal River Formation of the


Ocala Group is the upper unit. Depth to the Floridan
aquifer system ranges from 75 to 325 feet throughout
the county. This system is an important freshwater
source throughout Florida. Many deep domestic wells
and most municipal and industrial wells draw from this
aquifer.
In Union County the Floridan aquifer system is
recharged mainly by downward leakage through the
confining beds of the shallower aquifers (5). In the
southwestern part of the county, where the Hawthorn
Group is thin or does not occur, direct recharge through
downward percolation occurs. Water leaves the Floridan
aquifer system by natural downgradient movement,
which is westward, and by subsequent discharge
through springs, lakes, and the Santa Fe River.

Mineral Resources
No mineral commodities are commercially mined in
Union County. The potential for commercial mineral
production generally is low. The following discussion of
the major mineral commodities provides an overview of
the mining potential for each mineral.

Sand
A number of private shallow pits in Union County are
mined for fill sand. The sand deposits are concentrated
in the unconsolidated Pliocene- to Holocene-age
surficial sediments covering most of the county. Clayey
coarse clastics believed to be equivalent to the
Miccosukee and Citronelle Formations to the west
characteristically contain fine to coarse grained quartz
sand and local gravel beds. These clayey sands are
used as roadbase material in counties to the south
where the content of clay is higher. Commercial sand
production would require extensive washing to remove
the clay matrix. The economics of this procedure would
probably preclude mining of the sand in Union County.

Phosphate
Phosphatic sediments of the Hawthorn Group
underlie most of Union County. The phosphate occurs
as tan to black sand and granule- and pebble-sized
grains. It generally makes up as much as 25 percent,
by volume, of the Hawthorn Group sediments. Most well
lithologic logs indicate that the phosphate grain content
generally ranges from 1 to 10 percent. The higher
phosphate percentages are at a depth of more than 60
feet in wells near Raiford. Because of the variable
nature of these deposits and an excessive depth to the
higher concentrations, the potential for mining
phosphate is low in Union County.






Union County, Florida


Limestone and Dolomite
Union County is underlain by extensive deposits of
Eocene- to Miocene-age marine limestones. Because of
the thickness of the overlying Hawthorn Group
siliciclastics and the Pliocene- to Holocene-age
undifferentiated surficial sediments, however, most of
the limestone is at too great a depth for commercial
mining. In the southwest corner of the county, Ocala
Group limestones are within 40 feet of the surface. This
depth may still be beyond the range for economic
mining, however, and the compositional quality of this
rock for industrial use is untested.

Peat
Peat is an organic deposit formed through the rapid
accumulation of decaying vegetation. To date, it is not
commercially mined in Union County. The potential for
mining peat is highest in areas of Dorovan, Pamlico,
and Croatan soils in the shallow, swampy regions in the
northern and central parts of the county.

Clay
In most of Union County, clay and clayey sand are
deposited in the upper Hawthorn Group sediments and
in the undifferentiated Pliocene- to Holocene-age
surficial sediments. These deposits have been
commercially exploited only in private dirt fill pits. The
suitability of the deposits for industrial and commercial
use is untested as yet. In Putnam County and in
counties to the south, the red, clayey sands and sandy
clays formerly referred to as unnamed coarse clastics
are used extensively as road material.

Natural Resources
Soil is the most important resource in Union County.
The soil and the underlying parent material are the
source and basis of the natural resources and the
agricultural commodities produced in the county.
Water for most domestic and urban uses is supplied
by underground wells. These wells tap into underground
aquifers. The depth of the wells varies. It generally is 50
to 80 feet. Water for agricultural uses is supplied by
wells, streams, or water-retention areas.
The Santa Fe River, the New River, and Olustee
Creek are the largest permanent streams. The New
River and Olustee Creek flow generally to the south and
empty into the Santa Fe River, which flows west. All
three streams flow permanently, except for the upper
stretches of the New River and Olustee Creek during
extended dry periods. The county has very few other
streams. Most of these are intermittent, drying up to
pools and potholes during extended dry periods.


Union County has three large bodies of water. Lake
Butler, which is directly north of the city of Lake Butler,
is several hundred acres in size. Palestine Lake, the
largest body of water in the county, is about 1,000
acres in size. It is in the extreme northwestern part of
the county. Swift Creek Pond, which is in the north-
central part of the county, is 400 to 500 acres in size.
These lakes are all accessible to the public.
Woodland is a major natural resource in Union
County (26). Forestry and forest products are an
important part of the county's economy. Timber is used
for lumber and pulpwood and provides habitat for
wildlife.

Recreation
The lakes in Union County provide opportunities for
recreational activities, such as swimming, boating,
water-skiing, and fishing. Hunting also is an important
recreational activity in the county. About 25 percent of
the county is in the Lake Butler Wildlife Management
Area, which is north of Lake Butler. Other lands are
available for hunting, mainly as leases to hunt clubs.

Transportation Facilities
County and state highways facilitate the
transportation of goods and people in Union County.
State Highway 100, running from Starke to Lake City,
and State Highway 121, running from Macclenny to
Gainesville, intersect at Lake Butler. Rail service for
freight and bus service also are available in the county.


How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about
the soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of
slopes; the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of
crops and native plants growing on the soils; and the
kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil
profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or
horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface
down into the unconsolidated material in which the soil
formed. The unconsolidated material is devoid of roots
and other living organisms and has not been changed
by other biological activity.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly
pattern that is related to the geology, the landforms,
relief, climate, and the natural vegetation of the area.
Each kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of





Soil Survey


Figure 5.-Pattern of soils on a gently rolling landscape near major drainageways.


landscape or with a segment of the landscape (figs. 5
and 6). By observing the soils in the survey area and
relating their position to specific segments of the
landscape, a soil scientist develops a concept, or
model, of how the soils were formed. Thus, during
mapping, this model enables the soil scientist to predict
with a considerable degree of accuracy the kind of soil
at a specific location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify


predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, reaction, and
other features that enable them to identify soils. After
describing the soils in the survey area and determining
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
(20) used in the United States is based mainly on the
kind and character of soil properties and the





Union County, Florida


Sapelo \-


-i l i
O-eiIa>I/
<'K
Ki/


SPelham Pelham wet


Figure 6.-Pattern of soils on a flatwoods landscape that includes slightly elevated areas, depressions, and flood plains.


arrangement of horizons within the profile. After the soil
scientists classified and named the soils in the survey
area, they compared the individual soils with similar
soils in the same taxonomic class in other areas so that
they could confirm data and assemble additional data
based on experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
of the soils in the area generally are collected for
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
scientists interpret the data from these analyses and
tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
the soil properties to determine the expected behavior
of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of
the soils are field tested through observation of the soils
in different uses under different levels of management.


Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
and some new interpretations are developed to meet
local needs. Data are assembled from other sources,
such as research information, production records, and
field experience of specialists. For example, data on
crop yields under defined levels of management are
assembled from farm records and from field or plot
experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can
predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given
soil will have a high water table within certain depths in





Soil Survey


most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
specific date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.
Union County was mapped concurrently with
adjacent Bradford County. Near the end of the survey,
the counties were correlated separately. For some of
the soils in Union County, the locations of the series
profiles are in Bradford County.
A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system was used
to document the type and variability of soils that occur
in the detailed soil map units (7, 8, 10, 15). Random
transects were made with the GPR system and by
hand. The GPR system was successfully used on all
soils to detect the presence of and measure the depth
to major soil horizons or other soil features and to
determine the variability of those features. In Bradford
and Union Counties, 160 random transects were made
with the GPR system and by hand. Information from
notes and ground-truth observations made in the field
was used, along with radar data from this study, to
classify the soils and to determine the composition of
the map units. The map units described in the section
"Detailed Soil Map Units" are based on this data.

Map Unit Composition
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
the soils are natural objects. In common with other
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to
other taxonomic classes. These latter soils are called
inclusions or included soils.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and


management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soil on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.

Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
Information
Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
probability that the composition of a map unit or a
property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
data to determine confidence limits, the natural
variability of soils and the way soil surveys are made
must be considered. The composition of map units and
other information are derived largely from extrapolations
made from a small sample. Also, information about the
soils does not extend below a depth of about 6 feet.
The information presented in the soil survey is not
meant to be used as a substitute for onsite
investigations. Soil survey information can be used to
select alternative practices or general designs that may
be needed to minimize the possibility of soil-related
failures. It cannot be used to interpret specific points on
the landscape.
Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
units in Union County were determined by random
transects made with the GPR system and by hand
across mapped areas. The data are statistically
summarized in the description of each map unit in the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units." Soil scientists made
enough transects and took enough samples to





Union County, Florida


characterize each map unit at a specific confidence
level. For example, Sapelo sand was characterized at a
95 percent confidence level based on the transect data.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Sapelo sand,


Sapelo and similar soils make up 79 to 99 percent of
the mapped areas. On 5 percent of the acreage,
included soils make up more than 21 percent.


















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it
consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making
up one unit can occur in another but in a different
pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure.
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that
affect management.

1. Lakeland-Blanton-Foxworth
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained and
moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout
or are sandy in the upper part and loamy at a depth of
40 to 80 inches
This map unit consists of soils on broad uplands in
the southern part of the county. Rolling hills and long,
undulating slopes are interspersed with a few
intermittent streams. The natural vegetation consists
mainly of oaks and pines.
This map unit makes up about 2 percent of the
county. It is about 37 percent Lakeland soils, 28 percent
Blanton soils and the similar Ocilla soils, 10 percent
Foxworth soils, and 25 percent minor soils.
The Lakeland soils are excessively drained.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
sand. It is underlain by dark yellowish brown and strong
brown sand.
The Blanton soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand.
The subsurface layer is yellowish brown and very pale
brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil is light
yellowish brown loamy fine sand grading to light


yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is gray
sandy clay loam.
The Foxworth soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand.
It is underlain by yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and
very pale brown sand.
Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Chipley,
Ousley, Plummer, Troup, and Wampee soils and
Fluvaquents.
Most areas are used for crops, pasture, or hay. The
major soils are severely limited as cropland and are
only moderately suited to pasture and hay because of
low fertility and seasonal droughtiness. Deep-rooted
grasses should be selected for planting. The
droughtiness can be overcome by irrigation. The soils
are moderately suited to pine trees. They have slight
limitations if used as sites for most urban uses.

2. Albany-Blanton-Ocilla
Nearly level to strongly sloping, somewhat poorly drained
and moderately well drained soils that are sandy to a
depth of 20 inches or more and have loamy material
within a depth of 80 inches
This map unit consists mostly of soils on low uplands
along the western, southern, and southeastern
boundaries of the county. The natural vegetation
consists of live oak and laurel oak mixed with pine and
other hardwoods.
This map unit makes up about 9 percent of the
county. It is about 37 percent Albany soils, 25 percent
Blanton soils, 13 percent Ocilla soils, and 25 percent
minor soils.
The Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand. The
subsurface layer is brown sand and light brownish gray
and light gray fine sand. The subsoil is yellowish brown
fine sandy loam in the upper part and light gray sandy
clay loam in the lower part.
The Blanton soils are moderately well drained.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand.
The subsurface layer is yellowish brown and very pale
brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil is light





Soil Survey


Figure 7.-Improved bermudagrass hay in an area of the Albany-Blanton-Ocilla general soil map unit.


yellowish brown loamy fine sand grading to light
yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is gray
and white sandy clay.
The Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand. The subsurface layer is light yellowish brown fine
sand. The upper part of the subsoil is a few inches of
yellow loamy fine sand. The lower part is pale brown
sandy clay loam grading to gray sandy clay loam.
Of minor extent in this unit are Chipley, Elloree,
Foxworth, Grifton, Mascotte, Osier, Sapelo, Surrency,
and Wampee soils and Fluvaquents.
Most areas are used for crops, pasture, or hay
(fig. 7). Generally, the somewhat poorly drained soils
are moderately limited by low fertility and seasonal
wetness and the moderately well drained soils by low
fertility and seasonal droughtiness. The soils are
moderately well suited to pine trees. The somewhat
poorly drained soils are severely limited as sites for
some urban uses, such as septic tank absorption fields,
landfills, and dwellings with basements, because of
seasonal wetness. The moderately well drained soils
have slight limitations if used as sites for most urban
uses.


3. Sapelo-Mascotte-Pelham

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
depth of 20 inches or more and have loamy material
within a depth of 80 inches
This map unit consists dominantly of soils in the
flatwoods in the northern and central parts of the
county. The flatwoods are interspersed with swamps,
depressions, intermittent drainageways, and slightly
better drained, elevated areas. The natural vegetation
consists mainly of slash pine and an understory of saw
palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and white titi. The
dominant vegetation in the wetter areas consists of
cypress, sweetgum, bay, maple, and pond pine.
This map unit makes up about 20 percent of the
county. It is about 42 percent Sapelo soils, 21 percent
Mascotte soils, 15 percent Pelham soils, and 22 percent
minor soils.
Typically, the Sapelo soils have a surface layer of
very dark gray sand. The subsurface layer is grayish
brown sand. The upper part of the subsoil is very dark
brown and dark brown sand. The next part is light gray
sand. The lower part is light gray fine sandy loam
grading to sandy clay loam.





Union County, Florida


Typically, the Mascotte soils have a surface layer of
black sand. The subsurface layer is grayish brown
sand. The upper part of the subsoil is black loamy sand
and dark reddish brown sand. The next part is light
yellowish brown sand. The lower part is light gray fine
sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
Typically, the Pelham soils have a surface layer of
very dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is dark
gray fine sand grading to gray fine sand. The subsoil is
gray fine sandy loam in the upper part and gray sandy
clay loam and light gray sandy clay in the lower part.
Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Chipley,
Croatan, Elloree, Grifton, Ocilla, Osier, Pamlico,
Pantego, Plummer, Starke, Surrency, and Wampee
soils.
Many areas are used for planted or naturally seeded
pine. A few small areas are used for pasture or crops.
The major soils are moderately suited to pine trees, are
moderately well suited to pasture, and generally are
severely limited as cropland and as sites for urban
uses. Wetness is the main limitation. An extensive
drainage system can lower the water table.

4. Plummer-Sapelo
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
depth of 40 inches or more and have loamy material
within a depth of 80 inches
This map unit consists of soils dominantly in the
flatwoods in the southern, central, and south-central
parts of the county and in a small area along the central
part of the eastern boundary. The flatwoods are
interspersed with swamps, depressions, intermittent
drainageways, and slightly better drained, slightly
elevated areas. The vegetation consists mainly of slash
pine and an understory of saw palmetto, waxmyrtle,
white titi, and gallberry. The dominant vegetation in the
wetter areas consists of cypress, red maple, and pond
pine.
This map unit makes up about 22 percent of the
county. It is about 43 percent Plummer soils, 33 percent
Sapelo soils, and 24 percent minor soils.
Typically, the Plummer soils have a surface layer of
very dark gray sand. The subsurface layer is grayish
brown, light gray, and white sand. A thin layer between
the subsurface layer and the subsoil is light brownish
gray loamy sand. The subsoil is light brownish gray and
light gray sandy clay loam.
Typically, the Sapelo soils have a surface layer of
very dark gray sand. The subsurface layer is grayish
brown sand. The upper part of the subsoil is very dark
brown and dark brown sand. The next part is light gray
sand. The lower part is light gray fine sandy loam
underlain by light gray sandy clay loam.


Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Chipley,
Croatan, Grifton, Mascotte, Ocilla, Pamlico, Pelham,
Starke, and Surrency soils and Fluvaquents.
Many areas are used for planted or naturally seeded
pine, and a few areas of cleared land are used mainly
for pasture or crops. The major soils are moderately
well suited to pine trees, are well suited to pasture, and
are severely limited as cropland and as sites for urban
uses. Wetness is the main limitation. It can be reduced
by a good drainage system.

5. Pelham
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy in the
upper part and loamy at a depth of 20 to 40 inches
This map unit consists of soils in the broad flatwoods
throughout the county. The flatwoods are interspersed
with swamps, depressions, and intermittent
drainageways. The natural vegetation consists mainly of
slash pine and an understory of gallberry, waxmyrtle,
and saw palmetto. The dominant vegetation in the
swamps, depressions, and intermittent drainageways is
maple, sweetgum, bay, ash, pondcypress, pond pine,
and slash pine.
This map unit makes up about 32 percent of the
county. It is about 77 percent Pelham soils and 23
percent minor soils.
Typically, the Pelham soils have a surface layer of
very dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is dark
gray fine sand grading to gray fine sand. The subsoil is
gray fine sandy loam in the upper part and gray sandy
clay loam and light gray sandy clay in the lower part.
Of minor extent in this unit are Albany, Croatan,
Grifton, Mascotte, Ocilla, Pantego, Plummer, Sapelo,
Starke, and Surrency soils.
Most areas are used for planted or naturally seeded
pine. A few small areas have been cleared and are
used for pasture or crops. Most areas are moderately
well suited to pine trees and pasture and generally are
severely limited as cropland and as sites for urban
uses. Wetness is the main limitation. An extensive
drainage system can lower the water table.

6. Grifton-Elloree-Fluvaquents

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy in the
upper part and loamy within a depth of 40 inches or are
stratified throughout with various textures; in flood-prone
areas
This map unit consists of soils in narrow areas along
the major drainageways of the New and Santa Fe
Rivers and their tributaries. The landscape consists of
flood plains interspersed with numerous backwater
channels, cutbanks, flats, low ridges, and depressions.








The natural vegetation consists of spruce pine and
various hardwoods, such as live oak, laurel oak, water
oak, overcup oak, hickory, maple, sweetgum, and
ironwood. Cypress occasionally grows in very poorly
drained areas. Also, a few loblolly pine and slash pine
grow in some areas.
This map unit makes up about 4 percent of the
county. It is about 30 percent Grifton soils, 18 percent
Elloree soils, 28 percent Fluvaquents, and 24 percent
minor soils.
Typically, the Grifton soils have a surface layer of
very dark gray loamy fine sand. The subsurface layer is
dark gray loamy fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil
is dark gray sandy clay loam. The next part is gray and
dark gray sandy clay loam that has pockets and broken
bands of soft carbonate. The lower part is gray sandy
loam.
Typically, the Elloree soils have a surface layer of
black fine sand. The subsurface layer is grayish brown
fine sand grading to gray fine sand. The upper part of
the subsoil is light gray sandy loam grading to grayish
brown sandy loam. The lower part is grayish brown
sandy clay loam.
Typically, the Fluvaquents have a surface layer of
grayish brown loamy sand. Below this to a depth of 80
inches or more are alternating bands of loam, sand,
sandy clay loam, and sand.
Of minor extent in this unit are Croatan, Mascotte,
Ousley, Pamlico, Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, Sapelo,
Starke, and Surrency soils. Ousley soils, the most
significant of the minor soils, make up about 15 percent
of the unit. They are somewhat poorly drained and are
in the higher landscape positions.
Most areas support natural hardwood stands. Very
few small areas are cleared or are used for planted
pine. Unless intensive flood-control and drainage


measures are applied, the major soils are generally
unsuited to crops, pasture, and urban development.

7. Dorovan-Pamlico-Croatan

Nearly level, very poorly drained, organic soils that are
muck to a depth of more than 51 inches or are muck 16
to 51 inches deep over sandy or loamy material
This map unit consists of soils in broad swamps,
mainly in the northern part of the county, and in smaller
swamps in the central part. The natural vegetation
consists of bay, blackgum, red maple, Carolina ash,
pondcypress, and pond pine and a dense understory
commonly of greenbrier, fetterbush lyonia, willow, and
other water-tolerant species.
This map unit makes up about 11 percent of the
county. It is about 29 percent Dorovan soils, 27 percent
Pamlico soils, 22 percent Croatan soils, and 22 percent
minor soils.
Typically, the Dorovan soils have a surface layer of
dark brown muck. Below this is very dark brown muck.
Typically, the Pamlico soils have a surface layer of
dark brown muck. The next layer is black muck. Below
this is very dark grayish brown sand over grayish brown
sand.
Typically, the Croatan soils have a surface layer of
black muck. Below this is very dark grayish brown
mucky sandy loam grading to dark gray and gray sandy
clay loam.
Of minor extent in this unit are Grifton, Pantego,
Starke, and Surrency soils.
Most areas support natural vegetation. Unless an
extensive drainage system or a water-control system is
installed, the major soils are not suited to crops,
pasture, or urban uses. They are best suited to wetland
wildlife habitat.















Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area.
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more
soils for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils
of a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5
percent slopes, is a phase of the Blanton series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil
associations, or undifferentiated groups.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils, or one
or more soils and a miscellaneous area, in such an
intricate pattern or in such small areas that they cannot
be shown separately on the soil maps. The pattern and
proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in all areas.
Pelham-Pelham, wet, fine sands is an example.
A soil association is made up of two or more
geographically associated soils that are shown as one
unit on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil


uses in the survey area, it was not considered practical
or necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern
and relative proportion of the soils are somewhat
similar. Fluvaquents-Ousley association, occasionally
flooded, is an example.
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
the soils in the mapped areas are not uniform. An area
can be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can
be made up of all of them. Surrency and Pantego soils,
depressional, is an undifferentiated group in this survey
area.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named.
Some of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.

2-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
soil is in slightly elevated areas in the flatwoods and on
low uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from about 2 to more than 500 acres in size.
Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a
depth of about 50 inches. The upper 14 inches is brown
sand, the next 20 inches is light brownish gray fine
sand, and the lower 8 inches is light gray fine sand. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
upper 10 inches is yellowish brown fine sandy loam,
and the lower 20 inches is light gray sandy clay loam.





Soil Survey


On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Albany fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Albany and similar soils
make up 81 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5
percent of the acreage, included soils make up more
than 19 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Albany soil
are included in mapping. These are Chipley and Ocilla
soils and soils that have 15 to 35 percent, by volume,
ironstone nodules or weathered phosphatic limestone
fragments in one or more of the subsurface horizons.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Albany
soil are included in this map unit. These are Blanton,
Foxworth, and Pelham soils, which make up about 1 to
19 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Albany soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 12 to 30 inches
for 1 to 4 months in most years. The water table is at a
depth of 30 to 50 inches for 3 to 7 months in most
years. It recedes below a depth of 50 inches during
extended dry periods. The available water capacity is
low. Permeability is moderate.
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation.
Some areas are used for the production of pine trees. A
few areas have been cleared and are used as cropland
or tame pasture. The natural vegetation consists of
slash pine, scattered longleaf pine, water oak, and
laurel oak. The understory includes waxmyrtle,
gallberry, creeping bluestem, low panicum, indiangrass,
pineland threeawn, and various other grasses.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has severe
limitations because of the wetness, low natural fertility,
and the hazard of erosion. The high water table retards
root development during wet periods. A well designed,
simple drainage system can overcome this limitation. If
good management that includes water-control measures
is applied, the soil is suited to most locally grown crops.
Good management includes growing the crops in
rotation with close-growing, soil-improving crops;
returning crop residue to the soil; and applying fertilizer
and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard where the surface is
unprotected, especially during dry periods. Leaving crop
residue on the surface can help to prevent excessive
soil loss and conserves moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are suitable, but yields
are reduced by periodic droughtiness. If properly
managed, good pastures of grass or of grass-legume
mixtures can be established. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps
to maintain plant vigor.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling


mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation and
minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Good site preparation, such as harrowing and
bedding, helps to establish seedlings, removes debris,
helps to control competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Retarding the growth of the hardwood
understory by chemical or mechanical means helps to
control plant competition. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the water table during wet periods. Adding suitable fill
material increases the depth to the water table and thus
helps to overcome the wetness. If outlets are available,
a surface drainage system can be installed.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

3-Ocilla fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
soil is in slightly elevated areas in the flatwoods and on
low uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape and
range from 2 to more than 300 acres in size. Slopes are
smooth or slightly convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer
extends to a depth of about 20 inches. It is light
yellowish brown fine sand. The next 5 inches is yellow
loamy fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
more is sandy clay loam. It is pale brown in the upper
14 inches and gray in the lower 41 inches.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Ocilla fine
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Ocilla and similar soils
make up 83 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5
percent of the acreage, included soils make up more
than 17 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of the soils that are similar to the Ocilla
soils are included in mapping. These are Albany soils
and soils that have 2 to 10 percent, by volume,





Union County, Florida


ironstone nodules or weathered phosphatic, gravel-
sized limestone fragments in one or more horizons.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Ocilla
soil are included in this map unit. These are Blanton,
Mascotte, and Pelham soils and, in a few small areas,
soils that are so eroded that the subsoil is within a
depth of 20 inches. The dissimilar soils make up about
1 to 17 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Ocilla soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 12 to 30 inches
for 2 to 6 months. It recedes below a depth of 36 inches
during extended dry periods. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is moderate.
Most areas of this soil are used for tame pasture or
planted pine. The natural vegetation consists of slash
pine and scattered live oak and laurel oak. The
understory includes scattered saw palmetto, gallberry,
greenbrier, pineland threeawn, broomsedge bluestem,
chalky bluestem, and low panicum.
If used for cultivated crops, the soil has severe
limitations because of the wetness, low natural fertility,
and the hazard of erosion. The high water table retards
root development during wet periods. A well designed,
simple drainage system can overcome this limitation. If
good management that includes water-control measures
is applied, the soil is suited to most locally grown crops.
Good management includes growing the crops in
rotation with close-growing, soil-improving crops;
returning crop residue to the soil; and applying fertilizer
and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard where the surface is
unprotected, especially during dry periods. Leaving crop
residue on the surface can help to prevent excessive
soil loss and conserves moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are suitable, but yields
are reduced by periodic droughtiness. If properly
managed, good pastures of grass or of grass-legume
mixtures can be established. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps
to maintain plant vigor.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation and
minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Good site preparation, such as harrowing and
bedding, helps to establish seedlings, removes debris,
helps to control competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Retarding the growth of the hardwood
understory by chemical or mechanical means helps to


control plant competition. The trees respond well to
applications of fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is moderately limited as a site for dwellings
without basements and severely limited as a site for
small commercial buildings and for septic tank
absorption fields because of the depth to the water
table during wet periods. Adding suitable fill material
increases the depth to the water table and thus helps to
overcome the wetness. If outlets are available, a
surface drainage system can be installed.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

4-Mascotte sand. This nearly level, poorly drained
soil is in broad flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular
in shape and range from 2 to more than 1,000 acres in
size. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of
about 19 inches. It is grayish brown sand. The upper
part of the subsoil is about 4 inches of black loamy
sand and 4 inches of dark reddish brown sand. The
next 8 inches is light yellowish brown sand. The lower
part of the subsoil is about 3 inches of light gray fine
sandy loam and 42 or more inches of light gray sandy
clay loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Mascotte
sand, Mascotte and similar soils make up 78 to 99
percent of the mapped areas. On 10 percent of the
acreage, included soils make up more than 22 percent
of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Mascotte
soil are included in mapping. These are Leon, Pelham,
and Sapelo soils and soils that do not have a
subsurface layer or have an 8-inch layer between the
sandy and loamy parts of the subsoil.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Mascotte soil are included in this map unit. These are
Ocilla, Pantego, and Surrency soils, which make up
about 1 to 22 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Mascotte soil has a





