• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use the soil survey...
 Table of Contents
 How soils are mapped and class...
 General soil map
 Descriptions of the soils
 Use of the soils for agricultu...
 Use of the soils for woodland
 Use of the soils for wildlife
 Engineering characteristics of...
 Formation and classification of...
 General nature of the county
 Guide to mapping units
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey, Suwannee County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025742/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey, Suwannee County, Florida
Series Title: Soil survey
Physical Description: i, 101 p., 28 fold. leaves of plates : ill., maps (1 col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Houston, T. B
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.
Publication Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Florida -- Suwannee County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by T.B. Houston ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: In cooperation with University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025742
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000378122
notis - ACB7807
oclc - 07979895
lccn - agr65000243

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use the soil survey report
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    How soils are mapped and classified
        Page 1
    General soil map
        Page 2
        Blanton (high) - Lakeland association
            Page 2
        Blanton-Chiefland association
            Page 3
        Arredondo-Kanapaha association
            Page 3
        Blanton (low) association
            Page 3
        Blanton (low)-Susquehanna-Bowie association
            Page 4
        Susquehanna-Bowie association
            Page 4
        Leon-Plummer association
            Page 5
        Blanton-Kalmia-Swamp association
            Page 5
        Alluvial land-Swamp association
            Page 5
    Descriptions of the soils
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Alluvial land
            Page 7
        Archer series
            Page 7
        Arredondo series
            Page 8
        Bayboro series
            Page 9
        Bladen series
            Page 9
        Blanton series
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Bowie series
            Page 13
        Chiefland series
            Page 14
        Coxville series
            Page 15
        Fellowship series
            Page 15
        Fort Meade series
            Page 16
        Gainesville series
            Page 16
        Grady series
            Page 17
        Hernando series
            Page 18
        Jonesville series
            Page 19
        Kalmia series
            Page 19
        Kanapaha series
            Page 19
        Klej series
            Page 20
        Lakeland series
            Page 20
        Leaf series
            Page 21
        Leon series
            Page 21
        Local alluvial land
            Page 22
        Local alluvial land, phosphatic
            Page 23
        Mine pits and dumps
            Page 23
        Ona series
            Page 23
        Peat
            Page 23
        Plummer series
            Page 23
        Pomello series
            Page 24
        Rutlege series
            Page 25
        Sandy and clayey land
            Page 25
        Scranton series
            Page 26
        Susquehanna series
            Page 26
        Swamp series
            Page 27
        Weston series
            Page 27
        Zuber series
            Page 28
    Use of the soils for agriculture
        Page 29
        General soil management
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
        Estimated yields
            Page 32
        Capability groups of soils
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
        Management by capability units
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
    Use of the soils for woodland
        Page 49
        General woodland management
            Page 49
        Woodland suitability grouping of soils
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
    Use of the soils for wildlife
        Page 56
        Choice food and cover for wildlife
            Page 57
        Wildlife suitability by soil association
            Page 57
            Page 58
    Engineering characteristics of the soils
        Page 59
        Engineering classification systems
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
        Soil test data
            Page 80
        Soil properties significant to engineering
            Page 80
        Engineering interpretations
            Page 80
    Formation and classification of soils
        Page 80
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 80
            Climate
                Page 81
            Parent material
                Page 81
            Relief
                Page 81
            Living organisms
                Page 81
            Time
                Page 82
        Classification of soils
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Red-yellow podzolic soils
                Page 84
                Page 85
            Ground-water podzols
                Page 86
            Low-Humic Gley soils
                Page 87
                Page 88
            Humic Gley soils
                Page 89
            Planosols
                Page 90
            Bog soils
                Page 90
            Regosols
                Page 90
                Page 91
                Page 92
            Alluvial soils
                Page 93
    General nature of the county
        Page 93
        Climate
            Page 93
            Page 94
        Geology, physiography, and drainage
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
            Page 98
        Settlement and population
            Page 99
        Agriculture
            Page 99
        Industry
            Page 99
        Transportation and markets
            Page 99
        Farm, home, and community facilities
            Page 99
        Recreation
            Page 99
        Schools and institutions
            Page 100
        Glossary
            Page 100
            Page 101
    Guide to mapping units
        Page 102
    General soil map
        Page 103
    Index to map sheets
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
Full Text

Series 1961, No. 21


SOIL SURVEY



Suwannee County, Florida


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS


br-, : Z.. 6~~-.;rr: ~
~ "*


lIued March 1965







HOW TO USE THE SOIL SURVEY REPORT


THIS SOIL SURVEY will serve sev-
eral groups of readers. It will help
farmers m planning the kind of manage-
ment that will protect their soils and
provide good yields; assist engineers in
selecting sites for roads, buildings, ponds,
and other structures; aid foresters in man-
aging woodlands; and add to our knowl-
edge of soil science. This survey will also
help in rural planning and land appraisal
and will assist buyers in selecting the
proper soil for the intended use.

Locating nll
Use the index to map sheets at the back
of this report to locate areas on the de-
tailed soil map. The index is a small map
of the county that shows what part of the
county is represented on each sheet of the
detailed map. On the detailed map, the
boundaries of the soils are outlined, and
each soil is identified by a symbol. For
example, the symbol BfB identifies Blanton
fine sand, high, 0 to 5 percent slopes. The
symbol is inside the area if there is
enough room; otherwise, it is outside the
area and a pointer shows where the sym-
bol belongs. All of the soils shown on the
detailed map are described in the section
"Descriptions of the Soils."

Finding information
The "Guide to Mapping Units" at the
back of this report can help readers in
using the map and the report. This guide
lists each soi mapped in the county and
the page where each is described. It also
lists, for each soil, the capability unit and
the woodland suitability group in which
the soil has been placed, and the pages
where each of these groupings are de-
scribed. Readers will want to refer to
different parts of the report, according to
their special interests.
Farmers and those who work with
farmers can learn about the soils in the
section "Descriptions of the Soils." In
the section "Use of the Soils for Agricul-
ture," they can learn about management
and yields. In that section the soils are
placed in capability units, groups of soils


that need about this same management
and respond in about the same way. For
example, Blanton fine sand, high, 0 to 5
percent slopes, is in capability unit IIIse-
2, and management suitable for this soil
is discussed in the description of that unit.
Foresters and others interested in wood-
land can refer to the section "Use of the
Soils for Woodland," where the soils are
grouped according to their suitability for
specified kinds of trees and the factors
affecting management of woodland are
explained.
Sportsmen and others interested in
wildlife can find in the section "Use of
the Soils for Wildlife" information about
the food and habitat preferences of the
more common kinds of wildlife in the
county.
Engineers and builders will want to
refer to the section "Engineering Char-
acteristics of the Soils."
People interested in science will find
information about how the soils were
formed and how they are classified in
the section "Formation and Classification
of Soils."
Students, teachers, and others will find
information about soils and their manage-
ment in various parts of the report, de-
pending on their particular interest.
Newcomers in Suwannee County and
others who are not familiar with the
county will be interested in the sections
"General Soil Map," where broad pat-
terns of soils are described, and "General
Nature of the County," which discusses
climate, settlement, agriculture, industry,
transportation, and related topics.

Fieldwork for this survey was com-
pleted in 1961. Unless otherwise indi-
cated, all statements in the report refer
to conditions in Suwannee County at that
time. This soil survey was made coop-
eratively by the Soil Conservation Serv-
ice and the University of Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations. This sur-
vey is the basis for part of the technical
assistance the Soil Conservation Service
furnishes to the Suwannee River Soil
Conservation District, which was orga-
nized in 1942.


U.S. GOVERNMENT MINTINS OFFICE: IM6 0-720-251
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402


COVER PICTURE
The Suwannee River borders Suwannee County on three
sides. Soils of the adjoining Blanton-Kalmia-Swamp soil
association are flooded every 5 to 10 years and are used as
woodland.














Contents


How soils are mapped and classified -__--____--
General soil map-------------___------------
1. Blanton (high)-Lakeland association -----_.
2. Blanton-Chiefland association_------------
3. Arredondo-Kanapaha association_--------
4. Blanton (low) association-----------------
5. Blanton (low)-Susquehanna-Bowie associa-
tion __.------------
6. Susquehanna-Bowie association.---_----__
7. Leon-Plummer association ----------
8. Blanton-Kalmia-Swamp association -------
9. Alluvial land-Swamp association -- __
Descriptions of the soils----------------------
Alluvialland__-------------
Archer series_--------------__
Arredondo series -------------_
Bayboro series_--- --_____ -- ---_
Bladen series -----------------
Blanton series_ --__-- ___ ______
Bowie series ---_-------------_
Chiefland series__------------_-__________
Coxville series --______ ______
Fellowship series ---------- ___
Fort Meade series .._-__-__- _______
Gainesville series ------- -------
Grady series___ ------------
Hernando series ----------------_--
Jonesville series ________________
Kalmia series __--- --------__-
Kanapaha series___----------____----__
Klej series------------__ ------_ -----_
Lakeland series--------____-- ____
Leaf series__---------------
Leon series __-__---____________
Local alluvial land--___--__--_ ___
Local alluvial land, phosphatic ----_ --____
Mine pits and dumps_ ---_________
Ona series. ___- _______ _______
Peat-__.-.-----_- __- _
Plummer series --__-- ------ ____
Pomello series -_____________
Rutlege series__-- ____- _______
Sandy and clayey land_- --- -------
Scranton series__________-__________-__
Susquehanna series __------- _____
Swamp________________________
Weston series___--------------
Zuber series -------------____


Page
1
2
2
3
3
3

4
4
5
5
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5
7
7
8
9
9
9
13
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19
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20
20
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21
22
23
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23
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24
25
25
26
26
27
27
28


Use of the soils for agriculture --------_-__
General soil management --------____
Estimated yields ----------___ __
Capability groups of soils ------ _____
Management by capability units_ -----_
Use of the soils for woodland.-- ________
General woodland management __-------
Woodland suitability grouping of soils_____
Use of the soils for wildlife -------------___
Choice food and cover for wildlife -_------___--
Wildlife suitability by soil association----____-_
Engineering characteristics of the soils -------_-
Engineering classification systems__----__----
Soil test data-----------------_-------_ -_-
Soil properties significant to engineering ---___
Engineering interpretations--_------------____
Formation and classification of soils ------
Factors of soil formation------------------
Climate -----------------__
Parent material_ ----------_----___
Relief------------_---------_------ --
Living organisms --
Time-.--_--------------- -_ -----......
Classification of soils ------------------_____
Red-Yellow Podzolic soils _____-_
Ground-Water Podzols ---------__________-
Low-Humic Gley soils ------___-___
Humic Gley soils---....._---- ____
Planosols--_-------------------__...
Bog soils-----------------------------__
Regosols --------_--____---------------
Alluvial soils-----------_______________-
General nature of the county----------------
Climate -----------------------------_
Geology, physiography, and drainage_ -__
Settlement and population ____--_ ______
Agriculture--- ____-------_- ___
Industry--------------------- ___
Transportation and markets ---------
Farm, home, and community facilities --__.__-
Recreation ----------------------------
Schools and institutions- ------------
Glossary---------------------------
Guide to mapping units ------------ Following


Series 1961, No. 21


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Issued March 1965













SOIL SURVEY OF SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA

BY T. B. HOUSTON AND M. W. HAZEN, JR., SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE; AND T. C. MATHEWS AND G. A. BROWN,
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS 1
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE, IN COOPERATION WITH THE UNI.
VERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS


SUWANNEE COUNTY is in the northern part of
Florida (fig. 1). Live Oak, the county seat, is on
U.S. Highway No. 90 about midway between Tallahassee
and Jacksonville. Figure 1 shows distances by air from
Live Oak to other cities in Florida. The Suwannee
River is the boundary of the county on the north, west,
and southwest; the Ichetucknee and Santa Fe Rivers,
on the southeast; and Columbia County, on the east.
The county is approximately 34 miles long and 27 miles
wide. It has a land area of 433,280 acres, or 677 square
miles.
Suwannee County is one of the major agricultural
counties in the State; it ranks second in number of
farms and farmers. The principal crops are bright


Figure 1.-Location of Suwannee County in Florida.


SOthers participating in the field survey were W. T. JACOBS,
JR., University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
O. E. CRUZ, E. H. RAWLS, and C. H. YOUNG, Soil Conservation
Service.


tobacco, watermelons, corn, peanuts, and small grains.
Tobacco is the main cash crop. Livestock raising is also
a major enterprise in the county.

How Soils are Mapped and Classified
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds
of soils are in Suwannee County, where they are located,
and how they can be used.
They went into the county knowing they likely would
find many soils they had already seen, and perhaps some
they had not. As they traveled over the county, they
observed steepness, length, and shape of slopes; size and
speed of streams; kinds of native plants or crops; kinds
of rock; and many facts about the soils. They dug many
holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the sequence
of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it extends from
the surface down into the parent material that has not
been changed much by leaching or by roots of plants.
The soil scientists made comparisons among the pro-
files they studied, and they compared these profiles with
those in counties nearby and in places more distant.
They classified and named the soils according to nation-
wide, uniform procedures. To use this report efficiently,
it is necessary to know the kinds of groupings most used
in a local soil classification.
Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil
series. Except for different texture in the surface layer,
all the soils of one series have major horizons that are
similar in thickness, arrangement, and other important
characteristics. Each soil series is named for a town or
other geographic feature near the place where a soil of
that series was first observed and mapped. Blanton
and Gainesville, for example, are the names of two soil
series. All the soils in the United States having the
same series name are essentially alike in those character-
istics that go with their behavior in the natural, un-
touched landscape. Soils of one series can differ some-
what in texture of the surface soil and in slope, stoni-
ness, or some other characteristic that affects use of the
soils by man.
Many soil series contain soils that differ in texture of
their surface layer. According to such differences in
texture, separations called soil types are made. Within
a series, all the soils having a surface layer of the same
texture belong to one soil type. All of the soils in the







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


Gainesville series, for example, that have a surface layer
of loamy fine sand belong to one soil type-Gainesville
loamy fine sand.
Some soil types vary so much in slope, degree of ero-
sion, number 'and size of stones, or some other feature
affecting their use, that practical suggestions about their
management could not be made if they were shown on
the soil map as one unit. Such soil types are divided
into phases. The name of a soil phase indicates a fea-
ture that affects management. For example, Gainesville
loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, is one of several
phases of Gainesville loamy fine sand, a soil type that
ranges from nearly level to sloping.
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils had
been worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries
of the individual soils on aerial photographs. These
photographs show woodlands, buildings, field borders,
trees, and other details that greatly help in drawing
boundaries accurately. The soil map in the back of this
report was prepared from the aerial photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in
planning management of farms and fields, a mapping
unit is nearly equivalent to a soil type or a phase of a
soil type. It is not exactly equivalent, because it is not
practical to show on such a map all the small, scattered
bits of soil of some other kind that have been seen within
an area that is dominantly of a recognized soil type or
soil phase.
In preparing some detailed maps, the soil scientists
have a problem of delineating areas where different kinds
of soils are so intricately mixed and occur in individual
areas of such small size that it is not practical to show them
separately on the map. Therefore, they show this mixture
of soils as one mapping unit and call it a soil complex.
Ordinarily, a soil complex is named for the major kinds of
soil in it, for example, Bowie-Blanton complex. Two or
more different kinds of soils may also be mapped as a single
unit-an undifferentiated group-if the differences be-
tween them are too small to justify separate recognition.
For example, in this county the mapping unit Grady,
Bladen, and Coxville soils is an undifferentiated group.
Also, on most soil maps, areas are shown that are so
rocky, so shallow, or so frequently worked by wind and
water that they scarcely can be called soils. These areas
are shown on a soil map like other mapping units, but
they are given descriptive names, such as Local alluvial
land, and are called land types rather than soils.
WVhile a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are
taken, as needed, for laboratory measurements and for
engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kinds
of soils in other places are assembled. Data on yields
of crops under defined practices are assembled from farm
records and from field or plot experiments on the same
kinds of soils. Yields under defined management are
estimated for all the soils.
But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
have been named, described, and delineated on the map,
and the laboratory data and yield data have been assem-
bled. The mass of detailed information then needs to be
organized in a way that it is readily useful to different
groups of readers, among them farmers, ranchers, man-
agers of woodland, engineers, and homeowners. Grouping


soils that are similar in suitability for each specified use
is the method of organization commonly used in the soil
survey reports. On basis of the yield and practice tables
and other data, the soil scientists set up trial groups
and test them by further study and by consultation with
farmers, agronomists, engineers, and others. Then, the
scientists adjust the groups according to the results of
their studies and consultation. Thus, the groups that are
finally evolved reflect up-to-date knowledge of the soils
and their behavior under present methods of use and
management.


General Soil Map
In mapping a county or other large tract, it is fairly
easy to see many differences as one travels from place to
place. Some of the differences are in shape, steepness,
and length of slopes; in the course, depth, and speed of
streams; in the width of the bordering valleys; in the
kinds of wild plants; and in the kinds of agriculture.
With these more obvious differences there are other less
easily noticed differences in the patterns of soils. The
soils differ along with the other parts of the environment.
By drawing lines around the different patterns of
soils on a small-scale map, one may obtain a map of the
general soil areas, or, as they are sometimes called, soil
associations. Such a map is useful to those who want
to compare different parts of the county, or who want to
locate large areas suitable for some particular kind of
agriculture or other broad land use.
Described in the pages following, and shown on the
colored map at the back of this report, are the nine soil
associations in this county.
1. Blanton (high)-Lakeland association
Well-drained to excessively drained, acid sands more
than 30 inches deep to fine-textured material
This association occurs as a wide band parallel to the
Suwannee River along the northern, western, and south-
ern boundaries. Smaller areas are scattered on higher
ridges. This association is the most extensive in the
county; it makes up about 33 percent of the county's
acreage.
The soils in this association are gently undulating.
Shallow depressions are common. No definite stream
pattern is evident, but water drains rapidly through the
highly permeable soils and porous substrata.
Blanton soils, high, make up about 88 percent of this
association, and Lakeland soils, about 8 percent. Arre-
dondo soils, Blanton soils, low, and Local alluvial land
make up the rest.
The surface layer of Blanton soils, high, and that of
the Lakeland soils, is gray to light-gray sand. It over-
lies a layer of light-gray, very pale brown, pale-brown,
or yellow sand that extends to a depth of 30 inches
or more.
These soils are strongly acid, low in organic-matter
content, and very low in natural fertility. They have a
very low available moisture capacity.
Good stands of longleaf pine originally covered much
of the acreage, but scrub oak, small shrubs, and wire-
grass now are the dominant vegetation.







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


Gainesville series, for example, that have a surface layer
of loamy fine sand belong to one soil type-Gainesville
loamy fine sand.
Some soil types vary so much in slope, degree of ero-
sion, number 'and size of stones, or some other feature
affecting their use, that practical suggestions about their
management could not be made if they were shown on
the soil map as one unit. Such soil types are divided
into phases. The name of a soil phase indicates a fea-
ture that affects management. For example, Gainesville
loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, is one of several
phases of Gainesville loamy fine sand, a soil type that
ranges from nearly level to sloping.
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils had
been worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries
of the individual soils on aerial photographs. These
photographs show woodlands, buildings, field borders,
trees, and other details that greatly help in drawing
boundaries accurately. The soil map in the back of this
report was prepared from the aerial photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in
planning management of farms and fields, a mapping
unit is nearly equivalent to a soil type or a phase of a
soil type. It is not exactly equivalent, because it is not
practical to show on such a map all the small, scattered
bits of soil of some other kind that have been seen within
an area that is dominantly of a recognized soil type or
soil phase.
In preparing some detailed maps, the soil scientists
have a problem of delineating areas where different kinds
of soils are so intricately mixed and occur in individual
areas of such small size that it is not practical to show them
separately on the map. Therefore, they show this mixture
of soils as one mapping unit and call it a soil complex.
Ordinarily, a soil complex is named for the major kinds of
soil in it, for example, Bowie-Blanton complex. Two or
more different kinds of soils may also be mapped as a single
unit-an undifferentiated group-if the differences be-
tween them are too small to justify separate recognition.
For example, in this county the mapping unit Grady,
Bladen, and Coxville soils is an undifferentiated group.
Also, on most soil maps, areas are shown that are so
rocky, so shallow, or so frequently worked by wind and
water that they scarcely can be called soils. These areas
are shown on a soil map like other mapping units, but
they are given descriptive names, such as Local alluvial
land, and are called land types rather than soils.
WVhile a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are
taken, as needed, for laboratory measurements and for
engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kinds
of soils in other places are assembled. Data on yields
of crops under defined practices are assembled from farm
records and from field or plot experiments on the same
kinds of soils. Yields under defined management are
estimated for all the soils.
But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
have been named, described, and delineated on the map,
and the laboratory data and yield data have been assem-
bled. The mass of detailed information then needs to be
organized in a way that it is readily useful to different
groups of readers, among them farmers, ranchers, man-
agers of woodland, engineers, and homeowners. Grouping


soils that are similar in suitability for each specified use
is the method of organization commonly used in the soil
survey reports. On basis of the yield and practice tables
and other data, the soil scientists set up trial groups
and test them by further study and by consultation with
farmers, agronomists, engineers, and others. Then, the
scientists adjust the groups according to the results of
their studies and consultation. Thus, the groups that are
finally evolved reflect up-to-date knowledge of the soils
and their behavior under present methods of use and
management.


General Soil Map
In mapping a county or other large tract, it is fairly
easy to see many differences as one travels from place to
place. Some of the differences are in shape, steepness,
and length of slopes; in the course, depth, and speed of
streams; in the width of the bordering valleys; in the
kinds of wild plants; and in the kinds of agriculture.
With these more obvious differences there are other less
easily noticed differences in the patterns of soils. The
soils differ along with the other parts of the environment.
By drawing lines around the different patterns of
soils on a small-scale map, one may obtain a map of the
general soil areas, or, as they are sometimes called, soil
associations. Such a map is useful to those who want
to compare different parts of the county, or who want to
locate large areas suitable for some particular kind of
agriculture or other broad land use.
Described in the pages following, and shown on the
colored map at the back of this report, are the nine soil
associations in this county.
1. Blanton (high)-Lakeland association
Well-drained to excessively drained, acid sands more
than 30 inches deep to fine-textured material
This association occurs as a wide band parallel to the
Suwannee River along the northern, western, and south-
ern boundaries. Smaller areas are scattered on higher
ridges. This association is the most extensive in the
county; it makes up about 33 percent of the county's
acreage.
The soils in this association are gently undulating.
Shallow depressions are common. No definite stream
pattern is evident, but water drains rapidly through the
highly permeable soils and porous substrata.
Blanton soils, high, make up about 88 percent of this
association, and Lakeland soils, about 8 percent. Arre-
dondo soils, Blanton soils, low, and Local alluvial land
make up the rest.
The surface layer of Blanton soils, high, and that of
the Lakeland soils, is gray to light-gray sand. It over-
lies a layer of light-gray, very pale brown, pale-brown,
or yellow sand that extends to a depth of 30 inches
or more.
These soils are strongly acid, low in organic-matter
content, and very low in natural fertility. They have a
very low available moisture capacity.
Good stands of longleaf pine originally covered much
of the acreage, but scrub oak, small shrubs, and wire-
grass now are the dominant vegetation.







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


About half of the acreage has been cleared for gen-
eral farming. Tobacco, watermelons, corn, hairy indigo,
and small grain are principal crops. Droughts, which
are common late in spring, greatly reduce yields. In
years when rainfall is adequate throughout the growing
season, crop yields are fair to good. Slash pine grows
moderately well on these soils. Many formerly culti-
vated fields and cutover areas that supported scrubby
vegetation have been planted to pine.
The soils in this association are rated good as home-
sites; they are suitable as drainage fields for septic tanks.
They would be rated excellent as homesites, but they are
somewhat drought and need to be watered frequently
during dry periods. Landscape plants for these soils
should be carefully selected. Except for the steeper ones,
these soils are favorable to very favorable for industrial
and transportation uses. They are favorable to most
favorable for recreational uses, such as for golf courses,
campsites, and nature trails.
2. Blanton-Chiefland association
Well-drained to excessively drained, acid to neutral sands
30 to 72 inches deep to fine-textured material or limestone
This association occurs as a large, nearly level area in
the southern part of the county. It makes up about 5
percent of the county's acreage.
There are no streams within the area; water drains
through the soils into porous substrata. The underly-
ing limestone is responsible for the numerous small sinks
and shallow depressions in the area.
Dominant in this association are Blanton and Chief-
land soils as they occur in the complex, Blanton-Chief-
land fine sands. This complex makes up 96 percent of
the association. Jonesville, Hernando, and Archer soils
make up the rest.
The surface layer of both Blanton fine sand and Chief-
land fine sand is gray to very dark gray; it overlies pale-
brown, very pale brown, or light-gray fine sand. Lime-
stone is generally at a depth of 36 to 120 inches. In
most places a few inches of fine-textured material over-
lies the limestone.
Jonesville soils are similar to Chiefland soils but have
a brighter colored subsurface layer. Archer and Her-
nando soils are also similar to Chiefland soils but their
fine-textured subsoil begins at a depth of less than 30
inches.
The soils in this association are low in natural fer-
tility and in organic-matter content. Their available
moisture capacity is low.
Originally the area was covered with hardwoods and
pines, but now most of it has been cleared for cultiva-
tion. Corn, tobacco, peanuts, watermelons, small grain,
and other farm crops are grown. Hairy indigo and
bahiagrass are grown for pasture. In years of well-dis-
tributed rainfall, the soils produce good yields if well
managed. In years when rainfall is low during the
growing season, the soils are drought and produce poor
yields. The soils are well suited to pine. In recent years,
many formerly cultivated fields have been reforested
with pine trees.
Several pits have been developed to mine the high-
grade limestone.


The soils in this association are suitable as sites for
the subdivision type of housing. Because they are shal-
low to bedrock, in places they are somewhat less suitable as
sites for the estate type of housing that requires septic
tanks. Each site where a septic tank is to be installed
should be investigated individually. These soils range
from favorable to somewhat unfavorable for industrial and
transportation uses. They are favorable for natural
recreation purposes and very favorable to most favorable
as improved recreation sites.
3. Arredondo-Kanapaha association
Well-drained to somewhat poorly drained, slightly acid to
neutral sands more than 30 inches deep to fine-textured
material and derived from phosphatic material
This association occurs in an irregular pattern across
the northern part of the county. A few small areas occur
in the east-central and west-central parts. The total
acreage is about 4 percent of the county.
Although most of the slopes are gentle, some of the
steepest in the county occur within this association.
Most of the few small streams in this county occur within
or partly within this association.
Arredondo fine sand is the dominant soil; it makes up
about 70 percent of the association. Kanapaha, Gaines-
ville, Zuber, Blanton, Fort Meade, and Fellowship soils
make up the rest.
Arredondo fine sand is deep, gently sloping, and well
drained. Its 6- to 8-inch surface layer is dark-gray to
very dark grayish-brown fine sand. It overlies a layer
of brown or yellowish-brown fine sand or loamy fine
sand that extends to a depth of more than 30 inches.
The minor soils, for the most part, have a sandy clay
loam to clay loam subsoil at a depth of less than 30
inches. The steeper soils are shallower to fine-textured
strata than the gently sloping ones. Occasionally seep-
age occurs in places on the steeper soils.
The soils are dominantly moderate to high in natural
fertility and medium in organic-matter content. Their
available moisture capacity is moderate.
Originally this association was covered with hardwoods
and a few pines, but now most of it has been cleared for
cultivation. The soils on the more gentle slopes are
among the best in the county; they are used extensively
for growing general farm crops. Those on steeper slopes
are well suited to improved pasture and to pine trees.
Except for those somewhat poorly drained soils on the
steeper slopes and those in areas where weathered rock is
near the surface, the soils in this association are most
favorable as sites for both the estate and subdivision types
of residences. They range from somewhat unsuitable to
most suitable for industrial and transportation uses. They
are suitable as natural sites for recreation and most suitable
as improved sites for recreation.
4. Blanton (low) association
Moderately well drained, acid sands more than 30 inches
deep to fine-textured material
This association occurs as large areas in the southern
and eastern parts of the county and as smaller areas
across the northern part. Its acreage is about 27 percent
of the county.







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


About half of the acreage has been cleared for gen-
eral farming. Tobacco, watermelons, corn, hairy indigo,
and small grain are principal crops. Droughts, which
are common late in spring, greatly reduce yields. In
years when rainfall is adequate throughout the growing
season, crop yields are fair to good. Slash pine grows
moderately well on these soils. Many formerly culti-
vated fields and cutover areas that supported scrubby
vegetation have been planted to pine.
The soils in this association are rated good as home-
sites; they are suitable as drainage fields for septic tanks.
They would be rated excellent as homesites, but they are
somewhat drought and need to be watered frequently
during dry periods. Landscape plants for these soils
should be carefully selected. Except for the steeper ones,
these soils are favorable to very favorable for industrial
and transportation uses. They are favorable to most
favorable for recreational uses, such as for golf courses,
campsites, and nature trails.
2. Blanton-Chiefland association
Well-drained to excessively drained, acid to neutral sands
30 to 72 inches deep to fine-textured material or limestone
This association occurs as a large, nearly level area in
the southern part of the county. It makes up about 5
percent of the county's acreage.
There are no streams within the area; water drains
through the soils into porous substrata. The underly-
ing limestone is responsible for the numerous small sinks
and shallow depressions in the area.
Dominant in this association are Blanton and Chief-
land soils as they occur in the complex, Blanton-Chief-
land fine sands. This complex makes up 96 percent of
the association. Jonesville, Hernando, and Archer soils
make up the rest.
The surface layer of both Blanton fine sand and Chief-
land fine sand is gray to very dark gray; it overlies pale-
brown, very pale brown, or light-gray fine sand. Lime-
stone is generally at a depth of 36 to 120 inches. In
most places a few inches of fine-textured material over-
lies the limestone.
Jonesville soils are similar to Chiefland soils but have
a brighter colored subsurface layer. Archer and Her-
nando soils are also similar to Chiefland soils but their
fine-textured subsoil begins at a depth of less than 30
inches.
The soils in this association are low in natural fer-
tility and in organic-matter content. Their available
moisture capacity is low.
Originally the area was covered with hardwoods and
pines, but now most of it has been cleared for cultiva-
tion. Corn, tobacco, peanuts, watermelons, small grain,
and other farm crops are grown. Hairy indigo and
bahiagrass are grown for pasture. In years of well-dis-
tributed rainfall, the soils produce good yields if well
managed. In years when rainfall is low during the
growing season, the soils are drought and produce poor
yields. The soils are well suited to pine. In recent years,
many formerly cultivated fields have been reforested
with pine trees.
Several pits have been developed to mine the high-
grade limestone.


The soils in this association are suitable as sites for
the subdivision type of housing. Because they are shal-
low to bedrock, in places they are somewhat less suitable as
sites for the estate type of housing that requires septic
tanks. Each site where a septic tank is to be installed
should be investigated individually. These soils range
from favorable to somewhat unfavorable for industrial and
transportation uses. They are favorable for natural
recreation purposes and very favorable to most favorable
as improved recreation sites.
3. Arredondo-Kanapaha association
Well-drained to somewhat poorly drained, slightly acid to
neutral sands more than 30 inches deep to fine-textured
material and derived from phosphatic material
This association occurs in an irregular pattern across
the northern part of the county. A few small areas occur
in the east-central and west-central parts. The total
acreage is about 4 percent of the county.
Although most of the slopes are gentle, some of the
steepest in the county occur within this association.
Most of the few small streams in this county occur within
or partly within this association.
Arredondo fine sand is the dominant soil; it makes up
about 70 percent of the association. Kanapaha, Gaines-
ville, Zuber, Blanton, Fort Meade, and Fellowship soils
make up the rest.
Arredondo fine sand is deep, gently sloping, and well
drained. Its 6- to 8-inch surface layer is dark-gray to
very dark grayish-brown fine sand. It overlies a layer
of brown or yellowish-brown fine sand or loamy fine
sand that extends to a depth of more than 30 inches.
The minor soils, for the most part, have a sandy clay
loam to clay loam subsoil at a depth of less than 30
inches. The steeper soils are shallower to fine-textured
strata than the gently sloping ones. Occasionally seep-
age occurs in places on the steeper soils.
The soils are dominantly moderate to high in natural
fertility and medium in organic-matter content. Their
available moisture capacity is moderate.
Originally this association was covered with hardwoods
and a few pines, but now most of it has been cleared for
cultivation. The soils on the more gentle slopes are
among the best in the county; they are used extensively
for growing general farm crops. Those on steeper slopes
are well suited to improved pasture and to pine trees.
Except for those somewhat poorly drained soils on the
steeper slopes and those in areas where weathered rock is
near the surface, the soils in this association are most
favorable as sites for both the estate and subdivision types
of residences. They range from somewhat unsuitable to
most suitable for industrial and transportation uses. They
are suitable as natural sites for recreation and most suitable
as improved sites for recreation.
4. Blanton (low) association
Moderately well drained, acid sands more than 30 inches
deep to fine-textured material
This association occurs as large areas in the southern
and eastern parts of the county and as smaller areas
across the northern part. Its acreage is about 27 percent
of the county.







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


About half of the acreage has been cleared for gen-
eral farming. Tobacco, watermelons, corn, hairy indigo,
and small grain are principal crops. Droughts, which
are common late in spring, greatly reduce yields. In
years when rainfall is adequate throughout the growing
season, crop yields are fair to good. Slash pine grows
moderately well on these soils. Many formerly culti-
vated fields and cutover areas that supported scrubby
vegetation have been planted to pine.
The soils in this association are rated good as home-
sites; they are suitable as drainage fields for septic tanks.
They would be rated excellent as homesites, but they are
somewhat drought and need to be watered frequently
during dry periods. Landscape plants for these soils
should be carefully selected. Except for the steeper ones,
these soils are favorable to very favorable for industrial
and transportation uses. They are favorable to most
favorable for recreational uses, such as for golf courses,
campsites, and nature trails.
2. Blanton-Chiefland association
Well-drained to excessively drained, acid to neutral sands
30 to 72 inches deep to fine-textured material or limestone
This association occurs as a large, nearly level area in
the southern part of the county. It makes up about 5
percent of the county's acreage.
There are no streams within the area; water drains
through the soils into porous substrata. The underly-
ing limestone is responsible for the numerous small sinks
and shallow depressions in the area.
Dominant in this association are Blanton and Chief-
land soils as they occur in the complex, Blanton-Chief-
land fine sands. This complex makes up 96 percent of
the association. Jonesville, Hernando, and Archer soils
make up the rest.
The surface layer of both Blanton fine sand and Chief-
land fine sand is gray to very dark gray; it overlies pale-
brown, very pale brown, or light-gray fine sand. Lime-
stone is generally at a depth of 36 to 120 inches. In
most places a few inches of fine-textured material over-
lies the limestone.
Jonesville soils are similar to Chiefland soils but have
a brighter colored subsurface layer. Archer and Her-
nando soils are also similar to Chiefland soils but their
fine-textured subsoil begins at a depth of less than 30
inches.
The soils in this association are low in natural fer-
tility and in organic-matter content. Their available
moisture capacity is low.
Originally the area was covered with hardwoods and
pines, but now most of it has been cleared for cultiva-
tion. Corn, tobacco, peanuts, watermelons, small grain,
and other farm crops are grown. Hairy indigo and
bahiagrass are grown for pasture. In years of well-dis-
tributed rainfall, the soils produce good yields if well
managed. In years when rainfall is low during the
growing season, the soils are drought and produce poor
yields. The soils are well suited to pine. In recent years,
many formerly cultivated fields have been reforested
with pine trees.
Several pits have been developed to mine the high-
grade limestone.


The soils in this association are suitable as sites for
the subdivision type of housing. Because they are shal-
low to bedrock, in places they are somewhat less suitable as
sites for the estate type of housing that requires septic
tanks. Each site where a septic tank is to be installed
should be investigated individually. These soils range
from favorable to somewhat unfavorable for industrial and
transportation uses. They are favorable for natural
recreation purposes and very favorable to most favorable
as improved recreation sites.
3. Arredondo-Kanapaha association
Well-drained to somewhat poorly drained, slightly acid to
neutral sands more than 30 inches deep to fine-textured
material and derived from phosphatic material
This association occurs in an irregular pattern across
the northern part of the county. A few small areas occur
in the east-central and west-central parts. The total
acreage is about 4 percent of the county.
Although most of the slopes are gentle, some of the
steepest in the county occur within this association.
Most of the few small streams in this county occur within
or partly within this association.
Arredondo fine sand is the dominant soil; it makes up
about 70 percent of the association. Kanapaha, Gaines-
ville, Zuber, Blanton, Fort Meade, and Fellowship soils
make up the rest.
Arredondo fine sand is deep, gently sloping, and well
drained. Its 6- to 8-inch surface layer is dark-gray to
very dark grayish-brown fine sand. It overlies a layer
of brown or yellowish-brown fine sand or loamy fine
sand that extends to a depth of more than 30 inches.
The minor soils, for the most part, have a sandy clay
loam to clay loam subsoil at a depth of less than 30
inches. The steeper soils are shallower to fine-textured
strata than the gently sloping ones. Occasionally seep-
age occurs in places on the steeper soils.
The soils are dominantly moderate to high in natural
fertility and medium in organic-matter content. Their
available moisture capacity is moderate.
Originally this association was covered with hardwoods
and a few pines, but now most of it has been cleared for
cultivation. The soils on the more gentle slopes are
among the best in the county; they are used extensively
for growing general farm crops. Those on steeper slopes
are well suited to improved pasture and to pine trees.
Except for those somewhat poorly drained soils on the
steeper slopes and those in areas where weathered rock is
near the surface, the soils in this association are most
favorable as sites for both the estate and subdivision types
of residences. They range from somewhat unsuitable to
most suitable for industrial and transportation uses. They
are suitable as natural sites for recreation and most suitable
as improved sites for recreation.
4. Blanton (low) association
Moderately well drained, acid sands more than 30 inches
deep to fine-textured material
This association occurs as large areas in the southern
and eastern parts of the county and as smaller areas
across the northern part. Its acreage is about 27 percent
of the county.







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


The areas are nearly level or gently undulating. The
variation in relief is caused by solution of the underlying
limestone rather than by surface erosion. There is no
well-defined stream pattern; water drains through the
rapidly permeable sand into the porous substrata. The
ground water normally is at 3 to 5 feet below the surface.
Blanton fine sand, low, is the dominant soil. It makes
up about 80 percent of the association. Blanton, high;
Klej, Plummer, Rutlege, Leon, and Scranton soils make
up the rest.
The dominant soil, the Blanton, has a gray or dark-
gray sandy surface layer 6 to 8 inches thick. It over-
lies light-gray to pale-brown sand that extends to a depth
of more than 30 inches. Fine-textured substrata occur
at a depth of 30 to 42 inches in some places and at a
depth of more than 60 inches in others.
Forests of longleaf pine originally covered this associa-
tion. Now, the vegetation consists of second-growth
pine, scrub oak, and wiregrass. Most of the acreage has
been cleared, however, and is used extensively for grow-
ing corn, tobacco, watermelons, small grain, and im-
proved pasture grasses. Because the soils are low in nat-
ural fertility and leach rapidly, complete fertilizers and
soil-building crops are needed continuously for good
yields. In recent years many acres have been planted
to slash pine, which grows well on these soils.
Blanton fine sand, low, ranges from favorable to some-
what unfavorable as a site for estate-type housing. It is
very favorable as a site for the subdivision type of hous-
ing that does not require septic tanks. It ranges from
favorable on sloping areas to most favorable on gently
sloping or nearly level areas for industrial and trans-
portation uses and for natural and improved recreation
purposes.
Because the minor soils occur as small areas in this
association, they cannot be rated other than individually
in a given area.
5. Blanton (low)-Susquehanna-Bowie association
Moderately well drained, nearly level, acid sands more
than 30 inches deep to fine-textured material, and inter-
spersed sands that are less deep
This association covers an extensive area in the cen-
tral part of the county. It takes in about 13 percent of
the county's acreage.
The area is gently undulating because underlying lime-
stone has been dissolved by water. There are no streams
within the area. Water drains through numerous sand
pockets and sinks into porous limestone.
Blanton fine sand, low, is the dominant soil. It makes
up about 70 percent of the association. Bowie soils make
up about 15 percent; Susquehanna soils, about 10 per-
cent; and Bayboro, Weston, Plummer, and Rutlege make
up the rest.
The principal soils consist of light-colored fine sand
overlying finer textured material at a depth of more than
30 inches. Interspersed with these deep sandy areas, in
a rather intricate pattern, are numerous areas in which
the fine sand is less than 30 inches deep and the finer
textured underlying material consists of very slowly per-
meable to moderately permeable sandy clay or clay.


These soils are low in natural fertility and low to me-
dium in organic-matter content. They have a low to
moderate available moisture capacity.
The original vegetation consisted predominantly of
longleaf pine. The stands of pine were cut, and the
vegetation now consists of scattered second-growth pine
trees, scrub oaks, and wiregrass.
Much of the acreage has been cleared for cultivation.
Crops grown include corn, tobacco, watermelons, cow-
peas, and small grains. Considerable acreage is used
as improved pasture, and some formerly cultivated fields
have been planted to slash pine.
Because of the complexity of this association, its suit-
ability for some uses can be estimated only in general
terms. Sites on these soils for houses requiring a septic
tank should be closely examined and carefully chosen.
Ordinarily, the soils are favorable for transportation uses,
and they range from favorable to somewhat unfavorable
for industrial uses. They are most favorable as nat-
ural or improved sites for recreation.
6. Susquehanna-Bowie association
Well-drained to somewhat poorly drained, acid soils that
have a sandy surface layer 8 inches to more than 3 feet
deep over a clayey subsoil
This association occurs in the central part of the
county, and it takes in about 8 percent of the county's
acreage.
The soils that make up this association are so intri-
cately mixed that they were not mapped separately.
Most areas are gently undulating, but a few small areas
are steep. There is no definite pattern of surface
drainage.
Susquehanna fine sand and Bowie fine sand are the
dominant soils. Blanton fine sand, low, is intri-
cately mixed with these soils in a few places.
The dominant soils have a surface layer of light-
colored fine sand and a subsoil of sandy clay loam to
clay. The two soils differ mainly in thickness of their
surface layer and in texture and color of their subsoil.
Within short distances, the soils grade from one to the
other and the sandy surface layer ranges from less than
8 inches to more than 36 inches in thickness. The sub-
soil ranges from slightly mottled, brownish-yellow sandy
clay loam to brown clay prominently mottled with red
and light gray. The Bowie soil has a coarser textured,
less prominently mottled, and more permeable subsoil
than the Susquehanna soil.
Blanton fine sand, low, has a fine sand surface layer
that extends to a depth of more than 30 inches.
The original vegetation consisted of forests of long-
leaf pine. Most of the pine trees were cut, and the vege-
tation now consists of second-growth pine trees, scrub
oaks, and wiregrass.
The soils are moderately well suited to general farm-
ing. Consequently, much of the acreage has been cleared
for cultivation. Corn, small grains, tobacco, watermel-
ons, and bahiagrass are grown successfully if the soils
are well managed. The soils are well suited to pine
trees, and many formerly cultivated fields have been
planted to slash pine in recent years.







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


The areas are nearly level or gently undulating. The
variation in relief is caused by solution of the underlying
limestone rather than by surface erosion. There is no
well-defined stream pattern; water drains through the
rapidly permeable sand into the porous substrata. The
ground water normally is at 3 to 5 feet below the surface.
Blanton fine sand, low, is the dominant soil. It makes
up about 80 percent of the association. Blanton, high;
Klej, Plummer, Rutlege, Leon, and Scranton soils make
up the rest.
The dominant soil, the Blanton, has a gray or dark-
gray sandy surface layer 6 to 8 inches thick. It over-
lies light-gray to pale-brown sand that extends to a depth
of more than 30 inches. Fine-textured substrata occur
at a depth of 30 to 42 inches in some places and at a
depth of more than 60 inches in others.
Forests of longleaf pine originally covered this associa-
tion. Now, the vegetation consists of second-growth
pine, scrub oak, and wiregrass. Most of the acreage has
been cleared, however, and is used extensively for grow-
ing corn, tobacco, watermelons, small grain, and im-
proved pasture grasses. Because the soils are low in nat-
ural fertility and leach rapidly, complete fertilizers and
soil-building crops are needed continuously for good
yields. In recent years many acres have been planted
to slash pine, which grows well on these soils.
Blanton fine sand, low, ranges from favorable to some-
what unfavorable as a site for estate-type housing. It is
very favorable as a site for the subdivision type of hous-
ing that does not require septic tanks. It ranges from
favorable on sloping areas to most favorable on gently
sloping or nearly level areas for industrial and trans-
portation uses and for natural and improved recreation
purposes.
Because the minor soils occur as small areas in this
association, they cannot be rated other than individually
in a given area.
5. Blanton (low)-Susquehanna-Bowie association
Moderately well drained, nearly level, acid sands more
than 30 inches deep to fine-textured material, and inter-
spersed sands that are less deep
This association covers an extensive area in the cen-
tral part of the county. It takes in about 13 percent of
the county's acreage.
The area is gently undulating because underlying lime-
stone has been dissolved by water. There are no streams
within the area. Water drains through numerous sand
pockets and sinks into porous limestone.
Blanton fine sand, low, is the dominant soil. It makes
up about 70 percent of the association. Bowie soils make
up about 15 percent; Susquehanna soils, about 10 per-
cent; and Bayboro, Weston, Plummer, and Rutlege make
up the rest.
The principal soils consist of light-colored fine sand
overlying finer textured material at a depth of more than
30 inches. Interspersed with these deep sandy areas, in
a rather intricate pattern, are numerous areas in which
the fine sand is less than 30 inches deep and the finer
textured underlying material consists of very slowly per-
meable to moderately permeable sandy clay or clay.


These soils are low in natural fertility and low to me-
dium in organic-matter content. They have a low to
moderate available moisture capacity.
The original vegetation consisted predominantly of
longleaf pine. The stands of pine were cut, and the
vegetation now consists of scattered second-growth pine
trees, scrub oaks, and wiregrass.
Much of the acreage has been cleared for cultivation.
Crops grown include corn, tobacco, watermelons, cow-
peas, and small grains. Considerable acreage is used
as improved pasture, and some formerly cultivated fields
have been planted to slash pine.
Because of the complexity of this association, its suit-
ability for some uses can be estimated only in general
terms. Sites on these soils for houses requiring a septic
tank should be closely examined and carefully chosen.
Ordinarily, the soils are favorable for transportation uses,
and they range from favorable to somewhat unfavorable
for industrial uses. They are most favorable as nat-
ural or improved sites for recreation.
6. Susquehanna-Bowie association
Well-drained to somewhat poorly drained, acid soils that
have a sandy surface layer 8 inches to more than 3 feet
deep over a clayey subsoil
This association occurs in the central part of the
county, and it takes in about 8 percent of the county's
acreage.
The soils that make up this association are so intri-
cately mixed that they were not mapped separately.
Most areas are gently undulating, but a few small areas
are steep. There is no definite pattern of surface
drainage.
Susquehanna fine sand and Bowie fine sand are the
dominant soils. Blanton fine sand, low, is intri-
cately mixed with these soils in a few places.
The dominant soils have a surface layer of light-
colored fine sand and a subsoil of sandy clay loam to
clay. The two soils differ mainly in thickness of their
surface layer and in texture and color of their subsoil.
Within short distances, the soils grade from one to the
other and the sandy surface layer ranges from less than
8 inches to more than 36 inches in thickness. The sub-
soil ranges from slightly mottled, brownish-yellow sandy
clay loam to brown clay prominently mottled with red
and light gray. The Bowie soil has a coarser textured,
less prominently mottled, and more permeable subsoil
than the Susquehanna soil.
Blanton fine sand, low, has a fine sand surface layer
that extends to a depth of more than 30 inches.
The original vegetation consisted of forests of long-
leaf pine. Most of the pine trees were cut, and the vege-
tation now consists of second-growth pine trees, scrub
oaks, and wiregrass.
The soils are moderately well suited to general farm-
ing. Consequently, much of the acreage has been cleared
for cultivation. Corn, small grains, tobacco, watermel-
ons, and bahiagrass are grown successfully if the soils
are well managed. The soils are well suited to pine
trees, and many formerly cultivated fields have been
planted to slash pine in recent years.






iSUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


In the shallower areas of the Susquehanna soil, the
slowly permeable, sticky clay subsoil creates manage-
ment problems because it is near enough to the surface
to affect tillage and crop roots.
Most of the soils in this association are very sticky,
plastic, and impermeable. They are unfavorable sites for
houses requiring a septic tank. If sewage lines are in-
stalled, they are favorable sites. They are somewhat un-
favorable for industrial uses, favorable for transporta-
tion uses, and very favorable for natural recreation pur-
poses, including hunting, camping, hiking, and studying
nature.
7. Leon-Plummer association
Somewhat poorly drained, nearly level, very strongly
acid sands that have a pan stained with organic matter
within 30 inches of the surface, and interspersed very
poorly drained sandy soils
This association occurs in the east-central and north-
ern parts of Suwannee County. Its acreage is about 4
percent of the county.
Leon fine sand is the dominant soil. It makes up about
60 percent of the association; Plummer fine sand and
Rutlege fine sand together make up about 15 percent;
and Scranton fine sand and Blanton fine sand, low, make
up the rest.
The dominant soil, the Leon, occurs on low, nearly
level flats. It is somewhat poorly drained, strongly acid,
deep, and highly leached. It is a typical "flatwoods"
soil. It has a thin surface layer of gray to dark-gray fine
sand that overlies a layer of light-gray or nearly white
fine sand. A dark-brown to black pan stained with
organic matter is at a depth between 12 and 30 inches.
In most places 2 feet or more of light-colored sand un-
derlies the pan, but in some places fine-textured sub-
strata are beneath the pan. The ground water normally
fluctuates between 12 and 36 inches below the surface.
Plummer fine sand and Rutlege fine sand occur in low,
wet areas. They are very poorly drained. Scranton fine
sand occupies only a few areas. It is somewhat poorly
drained. It has a thicker and darker surface layer than
Leon fine sand and does not have a pan stained with
organic matter. Blanton fine sand, low, occurs on a few
isolated knolls. It is moderately well drained.
The original vegetation was typical "flatwoods" growth
of longleaf pine, saw-palmetto, and wiregrass. The wet-
ter areas produced a dense growth of swamp hardwoods,
vines, and shrubs. The present vegetation is second-
growth pine, saw-palmetto, and wiregrass. Since most
of the soils are poorly suited to cultivation, few areas
have been cultivated. The soils are best suited to pine
trees and pasture.
The soils in this association are somewhat unfavor-
able sites for houses requiring a septic tank but favor-
able for those connected to sewage lines. They are very
favorable for industrial and transportation uses because
they occur mostly on broad, level flats. They are very
favorable for recreation purposes, including small-game
hunting, camping, hiking, and studying nature.


8. Blanton-Kalmia-Swamp association
Somewhat poorly drained to very poorly drained soils on
flood plains of the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers
This association occurs as low, nearly level areas that
border the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers. The areas
range from a few feet to nearly a mile in width. They
cover about 4 percent of the county.
The soils in this association are deep, but they vary
in thickness of their surface layer. In some places the
fine sand surface layer extends to a depth of more than
30 inches, and in others the sticky clay subsoil is near
the surface.
The major soils are Blanton fine sand, low, and Kalmia
fine sand. Also included are many areas of very poorly
drained Swamp and a few isolated areas of poorly
drained Leaf fine sand. The Blanton, Kalmia, and Leaf
soils, as they occur in this association, are so intricately
mixed that they were mapped as a soil complex.
Almost all of this association is covered by trees. Good
stands of pine grow on the better drained soils, and a
variety of swamp hardwoods on the lower, swampy soils.
The dense growth of vines, shrubs, and noncommercial
trees give a junglelike appearance to many areas.
Since most of the soils are in a low position and are
flooded at 5- to 10-year intervals, they are best suited to
use as woodland, but they are also suitable for recrea-
tional purposes. Wild turkey, gray squirrel, and other
wildlife are plentiful.
9. Alluvial land-Swamp association
Very poorly drained soils in depressions
This association consists of several small ponded areas
in the northeastern part of the county and a narrow
wet strip next to a stream south of Wellborn. The
total acreage is about 2 percent of the county.
Alluvial land makes up about 60 percent of the associa-
tion, and Swamp makes up most of the rest.
The vegetation is predominantly cypress, bay, gum,
and other wetland hardwoods. None of the areas have
been cleared. Much of the acreage is covered with sev-
eral inches of water for most of the year.
The soils in this association are not suitable sites for
housing or industry. They are favorable for fresh-water
fishing and small-game hunting, but otherwise they are
somewhat unfavorable for recreational purposes.


Descriptions of the Soils
This section describes the soil series (groups of soils)
and the mapping units (single soils) in Suwannee
County. The procedure is to describe first each soil
series, and then the mapping units in that series. Thus,
to get full information on any one mapping unit, it is
necessary to read the description of that unit and also
the description of the soil series to which it belongs.
The first mapping unit that follows a description of
a soil series contains a description of the soil profile, the
major layers from the surface downward. This profile
is considered typical, or representative, for all the soils
in the series. If the profile for a given mapping unit






iSUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


In the shallower areas of the Susquehanna soil, the
slowly permeable, sticky clay subsoil creates manage-
ment problems because it is near enough to the surface
to affect tillage and crop roots.
Most of the soils in this association are very sticky,
plastic, and impermeable. They are unfavorable sites for
houses requiring a septic tank. If sewage lines are in-
stalled, they are favorable sites. They are somewhat un-
favorable for industrial uses, favorable for transporta-
tion uses, and very favorable for natural recreation pur-
poses, including hunting, camping, hiking, and studying
nature.
7. Leon-Plummer association
Somewhat poorly drained, nearly level, very strongly
acid sands that have a pan stained with organic matter
within 30 inches of the surface, and interspersed very
poorly drained sandy soils
This association occurs in the east-central and north-
ern parts of Suwannee County. Its acreage is about 4
percent of the county.
Leon fine sand is the dominant soil. It makes up about
60 percent of the association; Plummer fine sand and
Rutlege fine sand together make up about 15 percent;
and Scranton fine sand and Blanton fine sand, low, make
up the rest.
The dominant soil, the Leon, occurs on low, nearly
level flats. It is somewhat poorly drained, strongly acid,
deep, and highly leached. It is a typical "flatwoods"
soil. It has a thin surface layer of gray to dark-gray fine
sand that overlies a layer of light-gray or nearly white
fine sand. A dark-brown to black pan stained with
organic matter is at a depth between 12 and 30 inches.
In most places 2 feet or more of light-colored sand un-
derlies the pan, but in some places fine-textured sub-
strata are beneath the pan. The ground water normally
fluctuates between 12 and 36 inches below the surface.
Plummer fine sand and Rutlege fine sand occur in low,
wet areas. They are very poorly drained. Scranton fine
sand occupies only a few areas. It is somewhat poorly
drained. It has a thicker and darker surface layer than
Leon fine sand and does not have a pan stained with
organic matter. Blanton fine sand, low, occurs on a few
isolated knolls. It is moderately well drained.
The original vegetation was typical "flatwoods" growth
of longleaf pine, saw-palmetto, and wiregrass. The wet-
ter areas produced a dense growth of swamp hardwoods,
vines, and shrubs. The present vegetation is second-
growth pine, saw-palmetto, and wiregrass. Since most
of the soils are poorly suited to cultivation, few areas
have been cultivated. The soils are best suited to pine
trees and pasture.
The soils in this association are somewhat unfavor-
able sites for houses requiring a septic tank but favor-
able for those connected to sewage lines. They are very
favorable for industrial and transportation uses because
they occur mostly on broad, level flats. They are very
favorable for recreation purposes, including small-game
hunting, camping, hiking, and studying nature.


8. Blanton-Kalmia-Swamp association
Somewhat poorly drained to very poorly drained soils on
flood plains of the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers
This association occurs as low, nearly level areas that
border the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers. The areas
range from a few feet to nearly a mile in width. They
cover about 4 percent of the county.
The soils in this association are deep, but they vary
in thickness of their surface layer. In some places the
fine sand surface layer extends to a depth of more than
30 inches, and in others the sticky clay subsoil is near
the surface.
The major soils are Blanton fine sand, low, and Kalmia
fine sand. Also included are many areas of very poorly
drained Swamp and a few isolated areas of poorly
drained Leaf fine sand. The Blanton, Kalmia, and Leaf
soils, as they occur in this association, are so intricately
mixed that they were mapped as a soil complex.
Almost all of this association is covered by trees. Good
stands of pine grow on the better drained soils, and a
variety of swamp hardwoods on the lower, swampy soils.
The dense growth of vines, shrubs, and noncommercial
trees give a junglelike appearance to many areas.
Since most of the soils are in a low position and are
flooded at 5- to 10-year intervals, they are best suited to
use as woodland, but they are also suitable for recrea-
tional purposes. Wild turkey, gray squirrel, and other
wildlife are plentiful.
9. Alluvial land-Swamp association
Very poorly drained soils in depressions
This association consists of several small ponded areas
in the northeastern part of the county and a narrow
wet strip next to a stream south of Wellborn. The
total acreage is about 2 percent of the county.
Alluvial land makes up about 60 percent of the associa-
tion, and Swamp makes up most of the rest.
The vegetation is predominantly cypress, bay, gum,
and other wetland hardwoods. None of the areas have
been cleared. Much of the acreage is covered with sev-
eral inches of water for most of the year.
The soils in this association are not suitable sites for
housing or industry. They are favorable for fresh-water
fishing and small-game hunting, but otherwise they are
somewhat unfavorable for recreational purposes.


Descriptions of the Soils
This section describes the soil series (groups of soils)
and the mapping units (single soils) in Suwannee
County. The procedure is to describe first each soil
series, and then the mapping units in that series. Thus,
to get full information on any one mapping unit, it is
necessary to read the description of that unit and also
the description of the soil series to which it belongs.
The first mapping unit that follows a description of
a soil series contains a description of the soil profile, the
major layers from the surface downward. This profile
is considered typical, or representative, for all the soils
in the series. If the profile for a given mapping unit






iSUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


In the shallower areas of the Susquehanna soil, the
slowly permeable, sticky clay subsoil creates manage-
ment problems because it is near enough to the surface
to affect tillage and crop roots.
Most of the soils in this association are very sticky,
plastic, and impermeable. They are unfavorable sites for
houses requiring a septic tank. If sewage lines are in-
stalled, they are favorable sites. They are somewhat un-
favorable for industrial uses, favorable for transporta-
tion uses, and very favorable for natural recreation pur-
poses, including hunting, camping, hiking, and studying
nature.
7. Leon-Plummer association
Somewhat poorly drained, nearly level, very strongly
acid sands that have a pan stained with organic matter
within 30 inches of the surface, and interspersed very
poorly drained sandy soils
This association occurs in the east-central and north-
ern parts of Suwannee County. Its acreage is about 4
percent of the county.
Leon fine sand is the dominant soil. It makes up about
60 percent of the association; Plummer fine sand and
Rutlege fine sand together make up about 15 percent;
and Scranton fine sand and Blanton fine sand, low, make
up the rest.
The dominant soil, the Leon, occurs on low, nearly
level flats. It is somewhat poorly drained, strongly acid,
deep, and highly leached. It is a typical "flatwoods"
soil. It has a thin surface layer of gray to dark-gray fine
sand that overlies a layer of light-gray or nearly white
fine sand. A dark-brown to black pan stained with
organic matter is at a depth between 12 and 30 inches.
In most places 2 feet or more of light-colored sand un-
derlies the pan, but in some places fine-textured sub-
strata are beneath the pan. The ground water normally
fluctuates between 12 and 36 inches below the surface.
Plummer fine sand and Rutlege fine sand occur in low,
wet areas. They are very poorly drained. Scranton fine
sand occupies only a few areas. It is somewhat poorly
drained. It has a thicker and darker surface layer than
Leon fine sand and does not have a pan stained with
organic matter. Blanton fine sand, low, occurs on a few
isolated knolls. It is moderately well drained.
The original vegetation was typical "flatwoods" growth
of longleaf pine, saw-palmetto, and wiregrass. The wet-
ter areas produced a dense growth of swamp hardwoods,
vines, and shrubs. The present vegetation is second-
growth pine, saw-palmetto, and wiregrass. Since most
of the soils are poorly suited to cultivation, few areas
have been cultivated. The soils are best suited to pine
trees and pasture.
The soils in this association are somewhat unfavor-
able sites for houses requiring a septic tank but favor-
able for those connected to sewage lines. They are very
favorable for industrial and transportation uses because
they occur mostly on broad, level flats. They are very
favorable for recreation purposes, including small-game
hunting, camping, hiking, and studying nature.


8. Blanton-Kalmia-Swamp association
Somewhat poorly drained to very poorly drained soils on
flood plains of the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers
This association occurs as low, nearly level areas that
border the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers. The areas
range from a few feet to nearly a mile in width. They
cover about 4 percent of the county.
The soils in this association are deep, but they vary
in thickness of their surface layer. In some places the
fine sand surface layer extends to a depth of more than
30 inches, and in others the sticky clay subsoil is near
the surface.
The major soils are Blanton fine sand, low, and Kalmia
fine sand. Also included are many areas of very poorly
drained Swamp and a few isolated areas of poorly
drained Leaf fine sand. The Blanton, Kalmia, and Leaf
soils, as they occur in this association, are so intricately
mixed that they were mapped as a soil complex.
Almost all of this association is covered by trees. Good
stands of pine grow on the better drained soils, and a
variety of swamp hardwoods on the lower, swampy soils.
The dense growth of vines, shrubs, and noncommercial
trees give a junglelike appearance to many areas.
Since most of the soils are in a low position and are
flooded at 5- to 10-year intervals, they are best suited to
use as woodland, but they are also suitable for recrea-
tional purposes. Wild turkey, gray squirrel, and other
wildlife are plentiful.
9. Alluvial land-Swamp association
Very poorly drained soils in depressions
This association consists of several small ponded areas
in the northeastern part of the county and a narrow
wet strip next to a stream south of Wellborn. The
total acreage is about 2 percent of the county.
Alluvial land makes up about 60 percent of the associa-
tion, and Swamp makes up most of the rest.
The vegetation is predominantly cypress, bay, gum,
and other wetland hardwoods. None of the areas have
been cleared. Much of the acreage is covered with sev-
eral inches of water for most of the year.
The soils in this association are not suitable sites for
housing or industry. They are favorable for fresh-water
fishing and small-game hunting, but otherwise they are
somewhat unfavorable for recreational purposes.


Descriptions of the Soils
This section describes the soil series (groups of soils)
and the mapping units (single soils) in Suwannee
County. The procedure is to describe first each soil
series, and then the mapping units in that series. Thus,
to get full information on any one mapping unit, it is
necessary to read the description of that unit and also
the description of the soil series to which it belongs.
The first mapping unit that follows a description of
a soil series contains a description of the soil profile, the
major layers from the surface downward. This profile
is considered typical, or representative, for all the soils
in the series. If the profile for a given mapping unit






iSUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


In the shallower areas of the Susquehanna soil, the
slowly permeable, sticky clay subsoil creates manage-
ment problems because it is near enough to the surface
to affect tillage and crop roots.
Most of the soils in this association are very sticky,
plastic, and impermeable. They are unfavorable sites for
houses requiring a septic tank. If sewage lines are in-
stalled, they are favorable sites. They are somewhat un-
favorable for industrial uses, favorable for transporta-
tion uses, and very favorable for natural recreation pur-
poses, including hunting, camping, hiking, and studying
nature.
7. Leon-Plummer association
Somewhat poorly drained, nearly level, very strongly
acid sands that have a pan stained with organic matter
within 30 inches of the surface, and interspersed very
poorly drained sandy soils
This association occurs in the east-central and north-
ern parts of Suwannee County. Its acreage is about 4
percent of the county.
Leon fine sand is the dominant soil. It makes up about
60 percent of the association; Plummer fine sand and
Rutlege fine sand together make up about 15 percent;
and Scranton fine sand and Blanton fine sand, low, make
up the rest.
The dominant soil, the Leon, occurs on low, nearly
level flats. It is somewhat poorly drained, strongly acid,
deep, and highly leached. It is a typical "flatwoods"
soil. It has a thin surface layer of gray to dark-gray fine
sand that overlies a layer of light-gray or nearly white
fine sand. A dark-brown to black pan stained with
organic matter is at a depth between 12 and 30 inches.
In most places 2 feet or more of light-colored sand un-
derlies the pan, but in some places fine-textured sub-
strata are beneath the pan. The ground water normally
fluctuates between 12 and 36 inches below the surface.
Plummer fine sand and Rutlege fine sand occur in low,
wet areas. They are very poorly drained. Scranton fine
sand occupies only a few areas. It is somewhat poorly
drained. It has a thicker and darker surface layer than
Leon fine sand and does not have a pan stained with
organic matter. Blanton fine sand, low, occurs on a few
isolated knolls. It is moderately well drained.
The original vegetation was typical "flatwoods" growth
of longleaf pine, saw-palmetto, and wiregrass. The wet-
ter areas produced a dense growth of swamp hardwoods,
vines, and shrubs. The present vegetation is second-
growth pine, saw-palmetto, and wiregrass. Since most
of the soils are poorly suited to cultivation, few areas
have been cultivated. The soils are best suited to pine
trees and pasture.
The soils in this association are somewhat unfavor-
able sites for houses requiring a septic tank but favor-
able for those connected to sewage lines. They are very
favorable for industrial and transportation uses because
they occur mostly on broad, level flats. They are very
favorable for recreation purposes, including small-game
hunting, camping, hiking, and studying nature.


8. Blanton-Kalmia-Swamp association
Somewhat poorly drained to very poorly drained soils on
flood plains of the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers
This association occurs as low, nearly level areas that
border the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers. The areas
range from a few feet to nearly a mile in width. They
cover about 4 percent of the county.
The soils in this association are deep, but they vary
in thickness of their surface layer. In some places the
fine sand surface layer extends to a depth of more than
30 inches, and in others the sticky clay subsoil is near
the surface.
The major soils are Blanton fine sand, low, and Kalmia
fine sand. Also included are many areas of very poorly
drained Swamp and a few isolated areas of poorly
drained Leaf fine sand. The Blanton, Kalmia, and Leaf
soils, as they occur in this association, are so intricately
mixed that they were mapped as a soil complex.
Almost all of this association is covered by trees. Good
stands of pine grow on the better drained soils, and a
variety of swamp hardwoods on the lower, swampy soils.
The dense growth of vines, shrubs, and noncommercial
trees give a junglelike appearance to many areas.
Since most of the soils are in a low position and are
flooded at 5- to 10-year intervals, they are best suited to
use as woodland, but they are also suitable for recrea-
tional purposes. Wild turkey, gray squirrel, and other
wildlife are plentiful.
9. Alluvial land-Swamp association
Very poorly drained soils in depressions
This association consists of several small ponded areas
in the northeastern part of the county and a narrow
wet strip next to a stream south of Wellborn. The
total acreage is about 2 percent of the county.
Alluvial land makes up about 60 percent of the associa-
tion, and Swamp makes up most of the rest.
The vegetation is predominantly cypress, bay, gum,
and other wetland hardwoods. None of the areas have
been cleared. Much of the acreage is covered with sev-
eral inches of water for most of the year.
The soils in this association are not suitable sites for
housing or industry. They are favorable for fresh-water
fishing and small-game hunting, but otherwise they are
somewhat unfavorable for recreational purposes.


Descriptions of the Soils
This section describes the soil series (groups of soils)
and the mapping units (single soils) in Suwannee
County. The procedure is to describe first each soil
series, and then the mapping units in that series. Thus,
to get full information on any one mapping unit, it is
necessary to read the description of that unit and also
the description of the soil series to which it belongs.
The first mapping unit that follows a description of
a soil series contains a description of the soil profile, the
major layers from the surface downward. This profile
is considered typical, or representative, for all the soils
in the series. If the profile for a given mapping unit







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


differs from this typical profile, the differences are stated
in the description of the mapping unit, or they are ap-
parent in the name of the mapping unit. Some tech-
nical terms are used in describing soil series and map-
ping units, simply because there are no nontechnical
terms that convey precisely the same meaning. Many


of the more commonly used technical terms are defined
in the Glossary.
The acreage and proportionate extent of the map-
ping units are shown in table 1. Detailed technical
descriptions of soil series are given in the section "For-
mation and Classification of Soils."


TABLE 1.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of the soils


Map Soil
symbol


Al Alluvial land_-------------------
AhA Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 0 to
2 percent slopes----------------
AhB Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 2 to
5 percent slopes----------------
AhC Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 5 to
8 percent slopes ..---------.----
AnA Archer-Susquehanna fine sands,
thick surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes-
AnB Archer-Susquehanna fine sands,
thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes-
AnC Archer-Susquehanna fine sands,
thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes-
ArB Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes...--.._---------------
ArC Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes-- ...---------.....----
ArD Arredondo fine sand, 8 to 12 percent
slopes_ ----------------------
AsB Arredondo fine sand, moderately
shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes -----
AsC Arredondo fine sand, moderately
shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes ---
Bb Bayboro fine sandy loam ----------
BfB Blanton fine sand, high, 0 to 5 per-
cent slopes-------------------
BfC Blanton fine sand, high, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes-------------------
BfD Blanton fine sand, high, 8 to 12 per-
cent slopes ----------
BfE Blanton fine sand, high, 12 to 35
percent slopes ----------
BhB Blanton fine sand, high, moderately
shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...
BmB Blanton fine sand, low, 0 to 5 per-
cent slopes-------------------
BmC Blanton fine sand, low, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes -------------__
BmD Blanton fine sand, low, 8 to 12 per-
cent slopes-------------------
BnB Blanton fine sand, low, moderately
shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes----
BnC Blanton fine sand, low, moderately
shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes--..
BoB Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna com-
plex, 2 to 5 percent slopes -----
BoC Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna com-
plex, 5 to 8 percent slopes_ ----
BtB Blanton-Chiefland fine sands, 0 to
5 percent slopes-----------------
BtC Blanton-Chiefland fine sands, 5 to
8 percent slopes---------------
BuA Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex, 0 to
2 percent slopes.--------------
BuB Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex, 2 to
5 percent slopes ---------------
BvB Bowie fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes_
BvC Bowie fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-
Bw B Bowie fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5
percent slopes-------------------
BwC Bowie fine sand, thick surface, 5 to
8 percent slopes-----------------
BxB Bowie-Blanton complex, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes--------------------
See footnote at end of table.