Soil Survey


seasonal high water table within a depth of about 6 to
18 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The
water table is at a depth of 18 to 40 inches for as long
as 6 months. It recedes below a depth of 40 inches
during extended dry periods. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is moderate.
Most areas support native vegetation or planted pine.
The natural vegetation consists mainly of slash pine.
The understory includes waxmyrtle, scattered saw
palmetto, gallberry, fetterbush lyonia, blackberry,
brackenfern, chalky bluestem, broomsedge bluestem,
lopsided indiangrass, low panicum, pineland threeawn,
and sedges.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has very severe
limitations because of the wetness and low fertility. The
number of crops that can be grown is limited unless
good water-control measures are used. If these
measures are applied, the soil is suitable for most
locally grown crops. It is better suited to specialty crops
than to most general farm crops. A good water-control
system removes excess water during wet periods and
provides for subsurface irrigation during dry periods.
Good management includes growing row crops in
rotation with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops;
returning crop residue, including that of the soil-
improving crops, to the soil; bedding rows to provide
additional rooting depth; and applying fertilizer and lime
according to the needs of the crop.
If water is properly controlled, this soil is well suited
to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes. If
properly managed, good pastures of grass or of grass-
legume mixtures can be established. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
during long rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for the
best yields of white clover or other adapted shallow-
rooted pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing
an optimum plant population, applying fertilizer and
lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain a good
plant cover and increase forage production.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting (fig. 8). The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Preparing the site and planting and harvesting the trees
during the drier periods also help to overcome the
equipment limitation. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
removes debris, helps to control competing vegetation,
and facilitates planting. Leaving all plant debris on the


site helps to maintain the content of organic matter in
the soil. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to grazeable woodland. The
desirable forage is creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
and blue maidencane. The forage composition and
annual productivity are influenced by the forest canopy.
Little grazing value can be expected after the canopy
cover exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the high water table during wet periods. A good
drainage system is needed to remove excess water
during wet periods and to control the water table.
Adding suitable fill material increases the depth to the
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The high water table is the major limitation. A good
water-control system is needed. Trafficability also is a
limitation. Because of the loose, sandy surface layer,
soil blowing is a hazard during dry periods. Establishing
or maintaining a good vegetative cover or windbreaks or
adding suitable topsoil or some other material that can
stabilize the surface improves trafficability and helps to
control soil blowing.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

6-Plummer-Plummer, wet, sands. These nearly
level, poorly drained soils generally are on broad flats,
but the wet Plummer soil is in the slightly lower areas or
drainageways. The soils occur in a regular repeating
pattern on the landscape. Excess water ponds in the
low areas during the rainy season and for short periods
after heavy, unseasonal rainfall. Individual areas are
irregularly shaped or elongated and range from 2 to
more than 500 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Plummer soil on
flats is very dark gray sand about 9 inches thick. The
subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 56 inches.
It is sand. The upper 18 inches is grayish brown, the
next 8 inches is light gray, and the lower 21 inches is
white. Below this is light brownish gray loamy sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of about 80
inches is light brownish gray and light gray sandy clay
loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the wet Plummer soil is
very dark gray sand about 7 inches thick. The
subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 48 inches.
It is sand. The upper 13 inches is grayish brown, and
the lower 28 inches is light brownish gray. Below this is






Union County. Florida


Figure 8.-Slash pine in an area of Mascotte sand.


light gray loamy sand about 2 inches thick. The subsoil
to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray sandy clay
loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Plummer-
Plummer, wet, sands, Plummer and similar soils make
up 89 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5 percent
of the acreage, included soils make up more than 11
percent of the mapped areas. Generally, the mapped
areas are about 58 percent the Plummer soil on flats
and similar soils and 36 percent the wet Plummer soil
and similar soils. The components of this map unit
occur as areas so intricately intermingled that it is not
practical to map them separately at the scale used in
mapping. The proportions and patterns of both of the


Plummer soils and of the similar soils are relatively
consistent in most mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Plummer
soils are included in mapping. These are Osier, Pelham,
and Sapelo soils; soils that have about 5 to 15 percent,
by volume, ironstone nodules or weathered phosphatic,
gravel-sized limestone fragments in one or more
horizons; and, in a few areas adjacent to drainageways,
soils that have slopes of as much as 5 percent.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Plummer soils are included in this map unit. These are
Albany, Starke, and Surrency soils, which make up 1 to
11 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Plummer soil on flats






Soil Survey


has a seasonal high water table within about 6 to 18
inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months and the wet
Plummer soil has one at or above the surface for 1 to 4
months during the rainy season and for short periods
after heavy rainfall. The water table recedes to a depth
of 30 inches or more in both soils during drought
periods. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate.
Most areas support second-growth pine or planted
pine. A few areas are used for tame pasture, hay, or
urban development. The natural vegetation consists of
slash pine, longleaf pine, laurel oak, scattered
sweetgum, blackgum, water oak, and scattered
pondcypress. The understory includes waxmyrtle,
blackberry, gallberry, grape, greenbrier, lopsided
indiangrass, chalky bluestem, scattered saw palmetto,
panicum, pineland threeawn, broomsedge bluestem,
chalky bluestem, maidencane, and St Johnswort.
If used for cultivated crops under natural conditions,
these soils have very severe limitations because of the
wetness and low natural fertility. They are suited to
most vegetable crops, however, if intensive
management that includes a water-control system to
remove excess water rapidly and provide for subsurface
irrigation is applied. Soil-improving crops and crop
residue can protect the soils from erosion and maintain
the content of organic matter. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be
applied according to the needs of the crop.
If water is properly controlled, these soils are well
suited to improved bermudagrasses, bahiagrass, and
legumes. If properly managed, good pastures of grass
or of grass-legume mixtures can be established. Water-
control measures are needed to remove excess surface
water during long rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for
the best yields of white clover or other adapted shallow-
rooted pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing
an optimum plant population, applying fertilizer and
lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain a good
plant cover and increase forage production.
In most areas the potential productivity of these soils
is high for pines. Slash pine and loblolly pine are
suitable for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Preparing the site and planting and harvesting the trees
during the drier periods also help to overcome the
equipment limitation. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
helps to control competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to


maintain the content of organic matter in the soils. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
These soils are well suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, chalky
bluestem, and blue maidencane. The forage
composition and annual productivity are influenced by
the forest canopy. Little grazing value can be expected
after the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent.
These soils are severely limited as sites for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the high water table during wet periods. A good
drainage system is needed to remove excess water
during wet periods and to control the water table.
Adding suitable fill material increases the depth to the
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The high water table is the major limitation. A good
water-control system is needed. The sandy surface
layer limits trafficability, and soil blowing is a hazard.
These limitations can be overcome by establishing and
maintaining a good vegetative cover or windbreaks or
by adding suitable topsoil or some other material that
can stabilize the surface.
The Plummer soil on flats is assigned to capability
subclass IIIw and woodland ordination symbol 11W.
The wet Plummer soil is assigned to capability subclass
Vw and woodland ordination symbol 2W.

7-Surrency and Pantego soils, depressional.
These nearly level, very poorly drained soils are in
depressions. They do not occur in a regular repeating
pattern on the landscape. Individual areas are circular,
irregularly shaped, or elongated and range from 2 to
more than 500 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
slightly concave. They are dominantly less than 1
percent but range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer in the
Surrency soil is black mucky fine sand about 9 inches
thick. The lower part is very dark grayish brown sand
about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a
depth of about 30 inches. It is light brownish gray sand.
The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The upper 15 inches is grayish brown sandy loam, the
next 10 inches is light gray sandy clay loam, and the
lower 25 inches or more is light gray sandy clay loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pantego soil is
black mucky loamy sand about 15 inches thick. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 64 inches or more. The
upper 3 inches is grayish brown sandy loam, the next
14 inches is dark grayish brown sandy clay loam, and
the lower 32 inches is dark brown sandy clay.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Surrency
and Pantego soils, depressional, Surrency, Pantego,






Union County, Florida


and similar soils make up 83 to 99 percent of the
mapped areas. On 5 percent of the acreage, included
soils make up more than 17 percent of the mapped
areas. Generally, the mapped areas are about 62
percent Surrency and similar soils and about 30 percent
Pantego and similar soils. Some areas are Surrency
and similar soils, some are Pantego and similar soils,
and some are both Surrency and Pantego soils. Each of
the soils does not necessarily occur in every mapped
area. The relative proportion of the soils varies from
area to area. Areas of the individual soils are large
enough to be mapped separately. Because of the
present and predicted land uses, however, they were
mapped as one unit.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Surrency
and Pantego soils are included in mapping. These are
Pelham and Starke soils, soils that have a surface layer
of muck 3 to 16 inches thick, and soils that have a
substratum of sand, loamy sand, or sandy loam at a
depth of more than 60 inches.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Surrency and Pantego soils are included in this map
unit. These are Croatan, Pamlico, and Plummer soils,
which make up about 1 to 17 percent of most mapped
areas.
Undrained areas of the Surrency and Pantego soils
are ponded for 4 months or more during the year, and a
seasonal high water table is within 12 inches of the
surface for 4 to 8 months during most years. The
available water capacity is moderate or high.
Permeability is moderate.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of pondcypress (fig. 9), scattered pond pine,
sweetbay, water tupelo, blackgum, and red maple. The
understory includes gallberry, fetterbush lyonia, devils
walkingstick, sedges, ferns, and other water-tolerant
grasses. Areas of these soils provide cover for deer and
are excellent habitat for wading birds and other wetland
wildlife.
Under natural conditions, these soils are not suited to
cultivated crops, tame pasture, planted pine trees, or
grazeable woodland. The excessive wetness is the
main limitation. Installing adequate water-control
systems is difficult. Many areas are in isolated ponds or
wet depressions that do not have suitable drainage
outlets. In properly managed areas where a good
drainage system can be installed, good-quality grass or
grass-clover pastures can be established.
The limitations affecting urban uses are severe.
Excess water on or near the surface during much of the
year and the thick sandy layers are the dominant
limitations. Drainage systems that would adequately
remove the water and effectively regulate the water
table are expensive and cannot be easily installed or


maintained. Most areas do not have good drainage
outlets. Even where adequate drainage systems are
installed, maintaining the systems is a continuing
problem. Suitable fill material is needed on sites for
dwellings, small commercial buildings, and septic tank
absorption fields.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The ponding and the sandy texture are the major
limitations. A good water-control system is necessary.
Also, suitable fill material is needed to improve
trafficability and to increase the depth to the water
table.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W.

8-Surrency and Pantego soils, frequently flooded.
These nearly level, very poorly drained soils are on
flood plains along various creeks and rivers throughout
the county. They do not occur in a regular repeating
pattern on the landscape. Some areas are isolated by
meandering stream channels. Individual areas are
irregularly shaped or elongated and range from 5 to
more than 100 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
slightly concave. They are dominantly less than 1
percent but range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer in the
Surrency soil is black mucky fine sand about 12 inches
thick. The lower part is very dark gray loamy fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a
depth of about 32 inches. It is grayish brown and light
gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80
inches or more. The upper 10 inches is gray sandy
loam, the next 25 inches is mixed gray and light gray
sandy clay loam, and the lower 13 inches is gray sandy
clay loam.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer in the
Pantego soil is black mucky loamy sand about 10
inches thick. The lower part is very dark gray loamy fine
sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil
is sandy clay loam. The upper 12 inches is dark gray,
the next 14 inches is grayish brown, and the next 17
inches is gray. Below this to a depth of 80 inches is
mixed gray and light gray sandy loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Surrency
and Pantego soils, frequently flooded, Surrency,
Pantego, and similar soils make up 86 to 99 percent of
the mapped areas. On 5 percent of the acreage,
included soils make up more than 14 percent of the
mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas are about
60 percent Surrency and similar soils and about 35
percent Pantego and similar soils. Some areas are
Surrency and similar soils, some are Pantego and
similar soils, and some are both Surrency and Pantego
soils. Each of the soils does not necessarily occur in





Soil Survey


Figure 9.-Pondcypress and water-tolerant grasses in an area of Surrency and Pantego soils, depressional.


every mapped area. The relative proportion of the soils
varies from area to area. Areas of the individual soils
are large enough to be mapped separately. Because of
the present and predicted land uses, however, they
were mapped as one unit.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Surrency
and Pantego soils are included in mapping. These are
Grifton soils and soils that have a thin surface layer of
muck.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Surrency and Pantego soils are included in this map
unit. These are Croatan soils, which make up about 1 to
14 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Surrency and Pantego
soils have a seasonal high water table within 12 inches
of the surface for long periods. These soils are flooded


for very long periods following heavy rainfall. Ponding
occurs in the lower areas for long periods. The
available water capacity is moderate or high.
Permeability is moderate.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of red maple, blackgum, sweetgum, sweetbay,
swamp tupelo, baldcypress, and scattered pond pine.
The understory includes waxmyrtle, dwarf palmetto,
maidencane, ferns, sedges, and other water-tolerant
grasses.
Unless major drainage systems are installed, these
soils are not suited to cultivated crops, tame pasture
grasses, planted pine trees, or grazeable woodland
because of the prolonged wetness and the hazard of
flooding. Establishing and maintaining a drainage
system are difficult and expensive.






Union County, Florida


These soils are severely limited as sites for urban
and recreational uses because of the hazard of flooding
and the wetness. Intensive flood-control and drainage
measures are necessary. Fill material is needed to
elevate building sites, septic tank absorption fields, and
local roads and streets.
These soils are well suited to habitat for wetland and
woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily
developed, and the natural vegetation provides
abundant food and shelter for wildlife.
The capability subclass is VIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W.

10--Osier sand. This nearly level, poorly drained soil
is in low areas in the flatwoods. Individual areas are
circular or irregularly shaped and range from 10 to 120
acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave and are
less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 5 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth
of 80 inches or more is sand. The upper 20 inches is
dark grayish brown, the next 30 inches is grayish
brown, and the lower 25 inches is light brownish gray.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Osier sand,
Osier and similar soils make up 82 to 99 percent of the
mapped areas. On 5 percent of the acreage, included
soils make up more than 18 percent of the mapped
areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Osier soil
are included in mapping. These are Chipley and
Plummer soils and soils that have underlying material of
dark brown to light yellowish brown sand or fine sand.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Osier
soil are included in this map unit. These are Albany
soils, which make up about 1 to 18 percent of most
mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Osier soil has a
seasonal high water table within a depth of 12 inches
for 2 to 4 months and at a depth of 12 to 30 inches for
about 3 to 6 months or more during most years. The
available water capacity is very low. Permeability is
rapid.
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation. A
few areas have been cleared and are used for tame
pasture or planted pine. The natural vegetation consists
of blackgum, water oak, slash pine, and scattered red
maple. The understory includes pineland threeawn,
gallberry, waxmyrtle, scattered saw palmetto, little
bluestem, blue maidencane, toothachegrass,
switchgrass, and various other grasses.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has very severe
limitations because of the wetness and low natural
fertility. The number of crops that can be grown is
limited unless good water-control measures are used. If


these measures are applied, the soil is suitable for most
locally grown crops. It is better suited to specialty crops
than to most general farm crops. A good water-control
system removes excess water during wet periods and
provides for subsurface irrigation during dry periods.
Good management includes growing row crops in
rotation with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops;
returning crop residue, including that of the soil-
improving crops, to the soil; bedding rows to provide
additional rooting depth; and applying fertilizer and lime
according to the needs of the crop.
If water is properly controlled, the soil is well suited
to improved bermudagrasses, bahiagrass, and legumes.
If properly managed, good pastures of grass or of
grass-legume mixtures can be established. Water-
control measures are needed to remove excess surface
water during long rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for
the best yields of white clover or other adapted shallow-
rooted pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing
an optimum plant population, applying fertilizer and
lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain a good
plant cover and increase forage production.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine is suitable for planting. The equipment
limitation, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
management concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main
limitation. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation and
minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Preparing the site and planting and harvesting
the trees during the drier periods also help to overcome
the equipment limitation. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
helps to control competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter in the soil.
This soil is well suited to grazeable woodland. The
desirable forage is creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
and blue maidencane. The forage composition and
annual productivity are influenced by the forest canopy.
Little grazing value can be expected after the canopy
cover exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the high water table during wet periods. A good
drainage system is needed to remove excess water
during wet periods and to control the water table.
Adding suitable fill material increases the depth to the
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The high water table is the major limitation. A good
water-control system is needed. The sandy surface
layer limits trafficability, and soil blowing is a hazard.






Soil Survey


These limitations can be overcome by establishing and
maintaining a good vegetative cover or windbreaks or
by adding suitable topsoil or some other material that
can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is Illw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

12-Sapelo sand. This nearly level, poorly drained
soil is in the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in
shape and range from 3 to more than 400 acres in size.
Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
brown sand about 7 inches thick. The subsoil extends
to a depth of 80 inches or more. In sequence
downward, it is about 6 inches of very dark brown sand,
8 inches of dark brown sand, 21 inches of light gray
sand, 10 inches of light gray fine sandy loam, and 20
inches of light gray sandy clay loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Sapelo
sand, Sapelo and similar soils make up 79 to 99
percent of the mapped areas. On 5 percent of the
acreage, included soils make up more than 21 percent
of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Sapelo soil
are included in mapping. These are Mascotte and
Plummer soils and soils that have less than 10 percent,
by volume, ironstone nodules and weathered
phosphatic limestone fragments in the lower part of the
subsoil.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Sapelo
soil are included in this map unit. These are Pelham,
Starke, and Surrency soils, which make up about 1 to
21 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Sapelo soil has a
seasonal high water table within a depth of about 6 to
18 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. The
available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderate.
Most areas are used for the production of pine trees.
A few areas are used for crops or pasture. The natural
vegetation consists of slash pine, loblolly pine,
gallberry, saw palmetto, fetterbush lyonia, and
waxmyrtle. The understory includes chalky bluestem,
pineland threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, and
broomsedge bluestem.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has very severe
limitations because of the wetness and low fertility. The
number of crops that can be grown is limited unless
good water-control measures are used. If these
measures are applied, the soil is suitable for most
locally grown crops. It is better suited to specialty crops
than to most general farm crops. A good water-control
system removes excess water during wet periods and


provides for subsurface irrigation during dry periods.
Good management includes growing row crops in
rotation with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops;
returning crop residue, including that of the soil-
improving crops, to the soil; bedding rows; and applying
fertilizer and lime according to the needs of the crop.
If water is properly controlled, this soil is well suited
to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes. If
properly managed, good pastures of grass or of grass-
legume mixtures can be established. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
during long rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for the
best yields of white clover or other adapted shallow-
rooted pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing
an optimum plant population, applying fertilizer and
lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain a good
plant cover and increase forage production.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting (fig. 10). The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Preparing the site and planting and harvesting the trees
during the drier periods also help to overcome the
equipment limitation. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
removes debris, helps to control competing vegetation,
and facilitates planting. Leaving all plant debris on the
site helps to maintain the content of organic matter in
the soil. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to grazeable woodland. The
desirable forage is creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
and blue maidencane. The forage composition and
annual productivity are influenced by the forest canopy.
Little grazing value can be expected after the canopy
cover exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the high water table during wet periods. A good
drainage system is needed to remove excess water
during wet periods and to control the water table.
Adding suitable fill material increases the depth to the
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The high water table is the major limitation. A good
water-control system is needed. Trafficability also is a
limitation. Because of the loose, sandy surface layer,
soil blowing is a hazard during dry periods. Establishing
and maintaining a good vegetative cover or windbreaks





Union County, Florida


Figure 10.-A well managed stand of slash pine in an area of Sapelo sand.


or adding suitable topsoil or some other material that
can stabilize the surface improves trafficability and
helps to control soil blowing.
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

14-Pamlico and Croatan mucks. These nearly
level, very poorly drained soils are in depressions. They
do not occur in a regular repeating pattern on the
landscape. Individual areas are irregularly shaped or
elongated and range from 2 to more than 500 acres in
size. Slopes are smooth or slightly concave and are
less than 1 percent.


Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is
muck about 40 inches thick. The upper 16 inches is
dark brown, and the lower 24 inches is black. The
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
sand. The upper 10 inches is very dark grayish brown,
and the lower 30 inches or more is grayish brown.
Typically, the surface layer of the Croatan soil is
black muck about 23 inches thick. The underlying
material extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
upper 7 inches is very dark grayish brown mucky sandy
loam. The next 35 inches is dark gray sandy clay loam.
The lower 15 inches or more is gray sandy clay loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pamlico





Soil Survey


and Croatan mucks, Pamlico, Croatan, and similar soils
make up 82 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5
percent of the acreage, included soils make up more
than 18 percent of the mapped areas. Generally, the
mapped areas are about 52 percent Pamlico and similar
soils and about 40 percent Croatan and similar soils.
Some areas are Pamlico and similar soils, some are
Croatan and similar soils, and some are both Pamlico
and Croatan soils. Each of the soils does not
necessarily occur in every mapped area. The relative
proportion of the soils varies from area to area. Areas
of the individual soils are large enough to be mapped
separately. Because of the present and predicted land
uses, however, they were mapped as one unit.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Pamlico
and Croatan soils are included in mapping. These are
Dorovan soils and soils having an organic surface layer
that is 8 to 16 inches thick.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Pamlico
and Croatan soils are included in this map unit. These
are Surrency soils and soils having coarse pockets of
sand and loamy sand between the organic material and
the underlying material. The dissimilar soils make up
about 1 to 18 percent of most mapped areas.
Undrained areas of the Pamlico and Croatan soils
are ponded for 6 months or more during the year, and a
seasonal high water table is within 12 inches of the
surface for 6 to 12 months during most years. The
available water capacity is very high. Permeability is
moderately slow to moderately rapid.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of sweetbay, red maple, scattered
pondcypress, and widely scattered pond pine. The
understory includes large gallberry, fetterbush lyonia,
willow, maidencane, and other water-tolerant plants.
Areas of these soils provide cover for deer and are
excellent habitat for wading birds and other wetland
wildlife.
Under natural conditions, these soils are not suited to
cultivated crops, tame pasture, planted pine trees, or
grazeable woodland. The excessive wetness is the
main limitation. Installing adequate water-control
systems is difficult. Many areas are in isolated ponds or
wet depressions that do not have suitable drainage
outlets. In properly managed areas where a good
drainage system can be installed, good-quality grass or
grass-clover pastures can be established.
The limitations affecting urban uses are severe.
Excess water on or near the surface during much of the
year and the thick surface layer of muck are the
dominant limitations. Drainage systems that would
adequately remove the water and effectively regulate
the water table are expensive and cannot be easily
installed or maintained. Most areas do not have good


drainage outlets. Even where adequate drainage
systems are installed, maintaining the systems is a
continuing problem. Suitable fill material is needed on
sites for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and
septic tank absorption fields.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The ponding and the mucky surface layer are the major
limitations. A good water-control system is necessary.
Also, suitable fill material is needed to improve
trafficability and to increase the depth to the water
table.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W.

16-Foxworth fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well
drained soil is on uplands. Individual areas are irregular
in shape and range from 2 to more than 150 acres in
size. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 8 inches thick. The underlying material to a
depth of 80 inches or more is sand. The upper 20
inches is yellowish brown, the next 47 inches is
brownish yellow, and the lower 5 inches or more is very
pale brown.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Foxworth
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Foxworth and similar
soils make up 83 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
On 5 percent of the acreage, included soils make up
more than 17 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Foxworth
soil are included in mapping. These are Blanton and
Lakeland soils; soils having a layer that is weakly
coated with organic matter at a depth of about 50
inches or more; soils having a dark surface layer that is
10 to 19 inches thick; and, in a few areas, soils that
have slopes of as much as 8 percent.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Foxworth soil are included in this map unit. These are
Albany and Chipley soils and soils having ironstone
concretions that make up less than 15 percent, by
volume, of any one horizon. The dissimilar soils make
up about 1 to 17 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Foxworth soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 42 to 72 inches
for 1 to 3 months. The water table is at a depth of 30 to
40 inches for less than 30 cumulative days in some
years. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
is very rapid.
Most areas are used for crops or tame pasture. The
natural vegetation consists of live oak, laurel oak, turkey
oak, and bluejack oak and some longleaf pine and
slash pine. Other trees, such as dogwood, hickory,
ironwood, and cherry, grow in some areas. The






Union County, Florida


understory includes huckleberry, gallberry, pineland
threeawn, and various other weeds and grasses.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has severe
limitations. Droughtiness, low natural fertility, and rapid
leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of suitable
plants and reduce the potential crop yields. The high
water table provides water through capillary rise and
thus helps to compensate for the low available water
capacity of the soil. Good management includes
growing the crops in rotation with close-growing, soil-
improving crops; returning crop residue to the soil; and
applying fertilizer and lime. Irrigation of high-value crops
generally is feasible where irrigation water is readily
available. Soil blowing is a hazard where the surface is
unprotected, especially during dry periods. Leaving crop
residue on the surface can help to prevent excessive
soil loss and conserves moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass, but yields are
reduced by periodic droughtiness. If properly managed,
good pastures can be established. Regular applications
of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing
helps to maintain plant vigor.
The potential productivity of this soil is moderately
high for pines. Slash pine and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation
caused by the sandy surface layer. The soil is drought.
During long dry periods, it does not provide enough
moisture for plant growth. Selecting special planting
stock that is larger than usual or that is containerized
reduces the seedling mortality rate. Retarding the
growth of the hardwood understory by chemical or
mechanical means helps to control plant competition.
Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to maintain the
content of organic matter in the soil.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil has slight limitations if used as a site for
dwellings without basements or for small commercial
buildings and moderate limitations if used as a site for
septic tank absorption fields. No corrective measures
are needed. Because of a poor filtering capacity,
however, ground water contamination is a hazard in
areas that have a concentration of dwellings with septic
tanks.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.


The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10S.

17-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
soil is in the uplands. Individual areas are irregular in
shape and range from 2 to more than 500 acres in size.
Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer
extends to a depth of about 42 inches. It is fine sand.
The upper 27 inches is yellowish brown, and the lower
6 inches is very pale brown and has about 5 percent
quartz gravel and ironstone nodules. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. In sequence
downward, it is 6 inches of light yellowish brown loamy
fine sand, 13 inches of light yellowish brown sandy clay
loam that has 5 percent quartz gravel and ironstone
nodules, 13 inches of gray sandy clay, and 6 or more
inches of white sandy clay.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Blanton
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Blanton and similar
soils make up 82 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
On 5 percent of the acreage, included soils make up
more than 18 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Blanton
soil are included in mapping. These are Foxworth and
Troup soils; soils that have 15 to 35 percent, by volume,
ironstone nodules or weathered phosphatic, gravel-
sized limestone fragments in one or more horizons;
soils that have loamy material at a depth of 20 to 40
inches; and, adjacent to drainageways, soils that have
slopes of more than 5 percent.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Blanton
soil are included in this map unit. These are Albany,
Lakeland, and Ocilla soils, which make up about 1 to 18
percent of most mapped areas.
The Blanton soil has a perched water table at a
depth of 48 to 72 inches for 2 to 4 months in most
years. The water table is at a depth of 36 to 48 inches
for less than 30 cumulative days in some years. It
recedes to a depth of more than 72 inches during
extended dry periods. The available water capacity is
low. Permeability is moderate.
Most areas of this soil are used for tame pasture or
cultivated crops. The natural vegetation consists of
bluejack oak and turkey oak and scattered live oak,
longleaf pine, and slash pine. Various other hardwoods,
such as dogwood, ironwood, hickory, and cherry, are






Soil Survey


common. The understory includes pineland threeawn,
creeping bluestem, low panicum, and various other
grasses.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has severe
limitations. Droughtiness, low natural fertility, and rapid
leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of suitable
crops and reduce the potential crop yields. The high
water table provides water through capillary rise and
thus helps to compensate for the low available water
capacity of the soil. Good management includes
growing the crops in rotation with close-growing, soil-
improving crops; returning crop residue to the soil; and
applying fertilizer and lime. Irrigation of high-value crops
generally is feasible where irrigation water is readily
available. Soil blowing is a hazard where the surface is
unprotected, especially during dry periods. Leaving crop
residue on the surface can help to prevent excessive
soil loss and conserves moisture.
This soil is moderately well suited to tame pasture
and hay. It is well suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, but
yields are reduced by periodic droughtiness. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled
grazing helps to maintain plant vigor.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation and seedling
mortality are management concerns. The soil is
drought. During long dry periods, it does not provide
enough moisture for plant growth. Selecting special
planting stock that is larger than usual or that is
containerized reduces the seedling mortality rate. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation on this loose, sandy
soil. Retarding the growth of the hardwood understory
by chemical or mechanical means helps to control plant
competition. Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter in the soil. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil has slight limitations if used as a site for
dwellings without basements or for small commercial
buildings. It is moderately limited as a site for septic
tank absorption fields because of the depth to the water
table during wet periods. In most areas corrective
measures are not needed. Adding suitable fill material
or installing a drainage system, however, helps to
overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.