Area


Extent


Map
symbol


1-1


Acres
8,390

133

1,106

205

227

1,014

111

9,428

2,168

288

531

539
303

113,879

8,883

956

267

553

98,835

2,947

176

9,950

853

49,546

2,031

17,493

398

126

3,288
366
105

1,565

213

9,152


Percent
2.0

(1)
.3

(1)
.1

.2

(1)
2.2

.5

.1

.1

.1
.1

26.3

2.0

.2

.1

.1

23.0

.7

(1)
2.3

.2

11.4

.5

4.0

.1
(1)


.4

(1)
2.1


BxC

ChB

ChC

FfB

FfC

FfD

FmC

GaB

GaC

GfB

Gr
Gx
HdB

HdC

KaB

KaC

KfB
LaB

LaC

LdB

LfA
LmA

Ln
Lo
Lp
Mp
Pa
PdA

PdB

Pf
Ph
Pm

PrD

Ps
Ru
SaB

ScC
Sd


Bowie-Blanton complex, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes---------------------
Chiefland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes-------------------------
Chiefland fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes --------
Fellowship loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
percent slopes --------------
Fellowship loamy fine sand, 5 to 8
percent slopes------------------
Fellowship loamy fine sand, 8 to 12
percent slopes------------------
Fort Meade loamy fine sand, 5 to 8
percent slopes---------------
Gainesville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
percent slopes__--------------
Gainesville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8
percent slopes------------------
Gainesville loamy fine sand, mod-
erately shallow, 0 to 5 percent
slopes--- ----------------------
Grady fine sandy loam, thick surface-
Grady, Bladen, and Coxville soils---
Hernando fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes -----------------------
Hernando fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes------------------------
Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes ___ ---------- ------
Kanapaha fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes-------------------------
Klej fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes-
Lakeland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes------------------------
Lakeland fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes ------------------------
Lakeland and Jonesville fine sands,
0 to 5 percent slopes------------
Leon fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes_
Leon fine sand, loamy substratum, 0
to 5 percent slopes-------------
Leon and Ona fine sands-----
Local alluvial land---------------
Local alluvial land, phosphatic -----
Mine pits and dumps__------------
Peat.....-------------------------
Plummer fine sand, 0 to 2 percent
slopes------------------------
Plummer fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes-----------------------
Plummer fine sand, depressions-----
Plummer fine sand, high------
Plummer fine sand, moderately
shallow--------------------
Plummer, Bladen, and Rains soils,
5 to 17 percent slopes------------
Pomello fine sand-----------------
Rutlege fine sand-----------------
Sandy and clayey land, gently
sloping- -.--------------------
Sandy and clayey land, sloping ----
Scranton fine sand---------------


Extent


Percent
0.2

.6

.1

.1

.1

.1

(1)


Acres

754

2,571

269

302

305

302

157

479

164


138
1,293
887

1,555

359

950

287
551

11,368

529

237
12,846
862
1,629
2,169
280
650
89

3,558

629
521
3,553

428

677
437
1,395

4,972
809
1,629


Area


.3
.2

.4

.1

.2

.1
.1

2.6

.1

.1
3.0

.2
.4
.5
.1
.1
(1)


I-







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


TABLE 1.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of
the soils-Continued

Map Soil Area Extent
symbol

Acres Percent
SfB Susquehanna fine sand, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes-------------_ ---_ 2,099 0.5
SfC Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes--------------------- 936 .2
SfC2 Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes, eroded -------------- 260 .1
SfD Susquehanna fine sand, 8 to 12 per-
cent slopes --------------------- 166 (1)
ShB Susquehanna fine sand, thick sur-
face, 2 to 5 percent slopes-------- 231 .1
SnB Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 2 to
5 percent slopes----------------- 12,436 2.9
SnC Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 5 to
8 percent slopes----------------- 1,405 .3
Sn D Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 8 to
12 percent slopes---------------- 133 (')
Sw Swamp-------------------------- 7,904 1.8
Wf Weston fine sand, dark subsoil
variant------------------------ 534 .1
ZuB Zuber loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes --------------------- 163 (1)
ZuC Zuber loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes --------------------- 132 (1)
ZuC2 Zuber loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes, eroded-------------- 169 ()
ZuE Zuber loamy fine sand, 8 to 35 per-
cent slopes--------------------- 97 ()
Total __------------------- 433,280 100.0

SLess than 0.1 percent.

Alluvial Land (A I)
This level to nearly level land type consists of sedi-
ment from many different kinds of soils. It occurs
on first bottoms and is frequently flooded. It varies
widely in drainage and permeability, and in texture
and color also, because amount and kind of sediment both
differ from area to area and even within one area. The
soil material deposited along stream channels is predomi-
nantly sand and loamy sand. The deposits away from
the stream channels are finer textured material. In the
more poorly drained areas, the soil material is gray and
light gray.
Associated with Alluvial land are Plummer and Blan-
ton soils and the Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex.
Frequent flooding and variable drainage generally
make Alluvial land unsuitable for agriculture. Conse-
quently, only a small acreage is cultivated. If the bet-
ter drained areas are cleared and properly managed, they
can produce favorable yields of improved pasture and
trees. (Capability unit VIIws-1; woodland group 11.)

Archer Series

The soils in this series were derived from thin layers
of acid marine sand, sandy clay, and clay overlying and
influenced by limestone. They are nearly level to sloping.
Depressions and knolls occur where the underlying lime-
stone is near the surface. The soils are moderately well
729-251-065--2


drained. There is no definite stream pattern. Surface
water drains through the soil into the porous limestone.
The surface layer of Archer soils is gray to dark-gray
fine sand, in most places 4 to 7 inches thick. It overlies
grayish-brown loamy fine sand less than 24 inches
thick that, in turn, overlies the subsoil. The upper 6
inches of subsoil is yellowish-red or yellowish-brown
sandy clay or clay; the lower part is yellowish-brown
clay prominently mottled with red and gray. Soft or
hard limestone normally is at a depth of less than 48
inches.
Archer soils are closely associated with Susquehanna,
Hernando, and Blanton soils. Their upper profile is
similar to that of Susquehanna soils, but they are less
acid than Susquehanna soils and are underlain by lime-
stone. They are browner and more prominently mottled
than Hernando soils and have a subsoil of finer tex-
ture. They lack a deep, sandy profile like that of Blan-
ton soils.
The vegetation is forest of pine and oak and an under-
growth of wiregrass, sedges, and briers. The gentle
slopes are well suited to cultivated crops, pasture, and
pme trees.
Archer soils occur in the southern part of the county
as areas so small and so closely associated with Susque-
hanna soils that they are not mapped separately. They
are mapped only with Susquehanna soils as a soil com-
plex.
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 2 to 5 percent slopes
(AhB).-The soils that make up this complex are
intricately mixed. The proportion varies over short
distances, but in most areas it is about 45 percent Archer
fine sand, 40 percent Susquehanna fine sand, and 15 per-
cent minor inclusions of Blanton, Hernando, and Chief-
land soils.
A profile description of Susquehanna fine sand is on
page 26. Following is a profile description of Archer
fine sand.
0 to 7 inches, gray fine sand.
7 to 12 inches, grayish-brown loamy fine sand.
12 to 17 inches, yellowish-red, firm clay.
17 to 62 inches, brownish-yellow to gray, plastic, sticky clay'
with yellowish-brown and light reddish-brown mottles; some
soft limestone nodules in lower part.
62 to 72 inches +, limestone and marl.
The soils of this complex have a surface layer ranging
from fine sand to loamy fine sand and from 6 to 18 inches
in thickness. In a few places the fine-textured subsoil is
exposed. In some areas of the Archer soil, the underlying
limestone and marl or calcareous clay is only 2 feet from
the surface. The degree of base saturation is higher
and the acidity of the soil is less in these areas than in areas
of deeper soil.
These soils are low in organic-matter content and in
natural fertility. They are moderately well drained to
somewhat poorly drained. Permeability is moderately
rapid in the surface layer and slow in the subsoil. The
available moisture capacity is low.
This soil complex generally occurs on gentle slopes, but
a few areas are nearly level. In a few places that are
eroded the yellowish-red, clayey subsoil is exposed. In
an area about 2 miles northeast of Branford, the subsoil
is directly over white, soft limestone. Many iron or
manganese concretions are scattered throughout the profile.







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


TABLE 1.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent of
the soils-Continued

Map Soil Area Extent
symbol

Acres Percent
SfB Susquehanna fine sand, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes-------------_ ---_ 2,099 0.5
SfC Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes--------------------- 936 .2
SfC2 Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes, eroded -------------- 260 .1
SfD Susquehanna fine sand, 8 to 12 per-
cent slopes --------------------- 166 (1)
ShB Susquehanna fine sand, thick sur-
face, 2 to 5 percent slopes-------- 231 .1
SnB Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 2 to
5 percent slopes----------------- 12,436 2.9
SnC Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 5 to
8 percent slopes----------------- 1,405 .3
Sn D Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 8 to
12 percent slopes---------------- 133 (')
Sw Swamp-------------------------- 7,904 1.8
Wf Weston fine sand, dark subsoil
variant------------------------ 534 .1
ZuB Zuber loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes --------------------- 163 (1)
ZuC Zuber loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes --------------------- 132 (1)
ZuC2 Zuber loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes, eroded-------------- 169 ()
ZuE Zuber loamy fine sand, 8 to 35 per-
cent slopes--------------------- 97 ()
Total __------------------- 433,280 100.0

SLess than 0.1 percent.

Alluvial Land (A I)
This level to nearly level land type consists of sedi-
ment from many different kinds of soils. It occurs
on first bottoms and is frequently flooded. It varies
widely in drainage and permeability, and in texture
and color also, because amount and kind of sediment both
differ from area to area and even within one area. The
soil material deposited along stream channels is predomi-
nantly sand and loamy sand. The deposits away from
the stream channels are finer textured material. In the
more poorly drained areas, the soil material is gray and
light gray.
Associated with Alluvial land are Plummer and Blan-
ton soils and the Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex.
Frequent flooding and variable drainage generally
make Alluvial land unsuitable for agriculture. Conse-
quently, only a small acreage is cultivated. If the bet-
ter drained areas are cleared and properly managed, they
can produce favorable yields of improved pasture and
trees. (Capability unit VIIws-1; woodland group 11.)

Archer Series

The soils in this series were derived from thin layers
of acid marine sand, sandy clay, and clay overlying and
influenced by limestone. They are nearly level to sloping.
Depressions and knolls occur where the underlying lime-
stone is near the surface. The soils are moderately well
729-251-065--2


drained. There is no definite stream pattern. Surface
water drains through the soil into the porous limestone.
The surface layer of Archer soils is gray to dark-gray
fine sand, in most places 4 to 7 inches thick. It overlies
grayish-brown loamy fine sand less than 24 inches
thick that, in turn, overlies the subsoil. The upper 6
inches of subsoil is yellowish-red or yellowish-brown
sandy clay or clay; the lower part is yellowish-brown
clay prominently mottled with red and gray. Soft or
hard limestone normally is at a depth of less than 48
inches.
Archer soils are closely associated with Susquehanna,
Hernando, and Blanton soils. Their upper profile is
similar to that of Susquehanna soils, but they are less
acid than Susquehanna soils and are underlain by lime-
stone. They are browner and more prominently mottled
than Hernando soils and have a subsoil of finer tex-
ture. They lack a deep, sandy profile like that of Blan-
ton soils.
The vegetation is forest of pine and oak and an under-
growth of wiregrass, sedges, and briers. The gentle
slopes are well suited to cultivated crops, pasture, and
pme trees.
Archer soils occur in the southern part of the county
as areas so small and so closely associated with Susque-
hanna soils that they are not mapped separately. They
are mapped only with Susquehanna soils as a soil com-
plex.
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 2 to 5 percent slopes
(AhB).-The soils that make up this complex are
intricately mixed. The proportion varies over short
distances, but in most areas it is about 45 percent Archer
fine sand, 40 percent Susquehanna fine sand, and 15 per-
cent minor inclusions of Blanton, Hernando, and Chief-
land soils.
A profile description of Susquehanna fine sand is on
page 26. Following is a profile description of Archer
fine sand.
0 to 7 inches, gray fine sand.
7 to 12 inches, grayish-brown loamy fine sand.
12 to 17 inches, yellowish-red, firm clay.
17 to 62 inches, brownish-yellow to gray, plastic, sticky clay'
with yellowish-brown and light reddish-brown mottles; some
soft limestone nodules in lower part.
62 to 72 inches +, limestone and marl.
The soils of this complex have a surface layer ranging
from fine sand to loamy fine sand and from 6 to 18 inches
in thickness. In a few places the fine-textured subsoil is
exposed. In some areas of the Archer soil, the underlying
limestone and marl or calcareous clay is only 2 feet from
the surface. The degree of base saturation is higher
and the acidity of the soil is less in these areas than in areas
of deeper soil.
These soils are low in organic-matter content and in
natural fertility. They are moderately well drained to
somewhat poorly drained. Permeability is moderately
rapid in the surface layer and slow in the subsoil. The
available moisture capacity is low.
This soil complex generally occurs on gentle slopes, but
a few areas are nearly level. In a few places that are
eroded the yellowish-red, clayey subsoil is exposed. In
an area about 2 miles northeast of Branford, the subsoil
is directly over white, soft limestone. Many iron or
manganese concretions are scattered throughout the profile.







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


Most areas have been cleared for cultivation or for
pasture. If properly managed, this complex produces
good yields of many crops. Pine trees grow rapidly on
these soils. (Capability unit IIIse-5; woodland group
4.)
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 0 to 2 percent slopes
(AhA).-This complex occurs as small areas adjacent to
areas of Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. Because slopes are smoother, runoff is less rapid
and erosion is less a hazard than on the more sloping com-
plex. If properly managed, this complex is well suited
to general cultivated crops and to improved pasture.
(Capability unit IIse-1; woodland group 4.)
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 5 to 8 percent slopes
(AhC).-These soils have a slightly thinner surface layer
than do Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 2 to 5 percent
slopes, and, because they are more strongly sloping, they
are more susceptible to erosion. A few areas in which
moderate erosion has occurred, and also some areas where
slopes are steeper than 8 percent, were mapped with this
complex.
The soils are fairly well suited to all the locally grown
cultivated crops and to grasses for improved pasture.
Because of the erosion hazard, they should be used only
occasionally for cultivated crops. (Capability unit IVes-1;
woodland group 4.)
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, thick surface, 0 to 2
percent slopes (AnA).-The surface layer of these soils
normally is 18 to 30 inches thick. Because of this thick
layer, these soils have a deeper root zone than Archer-
Susquehanna fine sands, 2 to 5 percent slopes, but they
have a lower available moisture capacity, since more of
their profile consists of fine sand. These soils are well
suited to pasture, to woods, and to most crops grown in
the county. (Capability unit IIse-1; woodland group 4.)
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, thick surface, 2 to 5
percent slopes (AnB).-The surface layer of these soils
normally is 18 to 30 inches thick. This thick layer gives
the soils a deeper root zone than that of Archer-Susque-
hanna fine sands, 2 to 5 percent slopes. They are well
suited to a wide variety of crops grown in the county and
if well managed produce good yields. They are also well
suited to pasture and to pine trees. (Capability unit
IIIse-5; woodland group 4.)
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, thick surface, 5 to 8
percent slopes (AnC).-The surface layer of these soils is
18 to 30 inches thick. Because they are more strongly
sloping than Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 2 to 5
percent slopes, they are more susceptible to erosion. A
few areas in which erosion has been moderate, and also
some areas where slopes are steeper than 8 percent, were
mapped with this complex. These soils are fairly well
suited to all the locally grown cultivated crops and to
grasses for improved pasture. They should be used only
occasionally for cultivated crops, because of the erosion
hazard. (Capability unit IVes-1; woodland group 4.)

Arredondo Series
The Arredondo series consists of deep, well-drained,
sandy soils of the Central Florida Ridge. These soils
developed from thick deposits of sand interbedded with
sandy clay and phosphatic material.
The surface layer is dark-gray to grayish-brown fine


sand or loamy fine sand 4 to 7 inches thick. Below this
is a layer of pale-brown to brownish-yellow fine sand or
loamy fine sand that extends to a depth of more than
30 inches. Small phosphatic pebbles are common on the
surface and throughout the profile.
Arredondo soils are most commonly associated with
Zuber, Gainesville, Fellowship, Blanton, and Lakeland
soils. They are similar to Zuber soils in that both have
a sandy surface and subsurface layer of approximately
the same color and texture. The subsurface layer, how-
ever, is more than 30 inches thick in Arredondo soils and
about 12 to 20 inches thick in Zuber soils. Arredondo
soils are not so brown nor so red as Gainesville soils.
They have a lighter colored surface layer than the Fel-
lowship soils, and they lack a slowly permeable, plastic,
fine-textured subsoil less than 30 inches from the surface
like that of Fellowship soils. They are not so light colored
as the nonphosphatic Blanton soils, and they differ from
Lakeland soils in being affected by phosphatic material.
The vegetation consisted principally of loblolly pine,
longleaf pine, and some oak and hickory trees. Because
the soils are well suited to many cultivated crops, much
of their acreage has been cleared and cultivated. Re-
forestation with slash pine, which grows well on these
soils, has been extensive in recent years.
Arredondo soils occur most commonly on gentle up-
land slopes or hillsides in association with other soils of
similar origin. Small areas are widely scattered through-
out most of the county except the southern and western
parts. The soils are most common in a band across the
northern part between U.S. Highway No. 90 and the
Suwannee River.
Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (ArB).-
This is a deep, well-drained, sandy soil affected by phos-
phatic material. The major horizons are-
0 to 6 inches, dark grayish-brown, loose fine sand; few small
phosphatic pebbles; crumb structure.
6 to 60 inches, brownish-yellow, loose fine sand; few small
phosphatic pebbles.
The surface layer ranges from gray to dark grayish
brown in color and from 4 to 7 inches in thickness. The
subsurface layer ranges from pale brown to brownish
yellow; its texture usually is fine sand but is loamy fine
sand in a few places. In a few small areas, the phosphatic
pebbles are much more numerous than described. Strata
of fine-textured or gravelly material are at a depth of
48 to 60 inches in some places.
The surface layer is slightly acid and is low in organic-
matter content. It is in good tilth and is easily plowed.
The subsurface layer is thick, rapidly permeable, and
easily penetrated by roots, and it has moderate available
moisture capacity.
This soil has a low supply of all plant nutrients except
phosphorus, but it responds well to fertilization. It is
well suited to improved pasture, to pine forest, and to a
wide variety of cultivated crops if it is well managed.
The principal management problem is maintaining the
organic-matter content. Erosion is a minor hazard.
(Capability unit IIIse-3; woodland group 1.)
Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (ArC).-
The surface layer of this soil normally is only 3 to 5 inches
thick. It contains more phosphatic pebbles than does
that of Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. The







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


depth to strata of fine-textured or gravelly material is
more variable in this soil but is usually less than 60 inches.
Because it is steeper, this soil is more susceptible to ero-
sion. It requires more intensive management if cultivated.
(Capability unit IVse-5; woodland group 1.)
Arredondo fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes (ArD).-
This soil occurs as small areas, usually adjacent to sinks
or draws. It has more phosphatic pebbles on the surface
and throughout the profile than does Arredondo fine sand,
0 to 5 percent slopes. Strata of fine-textured or gravelly
material are normally at a depth of 30 to 60 inches. This
soil is well suited to improved pasture and to pine forest.
(Capability unit Vise-2; woodland group 1.)
Arredondo fine sand, moderately shallow, 0 to 5 percent
slopes (AsB).--This soil occurs only as small isolated
areas, most of them in fields of deeper Arredondo soils.
Its uppermost 30 inches is similar to the corresponding
part of Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. But
at a depth between 30 and 42 inches, this soil has a thin
layer of brown, faintly mottled fine sandy loam that
grades into a layer of yellowish-brown, faintly mottled
fine sandy clay loam. This last-mentioned layer extends
to a depth of about 60 inches and grades into a layer of
plastic sandy clay that contains lenses and individual
pebbles of angular, soft, phosphatic sandstone gravel.
This soil has a higher available moisture capacity than
Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and under
similar management it usually produces slightly higher
yields. (Capability unit IIIse-3; woodland group 2.)
Arredondo fine sand, moderately shallow, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes (AsC).-This is not an extensive soil; it occurs
as small isolated areas within larger areas of similar soils.
The surface and subsurface layers of this soil generally are
thinner than those of Arredondo fine sand, moderately
shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes. In some small areas these
layers extend to a depth of less than 30 inches. Because
it is steeper than the shallow phase on slopes of 0 to 5
percent, this soil is more susceptible to erosion. It is
moderately eroded in some places. This soil is well suited
to cultivated crops and to pasture but requires intensive
erosion control practices. (Capability unit IVse-5; wood-
land group 2.)

Bayboro Series
This series consists of deep, strongly acid, very poorly
drained soils that developed from thick beds of acid
marine clay and sandy clay.
The surface layer of these soils is very dark gray to
black fine sandy loam 8 to 18 inches thick. It grades
into the subsoil, which is dark-gray to dark grayish-
brown silty clay loam about 24 inches thick. At a depth
of about 36 inches occur layers of dark-gray or very
dark gray silty clay or silt loam with patches of dark-
gray clay or silty clay.
Bayboro soils are most closely associated with Grady
soils. They have a thicker, darker colored surface layer
and a better developed profile than Grady soils, and they
are less stratified. They are also associated with Rut-
lege soils. They are shallower to fine-textured material
than are Rutlege soils.
The native vegetation consists of cypress, water-tol-
erant grasses, and buttonwood. These soils are not im-
portant agriculturally. They are in small areas scattered


throughout the northeastern and east-central parts of
the county. Their acreage is small.
Bayboro fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Bb).-
This is a poorly drained soil that stays wet most of the
time. The major horizons are-
0 to 13 inches, very dark gray, friable fine sandy loam; crumb
structure.
13 to 48 inches, gray to very dark gray, firm silty clay or clay.
The surface layer ranges from dark gray to black in
color and from 7 to 18 inches in thickness. In a few
places the texture ranges from loamy fine sand to clay
loam.
This soil is moderate in natural fertility. It has mod-
erate to high available moisture capacity. Permeability
is moderate in the surface layer and slow to very slow in
the subsoil. Aeration in the subsoil is poor.
The kinds of plants that can grow are limited. Excess
water, which is difficult to remove, is the dominant limi-
tation. A shallow root zone and periodic flooding further
limit the suitability of this soil for cultivation. Under
intensive management, including the use of properly de-
signed water control systems, this soil is well suited to
crops, pasture, and trees. Many areas, however, are too
small, and drainage outlets too difficult to establish, to
justify the cost of proper water control. (Capability unit
IIIws-1; woodland group 9.)

Bladen Series
The soils in this series are poorly drained and strongly
acid. They formed from beds of marine sand and clay,
and they occur on flats and in depressions.
The surface layer of these soils ranges from gray to
very dark gray and is 3 to 6 inches thick. The sub-
soil, which begins at a depth of less than 14 inches, is
brown, yellowish-brown, and gray firm sandy clay.
Bladen soils are closely associated with Grady and
Coxville soils. The clayey subsoil of Bladen soils is more
plastic than that of Grady soils, and it lacks red mottles
like those in the subsoil of Coxville soils.
The vegetation is chiefly wiregrass, carpetgrass, gall-
berry, slash pine, longleaf pine, blackgum, sweetgum,
deerstongue, and an occasional saw-palmetto.
Bladen soils are not extensive in Suwannee County.
They were mapped only with Grady and Coxville soils
as an undifferentiated soil group and with Plummer and
Rains soils, also as an undifferentiated soil group. As
they occur in these groups, they are used as pasture or
as woodland. See Grady, Bladen, and Coxville soils,
page 17.

Blanton Series
The Blanton series consists of deep, light-colored,
sandy soils, principally on gentle slopes, that developed
from thick beds of marine sand very low in silt and clay.
These soils are moderately well drained to excessively
drained.
Their surface layer is light-gray to dark-gray fine sand
3 to 7 inches thick. It grades into the underlying layer
of light-gray to pale-yellow or pale-brown fine sand that
extends to a depth of more than 30 inches. Below that is a
layer, or layers, of finer textured material. In some







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


depth to strata of fine-textured or gravelly material is
more variable in this soil but is usually less than 60 inches.
Because it is steeper, this soil is more susceptible to ero-
sion. It requires more intensive management if cultivated.
(Capability unit IVse-5; woodland group 1.)
Arredondo fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes (ArD).-
This soil occurs as small areas, usually adjacent to sinks
or draws. It has more phosphatic pebbles on the surface
and throughout the profile than does Arredondo fine sand,
0 to 5 percent slopes. Strata of fine-textured or gravelly
material are normally at a depth of 30 to 60 inches. This
soil is well suited to improved pasture and to pine forest.
(Capability unit Vise-2; woodland group 1.)
Arredondo fine sand, moderately shallow, 0 to 5 percent
slopes (AsB).--This soil occurs only as small isolated
areas, most of them in fields of deeper Arredondo soils.
Its uppermost 30 inches is similar to the corresponding
part of Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. But
at a depth between 30 and 42 inches, this soil has a thin
layer of brown, faintly mottled fine sandy loam that
grades into a layer of yellowish-brown, faintly mottled
fine sandy clay loam. This last-mentioned layer extends
to a depth of about 60 inches and grades into a layer of
plastic sandy clay that contains lenses and individual
pebbles of angular, soft, phosphatic sandstone gravel.
This soil has a higher available moisture capacity than
Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and under
similar management it usually produces slightly higher
yields. (Capability unit IIIse-3; woodland group 2.)
Arredondo fine sand, moderately shallow, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes (AsC).-This is not an extensive soil; it occurs
as small isolated areas within larger areas of similar soils.
The surface and subsurface layers of this soil generally are
thinner than those of Arredondo fine sand, moderately
shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes. In some small areas these
layers extend to a depth of less than 30 inches. Because
it is steeper than the shallow phase on slopes of 0 to 5
percent, this soil is more susceptible to erosion. It is
moderately eroded in some places. This soil is well suited
to cultivated crops and to pasture but requires intensive
erosion control practices. (Capability unit IVse-5; wood-
land group 2.)

Bayboro Series
This series consists of deep, strongly acid, very poorly
drained soils that developed from thick beds of acid
marine clay and sandy clay.
The surface layer of these soils is very dark gray to
black fine sandy loam 8 to 18 inches thick. It grades
into the subsoil, which is dark-gray to dark grayish-
brown silty clay loam about 24 inches thick. At a depth
of about 36 inches occur layers of dark-gray or very
dark gray silty clay or silt loam with patches of dark-
gray clay or silty clay.
Bayboro soils are most closely associated with Grady
soils. They have a thicker, darker colored surface layer
and a better developed profile than Grady soils, and they
are less stratified. They are also associated with Rut-
lege soils. They are shallower to fine-textured material
than are Rutlege soils.
The native vegetation consists of cypress, water-tol-
erant grasses, and buttonwood. These soils are not im-
portant agriculturally. They are in small areas scattered


throughout the northeastern and east-central parts of
the county. Their acreage is small.
Bayboro fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Bb).-
This is a poorly drained soil that stays wet most of the
time. The major horizons are-
0 to 13 inches, very dark gray, friable fine sandy loam; crumb
structure.
13 to 48 inches, gray to very dark gray, firm silty clay or clay.
The surface layer ranges from dark gray to black in
color and from 7 to 18 inches in thickness. In a few
places the texture ranges from loamy fine sand to clay
loam.
This soil is moderate in natural fertility. It has mod-
erate to high available moisture capacity. Permeability
is moderate in the surface layer and slow to very slow in
the subsoil. Aeration in the subsoil is poor.
The kinds of plants that can grow are limited. Excess
water, which is difficult to remove, is the dominant limi-
tation. A shallow root zone and periodic flooding further
limit the suitability of this soil for cultivation. Under
intensive management, including the use of properly de-
signed water control systems, this soil is well suited to
crops, pasture, and trees. Many areas, however, are too
small, and drainage outlets too difficult to establish, to
justify the cost of proper water control. (Capability unit
IIIws-1; woodland group 9.)

Bladen Series
The soils in this series are poorly drained and strongly
acid. They formed from beds of marine sand and clay,
and they occur on flats and in depressions.
The surface layer of these soils ranges from gray to
very dark gray and is 3 to 6 inches thick. The sub-
soil, which begins at a depth of less than 14 inches, is
brown, yellowish-brown, and gray firm sandy clay.
Bladen soils are closely associated with Grady and
Coxville soils. The clayey subsoil of Bladen soils is more
plastic than that of Grady soils, and it lacks red mottles
like those in the subsoil of Coxville soils.
The vegetation is chiefly wiregrass, carpetgrass, gall-
berry, slash pine, longleaf pine, blackgum, sweetgum,
deerstongue, and an occasional saw-palmetto.
Bladen soils are not extensive in Suwannee County.
They were mapped only with Grady and Coxville soils
as an undifferentiated soil group and with Plummer and
Rains soils, also as an undifferentiated soil group. As
they occur in these groups, they are used as pasture or
as woodland. See Grady, Bladen, and Coxville soils,
page 17.

Blanton Series
The Blanton series consists of deep, light-colored,
sandy soils, principally on gentle slopes, that developed
from thick beds of marine sand very low in silt and clay.
These soils are moderately well drained to excessively
drained.
Their surface layer is light-gray to dark-gray fine sand
3 to 7 inches thick. It grades into the underlying layer
of light-gray to pale-yellow or pale-brown fine sand that
extends to a depth of more than 30 inches. Below that is a
layer, or layers, of finer textured material. In some







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


depth to strata of fine-textured or gravelly material is
more variable in this soil but is usually less than 60 inches.
Because it is steeper, this soil is more susceptible to ero-
sion. It requires more intensive management if cultivated.
(Capability unit IVse-5; woodland group 1.)
Arredondo fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes (ArD).-
This soil occurs as small areas, usually adjacent to sinks
or draws. It has more phosphatic pebbles on the surface
and throughout the profile than does Arredondo fine sand,
0 to 5 percent slopes. Strata of fine-textured or gravelly
material are normally at a depth of 30 to 60 inches. This
soil is well suited to improved pasture and to pine forest.
(Capability unit Vise-2; woodland group 1.)
Arredondo fine sand, moderately shallow, 0 to 5 percent
slopes (AsB).--This soil occurs only as small isolated
areas, most of them in fields of deeper Arredondo soils.
Its uppermost 30 inches is similar to the corresponding
part of Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. But
at a depth between 30 and 42 inches, this soil has a thin
layer of brown, faintly mottled fine sandy loam that
grades into a layer of yellowish-brown, faintly mottled
fine sandy clay loam. This last-mentioned layer extends
to a depth of about 60 inches and grades into a layer of
plastic sandy clay that contains lenses and individual
pebbles of angular, soft, phosphatic sandstone gravel.
This soil has a higher available moisture capacity than
Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and under
similar management it usually produces slightly higher
yields. (Capability unit IIIse-3; woodland group 2.)
Arredondo fine sand, moderately shallow, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes (AsC).-This is not an extensive soil; it occurs
as small isolated areas within larger areas of similar soils.
The surface and subsurface layers of this soil generally are
thinner than those of Arredondo fine sand, moderately
shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes. In some small areas these
layers extend to a depth of less than 30 inches. Because
it is steeper than the shallow phase on slopes of 0 to 5
percent, this soil is more susceptible to erosion. It is
moderately eroded in some places. This soil is well suited
to cultivated crops and to pasture but requires intensive
erosion control practices. (Capability unit IVse-5; wood-
land group 2.)

Bayboro Series
This series consists of deep, strongly acid, very poorly
drained soils that developed from thick beds of acid
marine clay and sandy clay.
The surface layer of these soils is very dark gray to
black fine sandy loam 8 to 18 inches thick. It grades
into the subsoil, which is dark-gray to dark grayish-
brown silty clay loam about 24 inches thick. At a depth
of about 36 inches occur layers of dark-gray or very
dark gray silty clay or silt loam with patches of dark-
gray clay or silty clay.
Bayboro soils are most closely associated with Grady
soils. They have a thicker, darker colored surface layer
and a better developed profile than Grady soils, and they
are less stratified. They are also associated with Rut-
lege soils. They are shallower to fine-textured material
than are Rutlege soils.
The native vegetation consists of cypress, water-tol-
erant grasses, and buttonwood. These soils are not im-
portant agriculturally. They are in small areas scattered


throughout the northeastern and east-central parts of
the county. Their acreage is small.
Bayboro fine sandy loam (0 to 2 percent slopes) (Bb).-
This is a poorly drained soil that stays wet most of the
time. The major horizons are-
0 to 13 inches, very dark gray, friable fine sandy loam; crumb
structure.
13 to 48 inches, gray to very dark gray, firm silty clay or clay.
The surface layer ranges from dark gray to black in
color and from 7 to 18 inches in thickness. In a few
places the texture ranges from loamy fine sand to clay
loam.
This soil is moderate in natural fertility. It has mod-
erate to high available moisture capacity. Permeability
is moderate in the surface layer and slow to very slow in
the subsoil. Aeration in the subsoil is poor.
The kinds of plants that can grow are limited. Excess
water, which is difficult to remove, is the dominant limi-
tation. A shallow root zone and periodic flooding further
limit the suitability of this soil for cultivation. Under
intensive management, including the use of properly de-
signed water control systems, this soil is well suited to
crops, pasture, and trees. Many areas, however, are too
small, and drainage outlets too difficult to establish, to
justify the cost of proper water control. (Capability unit
IIIws-1; woodland group 9.)

Bladen Series
The soils in this series are poorly drained and strongly
acid. They formed from beds of marine sand and clay,
and they occur on flats and in depressions.
The surface layer of these soils ranges from gray to
very dark gray and is 3 to 6 inches thick. The sub-
soil, which begins at a depth of less than 14 inches, is
brown, yellowish-brown, and gray firm sandy clay.
Bladen soils are closely associated with Grady and
Coxville soils. The clayey subsoil of Bladen soils is more
plastic than that of Grady soils, and it lacks red mottles
like those in the subsoil of Coxville soils.
The vegetation is chiefly wiregrass, carpetgrass, gall-
berry, slash pine, longleaf pine, blackgum, sweetgum,
deerstongue, and an occasional saw-palmetto.
Bladen soils are not extensive in Suwannee County.
They were mapped only with Grady and Coxville soils
as an undifferentiated soil group and with Plummer and
Rains soils, also as an undifferentiated soil group. As
they occur in these groups, they are used as pasture or
as woodland. See Grady, Bladen, and Coxville soils,
page 17.