The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11S.

18-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil is
on broad, slightly elevated ridges in the uplands.
Individual areas are regular in shape and range from 20
to 100 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown sand about 8 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of 80 inches or more is sand. The
upper 40 inches is dark yellowish brown, and the lower
32 inches or more is strong brown and has about 2
percent ironstone concretions.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Lakeland
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Lakeland and similar soils
make up 83 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5
percent of the acreage, included soils make up more
than 17 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Lakeland
soil are included in mapping. These are Troup soils;
soils having thin, discontinuous strata of loamy material
at a depth of about 70 inches or more; and, in a few
areas, soils that have slopes of as much as 12 percent.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Lakeland soil are included in this map unit. These are
Blanton soils, which make up about 1 to 17 percent of
most mapped areas.
The Lakeland soil has a water table below a depth of
80 inches. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is rapid.
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation.
Some areas are used for tame pasture or urban
development. The natural vegetation consists of
bluejack oak, turkey oak, sand post oak, slash pine, and
cherry. The understory includes poison oak, pricklypear
cactus, persimmon, sumac, lopsided indiangrass, purple
lovegrass, and pineland threeawn.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has very severe
limitations. It does not retain a sufficient amount of
moisture during the drier periods because of the coarse
texture. Applied plant nutrients are rapidly leached from
the soil. Corn, peanuts, and watermelons can be grown,
but intensive management is needed. This includes
growing soil-improving cover crops, returning crop
residue to the soil, applying fertilizer and lime, and
using suitable crop rotations. Irrigation is needed during
drought periods. Soil blowing is a severe hazard where
the surface is unprotected. It can damage tender crops.






Union County, Florida


This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture
grasses and hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants,
such as improved bermudagrass and improved
bahiagrass, but yields are reduced by periodic
droughtiness. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant
vigor. Irrigation improves the quality of the pasture and
hay. Shallow-rooted pasture plants do not grow well
because the root zone does not retain a sufficient
amount of moisture.
The potential productivity of this soil is moderately
high for pines. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and sand pine
are suitable for planting. The equipment limitation and
seedling mortality are management concerns. The soil
is drought. During long dry periods, it does not provide
enough moisture for plant growth. Selecting special
planting stock that is larger than usual or that is
containerized reduces the seedling mortality rate. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation on this loose, sandy
soil. Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter in the soil.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil has slight limitations if used as a site for
dwellings, for small commercial buildings, or for septic
tank absorption fields. Because of a poor filtering
capacity, however, ground water contamination is a
hazard in areas that have a concentration of dwellings
with septic tanks.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9S.

20-Grifton and Elloree soils, frequently flooded.
These nearly level, poorly drained soils are on flood
plains along the New River and other major
drainageways throughout the county. They do not occur
in a regular repeating pattern on the landscape. Some
areas are isolated by meandering stream channels.
Individual areas are narrow and elongated and range
from 5 to more than 500 acres in size. Slopes are
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Grifton soil is very
dark gray loamy fine sand about 4 inches thick. The


subsurface layer is dark gray loamy fine sand about 6
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 65
inches or more. In sequence downward, it is 8 inches of
dark gray sandy clay loam, 34 inches of dark gray and
gray sandy clay loam that has pockets and
discontinuous bands of soft carbonate, and 13 or more
inches of gray sandy loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Elloree soil is black
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
extends to a depth of about 33 inches. It is fine sand.
The upper 10 inches is grayish brown, and the lower 18
inches is gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of about
80 inches. The upper 10 inches is light gray sandy
loam, the next 12 inches is grayish brown sandy loam,
and the lower 25 inches is grayish brown sandy clay
loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Grifton and
Elloree soils, frequently flooded, Grifton, Elloree, and
similar soils make up 82 to 99 percent of the mapped
areas. On 5 percent of the acreage, included soils make
up more than 18 percent of the mapped areas.
Generally, the mapped areas are about 67 percent
Grifton and similar soils and about 26 percent Elloree
and similar soils. Some areas are Grifton and similar
soils, some are Elloree and similar soils, and some are
both Grifton and Elloree soils. Each of the soils does
not necessarily occur in every mapped area. The
relative proportion of the soils varies from area to area.
Areas of the individual soils are large enough to be
mapped separately. Because of the present and
predicted land uses, however, they were mapped as
one unit.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Grifton and
Elloree soils are included in mapping. These are soils
that have loamy sand, sand, or fine sand at a depth of
about 50 inches or more; soils that have a thick, dark
surface layer; and soils that have a surface layer of fine
sand or sand underlain by a subsoil of sandy clay loam
or sandy clay.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Grifton
and Elloree soils are included in this map unit. These
are Ousley soils and Fluvaquents, which make up about
1 to 18 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Grifton and Elloree soils
have a seasonal high water table within 12 inches of
the surface for 2 to 6 months during most years. The
duration of flooding is from several days to several
weeks during extended periods of heavy rainfall.
Ponding occurs in the lower areas of these soils for
long periods. The available water capacity is low or
moderate. Permeability is moderate or moderately
rapid.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of various water-tolerant hardwoods, such as






Soil Survey


overcup oak, water oak, sweetgum, ironwood, red
maple, scattered slash pine, loblolly pine, and
baldcypress. The understory vegetation includes
scattered dwarf palmetto, greenbrier, waxmyrtle, and
other water-tolerant plants.
Unless major drainage systems are installed, these
soils are not suited to cultivated crops, tame pasture
grasses, or grazeable woodland because of the
prolonged wetness and the hazard of flooding.
Establishing and maintaining a drainage system are
difficult because of the hazard of flooding.
These soils generally are not used for the production
of pine trees. The equipment limitation, plant
competition, and seedling mortality are management
concerns. A water-control system is needed to remove
excess surface water. Slash pine, loblolly pine,
baldcypress, and hardwoods are suitable for planting.
Harvesting and planting should be scheduled for dry
periods.
These soils are severely limited as sites for urban
and recreational uses because of the hazard of flooding
and the wetness. Intensive flood-control and drainage
measures are necessary. Fill material is needed to
elevate building sites, septic tank absorption fields, and
local roads and streets.
These soils are well suited to habitat for wetland and
woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily
developed, and the natural vegetation provides
abundant food and shelter for wildlife.
The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.

22-Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
soil is on low knolls and ridges in the flatwoods and on
toe slopes in the uplands. Individual areas are
irregularly shaped or elongated and range from 3 to
more than 20 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
slightly convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The underlying
material extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. In
sequence downward, it is 13 inches of yellowish brown
fine sand, 20 inches of brownish yellow fine sand, 15
inches of yellow fine sand, 19 inches of pale brown fine
sand, and 8 inches or more of light gray sand.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Chipley
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Chipley and similar
soils make up 78 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
On 5 percent of the acreage, included soils make up
more than 22 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Chipley
soil are included in mapping. These are Albany soils.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Chipley


soil are included in this map unit. These are Blanton
and Foxworth soils, which make up about 1 to 22
percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Chipley soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 24 to 36 inches
for 2 to 4 months in most years. The water table is at a
depth of 12 to 24 inches for less than 30 cumulative
days in some years. It recedes to a depth of 60 inches
or more during extended dry periods. The available
water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid.
Most areas of this soil are used for cultivated crops,
tame pasture, or planted pine or support natural
vegetation, which consists of longleaf pine, slash pine,
scattered bluejack oak, post oak, turkey oak, live oak,
and laurel oak. The understory includes waxmyrtle,
gallberry, chalky bluestem, hairy panicum, pineland
threeawn, and various other grasses.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has severe
limitations because of the wetness, low natural fertility,
and the hazard of erosion. The high water table retards
root development during wet periods. A well designed,
simple drainage system can overcome this limitation. If
good management that includes water-control measures
is applied, the soil is suited to most locally grown crops.
Good management includes growing the crops in
rotation with close-growing, soil-improving crops;
returning crop residue to the soil; and applying fertilizer
and lime. Irrigation generally is feasible if water is
readily available. Soil blowing is a hazard where the
surface is unprotected, especially during dry periods.
Leaving crop residue on the surface can help to prevent
excessive soil loss and conserves moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass, but yields are
reduced by periodic droughtiness. If properly managed,
good pastures of grass or of grass-legume mixtures can
be established. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain
plant vigor and thus helps to ensure maximum yields.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation and
minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Good site preparation, such as harrowing and
bedding, helps to establish seedlings, removes debris,
helps to control competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Retarding the growth of the hardwood
understory by chemical or mechanical means helps to
control plant competition.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.




Union County, Florida


The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the water table during wet periods. Adding suitable fill
material increases the depth to the water table and thus
helps to overcome the wetness. If outlets are available,
a surface drainage system can be installed.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11S.

23-Pelham-Pelham, wet, fine sands. These nearly
level, poorly drained soils generally are in broad areas
in the flatwoods. The wet Pelham soil is in the slightly
lower areas and in poorly defined drainageways. The
soils occur in a regular repeating pattern on the
landscape. Excess water ponds in the low areas during
the rainy season and for short periods after heavy
rainfall (fig. 11). Individual areas are broad or irregularly
shaped and range from 2 to more than 3,600 acres in
size. Slopes are smooth or slightly concave and range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pelham soil in
broad areas in the flatwoods is very dark gray fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a
depth of about 31 inches. It is fine sand. The upper 7
inches is dark gray, and the lower 16 inches is gray.
The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The upper 5 inches is gray fine sandy loam, the next 26
inches is gray sandy clay loam, and the lower 18 inches
is light gray sandy clay.
Typically, the surface layer of the wet Pelham soil is
very dark gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 22 inches.
It is gray fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of
80 inches or more. The upper 26 inches is gray fine
sandy loam, the next 13 inches is gray sandy clay loam,
and the lower 32 inches or more is dark gray sandy
clay loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pelham-
Pelham, wet, fine sands, Pelham and similar soils make
up 85 to 98 percent of the mapped areas. On 5 percent
of the acreage, included soils make up more than 15
percent of the mapped areas. Generally, the mapped


areas are about 52 percent Pelham and similar soils in
broad areas in the flatwoods and 39 percent wet
Pelham soil and similar soils. The components of this
map unit occur as areas so intricately intermingled that
it is not practical to map them separately at the scale
used in mapping. The proportions and patterns of both
of the Pelham soils and of the similar soils are relatively
consistent in most mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Pelham
soils are included in mapping. These are Plummer soils;
soils that have 5 to 15 percent, by volume, ironstone
nodules or weathered phosphatic, gravel-sized
limestone fragments in one or more horizons; soils in
which the subsoil is within a depth of 20 inches; soils
that have more than 35 percent base saturation in the
subsoil; soils that have a substratum of sand or loamy
sand at a depth of 60 inches or more; and, in a few
areas adjacent to well defined drainageways, soils that
have slopes of as much as 5 percent and a yellow
subsurface layer.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Pelham
soils are included in this map unit. These are Albany
and Surrency soils, which make up about 2 to 15
percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Pelham soil in broad
areas in the flatwoods has a water table within about 6
to 18 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months and the
wet Pelham soil has one at or above the surface for 2
to 4 months during rainy periods and for short periods
after heavy rainfall. The water table recedes to a depth
of 24 to 40 inches or more in both soils during drought
periods. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate.
Most areas support second-growth pine or planted
pine. A few areas are used for tame pasture, hay, or
urban development. The natural vegetation consists of
slash pine, longleaf pine, laurel oak, scattered
sweetgum, blackgum, and water oak in the flatwoods.
Pond pine, pondcypress, scattered sweetgum, and
slash pine grow in the lower areas. The understory
includes waxmyrtle, blackberry, tarflower, gallberry,
grape, greenbrier, lopsided indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, scattered saw palmetto, panicum, pineland
threeawn, and little bluestem in the flatwoods and
maidencane, St Johnswort, and various other water-
tolerant grasses in the lower areas.
If used for cultivated crops under natural conditions,
these soils have very severe limitations because of the
wetness and low natural fertility. Th3y are suited to
most vegetable crops, however, if intensive
management that includes a water-control system to
remove excess water rapidly and provide for subsurface
irrigation is applied. Soil-improving crops and crop
residue can protect the soils from erosion and maintain




Soil Survey


Figure 11.-Ponding on the wet Pelham soil in an area of Pelham-Pelham, wet, fine sands. The site has been cleared and prepared for the
next planting of pine trees.


the content of organic matter. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be
applied according to the needs of the crop.
If water is properly controlled, these soils are well
suited to improved bermudagrasses, bahiagrass, and
legumes. If properly managed, good pastures of grass
or of grass-legume mixtures can be established. Water-
control measures are needed to remove excess surface
water during long rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for
the best yields of white clover or other adapted shallow-
rooted pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing


an optimum plant population, applying fertilizer and
lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain a good
plant cover and increase forage production.
In most areas the potential productivity of these soils
is high for pines. Slash pine and loblolly pine are
suitable for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main limitation. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes






Union County, Florida


compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Preparing the site and planting and harvesting the trees
during the drier periods also help to overcome the
equipment limitation. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
helps to control competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter in the soils. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
These soils are well suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, chalky
bluestem, and blue maidencane. The forage
composition and annual productivity are influenced by
the forest canopy. Little grazing value can be expected
after the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent.
These soils are severely limited as sites for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the high water table during wet periods. A good
.drainage system is needed to remove excess water
during wet periods and to control the water table.
Adding suitable fill material increases the depth to the
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The high water table is the major limitation. A good
water-control system is needed. The sandy surface
layer limits trafficability, and soil blowing is a hazard.
These limitations can be overcome by establishing and
maintaining a good vegetative cover or windbreaks or
by adding suitable topsoil or some other material that
can stabilize the surface.
The Pelham soil in broad areas in the flatwoods is
assigned to capability subclass IIIw. The wet Pelham
soil is assigned to capability subclass Vw. Both soils
are assigned to woodland ordination symbol 11W.

24-Starke mucky fine sand, depressional. This
nearly level, very poorly drained soil is in depressions in
the flatwoods. Individual areas are circular, irregularly
shaped, or elongated and range from 2 to more than 15
acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave and range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is black
mucky fine sand about 7 inches thick. The lower part is
black fine sand about 11 inches thick. The subsurface
layer extends to a depth of about 46 inches. It is fine
sand. The upper 8 inches is dark grayish brown, and
the lower 20 inches is brown. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches or more. It is gray sandy loam in the
upper 13 inches and gray sandy clay loam in the lower
21 inches or more.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Starke
mucky fine sand, depressional, Starke and similar soils
make up 84 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5


percent of the acreage, included soils make up more
than 16 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Starke soil
are included in mapping. These are Plummer and
Surrency soils and soils that have a surface layer of
muck 8 to 16 inches thick.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Starke
soil are included in this map unit. These are Croatan,
Pamlico, and Plummer soils, which make up about 1 to
16 percent of most mapped areas.
Undrained areas of the Starke soil are ponded for 4
to 8 months during the year, and the water table is
within 12 inches of the surface for 6 to 9 months during
most years. The available water capacity and
permeability are moderate.
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation,
which consists of pondcypress, scattered slash pine,
sweetbay, red maple, and tupelo. The understory
includes maidencane, brackenfern, sedge, greenbrier,
gallberry, St Johnswort, and other water-tolerant plants.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, tame pasture, planted pine trees, or
grazeable woodland. The excessive wetness is the
main limitation. Installing adequate water-control
systems is difficult. Many areas are in isolated ponds or
wet depressions that do not have suitable drainage
outlets. In properly managed areas where a good
drainage system can be installed, good-quality grass or
grass-clover pastures can be established.
The limitations affecting urban uses are severe.
Excess water on or near the surface during much of the
year is the dominant limitation. Drainage systems that
would adequately remove the water and effectively
regulate the water table are expensive and cannot be
easily installed or maintained. Most areas do not have
good drainage outlets. Even where adequate drainage
systems are installed, maintaining the systems is a
continuing problem. Suitable fill material is needed on
sites for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and
septic tank absorption fields.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The ponding and the sandy texture are the major
limitations. A good water-control system is necessary.
Also, suitable fill material is needed to improve
trafficability and to increase the depth to the water
table.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W.

25-Fluvaquents-Ousley association, occasionally
flooded. These nearly level, poorly drained and
somewhat poorly drained soils are on the flood plains
along the Santa Fe River, the New River, and other
major drainageways throughout the county. The soils






Soil Survey


occur in a regular repeating pattern on the landscape.
Some areas are isolated by meandering stream
channels. Individual areas are long and narrow or broad
and irregularly shaped and range from 10 to more than
500 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave or are
undulating in dissected areas. They generally range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Fluvaquents is
grayish brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The
underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. In sequence downward, it is 14 inches of grayish
brown loam, 11 inches of grayish brown sand, 12
inches of dark grayish brown sandy clay loam, and 38
or more inches of dark grayish brown sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Ousley soil is dark
grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. In sequence downward, it is 20 inches of brown
fine sand, 16 inches of very pale brown fine sand, 15
inches of light brownish gray sand, and 25 or more
inches of light gray sand.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as the
Fluvaquents-Ousley association, occasionally flooded,
Fluvaquents, Ousley, and similar soils make up 95 to 99
percent of the mapped areas. On 5 percent of the
acreage, included soils make up more than 5 percent of
the mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas are
about 78 percent Fluvaquents and similar soils and
about 18 percent Ousley and similar soils. Some areas
are Fluvaquents and similar soils, some are Ousley and
similar soils, and some are both Fluvaquents and
Ousley soils. Each of the soils does not necessarily
occur in every mapped area. The relative proportion of
the soils varies from area to area. Areas of the
individual soils are large enough to be mapped
separately. Because of the present and predicted land
uses, however, they were mapped as one unit.
Soils that are similar to the Fluvaquents are included
in mapping. These are soils that are loamy or sandy
throughout or that have a thin surface layer of muck.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Ousley soil
are included in mapping. These soils have thin,
discontinuous layers of loamy material.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Ousley
soil and Fluvaquents are included in this map unit.
These are Grifton and Elloree soils, which make up
about 1 to 5 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Fluvaquents have a
seasonal high water table within a depth of 12 inches
for 2 to 6 months. The water table recedes to a depth of
12 to 40 inches during the rest of the year. The Ousley
soil has a seasonal high water table at a depth of 18 to
36 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a depth of 12 to 18


inches for brief periods after heavy rainfall. The water
table recedes to a depth of 60 inches or more during
extended dry periods. The frequency, duration, and
extent of flooding vary and are directly related to the
intensity and frequency of rainfall. The flooding normally
lasts from 7 weeks to 6 months or more on the
Fluvaquents and for less than 7 days on the Ousley
soil. Excess water ponds in the lower areas of the
Fluvaquents. The available water capacity is low or
moderate in the Fluvaquents and very low in the Ousley
soil. Permeability varies in the Fluvaquents and is rapid
in the Ousley soil.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of baldcypress, sweetgum, sweetbay, water
oak, red maple, laurel oak, blackgum, sparkleberry, and
common sweetleaf. The understory includes dwarf
palmetto, ferns, gallberry, waxmyrtle, greenbrier, low
panicum, and other water-tolerant plants.
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops, tame
pasture grasses, or grazeable woodland because of the
prolonged wetness and the hazard of flooding.
Numerous backwater channels, low areas, and steep
banks severely limit the use of equipment even in dry
periods. Because the soils vary greatly over short
distances and are subject to flooding, applying
management measures is difficult.
These soils generally are not suited to planted pines.
In a few areas, however, the potential productivity of the
Ousley soil is moderately high for pines. Slash pine is
suitable for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The hazard of flooding and the wetness in
adjacent areas severely restrict the use of these soils
for planted pines. The use of equipment that has large
tires or tracks helps to overcome the equipment
limitation and minimizes compaction and root damage
during thinning activities. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
removes debris, helps to control competing vegetation,
and facilitates planting. Retarding the growth of the
hardwood understory by chemical or mechanical means
helps to control plant competition.
These soils are severely limited as sites for urban
and recreational uses because of the hazard of flooding
and the wetness. Intensive flood-control and drainage
measures are necessary. Fill material is needed to
elevate building sites, septic tank absorption fields, and
local roads and streets.
These soils are well suited to habitat for wetland and
woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily
developed, and the natural vegetation provides
abundant food and shelter for wildlife.
The Fluvaquents are assigned to capability subclass






Union County, Florida


Vw and woodland ordination symbol 7W. The Ousley
soil is assigned to capability subclass IIIw and
woodland ordination symbol 10W.

28-Arents, moderately wet, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
These nearly level to gently sloping soils are in areas
that have been reworked or filled in during earthmoving
activities. The soil material in these areas is used as fill
in shallow depressions, swamps, and other low areas.
The soils are mainly in shallow landfills, on elevated
building sites, on airstrips, and adjacent to bodies of
water. Individual areas are irregularly shaped or
rectangular and range from 1 to more than 100 acres in
size.
These soils consist of material dug from several
areas that have different kinds of soil. Typically, the
upper 8 inches is brown and dark brown fine sand. It is
underlain by 14 inches of grayish brown sandy loam
and 5 inches of pale brown loamy fine sand. Below this
to a depth of 80 inches is undisturbed soil. In sequence
downward, the undisturbed soil is 6 inches of very dark
gray fine sand, 14 inches of light brownish gray fine
sand, 9 inches of light gray fine sand, and 24 or more
inches of grayish brown sandy loam. The texture of the
fill material ranges from fine sand to sandy clay loam.
Thin, discontinuous lenses or clods of a dark, sandy
subsoil or a few rock fragments can be scattered
throughout the matrix.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of soils that are similar to the Arents but have slopes of
more than 5 percent as a result of stockpiling; small
areas of undisturbed soils; small areas of water; areas
where soil material has been removed, backfilled, or
both to a depth of 80 inches or more; and areas where
sand or fine sand is mixed with discontinuous loamy
fragments. Also included are areas that are used as
sanitary landfills and are as much as 50 percent or
more solid waste material. These areas are delineated
as "sanitary landfill" on the soil map. The percentage of
included soils varies from one area to another but
generally does not exceed 30 percent.
Most properties of the Arents vary. Permeability
generally is moderately rapid or rapid. Depth to the
water table varies, depending on the amount of fill
material and the extent of artificial drainage in any given
area. In most years the water table is at a depth of 18
to 36 inches for 2 to 4 months. In some areas where
the Arents consist of two or more strata of sandy and
loamy material, it is perched over the layer of loamy
material after heavy rainfall. The water table can be at a
depth of 60 inches or more during extended dry
periods. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to
moderately alkaline. The available water capacity
generally ranges from very low to moderate.


The natural vegetation has been removed from most
areas of these soils. The existing vegetation consists of
scattered slash pine and various weeds or grasses.
Cypress and water-tolerant plants grow in some low
areas. Some areas have been leveled and seeded to
various grasses.
Most areas of these soils are used for urban
development. Onsite investigations are needed to
determine the suitability for all uses because both the
soil material and the depth to the high water table vary,
depending on the amount of fill material and the extent
of artificial drainage.
No capability subclass or woodland ordination symbol
is assigned.

29-Dorovan muck, frequently flooded. This nearly
level, very poorly drained, organic soil is on flood plains
and in drainageways. Individual areas are narrow and
elongated or broad and irregularly shaped and range
from 40 to 5,600 acres in size. Slopes are smooth and
range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown muck about
25 inches thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or
more is very dark brown muck.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Dorovan
muck, frequently flooded, Dorovan and similar soils
make up 93 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. On 5
percent of the acreage, included soils make up more
than 7 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Dorovan
soil are included in mapping. These are Pamlico and
Croatan soils. Pamlico soils are around the outer edges
of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Dorovan soil are included in this map unit. These are
Pantego soils, which make up about 1 to 7 percent of
most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Dorovan soil has a
water table at or above the surface for 6 months or
more during most years. Flooding occurs frequently
during rainy periods. The duration and extent of flooding
vary and are directly related to the intensity and
frequency of rainfall. The flooding generally lasts from 1
to 4 months. The available water capacity is very high.
Permeability is moderate.
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation,
which consists of baldcypress, red maple, sweetbay,
sweetgum, and swamp tupelo. The understory includes
scattered fetterbush lyonia, greenbrier, and various
water-tolerant grasses.
Unless major drainage systems are installed, this soil
is not suited to cultivated crops, tame pasture grasses,
planted pine trees, or grazeable woodland because of
the prolonged wetness and the hazard of flooding.






Soil Survey


Establishing and maintaining a drainage system are
difficult.
This soil is severely limited as a site for urban and
recreational uses because of the hazard of flooding, the
wetness, and excess humus. Intensive flood-control and
drainage measures are necessary. The organic material
should be removed. Fill material is needed to elevate
building sites, septic tank absorption fields, and local
roads and streets.
This soil is well suited to habitat for wetland and
woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily
developed, and the natural vegetation provides
abundant food and shelter for wildlife.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W.

30-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This nearly
level to gently sloping, well drained soil is in the
uplands. Individual areas are regular in shape and
range from 3 to 40 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
slightly convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer
extends to a depth of about 50 inches. It is yellowish
brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches is
sandy loam. The upper 15 inches is yellowish brown,
and the lower 15 inches or more is brownish yellow.
On 80 percent of the acreage mapped as Troup
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Troup and similar soils
make up 78 to 97 percent of the mapped areas. On 20
percent of the acreage, included soils make up less
than 3 percent or more than 22 percent of the mapped
areas.
Areas of soils that are similar to the Troup soil are
included in mapping. These soils have a loamy subsoil
at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Troup
soil are included in this map unit. These are well
drained soils that are sandy throughout and soils that
have thin, discontinuous bands of loamy sand at a
depth of 50 inches or more. The dissimilar soils make
up about 3 to 22 percent of most mapped areas.
The Troup soil has a water table below a depth of 72
inches. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderate.
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation or
are used for crops or tame pasture. The natural
vegetation consists of slash pine, live oak, bluejack oak,
and scattered hickory. The understory includes dwarf
huckleberry, sassafras, ferns, and pineland threeawn.
If used for most cultivated crops, this soil has severe
limitations. Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant
nutrients, and low fertility limit the choice of suitable
plants and reduce the potential crop yields. Good


management includes growing the crops in rotation with
close-growing, soil-improving crops; returning crop
residue to the soil; and applying fertilizer and lime. Soil
blowing is a hazard where the surface is unprotected,
especially during dry periods. Leaving crop residue on
the surface can help to prevent excessive soil loss and
conserves moisture. Irrigation increases the yields of
most crops.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and
hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and improved bahiagrasses,
but yields can be reduced by periodic droughtiness.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant vigor and a
good ground cover.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Longleaf pine, loblolly pine, and slash pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The soil is drought. During long dry periods,
it does not provide enough moisture for plant growth.
Selecting special planting stock that is larger than usual
or that is containerized reduces the seedling mortality
rate. The use of equipment that has large tires or tracks
helps to overcome the equipment limitation on this
loose, sandy soil. Retarding the growth of the hardwood
understory by chemical or mechanical means helps to
control plant competition. Leaving all plant debris on the
site helps to maintain the content of organic matter in
the soil. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil has slight limitations if used as a site for
dwellings, for small commercial buildings, or for septic
tank absorption fields. These uses require no special
measures.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11S.