Blanton Series
The Blanton series consists of deep, light-colored,
sandy soils, principally on gentle slopes, that developed
from thick beds of marine sand very low in silt and clay.
These soils are moderately well drained to excessively
drained.
Their surface layer is light-gray to dark-gray fine sand
3 to 7 inches thick. It grades into the underlying layer
of light-gray to pale-yellow or pale-brown fine sand that
extends to a depth of more than 30 inches. Below that is a
layer, or layers, of finer textured material. In some







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


places, however, the sandy layers extend to a depth of
more than 10 feet.
These soils are strongly acid, low in natural fertility,
and low in organic-matter content.
Blanton soils are closely associated with Lakeland,
Bowie, Susquehanna, Leon, Scranton, and Plummer soils.
They are lighter colored than Lakeland soils and not so
yellow. The uppermost 30 inches of their profile con-
sists of fine sand, whereas Bowie and Susquehanna soils
have fine-textured material at a depth of less than 30
inches. Blanton soils are better drained than Leon,
Scranton, and Plummer soils. They lack an organic pan,
a characteristic of Leon soils, and do not have a thick,
very dark gray surface layer like that of Scranton soils.
The vegetation ranges from scrub oak and wiregrass
to good stands of longleaf pine and slash pine (fig. 2).
Some areas have been cultivated, but now many formerly
cultivated areas have been reforested with slash pine.
Blanton soils are the most extensive in Suwannee
County; they make up more than half the county's acre-
age. A wide band of these soils runs parallel to the
Suwannee River, and other large areas are scattered
throughout the county.
Blanton fine sand, high, 0 to 5 percent slopes (BfB).-
This is a deep, excessively drained, light-colored, sandy
soil on knolls and ridges well above the ground-water
level. The major horizons are-
0 to 3 inches, gray, loose fine sand.
3 to 84 inches, light-gray to very pale brown fine sand.
84 to 116 inches, white fine sand mottled with yellow.
The surface layer is gray or light gray and 3 to 7 inches
thick. The subsurface layers range from pale brown to
white and are several feet thick.
This soil is very strongly acid, low in natural fertility,
and low in organic-matter content. Permeability is
rapid, and the available moisture capacity is low. The
water table is normally at a depth below 48 inches and
does not affect most crops. The soil is in good tilth and
is easily plowed a few hours after intensive rainfall.
This soil is especially well suited to bright tobacco and
to watermelons but poorly suited to peanuts. It is fair
for pine trees. If it is irrigated, fertilized, and otherwise


Figure 2.-Scrub oak and a few scattered pines on Blanton fine
sand, high, 0 to 5 percent slopes.


well managed, it will produce fair to good yields of most
crops, including grass for pasture.
Wind erosion is a hazard in cultivated fields that are
not protected. Water erosion is not a serious hazard.
(Capability unit IIIse-2; woodland group 1.)
Blanton fine sand, high, 5 to 8 percent slopes (BfC).-
In the southern part of the county, most areas of this
soil have about 60 inches of fine sand and do not have a
fine-textured substratum within 60 inches. In the central
part of the county, the underlying fine-textured material
begins at a depth of about 48 inches. Small areas of this
soil are on short slope breaks throughout the county.
Because it was not practical to show them separately
on the map, large areas of the same kind of soil but on
dunelike terrain, in which small areas have slopes of either
more or less than 5 to 8 percent, were mapped with this
soil.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, since it is
very drought and very low in natural fertility. It is
moderately well suited to pasture and to longleaf pine
trees. Few areas have been cleared. Most of the acreage
is covered with scrub oak, wiregrass, and some longleaf
pines. (Capability unit IVse-4; woodland group 1.)
Blanton fine sand, high, 8 to 12 percent slopes (BfD).-
This soil occurs mostly as small areas on short breaks
around lakes and sinks, and along streams. It is not
extensive in the county. Depth to and nature of under-
lying strata are variable. In some areas sand runs
deep, while in others substrata of fine-textured material
or rock begin at a depth of 30 to 42 inches.
Unlike Blanton fine sand, high, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
this soil is poorly suitable for cultivation. It is drought
and very low in natural fertility, and it erodes easily
unless protected. Few areas have been cleared. Most
of the acreage is covered with scrub oak, pine, and wire-
grass. (Capability unit Vise-1; woodland group 1.)
Blanton fine sand, high, 12 to 35 percent slopes (BfE).-
This soil occurs as small areas on steep breaks and es-
carpments around lakes and sinks. Its total acreage-
less than 300 acres-includes all of the areas in the
county that have moderately steep and steep slopes and
good to excessive drainage.
In most places sand extends to a depth of more than
5 feet, but in some places it overlies fine-textured material
or rock within a depth of 5 feet. This soil is not suitable
for cultivation. Most of it is covered with scrub oak,
pine, and wiregrass. (Capability unit VIIse-1; woodland
group 1.)
Blanton fine sand, high, moderately shallow, 0 to 5
percent slopes (BhB).-This is an excessively drained,
light-colored, sandy soil. The major horizons are-
0 to 7 inches, brownish-gray to light brownish-gray, loose fine
sand.
7 to 32 inches, very pale brown, loose fine sand mottled with
white and strong brown.
32 to 51 inches, strong-brown, friable fine sandy loam or fine
sandy clay loam; weak to moderate, angular and subangular
blocky structure.
The surface layer ranges from 3 to 7 inches in thickness
and from gray to brownish gray in color. It overlies
a 2- to 3-foot layer of very pale brown to pale-yellow,
loose fine sand.
This soil is strongly acid, low in natural fertility, and
low in content of organic matter. In the upper part,







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


it is rapidly permeable and has low available moisture
capacity. The finer textured material in the substratum
is moderately permeable and easily penetrated by deep-
rooting plants. Tilth is good, and the soil is easily
cultivated.
This soil is well suited to pasture and to pine trees, and,
although drought and low in natural fertility, it is
moderately well suited to cultivation if properly managed.
Good nii:i;igeminnt practices include (a) crop rotation
to help improve moisture-holding properties and (b)
frequent application of a complete fertilizer.
Much of the acreage is cultivated, and many formerly
cultivated fields are planted to slash pine. (Cpalibilit.
unit IIIse-2; woodland group 1.)
Blanton fine sand, low, 0 to 5 percent slopes (BmB).-
This is a deep, moderately well drained, light-colored,
sandy soil. The major horizons are-
0 to 7 inches, light-gray to dark-gray, loose fine sand.
7 to 28 inches, light-gray to pale-brown, loose fine sand.
28 to 59 inches, light-gray to white, loose fine sand.
59 inches +, yellowish-brown, friable fine sandy clay loam
mottled with gray and red; subangular blocky structure.
The surface laver generally is 3 to 7 inches thick.
It grades into the underlying layers, which are more than
36 inches thick. The soil material at a depth of about
6 feet is fine sandy clay loam or sandy clay mottled
with yellow, brown, red, and dark gray.
This soil has characteristics similar to those of Blan-
ton fine sand, high, 0 to 5 percent slopes, but it is in a
lower position where the water table is nearer the sur-
face. Normally, the water table is between 36 and 60
inches from the surface, but it may rise into the root
zone for a short time in wet seasons.
This soil is well suited to tobacco (fig. 3), corn, water-
melons, and small grain. It is also well suited to pas-
ture and to pine trees. If unprotected, cultivated fields
can be severely eroded by wind. Growing cover crops
in strips will help to reduce wind erosion. Rotating
crops, applying a complete fertilizer, and other manage-
ment practices are needed to help improve the soil.
Much of the acreage has been cleared for cultivation,
and many formerly cultivated fields have been planted
to slash pine. (Capability unit IIIse-4; woodland group
5.)
Blanton fine sand, low, 5 to 8 percent slopes (BmC).-
This soil usually occurs as small isolated areas on short
breaks associated with Blanton fine sand, low, 0 to 5 percent
slopes. In some places the soil is wetter at the bottom
of the slope than at the top because of :-cepage. This
soil is more susceptible to erosion by both wind and water
than Blanton fine sand, low, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and
it is more limited in its capacity for producing crops.
In many cultivated areas, wind and water have removed
much of the original surface soil and have exposed the
lighter colored underlying sand. This soil is well suited
to pasture and to pine trees. (Capability unit IVse-2;
woodland group 5.)
Blanton fine sand, low, 8 to 12 percent slopes (BmD).-
This soil occurs as small areas usually on short slope
breaks near lakes or sinks. The lower part of the break
is wetter than the upper part because of seepage. This
soil is not extensive in the county. It is not used for
cultivated crops; it is either in pasture or in pine trees
and wiregrass. (Capability unit IVse-2; woodland group 5.)


Blanton fine sand, low, moderately shallow, 0 to 5 per-
cent slopes (BnB).-This is a moderately well drained,
light-colored, sandy soil. It occurs as relatively hnr.-,. areas
in the central part of the county. The major horizons
are-
0 to 6 inches, very dark gray to gray, loose fine sand.
6 to 38 inches, grayish-brown, pale-brown, or very pale brown,
loose fine sand.
38 to 54 inches +, yellowish-red fine sandy clay loam mottled
with brown and light gray.
The surface layer is 4 to 7 inches thick. The subsur-
face l;y -r is grayish brown immediately below the surface
layer, but it grades to pale brown or very pale brown,
and it is faintly mottled in the lower part. At a depth
between 30 and 42 inches, it overlies a layer of yellowish-
red, yellow, or brownish-yellow fine sandy 'i1:i~ loam or
fine sandy loam.
This soil is very strongly acid, low in natural fertility,
and medium to low in organic-matter content. The
available moisture capacity is low. The soil is in good
tilth. The subsurface layers are porous; water and air
move rapidly through them down to the water table,
which is normally 30 to 48 inches below the surface. The
water table is high enough to furnish moisture in the
lower part of the root zone.
If properly managed, this soil is well suited to tobacco,
corn, watermelons, small grain, and similar crops. It is
also well suited to pine trees. If unprotected, cultivated
fields are highly susceptible to wind erosion.
Much of the acreage has been cleared for cultivation.
Many formerly cultivated fields have been planted to
slash pine. (Capability unit IIIse-4; woodland group 5.)
Blanton fine sand, low, moderately shallow, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes (BnC).-This soil occurs throughout the cen-
tral part of the county as small areas on short breaks.
It is associated with similar soils on more gentle slopes.
A few areas are eroded. The total acreage is small.
Because slopes are steeper, erosion is a greater hazard on


Figure 3.-Bright tobacco, one of the county's most important
crops, on Blanton fine sand, low, 0 to 5 percent slopes.







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


this soil than on Blanton fine sand, low, moderately
shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Both are suited to the
same crops, but this soil needs more intensive conserva-
tion practices. It is well suited to pasture and to pine
trees. (Capability unit IVse-2; woodland group 5.)
Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna complex, 2 to 5 percent
slopes (BoB).-This soil complex occurs as fairly exten-
sive areas in the gently undulating central part of the
county, where slopes are irregular and wavy. The soils
that make up this complex are so intricately mixed that
they cannot be shown separately on a map of the scale
made to accompany this report. They grade from one to
the other through rather diffuse boundaries. The princi-
pal soils are the Blanton, Bowie, and Susquehanna. In a
representative area, the proportions are roughly 40 per-
cent Blanton fine sand, low; 25 percent Bowie fine sand;
and 20 percent Susquehanna fine sand. The remaining
15 percent consists of small inclusions of several related
soils and intergrades. A few small areas where slopes
are steeper than 5 percent and other small areas where
erosion has exposed the subsoil were mapped with this
complex.
There is no definite stream pattern for surface drainage.
Water moves rapidly through the deep sandy soils into
porous limestone substrata. Permeability in the subsoil
of Bowie and Susquehanna soils is very slow, but excess
rainfall drains rapidly through the numerous sand lenses
and sand-filled sinks on these soils. Some spots in fields,
particularly on the Susquehanna soil, stay wet during
prolonged rainy seasons. Water erosion is only a slight
hazard, but large unprotected fields are very susceptible
to wind erosion.
Originally, these soils were covered with longleaf pine,
oak, and wiregrass. Now, most areas have been cleared,
and the soils are cultivated intensively. The soils re-
spond well to management and are well suited to field
crops commonly grown in the county. They are also
well suited to pasture and to pine trees. (Capability
unit IIIse-4; woodland group 5.)
Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna complex, 5 to 8 percent
slopes (BoC).-This complex occurs as small areas within
areas of Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna complex, 2 to 5
percent slopes. In this complex, however, slopes are
steeper (a few are steeper than 8 percent), more intensive
management practices are needed, and the proportion of
Bowie and Susquehanna soils is usually greater. These
two soils are usually eroded, and their subsurface layers
of loamy sand to sandy clay loam are exposed.
This complex is well suited to pasture and to pine trees.
(Capability unit IVse-2; woodland group 5.)
Blanton-Chiefland fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes
(BtB).-This soil complex consists of deep, light-colored,
excessively drained soils. They were mapped together as
one unit in places where they were so intricately mixed
that it was impractical to separate them on the soil map.
The proportion of each soil is variable, but most areas are
roughly 70 percent Blanton fine sand and 30 percent
Chiefland fine sand. These soils are described separately
under their respective series.
A few small areas, mostly around sinks, that have slopes
steeper than 5 percent were included in mapping this
complex.
Limestone is 3 to 10 feet from the surface of these soils.
The limestone underlying the Chiefland soil is near enough


the surface to affect soil properties. The Blanton soil is
strongly acid to a depth of 48 inches or more.
Natural fertility and the organic-matter content are
low in both soils. Permeability is rapid, and the avail-
able moisture capacity is low. Water erosion is only a
slight hazard, but wind erosion is a severe hazard in un-
protected fields.
If properly managed, these soils are moderately well
suited to most crops grown on general farms. They are
very good soils for peanuts (fig. 4). They are well suited
to pasture and to pine trees. Much of their acreage has
been cultivated, but many formerly cultivated fields have
been planted to slash pine. (Capability unit IIse-3;
woodland group 1.)
Blanton-Chiefland fine sands, 5 to 8 percent slopes
(BtC).-This complex occurs as small areas on short
slope breaks or near sinks and is usually associated with
Blanton-Chiefland fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Depth to underlying limestone or fine-textured material is
variable but usually less than in the more gently sloping
areas. Limestone is at the surface in some places. The total
acreage is small, and most of it is in pine or oak. The
few areas that are cultivated are usually within an area
of the more extensive gently sloping phase. (Capability
unit IVse-5; woodland group 1.)
Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes
(BuB).-This soil complex occurs on gentle slopes on
the flood plains along the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers.
The dominant soil is Blanton fine sand, low, 0 to 5
percent slopes. This soil occurs mainly on low river
terraces and is subject to periodic overflow. It is
described on page 11. The other principal soils in this
complex are Kalmia loamy fine sand and Leaf loamy fine
sand.
The major horizons of Kalmia loamy fine sand, as it
occurs in this complex, are-
0 to 4 inches, gray loamy fine sand.
4 to 9 inches, grayish-brown loamy fine sand.
9 to 14 inches, yellowish-brown fine sandy loam; weak, sub-
angular blocky structure.
14 to 36 inches, yellowish-brown light silty clay loam or
sandy clay loam; subangular blocky structure.
36 to 46 inches, light yellowish-brown sandy loam; weak,
subangular blocky structure.


I, ..-



Figure 4.-Peanuts, and corn in the background, on Blanton-
Chiefland fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Peanuts are particularly
well adapted to these soils.







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


The surface layer ranges from gray to dark gray in
color and from 4 to 7 inches in thickness. The sub-
surface layer is pale brown or grayish brown and 12 to
24 inches thick. The subsoil ranges from sandy loam
to sandy clay loam or silty clay loam in texture and from
12 to 36 inches in thickness.
This soil is on low knolls and is flooded only occasionally,
during unusually high floods.
The major horizons of Leaf loamy fine sand, as it
occurs in this complex, are-
0 to 3 inches, dark-gray loamy fine sand or very fine sandy
loam.
3 to 14 inches, grayish-brown to pale-brown loamy fine sand.
14 to 54 inches, brownish-gray, plastic clay or sandy clay
mottled with red and brown; angular blocky structure.
The surface and subsurface layers range from gray
to dark gray and together are less than 30 inches thick.
The subsoil is clay, sandy clay, or sandy clay loam and
is prominently mottled with gray, red, yellow, and brown.
This soil is well above river level but is flooded every
time the rivers overflow. Surface drainage is ordinarily
good; internal drainage is slow.
Besides the three principal soils, minor inclusions of
Alluvial land and of Swamp and a few areas of soils that
have slopes steeper than 5 percent were included in this
complex.
Vegetation covers almost all of this complex. Mixed
pines, hardwoods, shrubs, vines, and grasses grow on the
Blanton soil. Loblolly pines and undergrowth of saw-
palmetto are on the Kalmia soil. Hardwoods, including
gum, maple, and live oak trees, a few loblolly pines, and
a dense undergrowth of shrubs and vines, are on Leaf
soils.
This complex is poorly suited to cultivation because it
is frequently flooded and is in areas too narrow to justify
major flood control structures. It is well suited to pas-
ture, except when flooded, but at present is best suited
to use as woodland or as habitats for wildlife. (Capa-
bility unit Vws-1; woodland group 6.)
Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex, 0 to 2 percent slopes
(BuA).-Most areas of this complex occupy less than 25
acres, and they are more variable in percentage of the
component soils than are areas of Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf
complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes. Some areas consist
almost entirely of Blanton fine sand, low, and others
of Kalmia loamy fine sand or of Leaf loamy fine sand.
The total acreage is small. Almost all of it is covered
with hardwoods and some pines.
This complex is po-rly suited to cultivation, for it is
subject to flooding. It is best suited for use as woodland.
If provision is made to move the livestock during floods,
it is suitable for use as pasture. (Capability unit Vws-1;
woodland group 6.)

Bowie Series
The Bowie series consists of well-drained, gently slop-
ing soils.
The surface layer of these soils ranges from fine sand
to loamy sand. The subsoil is porous and friable. It
begins at a depth of less than 30 inches and usually is
6 to 24 inches thick. It gradually grades to layers of
compact, slowly permeable, mottled sandy clay loam to
clay.


These soils are strongly acid, low in organic-matter
content, and low in natural fertility. They respond well
to management.
Bowie soils are closely associated with Susquehanna
and Blanton soils. Their friable, yellowish-brown sub-
soil and less prominently mottled substrata distinguish
them from Susquehanna soils, and they do not have deep
sandy layers like Blanton soils do.
The vegetation consists of wiregrass, sedges, carpet-
grass, longleaf pine, dwarf waxmyrtle, sumac, chinqua-
pin, dogfennel, blackberry briers, and bluejack oak. Most
of the acreage has been cleared and is cultivated, is used
as pasture, or has been planted to pine trees.
The largest areas of Bowie soils occur south of Live
Oak in the central part of the county. Smaller areas,
in which Bowie soils are intricately associated with
Blanton and Susquehanna soils, occur over much of the
rest of the county, except along the Suwannee River. In
these small areas, Bowie, Blanton, and Susquehanna soils
were mapped together as a soil complex.
Bowie fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (BvB).-This is
a well-drained soil on uplands. Its major horizons are-
0 to 5 inches, grayish-brown, loose fine sand.
5 to 10 inches, pale-brown, loose fine sand.
10 to 25 inches, yellowish-brown fine sandy loam to fine
sandy clay loam.
25 to 38 inches +, mottled yellowish-brown, gray, and red,
firm, heavy fine sandy clay loam or clay.
The surface layer is loamy fine sand in places. The
subsoil is 6 to 16 inches thick. It is friable fine sandy
loam in the uppermost part and fine sandy clay loam in
the lower part. The layer below the subsoil ranges from
fine sandy clay loam or sandy clay to clay.
Natural fertility is low in this soil. Permeability is
rapid in the surface layer, moderately slow in the subsoil,
and slow below the subsoil. The available moisture
capacity is low to moderate.
This soil retains plant nutrients and responds well to
good management. It produces moderately high yields
of commonly grown crops if it is well managed. It is
well suited to improved pasture and to pine trees.
Wind erosion is a hazard on all unprotected areas;
water erosion is a hazard on the steeper unprotected
areas. (Capability unit IIes-1; woodland group 3.)
Bowie fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (BvC).-This
soil occurs mostly as small areas on short slope breaks.
Its total acreage is small. Because erosion has removed
some of the surface soil, its surface layer normally is
thinner than that of Bowie fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
In a few small areas, erosion has removed most of the
surface layer.
This soil is well suited to many crops, but it requires
more intensive management than do similar soils on more
gentle slopes. It is also well suited to pasture and to pine
trees. (Capability unit IIIes-1; woodland group 3.)
Bowie fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes
(BwB).-This is a well-drained soil on uplands. The
major horizons (fig. 5) are-
0 to 6 inches, gray, loose fine sand.
6 to 19 inches, very pale brown to yellow, loose fine sand.
19 to 32 inches, yellow to yellowish-brown, friable fine sandy
loam and fine sandy clay loam.
32 to 82 inches, mottled brown, yellow, gray, and red, firm
clay.






SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


Figure 5.-Profile of Bowie fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. The surface horizon (first white mark) is 20 inches
thick, and the subsoil (second white mark) is also 20 inches
thick. Below the subsoil are layers of mottled clay.

The subsoil is 10 to 18 inches thick. It is yellow, friable
fine sandy loam in the upper part and yellowish-brown,
friable fine sandy clay loam in the lower part.
Natural fertility and the organic-matter content are
low in this soil. The available moisture capacity is
moderate. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer,
moderately slow in the subsoil, and slow below the subsoil.
This soil is in good tilth and responds well to manage-
ment. It is well suited to cultivated crops, improved
pasture, and pine trees.
Wind erosion is a hazard on all unprotected areas, and
water erosion is a hazard on the steeper unprotected
areas. (Capability unit IIes-1; woodland group 3.)


Bowie fine sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes
(BwC).-This soil occurs as small areas on short slope
breaks. The total acreage is small. This soil is more
susceptible to water erosion than Bowie fine sand, thick
surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes. It is well suited to culti-
vated crops but requires intensive management. It is
also well suited to pasture and to pine trees. (Capability
unit Illes-1; woodland group 3.)
Bowie-Blanton complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes (BxB).-
This complex occurs in all sections of the county except
the northeastern and extreme southern parts and the areas
of deep sand that parallel the Suwannee River. The
acreage is extensive.
The soils in this complex are deep, sandy, gently slop-
ing, and well drained to moderately well drained. Their
surface laver varies widely in thickness over short dis-
tances. In places it is 18 inches thick and overlies a
yellowish-brown, friable, loamy subsoil. In other places
it extends below 18 inches and as deep as 42 inches. In
still other places it is fine sand to undetermined depths.
A representative area generally is made up of about 55
percent Bowie fine sand and Bowie fine sand, thick sur-
face; about 40 percent Blanton fine sand, low, and Blanton
fine sand, low, moderately shallow; and 5 percent minor
inclusions of a number of different kinds of soils. In
fringe areas adjacent to deep sands, the percentage of
Blanton soils increases. In those areas adjoining larger
areas of Bowie soils, the percentage of Bowie soils in-
creases. The principal soils in this complex are described
individually under their respective series.
Small barren spots of deep, nearly white sand, which
are known locally as sand soaks, lightning struck spots,
or dead spots, were mapped with this complex.
The soils respond well to management. They are well
suited to improved pasture and to pine trees. Large
areas are used for growing crops adapted to the county.
Yields are moderate. (Capability unit IIes-1; woodland
group 3.)
Bowie-Blanton complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes (BxC).-
This complex usually occurs as small areas on short breaks
within areas of Bowie-Blanton complex, 2 to 5 percent
slopes. Runoff in unprotected areas is more rapid in
this complex than in those in the less sloping complex,
and cultivated fields require more intensive management.
In some places slopes are steeper than 8 percent, and
in others erosion has removed the surface soil and exposed
the subsoil.
This complex is best suited to pasture and to pine trees.
(Capability unit IIIes-1; woodland group 3.)

Chiefland Series
The soils in this series are well-drained to somewhat
excessively drained, deep sands that are nearly level or
gently sloping for the most part and sloping in a few
small areas.
The surface layer of these soils is gray to dark-gray
fine sand 4 to 7 inches thick. It overhes a layer of fine
sand that is pale brown or very pale brown in the upper
part, lighter colored with depth, and nearly white in the
lower part. The sandy material normally extends to a
depth of 30 to 42 inches, but in some places the finer
textured material or the limestone that underlies the
sandy material is only 20 to 30 inches from the surface.







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


Chiefland soils are closely associated with Jonesville,
Archer, Susquehamna, Hernando, and Blanton soils. They
have a lighter colored subsurface layer than Jonesville
soils. They differ from Archer, Susquehanna, and Her-
nando soils in lacking a finer textured laver, or in hav-
ing only a thin one just above the limestone. Their sub-
surface layer is lighter colored than that of these soils
also. They are less acid than Blanton soils and are un-
derlain by limestone.
The vegetation consists of bluejack, post, red, turkey,
live, and water oaks, longleaf pine, partridgepea, wire-
grass, chinquapin, and an occasional saw-palmetto. Most
of the acreage, which occurs in the southern part of the
county, has been cleared and is used as pasture, or is cul-
tivated, or is planted to pine trees.
Chiefland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (ChB).-
This is a deep, well-drained, sandy soil. The major
horizons are-
0 to 7 inches, gray, loose fine sand; many clean sand grains.
7 to 36 inches, light-gray to very pale brown, loose fine sand.
36 to 39 inches, yellowish-brown, friable fine sandy loam.
39 inches +, soft limestone.
The surface layer ranges from gray to dark 'ra y in
color and from 4 to 8 inches in thickness. In places the
thin layer of yellowish-brown fine sandy loam is absent
and the layers of fine sand are directly over the limestone.
The reaction of this soil is strongly acid to within a
few inches of the finer textured layer or the limestone.
At this depth it is slightly acid to neutral. The soil is
low in natural fertility and in organic-matter content.
Its available moisture capacity is low. Water moves
rapidly thlrouIgh it and readily leaches plant nutrients.
This soil is easily plowed, even a few hours after a
heavy rain. It has a deep root zone. It is well suited
to peanuts and moderately well suited to the general
farm crops and to the deep-rooted grasses commonly
grown for improved pastures. Good management prac-
tices, including proper fertilization, are needed to obtain
maximum yields. (Capability unit IIIse-3; woodland
group 1.)
Chiefland fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (ChC).-
This soil is more susceptible to erosion than Chiefland
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Limestone is at the
surface in a few places, and shallow gullies have formed
in other places. Because of the erosion hazard, cultivated
crops should be grown only occasionally. This soil is
best suited to deep-rooted grasses for improved pasture.
(Capability unit IVse-5; woodland group 1.)

Coxville Series
The Coxville series consists of poorly drained, strongly
acid soils that formed principally from beds of clayey
material. These soils occur on nearly level, broad flats.
The surface layer is dark-gray to very dark gray loamy
fine sand only a few inches thick. The subsoil is gray
clay or fine sandy clay 4 to 8 inches thick. It begins at
a depth of about 18 inches.
Coxville soils are closely associated with Grady and
Bladen soils. They have a more plastic subsoil than
Grady soils, and they occur on broad flats rather than
in small depressions or "pot holes" like Grady soils.
Their profile has more red color than that of Bladen
soils.


In Suwannee County, Coxville soils were not mapped
separately. They were combined with Grady and Bladen
soils and mapped as an uniIIirll -rniii imte unit.
Coxville soils are well suited to pasture and to woodland
and are presently used for these purposes. See Grady,
Bladen, and Coxville soils, page 17.

Fellowship Series
The Fellowship series consists of moderately well
drained to somewhat poorly drained soils of the Central
Florida Ridge.
These soils have a surface laver of black to very dark
gray loamy line sand 7 to 14 inches thick. Their subsoil
is dark-gray to gray, slowly permeable fine sandy clay
loam. It overlies layers of mottled gray, slowly per-
meable sandy clay to clay. Small phosphatic pebbles
usually are noticeable in all layers. Gravelly or stony
outcrops are common.
Fellowship soils are associated with Arredondo.
Gainesville, and Kanapaha soils. They are more poorly
drained than Arredondo and Gainesville soils, and they
have a darker gray surface layer and a less deep, finer
textured subsoil. Their subsoil is less deep than that of
Kanapaha soils also.
The original vegetation was mostly oak and hickory
trees, with some slash and loblolly pines. Most of the
:,rI'age has been cleared. The steeper slopes are still cov-
ered with vegetation, chiefly sweetgum, hickory, pine,
myrtle, and wiregrass. A few areas are in pasture. Only
the more gentle slopes are cultivated. These soils erode
rapidly if not well protected.
The acreage of Fellowship soils in Suwannee County
is small. Most of the areas are in the northern part but
a few small ones are in the central part.
Fellowship loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
(FfC).-This is a moderately well drained to somewhat
poorly drained soil on hillsides. Its major horizons are-
0 to 14 inches, very dark gray to black, very friable loamy
fine sand to fine sandy loam.
14 to 20 inches, dark-gray, firm fine sandy clay loam.
20 to 36 inches +, gray, plastic, very firm fine sandy clay
mottled with yellowish brown.
The surface layer is black in undisturbed areas and
dark gray in cultivated fields. It is predominantly
loamy fine sand but in some places is finer textured.
The subsoil ranges from heavy fine sandy clay loam to
clay in texture and from 4 to 12 inches in thickness.
The layer below the subsoil normally is plastic, firm clay
but in a few places it is fine sandy loam or fine sandy
clay loam. Fragments of soft phosphatic or ferruginous
sandstone are visible on the surface and throughout the
profile.
The reaction of this soil is medium acid. Natural
fertility is high, and the organic-matter content is mod-
erate. Permeability is slow, and the available moisture
capacity is high. The sticky subsoil expands and shrinks
considerably with a change in moisture content. The
surface layer is in good tilth.
This soil is well suited to improved permanent pasture
and to pine trees. It can be cultivated only occasionally,
even under good management, because erosion is a serious
hazard. Because it is slowly permeable and has high
shrink-swell properties, this soil makes a poor foundation







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


Chiefland soils are closely associated with Jonesville,
Archer, Susquehamna, Hernando, and Blanton soils. They
have a lighter colored subsurface layer than Jonesville
soils. They differ from Archer, Susquehanna, and Her-
nando soils in lacking a finer textured laver, or in hav-
ing only a thin one just above the limestone. Their sub-
surface layer is lighter colored than that of these soils
also. They are less acid than Blanton soils and are un-
derlain by limestone.
The vegetation consists of bluejack, post, red, turkey,
live, and water oaks, longleaf pine, partridgepea, wire-
grass, chinquapin, and an occasional saw-palmetto. Most
of the acreage, which occurs in the southern part of the
county, has been cleared and is used as pasture, or is cul-
tivated, or is planted to pine trees.
Chiefland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (ChB).-
This is a deep, well-drained, sandy soil. The major
horizons are-
0 to 7 inches, gray, loose fine sand; many clean sand grains.
7 to 36 inches, light-gray to very pale brown, loose fine sand.
36 to 39 inches, yellowish-brown, friable fine sandy loam.
39 inches +, soft limestone.
The surface layer ranges from gray to dark 'ra y in
color and from 4 to 8 inches in thickness. In places the
thin layer of yellowish-brown fine sandy loam is absent
and the layers of fine sand are directly over the limestone.
The reaction of this soil is strongly acid to within a
few inches of the finer textured layer or the limestone.
At this depth it is slightly acid to neutral. The soil is
low in natural fertility and in organic-matter content.
Its available moisture capacity is low. Water moves
rapidly thlrouIgh it and readily leaches plant nutrients.
This soil is easily plowed, even a few hours after a
heavy rain. It has a deep root zone. It is well suited
to peanuts and moderately well suited to the general
farm crops and to the deep-rooted grasses commonly
grown for improved pastures. Good management prac-
tices, including proper fertilization, are needed to obtain
maximum yields. (Capability unit IIIse-3; woodland
group 1.)
Chiefland fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (ChC).-
This soil is more susceptible to erosion than Chiefland
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Limestone is at the
surface in a few places, and shallow gullies have formed
in other places. Because of the erosion hazard, cultivated
crops should be grown only occasionally. This soil is
best suited to deep-rooted grasses for improved pasture.
(Capability unit IVse-5; woodland group 1.)

Coxville Series
The Coxville series consists of poorly drained, strongly
acid soils that formed principally from beds of clayey
material. These soils occur on nearly level, broad flats.
The surface layer is dark-gray to very dark gray loamy
fine sand only a few inches thick. The subsoil is gray
clay or fine sandy clay 4 to 8 inches thick. It begins at
a depth of about 18 inches.
Coxville soils are closely associated with Grady and
Bladen soils. They have a more plastic subsoil than
Grady soils, and they occur on broad flats rather than
in small depressions or "pot holes" like Grady soils.
Their profile has more red color than that of Bladen
soils.


In Suwannee County, Coxville soils were not mapped
separately. They were combined with Grady and Bladen
soils and mapped as an uniIIirll -rniii imte unit.
Coxville soils are well suited to pasture and to woodland
and are presently used for these purposes. See Grady,
Bladen, and Coxville soils, page 17.

Fellowship Series
The Fellowship series consists of moderately well
drained to somewhat poorly drained soils of the Central
Florida Ridge.
These soils have a surface laver of black to very dark
gray loamy line sand 7 to 14 inches thick. Their subsoil
is dark-gray to gray, slowly permeable fine sandy clay
loam. It overlies layers of mottled gray, slowly per-
meable sandy clay to clay. Small phosphatic pebbles
usually are noticeable in all layers. Gravelly or stony
outcrops are common.
Fellowship soils are associated with Arredondo.
Gainesville, and Kanapaha soils. They are more poorly
drained than Arredondo and Gainesville soils, and they
have a darker gray surface layer and a less deep, finer
textured subsoil. Their subsoil is less deep than that of
Kanapaha soils also.
The original vegetation was mostly oak and hickory
trees, with some slash and loblolly pines. Most of the
:,rI'age has been cleared. The steeper slopes are still cov-
ered with vegetation, chiefly sweetgum, hickory, pine,
myrtle, and wiregrass. A few areas are in pasture. Only
the more gentle slopes are cultivated. These soils erode
rapidly if not well protected.
The acreage of Fellowship soils in Suwannee County
is small. Most of the areas are in the northern part but
a few small ones are in the central part.
Fellowship loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
(FfC).-This is a moderately well drained to somewhat
poorly drained soil on hillsides. Its major horizons are-
0 to 14 inches, very dark gray to black, very friable loamy
fine sand to fine sandy loam.
14 to 20 inches, dark-gray, firm fine sandy clay loam.
20 to 36 inches +, gray, plastic, very firm fine sandy clay
mottled with yellowish brown.
The surface layer is black in undisturbed areas and
dark gray in cultivated fields. It is predominantly
loamy fine sand but in some places is finer textured.
The subsoil ranges from heavy fine sandy clay loam to
clay in texture and from 4 to 12 inches in thickness.
The layer below the subsoil normally is plastic, firm clay
but in a few places it is fine sandy loam or fine sandy
clay loam. Fragments of soft phosphatic or ferruginous
sandstone are visible on the surface and throughout the
profile.
The reaction of this soil is medium acid. Natural
fertility is high, and the organic-matter content is mod-
erate. Permeability is slow, and the available moisture
capacity is high. The sticky subsoil expands and shrinks
considerably with a change in moisture content. The
surface layer is in good tilth.
This soil is well suited to improved permanent pasture
and to pine trees. It can be cultivated only occasionally,
even under good management, because erosion is a serious
hazard. Because it is slowly permeable and has high
shrink-swell properties, this soil makes a poor foundation







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, XO. 21


for roads and buildings and an unsuitable disposal field
for septic tanks. (Capability unit IVe-1; woodland
group 7.)
Fellowship loamy line sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
(FfB).-The surface layer of this soil is thicker than that of
Fellowship loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. The
subsoil, also, is usually thicker and is more uniformly
developed. This soil has fewer phosphatic pebbles
throughout its profile. It is less susceptible to erosion,
since it is more gently sloping. Some small areas, how-
ever, are moderately eroded. In these, the surface layer
is thinner than in uneroded areas. In a few small places,
tile slope is less than 2 percent.
This soil is well suited to cultivated crops and to pasture.
When properly managed, it is one of the most productive
upland soils in the county. (Capability unit IIIsw-2;
woodland group 7.)
Fellowship loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes
(FfD).-The surface layer of this soil is only 6 to 10 inches
thick in most places. It is thinner than that of Fellowship
loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. The subsoil also is
thinner and in some places is almost nonexistent. This soil
is more readily eroded than the gently sloping one, because
runoff is more rapid.
In some small areas, very slowly permeable substrata are
near the surface. Small, very gravelly areas and areas
affected by seepage are common in a few places.
This soil is too strongly sloping to be cultivated safely; it
should be kept under some kind of permanent vegetation.
It is well suited to pasture and to pine trees. (Capability
unit VIe-1; woodland group 7.)