34-Goldhead fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
drained soil is on flats in low upland areas and in seeps
adjacent to drainageways. Individual areas are
irregularly shaped and range from 2 to more than 70






Union County, Florida


acres in size. Slopes are smooth to convex and range
mainly from 0 to 3 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 9
inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of
about 23 inches. It is fine sand. The upper 8 inches is
dark gray, and the lower 6 inches is light gray. The
subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is fine sandy
loam. It is grayish brown in the upper 21 inches, gray in
the next 24 inches, and light gray in the lower 24
inches.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Goldhead
fine sand, Goldhead and similar soils make up 76 to 99
percent of the mapped areas. On 10 percent of the
acreage, included soils make up more than 24 percent
of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Goldhead
soil are included in mapping. These are soils that have
a subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches; soils in
which the subsoil is within a depth of 20 inches; soils
that have a thick, dark surface layer; and soils that have
about 30 percent, by volume, ironstone nodules and
weathered phosphatic limestone fragments in the
subsurface layer or in the subsoil.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Goldhead soil are included in this map unit. These are
Surrency and Wampee soils, which make up about 1 to
24 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Goldhead soil has a
seasonal high water table within a depth of about 6 to
18 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years. The
available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderately slow in the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are used as tame pasture. The
natural vegetation consists of slash pine, scattered
laurel oak, red maple, hickory, and ironwood. The
understory consists of gallberry, waxmyrtle, greenbrier,
scattered saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, and various
other grasses.
If this soil is used for cultivated crops under natural
conditions, the wetness is a very severe limitation. The
soil is suited to most crops, however, if intensive
management that includes a water-control system to
remove excess water rapidly and provide for subsurface
irrigation is applied. Soil-improving crops and crop
residue can protect the soil from erosion and maintain
the content of organic matter. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be
applied according to the needs of the crop.
If water is properly controlled, this soil is well suited
to improved bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and legumes. If
properly managed, good pastures of grass or of grass-
legume mixtures can be established. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
during long rainy periods. Irrigation is needed for the


best yields of white clover or other adapted shallow-
rooted pasture plants during dry periods. Establishing
an optimum plant population, applying fertilizer and
lime, and controlling grazing help to maintain a good
plant cover and increase forage production.
In most areas the potential productivity of this soil is
moderately high for pines. Slash pine, loblolly pine, and
longleaf pine are suitable for planting. The equipment
limitation, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
management concerns. Seasonal wetness is the main
limitation. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation and
minimizes compaction and root damage during thinning
activities. Preparing the site and planting and harvesting
the trees during the drier periods also help to overcome
the equipment limitation. Good site preparation, such as
harrowing and bedding, helps to establish seedlings,
helps to control competing vegetation, and facilitates
planting. Leaving all plant debris on the site helps to
maintain the content of organic matter in the soil. The
trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is well suited to grazeable woodland. The
desirable forage is creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
and blue maidencane. The forage composition and
annual productivity are influenced by the forest canopy.
Little grazing value can be expected after the canopy
cover exceeds 60 percent.
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings
without basements, for small commercial buildings, and
for septic tank absorption fields because of the depth to
the high water table during wet periods. A good
drainage system is needed to remove excess water
during wet periods and to control the water table.
Adding suitable fill material increases the depth to the
water table and thus helps to overcome the wetness.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The high water table is the major limitation. A good
water-control system is needed. The sandy surface
layer limits trafficability, and soil blowing is a hazard.
These limitations can be overcome by establishing and
maintaining a good vegetative cover or windbreaks or
by adding suitable topsoil or some other material that
can stabilize the surface.
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.

35-Wampee loamy fine sand, 5 to 12 percent
slopes. This moderately sloping and strongly sloping,
somewhat poorly drained soil is in low upland areas
adjacent to poorly defined drainageways or flood plains
along streams. Individual areas are long and narrow or
broad and irregularly shaped and range from 5 to more
than 150 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is loamy fine sand about






Soil Survey


13 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is very dark grayish
brown, and the lower 7 inches is dark brown. The
subsurface layer is pale brown fine sand about 11
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 69
inches. The upper 5 inches is light gray loamy fine
sand, the next 21 inches is light gray gravelly sandy
clay loam, and the lower 19 inches is light gray sandy
clay. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is
light gray clay. Limestone fragments and ironstone
nodules are throughout the soil.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Wampee
loamy fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes, Wampee and
similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the mapped
areas. On 5 percent of the acreage, included soils make
up more than 20 percent of the mapped areas.
Areas of soils that are similar to the Wampee soil are
included in mapping. These are slightly eroded soils in
which the subsoil is within a depth of 20 inches; soils
that have no coarse fragments; soils that have more
than 30 percent, by volume, coarse fragments in the
subsurface layer and subsoil; soils that have less than
35 percent base saturation; and, on short, steep slopes,
soils that are wet as the result of lateral seepage.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Wampee soil are included in this map unit. These are
moderately well drained soils that do not have a
significant content of gravel and limestone fragments
and poorly drained and somewhat poorly drained soils
that have a subsoil at a depth of 40 inches or more.
The dissimilar soils make up about 1 to 22 percent of
most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Wampee soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 12 to 36 inches
for 2 to 6 months during most years or for short periods
after heavy rainfall. The available water capacity is low.
Permeability is moderately slow.
Most areas of this soil support native hardwoods.
Some areas have been cleared and are used as tame
pasture. The natural vegetation consists of sweetgum,
hickory, slash pine, southern magnolia, laurel oak, and
red maple. The understory includes waxmyrtle,
American beautyberry, dwarf palmetto, greenbrier,
Virginia creeper, wild grape, pineland threeawn, and
panicum.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has very severe
limitations because of the wetness, low natural fertility,
the hazard of erosion, and the slope. The high water
table retards root development during wet periods. A
well designed, simple drainage system can overcome
this limitation. Good management includes planting on
the contour; growing the crops in rotation with close-
growing, soil-improving crops; returning crop residue to
the soil; and applying fertilizer and lime. A drainage
system is needed for some crops. Soil blowing is a


hazard where the surface is unprotected, especially
during dry periods. Leaving crop residue on the surface
can help to prevent excessive soil loss and conserves
moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass, but yields are
reduced by periodic droughtiness. If properly managed,
good pastures of grass or of grass-legume mixtures can
be established. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain
plant vigor.
The potential productivity of this soil is moderately
high for pines. Slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly
pine are suitable for planting. The equipment limitation
and plant competition are management concerns. The
use of equipment that has large tires or tracks helps to
overcome the equipment limitation and minimizes
compaction and root damage during thinning activities.
Good site preparation, such as harrowing and bedding,
helps to establish seedlings, removes debris, helps to
control competing vegetation, and facilitates planting.
Retarding the growth of the hardwood understory by
chemical or mechanical means helps to control plant
competition. The trees respond well to applications of
fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
This soil has severe limitations if used as a site for
dwellings without basements, for small commercial
buildings, or for septic tank absorption fields because of
the depth to the water table during wet periods and the
slope. Adding suitable fill material increases the depth
to the water table and thus helps to overcome the
wetness. A surface drainage system can be installed.
Land shaping can help to overcome the slope.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface. The slope
is a limitation on sites for some recreational uses.
The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10W.

37-Pamlico and Croatan mucks, frequently
flooded. These nearly level, very poorly drained soils
are on flood plains. They do not occur in a regular
repeating pattern on the landscape. Individual areas are






Union County, Florida


irregularly shaped or elongated and range from 40 to
more than 400 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
slightly concave and are less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is
muck about 48 inches thick. The upper 16 inches is
dark brown, and the lower 32 inches is black. The
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
sand. The upper 17 inches is dark brown, and the lower
15 inches or more is pale brown.
Typically, the surface layer of the Croatan soil is
black muck about 38 inches thick. The next 10 inches is
very dark gray mucky sandy loam. The underlying
material to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark gray
sandy loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Pamlico
and Croatan mucks, frequently flooded, Pamlico,
Croatan, and similar soils make up 89 to 99 percent of
the mapped areas. On 5 percent of the acreage,
included soils make up more than 11 percent of the
mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas are about
53 percent Pamlico and similar soils and about 43
percent Croatan and similar soils. Some areas are
Pamlico and similar soils, some are Croatan and similar
soils, and some are both Pamlico and Croatan soils.
Each of the soils does not necessarily occur in every
mapped area. The relative proportion of the soils varies
from area to area. Areas of the individual soils are large
enough to be mapped separately. Because of the
present and predicted land uses, however, they were
mapped as one unit.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Pamlico
and Croatan soils are included in mapping. These are
Dorovan soils, soils that have an organic surface layer
that is 8 to 16 inches thick, and Pamlico soils that have
a loamy substratum at a depth of more than 40 inches.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Pamlico
and Croatan soils are included in this map unit. These
are Starke and Surrency soils, which make up about 1
to 11 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Pamlico and Croatan
soils have a seasonal high water table at or above the
surface for more than 6 months during most years.
Flooding occurs frequently during rainy periods. The
duration and extent of flooding vary and are directly
related to the intensity and frequency of rainfall. The
flooding normally lasts from 2 to 4 months. Ponding
occurs in the lower areas of these soils for long periods.
The available water capacity is very high. Permeability
is moderately slow to moderately rapid.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of sweetbay, blackgum, swamp tupelo,
baldcypress, red maple, and pond pine. The understory
includes gallberry, buttonbush, greenbrier, and
waxmyrtle.


Unless major drainage systems are installed, these
soils are not suited to cultivated crops, tame pasture
grasses, planted pine trees, or grazeable woodland
because of the prolonged wetness and the hazard of
flooding. Establishing and maintaining a drainage
system are difficult because of the hazard of flooding.
These soils are severely limited as sites for urban
and recreational uses because of the hazard of
flooding, the wetness, and excess humus. Intensive
flood-control and drainage measures are necessary.
The organic material should be removed. Fill material is
needed to elevate building sites, septic tank absorption
fields, and local roads and streets.
These soils are well suited to habitat for wetland and
woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily
developed, and the natural vegetation provides
abundant food and shelter for wildlife.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 7W.

39-Blanton fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This
moderately sloping and strongly sloping, moderately
well drained soil is on uplands. Individual areas are
irregularly shaped or elongated and range from 2 to
more than 50 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
convex.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends to a
depth of about 59 inches. It is fine sand. The upper 8
inches is brown, the next 22 inches is light yellowish
brown, and the lower 23 inches is very pale brown. The
subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is yellowish red
sandy loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Blanton
fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes, Blanton and similar
soils make up 75 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
On 5 percent of the acreage, included soils make up
more than 25 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Blanton
soil are included in mapping. These are Foxworth and
Troup soils, soils that have slopes of less than 5
percent, and soils that have less than 15 percent, by
volume, ironstone nodules and weathered phosphatic
limestone fragments in the subsurface layer and
subsoil.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the Blanton
soil are included in this map unit. These are Albany and
Lakeland soils, which make up about 1 to 25 percent of
most mapped areas.
The Blanton soil has a perched water table at a
depth of 48 to 72 inches for 2 to 4 months in most
years. The water table is at a depth of 36 to 48 inches
for less than 30 cumulative days in some years. In
areas where seepage occurs at the base of the slopes,






Soil Survey


the water table is within a depth of 30 inches for brief
periods after heavy rainfall. The available water
capacity is low. Permeability is moderate.
Most areas are used for tame pasture or cultivated
crops. The natural vegetation consists of live oak,
bluejack oak, and turkey oak and scattered longleaf
pine and slash pine. Various hardwoods, such as
dogwood, ironwood, hickory, and cherry, are common.
The understory includes pineland threeawn, creeping
bluestem, low panicum, and various other grasses.
If used for most cultivated crops, this soil has very
severe limitations. Droughtiness, low natural fertility,
rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and the slope limit the
choice of suitable plants and reduce the potential crop
yields. The high water table provides water through
capillary rise and thus helps to compensate for the low
available water capacity of the soil. Good management
includes growing the crops in rotation with close-
growing, soil-improving crops; returning crop residue to
the soil; planting on the contour; and applying fertilizer
and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard where the surface is
unprotected, especially during dry periods. Leaving crop
residue on the surface can help to prevent excessive
soil loss and conserves moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, but
yields are reduced by periodic droughtiness. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled
grazing helps to maintain plant vigor and a good ground
cover.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The soil is drought. During long dry periods,
it does not provide enough moisture for plant growth.
Selecting special planting stock that is larger than usual
or that is containerized reduces the seedling mortality
rate. The use of equipment that has large tires or tracks
helps to overcome the equipment limitation on this
loose, sandy soil. Leaving all plant debris on the site
helps to maintain the content of organic matter in the
soil. The trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
The slope is a slight or moderate limitation on sites
for dwellings without basements and a moderate or
severe limitation on sites for small commercial
buildings. Land shaping can help to overcome this


limitation. The soil has moderate limitations if used as a
site for septic tank absorption fields because of the
depth to the water table during wet periods and the
slope. Corrective measures may or may not be needed.
Land shaping and adding suitable fill material can
overcome these limitations.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface. The slope
is a limitation on sites for some recreational uses.
The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11S.

41-Bonneau fine sand, 6 to 10 percent slopes.
This moderately sloping, moderately well drained soil is
on uplands. Individual areas are irregularly shaped or
elongated and range from about 2 to more than 60
acres in size. Slopes are dominantly smooth to
concave.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface
layer extends to a depth of about 28 inches. The upper
7 inches is brown loamy fine sand, and the lower 13
inches is brown fine sand. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 6 inches is
yellowish brown fine sandy loam, the next 14 inches is
yellowish brown sandy clay loam, and the lower 32
inches is light gray, mottled sandy clay loam.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Bonneau
fine sand, 6 to 10 percent slopes, Bonneau and similar
soils make up 75 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
On 5 percent of the acreage, included soils make up
more than 25 percent of the mapped areas.
Small areas of soils that are similar to the Bonneau
soil are included in mapping. These are Blanton soils;
soils that have slopes of less than 6 percent; soils that
have more than 15 percent, by volume, ironstone
nodules and weathered phosphatic limestone fragments
in the subsurface layer and subsoil; soils in which the
subsoil is within a depth of 20 inches; and, in a few
areas, severely eroded soils.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Bonneau soil are included in this map unit. These are
Albany, Ocilla, Troup, and Wampee soils, which make
up about 1 to 25 percent of most mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, the Bonneau soil has a
seasonal high water table at a depth of 42 to 60 inches
for 1 to 3 months during most years. The water table is
within a depth of 36 inches for brief periods after heavy
rainfall. In some areas wetness is the result of lateral
seepage instead of an apparent high water table. The







Union County, Florida


available water capacity is low. Permeability is
moderate.
Most areas are used for tame pasture or cultivated
crops. The natural vegetation consists of live oak,
bluejack oak, and turkey oak and scattered longleaf
pine and slash pine. Various hardwoods, such as
dogwood, ironwood, hickory, and cherry, are common.
The understory includes pineland threeawn, creeping
bluestem, low panicum, indiangrass, and various other
grasses.
If used for cultivated crops, this soil has severe
limitations. Droughtiness, low natural fertility, rapid
leaching of plant nutrients, and the slope limit the
choice of suitable plants and reduce the potential crop
yields. The high water table provides water through
capillary rise and thus helps to compensate for the low
available water capacity of the soil. Good management
includes growing the crops in rotation with close-
growing, soil-improving crops; returning crop residue to
the soil; planting on the contour; and applying fertilizer
and lime. Soil blowing is a hazard where the surface is
unprotected, especially during dry periods. Leaving crop
residue on the surface can help to prevent excessive
soil loss and conserves moisture.
This soil is moderately suited to tame pasture and
hay. It is suited to deep-rooted plants, such as
improved bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, but
yields are reduced by periodic droughtiness. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled
grazing helps to maintain plant vigor and a good ground
cover.
The potential productivity of this soil is high for pines.
Slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine are suitable
for planting. The equipment limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. The use of equipment that has large tires or
tracks helps to overcome the equipment limitation on
this loose, sandy soil. Good site preparation, such as
chopping and burning, removes debris, helps to control
competing vegetation, and facilitates planting. The slope
limits the use of equipment and the method of
harvesting. Planting the trees on the contour helps to
control erosion. Firelines and access roads should
slope gently to streams and cross them at a right angle.
The trees respond well to applications of fertilizer.
This soil is moderately suited to grazeable woodland.
The desirable forage is creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and low panicum. The forage composition and annual
productivity are influenced by the forest canopy. Little
grazing value can be expected after the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent.
The slope is a slight or moderate limitation on sites
for dwellings without basements and a moderate or
severe limitation on sites for small commercial


buildings. Land shaping can help to overcome this
limitation. The soil has moderate limitations if used as a
site for septic tank absorption fields because of the
depth to the water table during wet periods and the
slope. Corrective measures may or may not be needed.
Land shaping and adding suitable fill material can
overcome these limitations.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
The sandy surface layer limits trafficability, and soil
blowing is a hazard. These limitations can be overcome
by establishing and maintaining a good vegetative cover
or windbreaks or by adding suitable topsoil or some
other material that can stabilize the surface. The slope
is a limitation on sites for some recreational uses.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11S.

43-Dorovan muck. This nearly level, very poorly
drained, organic soil is in depressions. Individual areas
are circular or irregularly shaped and range from about
40 to 3,000 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or slightly
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the soil is muck to a depth of about 59
inches. The upper 12 inches is dark reddish brown, and
the lower 47 inches is black. The underlying material to
a depth of about 72 inches is sand. The upper 8 inches
is very dark brown, and the lower 5 inches is grayish
brown.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Dorovan
muck, Dorovan soils make up 78 to 99 percent of the
mapped areas. On 10 percent of the acreage, included
soils make up more than 22 percent of the mapped
areas.
Small areas of soils that are dissimilar to the
Dorovan soil are included in this map unit. These are
Pamlico and Croatan soils, which make up about 1 to
22 percent of most mapped areas.
Undrained areas of the Dorovan soil are ponded for 6
months or more during most years. The available water
capacity is very high. Permeability is moderate.
Most areas support natural vegetation, which
consists of pondcypress, sweetgum, red maple, swamp
tupelo, blackgum, and scattered pond pine. The
understory includes Coastal Plain willow, fetterbush
lyonia, smilax, greenbrier, maidencane, lizards tail,
cinnamon fern, and various other water-tolerant weeds
and grasses. The natural areas of this soil provide
cover for deer and are excellent habitat for wading birds
and other wetland wildlife.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, tame pasture, planted pine trees, or
grazeable woodland. The excessive wetness is the
main limitation. Installing adequate water-control
systems is difficult. Many areas are in isolated ponds or









wet depressions that do not have suitable drainage
outlets.
The limitations affecting urban uses are severe.
Excess water on or near the surface during much of the
year and excess humus are the main limitations.
Drainage systems that adequately remove the water
and effectively regulate the water table are expensive
and cannot be easily installed or maintained. Most
areas do not have good drainage outlets. Where
adequate drainage systems are installed, subsidence is
a continuing limitation. The organic material should be


replaced with suitable fill material on sites for dwellings,
small commercial buildings, and septic tank absorption
fields.
The limitations affecting recreational uses are severe.
Ponding and excess humus are the major limitations. A
good water-control system is necessary. Also, suitable
fill material is needed to improve trafficability and to
increase the depth to the water table.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 2W.















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavior
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis in predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities,
highways and other transportation systems, and parks
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It
can be used to identify the limitations of each soil for
specific land uses and to help prevent construction
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to identify
areas where wetness or very loose or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for buildings, streets, roads, campgrounds,
playgrounds, and pond reservoir areas and for other
uses.

Crops and Pasture
Jacque Breman, county extension agent, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, Union County, Florida, helped prepare this
section.
General management needed for crops and pasture
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants


best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
About 19,000 acres in Union County is used for
crops, pasture, or grazeable woodland (26). Of this
total, about 9,000 acres is harvested cropland. The
acreage used for crops and pasture has been gradually
decreasing as more and more land is used for urban
development. Many areas of cropland have been
planted to pine trees or have reverted to woodland.
The production of field crops in the county is limited
because of economic factors. Many crops that are not
commonly grown would be well suited to the soils and
climate in the county. Watermelons are grown on about
500 acres. Vegetable crops, such as squash, peppers,
cucumbers, peas, green beans, and sweet potatoes,
are grown on about 600 acres. The rest of the acreage
is divided among corn, soybeans, and, to a smaller
extent, tobacco and peanuts. Most vegetable crops
should be irrigated to ensure the highest possible
yields. Crops grown in soils in the flatwoods, such as
Mascotte, Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils,
generally require a combination of drainage measures
and irrigation.
Pastures in Union County produce forage for many
small to medium-sized beef cattle or cow-calf
enterprises and a few small horse ranches. Bahiagrass
and improved bermudagrass are the main hay crops.
About 1,500 acres of pasture is overseeded with small
grain, which forms a perennial grass sod for winter and
spring forage. About 3,000 acres of cropland is planted
to rye, wheat, and oats for winter grazing after a
vegetable or row crop is grown. Legumes, especially
white clover, can be grown on many of the pastures in
the flatwoods. Pasture management is based on the





Soil Survey


Figure 12.-An area of Ocilla fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, where a pecan grove is used as pasture.


relationship of soils, plants, lime, fertilizer, moisture, and
grazing systems. Yields can be increased by properly
combining these factors.
Although pecan groves were once plentiful and
productive as a source of income in Union County, only
a few small groves remain in the county. Many pecan
groves are also used as pasture (fig. 12).
The paragraphs that follow describe the major
concerns in managing the soils in the county for crops
and pasture.
Water erosion is not a major problem in most of
Union County. It can be a problem, however, in areas in
the southern and southwestern parts of the county
where the soils commonly have slopes of more than 3
percent and have a surface layer of fine sand or finer
textured material. Erosion is a hazard on Albany,


Blanton, Bonneau, Chipley, Foxworth, Lakeland, Ocilla,
Troup, and Wampee soils.
Erosion-control practices help to ensure maximum
productivity for future growing seasons. Loss of the
fertile surface layer is especially damaging on such
soils as Bonneau, Ocilla, and Wampee soils, which
have a fine-loamy to clayey subsoil. On many sloping
fields, preparing a good seedbed and proper tillage are
difficult in fine-loamy to clayey areas where the topsoil
has been eroded away. Erosion reduces the productivity
of soils that tend to be drought, such as Blanton,
Foxworth, Lakeland, and Troup soils. Erosion on
farmland can also result in sedimentation, decreasing
the quality of water for municipal use, for recreation,
and for fish and wildlife.
Erosion-control practices provide a protective cover,






Union County, Florida


reduce the runoff rate, and increase the rate of water
infiltration. A good cropping system that keeps a
vegetative cover on the soil for extended periods can
greatly reduce soil losses. For example, conservation
tillage systems in sloping areas used for corn or
soybeans are effective in controlling runoff and erosion.
Terraces and diversions reduce the length of slopes,
thus reducing the runoff rate and the hazard of erosion.
They are most practical on deep, well drained soils that
have uniform slopes. Contour farming and stripcropping
are very effective erosion-control practices on most
soils that have smooth, uniform slopes.
Soil blowing is a hazard on sandy soils if the topsoil
is dry. Windblown sand can seriously damage a young
crop in only a few hours. Maintaining a vegetative
cover, stripcropping with small grain, and establishing
windbreaks along edges of fields are effective in
controlling soil blowing and in reducing the extent of
crop damage caused by windblown sand.
Soil drainage is a management concern on about 25
percent of the acreage used for crops and pasture in
Union County. In most years the poorly drained soils
are too wet for many crops, and drainage measures,
such as bedding and tile drainage, generally are
required. Most of these soils have a low available water
capacity and are drought during periods of low rainfall.
Irrigation systems generally are needed on a wide
variety of soils in Union County. Permanent or movable
irrigation systems help to maximize yields in most
areas, particularly on the deep, sandy, better drained
soils.
More information about water-control systems and
erosion-control practices is available from the local
office of the Soil Conservation Service.
Soil fertility is naturally low in most of the soils in
Union County. Because of strong acidity, applications of
ground limestone generally are needed before legumes
and other crops can grow well.
Nitrogen and available phosphorus and potash levels
are naturally low in most of the mineral soils. Soil
fertility changes, however, as the soil is used. On all
soils, additions of lime and fertilizer should be based on
the results of soil tests, on the needs of the crop, and
on the expected level of yields. Soil fertility can be
increased by returning crop residue to the soil, adding
manure, and planting cover crops. These practices
increase the content of organic matter and the nutrient
and water-holding capacity of the topsoil. The
Cooperative Extension Service can help in determining
the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime required.
Yields Per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management


are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table
because of variations in rainfall and other climatic
factors. The land capability classification of each map
unit also is shown in the table.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain the indicated
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Management can include drainage,
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop
varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable
soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures
the smallest possible loss.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
likely to increase as new production technology is
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
about the management and productivity of the soils for
those crops.
Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops.
Crops that require special management are excluded.
The soils are grouped according to their limitations for
field crops, the risk of damage if they are used for
crops, and the way they respond to management. The
criteria used in grouping the soils do not include major
and generally expensive landforming that would change
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for
interpretations designed to show suitability and
limitations of groups of soils for woodland and for
engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are






Soil Survey


designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
use. There are no class I soils in Union County.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate
conservation practices. There are no class II soils in
Union County.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production. There are no class VIII soils in Union
County.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
w, or s, to the class numeral, for example, Illw. The
letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of
erosion unless close-growing plant cover is maintained;
w shows that water in or on the soil interferes with plant
growth or cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be
partly corrected by artificial drainage); and s shows that
the soil is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought,
or stony.
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V
are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, woodland,
wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V contains only the
subclasses indicated by w or s.
The capability classification of each map unit is given
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" and in the
yields table.

Woodland Management and Productivity
Jay Tucker, county forester, Florida Division of Forestry, helped
prepare this section.
Forestry has played an important role in the
economic development of Union County. The forest
industry presently ranks second to the Department of
Corrections in providing jobs in the county (26).


In the last few years, the demand for wood products
in Florida has increased because of the migration of the
timber industry from the Northwest to the South. The
market for these products is expected to continue
upward well into the next century, and there is pressure
to increase overall farm revenues through alternative
crops. Because of these economic factors, many
farmers and landowners have incorporated timber
management into their farm enterprises.
About 123,000 acres in Union County, or 78 percent
of the land area, is used as woodland (26). Ownership
of this woodland is split mainly between the large forest
products industries and private landowners.
The soils and climate of Union County are well suited
to commercial timber production. Currently, most of the
woodland in the county is in areas of Pelham, Sapelo,
Plummer, and Mascotte soils. These are typical of the
poorly drained soils in the flatwoods throughout the
county. On the better drained sites, the soils commonly
used as woodland include Blanton, Albany, Ocilla,
Lakeland, and Foxworth soils. These soils are in the
southern and southwestern parts of the county, in and
around Worthington Springs and Providence.
In the early 1900's, natural stands of longleaf pine
dominated the better drained soils and slash pine grew
on the wetter soils in the flatwoods. Loblolly pine,
cypress, sweetgum, blackgum, red maple, and various
varieties of bays and oaks were the principal trees
around the lakes, on the flood plains along rivers, and
in drainageways and swamps.
In the past and to some extent in the present, timber
cutting practices by private landowners have failed to
provide adequate regeneration of commercially desired
tree species. Also, fire prevention has allowed an
invasion of hardwoods, further inhibiting the
reestablishment and growth of pine trees. As a result,
the growth of quality wood on privately owned natural
woodland has declined in Union County.
Because of its fast growth rate and its suitability for a
wide range of sites, slash pine is the dominant
commercial species in Union County. It grows best on
the poorly drained soils in the flatwoods. It also grows
on the better drained soils. On the wetter soils in ponds,
swamps, and drainageways, the most common tree
species having limited commercial value are cypress,
blackgum, bay, red maple, live oak, laurel oak, water
oak, and sweetgum. On the better drained soils in areas
where fire has been virtually eliminated, associated
species include longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak, and
turkey oak. Except for longleaf pine, these species have
limited commercial value (4).
Timber management consists mainly of clearcutting,
site preparation, planting of seedlings, and prescribed
burning on a 20- to 30-year rotation. Of lesser extent is






Union County, Florida


selective cutting and thinning by forest products
industries and by small private landowners. Fire is often
used to reduce the extent of "rough" created by heavy
needle litter and brush accumulation and to expose
mineral soil that can be used as a seedbed for natural
reproduction. The hazard of wildfire is reduced by
prescribed burning of underbrush at regular 3- to 5-year
intervals.
A major management concern on the soils in the
flatwoods in most of Union County is the seasonal high
water table, which results in seedling mortality and plant
competition and restricts the use of equipment. Site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, helps to
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality rate,
and increases early growth rates. Bedding should not
hinder natural drainage.
Before the most can be made of an investment in
commercial woodland, suitable trees must be selected
for planting. This selection can be made through an
evaluation of soil productivity as it relates to tree
growth, which is determined mainly by the physical and
chemical properties of the soil. One of the most
important considerations that affects the productive
capacity is the ability of the soil to provide adequate
moisture. Other factors include the thickness of the
surface layer and its organic matter content, the texture
and consistency of the soil material, aeration, internal
drainage, and the depth to and duration of the seasonal
high water table.
A well managed stand of trees can conserve soil and
water resources. It protects the soil against erosion.
The tree cover allows more moisture to enter the soil
and thus increases the supply of ground water.
There is an excellent market for forest products in
the county. A number of forest products industries
throughout northeastern Florida and southern Georgia
create a great demand for pulpwood, chip-n-saw,
sawlogs, and veneer and plywood. Wood for treatment
plants, for numerous small cypress and pine sawmills,
and for secondary industries also is in demand.
Table 5 can be used by woodland owners or forest
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops.
Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The
table lists the ordination symbol for each soil. Soils
assigned the same ordination symbol require the same
general management and have about the same
potential productivity.
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number,
indicates the potential productivity of the soils for an
indicator tree species. The number indicates the
volume, in cubic meters per hectare per year, which the
indicator species can produce. The second part of the
symbol, a letter, indicates the major kind of soil
limitation. The letter R indicates steep slopes; X,


stoniness or rockiness; W, excess water in or on the
soil; T, toxic substances in the soil; D, restricted rooting
depth; C, clay in the upper part of the soil; S, sandy
texture; and F, a high content of rock fragments in the
soil. The letter A indicates that limitations or restrictions
are insignificant. If a soil has more than one limitation,
the priority is as follows: R, X, W, T, D, C, S, and F.
In table 5, slight, moderate, and severe indicate the
degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in
management.
Equipment limitation reflects the characteristics and
conditions of the soil that restrict use of the equipment
generally needed in woodland management or
harvesting. The chief characteristics and conditions
considered in the ratings are slope, stones on the
surface, rock outcrops, soil wetness, and texture of the
surface layer. A rating of slight indicates that under
normal conditions the kind of equipment or season of
use is not significantly restricted by soil factors. Soil
wetness can restrict equipment use, but the wet period
does not exceed 1 month. A rating of moderate
indicates that equipment use is moderately restricted
because of one or more soil factors. If the soil is wet,
the wetness restricts equipment use for a period of 1 to
3 months. A rating of severe indicates that equipment
use is severely restricted either as to the kind of
equipment that can be used or the season of use. If the
soil is wet, the wetness restricts equipment use for
more than 3 months.
Seedling mortality refers to the death of naturally
occurring or planted tree seedlings, as influenced by the
kinds of soil, soil wetness, or topographic conditions.
The factors used in rating the soils for seedling mortality
are texture of the surface layer, depth to a seasonal
high water table and the length of the period when the
water table is high, rock fragments in the surface layer,
effective rooting depth, and slope aspect. A rating of
slight indicates that seedling mortality is not likely to be
a problem under normal conditions. Expected mortality
is less than 25 percent. A rating of moderate indicates
that some problems from seedling mortality can be
expected. Extra precautions are advisable. Expected
mortality is 25 to 50 percent. A rating of severe
indicates that seedling mortality is a serious problem.
Extra precautions are important. Replanting may be
necessary. Expected mortality is more than 50 percent.
Plant competition ratings indicate the degree to which
undesirable species are expected to invade and grow
when openings are made in the tree canopy. The main
factors that affect plant competition are the depth to the
water table and the available water capacity. A rating of
slight indicates that competition from undesirable plants
is not likely to prevent natural regeneration or suppress
the more desirable species. Planted seedlings can






Soil Survey


become established without undue competition. A rating
of moderate indicates that competition may delay the
establishment of desirable species. Competition may
hamper stand development, but it will not prevent the
eventual development of fully stocked stands. A rating
of severe indicates that competition can be expected to
prevent regeneration unless precautionary measures
are applied.
The potential productivity of merchantable or common
trees on a soil is expressed as a site index and as a
volume number. The site index is the average height, in
feet, that dominant and codominant trees of a given
species attain in a specified number of years. The site
index applies to fully stocked, even-aged, unmanaged
stands. Commonly grown trees are those that woodland
managers generally favor in intermediate or
improvement cuttings. They are selected on the basis of
growth rate, quality, value, and marketability.
The volume, a number, is the yield likely to be
produced by the most important trees. This number,
expressed as cubic feet per acre per year, indicates the
amount of fiber produced in a fully stocked, even-aged,
unmanaged stand (3, 13, 21, 23).
Site quality is the average height, in feet, at age 25
years. Productivity is the number of cords per acre per
year based on the 25-year average of corresponding
site quality.
The first species listed under common trees for a soil
is the indicator species for that soil. It is the dominant
species on the soil and the one that determines the
ordination class.
Trees to plant are those that are suitable for
commercial wood production.
More detailed information about woodland
management can be obtained from local offices of the
Soil Conservation Service, the Cooperative Extension
Service, and the Florida Division of Forestry.

Grazeable Woodland
R. Gregory Hendricks, range conservationist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
Union County has about 123,000 acres of woodland,
much of which can be grazed by cattle (26). Woodland
ownership in the county is about 75 percent corporate
and 25 percent individual or family land holdings. The
woodland grazing resources can complement improved
pasture grazing systems. Grazeable woodland provides
a low-overhead and low-maintenance winter forage
reserve.
Grazeable woodland has an understory of native
grasses, legumes, forbs, and shrubs. The understory is
an integral part of the forest plant community. The


native plants can be grazed without significantly
impairing other forest values. Grazing is compatible with
timber management if it is controlled or managed in
such a manner that both timber and forage resources
are maintained or enhanced. The native forage in
wooded areas is readily available to livestock and is an
economic resource. Integrating woodland and grazing
management offers opportunities to obtain income from
the woodland during the first 2 to 12 years of the pine
rotation and possibly during the life of the rotation when
double-row planting techniques are applied.
The North Florida Flatwoods is the largest grazeable
woodland site in Union County. It has the best potential
for forage production in the county. The native forage
plants include chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, blue
maidencane, and indiangrass. Associated annual forbs,
ground blueberry, gallberry, and a variety of sedges and
rushes are an excellent source of food for wildlife.
Forage production on grazeable woodland is
influenced by soil types, site preparation and planting
techniques, the frequency of burning, and canopy
closure. The degree of wetness is critical in determining
the annual forage production levels of a woodland site.
For example, soils that have a high water table, such as
Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils, support the
vegetation characteristic of a North Florida Flatwoods
site. Suggested annual stocking rates range from 8 to
30 acres per cow on these soils. Better drained soils,
such as Albany, Blanton, and Chipley soils, support
hardwoods on upland hammocks. Suggested stocking
rates range from 18 to 40 acres per cow annually on
these soils.

Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens,
and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low-
and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and
shrubs provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and on planting and caring for trees and shrubs






Soil Survey


Figure 13-Palestine Lake, the largest lake in Union County, provides wildlife habitat and opportunities for fishing.


office of the Soil Conservation Service.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat
can be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable
plants.
In table 7, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
the intensity of management needed for each element
of the habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or


kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,






Union County, Florida


can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
Service or from a commercial nursery.

Recreation
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 6
according to limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 6, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations, if
any, are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means
that limitations can be overcome or alleviated by
planning, design, or special maintenance. Severe
means that soil properties are unfavorable and that
limitations can be offset only by soil reclamation, special
design, intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a
combination of these measures.
The information in table 6 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 9
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and
for local roads and streets in table 8.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs
rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when
dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes that


increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access
roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry. If
grading is needed, the depth of the soil over bedrock or
a hardpan should be considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. Also, they have
moderate to level slopes.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. Also,
they have moderate to level slopes. The suitability of
the soil for tees or greens is not considered in rating the
soils.

Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
Union County has extensive areas of good wildlife
habitat. The large areas of flatwoods and swamps
provide better habitat than other areas in the county.
Important areas include the 106,000-acre Lake Butler
Wildlife Management Area.
The main game species include white-tailed deer,
squirrel, turkey, bobwhite quail, mourning dove, feral
hogs, and waterfowl. Nongame species include
raccoon, rabbit, armadillo, opossum, skunks, bobcat,
gray fox, red fox, otter, and a variety of songbirds,
wading birds, woodpeckers, predatory birds, reptiles,
and amphibians. Bear are occasionally sighted in the
extensive flatwoods of the Lake Butler Wildlife
Management Area.
Union County has four lakes more than 100 acres in
size. Palestine Lake, the largest, is nearly 1,000 acres.
The lakes and the rivers and their larger tributaries
provide good opportunities for fishing (fig. 13). Game
and nongame fish species include largemouth bass,
channel catfish, bullhead catfish, bluegill, redear,
spotted sunfish, warmouth, black crappie, chain
pickerel, gar, bowfin, and suckers.
Some endangered and threatened species inhabit
Union County. Examples are the rare red-cockaded
woodpecker and the more common southeastern
kestrel. A detailed list of these species and information
on their range and habitat are available at the local






Union County, Florida


available water capacity, wetness, slope, and flood
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of grain and seed crops are
corn, wheat, sorghum, browntop millet, and grain
sorghum.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, wetness, flood hazard, and slope. Soil
temperature and soil moisture are also considerations.
Examples of grasses and legumes are bromegrass,
lovegrass, Florida beggarweed, clover, and sesbania.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, and flood
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of wild herbaceous plants are
partridge pea and blackberry.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
these plants are oak, maple, cherry, sweetgum, willow,
bay, wild grape, hickory, and blueberry. Examples of
fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for planting on
soils rated good are firethorn, wild plum, and crabapple.
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine and cypress.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, and
slope. Examples of wetland plants are smartweed, St
Johnswort, cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water-control
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
water areas are wetness, slope, and permeability.
Examples of shallow water areas are marshes,
swamps, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described
in the following paragraphs.
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas


produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,
and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these
areas include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field
sparrow, cottontail, and red fox.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
turkey, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
raccoon, deer, and bear.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore
birds, otters, and alligators.

Engineering
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this
section. Local ordinances and regulations should be
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, soil wetness,
depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, likelihood
of flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, and soil
density. Data were collected about kinds of clay
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and
the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for






Soil Survey


erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell
potential, available water capacity, and other behavioral
characteristics affecting engineering uses.
This information can be used to evaluate the
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
and recreation uses; make preliminary estimates of
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and predict performance of proposed
small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same
or similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil
maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
this survey, can be used to make additional
interpretations.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Glossary.

Building Site Development
Table 8 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
without basements, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and
site features are generally favorable for the indicated
use and limitations, if any, are minor and easily
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features
are somewhat restrictive for the indicated use and
special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
properties or site features are so unfavorable that
special design, soil reclamation, and possibly increased
maintenance are required. Special feasibility studies
may be required where the soil limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
filling, and compacting is affected by a cemented pan or
a very firm, dense layer, stone content, soil texture, and
slope. The time of the year that excavations can be
made is affected by the depth to a seasonal high water
table and the susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The
resistance of the excavation walls or banks to sloughing


or caving is affected by soil texture and the depth to the
water table.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are
made for small commercial buildings without
basements, for dwellings with basements, and for
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on
soil properties, site features, and observed performance
of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrink-swell
potential, and organic layers can cause the movement
of footings. A high water table, large stones, slope, and
flooding affect the ease of excavation and construction.
Landscaping and grading that require cuts and fills of
more than 5 or 6 feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.
They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base
of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material; and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. A high water table, flooding, large stones, and
slope affect the ease of excavating and grading. Soil
strength (as inferred from the engineering classification
of the soil), shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high
water table affect the traffic-supporting capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Soil reaction, a high water table, the available
water capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the content
of sulfidic materials affect plant growth. Flooding,
wetness, slope, and the amount of sand, clay, or
organic matter in the surface layer affect trafficability
after vegetation is established.

Sanitary Facilities
Table 9 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect septic tank absorption fields, sewage
lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations are
considered slight if soil properties and site features are
generally favorable for the indicated use and limitations,
if any, are minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil
properties or site features are somewhat restrictive for
the indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if one or more soil properties or
site features are unfavorable for the use and if
overcoming the unfavorable properties requires special
design, extra maintenance, or alteration.






Union County, Florida


Table 9 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates
that soil properties and site features are favorable for
the use and good performance and low maintenance
can be expected; fair indicates that soil properties and
site features are moderately favorable for the use and
one or more soil properties or site features make the
soil less desirable than the soils rated good; and poor
indicates that one or more soil properties or site
features are unfavorable for the use and overcoming
the unfavorable properties requires special design, extra
maintenance, or costly alteration.
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, a high water table, and flooding affect
absorption of the effluent. A cemented pan can interfere
with installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
permeable sand and gravel are less than 4 feet below
the base of the absorption field, if slope is excessive, or
if the water table is near the surface. There must be
unsaturated soil material beneath the absorption field to
filter the effluent effectively. Many local and state
ordinances require that this material be of a certain
thickness.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the
solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly
level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
required to minimize seepage and contamination of
ground water.
Table 9 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. Considered in
the ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table,
depth to a cemented pan, flooding, and content of
organic matter.
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the
level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to
function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is


excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high
content of organic matter is detrimental to proper
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic
activity. Slope and cemented pans can cause
construction problems.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in
successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste
is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin
layer of soil from a source away from the site.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground-
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
needs to be considered.
The ratings in table 9 are based on soil properties,
site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to a cemented pan, a high water
table, slope, and flooding affect both types of landfill.
Texture, highly organic layers, and soil reaction affect
trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the
ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth
of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated
slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite
investigation is needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil
blowing.
After soil material has been removed, the soil
material remaining in the borrow area must be thick
enough over the water table to permit revegetation. The
soil material used as final cover for a landfill should be
suitable for plants. The surface layer generally has the
best workability, more organic matter, and the best
potential for plants. Material from the surface layer
should be stockpiled for use as the final cover.
Construction Materials
Table 10 gives information about the soils as a
source of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils
are rated good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and
topsoil. They are rated as a probable or improbable
source of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on






Soil Survey


soil properties and site features that affect the removal
of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
compaction, minor processing, and other standard
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
and used in road embankments in another place. In this
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
exacting in design than higher embankments.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
their profile. The table showing engineering index
properties provides detailed information about each soil
layer. This information can help to determine the
suitability of each layer for use as roadfill. The
performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or
cement is not considered in the ratings.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. The
thickness of suitable material is a major consideration.
The ease of excavation is affected by a high water table
and slope. How well the soil performs in place after it
has been compacted and drained is determined by its
strength (as inferred from the engineering classification
of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
material, a low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
plasticity index of less than 10. They have a moderate
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and depth to the
water table is less than 1 foot. These soils may have
layers of suitable material, but the material is less than
3 feet thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand
and gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 10,
only the probability of finding material in suitable
quantity is evaluated. The suitability of the material for
specific purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that
affect excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source
of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as
indicated by the engineering classification of the soil),


the thickness of suitable material, and the content of
rock fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification
are given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of
grain sizes is given in the table on engineering index
properties.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of
clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is
up to 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at
least 3 feet thick. All other soils are rated as an
improbable source.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
can be established and maintained. The upper 40
inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also
evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow
area.
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
is affected by slope, a water table, soil texture, and
thickness of suitable material. Reclamation of the
borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, and
toxic material.
Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
cobbles and have slopes of less than 8 percent. They
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer and are
not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have
a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20
to 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
appreciable amount of gravel, or soils that have slopes
of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are not so wet that
excavation is difficult.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large
amount of gravel, have slopes of more than 15 percent,
or have a seasonal water table at or near the surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
for topsoil because of its organic matter content.
Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and
retention of moisture and nutrients for plant growth.
Water Management
Table 11 gives information on the soil properties and
site features that affect water management. The degree
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
excavated ponds. The limitations are considered slight if
soil properties and site features are generally favorable
for the indicated use and limitations, if any, are minor
and are easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or
site features are somewhat restrictive for the indicated
use and special planning, design, or maintenance is
needed to overcome or minimize the limitations; and






Union County, Florida


severe if soil properties or site features are so
unfavorable for the use that special design and possibly
increased maintenance or alteration are required.
This table also gives for each soil the restrictive
features that affect drainage, irrigation, terraces and
diversions, and grassed waterways.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil.
Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity of the
reservoir area.
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
constructed to impound water or to protect land against
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the
soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about
5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly
mixed and compacted during construction.
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth even greater than the height of the embankment
can affect performance and safety of the embankment.
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
determine these properties.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features
include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high
content of stones or boulders or of organic matter. A
high water table affects the amount of usable material.
It also affects trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
impound water 3 feet or more above the original
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a


permanent water table and permeability of the aquifer.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
effectively the soil is drained depends on permeability,
depth to a high water table or depth of standing water if
the soil is subject to ponding, slope, susceptibility to
flooding, and subsidence of organic layers. Excavating
and grading and the stability of ditchbanks are affected
by depth to a cemented pan, slope, and the hazard of
cutbanks caving. The productivity of the soil after
drainage is adversely affected by extreme acidity or by
toxic substances in the root zone. Availability of
drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The
design and management of an irrigation system are
affected by depth to the water table, the need for
drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The
performance of a system is affected by the depth of the
root zone and soil reaction.
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
combination of channels and ridges constructed across
a slope to control erosion and conserve moisture by
intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, and depth to a
cemented pan affect the construction of terraces and
diversions. A restricted rooting depth, a severe hazard
of soil blowing or water erosion, an excessively coarse
texture, and restricted permeability adversely affect
maintenance.
Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity.
Wetness, slope, and depth to a cemented pan affect the
construction of grassed waterways. A hazard of soil
blowing, low available water capacity, restricted rooting
depth, and restricted permeability adversely affect the
growth and maintenance of the grass after construction.



















Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during
the course of the soil survey. The data and the
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are
explained on the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity,
and compaction characteristics. These results are
reported in table 18.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 12 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the
upper 5 or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52


percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as about 15 percent, an appropriate
modifier is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural
terms are defined in the Glossary.
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
for example, CL-ML.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
for soils tested, with group index numbers in
parentheses, is given in table 18.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates
determined mainly by converting volume percentage in
the field to weight percentage.






Soil Survey


Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area
or from nearby areas and on field examination.
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit,
and plasticity index are generally rounded to the
nearest 5 percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and
Atterberg limits extend a marginal amount (1 or 2
percentage points) across classification boundaries, the
classification in the marginal zone is omitted in the
table.

Physical and Chemical Properties
Table 13 shows estimates of some characteristics
and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey
area. The estimates are based on field observations
and on test data for these and similar soils.
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter.
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the
soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain
moisture. They influence shrink-swell potential,
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion,
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay
in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving operations.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at
1/3 bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential,
available water capacity, total pore space, and other
soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates
the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk
density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and
root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by


texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil
structure.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of
downward movement of water when the soil is
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil
drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and
construction where the rate of water movement under
saturated conditions affects behavior.
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
plants. The capacity for water storage is given in inches
of water per inch of soil for each major soil layer. The
capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect
the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
The most important properties are the content of
organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
design and management of irrigation systems. Available
water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
water actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
corrosion.
Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
minerals with water and varies with the amount and
type of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on
the soil and the magnitude of the change in soil
moisture content influence the amount of swelling of
soils in place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For
others, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind
and amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
measurements of similar soils.
If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
,high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
often needed.
Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change






Union County, Florida


of less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and
high, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9
percent, is sometimes used.
Erosion factor Kindicates the susceptibility of a soil
to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates
are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and
organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69.
The higher the value, the more susceptible the soil is to
sheet and rill erosion by water.
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water
that can occur without affecting crop productivity over a
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to soil
blowing in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the
susceptibility to soil blowing. Soils are grouped
according to the following distinctions:
1. Coarse sands, sands, fine sands, and very fine
sands. These soils are extremely erodible, and
vegetation can be difficult to establish.
2. Loamy coarse sands, loamy sands, loamy fine
sands, loamy very fine sands, and sapric soil material.
These soils are very highly erodible. Crops can be
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are
used.
3. Coarse sandy loams, sandy loams, fine sandy
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are
highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive
measures to control soil blowing are used.
4L. Calcareous loams, silt loams, clay loams, and
silty clay loams. These soils are erodible. Crops can be
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are
used.
4. Clays, silty clays, noncalcareous clay loams, and
silty clay loams that are more than 35 percent clay.
These soils are moderately erodible. Crops can be
grown if measures to control soil blowing are used.
5. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are less
than 20 percent clay and sandy clay loams, sandy
clays, and hemic soil material. These soils are slightly
erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to control soil
blowing are used.
6. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are
more than 20 percent clay and noncalcareous clay
loams that are less than 35 percent clay. These soils
are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used.
7. Silts, noncalcareous silty clay loams that are less
than 35 percent clay, and fibric soil material. These


soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used.
8. Soils that are not subject to soil blowing because
of coarse fragments on the surface or because of
surface wetness.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
soil at various stages of decomposition. In table 13, the
estimated content of organic matter is expressed as a
percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less
than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The content of organic matter in a soil can be
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
other nutrients for crops.

Soil and Water Features
Table 14 gives estimates of various soil and water
features. The estimates are used in land use planning
that involves engineering considerations.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
according to the infiltration of water when the soils are
thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
duration storms.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained
sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of
water transmission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate
when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or
well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to
moderately coarse texture. These soils have a
moderate rate of water transmission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate
(high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These
consist chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell
potential, soils that have a permanent high water table,
soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the
surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly
impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate
of water transmission.
If a soil is assigned to two hydrologic groups in table
14, the first letter is for drained areas and the second is






Soil Survey


for undrained areas. Onsite investigation is needed to
determine the hydrologic group in a particular area.
Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods
after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding, nor
is water in swamps and marshes.
Table 14 gives the frequency and duration of
flooding. Frequency and duration are estimated.
Frequency is expressed as none, rare, occasional, and
frequent. None means that flooding is not probable; rare
that it is unlikely but possible under unusual weather
conditions (the chance of flooding is near 0 percent to 5
percent in any year); occasional that it occurs, on the
average, once or less in 2 years (the chance of flooding
is 5 to 50 percent in any year); and frequent that it
occurs, on the average, more than once in 2 years (the
chance of flooding is more than 50 percent in any year).
Common means that flooding is either occasional or
frequent. Duration is expressed as very brief if less than
2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, long if 7 days to 1 month,
and very long if more than 1 month.
The information is based on evidence in the soil
profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of
distinctive horizons that form in soils that are not
subject to flooding.
Also considered are local information about the
extent and levels of flooding and the relation of each
soil on the landscape to historic floods. Information on
the extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific
than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
levels.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils.
The estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
soil. Indicated in table 14 are the depth to the seasonal
high water table and the kind of water table-that is,
perched or apparent. A water table that is seasonally
high for less than 1 month is not indicated in table 14.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A
perched water table is water standing above an
unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water
table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet
are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
indicates that the water table is above the surface of


the soil. The first numeral in the range indicates how
high the water rises above the surface. The second
numeral indicates the depth below the surface.
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
results from either desiccation and shrinkage or
oxidation of organic material, or both, following
drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually
over a period of several years. Table 14 shows the
expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of
drainage, and total subsidence, which usually is a result
of oxidation.
Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
water throughout an extensive area as a result of
lowering the water table.
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion
of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the
soil. Special site examination and design may be
needed if the combination of factors creates a severe
corrosion environment. The steel in installations that
intersect soil boundaries or soil layers is more
susceptible to corrosion than steel in installations that
are entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil
layer.
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed
as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage
class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field
capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation
extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
Analyses of Selected Soils
Dr. Victor W. Carlisle, professor, University of Florida, Soil
Science Department, Agricultural Experiment Station, prepared this
section.
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical
properties of representative pedons sampled in Union
County are presented in tables 15, 16, and 17. The
analyses were conducted and coordinated by the Soil
Characterization Laboratory at the University of Florida.
Detailed descriptions of the analyzed soils are given in
the section "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Laboratory data and profile information for additional






Union County, Florida


soils in Union County, as well as for other counties in
Florida, are on file at the University of Florida, Soil
Science Department.
Typical pedons were sampled from pits at carefully
selected locations. Samples were air dried, crushed,
and sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most
analytical methods used are outlined in a soil survey
investigations report (22).
Particle-size distribution was determined using a
modified pipette method with sodium
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil
cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at
100-centimeters water (1Vo bar) and 345-centimeters
water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water
percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were
ovendried and ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and
the 15-bar water retention was determined. Organic
carbon was determined by a modification of the
Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils
with normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0.
Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined
by flame emission. Calcium and magnesium were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Extractable acidity was determined by the barium
chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. Cation-
exchange capacity was calculated by summation of
extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base
saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation-
exchange capacity expressed in percent. The pH
measurements were made with a glass electrode using
a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01 molar calcium chloride
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and normal
potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio.
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were
extracted from probable spodic horizons with 0.1 molar
sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and
iron was by atomic absorption, and determination of
extracted carbon was by the Walkley-Black wet
combustion method.
Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 2 microns
was ascertained by x-ray diffraction. Peak heights at
18-angstrom, 14-angstrom, 7.2-angstrom, and 4.31-
angstrom positions represent montmorillonite,
interstratified expandable vermiculite or 14-angstrom
intergrades, kaolinite, and quartz, respectively. Peaks
were measured, added, and normalized to give the


percent of soil minerals identified in the x-ray
diffractograms. These percentage values do not indicate
absolute determined quantities of soil minerals but do
imply a relative distribution of minerals in a particular
mineral suite. Absolute percentages would require
additional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, unit
structure substitution, and matrix problems.
Physical Properties
The results of physical analyses are shown in table
15. Soils sampled in Union County for laboratory
analyses are inherently very sandy; however, all of the
pedons have an argillic horizon in the lower part of the
solum. Blanton, Plummer, and Sapelo soils have more
than 90 percent sand to a depth of 1 meter or more.
The content of the clay in the upper horizons of the
soils that were sampled rarely is more than 2.5 percent.
The content of clay in the deeper argillic horizons
ranges from 17.6 to 35.5 percent. The argillic horizon in
the Bonneau, Goldhead, and Wampee soils is within 1
meter of the surface. It has 12.1 to 40 percent clay.
The content of silt ranges from 2.2 percent in the
Btg2 horizon of Blanton fine sand to 11.2 percent in the
Cg horizon of Wampee loamy fine sand.
Fine sand dominates the sand fractions in all of the
soils, ranging from 18.2 percent in the Cg horizon of
Wampee loamy fine sand to 54 percent in the E2
horizon of Blanton fine sand. The content of very fine
sand is more than 13 percent in one or more horizons
of all the soils. It ranges from 1.8 percent in the Btg2
horizon of Bonneau fine sand to 19.6 percent in the Egl
horizon of Goldhead sand. The content of coarse sand
ranges from 2.1 percent to 9.6 percent. The content of
very coarse sand is less than 2 percent in all horizons
of all the pedons. Soils that have a thick, sandy
epipedon, such as the Blanton soils, become very
drought during periods of low precipitation when
rainfall is widely scattered. Soils with inherently poor
drainage, such as the Plummer soils, can remain
saturated because the ground water is close to the
surface for long periods.
Hydraulic conductivity values are much higher in the
upper sandy epipedons than in the argillic horizons.
Values for hydraulic conductivity range from 5.9 to 35.2
centimeters per hour in the upper sandy horizons and
from 0.1 centimeter to 3.2 centimeters per hour in the
argillic horizons. Low hydraulic conductivity values at a
shallow depth in the Bonneau, Goldhead, and Wampee
soils can affect the design and performance of septic
tank absorption fields. Hydraulic conductivity values in
the Bh horizon of the Sapelo soil are much higher than
those generally recorded for spodic horizons in most
soils in Florida.
The amount of available water to plants can be