Fort Meade Series
The soils in this series are gently sloping to sloping,
deep, sandy, well drained, and strongly acid. They have
a 10- to 30-inch surface layer of black to very dark gray
loamy fine sand. This overlies a layer of brown or very
pale brown fine sand that extends to a delth of 42 inches
or more. Weathered phosphatic pebbles are common on
the surface and throughout the profile (fig. 6).
Fort Meade soils are closely associated with Arredondo,
Gainesville, Kanapaha, Fellowship, and Zuber soils. They
have a thicker and darker surface layer than Arredond(o,
Gainesville, and Kanapaha soils; and generally the phos-
phatic influence is stronger in the Fort Meade soils. They
are more yellow or brown and less gray in the subsur-
face layer than Kanapaha soils. They do not have a
fine-textured subsoil like that of Fellowship and Zuber
soils.
Fort Meade soils are not extensive in Suwannee
County. Their largest area is northeast of McAlpin in
the south-central part of the county. Most of the acreage
is in forest. The vegetation consists of wiregrass, sedges,
pine, persimmon, waxmyrtle, and sumac.
Fort Meade loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
(FmC).-This is a sloping, well-drained soil. Its major
horizons are-
0 to 30 inches, very (lark gray, very friable loamy fine sand: few
phosphatic sandstone pebbles.
30 to 49 inches, brown to very pale brown, loose loamy fine
sand or fine sand; many phosphatic sandstone pebbles.
49 to 72 inches, light-gray, friable fine sandy loam mottle( with
yellow, yellowish brown, and strong brown; many phosphatic
sandstone pebbles.


Figure 6.-Fort Meade loamy fine sand. Phosphatic pebbles are
common on the surface and throughout the profile. This soil is
underlain by gravelly phosphatic sandstone. Zuber, Kanapaha,
Arredondo, and Gainesville soils also are underlain by this material.
The surface layer ranges from black to very dark gray
when wet; it is 10 to 30 inches thick. The layer of finer
textured material (sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy
clay loam) begins at a depth of 42 to 60 inches.
A few small areas where slopes are less than 5 percent
were mapped with this soil.
The surface layer is extremely acid, and the clayey
substrata are strongly acid. This soil is medium in
natural fertility and in organic-matter content. It is
rapidly permeable throughout. If well managed, it is
suited to cultivated crops, pasture, and trees. (Capability
unit IVse-1; woodland group 1.)

Gainesville Series
The Gainesville series consists of gently sloping to
sloping, coarse-textured soils that are medium acid, well
drained, and influenced by phosphatic material.
The surface layer of these soils is (lark grayish-brown
loamy fine sand 4 to 7 inches thick. It overlies layers of
strong-brown to reddish-brown loamy fine sand that may
extend to a depth of several feet. In some places, how-
ever, they extend to only 30 to 42 inches from the sur-
face. Pliosphatic pebbles are common on the surface and
throughout the profile.
Gainesville soils are closely associated with Arredondo,
Fort Meade, and Zuber soils. They differ from Arre-
dondo soils chiefly in having a browner or more reddish-
brown subsurface layer. Also, their subsurface layer is
not the same color as that of Fort Meade soils. Their
sandy surface layer is thicker than that of Zuber soils.
The acreage of Gainesville soils is small in Suwannee
County; most of it is in the northern and northeastern
parts, and nearly all of it is cultivated.
Gainesville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
(GaB).-This is a well-drained, dark-surfaced, upland soil
influenced by phosphatic material. The major horizons
are-







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, XO. 21


for roads and buildings and an unsuitable disposal field
for septic tanks. (Capability unit IVe-1; woodland
group 7.)
Fellowship loamy line sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
(FfB).-The surface layer of this soil is thicker than that of
Fellowship loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. The
subsoil, also, is usually thicker and is more uniformly
developed. This soil has fewer phosphatic pebbles
throughout its profile. It is less susceptible to erosion,
since it is more gently sloping. Some small areas, how-
ever, are moderately eroded. In these, the surface layer
is thinner than in uneroded areas. In a few small places,
tile slope is less than 2 percent.
This soil is well suited to cultivated crops and to pasture.
When properly managed, it is one of the most productive
upland soils in the county. (Capability unit IIIsw-2;
woodland group 7.)
Fellowship loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes
(FfD).-The surface layer of this soil is only 6 to 10 inches
thick in most places. It is thinner than that of Fellowship
loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. The subsoil also is
thinner and in some places is almost nonexistent. This soil
is more readily eroded than the gently sloping one, because
runoff is more rapid.
In some small areas, very slowly permeable substrata are
near the surface. Small, very gravelly areas and areas
affected by seepage are common in a few places.
This soil is too strongly sloping to be cultivated safely; it
should be kept under some kind of permanent vegetation.
It is well suited to pasture and to pine trees. (Capability
unit VIe-1; woodland group 7.)

Fort Meade Series
The soils in this series are gently sloping to sloping,
deep, sandy, well drained, and strongly acid. They have
a 10- to 30-inch surface layer of black to very dark gray
loamy fine sand. This overlies a layer of brown or very
pale brown fine sand that extends to a delth of 42 inches
or more. Weathered phosphatic pebbles are common on
the surface and throughout the profile (fig. 6).
Fort Meade soils are closely associated with Arredondo,
Gainesville, Kanapaha, Fellowship, and Zuber soils. They
have a thicker and darker surface layer than Arredond(o,
Gainesville, and Kanapaha soils; and generally the phos-
phatic influence is stronger in the Fort Meade soils. They
are more yellow or brown and less gray in the subsur-
face layer than Kanapaha soils. They do not have a
fine-textured subsoil like that of Fellowship and Zuber
soils.
Fort Meade soils are not extensive in Suwannee
County. Their largest area is northeast of McAlpin in
the south-central part of the county. Most of the acreage
is in forest. The vegetation consists of wiregrass, sedges,
pine, persimmon, waxmyrtle, and sumac.
Fort Meade loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
(FmC).-This is a sloping, well-drained soil. Its major
horizons are-
0 to 30 inches, very (lark gray, very friable loamy fine sand: few
phosphatic sandstone pebbles.
30 to 49 inches, brown to very pale brown, loose loamy fine
sand or fine sand; many phosphatic sandstone pebbles.
49 to 72 inches, light-gray, friable fine sandy loam mottle( with
yellow, yellowish brown, and strong brown; many phosphatic
sandstone pebbles.


Figure 6.-Fort Meade loamy fine sand. Phosphatic pebbles are
common on the surface and throughout the profile. This soil is
underlain by gravelly phosphatic sandstone. Zuber, Kanapaha,
Arredondo, and Gainesville soils also are underlain by this material.
The surface layer ranges from black to very dark gray
when wet; it is 10 to 30 inches thick. The layer of finer
textured material (sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy
clay loam) begins at a depth of 42 to 60 inches.
A few small areas where slopes are less than 5 percent
were mapped with this soil.
The surface layer is extremely acid, and the clayey
substrata are strongly acid. This soil is medium in
natural fertility and in organic-matter content. It is
rapidly permeable throughout. If well managed, it is
suited to cultivated crops, pasture, and trees. (Capability
unit IVse-1; woodland group 1.)

Gainesville Series
The Gainesville series consists of gently sloping to
sloping, coarse-textured soils that are medium acid, well
drained, and influenced by phosphatic material.
The surface layer of these soils is (lark grayish-brown
loamy fine sand 4 to 7 inches thick. It overlies layers of
strong-brown to reddish-brown loamy fine sand that may
extend to a depth of several feet. In some places, how-
ever, they extend to only 30 to 42 inches from the sur-
face. Pliosphatic pebbles are common on the surface and
throughout the profile.
Gainesville soils are closely associated with Arredondo,
Fort Meade, and Zuber soils. They differ from Arre-
dondo soils chiefly in having a browner or more reddish-
brown subsurface layer. Also, their subsurface layer is
not the same color as that of Fort Meade soils. Their
sandy surface layer is thicker than that of Zuber soils.
The acreage of Gainesville soils is small in Suwannee
County; most of it is in the northern and northeastern
parts, and nearly all of it is cultivated.
Gainesville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
(GaB).-This is a well-drained, dark-surfaced, upland soil
influenced by phosphatic material. The major horizons
are-







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


0 to 7 inches, very dark grayish-brown, loose loamy fine sand.
7 to 69 inches, brown, very friable loamy fine sand.
The surface layer is dark grayish brown or very dark
grayish brown. It generally is 4 to 7 inches thick but in
places is thicker than 7 inches. It overlies layers of
s:rong-brown, brown, or dark-brown loamy fine sand 30 to
more than 60 inches thick. Small, soft, phosphatic sand-
stone pebbles are scattered throughout the profile. These
pebbles are more numerous in some places than in others.
Natural fertility is moderate in this soil, and the organic-
matter content is medium. The available moisture capac-
ity is moderate. This soil is porous; water and air move
rapidly through it.
If properly managed, this soil is well suited to cultivated
crops, to improved pasture, and to pine trees. Wind
erosion is a hazard in unprotected areas. (Capability
unit IIIse-1; woodland group 1.)
Gainesville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
(GaC).-This soil occurs mostly as small areas associated
with Gainesville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Its total extent is about 164 acres. It is more susceptible
to erosion than the less steep soil, and generally its sur-
face layer is not so thick. In some places this soil is
moderately eroded, and in some it is steeper than 8 per-
cent. Clayey layers are at a depth of 30 to 42 inches in
some areas.
The severe hazard of erosion limits the suitability of
this soil for cultivation. Pasture or pine trees are best
suited. (Capability unit IVse-1; woodland group 1.)
Gainesville loamy fine sand, moderately shallow, 0 to
5 percent slopes (GfB).-This is a well-drained, dark-
surfaced, upland soil influenced by phosphatic material.
The major horizons are-
0 to 7 inches, very dark grayish-brown, loose loamy fine sand.
7 to 36 inches, brown, very friable loamy fine sand.
36 to 58 inches +, strong-brown, friable fine sandy loam and
fine sandy clay loam.
The surface layer ranges from very dark brown to dark
grayish brown. It is 4 to 7 inches thick in most places
but is thicker than 7 inches in a few places. The depth
to the layers of fine sandy loam and fine sandy clay loam
ranges from 30 to 42 inches. A variable number of small,
soft, phosphatic sandstone pebbles is scattered throughout
the profile.
Natural fertility and the organic-matter content are
moderate in this soil. The available moisture capacity is
moderate. This soil is porous; water and air move
rapidly through it.
If properly managed, this soil is well suited to cultivated
crops, to improved pasture, and to pine trees. Wind and
water erosion are hazards in unprotected areas. (Capa-
bility unit IIIse-1; woodland group 1.)

Grady Series
The Grady series consists of poorly drained to very
poorly drained, strongly acid soils that formed in marine
sand and clay sediments. These soils occur on flats, in
small ponds, or in depressions, some of which are par-
tially filled-in lime sinks.
These soils have a gray to very dark gray surface
layer 3 to 7 inches thick. This layer grades to a dark-gray
or very dark grayish-brown subsoil. Normally, the thick-
ness of the fine-textured subsoil is less than 18 inches, but


it is as much as 30 inches in places. Below the subsoil are
layers of gray clay with red and yellowish-brown mottles.
Limestone material generally is at too great a depth to
affect acidity in the overlying layers.
Grady soils are associated with Bowie, Blanton, and
Susquehanna soils. They are shallower to fine-textured
material than Blanton soils; they have a grayer subsoil
than Bowie and Susquehanna soils; and they are more
poorly drained than any of these associated soils.
The vegetation is chiefly water oak, live oak, chestnut
oak, sweetgum, blackgum, hickory, and loblolly pine.
Grady soils occur as numerous small areas scattered
throughout the county. Their acreage is small and most
of it is used as woodland or as pasture.
Grady fine sandy loam, thick surface (G r).-This is a
poorly drained to very poorly drained upland soil on
small flats, in ponds, or in depressions. The major
horizons are-
0 to 7 inches, very dark gray, very friable fine sandy loam.
7 to 20 inches, dark-gray, very friable fine sandy loam splotched
with light gray.
20 to 27 inches, gray, firm fine sandy clay loam splotched with
light yellowish brown.
27 to 42 inches +, gray, very firm clay mottled with yellowish
brown and red.
The surface layer ranges from gray to very dark gray
in color and from 3 to 7 inches in thickness. In a few
small areas, however, it is black and 7 to 20 inches thick.
The subsurface layer ranges from gray to dark gray in
color and from 7 to 20 inches in thickness. The subsoil
ranges from firm sandy clay loam to very firm clay and
is mottled with gray, brown, and red.
This soil is wet and has a high available moisture
capacity. It is very strongly acid, low to medium in
organic-matter content, and medium in natural fertility.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, because
it contains excess water that is difficult to remove, is
flooded periodically, and has a slowly permeable subsoil.
It is moderately well suited to grasses and clovers for
pasture and to pine trees. (Capability unit Vws-1; wood-
land group 9.)
Grady, Bladen, and Coxville soils (Gx).-The soils
that make up this undifferentiated soil group are Grady
fine sandy loam, Bladen fine sandy loam, and Coxville
loamy fine sand. These are poorly drained and very
poorly drained upland soils on flats, in small shallow ponds,
and in depressions. The areas of the individual soils are
small, and the total acreage of the group is small. Bladen
and Coxville soils were not mapped separately in Suwannee
County.
The dominant soil is Grady fine sandy loam. Its major
horizons are-
0 to 7 inches, very dark gray fine sandy loam.
7 to 14 inches, dark-gray or very dark grayish-brown heavy
fine sandy clay loam mottled with red and yvllowish brown.
14 to 54 inches +, gray, very firm clay mottled with red, yellow,
and brown.
The major horizons of Bladen fine sandy loam are--
0 to 5 inches, dark-gray fine sandy loam.
5 to 13 inches, light brownish-gray fine sandy loam; weak,
medium, crumb structure.
13 to 24 inches, brown and yellowish-brown sandy clay mottled
with gray; medium, angular blocky structure.
24 to 48 inches, gray to light-gray, firm clay mottled with
brownish yellow and red; medium, angular blocky structure.







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


The major horizons of Coxville loamy fine sand are-
0 to 2 inches, dark-gray and very dark gray loamy fine sand
or very fine sand.
2 to 9 inches, gray to grayish-brown loamy fine sand or very
fine sand.
9 to 13 inches, gray fine sandy clay or clay with strong-brown
and olive-brown mottles; medium, angular blocky struc-
ture.
13 to 58 inches, gray clay with fine, red mottles; fine, sub-
angular blocky structure.
The surface layer of the soils that make up this group
varies in texture and color over short distances. It ranges
from 3 to 7 inches in thickness, and the layer directly
under it, from 1 to 6 inches. The color of the subsoil
ranges from dark gray to yellowish brown mottled with
yellow, brown, and gray; the texture, from heavy sandy
clay loam to clay; and the thickness, from 4 to 12 inches.
Active lime sinks occur in a few places.
Grady fine sandy loam is very strongly acid, low to
medium in organic-matter content, and medium in nat-
ural fertility. It is wet, plastic, and slowly permeable,
and it has high available moisture capacity.
Bladen fine sandy loam and Coxville loamy fine sand
are more uniform than Grady fine sandy loam, and they
occur in lightly higher areas. The subsoil of the Cox-
ville soil is more yellow and brown and more plastic than
that of the Grady soil. The subsoil of the Bladen soil
also is more plastic than that of the Grady soil.
This group of soils is poorly suited to cultivated crops
because of excess water, which, in most instances, can be
removed only through underground channels. These
soils are well suited to pasture grasses and clovers and,
except in the lowest areas where "drowning out" often
happens, are suited to pine trees. (Capability unit Vws-
1; woodland group 9.)

Hernando Series
The Hernando series consists of well drained to mod-
erately well drained, slightly acid soils. They are mostly
very gently sloping but are steeper in places. Their sur-
face is undulating, which is typical of soils that are un-
derlain by limestone. Surface water drains through the
soil into the porous limestone.
The surface layer of Hernando soils is dark-gray to
grayish-brown fine sand 3 to 6 inches thick. It overlies
a layer of pale-brown fine sand that ranges from 12 to
24 inches in thickness. The subsoil is faintly to prom-
inently mottled, yellowish-brown fine sandy clay or sandy
clay loam. Depth to the subsoil varies over short dis-
tances, but usually it is between 12 and 30 inches. Soft
to hard limestone is at a depth of 3 to 6 feet. In some
small areas there are sinks filled with sand; these are of
fairly uniform texture from the surface down to the
limestone material.
Hernando soils are closely associated with Archer, Sus-
quehanna, Chiefland, Lakeland, and Blanton soils. They
are less red than Archer soils, and usually their sub-
soil is sandier. They are less acid than Susquehanna
soils, have a sandier subsoil, and are underlain by lime-
stone. The surface layer of Hernando soils is thinner
than that of Lakeland, Chiefland, and Blanton soils.
The vegetation is longleaf pine, live oak, and bluejack
oak and an undergrowth of wiregrass and sedges. Most


of the acreage has been cleared and is cultivated. Some
areas are in pasture or have been planted to slash pine.
Hernando soils occur in the southern part of the county.
Hernando fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (HdB).-
This moderately deep soil ifig 7) is well drained to moder-
ately well drained. Its major horizons are-
0 to 3 inches, dark-gray, loose fine sand.
3 to 12 inches, brown, loose fine sand.
12 to 24 inches, yellowish-brown fine sandy clay loam with red
and 1.i,,M^;-l,--,; n mo)ttles.
24 to .N 1 -. y ..\%, sticky fine sandy clay to marly clay
mottled with shades of gray and brown.
38 inches +, limestone.
The surface soil ranI.'e- from 3 to 6 inches in thickness
and from -gra'i to dark gray or dark brownish gray in
color. Its texture usually is fine sand but is loamy fine
sand in a few places. The sandy layers normally are less
than 18 inches thick but are 18 to 30 inches thick in some
places. The subsoil is yellow to yellowish-brown fine


Figure 7.-Shallow deposits of fine sand and fine sandy clay loam
resting abruptly on Ocala limestone give rise to soils such as
Hernando fine sand.






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


sandy clay loam to clay. It ranges from 6 to 12 inches in
thickness, but it is several feet thick in some small areas
where the underlying limestone has dissolved and the solu-
tion holes have filled with clay.
Small areas with slopes of less than 2 percent were
mapped with this soil.
Natural fertility is low in this soil, and the organic-
matter content is medium. The surface soil is strongly
acid and has moderately rapid permeability. The sub-
soil is medium acid and has slow permeability. The
available moisture capacity is moderate.
If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited to
general cultivated crops and to improved pasture. It is
very good for peanuts. (Capability unit IIIse-5; wood-
land group 4.)
Hernando fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (HdC).-
Because it is steeper than Hernando fine sand, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes, this soil is more susceptible to erosion. In
places, it is eroded. Usually, it is associated with sinks
or sharp depressions. The acreage is small, and most of it
has been cleared. The cleared areas, however, are now in
pasture or second growth forest. (Capability unit IVes-1;
woodland group 4.)

Jonesville Series
The soils in this series are sandy and very low in silt
and clay. They are deep and well drained to somewhat
excessively drained.
Their surface layer is gray to dark-gray fine sand 4 to
8 inches thick. It overlies a layer of reddish-yellow, light
yellowish brown, or strong-brown fine sand.
Jonesville soils are closely associated with Lakeland,
Archer, Hernando, Chiefland, and Blanton soils. Unlike
Hernando and Archer soils, Jonesville soils have more
than 30 inches of sand in their profile. In this respect
they are similar to Chiefland and Blanton soils, but they
are more yellow and brown throughout. Jonesville soils
are influenced by limestone, especially in the lower part
of their profile, and thereby are distinguished from Lake-
land and Blanton soils.
The vegetation is chiefly wiregrass, sedges, longleaf
pine, dogfennell, bluejack oak, live oak, and turkey oak.
In Suwannee County, the acreage of Jonesville soils
is small. They were mapped only with Lakeland soils
as an undifferentiated soil group. See Lakeland and
Jonesville fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, page 21.

Kalmia Series
The Kalmia series consists of well-drained, moderately
permeable, deep, strongly acid soils on river terraces.
The surface layer of these soils is gray to dark-gray
loamy fine sand 4 to 7 inches, thick. Below this is a 4-
to 10-inch, light-gray, loamy fine sand subsurface layer
and a yellowish-brown, silty clay or sandy clay loam
subsoil.
Kalmia soils are associated with Blanton and Leaf
soils. Unlike Blanton soils, they have finer textured
material within 30 inches of the surface, and unlike Leaf
soils, they have a well-developed and unmottled subsoil
that is more permeable.
The vegetation is predominantly loblolly pine and saw-
palmetto.


These soils occur as bands along the flood plains. They
are flooded occasionally during unusually prolonged,
heavy rainfall. Their acreage is small and almost all
of it is covered with vegetation. They were mapped
only with Blanton and Leaf soils as a soil complex. See
Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
page 12.

Kanapaha Series
The soils in this series are deep, moderately well
drained to somewhat poorly drained, strongly acid, and
coarse textured. They are nearly level for the most
part and sloping in a few places.
Their surface layer is gray to dark-gray fine sand 4 to
7 inches thick. Their subsurface layer is light-gray fine
sand mottled with shades of yellow or reddish yellow.
Finer textured substrata occur at a depth of more than
30 inches and in places at a depth of several feet. Phos-
phatic pebbles are scattered on the surface and through-
out the profile in some areas. A few sloping areas are
gravelly. Very slowly permeable substrata are respon-
sible for a perched water table; ground water normally
is within 4 feet of the surface.
Kanapaha soils are associated with Fellowship, Arre-
dondo, Gainesville, Fort Meade, and Plummer soils.
Their surface layer is coarser and lighter colored than
that of Fellowship soils; their subsoil also is coarser and
lighter colored, and it is deeper. Their surface layer is
thinner and lighter colored than that of Fort Meade
soils. Kanapaha soils are grayer throughout their pro-
file than are Arredondo, Fort Meade, and Gainesville
soils. They are better drained than Plummer soils; they
are influenced by phosphatic materials and Plummer
soils are not.
The vegetation consists of oak, sweetgum, loblolly pine,
sedges, an occasional saw-palmetto, and wiregrass. Most
of the acreage is in native woods, but some of it is
cultivated, used as pasture, or planted to slash pine.
There are approximately 1,300 acres of Kanapaha soils
in Suwannee County. The largest areas are in the north-
ern and southeast-central parts. Smaller areas are in
other parts of the county where phosphatic materials
are present.
Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (KaB).-
This is a moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
drained soil on uplands. Its major horizons are-
0 to 7 inches, dark-gray to dark grayish-brown, loose fine sand.
7 to 44 inches, grayish-brown to light brownish-gray, loose fine
sand distinctly mottled with gray and pale yellow below a
depth of 29 inches.
44 to 74 inches, light-gray, very friable fine sandy loam mottled
with reddish yellow.
The surface soil ranges from dark gray to dark grayish
brown in undisturbed areas; it is lighter colored in culti-
vated fields. The layers of fine sand usually extend to a
depth of more than 42 inches, but in many places the
substrata of finer textured material begin at a depth of
30 to 42 inches. In some places the substrata are pre-
dominantly mottled with red, gray, and yellow below a
depth of 42 inches.
A few small areas where sandy loam is at a depth of less
than 30 inches were mapped with this soil.






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


sandy clay loam to clay. It ranges from 6 to 12 inches in
thickness, but it is several feet thick in some small areas
where the underlying limestone has dissolved and the solu-
tion holes have filled with clay.
Small areas with slopes of less than 2 percent were
mapped with this soil.
Natural fertility is low in this soil, and the organic-
matter content is medium. The surface soil is strongly
acid and has moderately rapid permeability. The sub-
soil is medium acid and has slow permeability. The
available moisture capacity is moderate.
If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited to
general cultivated crops and to improved pasture. It is
very good for peanuts. (Capability unit IIIse-5; wood-
land group 4.)
Hernando fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (HdC).-
Because it is steeper than Hernando fine sand, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes, this soil is more susceptible to erosion. In
places, it is eroded. Usually, it is associated with sinks
or sharp depressions. The acreage is small, and most of it
has been cleared. The cleared areas, however, are now in
pasture or second growth forest. (Capability unit IVes-1;
woodland group 4.)

Jonesville Series
The soils in this series are sandy and very low in silt
and clay. They are deep and well drained to somewhat
excessively drained.
Their surface layer is gray to dark-gray fine sand 4 to
8 inches thick. It overlies a layer of reddish-yellow, light
yellowish brown, or strong-brown fine sand.
Jonesville soils are closely associated with Lakeland,
Archer, Hernando, Chiefland, and Blanton soils. Unlike
Hernando and Archer soils, Jonesville soils have more
than 30 inches of sand in their profile. In this respect
they are similar to Chiefland and Blanton soils, but they
are more yellow and brown throughout. Jonesville soils
are influenced by limestone, especially in the lower part
of their profile, and thereby are distinguished from Lake-
land and Blanton soils.
The vegetation is chiefly wiregrass, sedges, longleaf
pine, dogfennell, bluejack oak, live oak, and turkey oak.
In Suwannee County, the acreage of Jonesville soils
is small. They were mapped only with Lakeland soils
as an undifferentiated soil group. See Lakeland and
Jonesville fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, page 21.

Kalmia Series
The Kalmia series consists of well-drained, moderately
permeable, deep, strongly acid soils on river terraces.
The surface layer of these soils is gray to dark-gray
loamy fine sand 4 to 7 inches, thick. Below this is a 4-
to 10-inch, light-gray, loamy fine sand subsurface layer
and a yellowish-brown, silty clay or sandy clay loam
subsoil.
Kalmia soils are associated with Blanton and Leaf
soils. Unlike Blanton soils, they have finer textured
material within 30 inches of the surface, and unlike Leaf
soils, they have a well-developed and unmottled subsoil
that is more permeable.
The vegetation is predominantly loblolly pine and saw-
palmetto.


These soils occur as bands along the flood plains. They
are flooded occasionally during unusually prolonged,
heavy rainfall. Their acreage is small and almost all
of it is covered with vegetation. They were mapped
only with Blanton and Leaf soils as a soil complex. See
Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
page 12.

Kanapaha Series
The soils in this series are deep, moderately well
drained to somewhat poorly drained, strongly acid, and
coarse textured. They are nearly level for the most
part and sloping in a few places.
Their surface layer is gray to dark-gray fine sand 4 to
7 inches thick. Their subsurface layer is light-gray fine
sand mottled with shades of yellow or reddish yellow.
Finer textured substrata occur at a depth of more than
30 inches and in places at a depth of several feet. Phos-
phatic pebbles are scattered on the surface and through-
out the profile in some areas. A few sloping areas are
gravelly. Very slowly permeable substrata are respon-
sible for a perched water table; ground water normally
is within 4 feet of the surface.
Kanapaha soils are associated with Fellowship, Arre-
dondo, Gainesville, Fort Meade, and Plummer soils.
Their surface layer is coarser and lighter colored than
that of Fellowship soils; their subsoil also is coarser and
lighter colored, and it is deeper. Their surface layer is
thinner and lighter colored than that of Fort Meade
soils. Kanapaha soils are grayer throughout their pro-
file than are Arredondo, Fort Meade, and Gainesville
soils. They are better drained than Plummer soils; they
are influenced by phosphatic materials and Plummer
soils are not.
The vegetation consists of oak, sweetgum, loblolly pine,
sedges, an occasional saw-palmetto, and wiregrass. Most
of the acreage is in native woods, but some of it is
cultivated, used as pasture, or planted to slash pine.
There are approximately 1,300 acres of Kanapaha soils
in Suwannee County. The largest areas are in the north-
ern and southeast-central parts. Smaller areas are in
other parts of the county where phosphatic materials
are present.
Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (KaB).-
This is a moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
drained soil on uplands. Its major horizons are-
0 to 7 inches, dark-gray to dark grayish-brown, loose fine sand.
7 to 44 inches, grayish-brown to light brownish-gray, loose fine
sand distinctly mottled with gray and pale yellow below a
depth of 29 inches.
44 to 74 inches, light-gray, very friable fine sandy loam mottled
with reddish yellow.
The surface soil ranges from dark gray to dark grayish
brown in undisturbed areas; it is lighter colored in culti-
vated fields. The layers of fine sand usually extend to a
depth of more than 42 inches, but in many places the
substrata of finer textured material begin at a depth of
30 to 42 inches. In some places the substrata are pre-
dominantly mottled with red, gray, and yellow below a
depth of 42 inches.
A few small areas where sandy loam is at a depth of less
than 30 inches were mapped with this soil.






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


sandy clay loam to clay. It ranges from 6 to 12 inches in
thickness, but it is several feet thick in some small areas
where the underlying limestone has dissolved and the solu-
tion holes have filled with clay.
Small areas with slopes of less than 2 percent were
mapped with this soil.
Natural fertility is low in this soil, and the organic-
matter content is medium. The surface soil is strongly
acid and has moderately rapid permeability. The sub-
soil is medium acid and has slow permeability. The
available moisture capacity is moderate.
If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited to
general cultivated crops and to improved pasture. It is
very good for peanuts. (Capability unit IIIse-5; wood-
land group 4.)
Hernando fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (HdC).-
Because it is steeper than Hernando fine sand, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes, this soil is more susceptible to erosion. In
places, it is eroded. Usually, it is associated with sinks
or sharp depressions. The acreage is small, and most of it
has been cleared. The cleared areas, however, are now in
pasture or second growth forest. (Capability unit IVes-1;
woodland group 4.)

Jonesville Series
The soils in this series are sandy and very low in silt
and clay. They are deep and well drained to somewhat
excessively drained.
Their surface layer is gray to dark-gray fine sand 4 to
8 inches thick. It overlies a layer of reddish-yellow, light
yellowish brown, or strong-brown fine sand.
Jonesville soils are closely associated with Lakeland,
Archer, Hernando, Chiefland, and Blanton soils. Unlike
Hernando and Archer soils, Jonesville soils have more
than 30 inches of sand in their profile. In this respect
they are similar to Chiefland and Blanton soils, but they
are more yellow and brown throughout. Jonesville soils
are influenced by limestone, especially in the lower part
of their profile, and thereby are distinguished from Lake-
land and Blanton soils.
The vegetation is chiefly wiregrass, sedges, longleaf
pine, dogfennell, bluejack oak, live oak, and turkey oak.
In Suwannee County, the acreage of Jonesville soils
is small. They were mapped only with Lakeland soils
as an undifferentiated soil group. See Lakeland and
Jonesville fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, page 21.

Kalmia Series
The Kalmia series consists of well-drained, moderately
permeable, deep, strongly acid soils on river terraces.
The surface layer of these soils is gray to dark-gray
loamy fine sand 4 to 7 inches, thick. Below this is a 4-
to 10-inch, light-gray, loamy fine sand subsurface layer
and a yellowish-brown, silty clay or sandy clay loam
subsoil.
Kalmia soils are associated with Blanton and Leaf
soils. Unlike Blanton soils, they have finer textured
material within 30 inches of the surface, and unlike Leaf
soils, they have a well-developed and unmottled subsoil
that is more permeable.
The vegetation is predominantly loblolly pine and saw-
palmetto.


These soils occur as bands along the flood plains. They
are flooded occasionally during unusually prolonged,
heavy rainfall. Their acreage is small and almost all
of it is covered with vegetation. They were mapped
only with Blanton and Leaf soils as a soil complex. See
Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
page 12.

Kanapaha Series
The soils in this series are deep, moderately well
drained to somewhat poorly drained, strongly acid, and
coarse textured. They are nearly level for the most
part and sloping in a few places.
Their surface layer is gray to dark-gray fine sand 4 to
7 inches thick. Their subsurface layer is light-gray fine
sand mottled with shades of yellow or reddish yellow.
Finer textured substrata occur at a depth of more than
30 inches and in places at a depth of several feet. Phos-
phatic pebbles are scattered on the surface and through-
out the profile in some areas. A few sloping areas are
gravelly. Very slowly permeable substrata are respon-
sible for a perched water table; ground water normally
is within 4 feet of the surface.
Kanapaha soils are associated with Fellowship, Arre-
dondo, Gainesville, Fort Meade, and Plummer soils.
Their surface layer is coarser and lighter colored than
that of Fellowship soils; their subsoil also is coarser and
lighter colored, and it is deeper. Their surface layer is
thinner and lighter colored than that of Fort Meade
soils. Kanapaha soils are grayer throughout their pro-
file than are Arredondo, Fort Meade, and Gainesville
soils. They are better drained than Plummer soils; they
are influenced by phosphatic materials and Plummer
soils are not.
The vegetation consists of oak, sweetgum, loblolly pine,
sedges, an occasional saw-palmetto, and wiregrass. Most
of the acreage is in native woods, but some of it is
cultivated, used as pasture, or planted to slash pine.
There are approximately 1,300 acres of Kanapaha soils
in Suwannee County. The largest areas are in the north-
ern and southeast-central parts. Smaller areas are in
other parts of the county where phosphatic materials
are present.
Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (KaB).-
This is a moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
drained soil on uplands. Its major horizons are-
0 to 7 inches, dark-gray to dark grayish-brown, loose fine sand.
7 to 44 inches, grayish-brown to light brownish-gray, loose fine
sand distinctly mottled with gray and pale yellow below a
depth of 29 inches.
44 to 74 inches, light-gray, very friable fine sandy loam mottled
with reddish yellow.
The surface soil ranges from dark gray to dark grayish
brown in undisturbed areas; it is lighter colored in culti-
vated fields. The layers of fine sand usually extend to a
depth of more than 42 inches, but in many places the
substrata of finer textured material begin at a depth of
30 to 42 inches. In some places the substrata are pre-
dominantly mottled with red, gray, and yellow below a
depth of 42 inches.
A few small areas where sandy loam is at a depth of less
than 30 inches were mapped with this soil.







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


This soil is strongly acid. It is low in organic-matter
content and in natural fertility. It has a low available
moisture capacity, but it is favorably influenced by the
ground water table, which normally is in the lower part
of the root zone. Though it is rapidly permeable, this soil
may become saturated to the surface during prolonged wet
seasons.
This soil is well suited to cultivated crops, especially to
truck crops, improved pasture, and pine trees. (Capa-
bility unit TIIsw-1; woodland group 5.)
Kanapaha fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (KaC).-This
soil usually occurs as small areas on long narrow strips in
association with Kanapaha fine'sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
The thickness of the fine sand layers is more variable in
this soil than in the more gently sloping phase.
A few seepy areas where slopes are steeper than 8 percent
were mapped with this soil.
This soil is not well suited to cultivation, but it is well
suited to pasture and to pine. Its total area is about 300
acres, and most of this is in pine trees or pasture. (Capa-
bility unit IVse-3; woodland group 5.)