Soil Survey


estimated from bulk density and water content data. In
excessively sandy soils, such as those in Union County
that have a thick, sandy epipedon, the amount of
available water to plants is low. Soils that have a higher
amount of fine textured material, such as Bonneau
soils, retain larger amounts of available water.
Chemical Properties
The results of chemical analyses are shown in table
16. Most of the soils in Union County have a low
content of extractable bases. All of the soils that were
sampled have one or more horizons with less than 1
milliequivalent per hundred grams extractable bases.
Except for the surface layer, Plummer and Sapelo soils
have less than 1 milliequivalent per hundred grams
extractable bases to a depth of 2 meters or more.
Extractable bases in the surface layer of all the soils
that were sampled range from 1.44 to 6.88
milliequivalents per hundred grams. The relatively mild,
humid climate of Union County results in a rapid
depletion of basic cations (calcium, magnesium,
potassium, and sodium) through leaching.
Calcium is the dominant base in all of the soils;
however, levels of magnesium are slightly more than
those of calcium in the deeper argillic horizons in the
Blanton, Bonneau, and Sapelo soils. Extractable
calcium in the Ap horizons ranges from 1.10 to 5.37
milliequivalents per 100 grams. In these layers,
extractable magnesium ranges from 0.14 to 0.99
milliequivalent per 100 grams. The amount of sodium
generally is less than 0.10 milliequivalent per hundred
grams; however, several horizons in the Goldhead soil
and the Cg horizon in the Wampee soil slightly exceed
this amount. Potassium occurs in similarly low amounts.
Only a few horizons exceed 0.10 milliequivalent per
hundred grams. Blanton, Plummer, and Sapelo soils
have one or more horizons with nondetectable amounts
of extractable potassium.
Values for cation-exchange capacity, an indication of
plant-nutrient capacity, are not more than 10
milliequivalents per hundred grams in the surface layer
of any of the soils and are only slightly more than this
amount in the Bt horizon in Bonneau, Goldhead, and
Wampee soils and in the Bh horizon of Sapelo sand.
Enhanced cation-exchange capacities parallel the
higher content of clay in the deeper Bt horizons in
Blanton, Bonneau, Goldhead, Plummer, and Wampee
soils. Soils that have a low cation-exchange capacity in
the surface layer require only small amounts of lime or
sulfur to alter significantly the base status and soil
reaction. Generally, soils that are inherently low in
fertility are associated with low values for extractable
bases and a low cation-exchange capacity. Fertile soils
are associated with high extractable base values, high


base saturation values, and high cation-exchange
capacities.
The content of organic carbon is less than 1.72
percent in all horizons of all the soils that were
sampled. It ranges from 0.54 percent in the surface
layer of Plummer sand to 1.71 percent in the surface
layer of Wampee loamy fine sand. The content
generally decreases rapidly with increasing depth. It
increases, however, between the E horizon and the Bh
horizon in the Sapelo soil. Since the content of organic
carbon in the surface layer is directly related to the
nutrient- and water-holding capacities of sandy soils,
management practices that conserve organic carbon
are highly desirable.
Electrical conductivity values are low for all of the
soils sampled in Union County, exceeding 0.05
millimhos per centimeter only in the Goldhead and
Wampee soils. A nondetectable electrical conductivity
value was recorded for the Bhl horizon of Sapelo sand.
These data indicate that the content of soluble salts in
the soils sampled in Union County are insufficient to
hinder the growth of salt-sensitive plants.
Soil reaction in water generally ranges from pH 4.0 to
5.5 in the soils that were sampled. Values slightly more
than this range occurred in the Goldhead, Plummer,
and Wampee soils. With few exceptions, the reaction in
calcium chloride and potassium chloride is within 0.5 pH
unit of the water measurements. The maximum
availability of plant nutrients is generally attained when
reaction is between pH 6.5 and 7.5. In Florida, however,
maintaining reaction above pH 6.0 is not economically
feasible for most kinds of agricultural production.
The ratio of sodium pyrophosphate carbon and
aluminum to clay in the Bh horizon of Sapelo sand is
sufficient to meet the chemical criteria established for
spodic horizons. Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron
is 0.01 percent in the Bh horizon. The ratio of sodium
pyrophosphate extractable iron and aluminum to citrate-
dithionite extractable iron and aluminum in this soil also
is sufficient to meet the criteria for spodic horizons.
The content of citrate-dithionite extractable iron in the
Bt horizon of Blanton, Goldhead, Plummer, Sapelo, and
Wampee soils ranges from 0.12 to 1.14 percent. The
content is much higher in the Bt horizon than in the Bh
horizon. The content of aluminum extracted by citrate-
dithionite from these horizons ranges from 0.10 to 0.28
percent. The content of extractable iron and aluminum
in the soils in Union County is not sufficient to restrict
the availability of phosphorus.
Mineralogical Properties
The mineralogy of the sand fractions, which are 0.05
millimeter to 2.0 millimeters in size, is siliceous. Quartz
is overwhelmingly dominant in all of the soils sampled






Union County, Florida


in Union County. Varying amounts of heavy minerals
are in all horizons. The greatest concentration is in the
very fine sand fraction. The soils have no weatherable
minerals. The crystalline mineral components of the
clay fraction, which is less than 0.002 millimeter in size,
are reported in table 17 for the major horizons of the
pedons sampled. The clay mineralogical suite was
made mostly of montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom
intergrade, kaolinite, and quartz.
Montmorillonite occurs only in the Goldhead soil. The
14-angstrom intergrade mineral, kaolinite, and quartz
occur in all horizons in all of the soils sampled. The
amount of mica is insufficient for the assignment of
numerical values.
Montmorillonite in the soils in Union County appears
to have been inherited from the sediments in which the
soils formed. It generally occurs most abundantly in
poorly drained soils where the alkaline elements have
not been leached by percolating rainwater; however,
montmorillonite can occur in moderate amounts
regardless of present drainage or chemical conditions. It
is probably the least stable mineral component in the
present acidic environment. It is a minor constituent of
the clay minerals in Goldhead sand. Since the amount
of montmorillonite is minor and sands dominate the
particle-size distribution of this soil, the amount of
shrinking and swelling is negligible. None of the soils
sampled in Union County contains sufficient amounts of
montmorillonite to create construction problems.
The 14-angstrom intergrade, a mineral of uncertain
origin, is widespread in the soils in Florida. It tends to
be more prevalent under moderately acidic, relatively
well drained conditions, although it occurs in a wide
variety of soil environments. This mineral is a major
constituent of sand grain coatings in the upper sandy
horizons of the Blanton soil. The occurrence of
relatively large amounts of 14-angstrom intergrades and
the general tendency of these minerals to decrease in
abundance with increasing depth suggest that the 14-
angstrom intergrade minerals are among the most
stable species in this weathering environment.
Kaolinite was most likely inherited from the parent
material, or it could have formed as a weathering
product of other minerals. It is relatively stable in the
acidic environment of the soils in Union County. The
general tendency of kaolinite to increase in abundance
with increasing depth indicates that this mineral species
is less stable than the 14-angstrom intergrades in the
severe weathering environment near the surface. Clay-
sized quartz has mainly resulted from decrements of the
silt fraction. As is usual for Florida soils, mica occurs
infrequently and in very small amounts. Soils that are
dominated by montmorillonite have a higher capacity for


plant nutrient retention than soils dominated by
kaolinite, 14-angstrom intergrade minerals, or quartz.
Since montmorillonite is a minor constituent that occurs
in only a few soils, the total content of clay influences
the use and management of the soils in Union County
more frequently than the clay mineralogy.

Engineering Index Test Data
Table 18 shows laboratory test data for several
pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the
county. The pedons are typical of the series and are
described in the section "Soil Series and Their
Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the
Florida Department of Transportation, Soils Laboratory,
Bureau of Materials and Research.
The testing methods are those of the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO) or the American Society for Testing
and Materials (ASTM).
Table 18 contains engineering test data about some
of the major soils in Union County. These tests help to
evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The
classifications given are based on data obtained by
mechanical analysis and by tests to determine liquid
limits and plastic limits.
The mechanical analyses were made by the
combined sieve and hydrometer method. When this
method is applied, the various grain-size fractions are
calculated on the basis of all the material in the soil
sample, including that coarser than 2 millimeters in
diameter. The results of this method should not be used
in naming textural classes of soils.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
water on the strength and consistence of the soil
material. As the moisture content of a dry, clayey soil is
increased, the material changes from a dry state to a
semisolid state and then to a plastic state. If the
moisture content is further increased, the material
changes from plastic to liquid. The plastic limit is the
moisture content at which the soil material changes
from a semisolid state to a plastic state, and the liquid
limit is the moisture content at which the soil material
changes from a plastic state to a liquid state. The
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of
moisture content within which soil material is plastic.
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in table 18
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples.
Compaction, or moisture-density, data are important
in earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a
successively higher moisture content, assuming that the
compactive effort remains constant, the density of the









compacted material increases until the optimum
moisture content is reached. After that, density
decreases with an increase in moisture content. The
highest dry density obtained in the compactive test is


termed maximum dry density. As a rule, maximum
strength of earthwork is obtained if the soil is
compacted to the maximum dry density.
















Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (20).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or from laboratory measurements. Table 19 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Psamment
(Psamm, meaning sandy horizons, plus ent, from
Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Quartzipsamments (Quartz,
meaning dominated by quartz, plus psamments, the
sandy suborder of the Entisols).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Quartzipsamments.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup


on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is thermic, coated Typic
Quartzipsamments.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. The texture of the surface layer or of the
underlying material can differ within a series.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The typical pedon for some of the soils is
located in Bradford County. The detailed description of
each soil horizon follows standards in the Soil Survey
Manual (19). Many of the technical terms used in the
descriptions are defined in Soil Taxonomy (20). Unless
otherwise stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist
soil. Following the pedon description is the range of
important characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Albany Series
The Albany series consists of somewhat poorly
drained soils that formed in deposits of sandy and
loamy marine sediments. These nearly level to gently






Soil Survey


sloping soils are on low uplands and in slightly elevated
areas in the flatwoods. They are loamy, siliceous,
thermic Grossarenic Paleudults.
Albany soils are associated with the Blanton, Chipley,
Ocilla, Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils. Blanton
soils are moderately well drained. Ocilla and Pelham
soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40
inches. Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils are poorly
drained. Also, Sapelo soils have a spodic horizon within
a depth of 30 inches. Chipley soils are sandy to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
Typical pedon of Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, 1,000 feet north of County Road 239A, 0.95
mile east of County Road 241, SE/4NE/4 sec. 15, T. 6
S., R. 18 E.

Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine
and medium roots; medium acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
E1-8 to 22 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E2-22 to 42 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
E3-42 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; medium acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Bt-50 to 60 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
sandy loam; common coarse prominent light gray
(10YR 7/2) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles;
weak coarse subangular blocky structure; very
friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg-60 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay
loam; common coarse prominent strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6) and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; clay films on faces of peds; very strongly
acid.

The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction
ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid in the A and
E horizons and from very strongly acid to medium acid
in the Bt and Btg horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The thickness of this horizon ranges
from 6 to 10 inches.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to
8, and chroma of 2 to 8. It is mottled in shades of
yellow, brown, gray, or red in some parts. Mottles or
matrix colors with chroma of 2 or less are within 30


inches of the surface. This horizon is sand or fine sand.
The combined thickness of the A and E horizons ranges
from 41 to 70 inches.
Some pedons have a BE horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma of 4 to 6 or hue of
2.5Y, value of 7, and chroma of 4. It is mottled in
shades of gray, yellow, or brown. The texture is loamy
sand or loamy fine sand. This horizon ranges from 0 to
10 inches in thickness.
The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 to 7,
and chroma of 6 to 8 or hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8,
and chroma of 3 to 8. It is mottled in shades of brown,
yellow, gray, or red. The texture is sandy loam, fine
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. This horizon ranges
from 7 to 10 inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5
to 8, and chroma of 2 or less, or it is gleyed with hue of
5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1. It is mottled in
shades of brown, yellow, or gray. The textures are the
same as those of the Bt horizon.

Blanton Series
The Blanton series consists of moderately well
drained soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine
deposits. These nearly level to strongly sloping soils are
in the uplands. They are loamy, siliceous, thermic
Grossarenic Paleudults.
Blanton soils are geographically associated with the
Albany, Foxworth, Ocilla, and Troup soils. Albany and
Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained. Ocilla soils
have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Foxworth soils are sandy throughout. Troup soils are
well drained.
Typical pedon of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, about 0.4 mile east of County Road 241 and 0.8
mile south of County Road 238, NE/4NW/4 sec. 6, T. 6
S., R. 18 E.

Ap-0 to 9 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; common
fine roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
E1-9 to 36 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
E2-36 to 42 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; about
5 percent quartz gravel and ironstone nodules; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
BE-42 to 48 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
loamy fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine
roots; about 5 percent quartz gravel and ironstone
nodules; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.






Union County, Florida


Bt-48 to 61 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sandy clay loam; common coarse distinct strong
brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular
blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly
plastic; few fine roots; about 5 percent quartz gravel
and ironstone nodules; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
Btg1-61 to 74 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay;
common medium and coarse prominent brownish
yellow (10YR 6/8) and few medium prominent red
(2.5YR 4/8) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
few fine roots; common discontinuous clay films on
faces of peds; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg2-74 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sandy clay;
few medium prominent red (2.5YR 4/8) and
common fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; extremely
acid.

The solum is 80 or more inches thick. Unless lime
has been applied, reaction ranges from very strongly
acid to medium acid in the A and E horizons. It ranges
from extremely acid to strongly acid in the Bt and Btg
horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 6, and
chroma of 1 to 3. The thickness of this horizon ranges
from 6 to 9 inches.
The E horizon generally has hue of 10YR, value of 5
to 8, and chroma of 1 to 8. The lower part also has hue
of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6 to 8 and is
mottled in shades of brown, yellow, or red. This horizon
is fine sand, sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. In
some pedons it has 5 percent or less ironstone nodules
or quartz gravel. The combined thickness of the A and
E horizons ranges from 42 to 72 inches.
The BE horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value
of 5 to 7, and chroma of 4 to 6. The texture is loamy
sand or loamy fine sand. This horizon is less than 10
inches thick.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 3 to 8 or hue of 10YR, value of 7, and
chroma of 3 or 4. It is mottled in shades of brown,
yellow, or red. The texture is loamy fine sand, sandy
loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
The Btg horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 5Y, value of
5, and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8,
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is mottled in shades of brown,
yellow, red, or gray. The texture is dominantly sandy
loam or sandy clay loam. In some pedons, however, it
ranges to sandy clay below a depth of 60 inches or
more.


Bonneau Series

The Bonneau series consists of moderately well
drained soils that formed in loamy marine sediments.
These moderately sloping soils are in the uplands. They
are loamy, siliceous, thermic Arenic Paleudults.
Bonneau soils are associated with the Blanton,
Lakeland, Ocilla, and Troup soils. Ocilla soils are
somewhat poorly drained. Blanton and Troup soils have
an argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches. Also,
Troup soils are well drained. Lakeland soils are
excessively drained and are sandy throughout.
Typical pedon of Bonneau fine sand, 6 to 10 percent
slopes, 0.25 mile south of County Road 241A and 0.4
mile west of PinchGut Road, NW/4SE/4 sec. 7, T. 6 S.,
R. 18 E.

Ap-0 to 8 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
fine sand; single grained; loose; many fine and
medium roots; less than 5 percent, by volume,
quartz gravel and ironstone nodules; strongly acid;
abrupt wavy boundary.
E1-8 to 15 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) loamy fine sand;
many very dark grayish brown charcoal stains;
single grained; loose; common fine roots; less than
5 percent, by volume, quartz gravel and ironstone
nodules; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E2-15 to 28 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; few
dark brown charcoal stains; single grained; loose;
common fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Btl-28 to 34 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
sandy loam; weak fine granular structure; very
friable; common fine roots; about 5 percent, by
volume, quartz gravel and ironstone nodules;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bt2-34 to 48 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
sandy clay loam; common fine and medium faint
light brownish gray and many medium and coarse
distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak fine
subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots;
about 12 percent, by volume, quartz gravel and
ironstone nodules; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Btg1-48 to 63 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay
loam; many medium and coarse distinct yellowish
brown (10YR 5/6) and few coarse faint light
yellowish brown mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; about 5
percent, by volume, quartz gravel and ironstone
nodules; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-63 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay
loam; many medium and coarse distinct brownish






Soil Survey


yellow (10YR 6/6) and common fine distinct dark
yellowish brown (10YR 4/6) mottles; weak fine
subangular blocky structure; very friable; very
strongly acid.

The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction is
strongly acid or medium acid in the A, Ap, and E
horizons and very strongly acid or strongly acid in the
Bt horizon. The content of quartz gravel and ironstone
nodules is as much as 10 percent, by volume, in the
solum.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
chroma of 1 to 3. The thickness of this horizon ranges
from 3 to 9 inches.
The E horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 4
to 7, and chroma of 2 to 6. The texture is sand, fine
sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. The combined
thickness of the A and E horizons ranges from 21 to 37
inches.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 5
to 7, and chroma of 3 to 8. The texture is fine sandy
loam, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. This horizon
ranges from 15 to 35 inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is mottled in shades of gray,
brown, red, or yellow. The texture is fine sandy loam,
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.

Chipley Series

The Chipley series consists of somewhat poorly
drained soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy
marine sediments. These nearly level to gently sloping
soils are on low knolls and ridges in the flatwoods and
on toe slopes in the uplands. They are thermic, coated
Aquic Quartzipsamments.
Chipley soils are associated with the Albany, Blanton,
Foxworth, Lakeland, Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo
soils. Pelham soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of
20 to 40 inches, and Albany, Blanton, Plummer, and
Sapelo soils have one at a depth of more than 40
inches. Sapelo soils have a spodic horizon within a
depth of 30 inches. Lakeland soils are excessively
drained, Blanton and Foxworth soils are moderately well
drained, and Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils are
poorly drained.
Typical pedon of Chipley fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, about 1,400 feet north of the Santa Fe River, 80
feet west of Southwest 55th Street, SW/4NE/4 sec. 18,
T. 7 S., R. 20 E., in Bradford County:

Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.


C1-5 to 18 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
C2-18 to 38 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
sand; common fine prominent yellowish red (5YR
5/8) and common medium faint yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; medium
acid; clear wavy boundary.
C3-38 to 53 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; few
fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) and common fine
distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; single
grained; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
C4-53 to 72 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
common fine distinct reddish brown (5YR 5/4) and
yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; single grained; loose;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C5-72 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; few
fine distinct yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid.

Unless lime has been applied, reaction ranges from
extremely acid to medium acid in the A horizon. It
ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid in the C
horizon.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The thickness of this horizon ranges
from 4 to 7 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR. It has value of 7
and chroma of 1 to 6, value of 8 and chroma of 1 to 4,
value of 5 or 6 and chroma of 2 to 6, or value of 4 and
chroma of 3. Few or common mottles in shades of
yellow or brown are at a depth of more than 12 inches
in some pedons. Mottles in shades of gray or reddish
and yellowish, segregated iron mottles are at a depth of
20 to 40 inches. This horizon is sand or fine sand.

Croatan Series
The Croatan series consists of very poorly drained
soils that formed in moderately thick deposits of organic
material underlain by loamy marine sediments. These
nearly level soils are in depressions and on flood plains.
They are loamy, siliceous, dysic, thermic Terric
Medisaprists.
Croatan soils are geographically associated with the
Dorovan, Pamlico, and Surrency soils. Dorovan soils
are organic to a depth of 51 inches or more. Pamlico
soils are organic to a depth of 16 to 50 inches and are
underlain by sandy material. The mineral Surrency soils
have an umbric epipedon. Also, they have an argillic
horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Croatan muck, in an area of
Pamlico and Croatan mucks; about 1 mile north of
County Road 125 and 2.3 miles west of U.S. Highway






Union County, Florida


301, SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 9, T. 5 S., R. 22 E., in Bradford
County:

Oa-0 to 23 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 20
percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed;
massive; very friable; extremely acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C-23 to 30 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
mucky sandy loam; massive; very friable; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg1-30 to 65 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
loam; massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg2-65 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
loam; massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
strongly acid.

The thickness of the organic material commonly
ranges from 16 to 35 inches, but it can be as much as
50 inches. Reaction is extremely acid in the organic
material and ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid
in the mineral layers.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of
2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral in hue and
has value of 2. The content of mineral material is less
than 15 percent. The content of fiber is less than 10
percent after rubbing.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
chroma of 1 to 3 or hue of 5Y, value of 4, and chroma
of 1. The texture is mucky sandy loam, sandy loam, fine
sandy loam, or loam. This horizon ranges from 3 to 10
inches in thickness.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 3 to
5, and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5,
and chroma of 3. This horizon is sandy loam, sandy
clay loam, or fine sandy loam.

Dorovan Series
The Dorovan series consists of very poorly drained
soils that formed in highly decomposed organic material
more than 51 inches thick. This organic material is
decomposed leaves, twigs, roots, and plants. These
nearly level soils are in depressions and on flood plains.
They are dysic, thermic Typic Medisaprists.
Dorovan soils are associated with the Croatan,
Mascotte, Pamlico, Pelham, Plummer, Sapelo, Starke,
and Surrency soils. Croatan and Pamlico soils are
organic to a depth of less than 51 inches and are
underlain by loamy and sandy material, respectively.
The mineral Mascotte, Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo
soils are poorly drained. Mascotte and Pelham soils
have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches,
and Plummer and Sapelo soils have one at a depth of


40 to 80 inches. Mascotte and Sapelo soils have a
spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches. Starke and
Surrency soils have an umbric epipedon and are very
poorly drained. Also, Starke soils have an argillic
horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches, and Surrency
soils have one at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Dorovan muck, frequently flooded,
0.87 mile north of Little Santa Fe Lake, 0.53 mile
northwest of County Road 21 B, SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 15, T. 8
S., R. 22 E., in Bradford County:

Oal-0 to 25 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) muck;
about 30 percent fiber unrubbed, 5 percent rubbed;
fine to coarse roots rubbed and partly decomposed
leaves, twigs, and wood fragments; massive;
nonsticky; extremely acid; diffuse wavy boundary.
Oa2-25 to 40 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
muck; about 20 percent fiber unrubbed, 5 percent
rubbed; fine and medium, partly decomposed roots
and wood fragments; massive; nonsticky; extremely
acid; diffuse wavy boundary.
Oa3-40 to 80 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
muck; about 5 percent fiber unrubbed, 2 percent
rubbed; decomposed parts of plants; massive;
nonsticky; extremely acid.

The Oa horizon ranges from 51 to more than 80
inches in thickness. It has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The content of
fiber ranges from 10 to 40 percent before rubbing and
from less than 5 percent to 15 percent after rubbing.
This horizon has few or common partly decomposed
leaves, roots, and twigs and the remains of hydrophytic
plants. A few logs and large wood fragments are in the
lower part.
Some pedons have a Cg horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The
texture is sand to sandy loam.

Elloree Series
The Elloree series consists of poorly drained soils
that formed in sandy and loamy sediments. These
nearly level soils are on flood plains. They are loamy,
siliceous, thermic Arenic Ochraqualfs.
Elloree soils are associated with the Grifton, Ousley,
Pelham, Plummer, Sapelo, and Surrency soils and
Fluvaquents. Grifton soils have an argillic horizon within
a depth of 20 inches, and Plummer and Sapelo soils
have one at a depth of 40 to 80 inches. Also, Sapelo
soils have a spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches.
Fluvaquents have stratified fluvial material of varying
textures throughout. Ousley soils are somewhat poorly
drained and are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more.






Soil Survey


Pelham and Surrency soils have an argillic horizon at a
depth of 20 to 40 inches. Also, Surrency soils have an
umbric epipedon. Pelham, Plummer, and Surrency soils
have a base saturation of less than 35 percent.
Typical pedon of Elloree fine sand, in an area of
Grifton and Elloree soils, frequently flooded; about 0.5
mile northeast of County Road 125, about 900 feet
south of the New River, NE1/4NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 36, T. 5
S., R. 11 E., in Bradford County:

Ap-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; medium
acid; clear wavy boundary.
Eg1-5 to 15 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sand; few medium uncoated sand grains; single
grained; loose; medium acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Eg2-15 to 33 inches; gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand;
common uncoated sand grains; single grained;
loose; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg1-33 to 43 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) sandy loam;
few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-43 to 55 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
boundary.
Btg3-55 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
clay loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; mildly alkaline.

The solum is more than 50 inches thick. Reaction
ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid in the A
horizon, from strongly acid to neutral in the E horizon,
and from strongly acid to moderately alkaline in the Btg
and Cg horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 2 or less. The thickness of this horizon
ranges from 2 to 7 inches.
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 2 or less. The texture is sand, fine sand,
or loamy sand. This horizon ranges from 15 to 30
inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR to 5Y,
value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. It is mottled in
shades of gray, yellow, or brown. The texture is sandy
loam or sandy clay loam.
Some pedons have a Cg horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or
less. The texture is sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, or
sandy clay loam.


Foxworth Series

The Foxworth series consists of moderately well
drained soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy
marine or eolian sediments. These nearly level to gently
sloping soils are in the uplands. They are thermic,
coated Typic Quartzipsamments.
Foxworth soils are associated with the Albany,
Blanton, Chipley, Lakeland, Ocilla, Plummer, and Troup
soils. Albany, Blanton, Plummer, and Troup soils have
an argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches, and
Ocilla soils have one at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Albany, Chipley, and Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly
drained, Plummer soils are poorly drained, Troup soils
are well drained, and Lakeland soils are excessively
drained.
Typical pedon of Foxworth fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, about 50 feet west of William Kelly Road and
0.18 mile south of stream, NE/4SW/4 sec. 29, T. 6 S.,
R. 20 E., in Bradford County:

Ap-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; medium
acid; clear wavy boundary.
C1-8 to 28 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sand;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C2-28 to 52 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C3-52 to 75 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
few fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles
and few pale brown splotches; single grained;
loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C4-75 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand;
few medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8)
mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid.