Klej Series
The Klej series consists of nearly level to gently slop-
ing, moderately well drained, strongly acid, sandy soils.
Fine sand extends to a depth of more than 30 inches.
It is gray to dark gray at the surface and very pale
brown or light yellowish brown at a depth of 3 to 7
inches. It is mottled with gray, yellowish brown, and
pale brown at a depth of 24 to 36 inches.
Klej soils are closely associated with Blanton, Lake-
land, and Scranton soils. They differ from Blanton soils
chiefly in that they are yellower and mottled in the
uppermost 30 inches of their profile. They differ from
Lakeland soils in that they are mottled gray and yel-
lowish brown below a depth of 30 inches. Their surface
layer is thinner and lighter colored than that of Scranton
soils.
The vegetation consists of sedges, wiregrass, pine trees,
and oaks.
These soils occur mostly in the eastern part of the
county. Most of the acreage has been cleared and is
used as pasture, or is in cultivated crops, or is planted to
slash pine.
Klej fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (KfB).-This is a
moderately well drained soil. Its major horizons are-
0 to 7 inches, gray, loose fine sand.
7 to 28 inches, very pale brown, loose fine sand.
28 to 42 inches +, very pale brown, loose fine sand mottled
with brownish yellow and light gray.
The surface layer ranges from gray to dark gray in
color and from 3 to 7 inches in thickness. The upper part
of the subsurface layer is very pale brown or pale-brown
fine sand 18 to 30 inches thick; and the lower part is
mottled gray, pale-brown, very pale brown, or brownish-
yellow fine sand. The fine sand usually extends to a depth
of more than 42 inches, but in a few places clayey material
occurs at a depth between 30 and 42 inches.
This soil is strongly acid. It is low in natural fertility
and in organic-matter content. It is well aerated. Water
moves rapidly through it and leaches out plant nutrients.
Except in very dry periods, the water table fluctuates at a
depth near 42 inches from the surface.


Under good management, this soil is well suited to
cultivated crops and to improved pasture. It is also
suited to pine trees. (Capability unit IIIse-4; woodland
group 5.)

Lakeland Series
The soils in this series are deep, well drained to exces-
sively drained, strongly acid, and coarse textured. They
are nearly level to sloping for the most part but are
strongly sloping in a few small areas.
The surface layer of these soils consists of fine sand
that ranges from gray to dark grayish brown; it is 2 to 6
inches thick. Below it is a layer of light yellowish-
brown or brownish-yellow fine sand that normally ex-
tends to a depth of more than 42 inches. The depth to
layers of fine-textured material usually is more than 5
feet, but in a few places it is only 30 to 42 inches.
Lakeland soils are closely associated with Blanton,
Klej, and Arredondo soils. They differ from Blanton
soils in having unmottled yellow and light yellowish-
brown fine sand below the surface soil. They are better
drained than Klej soils and are not mottled in the upper-
most 36 to 42 inches of their profile. They have a lighter
colored surface layer than Arredondo soils, and they are
not phosphatic.
The vegetation consists of turkey oak, post oak, pine,
and wiregrass. Most of the acreage has been cleared and
is used as pasture, or is cultivated, or is planted to pine.
These soils occur mostly in the broad, deep, sandy areas
in the southern and western parts of the county. Small
areas occur near the Suwannee River on well-drained,
terracelike positions.
Lakeland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (LaB).-
This is a well-drained to excessively drained soil on broad
uplands. Its major horizons are-
0 to 5 inches, gray, loose fine sand.
5 to 48 inches, light yellowish-brown, loose fine sand.
48 to 62 inches, very pale brown, loose fine sand; light-gray
splotches.
The surface layer ranges from gray to dark grayish
brown in color and from 2 to 6 inches in thickness. The
darker colors usually are in the cultivated areas. The
subsurface layer is yellowish brown but in a few places
is brownish yellow. In cultivated areas, a transitional
layer usually occurs between the surface layer and the
subsurface layer. This layer is a mixture of pale brown,
gray, and yellowish brown. In a few places medium-
sized splotches of light gray and white occur in this soil
nearer the surface than normal, or at a depth of 30 to 42
inches. Where this soil is adjacent to Blanton soils, high
phase, it grades to pale brown.
Mapped with this soil were small areas that have fine-
textured material at a depth of 30 to 42 inches. In
these areas-about 190 acres on terraces along the
Suwannee River-the surface layers consist of gray sand
and the substrata of yellow to reddish-brown, friable
sandy loam to sandy clay loam.
Lakeland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is strongly
acid and low in natural fertility and in organic-matter
content. It has a deep root zone. It is in good tilth and
can be plowed within a short time after heavy rainfall.







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


This soil is strongly acid. It is low in organic-matter
content and in natural fertility. It has a low available
moisture capacity, but it is favorably influenced by the
ground water table, which normally is in the lower part
of the root zone. Though it is rapidly permeable, this soil
may become saturated to the surface during prolonged wet
seasons.
This soil is well suited to cultivated crops, especially to
truck crops, improved pasture, and pine trees. (Capa-
bility unit TIIsw-1; woodland group 5.)
Kanapaha fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (KaC).-This
soil usually occurs as small areas on long narrow strips in
association with Kanapaha fine'sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
The thickness of the fine sand layers is more variable in
this soil than in the more gently sloping phase.
A few seepy areas where slopes are steeper than 8 percent
were mapped with this soil.
This soil is not well suited to cultivation, but it is well
suited to pasture and to pine. Its total area is about 300
acres, and most of this is in pine trees or pasture. (Capa-
bility unit IVse-3; woodland group 5.)

Klej Series
The Klej series consists of nearly level to gently slop-
ing, moderately well drained, strongly acid, sandy soils.
Fine sand extends to a depth of more than 30 inches.
It is gray to dark gray at the surface and very pale
brown or light yellowish brown at a depth of 3 to 7
inches. It is mottled with gray, yellowish brown, and
pale brown at a depth of 24 to 36 inches.
Klej soils are closely associated with Blanton, Lake-
land, and Scranton soils. They differ from Blanton soils
chiefly in that they are yellower and mottled in the
uppermost 30 inches of their profile. They differ from
Lakeland soils in that they are mottled gray and yel-
lowish brown below a depth of 30 inches. Their surface
layer is thinner and lighter colored than that of Scranton
soils.
The vegetation consists of sedges, wiregrass, pine trees,
and oaks.
These soils occur mostly in the eastern part of the
county. Most of the acreage has been cleared and is
used as pasture, or is in cultivated crops, or is planted to
slash pine.
Klej fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (KfB).-This is a
moderately well drained soil. Its major horizons are-
0 to 7 inches, gray, loose fine sand.
7 to 28 inches, very pale brown, loose fine sand.
28 to 42 inches +, very pale brown, loose fine sand mottled
with brownish yellow and light gray.
The surface layer ranges from gray to dark gray in
color and from 3 to 7 inches in thickness. The upper part
of the subsurface layer is very pale brown or pale-brown
fine sand 18 to 30 inches thick; and the lower part is
mottled gray, pale-brown, very pale brown, or brownish-
yellow fine sand. The fine sand usually extends to a depth
of more than 42 inches, but in a few places clayey material
occurs at a depth between 30 and 42 inches.
This soil is strongly acid. It is low in natural fertility
and in organic-matter content. It is well aerated. Water
moves rapidly through it and leaches out plant nutrients.
Except in very dry periods, the water table fluctuates at a
depth near 42 inches from the surface.


Under good management, this soil is well suited to
cultivated crops and to improved pasture. It is also
suited to pine trees. (Capability unit IIIse-4; woodland
group 5.)

Lakeland Series
The soils in this series are deep, well drained to exces-
sively drained, strongly acid, and coarse textured. They
are nearly level to sloping for the most part but are
strongly sloping in a few small areas.
The surface layer of these soils consists of fine sand
that ranges from gray to dark grayish brown; it is 2 to 6
inches thick. Below it is a layer of light yellowish-
brown or brownish-yellow fine sand that normally ex-
tends to a depth of more than 42 inches. The depth to
layers of fine-textured material usually is more than 5
feet, but in a few places it is only 30 to 42 inches.
Lakeland soils are closely associated with Blanton,
Klej, and Arredondo soils. They differ from Blanton
soils in having unmottled yellow and light yellowish-
brown fine sand below the surface soil. They are better
drained than Klej soils and are not mottled in the upper-
most 36 to 42 inches of their profile. They have a lighter
colored surface layer than Arredondo soils, and they are
not phosphatic.
The vegetation consists of turkey oak, post oak, pine,
and wiregrass. Most of the acreage has been cleared and
is used as pasture, or is cultivated, or is planted to pine.
These soils occur mostly in the broad, deep, sandy areas
in the southern and western parts of the county. Small
areas occur near the Suwannee River on well-drained,
terracelike positions.
Lakeland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes (LaB).-
This is a well-drained to excessively drained soil on broad
uplands. Its major horizons are-
0 to 5 inches, gray, loose fine sand.
5 to 48 inches, light yellowish-brown, loose fine sand.
48 to 62 inches, very pale brown, loose fine sand; light-gray
splotches.
The surface layer ranges from gray to dark grayish
brown in color and from 2 to 6 inches in thickness. The
darker colors usually are in the cultivated areas. The
subsurface layer is yellowish brown but in a few places
is brownish yellow. In cultivated areas, a transitional
layer usually occurs between the surface layer and the
subsurface layer. This layer is a mixture of pale brown,
gray, and yellowish brown. In a few places medium-
sized splotches of light gray and white occur in this soil
nearer the surface than normal, or at a depth of 30 to 42
inches. Where this soil is adjacent to Blanton soils, high
phase, it grades to pale brown.
Mapped with this soil were small areas that have fine-
textured material at a depth of 30 to 42 inches. In
these areas-about 190 acres on terraces along the
Suwannee River-the surface layers consist of gray sand
and the substrata of yellow to reddish-brown, friable
sandy loam to sandy clay loam.
Lakeland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is strongly
acid and low in natural fertility and in organic-matter
content. It has a deep root zone. It is in good tilth and
can be plowed within a short time after heavy rainfall.







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


It is drought and very rapidly permeable. Plant nu-
trients leach out of it readily.
If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited
to the general farm crops grown in the county. It pro-
duces watermelons and bright tobacco of high quality.
It is well suited to deep-rooted, improved grasses for
pasture. (Capability unit IIIse-2; woodland group 1.)
Lakeland fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (LaC).-
This soil is similar to Lakeland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, but it is steeper and consequently more susceptible
to erosion. In a few small places, slopes are steeper than
8 percent.
The surface layer of this soil normally is thinner than
that of the less sloping Lakeland soils. A few areas show
moderate sheet erosion, and shallow gullies have formed
in places. A few small areas in which fine-textured
substrata occur at a depth of 30 to 42 inches were mapped
with this soil.
This soil is only fairly well suited to cultivated crops,
but it is moderately suited to deep-rooted grasses for
pasture. Some of this soil has been cleared, but much of
it is covered with scattered longleaf pines, scrub oaks,
and wiregrass. (Capability unit IVse-4; woodland group
1.)
Lakeland and Jonesville fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
slopes (LdB).-This undifferentiated soil group consists
of 45 percent Lakeland fine sand, 40 percent Jonesville
fine sand, and 15 percent minor inclusions of Chiefland
fine sand, Blanton fine sand, and Hernando fine sand.
The percentages vary slightly from place to place. This
soil group occupies a few hundred acres in the extreme
southern part of the county.
A profile description of Lakeland fine sand is on page 20.
Following is a profile description of Jonesville fine sand.
0 to 5 inches, gray fine sand.
5 to 36 inches, yellowish-brown fine sand; single grained.
36 to 55 inches, light yellowish-brown fine sand; many, faint,
pale-brown mottles; single grained.
55 to 67 inches, strong-brown heavy fine sandy loam or light
fine sandy clay loam; medium crumb structure.
67 inches +, soft limerock.
The surface layer of Jonesville fine sand is gray or
light gray and less than 8 inches thick. It is underlain
by layers of yellowish-brown and light yellowish-brown
fine sand that extend to a depth of more than 30 inches.
These layers are slightly acid to neutral. They overlie
a layer of strong-brown fine sandy loam or fine sandy
clay loam that is slightly acid to neutral, that is 6 to 18
inches thick in most places, and that overlies hard lime-
stone or marl.
The soils in this soil group are low in natural fer-
tility and in organic-matter content. They are in good
tilth, and they have a deep root zone. The available
moisture capacity is low. Permeability is rapid through-
out; mineral fertilizers leach out rapidly.
If well managed, these soils produce good yields of
common crops in years of adequate rainfall. They are
especially well suited to peanuts and bright tobacco.
Most of the acreage has been cleared for cultivation.
(Capability unit IIIse-3; woodland group 1.)

Leaf Series
The Leaf series consists of poorly drained, strongly
acid soils in nearly level areas near the Suwannee River.


The surface layer of these soils ranges from gray to
dark gray in color and from 3 to 7 inches in thickness.
The subsoil is yellowish-brown, plastic sandy clay or clay
mottled with gray, red, yellow, and brown.
Leaf soils are closely associated with Blanton and
Kalmia soils. Their mottled, heavy, plastic clay subsoil
distinguishes them from both Blanton and Kalmia soils.
The vegetation consists of a variety of plants, includ-
ing gum, maple, oak, loblolly pine, and a dense under-
growth of shrubs and vines in some places.
In Suwannee County, the acreage of these soils is
small. They were mapped only with Blanton and
Kalmia soils as a soil complex. See Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf
complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes, page 12.

Leon Series
The Leon series consists of nearly level or gently slop-
ing, somewhat poorly drained or poorly drained soils of
the Coastal flatwoods.
The surface layer of these soils is thin and consists of
gray to very dark gray fine sand. It grades to a leached
layer of light-gray to white fine sand 10 to 24 inches
thick. At a depth of less than 30 inches, the leached layer
ends abruptly and overlies a brown to black pan that
is weakly to strongly cemented and stained by organic
matter.
These soils are very strongly acid, low in natural fer-
tility, and low in organic-mattter content. The ground
water table normally is at a depth of 24 to 36 inches,
but it rises to the surface in wet seasons.
Leon soils are closely associated with Blanton, Ona,
Pomello, Plummer, and Scranton soils. The light-col-
ored, leached layer between the surface layer and the
stained pan distinguishes Leon soils from Ona soils.
The stained pan distinguishes them from Blanton, Po-
mello, Plummer, and Scranton soils. Furthermore, Leon
soils are more poorly drained than Blanton and Pomello
soils and better drained than Plummer soils. They are
darker colored than Pomello soils, and they have a thin-
ner and lighter colored surface layer than Scranton soils.
The vegetation is saw-palmetto, longleaf pine, wire-
grass, sedges, fetter bushes, and some gallberry. Most
of the acreage is in pine trees. A small part has been
cleared and is used as pasture.
Leon soils occur in the flatwoods section in the eastern
part of the county.
Leon fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes (LfA).-This is a
somewhat poorly drained to poorly drained soil that has
a thin surface layer and an organic pan. The major
horizons are-
0 to 5 inches, gray, loose fine sand; many clean grains.
5 to 23 inches, light-gray, loose fine sand.
23 to 29 inches, black fine sand; weakly cemented organic pan.
29 to 54 inches, very pale brown to pale-yellow, loose fine sand.
The surface layer ranges from 1 to 7 inches in thickness
and from gray to very dark gray in color; its many, clean,
white grains of sand give it a salt and pepper appearance.
The subsurface layer is leached; it ranges from light gray
to white in color and from 4 to 24 inches in thickness.
The organic pan ranges from black to reddish brown in
color and from 3 to 8 inches in thickness. It is soft and
friable in some places and firm and strongly cemented







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


It is drought and very rapidly permeable. Plant nu-
trients leach out of it readily.
If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited
to the general farm crops grown in the county. It pro-
duces watermelons and bright tobacco of high quality.
It is well suited to deep-rooted, improved grasses for
pasture. (Capability unit IIIse-2; woodland group 1.)
Lakeland fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (LaC).-
This soil is similar to Lakeland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, but it is steeper and consequently more susceptible
to erosion. In a few small places, slopes are steeper than
8 percent.
The surface layer of this soil normally is thinner than
that of the less sloping Lakeland soils. A few areas show
moderate sheet erosion, and shallow gullies have formed
in places. A few small areas in which fine-textured
substrata occur at a depth of 30 to 42 inches were mapped
with this soil.
This soil is only fairly well suited to cultivated crops,
but it is moderately suited to deep-rooted grasses for
pasture. Some of this soil has been cleared, but much of
it is covered with scattered longleaf pines, scrub oaks,
and wiregrass. (Capability unit IVse-4; woodland group
1.)
Lakeland and Jonesville fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
slopes (LdB).-This undifferentiated soil group consists
of 45 percent Lakeland fine sand, 40 percent Jonesville
fine sand, and 15 percent minor inclusions of Chiefland
fine sand, Blanton fine sand, and Hernando fine sand.
The percentages vary slightly from place to place. This
soil group occupies a few hundred acres in the extreme
southern part of the county.
A profile description of Lakeland fine sand is on page 20.
Following is a profile description of Jonesville fine sand.
0 to 5 inches, gray fine sand.
5 to 36 inches, yellowish-brown fine sand; single grained.
36 to 55 inches, light yellowish-brown fine sand; many, faint,
pale-brown mottles; single grained.
55 to 67 inches, strong-brown heavy fine sandy loam or light
fine sandy clay loam; medium crumb structure.
67 inches +, soft limerock.
The surface layer of Jonesville fine sand is gray or
light gray and less than 8 inches thick. It is underlain
by layers of yellowish-brown and light yellowish-brown
fine sand that extend to a depth of more than 30 inches.
These layers are slightly acid to neutral. They overlie
a layer of strong-brown fine sandy loam or fine sandy
clay loam that is slightly acid to neutral, that is 6 to 18
inches thick in most places, and that overlies hard lime-
stone or marl.
The soils in this soil group are low in natural fer-
tility and in organic-matter content. They are in good
tilth, and they have a deep root zone. The available
moisture capacity is low. Permeability is rapid through-
out; mineral fertilizers leach out rapidly.
If well managed, these soils produce good yields of
common crops in years of adequate rainfall. They are
especially well suited to peanuts and bright tobacco.
Most of the acreage has been cleared for cultivation.
(Capability unit IIIse-3; woodland group 1.)

Leaf Series
The Leaf series consists of poorly drained, strongly
acid soils in nearly level areas near the Suwannee River.


The surface layer of these soils ranges from gray to
dark gray in color and from 3 to 7 inches in thickness.
The subsoil is yellowish-brown, plastic sandy clay or clay
mottled with gray, red, yellow, and brown.
Leaf soils are closely associated with Blanton and
Kalmia soils. Their mottled, heavy, plastic clay subsoil
distinguishes them from both Blanton and Kalmia soils.
The vegetation consists of a variety of plants, includ-
ing gum, maple, oak, loblolly pine, and a dense under-
growth of shrubs and vines in some places.
In Suwannee County, the acreage of these soils is
small. They were mapped only with Blanton and
Kalmia soils as a soil complex. See Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf
complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes, page 12.

Leon Series
The Leon series consists of nearly level or gently slop-
ing, somewhat poorly drained or poorly drained soils of
the Coastal flatwoods.
The surface layer of these soils is thin and consists of
gray to very dark gray fine sand. It grades to a leached
layer of light-gray to white fine sand 10 to 24 inches
thick. At a depth of less than 30 inches, the leached layer
ends abruptly and overlies a brown to black pan that
is weakly to strongly cemented and stained by organic
matter.
These soils are very strongly acid, low in natural fer-
tility, and low in organic-mattter content. The ground
water table normally is at a depth of 24 to 36 inches,
but it rises to the surface in wet seasons.
Leon soils are closely associated with Blanton, Ona,
Pomello, Plummer, and Scranton soils. The light-col-
ored, leached layer between the surface layer and the
stained pan distinguishes Leon soils from Ona soils.
The stained pan distinguishes them from Blanton, Po-
mello, Plummer, and Scranton soils. Furthermore, Leon
soils are more poorly drained than Blanton and Pomello
soils and better drained than Plummer soils. They are
darker colored than Pomello soils, and they have a thin-
ner and lighter colored surface layer than Scranton soils.
The vegetation is saw-palmetto, longleaf pine, wire-
grass, sedges, fetter bushes, and some gallberry. Most
of the acreage is in pine trees. A small part has been
cleared and is used as pasture.
Leon soils occur in the flatwoods section in the eastern
part of the county.
Leon fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes (LfA).-This is a
somewhat poorly drained to poorly drained soil that has
a thin surface layer and an organic pan. The major
horizons are-
0 to 5 inches, gray, loose fine sand; many clean grains.
5 to 23 inches, light-gray, loose fine sand.
23 to 29 inches, black fine sand; weakly cemented organic pan.
29 to 54 inches, very pale brown to pale-yellow, loose fine sand.
The surface layer ranges from 1 to 7 inches in thickness
and from gray to very dark gray in color; its many, clean,
white grains of sand give it a salt and pepper appearance.
The subsurface layer is leached; it ranges from light gray
to white in color and from 4 to 24 inches in thickness.
The organic pan ranges from black to reddish brown in
color and from 3 to 8 inches in thickness. It is soft and
friable in some places and firm and strongly cemented






SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


in others. The depth to the organic pan normally is
less than 30 inches, but in a few places it is more than 30
inches.
This soil is very strongly acid, low in organic-matter
content, and low in natural fertility. It has a low avail-
able moisture capacity and a periodically high water
table. Plant foods leach out rapidly. The root zone is
restricted.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivation but well suited
to pasture and to pine trees. (Capability unit Vsw-2;
woodland group 6.)
Leon fine sand, loamy substratum, 0 to 5 percent slopes
(LmA).-This is a somewhat poorly drained to poorly
drained soil. Its major horizons are-
0 to 5 inches, dark-gray, loose fine sand; many clean grains.
5 to 18 inches, light-gray to gray, loose fine sand.
18 to 23 inches, very dark grayish-brown fine sand; weakly
cemented organic pan.
23 to 36 inches, very pale brown, loose fine sand.
36 to 46 inches +, mottled pale-brown, friable fine sandy clay
loam; slowly permeable.
The surface layer ranges from 1 to 7 inches in thickness.
It is dark gray or very dark gray, but its many, clean,
white grains of sand give it a salt and pepper appearance.
This layer grades into a leached layer of gray to white fine
sand 9 to 24 inches thick. The organic pan is black to
reddish brown, weakly cemented to strongly cemented,
and 3 to 8 inches thick. The clayey material is at a depth
of 36 to 48 inches.
This soil is very strongly acid, low in organic-matter
content, and low in natural fertility. It has a low avail-
able moisture capacity and a restricted root zone. Perme-
ability is rapid down to the organic pan. Plant foods
leach out rapidly. (Capability unit Vsw-2; woodland
group 6.)
Leon and Ona fine sands (Ln). The principal soils
in this undifferentiated soil group are Leon fine sand and
Ona fine sand. In many areas, these soils occur in such
intricate patterns that separation was not feasible. In
other places, one or the other principal soil dominates
and constitutes at least 85 percent of the delineated area.
The extent of each soil within individual areas, however,
varies considerably from place to place. Leon fine sand
makes up about 55 percent of the total acreage, and the
Ona soil, most of the rest. There are minor inclusions
of Blanton, Plummer, Rutlege, and other soils. The soil
characteristics in a given area vary according to the
individual soils in the area.
The Leon soil in this group is similar to Leon fine sand,
0 to 2 percent slopes, described on page 21, but its surface
layer is thicker and darker than that of the described
soil, and its leached subsurface layer usually is thinner.
Ona fine sand lacks a leached subsurface layer. It has
an organic-stained layer or a weak pan beneath the surface
layer. The major horizons are-
0 to 6 inches, black fine sand; many clean grains.
6 to 10 inches, dark reddish-brown fine sand.
10 to 36 inches, very pale brown fine sand; few, fine, distinct,
yellow mottles.
36 to 54 inches +, white fine sand; few yellow and brown
mottles.
The surface layer of this Ona soil ranges from dark
gray to black in color and from 3 to 7 inches in thick-
ness. In a few places, however, this layer is only about
2 inches thick. The subsurface layer ranges from 3 to


12 inches in thickness and from only a stained sand to
a weakly cemented organic pan. In some small areas,
this layer is at the surface. The substrata range from
brown to light gray. Usually, they are lighter colored
with depth. In a few small areas, fine sandy loam occurs
at a depth between 30 and 42 inches.
Leon fine sand is somewhat poorly drained or poorly
drained and Ona fine sand is somewhat poorly drained.
They have a low available moisture capacity, and they
are rapidly permeable. Plant nutrients leach out rap-
idly. The reaction is very strongly acid. The organic-
matter content is low to medium, and natural fertility
is low.
These soils are suited to special crops, including Irish
potatoes and cabbage or other leafy vegetables. They
are also suited to pasture and to trees. (Capability unit
IVsw-2; woodland group 6.)

Local Alluvial Land (Lo)
Local alluvial land is a land type made up of a mix-
ture of coarse-textured, acid material, mostly sand and
loamy sand, that has washed or blown from adjacent
areas. It occurs in depressions on uplands. It is mod-
erately well drained, though it has no natural drainage
outlets (water drains through underground channels).
This land is rarely saturated, since it is rapidly per-
meable throughout. A few of the lowest lying areas are
flooded during periods of heavy and extended rainfall.
At such times, the water table rises above normal level
throughout the area.
Both the surface layer and the subsoil consist of fine
sand or loamy fine sand. The surface layer ranges from
5 to 10 inches in thickness and from dark gray to very
dark grayish brown in color. The subsoil is gray or
light gray. In some places, especially where under-
ground drainage! is rapid, the surface layer is dark gray
or black and the subsoil is pale brown. In places where
light-colored sediment has been deposited recently, the
subsoil is darker colored than the surface soil.
This land type is closely associated with Lakeland
and Blanton soils. A thicker and darker surface layer
distinguishes Local alluvial land from both Lakeland
and Blanton soils. Furthermore, this land type has a
slightly stratified subsoil that is lighter colored than that
of Blanton soils. It is less uniform in texture than Lake-
land soils, and it lacks the yellow in the subsurface layer.
The vegetation consists principally of oak and pine
trees, briers, and native grasses, including wiregrass.
Local alluvial land occurs as small areas, scattered
throughout the county, usually adjacent to acid soils that
have better drainage. The total acreage is small. Many
areas have been cleared, and since they are small and
occur within areas of more extensive soils, they are put
to the same use as the surrounding areas. In most areas
of this land type, natural fertility and the organic-mat-
ter content are high, and the available moisture capacity
is moderate to high. Consequently, these areas are con-
spicuous in large cultivated fields because plants grow
more vigorously on them. (Capability unit IIsw-1;
woodland group 8.)






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


Local Alluvial Land, Phosphatic (Lp)
Local alluvial land, phosphatic, is a land type made
up of a mixture of soil material that has washed or
blown from adjacent areas and accumulated in depres-
sions and at the base of slopes. The soil material is of
phosphatic origin. Except for the phosphatic influence,
this land type is similar to Local alluvial land.
Texture, color, and stratification vary, but this land
type is predominantly very dark grayish brown to black
in the surface layer, which is 8 to 15 inches thick, and
dark gray or brown in the subsurface layer, which ex-
tends to a depth of several feet. Water drains through
the permeable soil into porous limestone.
This land type is associated with Arredondo, Gaines-
ville, and Zuber soils. These soils generally surround
areas of this land type. It is stratified surface material
from these soils that makes up this land type.
The vegetation consists of oak, hickory, sweetgum,
pine, myrtle, briers, and native grasses, including wire-
grass.
This land type occurs as small areas in the parts of the
county where phosphatic soils occur. The total acreage
is small. Most of it is cultivated or is used as pasture.
In most areas of this land type, natural fertility is high,
the organic-matter content is moderate, and the avail-
able moisture capacity is moderate to high. Conse-
quently, in large cultivated fields, these areas are con-
spicuous because plants make better growth on them
than on the soils surrounding. (Capability unit IIsw-1;
woodland group 8.)

Mine Pits and Dumps (M p)
Mine pits and dumps is a miscellaneous land type that
varies widely in texture, consistence, and structure.
Areas of this land type occur 1 mile north of Live Oak
and 3 miles east of Branford. The wide range of land
conditions is a result of mining and quarrying opera-
tions. Most of the areas where soil and underlying
minerals have been removed are scarred with pits and
trenches and dotted with piles of waste material. These
areas have little or no agricultural value. In some
places, however, trees are reseeding naturally and some
pasture plants have become established. (Capability
unit VIIse-2; not placed in a woodland group.)

Ona Series
The Ona series consists of somewhat poorly drained,
strongly acid soils. Beneath the surface layer they have
either a layer stained by organic matter or a weak pan.
They were derived from acid, marine sand.
The fine sand surface layer of these soils ranges from
dark gray to black. Their subsoil is fine sand that ranges
from grayish brown to brownish black.
Ona soils are closely associated with Scranton, Rut-
lege, and Leon soils. Except for the stained, brown
layer beneath their surface layer, Ona soils are similar
to Scranton soils. Ona soils have a thicker and darker
surface layer than Leon soils, and they lack a leached
layer beneath the surface layer. Furthermore, they have
only a weakly cemented pan, or merely a stained layer


in places, whereas Leon soils have a weakly to strongly
cemented pan. Ona soils are better drained than Rut-
lege soils, and they occur at higher elevations.
The vegetation consists of wiregrass, sedges, longleaf
pine, slash pine, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and some saw-
palmetto.
Ona soils occur in the nearly level flatwoods section in
the eastern part of the county. Their acreage is small,
and they were mapped only in a complex with Leon soils.
See Leon and Ona fine sands, page 22.

Peat (Pa)
Peat consists of very poorly drained, very strongly
acid to extremely acid material that was derived from
the remains of grasses, lilies, and woody plants. It has
a high content of nitrogen and organic matter but a
low content of all other plant nutrients, including the
minor ones. It occurs in depressions where outlets for
surplus water are poor.
Peat ranges from dark reddish brown to dark brown
in color and from 36 to 60 inches in thickness. It is shal-
low around the rim of depressions and deep at the center.
The underlying material normally is coarse sand but
is sandy clay in places.
Subsidence due to decomposition is very slow in un-
disturbed areas and rapid in drained, cultivated areas.
Peat is closely associated with Plummer and Rutlege
soils. It differs from them in being derived from re-
mains of vegetation rather than from inorganic matter.
The vegetation consists of sweetbay, ash, cypress, pine,
moss, ferns, maidencane, and other water-tolerant plants.
Most areas of peat are too small to be drained economi-
cally. (Capability unit VIIws-2; woodland group 11.)

Plummer Series
The soils in the Plummer series are deep, sandy, and
somewhat poorly drained to very poorly drained.
Their surface layer is gray to black fine sand 2 to 6
inches thick. Their subsurface layer is light-gray to
gray fine sand mottled with pale yellow or pale brown
in places. A clayey layer normally occurs at a depth
of 4 or 5 feet, but in places it is at a depth between 30
and 42 inches.
These soils are very strongly acid. They are low in
organic-matter content and in natural fertility.
Plummer soils are closely associated with Rutlege,
Scranton, Leon, Grady, Klej, and Blanton (low phase)
soils. They are similar to Rutlege soils, but they have
a thinner, lighter colored surface layer. Plummer soils
lack a thick, dark surface layer like that of Scranton
soils, and they are less brown and yellow. Their lack
of an organic pan distinguishes them from Leon soils.
They differ from Grady soils in that they do not have
a clayey subsoil within a depth of 30 inches. They
are more poorly drained than Klej and Blanton soils.
Furthermore, they are grayer than Klej soils.
The vegetation consists of loblolly pine, slash pine,
pond pine, bay, gum, cypress, ferns, oak, gallberry, wire-
grass, and saw-palmetto.
Plummer soils are extensive in Suwannee County.
Most of the acreage is in woodland. Some has been
cleared and is used as pasture or is cultivated.






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


Local Alluvial Land, Phosphatic (Lp)
Local alluvial land, phosphatic, is a land type made
up of a mixture of soil material that has washed or
blown from adjacent areas and accumulated in depres-
sions and at the base of slopes. The soil material is of
phosphatic origin. Except for the phosphatic influence,
this land type is similar to Local alluvial land.
Texture, color, and stratification vary, but this land
type is predominantly very dark grayish brown to black
in the surface layer, which is 8 to 15 inches thick, and
dark gray or brown in the subsurface layer, which ex-
tends to a depth of several feet. Water drains through
the permeable soil into porous limestone.
This land type is associated with Arredondo, Gaines-
ville, and Zuber soils. These soils generally surround
areas of this land type. It is stratified surface material
from these soils that makes up this land type.
The vegetation consists of oak, hickory, sweetgum,
pine, myrtle, briers, and native grasses, including wire-
grass.
This land type occurs as small areas in the parts of the
county where phosphatic soils occur. The total acreage
is small. Most of it is cultivated or is used as pasture.
In most areas of this land type, natural fertility is high,
the organic-matter content is moderate, and the avail-
able moisture capacity is moderate to high. Conse-
quently, in large cultivated fields, these areas are con-
spicuous because plants make better growth on them
than on the soils surrounding. (Capability unit IIsw-1;
woodland group 8.)

Mine Pits and Dumps (M p)
Mine pits and dumps is a miscellaneous land type that
varies widely in texture, consistence, and structure.
Areas of this land type occur 1 mile north of Live Oak
and 3 miles east of Branford. The wide range of land
conditions is a result of mining and quarrying opera-
tions. Most of the areas where soil and underlying
minerals have been removed are scarred with pits and
trenches and dotted with piles of waste material. These
areas have little or no agricultural value. In some
places, however, trees are reseeding naturally and some
pasture plants have become established. (Capability
unit VIIse-2; not placed in a woodland group.)

Ona Series
The Ona series consists of somewhat poorly drained,
strongly acid soils. Beneath the surface layer they have
either a layer stained by organic matter or a weak pan.
They were derived from acid, marine sand.
The fine sand surface layer of these soils ranges from
dark gray to black. Their subsoil is fine sand that ranges
from grayish brown to brownish black.
Ona soils are closely associated with Scranton, Rut-
lege, and Leon soils. Except for the stained, brown
layer beneath their surface layer, Ona soils are similar
to Scranton soils. Ona soils have a thicker and darker
surface layer than Leon soils, and they lack a leached
layer beneath the surface layer. Furthermore, they have
only a weakly cemented pan, or merely a stained layer


in places, whereas Leon soils have a weakly to strongly
cemented pan. Ona soils are better drained than Rut-
lege soils, and they occur at higher elevations.
The vegetation consists of wiregrass, sedges, longleaf
pine, slash pine, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and some saw-
palmetto.
Ona soils occur in the nearly level flatwoods section in
the eastern part of the county. Their acreage is small,
and they were mapped only in a complex with Leon soils.
See Leon and Ona fine sands, page 22.

Peat (Pa)
Peat consists of very poorly drained, very strongly
acid to extremely acid material that was derived from
the remains of grasses, lilies, and woody plants. It has
a high content of nitrogen and organic matter but a
low content of all other plant nutrients, including the
minor ones. It occurs in depressions where outlets for
surplus water are poor.
Peat ranges from dark reddish brown to dark brown
in color and from 36 to 60 inches in thickness. It is shal-
low around the rim of depressions and deep at the center.
The underlying material normally is coarse sand but
is sandy clay in places.
Subsidence due to decomposition is very slow in un-
disturbed areas and rapid in drained, cultivated areas.
Peat is closely associated with Plummer and Rutlege
soils. It differs from them in being derived from re-
mains of vegetation rather than from inorganic matter.
The vegetation consists of sweetbay, ash, cypress, pine,
moss, ferns, maidencane, and other water-tolerant plants.
Most areas of peat are too small to be drained economi-
cally. (Capability unit VIIws-2; woodland group 11.)

Plummer Series
The soils in the Plummer series are deep, sandy, and
somewhat poorly drained to very poorly drained.
Their surface layer is gray to black fine sand 2 to 6
inches thick. Their subsurface layer is light-gray to
gray fine sand mottled with pale yellow or pale brown
in places. A clayey layer normally occurs at a depth
of 4 or 5 feet, but in places it is at a depth between 30
and 42 inches.
These soils are very strongly acid. They are low in
organic-matter content and in natural fertility.
Plummer soils are closely associated with Rutlege,
Scranton, Leon, Grady, Klej, and Blanton (low phase)
soils. They are similar to Rutlege soils, but they have
a thinner, lighter colored surface layer. Plummer soils
lack a thick, dark surface layer like that of Scranton
soils, and they are less brown and yellow. Their lack
of an organic pan distinguishes them from Leon soils.
They differ from Grady soils in that they do not have
a clayey subsoil within a depth of 30 inches. They
are more poorly drained than Klej and Blanton soils.
Furthermore, they are grayer than Klej soils.
The vegetation consists of loblolly pine, slash pine,
pond pine, bay, gum, cypress, ferns, oak, gallberry, wire-
grass, and saw-palmetto.
Plummer soils are extensive in Suwannee County.
Most of the acreage is in woodland. Some has been
cleared and is used as pasture or is cultivated.






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


Local Alluvial Land, Phosphatic (Lp)
Local alluvial land, phosphatic, is a land type made
up of a mixture of soil material that has washed or
blown from adjacent areas and accumulated in depres-
sions and at the base of slopes. The soil material is of
phosphatic origin. Except for the phosphatic influence,
this land type is similar to Local alluvial land.
Texture, color, and stratification vary, but this land
type is predominantly very dark grayish brown to black
in the surface layer, which is 8 to 15 inches thick, and
dark gray or brown in the subsurface layer, which ex-
tends to a depth of several feet. Water drains through
the permeable soil into porous limestone.
This land type is associated with Arredondo, Gaines-
ville, and Zuber soils. These soils generally surround
areas of this land type. It is stratified surface material
from these soils that makes up this land type.
The vegetation consists of oak, hickory, sweetgum,
pine, myrtle, briers, and native grasses, including wire-
grass.
This land type occurs as small areas in the parts of the
county where phosphatic soils occur. The total acreage
is small. Most of it is cultivated or is used as pasture.
In most areas of this land type, natural fertility is high,
the organic-matter content is moderate, and the avail-
able moisture capacity is moderate to high. Conse-
quently, in large cultivated fields, these areas are con-
spicuous because plants make better growth on them
than on the soils surrounding. (Capability unit IIsw-1;
woodland group 8.)

Mine Pits and Dumps (M p)
Mine pits and dumps is a miscellaneous land type that
varies widely in texture, consistence, and structure.
Areas of this land type occur 1 mile north of Live Oak
and 3 miles east of Branford. The wide range of land
conditions is a result of mining and quarrying opera-
tions. Most of the areas where soil and underlying
minerals have been removed are scarred with pits and
trenches and dotted with piles of waste material. These
areas have little or no agricultural value. In some
places, however, trees are reseeding naturally and some
pasture plants have become established. (Capability
unit VIIse-2; not placed in a woodland group.)

Ona Series
The Ona series consists of somewhat poorly drained,
strongly acid soils. Beneath the surface layer they have
either a layer stained by organic matter or a weak pan.
They were derived from acid, marine sand.
The fine sand surface layer of these soils ranges from
dark gray to black. Their subsoil is fine sand that ranges
from grayish brown to brownish black.
Ona soils are closely associated with Scranton, Rut-
lege, and Leon soils. Except for the stained, brown
layer beneath their surface layer, Ona soils are similar
to Scranton soils. Ona soils have a thicker and darker
surface layer than Leon soils, and they lack a leached
layer beneath the surface layer. Furthermore, they have
only a weakly cemented pan, or merely a stained layer


in places, whereas Leon soils have a weakly to strongly
cemented pan. Ona soils are better drained than Rut-
lege soils, and they occur at higher elevations.
The vegetation consists of wiregrass, sedges, longleaf
pine, slash pine, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and some saw-
palmetto.
Ona soils occur in the nearly level flatwoods section in
the eastern part of the county. Their acreage is small,
and they were mapped only in a complex with Leon soils.
See Leon and Ona fine sands, page 22.

Peat (Pa)
Peat consists of very poorly drained, very strongly
acid to extremely acid material that was derived from
the remains of grasses, lilies, and woody plants. It has
a high content of nitrogen and organic matter but a
low content of all other plant nutrients, including the
minor ones. It occurs in depressions where outlets for
surplus water are poor.
Peat ranges from dark reddish brown to dark brown
in color and from 36 to 60 inches in thickness. It is shal-
low around the rim of depressions and deep at the center.
The underlying material normally is coarse sand but
is sandy clay in places.
Subsidence due to decomposition is very slow in un-
disturbed areas and rapid in drained, cultivated areas.
Peat is closely associated with Plummer and Rutlege
soils. It differs from them in being derived from re-
mains of vegetation rather than from inorganic matter.
The vegetation consists of sweetbay, ash, cypress, pine,
moss, ferns, maidencane, and other water-tolerant plants.
Most areas of peat are too small to be drained economi-
cally. (Capability unit VIIws-2; woodland group 11.)

Plummer Series
The soils in the Plummer series are deep, sandy, and
somewhat poorly drained to very poorly drained.
Their surface layer is gray to black fine sand 2 to 6
inches thick. Their subsurface layer is light-gray to
gray fine sand mottled with pale yellow or pale brown
in places. A clayey layer normally occurs at a depth
of 4 or 5 feet, but in places it is at a depth between 30
and 42 inches.
These soils are very strongly acid. They are low in
organic-matter content and in natural fertility.
Plummer soils are closely associated with Rutlege,
Scranton, Leon, Grady, Klej, and Blanton (low phase)
soils. They are similar to Rutlege soils, but they have
a thinner, lighter colored surface layer. Plummer soils
lack a thick, dark surface layer like that of Scranton
soils, and they are less brown and yellow. Their lack
of an organic pan distinguishes them from Leon soils.
They differ from Grady soils in that they do not have
a clayey subsoil within a depth of 30 inches. They
are more poorly drained than Klej and Blanton soils.
Furthermore, they are grayer than Klej soils.
The vegetation consists of loblolly pine, slash pine,
pond pine, bay, gum, cypress, ferns, oak, gallberry, wire-
grass, and saw-palmetto.
Plummer soils are extensive in Suwannee County.
Most of the acreage is in woodland. Some has been
cleared and is used as pasture or is cultivated.






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


Local Alluvial Land, Phosphatic (Lp)
Local alluvial land, phosphatic, is a land type made
up of a mixture of soil material that has washed or
blown from adjacent areas and accumulated in depres-
sions and at the base of slopes. The soil material is of
phosphatic origin. Except for the phosphatic influence,
this land type is similar to Local alluvial land.
Texture, color, and stratification vary, but this land
type is predominantly very dark grayish brown to black
in the surface layer, which is 8 to 15 inches thick, and
dark gray or brown in the subsurface layer, which ex-
tends to a depth of several feet. Water drains through
the permeable soil into porous limestone.
This land type is associated with Arredondo, Gaines-
ville, and Zuber soils. These soils generally surround
areas of this land type. It is stratified surface material
from these soils that makes up this land type.
The vegetation consists of oak, hickory, sweetgum,
pine, myrtle, briers, and native grasses, including wire-
grass.
This land type occurs as small areas in the parts of the
county where phosphatic soils occur. The total acreage
is small. Most of it is cultivated or is used as pasture.
In most areas of this land type, natural fertility is high,
the organic-matter content is moderate, and the avail-
able moisture capacity is moderate to high. Conse-
quently, in large cultivated fields, these areas are con-
spicuous because plants make better growth on them
than on the soils surrounding. (Capability unit IIsw-1;
woodland group 8.)

Mine Pits and Dumps (M p)
Mine pits and dumps is a miscellaneous land type that
varies widely in texture, consistence, and structure.
Areas of this land type occur 1 mile north of Live Oak
and 3 miles east of Branford. The wide range of land
conditions is a result of mining and quarrying opera-
tions. Most of the areas where soil and underlying
minerals have been removed are scarred with pits and
trenches and dotted with piles of waste material. These
areas have little or no agricultural value. In some
places, however, trees are reseeding naturally and some
pasture plants have become established. (Capability
unit VIIse-2; not placed in a woodland group.)

Ona Series
The Ona series consists of somewhat poorly drained,
strongly acid soils. Beneath the surface layer they have
either a layer stained by organic matter or a weak pan.
They were derived from acid, marine sand.
The fine sand surface layer of these soils ranges from
dark gray to black. Their subsoil is fine sand that ranges
from grayish brown to brownish black.
Ona soils are closely associated with Scranton, Rut-
lege, and Leon soils. Except for the stained, brown
layer beneath their surface layer, Ona soils are similar
to Scranton soils. Ona soils have a thicker and darker
surface layer than Leon soils, and they lack a leached
layer beneath the surface layer. Furthermore, they have
only a weakly cemented pan, or merely a stained layer


in places, whereas Leon soils have a weakly to strongly
cemented pan. Ona soils are better drained than Rut-
lege soils, and they occur at higher elevations.
The vegetation consists of wiregrass, sedges, longleaf
pine, slash pine, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and some saw-
palmetto.
Ona soils occur in the nearly level flatwoods section in
the eastern part of the county. Their acreage is small,
and they were mapped only in a complex with Leon soils.
See Leon and Ona fine sands, page 22.

Peat (Pa)
Peat consists of very poorly drained, very strongly
acid to extremely acid material that was derived from
the remains of grasses, lilies, and woody plants. It has
a high content of nitrogen and organic matter but a
low content of all other plant nutrients, including the
minor ones. It occurs in depressions where outlets for
surplus water are poor.
Peat ranges from dark reddish brown to dark brown
in color and from 36 to 60 inches in thickness. It is shal-
low around the rim of depressions and deep at the center.
The underlying material normally is coarse sand but
is sandy clay in places.
Subsidence due to decomposition is very slow in un-
disturbed areas and rapid in drained, cultivated areas.
Peat is closely associated with Plummer and Rutlege
soils. It differs from them in being derived from re-
mains of vegetation rather than from inorganic matter.
The vegetation consists of sweetbay, ash, cypress, pine,
moss, ferns, maidencane, and other water-tolerant plants.
Most areas of peat are too small to be drained economi-
cally. (Capability unit VIIws-2; woodland group 11.)

Plummer Series
The soils in the Plummer series are deep, sandy, and
somewhat poorly drained to very poorly drained.
Their surface layer is gray to black fine sand 2 to 6
inches thick. Their subsurface layer is light-gray to
gray fine sand mottled with pale yellow or pale brown
in places. A clayey layer normally occurs at a depth
of 4 or 5 feet, but in places it is at a depth between 30
and 42 inches.
These soils are very strongly acid. They are low in
organic-matter content and in natural fertility.
Plummer soils are closely associated with Rutlege,
Scranton, Leon, Grady, Klej, and Blanton (low phase)
soils. They are similar to Rutlege soils, but they have
a thinner, lighter colored surface layer. Plummer soils
lack a thick, dark surface layer like that of Scranton
soils, and they are less brown and yellow. Their lack
of an organic pan distinguishes them from Leon soils.
They differ from Grady soils in that they do not have
a clayey subsoil within a depth of 30 inches. They
are more poorly drained than Klej and Blanton soils.
Furthermore, they are grayer than Klej soils.
The vegetation consists of loblolly pine, slash pine,
pond pine, bay, gum, cypress, ferns, oak, gallberry, wire-
grass, and saw-palmetto.
Plummer soils are extensive in Suwannee County.
Most of the acreage is in woodland. Some has been
cleared and is used as pasture or is cultivated.






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


Local Alluvial Land, Phosphatic (Lp)
Local alluvial land, phosphatic, is a land type made
up of a mixture of soil material that has washed or
blown from adjacent areas and accumulated in depres-
sions and at the base of slopes. The soil material is of
phosphatic origin. Except for the phosphatic influence,
this land type is similar to Local alluvial land.
Texture, color, and stratification vary, but this land
type is predominantly very dark grayish brown to black
in the surface layer, which is 8 to 15 inches thick, and
dark gray or brown in the subsurface layer, which ex-
tends to a depth of several feet. Water drains through
the permeable soil into porous limestone.
This land type is associated with Arredondo, Gaines-
ville, and Zuber soils. These soils generally surround
areas of this land type. It is stratified surface material
from these soils that makes up this land type.
The vegetation consists of oak, hickory, sweetgum,
pine, myrtle, briers, and native grasses, including wire-
grass.
This land type occurs as small areas in the parts of the
county where phosphatic soils occur. The total acreage
is small. Most of it is cultivated or is used as pasture.
In most areas of this land type, natural fertility is high,
the organic-matter content is moderate, and the avail-
able moisture capacity is moderate to high. Conse-
quently, in large cultivated fields, these areas are con-
spicuous because plants make better growth on them
than on the soils surrounding. (Capability unit IIsw-1;
woodland group 8.)

Mine Pits and Dumps (M p)
Mine pits and dumps is a miscellaneous land type that
varies widely in texture, consistence, and structure.
Areas of this land type occur 1 mile north of Live Oak
and 3 miles east of Branford. The wide range of land
conditions is a result of mining and quarrying opera-
tions. Most of the areas where soil and underlying
minerals have been removed are scarred with pits and
trenches and dotted with piles of waste material. These
areas have little or no agricultural value. In some
places, however, trees are reseeding naturally and some
pasture plants have become established. (Capability
unit VIIse-2; not placed in a woodland group.)

Ona Series
The Ona series consists of somewhat poorly drained,
strongly acid soils. Beneath the surface layer they have
either a layer stained by organic matter or a weak pan.
They were derived from acid, marine sand.
The fine sand surface layer of these soils ranges from
dark gray to black. Their subsoil is fine sand that ranges
from grayish brown to brownish black.
Ona soils are closely associated with Scranton, Rut-
lege, and Leon soils. Except for the stained, brown
layer beneath their surface layer, Ona soils are similar
to Scranton soils. Ona soils have a thicker and darker
surface layer than Leon soils, and they lack a leached
layer beneath the surface layer. Furthermore, they have
only a weakly cemented pan, or merely a stained layer


in places, whereas Leon soils have a weakly to strongly
cemented pan. Ona soils are better drained than Rut-
lege soils, and they occur at higher elevations.
The vegetation consists of wiregrass, sedges, longleaf
pine, slash pine, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and some saw-
palmetto.
Ona soils occur in the nearly level flatwoods section in
the eastern part of the county. Their acreage is small,
and they were mapped only in a complex with Leon soils.
See Leon and Ona fine sands, page 22.

Peat (Pa)
Peat consists of very poorly drained, very strongly
acid to extremely acid material that was derived from
the remains of grasses, lilies, and woody plants. It has
a high content of nitrogen and organic matter but a
low content of all other plant nutrients, including the
minor ones. It occurs in depressions where outlets for
surplus water are poor.
Peat ranges from dark reddish brown to dark brown
in color and from 36 to 60 inches in thickness. It is shal-
low around the rim of depressions and deep at the center.
The underlying material normally is coarse sand but
is sandy clay in places.
Subsidence due to decomposition is very slow in un-
disturbed areas and rapid in drained, cultivated areas.
Peat is closely associated with Plummer and Rutlege
soils. It differs from them in being derived from re-
mains of vegetation rather than from inorganic matter.
The vegetation consists of sweetbay, ash, cypress, pine,
moss, ferns, maidencane, and other water-tolerant plants.
Most areas of peat are too small to be drained economi-
cally. (Capability unit VIIws-2; woodland group 11.)

Plummer Series
The soils in the Plummer series are deep, sandy, and
somewhat poorly drained to very poorly drained.
Their surface layer is gray to black fine sand 2 to 6
inches thick. Their subsurface layer is light-gray to
gray fine sand mottled with pale yellow or pale brown
in places. A clayey layer normally occurs at a depth
of 4 or 5 feet, but in places it is at a depth between 30
and 42 inches.
These soils are very strongly acid. They are low in
organic-matter content and in natural fertility.
Plummer soils are closely associated with Rutlege,
Scranton, Leon, Grady, Klej, and Blanton (low phase)
soils. They are similar to Rutlege soils, but they have
a thinner, lighter colored surface layer. Plummer soils
lack a thick, dark surface layer like that of Scranton
soils, and they are less brown and yellow. Their lack
of an organic pan distinguishes them from Leon soils.
They differ from Grady soils in that they do not have
a clayey subsoil within a depth of 30 inches. They
are more poorly drained than Klej and Blanton soils.
Furthermore, they are grayer than Klej soils.
The vegetation consists of loblolly pine, slash pine,
pond pine, bay, gum, cypress, ferns, oak, gallberry, wire-
grass, and saw-palmetto.
Plummer soils are extensive in Suwannee County.
Most of the acreage is in woodland. Some has been
cleared and is used as pasture or is cultivated.






SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


Plummer fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes (PdA).-This
is a poorly drained to very poorly drained, deep, sandy
soil. Its major horizons are-
0 to 4 inches, dark-gray, loose fine sand.
4 to 20 inches, light-gray to gray, loose fine sand mottled with
brownish gray.
20 to 48 inches +, light-gray, loose fine sand mottled with
yellowish brown and white.
The surface layer ranges from gray to very dark gray
in color and from 2 to 7 inches in thickness. The sub-
surface layer usually is mottled with brownish gray or
white and shades of brown and yellow. In places a brown
stain occurs at a depth of 30 to 48 inches.
This soil is strongly acid. It is low in organic matter
content and in natural fertility. A water table at or near
the surface most of the time, and other unfavorable char-
acteristics, make this soil unsuitable for cultivation. Its
suitability for pasture and woodland can be improved if
adequate surface drainage is provided. (Capability unit
Vws-2; woodland group 10.)
Plummer fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (PdB).-
Because its slopes are gentle this soil has more rapid
surface drainage than Plummer fine sand, 0 to 2 percent
slopes. This soil is low in natural fertility. Plant
nutrients leach out of it rapidly. The soil is not suited
to cultivation, but if properly managed it is well suited
to improved pasture and to pine trees. (Capability unit
Vws-2; woodland group 10.)
Plummer fine sand, depressions (Pf).-This is a
strongly acid, highly leached, deep, sandy soil that occurs
in depressions and is covered with shallow water most of
the time. The major horizons are-
0 to 6 inches, black, loose fine sand.
6 to 23 inches, light-gray, loose fine sand.
23 to 48 inches, white fine sand with yellow mottles.
The surface layer is fine sand or mucky fine sand. It
ranges from gray to black in color and from 2 to 7 inches
in thickness. A brown stained layer commonly occurs
at a depth of 36 to 48 inches.
This soil is not suitable for cultivation. It has to be
drained for use as pasture or for growing pine trees.
(Capability unit Vws-2; woodland group 10.)
' Plummer fine sand, high (Ph).-This is a somewhat
poorly drained, acid, deep, sandy soil. Its major horizons
are-
0 to 5 inches, gray, loose fine sand.
5 to 66 inches, light brownish-gray to pale-brown, loose fine
sand mottled with light gray and yellowish brown.
66 to 78 inches, white fine sand mottled with pale brown.
F The surface layer ranges from gray to dark gray in
color and from 4 to 7 inches in thickness. The substrata
are lighter colored and less mottled with depth. The
uppermost part of the substrata, to a depth of about
30 inches, is light brownish gray to pale brown; the lower
part, at a depth of 30 inches and extending down to 78
inches, is light gray to white.
This soil is low in organic-matter content and in natural
fertility. Plant nutrients leach out rapidly. The water
table normally fluctuates at a depth between 18 inches
and 36 inches.
This soil occurs mostly as small areas. It is used to
grow general farm crops. Yields are good during dry
years. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass do well


if the soil is well managed. (Capability unit IVsw-1;
woodland group 6.)
Plummer fine sand, moderately shallow (Pm).-This is
a poorly drained to very poorly drained, acid soil. Its
major horizons are-
0 to 5 inches, black, loose fine sand.
5 to 27 inches, gray, loose fine sand.
27 to 35 inches, light-gray, loose loamy fine sand; brownish-
yellow mottles.
35 to 50 inches, light-gray and yellowish-brown fine sandy
loam.
The surface layer ranges from light gray to black in
color and from 2 to 7 inches in thickness. Mottles in the
lower part of the profile range from yellow to yellowish
brown. In places a brown stained layer occurs between
the surface and clayey substratum.
This soil is not suitable for cultivation, because of poor
soil characteristics, including a high water table that
generally is at or near the surface. (Capability unit
Vws-2; woodland group 10.)
Plummer, Bladen, and Rains soils, 5 to 17 percent
slopes (PrD).-Soils of the Plummer, the Bladen, and
the Rains series on sloping to steep hillsides make up
this undifferentiated soil group. The component soils
have two characteristics in common-slope, and wetness
throughout the year because of seepage. Otherwise,
they vary to an extent that sharp boundaries exist be-
tween them. The texture and thickness of their surface
layer and subsoil range widely. In some places the
three soils may occur within one mapped area but in
others only one or two may be present.
The Plummer soil in this group is steeper than the
previously described Plummer soils, but otherwise it
has similar characteristics. Bladen soils were not mapped
separately in this county. A general description of the
Bladen series is on page 9, and a profile description of
Bladen fine sandy loam is on page 17. Rains soils also
were not mapped separately in this county, and they are
not described in d tail in this report. They are similar
to Bladen soils in many respects. Their sandy loam to
sandy clay loam subsoil, however, is coarser textured
than that of Bladen soils. Rains soils occur in the county
only as small areas.
The total acreage of this soil group is small. It occurs
as numerous small areas scattered throughout the county.
Most areas are in native growth, which consists of pine
trees, hardwoods, gallberry, and grass. A few areas are
adjacent to well-drained pastureland. The soils in this
group erode severely if cleared. Besides, ordinary farm
equipment cannot operate successfully on them. They
are, therefore, best left wooded. (Capability unit VIIws-1;
woodland group 10.)

Pomello Series
The Pomello series consists of rapidly permeable,
somewhat drought, sandy soils. They formed from
thick beds of nearly white, acid, marine sand.
The surface layer of these soils is 1 to 6 inches thick.
It is gray or light gray and has a salt and pepper ap-
pearance. Below it is a layer of white or light-gray
sand that extends to a depth of more than 30 inches.
A weakly cemented, organic pan of dark reddish-brown
or dark grayish-brown fine sand occurs at a depth






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


between 30 and 42 inches. It is 3 to 10 inches thick, and
it is underlain by pale-brown fine sand.
Pomello soils are closely associated with Leon, Blan-
ton, and Rutlege soils. They are similar to Leon soils
in that both have an organic pan, but Pomello soils
are deeper to the pan and are lighter colored. Their
pan distinguishes them from Blanton soils. Further-
more, Pomello soils are lighter colored than Blanton
soils. They are better drained than Rutlege soils and
have a lighter colored surface layer.
The vegetation consists principally of wiregrass, saw-
palmetto, turkey oak, and longleaf pine.
Pomello soils occur in small, nearly level to gently slop-
ing areas throughout the county. Many of the areas
are in cultivated fields that are near small ponds or
depressions. During growing seasons these areas are
easily distinguishable because they are light colored and
plants grow poorly on them.
Pomello fine sand (Ps).-This moderately well drained
soil is the best drained of organic-pan soils in the county.
Its major horizons are- ; -
0 to 5 inches, gray, loose fine sand.
5 to 39 inches, white, loose fine sand.
39 to 45 inches, dark reddish-brown fine sand with organic pan.
45 to 58 inches, pale-brown fine sand.
The surface layer is light-gray or gray fine sand or
sand 1 to 6 inches thick. Below it is a leached layer of
light-gray or white fine sand or sand 28 to 42 inches thick.
The organic pan consists of dark-brown to dark reddish-
brown fine sand. It is weakly to strongly cemented and
3 to 10 inches thick.
This soil is very strongly acid and very low in organic-
matter content and in natural fertility. It has a very
low available moisture capacity.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops and is only
fair for pasture and for pine trees. (Capability unit
Vsw-1; woodland group 6.)

Rutlege Series
The soils in this series are deep, strongly acid, and
very poorly drained. They occur on nearly level areas
or in shallow ponds.
Their surface layer is very dark gray or black fine
sand 8 to 12 inches thick. It grades to a 24- to 60-inch
layer of gray to dark-gray fine sand that abruptly over-
lies a layer of gray sandy clay mottled with brown, red-
dish brown, or yellowish brown.
Rutlege soils are associated with Plummer, Leon, Ona,
and Scranton soils. Their surface layer is thicker and
usually darker than that of Plummer soils. Their lack
of a layer or pan stained or cemented by organic matter
distinguishes them from both Ona and Leon soils. Rut-
lege soils are more poorly drained than Ona, Leon, and
Scranton soils. They are less yellow in their lower
horizons than are Scranton soils.
The native vegetation is chiefly cypress, blackgum,
slash pine, pond pine, and moss.
These soils are not extensive in the county. They oc-
cur as small areas scattered throughout the flatwoods
section in the eastern part. Many areas are wet. Since
they are difficult to drain, they are in native woodland.


Rutlege fine sand (Ru).-This is a very poorly drained
pond soil. Its major horizons are-
0 to 8 inches, black, loose fine sand.
8 to 56 inches, gray to dark-gray, loose fine sand.
56 to 66 inches +, gray silty clay loam; angular blocky struc-
ture.
The surface layer is mucky fine sand in places. The
subsurface layer is gray to dark-gray fine sand several
feet thick. Normally, at a depth of 3Y to 5 feet, the
fine sand abruptly overlies gray clayey material mottled
with reddish brown, yellow, or yellowish brown. This
soil is strongly acid and high in organic-matter content.
This soil requires drainage before it can be cultivated.
If adequately drained and otherwise well managed, it
is fairly well suited to cultivation and well suited to
pasture. Normally, it is too wet for good production of
pine trees, but if drained it is well suited to slash pine,
pond pine, and loblolly pine. (Capability unit Vws-2;
woodland group 10.)

Sandy and Clayey Land
This is a miscellaneous land type that contains Blan-
ton, Bowie, Susquehanna, Lakeland, and other soils
mixed in an intricate pattern. Areas of the individual
soils are too small for practical separation, and the ex-
tent of each soil within individual areas of this land type
varies from place to place.
Surface texture, depth, degree of profile development,
color, and drainage vary widely from one area to another
according to the individual soils in the area. In some
places highly mottled clay loam or clay is exposed. In
others a layer of yellow, brown, red, or dark-gray, mod-
erately permeable sandy clay loam occurs between a
thin, sandy surface layer and the mottled, slowly per-
meable, clayey substratum. Rapidly permeable, light-
colored sand extends to a depth of several feet in some
areas.
The mapping units in this land type are Sandy and
clayey land, gently sloping, and Sandy and clayey land,
sloping.
Sandy and clayey land, gently sloping (SaB).-This
land type is slightly undulating; the slope range is 2 to 5
percent. The surface is marked by knolls and shallow
swales. There is no well-defined pattern for surface
drainage.
In a typical profile of this land type, fine sand overlies
clayey material. The thickness of the sandy surface layer
and the texture, consistence, and permeability of the
clayey substrata vary within short distances. In many
places, the surface layer is less than 6 inches deep. The
clayey substrata are normally less than 24 inches deep.
Pockets of fine sand several feet thick are common.
Surplus water drains through these deep sands and into
the underlying porous limestone. In some small areas
clay is exposed at the surface.
The original vegetation was longleaf pine and wiregrass.
Much of the acreage has been cleared and is now culti-
vated or used as pasture. This land type generally is well
suited to cultivated crops. Growth is irregular, however,
because of the wide range in soil characteristics.
Most of the acreage-approximately 5,000 acres-is in
the western part of the county. (Capability unit IVse-6;
woodland group 4.)






SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


Sandy and clayey land, sloping (ScC).-This land type
consists of the same soils that make up Sandy and clayey
land, gently sloping, but those soils that have clayey
material near the surface are dominant. Outcrops of
clay are more numerous in this land type.
The approximately 800 acres of this land type occur in
small areas associated with larger areas of similar but more
gently sloping soils. Much of the acreage has been
cleared and is cultivated. This land type erodes easily
if not well protected. It is well suited to pasture and to
pine trees. (Capability unit VIes-1; woodland group 4.)

Scranton Series
The Scranton series consists of deep, strongly acid,
poorly drained or somewhat poorly drained soils that
were derived from thick beds of marine sand.
The 6- to 12-inch surface layer of very dark gray to
black fine sand grades into a layer of dark-gray fine
sand. The substratum is pale-brown or very pale brown
fine sand mottled with shades of yellow or grayish brown.
The water table normally fluctuates within 3 feet of the
surface.
Scranton soils are closely associated with Ona, Leon,
Plummer, and Rutlege soils. They are most nearly like
Ona soils, but they do not have a brown stained layer
beneath their surface layer. They differ from Leon soils
in having a thicker surface layer and in not having an
organic pan. They have a thicker and darker surface
layer than Plummer soils, and in most places are better
drained. They are better drained than Rutlege soils.
The vegetation consists chiefly of longleaf pine, slash
pine, gallberry, waxmyrtle, palmetto, and wiregrass.
Scranton soils are suitable for cultivation, for use as
pasture, and for use as woodland.
In Suwannee County, these soils occur mostly in the
flatwoods section in the eastern part.
Scranton fine sand (Sd).-This is a nearly level, some-
what poorly drained, deep soil. Its major horizons are-
0 to 8 inches, black fine sand.
8 to 18 inches, dark-gray fine sand.
18 to 48 inches, pale-brown or very pale brown, loose fine sand.
The upper layers range from black to very dark gray
in color and from 7 to 18 inches in thickness. These
grade to a layer of pale-brown or very pale brown fine
sand mottled with yellow. This layer is 24 to 60 inches
thick in most places.
Mapped with this soil were small areas in which a layer
of gray, yellow, or brown fine sandy clay loam or fine
sandy loam occurs at a depth between 30 and 42 inches.
Also included were small areas where the slope range is
2 to 5 percent.
This soil is strongly acid, high in organic-matter con-
tent, and medium to high in natural fertility. It is in
good tilth, and it rarely needs more than shallow drainage
to control excess water. It is well suited to cultivation,
to pasture, and to trees. (Capability unit IIws-1;
woodland group 10.)

Susquehanna Series
The soils in this series are gently sloping to strongly
sloping, moderately deep, and somewhat poorly drained
or moderately well drained.


Their surface layer is dark-gray or very dark gray
fine sand 3 to 7 inches thick. Their subsurface layer is
brown or light brownish-gray fine sand 4 to 16 inches
thick. These overlie a layer of mottled, firm to very
firm clay. Normally, the depth to this layer is less than
18 inches, but in places it is 18 to 30 inches.
Susquehanna soils are associated with Blanton and
Bowie soils. The clayey material within the upper 30
inches of their profile distinguishes them from Blanton
soils. Their more mottled, finer textured subsoil dis-
tinguishes them from Bowie soils. In many areas, these
three soils are so intermingled that they were mapped
together as a soil complex.
The vegetation is longleaf pine, bluejack oak, live oak,
waxmyrtle, chinquapin, blackberry briers, and wiregrass.
Most of the acreage has been cleared and is cultivated
or is used as pasture. A few areas are still in native
growth or have been planted to pine.
Susquehanna soils are extensive in Suwannee County.
They occur throughout the central part.
Susquehanna fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (SfB).-
This is a somewhat poorly drained to moderately well
drained soil on uplands. The major horizons are-
0 to 8 inches, gray to dark-gray, loose fine sand.
8 to 16 inches, brown clay mottled with strong brown and
gray.
16 to 52 inches, light brownish-gray to light-gray, very firm
clay mottled with red, dark red, reddish yellow, and gray.
In places the surface layer is loamy fine sand. The
subsoil is mottled brown to reddish-brown clay 3 to 10
inches thick. Depth to the highly mottled, clayey sub-
stratum ranges from 10 to 24 inches.
Areas in which the subsoil is gray to very dark gray clay
with small red mottles were mapped with this soil. Also
included in the mapping was a small area in which the
subsoil is dark brown. Outcrops of unrelated limerock
occur in a few places, and a few acres are moderately
eroded.
This soil is strongly acid, low in natural fertility, and
low in organic-matter content. It has moderate available
moisture capacity. The very slowly permeable subsoil
is plastic and sticky when wet, firm when moist, and
hard when dry.
This soil can be used safely for cultivation only occa-
sionally and only if well managed. It is well suited to
pasture and fairly well suited to pine trees. (Capability
unit IVse-6; woodland group 4.)
Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (SfC).-
Because its slopes are steeper, runoff is more rapid on this
soil than on Susquehanna fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Generally, this soil is not as deep as the more gently
sloping phase. It is not suited to cultivation, but it is
well suited to pasture and fairly well suited to pine trees.
(Capability unit VIes-1; woodland group 4.)
Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded
(SfC2).-This soil has a thinner surface layer and steeper
slopes than Susquehanna fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Otherwise, it has similar characteristics. It is not suited
to cultivation but is well suited to pasture and fairly well
suited to pine trees. (Capability unit VIes-1; woodland
group 4.)
Susquehanna fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes (SfD).-
This soil has a slightly thinner surface layer and steeper
slopes than Susquehanna fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.






SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


Sandy and clayey land, sloping (ScC).-This land type
consists of the same soils that make up Sandy and clayey
land, gently sloping, but those soils that have clayey
material near the surface are dominant. Outcrops of
clay are more numerous in this land type.
The approximately 800 acres of this land type occur in
small areas associated with larger areas of similar but more
gently sloping soils. Much of the acreage has been
cleared and is cultivated. This land type erodes easily
if not well protected. It is well suited to pasture and to
pine trees. (Capability unit VIes-1; woodland group 4.)