The sandy material is 80 or more inches thick.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid
throughout the profile. The texture is sand or fine sand
in the C horizon. The content of silt combined with the
content of clay is 5 to 10 percent in the 10- to 40-inch
control section.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 to 3. The thickness of this horizon ranges
from 4 to 8 inches.
The C1 and C2 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of
5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 8. Few fine mottles or
pockets of uncoated sand grains are at a depth of 36 to
42 inches in some pedons. They are not indicative of
wetness.
The C3 and C4 horizons have hue of 10YR, value of
5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 6. Few or common, fine or






Union County, Florida


medium mottles in shades of yellow, brown, or red are
at a depth of 45 to about 60 inches. Few to many
uncoated sand grains are in these horizons. In pedons
with thin C1 and C2 horizons, the C3 horizon can have
the same colors as those horizons.

Goldhead Series
The Goldhead series consists of poorly drained soils
that formed in sandy and loamy marine sediments.
These nearly level soils are in low upland areas and in
seeps adjacent to drainageways. They are loamy,
siliceous, thermic Arenic Ochraqualfs.
Goldhead soils are geographically associated with
the Albany, Ocilla, Pelham, Plummer, Surrency, and
Wampee soils. All of the associated soils, except for
Wampee soils, have a base saturation of less than 35
percent. Albany, Ocilla, and Wampee soils are
somewhat poorly drained. Albany and Plummer soils
have an argillic horizon at a depth of more than 40
inches. Surrency soils are very poorly drained and have
an umbric epipedon.
Typical pedon of Goldhead fine sand, about 0.4 mile
east of County Road 241 and 1.8 miles north of County
Road 238, SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 28, T. 5 S., R. 18 E.
Ap-0 to 9 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; few fine roots;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
Eg1-9 to 17 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; less than 5
percent iron and phosphatic concretions; medium
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Eg2-17 to 23 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
few fine prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; about
5 percent iron and phosphatic concretions; medium
acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg1-23 to 42 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sandy loam; common coarse prominent brownish
yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular
blocky structure; very friable; about 10 to 15 percent
iron and phosphatic concretions; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-42 to 66 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sandy
loam; many coarse prominent brownish yellow
(10YR 6/8) and many fine prominent yellowish red
(5YR 4/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable; about 5 to 10 percent concretions;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg3-66 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sandy
loam; few fine prominent yellowish red (5YR 4/6)
and common medium and coarse faint white (10YR
8/2) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky


structure; friable; less than 5 percent concretions;
strongly acid.

The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction
ranges from very strongly acid to neutral in the A and
Eg horizons and from strongly acid to neutral in the Btg
horizon.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand. The
thickness of this horizon ranges from 4 to 9 inches.
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand.
The content of ironstone nodules or weathered
phosphatic limestone fragments ranges from 0 to 5
percent, by volume. This horizon ranges from 14 to 26
inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 5GY, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 1. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam,
sandy clay loam, or the gravelly analogs of those
textures. The content of ironstone nodules and
weathered phosphatic limestone fragments ranges from
0 to 25 percent.
Some pedons have a Cg horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The
texture is sand or loamy sand.

Grifton Series
The Grifton series consists of poorly drained soils
that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine
and alluvial sediments. These nearly level soils are on
flood plains and in drainageways. They are fine-loamy,
siliceous, thermic Typic Ochraqualfs.
Grifton soils are associated with the Elloree, Ousley,
Pelham, Plummer, and Surrency soils and Fluvaquents.
Fluvaquents have stratified alluvial material of varying
textures throughout. Pelham and Plummer soils are not
subject to frequent flooding. Elloree and Pelham soils
have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches,
and Plummer soils have one at a depth of 40 to 80
inches. Surrency soils have an umbric epipedon. They
have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Pelham, Plummer, and Surrency soils have a base
saturation of less than 35 percent. Ousley soils are
somewhat poorly drained and are sandy to a depth of
80 inches or more.
Typical pedon of Grifton loamy fine sand, in an area
of Grifton and Elloree soils, frequently flooded; 150 feet
south of the New River and 2 miles west of County
Road 16, SE/4NW/4 sec. 21, T. 5 S., R. 21 E., in
Bradford County:

A-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy fine






Soil Survey


sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Eg-4 to 10 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loamy fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Btgl-10 to 18 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
loam; common medium yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
Btg2-18 to 24 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
loam; many medium prominent brownish yellow
(10YR 6/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
about 5 percent, by volume, pockets and thin
discontinuous bands of soft white calcium carbonate
accumulations; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg3-24 to 52 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
about 5 percent, by volume, pockets and thin
discontinuous bands of soft white calcium carbonate
accumulations; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
boundary.
BCg-52 to 65 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam;
common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR
5/6) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
slightly sticky and nonplastic; neutral.

The solum is 60 or more inches thick. Reaction
ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid in the A
and E horizons, from very strongly acid to moderately
alkaline in the Btg horizon, and from medium acid to
moderately alkaline in the BCg and Cg horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 2 or less. The thickness of this horizon
ranges from 4 to 8 inches.
The Eg horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value
of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is loamy
sand, loamy fine sand, or sandy loam. The combined
thickness of the A and E horizons ranges from 6 to 17
inches.
Some pedons have a BEg horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR, value of 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The
texture is loamy sand or sandy loam. This horizon
ranges from 0 to 7 inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to
7, and chroma of 2 or less. It is mottled in shades of
yellow or brown. The texture is sandy loam or sandy
clay loam. This horizon ranges from 18 to 45 inches in
thickness.
Some pedons have a Cg or 2Cg horizon. This
horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 4 to 7, and


chroma of 2 or less. The texture is sand, fine sand, or
loamy fine sand.

Lakeland Series
The Lakeland series consists of excessively drained
soils that formed in thick beds of eolian or marine sand.
These nearly level to gently sloping soils are on broad,
slightly elevated ridges in the uplands. They are
thermic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments.
Lakeland soils are associated with the Albany,
Blanton, Chipley, Foxworth, and Troup soils. Troup soils
are well drained, Blanton and Foxworth soils are
moderately well drained, and Chipley and Albany soils
are somewhat poorly drained. Also, Albany, Blanton,
and Troup soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 40
to 80 inches.
Typical pedon of Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, 0.4 mile west of County Road 241A, about 0.6
mile south of State Road 238, NW/4NE/4 sec. 1, T. 6
S., R. 17 E.

Ap-0 to 8 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
sand; single grained; loose; few uncoated sand
grains; common fine roots; medium acid; abrupt
wavy boundary.
C1-8 to 32 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
sand; single grained; loose; common fine roots; few
uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C2-32 to 48 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/6)
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; few
uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C3-48 to 80 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sand;
single grained; loose; few uncoated sand grains;
about 2 percent ironstone nodules; strongly acid.

The sand is more than 80 inches thick. Unless lime
has been applied, reaction is very strongly acid to
medium acid throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The thickness of this horizon ranges
from 3 to 9 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
chroma of 3 to 8 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 6. Some pedons have less than 5 percent,
by volume, ironstone nodules at a depth of more than
40 inches.

Mascotte Series
The Mascotte series consists of poorly drained soils
that formed in thick deposits of sandy and loamy marine






Union County, Florida


sediments. These nearly level soils are in the flatwoods.
They are sandy, siliceous, thermic Ultic Haplaquods.
Mascotte soils are associated with the Albany, Ocilla,
Pantego, Pelham, Plummer, Sapelo, and Surrency soils.
All of the associated soils, except for Sapelo soils, have
no spodic horizon. Albany and Ocilla soils are
somewhat poorly drained. Pantego and Surrency soils
have an umbric epipedon. Pantego soils have an argillic
horizon within a depth of 20 inches, and Albany,
Plummer, and Sapelo soils have one at a depth of more
than 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Mascotte sand, 0.75 mile north of
County Road 18, about 2.2 miles east of the Seaboard
Coast Line Railroad, NW/4SE/4 sec. 11, T. 7 S., R. 20
E., in Bradford County:
Ap-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; few coarse, common
medium, and many fine roots; extremely acid; clear
wavy boundary.
E-6 to 19 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grained; loose; common medium and fine
roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bh1-19 to 23 inches; black (5YR 2/1) loamy sand;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; very
friable; few medium and fine roots; very strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bh2-23 to 27 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very
friable; few fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
E'-27 to 35 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; common fine and medium very dark gray
(10YR 3/1) spodic bodies; single grained; loose; few
fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg1-35 to 38 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sandy
loam; common coarse distinct strong brown (7.5YR
5/8) and many coarse faint light yellowish brown
(10YR 6/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-38 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay
loam; many medium and coarse distinct brownish
yellow (10YR 6/8) and few fine and medium
prominent red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles; moderate
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg3-60 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay
loam; common coarse prominent light red (10R 6/8)
and many fine distinct yellow (10YR 7/8) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; very strongly acid.
Depth to the Bh horizon ranges from 14 to 29 inches,
and depth to the Btg horizon ranges from 24 to 39


inches. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly
acid throughout the solum.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1. The thickness of this horizon ranges from
4 to 9 inches.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand. The
combined thickness of the A and E horizons is less than
30 inches.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3,
and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3 or 4,
and chroma of 2 to 4; or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3,
and chroma of 1 to 3. The texture is loamy sand, sand,
or fine sand. This horizon ranges from 4 to 14 inches in
thickness.
The E' horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 2 to 4. In some pedons it has mottles in
shades of brown or gray. The texture is sand or fine
sand. This horizon ranges from 0 to 8 inches in
thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7,
and chroma of 2. The texture is fine sandy loam, sandy
loam, or sandy clay loam.

Ocilla Series
The Ocilla series consists of somewhat poorly
drained soils that formed in deposits of sandy and
loamy marine sediments. These nearly level to gently
sloping soils are on low uplands and in slightly elevated
areas in the flatwoods. They are loamy, siliceous,
thermic Aquic Arenic Paleudults.
Ocilla soils are associated with the Albany, Blanton,
Mascotte, Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils. Albany,
Plummer, and Sapelo soils have an argillic horizon at a
depth of more than 40 inches. Blanton soils are
moderately well drained, and Mascotte, Pelham,
Plummer, and Sapelo soils are poorly drained. Also,
Mascotte and Sapelo soils have a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Ocilla fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, 0.8 mile north of County Road 225 and 1.1
miles west of County Road 16, NE1/SE1/ sec. 22, T. 5
S., R. 21 E., in Bradford County:
Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
many fine and medium roots; medium acid; abrupt
wavy boundary.
E-8 to 20 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; common fine, medium,
and coarse roots; strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
BE-20 to 25 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) loamy fine
sand; few fine faint brownish yellow mottles; weak






Soil Survey


fine granular structure; very friable; few fine and
medium roots; less than 5 percent, by volume,
ironstone nodules; strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Bt-25 to 39 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sandy clay
loam; many medium and coarse distinct brownish
yellow (10YR 6/6) and common fine and medium
distinct red (10R 4/8) mottles; weak coarse
subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine and
medium roots; clay films on faces of peds; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg1-39 to 56 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy clay loam;
common medium distinct olive yellow (5Y 6/6),
common medium distinct red (10R 4/8), and
common coarse distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8)
mottles; moderate coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable; clay films on faces of peds; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-56 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy clay loam;
medium and coarse distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8),
many medium and coarse distinct red (10R 4/8),
and few medium distinct olive yellow (5Y 6/6)
mottles; moderate coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable; clay films on faces of peds; very
strongly acid.

The solum is 80 or more inches thick. Unless lime
has been applied, it is strongly acid or very strongly
acid.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The thickness of this horizon ranges
from 3 to 10 inches.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 to 4 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6 to 8, and
chroma of 2 to 4. In some pedons it has mottles in
shades of brown, olive, or gray in the lower part. The
texture is sand or fine sand. The thickness of this
horizon ranges from 12 to 29 inches.
The BE horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR or
2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 8. It is mottled
in shades of gray, yellow, brown, or red. The texture is
loamy sand, loamy fine sand, or sandy loam. This
horizon ranges from 0 to 15 inches in thickness.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 3 to 8. It is mottled in shades of gray, yellow,
brown, or red. The texture is sandy loam, fine sandy
loam, or sandy clay loam. This horizon ranges from 4 to
16 inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR and has value of 5
to 7 and chroma of 2 to 8 or value of 6 or 7 and chroma
of 1, or it has hue of 5Y, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of
1. It is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, brown, or red.
The texture is sandy loam, sandy clay loam, or sandy
clay.


Osier Series
The Osier series consists of poorly drained soils that
formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediments. These
nearly level soils are in the slightly lower areas in the
flatwoods. They are siliceous, thermic Typic
Psammaquents.
Osier soils are geographically associated with the
Albany, Chipley, Pamlico, Plummer, Sapelo, and Starke
soils. Albany, Plummer, Sapelo, and Starke soils have
an argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches. Albany
and Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained. Pamlico
soils are organic to a depth of less than 51 inches and
are underlain by sandy material. Sapelo soils have a
spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches. Starke soils
are very poorly drained and have an umbric epipedon.
Typical pedon of Osier sand, about 15 feet north of
County Road 18, about 0.6 mile east of the Santa Fe
River, NE/4NE/4 sec. 3, T. 7 S., R. 19 E.

Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; common
uncoated sand grains; common fine roots; slightly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
Cgl-5 to 25 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; medium
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg2-25 to 55 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Cg3-55 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; single grained; loose; medium acid.

Unless lime has been applied, reaction is extremely
acid to medium acid throughout the profile. The texture

is fine sand or sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The content of silt combined with the content of clay is
5 to 10 percent between depths of 10 and 40 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1. The thickness of this horizon ranges from
5 to 7 inches.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4
to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons it has a few
mottles in shades of brown, yellow, or gray.

Ousley Series
The Ousley series consists of somewhat poorly
drained soils that formed in sandy fluvial sediments
along the Santa Fe River, the New River, and various
other creeks and streams. These nearly level soils are
in high areas on flood plains. They are thermic,
uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments.
Ousley soils are associated with the Albany, Blanton,
Elloree, Grifton, Ocilla, Pelham, and Plummer soils and






Union County, Florida


Fluvaquents. Albany, Blanton, and Plummer soils have
an argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches. Also,
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Elloree,
Ocilla, and Pelham soils have an argillic horizon at a
depth of 20 to 40 inches, and Grifton soils have one
within a depth of 20 inches. Fluvaquents are poorly
drained, and Elloree, Grifton, Pelham, and Plummer
soils are very poorly drained. Also, Fluvaquents consist
of stratified alluvial material of varying textures.
Typical pedon of Ousley fine sand, in an area of
Fluvaquents-Ousley association, occasionally flooded;
about 1.8 miles east of County Road 241, NW/4SE/4
sec. 26, T. 6 S., R. 18 E.

A-0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few
fine roots; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
C1-4 to 24 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; very strongly acid;
clear smooth boundary.
C2-24 to 40 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
C3-40 to 55 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
C4-55 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid.

The sandy material is 80 or more inches thick.
Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid
throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR and has value of 2 to
6 and chroma of 1 or value of 4 and chroma of 2. The
thickness of this horizon ranges from 4 to 8 inches.
The C1 and C2 horizons have hue of 10YR and have
value of 4 to 7 and chroma of 3 or value of 5 or less
and chroma of 4. The texture is fine sand or sand. The
combined thickness of the C1 and C2 horizons ranges
from 25 to 44 inches.
The C3 and C4 horizons, if they occur, have hue of
10YR and have value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 2, value
of 6 and chroma of 4, or value of 5 and chroma of 3. In
some pedons they have mottles in shades of gray,
brown, or yellow. The texture is sand or fine sand.

Pamlico Series
The Pamlico series consists of very poorly drained
soils that formed in moderately thick deposits of organic
material underlain by sandy marine sediments. These
nearly level soils are in depressions and on flood plains.
They are sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, dysic,
thermic Terric Medisaprists.


Pamlico soils are associated with the Croatan,
Dorovan, Pantego, Starke, and Surrency soils. Croatan
soils are organic to a depth of 16 to 50 inches and are
underlain by loamy material. Dorovan soils are organic
to a depth of 51 inches or more. The mineral Pantego
and Surrency soils have an umbric epipedon. Also,
Pantego soils have an argillic horizon within a depth of
20 inches, and Surrency soils have one at a depth of 20
to 40 inches. Starke soils have an umbric epipedon.
Also, they have an argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to 80
inches.
Typical pedon of Pamlico muck, in an area of
Pamlico and Croatan mucks; about 2,200 feet east of
County Road 231 and 3,000 feet south of County Road
18, NW/4SW4 sec. 15, T. 7 S., R. 20 E., in Bradford
County:

Oal-0 to 16 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) muck;
about 10 percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5
percent rubbed; massive; very friable; brownish
yellow (10YR 6/6) sodium pyrophosphate extract;
extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Oa2-16 to 40 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 15
percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5 percent rubbed;
massive; very friable; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
sodium pyrophosphate extract; extremely acid; clear
wavy boundary.
C-40 to 50 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
Cg-50 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grained; strongly acid.
The thickness of the organic material commonly
ranges from 16 to 40 inches, but it can be as much as
50 inches. Reaction is extremely acid in the Oa horizon
and ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid in the
sandy layers.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of
2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and
has value of 2. The content of fiber is 10 percent or less
after rubbing. Some pedons have a thin O or Oe
horizon, which has colors similar to those of the Oa
horizon.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 6, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand, fine sand, or
loamy sand.

Pantego Series
The Pantego series consists of very poorly drained
soils that formed in thick beds of loamy marine
sediments. These nearly level soils are in depressions
and on flood plains. They are fine-loamy, siliceous,
thermic Umbric Paleaquults.






Soil Survey


Pantego soils are associated with the Croatan,
Elloree, Grifton, Mascotte, Pamlico, Pelham, Plummer,
Sapelo, and Surrency soils. Croatan and Pamlico soils
are organic to a depth of 16 to 50 inches. Also, Pamlico
soils are underlain by sandy material. Mascotte,
Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils do not have an
umbric epipedon and are poorly drained. Elloree and
Mascotte soils have an argillic horizon within a depth of
40 inches, and Plummer and Sapelo soils have one at a
depth of 40 to 80 inches. Mascotte and Sapelo soils
have a spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches.
Surrency soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20
to 40 inches. Grifton soils do not have an umbric
epipedon and have a high base saturation.
Typical pedon of Pantego mucky loamy sand, in an
area of Surrency and Pantego soils, depressional;
about 0.5 mile north of County Road 225 and 0.2 mile
west of County Road 16, SW/4SE/4 sec. 23, T. 5 S., R.
21 E., in Bradford County:

A-0 to 15 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky loamy sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
BE-15 to 18 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg1-18 to 32 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
sandy clay loam; common medium distinct brown
(10YR 5/3) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
Btg2-32 to 64 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) sandy
clay; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; very strongly acid.

The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Unless lime
has been applied, reaction is very strongly acid or
strongly acid throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The thickness of this horizon ranges
from 9 to 18 inches.
The BE horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value
of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is loamy
fine sand, sandy loam, or loam. This horizon ranges
from 3 to 6 inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value
of 3 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. The number of mottles
in shades of brown or yellow ranges from none to
common. The texture is sandy clay loam or sandy clay.
Some pedons have a Cg horizon at a depth of more
than 60 inches. This horizon has hue of 10YR, value of
4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sandy loam,
loamy sand, or sand.


Pelham Series
The Pelham series consists of poorly drained soils
that formed in deposits of sandy and loamy marine
sediments. These nearly level soils are in the lower
areas in the flatwoods and in poorly defined
drainageways. They are loamy, siliceous, thermic
Arenic Paleaquults.
Pelham soils are associated with the Albany,
Mascotte, Ocilla, Pantego, Plummer, Sapelo, and
Surrency soils. Albany, Plummer, and Sapelo soils have
an argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches. Albany
and Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained. Mascotte
and Sapelo soils have a spodic horizon within a depth
of 30 inches. Pantego and Surrency soils have an
umbric epipedon and are very poorly drained. Also,
Pantego soils have an argillic horizon within a depth of
20 inches.
Typical pedon of Pelham fine sand, in an area of
Pelham-Pelham, wet, fine sands; about 30 feet east of
NW 23 Circle and 120 feet south of the intersection of
North 60th Avenue and NW 23 Circle, NE/4NE/4 sec.
33, T. 4 S., R. 22 E., in Bradford County:

Ap-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
Eg1-8 to 15 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; medium acid;
clear wavy boundary.
Eg2-15 to 21 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few fine roots; medium acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
Eg3-21 to 31 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few fine distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) mottles; medium acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Btg1-31 to 36 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sandy loam;
few fine prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-36 to 48 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy clay loam;
many fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg3-48 to 62 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy clay loam;
common fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
and common medium distinct brownish yellow
(10YR 6/6) and yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.






Union County, Florida


Btg4-62 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy
clay; common fine and medium distinct yellowish
brown (10YR 5/8) and yellow (10YR 7/6) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
sticky and plastic; strongly acid.

The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Unless lime
has been applied, reaction is very strongly acid or
strongly acid throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR or is
neutral in hue. It has value of 2 to 4 and chroma of 0 to
2. The thickness of this horizon ranges from 3 to 8
inches.
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand, fine sand,
or loamy sand. The combined thickness of the A and E
horizons ranges from 27 to 39 inches.
Some pedons have a BE horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. The
number of yellow or yellowish brown mottles ranges
from none to common. This horizon is sandy loam. It
ranges from 0 to 10 inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y or is neutral
in hue. It has value of 5 to 7 and chroma of 0 to 2. The
number of mottles in shades of yellow, brown, or red
ranges from none to many. The texture is sandy loam,
fine sandy loam, sandy clay loam, or sandy clay.
Some pedons have a Cg horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or
less. The number of mottles in shades of yellow, gray,
or brown ranges from none to many. The texture is
sandy loam or loamy sand.

Plummer Series
The Plummer series consists of poorly drained soils
that formed in deposits of sandy and loamy marine
sediments. These nearly level soils are in the slightly
lower areas in the flatw'ods and in drainageways. They
are loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Paleaquults.
Plummer soils are associated with the Albany,
Mascotte, Ocilla, Pelham, Sapelo, Starke, and Surrency
soils. Albany and Ocilla soils are slightly higher on the
landscape than the Plummer soils and are somewhat
poorly drained. Mascotte, Ocilla, Pelham, and Surrency
soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40
inches. Mascotte and Sapelo soils have a spodic
horizon at a depth of 20 to 30 inches. Starke and
Surrency soils have an umbric epipedon and are very
poorly drained.
Typical pedon of Plummer sand, in an area of
Plummer-Plummer, wet, sands; about 0.2 mile north
and 0.5 mile east of County Road 239A and 0.5 mile


east of County Road 239, SW/4NW/4 sec. 18, T. 6 S.,
R. 19 E.

Ap-0 to 9 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
roots; medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Eg1-9 to 27 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; medium acid;
clear wavy boundary.
Eg2-27 to 35 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand;-few
fine prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Eg3-35 to 56 inches; white (10YR 8/2) sand; few fine
faint very pale brown mottles; single grained; loose;
few fine roots; medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
BEg-56 to 61 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
loamy sand; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
5/8) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; very friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Btg1-61 to 69 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sandy clay loam; many medium distinct brownish
yellow (10YR 6/8) and common fine prominent
strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; weak coarse
subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky;
few clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-69 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay
loam; common medium prominent strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable, slightly sticky; extremely acid.

The thickness of the solum ranges from 72 to more
than 80 inches. Unless lime has been applied, reaction
is very strongly acid or strongly acid throughout the
profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The thickness of this horizon ranges
from 4 to 9 inches.
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 8,
and chroma of 1 or 2. The number of mottles in shades
of yellow or brown ranges from none to common. The
texture is sand or fine sand. The total thickness of the A
and E horizons ranges from 48 to 65 inches.
The BE horizon, if it occurs, has colors similar to
those of the Btg horizon. The texture is loamy sand or
sandy loam. This horizon ranges from 2 to 7 inches in
thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 to
7, and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral in hue and has
value of 6. The number of mottles in shades of gray,






Soil Survey


brown, or yellow ranges from none to common. The
texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay
loam.

Sapelo Series
The Sapelo series consists of poorly drained soils
that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine
sediments. These nearly level soils are in the flatwoods.
They are sandy, siliceous, thermic Ultic Haplaquods.
Sapelo soils are associated with the Albany,
Mascotte, Ocilla, Pelham, Plummer, Starke, and
Surrency soils. Albany and Ocilla soils are somewhat
poorly drained. Ocilla, Mascotte, and Pelham soils have
an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Albany,
Ocilla, Pelham, Plummer, Starke, and Surrency soils do
not have a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Sapelo sand, about 0.1 mile north
of County Road 239A, 0.3 mile east of County Road
239, SE/4NE/4 sec. 13, T. 6 S., R. 18 E.

Ap-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
single grained; loose; many fine roots; very strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
E-8 to 15 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grained; loose; common fine roots; strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bh1-15 to 21 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
sand; few fine distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR
4/6) mottles; weak fine granular structure; very
friable; few fine roots; extremely acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Bh2-21 to 29 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; few
pockets and streaks of brown (10YR 5/3) sand;
extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
E'-29 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; few
fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) and
common fine distinct dark brown (10YR 3/3)
mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
Btg1-50 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sandy
loam; many medium and coarse prominent strong
brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak medium
subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky;
common distinct clay films on faces of peds;
extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-60 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay
loam; common coarse prominent strong brown
(7.5YR 5/8), few medium distinct gray (5Y 5/1), and
few medium prominent red (10R 4/8) mottles; weak
coarse subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly
sticky; extremely acid.


The solum ranges from 70 to more than 80 inches in
thickness. Unless lime has been applied, it ranges from
extremely acid to strongly acid. Depth to the Bh horizon
is 10 to 20 inches, and depth to the Btg horizon is 40 to
70 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or is neutral in hue and has value of 2. The
thickness of this horizon ranges from 3 to 8 inches.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 2 or less. The texture is fine sand or sand.
This horizon ranges from 7 to 16 inches in thickness.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR or 10YR, value of 2
or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3
or 4, and chroma of 2. The texture is sand or fine sand.
The thickness of this horizon ranges from 5 to 15
inches.
The E' horizon has hue of 10YR and has value of 5
to 7 and chroma of 2, value of 6 and chroma of 3, or
value of 7 and chroma of 4. The number of mottles in
shades of red, brown, or yellow ranges from none to
common. The texture is sand or fine sand. The number
of fine to coarse, weakly cemented spodic bodies
ranges from none to common. This horizon ranges from
20 to 31 inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8,
and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 5Y, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It is mottled in shades of yellow, red,
or brown. This horizon is sandy loam, fine sandy loam,
or sandy clay loam. It has lenses and pockets of sand
and clay in some pedons.

Starke Series
The Starke series consists of very poorly drained
soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy
marine sediments. These nearly level soils are in
depressions. They are loamy, siliceous, thermic
Grossarenic Paleaquults.
Starke soils are associated with the Croatan,
Mascotte, Osier, Pamlico, Pantego, Pelham, Plummer,
Sapelo, and Surrency soils. Croatan and Pamlico soils
are organic to a depth of 16 to 51 inches. Mascotte and
Sapelo soils have a spodic horizon and are poorly
drained. Surrency and Pelham soils have an argillic
horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches, and Pantego soils
have one within a depth of 20 inches. Osier, Pelham,
and Plummer soils are poorly drained and do not have
an umbric epipedon. Also, Osier soils are sandy
throughout.
Typical pedon of Starke mucky fine sand,
depressional, about 0.1 mile north of County Road 231
and 1 mile west of County Road 18, SW1/4SW/4 sec.
24, T. 7 S., R. 20 E., in Bradford County:






Union County, Florida


A1-0 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A2-7 to 18 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Eg1-18 to 26 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
fine sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Eg2-26 to 46 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Btg1-46 to 59 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam;
common fine distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR
4/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Btg2-59 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; very strongly acid.

The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction
ranges from extremely acid to medium acid throughout
the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2
or 3, and chroma of 2 or less. It is sand, fine sand,
loamy sand, or the mucky analogs of those textures.
The thickness of this horizon ranges from 10 to 25
inches.
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 3 or less or hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7,
and chroma of 2 or less. In some pedons it has mottles
in varying shades of gray, yellow, or brown. This
horizon is sand, fine sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine
sand. The combined thickness of the A and E horizons
ranges from 41 to 74 inches.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value
of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. The number of
mottles in varying shades of gray, yellow, brown, or red
ranges from none to common. The texture is sandy
loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. The
thickness of this horizon ranges from 6 to 39 inches.
Some pedons have a Cg horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma
of 2 or less. It is sand to sandy clay.

Surrency Series
The Surrency series consists of very poorly drained
soils that formed in thick beds of loamy and sandy
marine sediments. These nearly level soils are on flood
plains and in depressions. They are loamy, siliceous,
thermic Arenic Umbric Paleaquults.


Surrency soils are associated with the Croatan,
Elloree, Grifton, Mascotte, Ousley, Pamlico, Pantego,
Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils and Fluvaquents.
Croatan and Pamlico soils are organic to a depth of 16
to 51 inches. Also, Pamlico soils do not have a Bt
horizon. Mascotte, Pelham, Plummer, and Sapelo soils
do not have an umbric epipedon and are poorly
drained. Mascotte and Sapelo soils have a spodic
horizon. Plummer and Sapelo soils have an argillic
horizon at a depth of more than 40 inches, and Grifton
and Pantego soils have one within a depth of 20 inches.
Elloree and Grifton soils do not have an umbric
epipedon and have a base saturation of more than 35
percent. Fluvaquents consist of stratified, alluvial
material of varying textures throughout. Ousley soils are
somewhat poorly drained and are sandy to a depth of
80 inches or more.
Typical pedon of Surrency mucky fine sand, in an
area of Surrency and Pantego soils, depressional;
about 2,900 feet south of County Road 125 and 2,700
feet east of U.S. Highway 301, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 24, T. 5
S., R. 22 E., in Bradford County:

A1-0 to 9 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A2-9 to 18 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Eg1-18 to 25 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Eg2-25 to 30 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; few fine faint brown mottles; single grained;
loose; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btg1-30 to 45 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
loam; common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR
5/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Btg2-45 to 55 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay
loam; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg3-55 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay
loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; very strongly acid.

The solum is 60 or more inches thick. Reaction is
extremely acid or very strongly acid in the A and E
horizons and very strongly acid or strongly acid in the
Btg horizon.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and






Soil Survey


chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is mucky fine sand, loamy
fine sand, fine sand, or sand. This horizon ranges from
10 to 18 inches in thickness.
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2 or value of 4 and chroma of 2. It
is mottled in shades of yellow or brown. The texture is
loamy fine sand, loamy sand, fine sand, or sand. This
horizon ranges from 7 to 20 inches in thickness.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 1. It is mottled in shades of yellow or brown.
The texture is sandy loam or sandy clay loam.

Troup Series
The Troup series consists of well drained soils that
formed in sandy and loamy marine deposits. These
nearly level to rolling soils are in the uplands. They are
loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Kandiudults.
Troup soils are geographically associated with the
Blanton, Foxworth, Lakeland, and Ocilla soils. Blanton
and Foxworth soils are moderately well drained, and
Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained. Ocilla soils
have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Foxworth and Lakeland soils are sandy throughout.
Lakeland soils are excessively drained.
Typical pedon of Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
0.5 mile west of County Road 241A, 0.5 mile south of
State Road 238, NE/4SW/4 sec. 1, T. 5 S., R. 17 E.

Ap-0 to 9 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
common fine and medium roots; medium acid; clear
smooth boundary.
E1-9 to 20 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; common fine roots;
medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E2-20 to 50 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
sand; single grained; loose; common fine roots;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bt1-50 to 65 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
sandy loam; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable; few fine roots; strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
Bt2-65 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
sandy loam; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable; about 5 percent, by volume,
ironstone nodules; few fine distinct light gray (10YR
7/2) mottles; sand grains coated and bridged with
clay; strongly acid.

Unless lime has been applied, reaction is very
strongly acid to medium acid in the A and E horizons
and very strongly acid or strongly acid in the Bt horizon.


The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
chroma of 2 to 4. The thickness of this horizon ranges
from 4 to 9 inches.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 3 to 8. The texture is sand, fine sand, or
loamy sand. The combined thickness of the A and E
horizons is 50 to 76 inches.
Some pedons have a BE horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 8 or hue of
7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. The
content of ironstone nodules, weathered phosphatic
limestone fragments, and quartz gravel ranges from 0 to
10 percent, by volume. The texture is loamy sand or
sandy loam. This horizon ranges from 0 to 16 inches in
thickness.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 5
or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8 or hue of 5YR, value of 4 to
6, and chroma of 6 to 8. In some pedons it has a few
mottles in shades of red, yellow, or brown. The content
of ironstone nodules, weathered phosphatic limestone
fragments, and quartz gravel ranges from 0 to 10
percent, by volume. This horizon is sandy loam, fine
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.

Wampee Series
The Wampee series consists of somewhat poorly
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and
loamy marine sediments. These moderately sloping and
strongly sloping soils are on low uplands adjacent to
drainageways and flood plains along streams. They are
loamy, siliceous, thermic Aquic Arenic Hapludalfs.
Wampee soils are geographically associated with the
Albany, Blanton, Goldhead, Ocilla, Pelham, and
Plummer soils. All of the associated soils, except for
Goldhead soils, have a base saturation of less than 35
percent. Albany soils have an argillic horizon at a depth
of 40 to 80 inches. Blanton soils are moderately well
drained and have an argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to
80 inches. Pelham and Plummer soils are poorly
drained. Also, Plummer soils have an argillic horizon at
a depth of 40 to 80 inches.
Typical pedon of Wampee loamy fine sand, 5 to 12
percent slopes, about 0.6 mile east of County Road 241
and 0.3 mile south of Swift Creek, SW/4NE/4 sec. 28,
T. 5 S., R. 18 E.

Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
loamy fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very
friable; many fine and medium roots; about 1
percent, by volume, ironstone nodules and
weathered phosphatic limestone fragments; slightly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
AE-6 to 13 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) loamy fine






Union County, Florida


sand; single grained; loose; common fine roots;
about 1 percent, by volume, ironstone nodules and
weathered phosphatic limestone fragments; slightly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E-13 to 24 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; about 5
percent, by volume, ironstone nodules and
weathered phosphatic limestone fragments; slightly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
BE-24 to 29 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) loamy fine
sand; few medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR
6/6) mottles; weak fine granular structure; very
friable; few fine roots; about 10 percent, by volume,
ironstone nodules and weathered phosphatic
limestone fragments; slightly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Btg1-29 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) gravelly
sandy clay loam; few coarse distinct yellow (10YR
7/6) and few fine prominent strong brown (7.5YR
5/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable; few fine roots; about 15 percent,
by volume, ironstone nodules and weathered
phosphatic limestone fragments; medium acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-50 to 69 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy
clay; moderate coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; few fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
Cg-69 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) clay; common
medium faint pale yellow (5Y 7/4) and common
medium distinct yellow (2.5Y 7/6) mottles; massive;
few fine roots; strongly acid.

The solum ranges from 50 to 80 inches in thickness.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to neutral in
the A and AE horizons and from very strongly acid to
slightly acid in the E, BE, and Btg horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The content of coarse fragments,
mainly ironstone nodules, quartz gravel, and weathered
phosphatic limestone fragments, ranges from 0 to 10
percent, by volume. This horizon ranges from 3 to 7
inches in thickness.
The AE horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR and


has value of 4 and chroma of 1 to 4 or value of 5 and
chroma of 3. It is sand, fine sand, loamy sand, loamy
fine sand, or the gravelly analogs of those textures. The
content of coarse fragments, mainly ironstone nodules,
quartz gravel, and weathered phosphatic limestone
fragments, ranges from 0 to 15 percent, by volume.
This horizon ranges from 0 to 7 inches in thickness.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
chroma of 1 to 6. The number of mottles in shades of
yellow or brown ranges from none to many. This
horizon is sand, fine sand, loamy sand, loamy fine
sand, or the gravelly analogs of those textures. The
content of coarse fragments, mainly ironstone nodules,
quartz gravel, and weathered phosphatic limestone
fragments, ranges from 2 to 30 percent, by volume. The
combined thickness of the A, AE, and E horizons
ranges from 21 to 36 inches.
The BE horizon, if it occurs, has colors similar to
those of the E horizon. The content and composition of
coarse fragments also are similar. This horizon is loamy
sand, loamy fine sand, or the gravelly analogs of those
textures. It ranges from 0 to 6 inches in thickness.
The upper part of the Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to
5Y or is neutral in hue. It has value of 5 to 8 and
chroma of 0 to 4. It has few or common mottles in
varying shades of gray, yellow, or brown and in some
pedons has few or common, fine or medium mottles in
shades of red. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, sandy
clay loam, sandy clay, or the gravelly analogs of those
textures. The content of coarse fragments, mainly
ironstone nodules, quartz gravel, and weathered
phosphatic limestone fragments, ranges from 2 to 30
percent, by volume.
The lower part of the Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to
5Y or is neutral in hue. It has value of 5 to 8 and
chroma of 0 to 2. The number of mottles in varying
shades of gray, yellow, or brown ranges from none to
common. The texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam,
sandy clay loam, or sandy clay. The content of coarse
fragments is less than 10 percent, by volume. The Btg
horizon ranges from 15 to 50 inches in thickness.
The Cg horizon has colors similar to those of the
lower part of the Btg horizon. The texture ranges from
loamy sand to clay.



















Formation of the Soils


In this section the factors of soil formation are related
to the soils in Union County. In addition, the processes
of horizon differentiation are explained.

Factors of Soil Formation
Soil forms through weathering and other processes
that act on deposited or accumulated geologic material.
The kind of soil that forms depends on the type of
parent material; the climate under which soil material
has existed since accumulation; the plant and animal
life in and on the soil; the relief, or lay of the land; and
the length of time that the forces of soil formation have
acted on the soil material (9).
The five soil-forming factors are interdependent; each
modifies the effects of the others. Any one of the
factors can have more influence than the others on the
formation of a soil and can account for most of its
properties. For example, if the parent material is only
quartz sand, the soil generally has only weakly
expressed horizons. In some areas the effect of the
parent material is modified greatly by the effects of
climate, relief, and plants and animals in and on the
soil. As a soil forms, it is influenced by all five factors,
but in places one factor can have a dominant effect. A
modification or variation in any of these factors results
in a different kind of soil.

Parent Material
The soils in Union County formed mainly in marine
deposits. These deposits were mostly quartz sand with
varying amounts of clay and shell fragments. Clay is
more abundant in soils that formed in the sediment on
marine terraces and in lagoons, and it is virtually absent
on shoreline ridges where most of the deposits are
sandy eolian material. The parent material was
transported by ocean current. The ocean covered the
survey area a number of times during the Pleistocene
age.
The various kinds of parent material in Union County
differ somewhat from one another in mineral and
chemical composition and in physical structure. The
main physical differences, such as those between sand,


silt, and clay, can be observed in the field. Other
differences, such as mineral and chemical composition,
are important to soil formation and affect the present
physical and chemical characteristics of the soils. Many
differences among soils in the county reflect original
differences in the parent material as it was laid down.
Some organic soils are throughout the county. They
formed in the partly decayed remains of wetland
vegetation.

Climate
Precipitation, temperature, humidity, and wind are the
climatic forces that act on the parent material of the
soils in Union County. These forces have direct impact
on the soil and also influence soil formation indirectly
through their effect on plant and animal life.
The climate of Union County is warm and humid. The
Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean have a
moderating effect on temperatures. Inland lakes
moderate temperatures to a lesser extent. Summer
temperatures vary only slightly. In winter, temperatures
fluctuate widely, sometimes daily or for several days;
however, temperatures are not below freezing long
enough to freeze the soil. Rainfall averages about 54
inches per year (25). It often occurs as brief, heavy
thunderstorms during the summer and more moderate,
lengthy rainfall with the passage of cold fronts in the
winter.
Because of the warm climate and abundant rainfall,
chemical and biological activity is high. Rainfall leaches
many plant nutrients and thus lowers the fertility level of
the soil. This process over time also accounts for the
translocation of clay and organic matter, resulting in a
sandy surface layer and the formation of a spodic
horizon, an argillic horizon, or both deeper in the soil
profile.

Plants and Animals
Plant life generally is the principal biological factor
affecting soil formation in Union County. Animals,
insects, bacteria, and fungi are also important. Plant
and animal life furnishes organic matter. Through
biological processes, such as leaf drop and death,






Soil Survey


plants recycle nutrients from varying depths within the
soil and deposit nutrients along with organic matter on
the surface. Animals also process nutrients and organic
matter deposited on the surface.
Soil structure, porosity, and reaction are affected by
plants and animals. Tree roots, crayfish, earthworms,
and other burrowing organisms commonly improve soil
structure and porosity. The breakdown of plant
materials often influences soil reaction. Pine trees
reduce alkalinity in many areas in the county.
Micro-organisms, such as bacteria and fungi, help to
weather and break down minerals and recycle organic
matter by breaking it down into more basic components
and nutrients. These micro-organisms generally are
more numerous in the surface layer, and their numbers
and types increase with increasing depth. Earthworms
and other burrowing or tunneling organisms mix soil
material and influence its chemical composition.
Humans have influenced the formation of soils by
altering the vegetative community; by cultivating,
draining, irrigating, mixing, removing, covering, and
compacting the soil; by discharging wastes and
chemicals; and by applying pesticides. Some of the
effects of these activities, such as erosion and improved
drainage, are readily apparent, whereas others become
apparent only after a long time.

Relief
Relief influences soil formation through its effects on
drainage, erosion, temperature, and plant and animal
life.
Union County has four general topographic areas.
These are the scattered large swamps, marshes, and
depressions in the northern part of the county; the
seasonally wet flatwoods throughout the entire county,
except for the southern and southwestern parts; the
long, narrow flood plains along the southern, eastern,
and western boundaries; and the low, rolling areas
along the southern and southwestern boundaries.
The soils in the swamps, marshes, and depressions
are covered with water for long periods. The soils in the
flatwoods have a water table near the surface during
periods of moderate or heavy rainfall. The soils on the
flood plains are periodically submerged for brief periods
when major drainageways flood. The soils in the low,
rolling areas generally do not have a water table near
the surface. They generally are extremely dry only
during extended periods of low rainfall. These soils are
more susceptible to erosion than the soils in the other
topographic areas.
Elevations range from more than 165 feet above sea
level near Palestine Lake to less than 45 feet near the
junction of the Santa Fe River and Olustee Creek.


Internal soil drainage generally is not related to
elevation. Even in the low, rolling areas, a higher
elevation does not necessarily mean better drainage.
Microrelief plays an important part in soil formation.
Small rises in depressions and flatwoods and low areas
in the uplands commonly support vegetation that differs
from that in the surrounding areas. Also, the depth to a
seasonal high water table differs.

Time
Most factors that influence soil formation require a
long time to change the makeup of soils. Some geologic
components are more resistant to breakdown and
change than others. In Union County the dominant
geologic material is highly resistant to weathering. The
sand, the dominant component in most soils, is almost
pure quartz.
Relatively little geologic time has elapsed since the
material in which the soils in Union County formed
emerged from the sea and was laid down. The loamy
and clayey horizons formed in place through the
process of clay translocation, were deposited by rivers
and streams, or were deposited in beds and layers by
the sea.

Processes of Horizon Differentiation
The processes involved in the formation of soils and
the development of horizons are the deposition and
translocation of organic matter; the translocation of iron
and aluminum; the deposition of silts and clays;
leaching of calcium carbonates, other bases, and silts;
the reduction and transfer of iron and aluminum; and
the accumulation of organic matter on the surface.
The deposition and translocation of organic matter in
the soil profile can result in the formation of a spodic
horizon. This process is caused dominantly by water.
Rainfall leaches organic material that has been
deposited on the surface into the soil profile.
Iron and aluminum also are leached into the soil
profile. They adhere to sand grains, generally in a
fluctuating zone of the water table. These materials coat
individual sand grains. As development continues,
individually coated sand grains begin to adhere to each
other. The result is the formation of increasingly hard
bodies. As development further continues, the
movement of water is restricted, reducing permeability
rates within the spodic horizon. In Union County organic
matter generally is the dominant translocated material,
resulting in the black or dark brown color in most spodic
horizons. Over time, changes in the water table can
result in the formation of spodic horizons at varying
depths within the soil profile.






Union County, Florida


The translocation and deposition of silts and clays
are caused by water. Rainfall moving through the soil
translocates these soil particles downward through the
profile. The material is deposited, forming an argillic
horizon. Sand grains become coated and bridged. As
the argillic horizon continues to form, permeability is
eventually so restricted that water can be perched
above the horizon.
Leaching of carbonates, bases, and silts has
occurred in nearly all of the soils in the county. Rainfall
and water movement in the soils cause these elements
to be moved downward through the soils and then out
of the profile. As a result, most of the soils in Union
County, except for the soils along the major
drainageways, are naturally acid.
Gleying, or the chemical reduction of iron, has
occurred in the soils. The parts of a soil profile that are
saturated for long periods commonly are gleyed with
dull gray, yellow, or white colors or with mottles of
varying colors. Many of the better drained soils that are
not mottled have brighter colors in shades of yellow to
red, indicating iron in the oxidized state. These soils are
seldom saturated for extended periods.
The accumulation of organic material in or above the
mineral surface layer occurs in all of the soils in Union
County. The content of organic matter and thickness of
the surface layer depend on drainage and vegetation. In
drought soils with sparse vegetation, the content of
organic matter generally is low because of rapid
oxidation of limited organic deposition. The surface
layer of these soils is thin and light colored. The wetter
soils support more vegetation. The organic matter in


these soils is less oxidized, and the amount of available
organic material is increased. As a result, the surface
layer is thicker and darker. In very wet soils, where
water stands above the surface for long periods,
oxidation is greatly restricted. As a result, organic
matter accumulates above and in the mineral surface
layer, forming a very thick, dark mineral surface layer or
an organic surface layer (muck). Plowing often mixes
the dark surface layer with an underlying horizon,
resulting in a thicker dark surface layer in some soils.
The formation of concretions or nodules occurs on a
limited basis in Union County. These concretions are
iron or phosphatic. They occur in a few soils and
generally are moderately deep in the profile. Iron
concretions or ironstone can result from the
accumulation of translocated iron that adheres to form
soft to hard, generally gravel-sized fragments.
Phosphatic concretions may be the intermediate result
of the weathering of soft limestone-phosphatic bedrock
from which most of the carbonates have already been
leached. These dominantly gravel-sized concretions are
soft to firm.
The soil-forming processes have resulted in a
succession of layers, or horizons, in the soil. Variations
in the kinds of geologic material, in the soil-forming
factors, and in the length of time that the soil-forming
processes have been active have resulted in the
formation of different soils and their associated
properties. Soil formation is an ongoing process, and
changes can occur in short or long periods of geologic
time, depending on the soil-forming processes.




















References


(1) American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials. 1982. Standard
specifications for highway materials and methods
of sampling and testing. Ed. 13, 2 vols., illus.

(2) American Society for Testing and Materials. 1985.
Standard test method for classification of soils for
engineering purposes. ASTM Stand. D 2487.

(3) Barnes, R.L. 1955. Growth and yield of slash pine
plantations in Florida. Univ. Fla. Res. Rep. 3, 23
pp., illus.

(4) Broadfoot, Walter M. 1964. Soil suitability for
hardwoods in the midsouth. U.S. Dep. Agric.,
Forest Serv., South. Forest Exp. Stn. Res. Note
SO-10, 10 pp., illus.

(5) Clark, W.E., R.H. Musgrove, C.G. Menke, and
J.W. Cagle. 1964. Water resources of Alachua,
Bradford, Clay, and Union Counties, Florida. Fla.
Geol. Surv. Rep. of Invest. 35, 170 pp., illus.

(6) Cooke, C.W., and W.C. Mansfield. 1936.
Suwannee Limestone of Florida (abstract). Geol.
Soc. of Amer., Proc. for 1935, pp. 71-72.

(7) Doolittle, J.A. 1982. Characterizing soil map units
with the ground-penetrating radar. Soil Sci. Soc.
Am., Soil Surv. Horiz. 23: 3-10, illus.

(8) Doolittle, J.A. 1983. Investigating Histosols with
the ground-penetrating radar. Soil Sci. Soc. Am.,
Soil Surv. Horiz. 24: 23-28, illus.

(9) Jenny, Hans. 1941. Factors of soil formation. 281
pp., illus.

(10) Johnson, R.W., R. Glaccum, and R. Wojtasinski.
1979. Application of ground-penetrating radar to
soil survey. Proc. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla.
39: 68-72, illus. (Reprinted in Soil Surv. Horiz. 23,
Fall 1982)


(11) Miller, J.A. 1986. Hydrogeologic framework of the
Floridan aquifer system in Florida and in parts of
Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina. U.S. Dep.
Inter., Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 1403-B, pp. 25-27,
illus.

(12) Puri, H.S. 1957. Stratigraphy and zonation of the
Ocala Group. Fla. Geol. Surv. Bull. 38, 248 pp.,
illus.

(13) Schumacher, F.X., and T.S. Coile. 1960. Growth
and yield of natural stands of the southern pines.
237 pp., illus.

(14) Scott, T.M. 1988. The lithostratigraphy of the
Hawthorn Group (Miocene) of Florida. Fla. Geol.
Surv. Bull. 59, 148 pp., illus.

(15) Shih, S.F., and J.A. Doolittle. 1984. Using radar
to investigate organic soil thickness in the Florida
Everglades. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Jour. 48: 651-656,
illus.

(16) Southeastern Geological Society Ad Hoc
Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit
Definition. 1986. Hydrogeological units of Florida.
Fla. Bur. Geol. Spec. Publ. 28, 9 pp.

(17) Union County Times. 1971. History-Union
County, Florida, 1921-1971; celebrating 50th
anniversary of Union County, Florida. 52 pp., illus.

(18) United States Department of Agriculture. 1914.
Soil survey of Bradford County, Florida. Bur. of
Soils, 36 pp., illus.

(19) United States Department of Agriculture. 1951.
Soil survey manual. U.S. Dep. Agric. Handb. 18,
503 pp., illus. (Revision available as a directive in
the State Office of the Soil Conservation Service
at Gainesville, Florida)










(20) United States Department of Agriculture. 1975.
Soil taxonomy: A basic system of soil
classification for making and interpreting soil
surveys. Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S. Dep. Agric.
Handb. 436, 754 pp., illus.

(21) United States Department of Agriculture. 1976.
Volume, yield, and stand tables for second growth
southern pines. Forest Serv. Misc. Publ. 50, 302
pp., illus.

(22) United States Department of Agriculture. 1984.
Procedures for collecting soil samples and
methods of analysis for soil survey. Soil Surv.
Invest. Rep. 1, 68 pp., illus.

(23) United States Department of Agriculture. 1985.
Site index and yield of second growth
baldcypress. Soil Conserv. Serv. Tech. Note 5,
2 pp.


(24) United States Department of Commerce,
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
1972. Climates of the States, climate of Florida,
climatography of the United States. No. 60-8, 31
pp., illus.

(25) United States Department of Commerce,
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
1985. Climatological data, annual summary-
Florida. Vol. 89, No. 13, 24 pp.

(26) University of Florida. 1985. Florida
statistical abstract. Bur. of Econ. and Bus. Res.,
Coll. of Bus. Admin. 712 pp., illus.

(27) White, W.A. 1970. The geomorphology of
the Florida peninsula. Fla. Bur. of Geol. Bull. 51,
164 pp., illus.
















Glossary


ABC soil. A soil having an A, a B, and a C horizon.
AC soil. A soil having only an A and a C horizon.
Commonly, such soil formed in recent alluvium or
on steep rocky slopes.
Aeration, soil. The exchange of air in soil with air from
the atmosphere. The air in a well aerated soil is
similar to that in the atmosphere; the air in a
poorly aerated soil is considerably higher in carbon
dioxide and lower in oxygen.
Aggregate, soil. Many fine particles held in a single
mass or cluster. Natural soil aggregates, such as
granules, blocks, or prisms, are called peds. Clods
are aggregates produced by tillage or logging.
Alluvium. Material, such as sand, silt, or clay,
deposited on land by streams.
Available water capacity (available moisture
capacity). The capacity of soils to hold water
available for use by most plants. It is commonly
defined as the difference between the amount of
soil water at field moisture capacity and the
amount at wilting point. It is commonly expressed
as inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity, in
inches, in a 60-inch profile or to a limiting layer is
expressed as-
Very low .............. ............. 0 to 3
Low ............................... 3 to 6
Moderate ............................ 6 to 9
High.................................. 9 to 12
Very high ....................... more than 12
Base saturation. The degree to which material having
cation-exchange properties is saturated with
exchangeable bases (sum of Ca, Mg, Na, K),
expressed as a percentage of the total cation-
exchange capacity.
Bedding. A method of controlling excess water in areas
of soils used for tree crops and cultivated crops.
The surface soil is plowed into regularly spaced
elevated beds, and the crops are planted on the
beds. The ditches between the beds drain the
excess water.
Bedrock. The solid rock that underlies the soil and
other unconsolidated material or that is exposed at
the surface.
Bisequum. Two sequences of soil horizons, each of


which consists of an illuvial horizon and the
overlying eluvial horizons.
Bottom land. The normal flood plain of a stream,
subject to flooding.
Capillary water. Water held as a film around soil
particles and in tiny spaces between particles.
Surface tension is the adhesive force that holds
capillary water in the soil.
Cation. An ion carrying a positive charge of electricity.
The common soil cations are calcium, potassium,
magnesium, sodium, and hydrogen.
Cation-exchange capacity. The total amount of
exchangeable cations that can be held by the soil,
expressed in terms of milliequivalents per 100
grams of soil at neutrality (pH 7.0) or at some
other stated pH value. The term, as applied to
soils, is synonymous with base-exchange capacity
but is more precise in meaning.
Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less
than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural
class, soil material that is 40 percent or more clay,
less than 45 percent sand, and less than 40
percent silt.
Clay film. A thin coating of oriented clay on the surface
of a soil aggregate or lining pores or root
channels. Synonyms: clay coating, clay skin.
Climax vegetation. The stabilized plant community on a
particular site. The plant cover reproduces itself
and does not change so long as the environment
remains the same.
Coarse fragments. If round, mineral or rock particles 2
millimeters to 25 centimeters (10 inches) in
diameter; if flat, mineral or rock particles
(flagstone) 15 to 38 centimeters (6 to 15 inches)
long.
Coarse textured soil. Sand or loamy sand.
Cobblestone (or cobble). A rounded or partly rounded
fragment of rock 3 to 10 inches (7.6 to 25
centimeters) in diameter.
Colluvium. Soil material, rock fragments, or both
moved by creep, slide, or local wash and
deposited at the base of steep slopes.
Complex, soil. A map unit of two or more kinds of soil
in such an intricate pattern or so small in area that




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