Scranton Series
The Scranton series consists of deep, strongly acid,
poorly drained or somewhat poorly drained soils that
were derived from thick beds of marine sand.
The 6- to 12-inch surface layer of very dark gray to
black fine sand grades into a layer of dark-gray fine
sand. The substratum is pale-brown or very pale brown
fine sand mottled with shades of yellow or grayish brown.
The water table normally fluctuates within 3 feet of the
surface.
Scranton soils are closely associated with Ona, Leon,
Plummer, and Rutlege soils. They are most nearly like
Ona soils, but they do not have a brown stained layer
beneath their surface layer. They differ from Leon soils
in having a thicker surface layer and in not having an
organic pan. They have a thicker and darker surface
layer than Plummer soils, and in most places are better
drained. They are better drained than Rutlege soils.
The vegetation consists chiefly of longleaf pine, slash
pine, gallberry, waxmyrtle, palmetto, and wiregrass.
Scranton soils are suitable for cultivation, for use as
pasture, and for use as woodland.
In Suwannee County, these soils occur mostly in the
flatwoods section in the eastern part.
Scranton fine sand (Sd).-This is a nearly level, some-
what poorly drained, deep soil. Its major horizons are-
0 to 8 inches, black fine sand.
8 to 18 inches, dark-gray fine sand.
18 to 48 inches, pale-brown or very pale brown, loose fine sand.
The upper layers range from black to very dark gray
in color and from 7 to 18 inches in thickness. These
grade to a layer of pale-brown or very pale brown fine
sand mottled with yellow. This layer is 24 to 60 inches
thick in most places.
Mapped with this soil were small areas in which a layer
of gray, yellow, or brown fine sandy clay loam or fine
sandy loam occurs at a depth between 30 and 42 inches.
Also included were small areas where the slope range is
2 to 5 percent.
This soil is strongly acid, high in organic-matter con-
tent, and medium to high in natural fertility. It is in
good tilth, and it rarely needs more than shallow drainage
to control excess water. It is well suited to cultivation,
to pasture, and to trees. (Capability unit IIws-1;
woodland group 10.)

Susquehanna Series
The soils in this series are gently sloping to strongly
sloping, moderately deep, and somewhat poorly drained
or moderately well drained.


Their surface layer is dark-gray or very dark gray
fine sand 3 to 7 inches thick. Their subsurface layer is
brown or light brownish-gray fine sand 4 to 16 inches
thick. These overlie a layer of mottled, firm to very
firm clay. Normally, the depth to this layer is less than
18 inches, but in places it is 18 to 30 inches.
Susquehanna soils are associated with Blanton and
Bowie soils. The clayey material within the upper 30
inches of their profile distinguishes them from Blanton
soils. Their more mottled, finer textured subsoil dis-
tinguishes them from Bowie soils. In many areas, these
three soils are so intermingled that they were mapped
together as a soil complex.
The vegetation is longleaf pine, bluejack oak, live oak,
waxmyrtle, chinquapin, blackberry briers, and wiregrass.
Most of the acreage has been cleared and is cultivated
or is used as pasture. A few areas are still in native
growth or have been planted to pine.
Susquehanna soils are extensive in Suwannee County.
They occur throughout the central part.
Susquehanna fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (SfB).-
This is a somewhat poorly drained to moderately well
drained soil on uplands. The major horizons are-
0 to 8 inches, gray to dark-gray, loose fine sand.
8 to 16 inches, brown clay mottled with strong brown and
gray.
16 to 52 inches, light brownish-gray to light-gray, very firm
clay mottled with red, dark red, reddish yellow, and gray.
In places the surface layer is loamy fine sand. The
subsoil is mottled brown to reddish-brown clay 3 to 10
inches thick. Depth to the highly mottled, clayey sub-
stratum ranges from 10 to 24 inches.
Areas in which the subsoil is gray to very dark gray clay
with small red mottles were mapped with this soil. Also
included in the mapping was a small area in which the
subsoil is dark brown. Outcrops of unrelated limerock
occur in a few places, and a few acres are moderately
eroded.
This soil is strongly acid, low in natural fertility, and
low in organic-matter content. It has moderate available
moisture capacity. The very slowly permeable subsoil
is plastic and sticky when wet, firm when moist, and
hard when dry.
This soil can be used safely for cultivation only occa-
sionally and only if well managed. It is well suited to
pasture and fairly well suited to pine trees. (Capability
unit IVse-6; woodland group 4.)
Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (SfC).-
Because its slopes are steeper, runoff is more rapid on this
soil than on Susquehanna fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Generally, this soil is not as deep as the more gently
sloping phase. It is not suited to cultivation, but it is
well suited to pasture and fairly well suited to pine trees.
(Capability unit VIes-1; woodland group 4.)
Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded
(SfC2).-This soil has a thinner surface layer and steeper
slopes than Susquehanna fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Otherwise, it has similar characteristics. It is not suited
to cultivation but is well suited to pasture and fairly well
suited to pine trees. (Capability unit VIes-1; woodland
group 4.)
Susquehanna fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes (SfD).-
This soil has a slightly thinner surface layer and steeper
slopes than Susquehanna fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.







SUWANNEE COU
Otherwise, it is similar. About 51 acres of this soil are
moderately eroded. This soil is not suited to cultivated
crops but is well suited to pasture and fairly well suited
to pine trees. (Capability unit VIes-1; woodland group
4.)
Susquehanna fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent
slopes (ShB).-This is a somewhat poorly drained to
moderately well drained soil on uplands. Its major
horizons are-
0 to 20 inches, gray to grayish-brown, loose fine sand.
20 to 28 inches, strong-brown fine sandy clay loam mottled
with brownish yellow.
28 to 40 inches, light-gray fine sandy clay mottled with reddish
yellow and red.
The combined thickness of the surface layer and the
subsurface layer ranges from 18 to 30 inches. The sub-
soil normally is mottled brown to yellowish-brown or
red, firm, plastic clay. In places it is absent. In these
places the substratum is finer textured and more highly
mottled. Depth to the finer textured material is variable.
In some areas the sandy surface layer extends to a
depth of slightly more than 30 inches.
This soil is strongly acid, low in natural fertility, and
low in organic-matter content. Its available moisture
capacity is low.
Even if well managed, this soil can be cultivated safely
only occasionally. It is well suited to pasture and fairly
well suited to pine tree production. (Capability unit
IVse-6; woodland group 4.)
Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes
(SnB).-In some areas, concentrated mostly in the cen-
tral part of the county, Susquehanna soils are so intri-
cately mixed with Blanton soils that separation was not
feasible. Thus, in these areas the two soils were mapped
together as a soil complex. The individual soils are
described under their respective series.
Although a profile typical of the individual soils would
not be difficult to find in any area of this complex, in
most places the soil is an intergrade between the two. A
fine sand surface layer overlies clayey substrata through-
out the acreage. The thickness of the surface layer,
however, varies widely over short distances. Limestone
outcrops are common. Small areas of almost sterile sand
that supports little vegetation are also common. These
areas, locally known as sand soaks or dead spots, are only
a few feet in diameter. In these, the sand usually is not
underlain by clay but extends to great depths.
This complex is low in organic-matter content and in
natural fertility. It has a low available moisture capacity.
The original vegetation was longleaf pine, oak, and
wiregrass. Most areas have been cleared and cultivated.
More recently, many areas are being used as pasture or
have been reforested with slash pine. .Capability unit
IIIse-4; woodland group 4.)
Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes
(SnC).-Except for steeper slopes, this complex is similar
to Susquehanna-Blanton complex 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Because of the steeper slopes, this complex is more sus-
ceptible to erosion; and due to erosion, its surface layer is
thinner.
Mapped with this complex are a few moderately eroded
areas and a few other areas, mostly on short breaks around
the rim of sinkholes, where slopes are steeper than 8
percent. These areas are too small to delineate.


JNTY, FLORIDA 27

This complex is low in organic-matter content and in
natural fertility. It has a low available moisture capacity.
Generally, it is not suited to cultivated crops, but it is
suited to deep-rooted grasses, including bahiagrass, and to
pine trees. (Capability unit IVse-6; woodland group 4.)
Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes
(SnD).-This complex is similar to Susquehanna-Blanton
complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes, but it has a thinner surface
layer and is more susceptible to erosion because it has
stronger slopes.
A few moderately eroded areas, too small to be mapped
separately, were included with this complex.
This complex is low in organic-matter content and in
natural fertility. It has low available moisture capacity.
It is not suited to cultivated crops but is suited to deep-
rooted grasses and pine trees. (Capability unit VIes-l;
woodland group 4.)

Swamp (Sw)
This is a miscellaneous land type that is very poorly
drained and is flooded periodically during the year. It
occurs in low-lying positions on uplands where there are
no natural drainage outlets and in areas adjacent to
the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers. These areas are
mostly in the northeastern and eastern parts of the
county and around the perimeter.
Because of excess water or thick vegetation, these areas
are not accessible for orderly examination of the soils.
Therefore, the soil materials of this land type have not
been classified.
The natural vegetation is chiefly a mixture of cypress,
bay, gum, slash pine, myrtle, and vines. The propor-
tion of each kind of vegetation varies considerably from
place to place. Cypress, for example, is dominant in
the most poorly drained areas, especially those areas in
depressions or uplands.
In its native state, this land type provides food and
cover for wildlife. Poor drainage and periodic flooding
limit the vegetation to water-tolerant plants. Many
areas could not be drained easily nor economically be-
cause of their small size or position on the landscape.
(Not placed in a capability grouping; woodland group
11.)

Weston Series
The Weston series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained, strongly acid soils in depressions or low, flat
areas that have no natural drainage outlets.
The surface layer is dark-gray to black fine sand. It
overlies a layer of light-gray to dark-gray fine sand. The
subsoil and the layers below it are gray, dark-gray, or
dark brownish-gray clay with pockets of sandy or silty
material.
Weston soils are closely associated with Grady, Bladen,
and Coxville soils. A surface layer that is thicker and
fine-textured layers that have less red mottling and that
have pockets or lenses of sandy material distinguish
Weston soils from the associated soils.
The native vegetation is pine, oak, sumac, waxmyrtle,
dwarf huckleberry, blackberry briers, sedges, and







SUWANNEE COU
Otherwise, it is similar. About 51 acres of this soil are
moderately eroded. This soil is not suited to cultivated
crops but is well suited to pasture and fairly well suited
to pine trees. (Capability unit VIes-1; woodland group
4.)
Susquehanna fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent
slopes (ShB).-This is a somewhat poorly drained to
moderately well drained soil on uplands. Its major
horizons are-
0 to 20 inches, gray to grayish-brown, loose fine sand.
20 to 28 inches, strong-brown fine sandy clay loam mottled
with brownish yellow.
28 to 40 inches, light-gray fine sandy clay mottled with reddish
yellow and red.
The combined thickness of the surface layer and the
subsurface layer ranges from 18 to 30 inches. The sub-
soil normally is mottled brown to yellowish-brown or
red, firm, plastic clay. In places it is absent. In these
places the substratum is finer textured and more highly
mottled. Depth to the finer textured material is variable.
In some areas the sandy surface layer extends to a
depth of slightly more than 30 inches.
This soil is strongly acid, low in natural fertility, and
low in organic-matter content. Its available moisture
capacity is low.
Even if well managed, this soil can be cultivated safely
only occasionally. It is well suited to pasture and fairly
well suited to pine tree production. (Capability unit
IVse-6; woodland group 4.)
Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes
(SnB).-In some areas, concentrated mostly in the cen-
tral part of the county, Susquehanna soils are so intri-
cately mixed with Blanton soils that separation was not
feasible. Thus, in these areas the two soils were mapped
together as a soil complex. The individual soils are
described under their respective series.
Although a profile typical of the individual soils would
not be difficult to find in any area of this complex, in
most places the soil is an intergrade between the two. A
fine sand surface layer overlies clayey substrata through-
out the acreage. The thickness of the surface layer,
however, varies widely over short distances. Limestone
outcrops are common. Small areas of almost sterile sand
that supports little vegetation are also common. These
areas, locally known as sand soaks or dead spots, are only
a few feet in diameter. In these, the sand usually is not
underlain by clay but extends to great depths.
This complex is low in organic-matter content and in
natural fertility. It has a low available moisture capacity.
The original vegetation was longleaf pine, oak, and
wiregrass. Most areas have been cleared and cultivated.
More recently, many areas are being used as pasture or
have been reforested with slash pine. .Capability unit
IIIse-4; woodland group 4.)
Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes
(SnC).-Except for steeper slopes, this complex is similar
to Susquehanna-Blanton complex 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Because of the steeper slopes, this complex is more sus-
ceptible to erosion; and due to erosion, its surface layer is
thinner.
Mapped with this complex are a few moderately eroded
areas and a few other areas, mostly on short breaks around
the rim of sinkholes, where slopes are steeper than 8
percent. These areas are too small to delineate.


JNTY, FLORIDA 27

This complex is low in organic-matter content and in
natural fertility. It has a low available moisture capacity.
Generally, it is not suited to cultivated crops, but it is
suited to deep-rooted grasses, including bahiagrass, and to
pine trees. (Capability unit IVse-6; woodland group 4.)
Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes
(SnD).-This complex is similar to Susquehanna-Blanton
complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes, but it has a thinner surface
layer and is more susceptible to erosion because it has
stronger slopes.
A few moderately eroded areas, too small to be mapped
separately, were included with this complex.
This complex is low in organic-matter content and in
natural fertility. It has low available moisture capacity.
It is not suited to cultivated crops but is suited to deep-
rooted grasses and pine trees. (Capability unit VIes-l;
woodland group 4.)

Swamp (Sw)
This is a miscellaneous land type that is very poorly
drained and is flooded periodically during the year. It
occurs in low-lying positions on uplands where there are
no natural drainage outlets and in areas adjacent to
the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers. These areas are
mostly in the northeastern and eastern parts of the
county and around the perimeter.
Because of excess water or thick vegetation, these areas
are not accessible for orderly examination of the soils.
Therefore, the soil materials of this land type have not
been classified.
The natural vegetation is chiefly a mixture of cypress,
bay, gum, slash pine, myrtle, and vines. The propor-
tion of each kind of vegetation varies considerably from
place to place. Cypress, for example, is dominant in
the most poorly drained areas, especially those areas in
depressions or uplands.
In its native state, this land type provides food and
cover for wildlife. Poor drainage and periodic flooding
limit the vegetation to water-tolerant plants. Many
areas could not be drained easily nor economically be-
cause of their small size or position on the landscape.
(Not placed in a capability grouping; woodland group
11.)

Weston Series
The Weston series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained, strongly acid soils in depressions or low, flat
areas that have no natural drainage outlets.
The surface layer is dark-gray to black fine sand. It
overlies a layer of light-gray to dark-gray fine sand. The
subsoil and the layers below it are gray, dark-gray, or
dark brownish-gray clay with pockets of sandy or silty
material.
Weston soils are closely associated with Grady, Bladen,
and Coxville soils. A surface layer that is thicker and
fine-textured layers that have less red mottling and that
have pockets or lenses of sandy material distinguish
Weston soils from the associated soils.
The native vegetation is pine, oak, sumac, waxmyrtle,
dwarf huckleberry, blackberry briers, sedges, and







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


wiregrass. Most of the acreage is in forest; some is in pas-
ture and some is cultivated.
Weston soils are scattered throughout the county.
Their total acreage is small.
Weston fine sand, dark subsoil variant (Wf).-This is a
poorly drained, strongly acid soil. It closely resembles
soils occurring in old lakebeds. Its major horizons are-
0 to 5 inches, dark-gray, loose fine sand.
5 to 15 inches, grayish-brown, loose fine sand splotched with
light gray.
15 to 22 inches, dark-gray clay; dark-red mottles.
22 to 52 inches, very dark gray to black clay; red and dark-red
mottles.
The surface layer ranges from dark gray to black in color
and from 4 to 6 inches in thickness. In places its texture
is loamy fine sand. The subsurface layer ranges from
grayish brown to dark gray in color and from 12 to 24
inches in thickness. The subsoil and the layers below it
are dark gray to black and mottled with red and yellowish
brown. Pockets of sandy or silty material occur within
the subsoil and the clayey substrata. Depth to the clayey
material ranges from 14 to 30 inches.
Mapped with this soil were about 61 acres where the
slope range is 2 to 5 percent.
This soil is strongly acid and has high available mois-
ture capacity. Drainage is subterranean, since there are
no natural drainage outlets. Permeability is rapid in
the surface layer and slow in the subsoil and substrata.
The water table is at or near the surface during periods
of heavy rainfall.
The response to fertilization is good. If the soil re-
ceives adequate drainage and high-level management, it
is good for cultivated crops and excellent for forage
crops and improved pasture. It is poor for tobacco,
peanuts, and watermelons. (Capability unit IIIws-1;
woodland group 9.)

Zuber Series
The soils in this series are moderately well drained to
well drained, gently sloping to strongly sloping, and
moderately eroded in places. They were derived from
thin layers of acid, marine loamy fine sand and fine
sandy clay loam overlying phosphatic material.
The surface layer is very dark gray to very dark gray-
ish-brown loamy fine sand. It is 5 to 8 inches thick and
grades to a layer of yellowish-brown loamy fine sand that
is 8 to 12 inches thick. The subsoil is yellowish-brown
fine sandy clay loam about 18 inches thick. It overlies
a layer of clay or fine sandy clay. In many places there
are phosphatic pebbles on the surface and throughout
the profile.
Zuber soils are closely associated with Arredondo,
Gainesville, and Fort Meade soils. They differ from
these soils in having finer textured material within the
upper 30 inches of their profile. Furthermore, they are
less brown and red than Gainesville soils, and they have
a thinner surface layer than Fort Meade soils. Also, in
many places, Zuber soils overlie rock beds at a depth of
less than 30 inches.
The natural vegetation is loblolly pine, longleaf pine,
sweetgum, many kinds of oaks, wiregrass, and briers.
The acreage of Zuber soils is small in Suwannee


County. Most of it has been cleared and is now culti-
vated, or in pasture, or planted to pine.
Zuber loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,-eroded
(ZuC2).-This is a well-drained soil that developed from
phosphatic sand and clay. Its major horizons are-
0 to 7 inches, dark grayish-brown or very dark grayish-brown,
very friable loamy fine sand.
7 to 14 inches, yellowish-brown, very friable loamy fine sand.
14 to 33 inches, yellowish-brown, friable fine sandy clay loam.
33 to 56 inches, light-gray, friable to firm fine sandy clay loam
to sandy clay mottled with shades of red and brown.
56 to 82 inches, white fine sandy clay mottled with yellow and
reddish yellow.
The surface layer ranges from 5 to 8 inches in thickness,
and the subsurface layer, from 6 to 10 inches. The subsoil
is yellowish-brown fine sandy clay loam, except for the
uppermost few inches, which is yellowish-brown fine sandy
loam. Phosphatic and ferruginous stones occur from
place to place in variable numbers. (On the map in the
back of this report, the conventional symbol for stones
identifies areas where there are stones enough to affect
cultivation.)
This soil has moderate natural fertility and moderate
organic-matter content. It is in good tilth, except in the
more severely eroded and rockier areas. The available
moisture capacity is moderate. Permeability is moderate
to rapid in the surface layer and moderate to very slow in
the subsoil.
This is a good soil for improved pasture. Gullies
(which are common), slope, erosion, and susceptibility to
erosion restrict use for cultivated crops. (Capability
unit IVe-1; woodland group 3.)
Zuber loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (Zu B).-
This soil is similar to Zuber loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes, eroded, but it has smoother and less steep slopes,
is less eroded, and has a thicker root zone.
The following are included in the mapped areas of this
soil: 10 acres of soils that have a browner or redder sub-
soil, 77 acres of stony soils, and 23 acres of moderately
eroded soils.
This soil responds well to management. It is well
suited to general farm crops and to improved pasture.
(Capability unit IIe-1; woodland group 3.)
Zuber loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes (ZuC).-
This soil is similar to Zuber loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes, eroded, but it is less eroded and it has a slightly
deeper root zone. Sheet erosion is not serious, and only
a few shallow gullies have formed on this soil.
The following are included in the mapped areas of
this soil: 29 acres of soils that have a browner or redder
subsoil, and 68 acres of stony soils.
This soil responds well to management. It is only
moderately well suited to general farm crops (fig. 8)
but is well suited to improved pasture. (Capability unit
IIIe-1; woodland group 3.)
Zuber loamy fine sand, 8 to 35 percent slopes (Z u E).-
This soil is steeper but generally less eroded than Zuber
loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded, and it
has a thinner solum.
The acreage of this soil is small. Included in mapping
were 26 acres of stony soils.
Because this soil is steep and susceptible to erosion, it
is not suited to cultivated crops. Where its slopes are
not too steep, it is moderately well suited to improved
pasture. (Capability unit VIIe-1; woodland group 3.)







SUWANNEE COUNTY. FLORIDA


-, -
Figure 8.-Area of Zuber loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
If well managed, this soil yields 75 bushels or more of corn per
acre.


Use of the Soils for Agriculture

This section discusses general practices of good soil
management, contains a table that gives, for each soil,
estimated yields of crops and pasture under two levels
of management, explains the capability classification sys-
tem, and discusses, by capability unit, the use and man-
agement of the soils in the county.

General Soil Management 2
The soils in Suwannee County used for cultivation are
porous, drought. deficient in plant nutrients, and sus-
ceptible to wind erosion. Following is the general man-
agement they most need.
PRACTICES FOR IMPROVING SUPPLY OF ORGANIC .MATTER
The management practices most needed in this county
are those that increase the amount of organic matter ill
the soils. The organic matter adds some nitrogen to
the soils as it decays, but more important, it improves
the ability of the soils to hold water and to retain plant
nutrients added in fertilizer. The amount of organic
matter can be increased in a soil by (1) conserving resi-
dues from cultivated crops, (2) growing cover crops
after cultivated crops and plowing down the cover crops.
and (3) rotating cultivated crops with pasture in such
a way that sod is plowed down after the soil has been
in grass for 2 years or more.

By H. E. VAN ARSDALL, State soil conservationist, Soil Conser-
vation Service.


Contserring crop residues.-Residues from cultivated
crops should be left on the surface of the soil or incor-
porated in the soil. The cultivated row crops commonly
grown in this county are corn, peanuts, tobacco, and
watermelons. Even at a high level of management, these
(do not furnish crop residues in amounts sufficient to im-
prove the supply of organic matter in the soils.
Groicing cooer crops.-If a cover crop follows a row
crop, it protects the soil while growing and provides
organic matter when it is plowed into the soil. Either
legumes or nonlegumes are suitable as cover crops. The
nonlegumes, such as small grains, are less effective than
the legumes in furnishing organic matter.
Legumes provide more residue than nonlegumes and
also release to the soil nitrogen that can he used by
crops that follow. Suitable legunes in this county are
lupine. indigo. and southern peas. Lupine, a winter
cover crop. can follow a cultivated summer crop. Tndigo
a;nd southern peas can be grown alone, following a row
crop, or they can be seeded in corn. If they are seeded
in corn, this is normally done at the last cultivation of
the corn, and thev make most of their growth late in
summer and in fall.
Rotation tilled crops wih paSl/rec.--Pastures fit well
in the system of general farming used in this county.
The pastures provide most of the forage for cattle, pro-
tect the soils from erosion, and produce large amounts
of organic matter when plowed under. Also, use of the
soils as pasture helps to control root knot nematodes, which
are harmful to tobacco, an important crop in the county.
The principal grass used for pasture in Suwannee
County is bahiagrass (fig. 9), but improved bermuda-
grass is also used. Both are well adapted to the climate.
Bahiagrass is established by seed. and improved bermuda-
grass by sprigs. Both grasses need fertilizer containing
nitrogen, phosphate, and potash for satisfactory growth.
Improved bermudagrass is better suited to hay produc-
tion. If large amounts of fertilizer are used, bermuda-
grass produces more forage than behiagrass. Both pro-
luce about the same if small amounts of fertilizer are
used.
(lovers are suitable only for those soils that have a
high available moisture capacity or a high water table.


Figure 9.-Pasture of Pensacola bahiagrass on Susquehanna fine
sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (class IV soil). In the background,
planted pines on Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 percent 'slopes
(class VI soil).







SUWANNEE COUNTY. FLORIDA


-, -
Figure 8.-Area of Zuber loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
If well managed, this soil yields 75 bushels or more of corn per
acre.


Use of the Soils for Agriculture

This section discusses general practices of good soil
management, contains a table that gives, for each soil,
estimated yields of crops and pasture under two levels
of management, explains the capability classification sys-
tem, and discusses, by capability unit, the use and man-
agement of the soils in the county.

General Soil Management 2
The soils in Suwannee County used for cultivation are
porous, drought. deficient in plant nutrients, and sus-
ceptible to wind erosion. Following is the general man-
agement they most need.
PRACTICES FOR IMPROVING SUPPLY OF ORGANIC .MATTER
The management practices most needed in this county
are those that increase the amount of organic matter ill
the soils. The organic matter adds some nitrogen to
the soils as it decays, but more important, it improves
the ability of the soils to hold water and to retain plant
nutrients added in fertilizer. The amount of organic
matter can be increased in a soil by (1) conserving resi-
dues from cultivated crops, (2) growing cover crops
after cultivated crops and plowing down the cover crops.
and (3) rotating cultivated crops with pasture in such
a way that sod is plowed down after the soil has been
in grass for 2 years or more.

By H. E. VAN ARSDALL, State soil conservationist, Soil Conser-
vation Service.


Contserring crop residues.-Residues from cultivated
crops should be left on the surface of the soil or incor-
porated in the soil. The cultivated row crops commonly
grown in this county are corn, peanuts, tobacco, and
watermelons. Even at a high level of management, these
(do not furnish crop residues in amounts sufficient to im-
prove the supply of organic matter in the soils.
Groicing cooer crops.-If a cover crop follows a row
crop, it protects the soil while growing and provides
organic matter when it is plowed into the soil. Either
legumes or nonlegumes are suitable as cover crops. The
nonlegumes, such as small grains, are less effective than
the legumes in furnishing organic matter.
Legumes provide more residue than nonlegumes and
also release to the soil nitrogen that can he used by
crops that follow. Suitable legunes in this county are
lupine. indigo. and southern peas. Lupine, a winter
cover crop. can follow a cultivated summer crop. Tndigo
a;nd southern peas can be grown alone, following a row
crop, or they can be seeded in corn. If they are seeded
in corn, this is normally done at the last cultivation of
the corn, and thev make most of their growth late in
summer and in fall.
Rotation tilled crops wih paSl/rec.--Pastures fit well
in the system of general farming used in this county.
The pastures provide most of the forage for cattle, pro-
tect the soils from erosion, and produce large amounts
of organic matter when plowed under. Also, use of the
soils as pasture helps to control root knot nematodes, which
are harmful to tobacco, an important crop in the county.
The principal grass used for pasture in Suwannee
County is bahiagrass (fig. 9), but improved bermuda-
grass is also used. Both are well adapted to the climate.
Bahiagrass is established by seed. and improved bermuda-
grass by sprigs. Both grasses need fertilizer containing
nitrogen, phosphate, and potash for satisfactory growth.
Improved bermudagrass is better suited to hay produc-
tion. If large amounts of fertilizer are used, bermuda-
grass produces more forage than behiagrass. Both pro-
luce about the same if small amounts of fertilizer are
used.
(lovers are suitable only for those soils that have a
high available moisture capacity or a high water table.


Figure 9.-Pasture of Pensacola bahiagrass on Susquehanna fine
sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes (class IV soil). In the background,
planted pines on Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 percent 'slopes
(class VI soil).







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


White clover is the best adapted, but crimson clover can
be grown. Hairy indigo, a summer legume, sometimes
is seeded with bahiagrass when pastures are being es-
tablished, but it usually does not persist with the grass
for more than 1 or 2 years. To grow satisfactorily,
these legumes need fertilizer that contains phosphate and
potash.
For good growth of pastures, ground limestone should
be applied periodically. The amount and frequency of
application of both limestone and fertilizer should be de-
termined by soil tests. Grazing should be regulated so
that pasture plants have time to recover after they are
grazed. Thus, more forage will be produced and the
soils will be better protected.
CONTROLLING EROSION
In Suwannee County, most of the soils suitable for
cultivation are fine sands that are highly susceptible to
wind erosion (fig. 10) in spring. The fine sand par-
ticles carried by the wind damage crops and sometimes
completely cover young plants. Water erosion (fig. 11)
is a problem in areas where there is a heavy concentra-
tion of water from higher positions or from roads, build-
ings, or other structures. Erosion, whether by water
or wind, reduces the supply of organic matter and of
plant nutrients in the soil.
Leaving plant residues on or just below the surface
and keeping the soils under vegetation as much as pos-
sible can effectively control both wind and water erosion.
Other erosion control practices include (1) establishing
grasses in areas where there is a heavy concentration of
water that has drained from higher places, (2) cultivat-
ing on the contour on the steeper slopes, and (3) in the
spring, growing small grains, lupine, or other close-
growing crops in strips between cultivated crops (fig.
12).
APPLYING LIME AND FERTILIZER
The soils in Suwannee County are normally acid.
Lime is needed to obtain satisfactory yields of most
crops. The soils that have been influenced by phosphatic
material or by limestone need less lime than the rest,
but still require lime occasionally. Typical soils in-


fluenced by phosphatic material are the Gainesville and
Arredondo. The Chiefland and Jonesville are repre-
sentative of those soils influenced by limestone.


Figure 10.-Sand along road blew through fence from cultivated
field of Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. Farther along the
fence is a soil protected by sod; it did not blow.


Figure 11.-A field of Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes, damaged during storm by drainage water from field
above.








SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


.W :I h ?..,.-, -_. -- V2
Figure 12. -On the left, strips of a small grain alternating with clean-tilled crops help protect against wind erosion. On the right, freshly
plowed, wind-blown, unprotected field of Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes.


Figure 13.-An excavated farm pond that can be used for irrigation.


For satisfactory production of most crols, all of the
soils in the county need fertilizer containing nitrogen,
phosphate, and potash. Legumes are the exception; they
usually grow satisfactorily without the addition of
nitrogen.
Since little of the applied nitrogen and potash is re-
tained by the soils in the county, there is little advan-
tage in al:lyinl.i any more than the crop being grown
can use. Phosphate is retained, however, and if it has
been applied regularly over a period of years, the addi-
tional amount needed for satisfactory production de-
creases.
729-251--45--3


The county agricultural agent, by means of soil tests,
can determine the amount of fertilizer and lime needed
for best production.
IRRIc.GATI
Because most of the soils in the county have a low
available moisture capacity, irrigation is profitable, es-
pecially in fields of tobacco, truck crops, and other cash
crops of high value. Sprinkler irrigation is suitable.
Deep wells usually supply the water, but some excavated
ponds (fig. 13) in soils that have a high water table
are suitable sources. Ponds constructed in drains having
small watersheds are also suitable.







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


Estimated Yields
Table 2 lists estimated average acre yields for the
principal crops grown in the county at two levels of
management. Yields in the table are based on informa-
tion obtained from many farmers in the county, from
the district soil conservationist, from the county agricul-
tural agent, from observations by members of the soil
survey party, from research material compiled by the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, and from
recorded crop yields. For many soils, accurate recorded
crop yields were not available: estimates for these are
based on yields for a similar soil.
In the A columns are yields to be expected under cus-
tomary management, and in the B columns are yields
to be expected under improved management, excluding
irrigation. Improved management practices include the
following:
1. Choosing adapted, high-yielding varieties for
planting.
2. Preparing the seedbed properly to assure maxi-
mum germination of seeds.
3. Using a proper rate of seeding and planting at
the right time by improved methods.
4. Controlling insects and diseases.
5. Applying fertilizer in amounts at least equal to
the current recommendations of the county
agricultural agent and the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations in relation to the needs
indicated by soil tests.
6. Inoculating legumes.
7. Applying and maintaining appropriate soil and
water conservation, such as sodding of waterways,
contour tillage, and stripcropping.
S. Cultivating row crops according to current re-
commendations of the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Stations.
9. Using a cropping system that will help control
erosion, maintain the structure of the soil, and
add organic matter.
The level of management needed to get the yields in
the B columns is about equivalent to that described for
the soils in the subsection "(Capability Groups of Soils."

Capability Groups of Soils
The capability classification is a grouping that shows,
in a general way, how suitable soils are for most kinds
of farming. It is a practical grouping based on limi-
tations of the soils, the risk of damage when they are
used, and the way they respond to treatment.
In this system all the kinds of soil are grouped at three
levels, the capability class, subclass, and unit. The eight
capability classes in the broadest grouping are designated
by Roman numerals I through VIII. Soils in class I,
for example, have few limitations, the widest range of
use, and the least risk of damage when they are used.
Those in the other classes have progressively greater nat-
ural limitations. Soils in class VIII are so rough, or
shallow, or otherwise limited that they do not produce
worthwhile yields of crops, forage, or wood products.
The sulclasses indicate major limitations within the
classes. Within most of the classes there can be up to


four kinds of subclasses. The subclass is indicated by
adding a small letter, e. c, s. or c, to the class numeral,
for example, IIe. The letter e shows that the main limi-
tation is risk of erosion unless close-growing plant cover
is maintained; w means that water in or on the soil in-
terferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some soils
wetness can be partly corrected by artificial drainage);
s shows that the soil is limited mainly because it is
shallow, drought, or stony: and c. which is not used
in Suwannee County, indicates that the chief limitation
is climate that is too cold or too dry.
Most soils in Suwannee County have two subclass
limitations almost equal in their effect on use and man-
agement. Some excessively drained soils are both
drought and subject to wind and water erosion; hence
have both x and e limitations. Many perennially wet
soils (subclass iw) have serious limitations (subclass s or
e) even if adequately drained. Those soils having two
limitations have two small letters following their class
numeral, for example, IIIse. The first letter represents
the more severe limitation.
Class I has no subclasses, beaulse the soils in this class
have few or no limitations. Class V can have, at the
most, only subclasses i. s. and c. because the soils in it
are not likely to erode but have other limitations that
restrict their use largely to pasture, woodland, or wild-
life.
Within the subclasses are the capability units, which
are groups of soils enough alike to be suited to the same
crops and pasture plants, to require similar manage-
ment, and to have similar productivity and other re-
sponses to management. Thus, the capability unit is a
convenient grouping for making many statements about
management of soils. Capability units are generally
identified by numbers assigned locally, for example, IIe-1
or IIIse-2.
Soils are placed in capability classes, subclasses, and
units according to the degree and kind of their per-
manent limitations, but without considering possible but
unlikely reclamation projects, or major and generally
expensive landforming to change slope, depth, or other
characteristics of the soil.
The eight classes in the capability system, and the sub-
classes and units in this county are described in the list
that follows.
Class I. Soils that have few limitations that restrict
their use. (Suwannee County has no class I soils.)
Class II. Soils that have some limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate conserva-
tion practices.
Sulblass lie. Soils subject to moderate erosion if
they are not protected.
I nit Ile-1.--Gently sloping, well-drained, deep
soils that have a loamy fine sand surface laver
and a well-developed, clayey subsoil: permea-
bility is moderately slow in the subsoil.
Subclass lies. Soils moderately limited by risk of
erosion if not protected, and by moisture capacity
and low natural fertility.
Unit IIes-1.-Gently sloping, slightly eroded.
well-drained soils that have sandy surface
layers and a friable to firm, clayey subsoil.







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


Estimated Yields
Table 2 lists estimated average acre yields for the
principal crops grown in the county at two levels of
management. Yields in the table are based on informa-
tion obtained from many farmers in the county, from
the district soil conservationist, from the county agricul-
tural agent, from observations by members of the soil
survey party, from research material compiled by the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, and from
recorded crop yields. For many soils, accurate recorded
crop yields were not available: estimates for these are
based on yields for a similar soil.
In the A columns are yields to be expected under cus-
tomary management, and in the B columns are yields
to be expected under improved management, excluding
irrigation. Improved management practices include the
following:
1. Choosing adapted, high-yielding varieties for
planting.
2. Preparing the seedbed properly to assure maxi-
mum germination of seeds.
3. Using a proper rate of seeding and planting at
the right time by improved methods.
4. Controlling insects and diseases.
5. Applying fertilizer in amounts at least equal to
the current recommendations of the county
agricultural agent and the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations in relation to the needs
indicated by soil tests.
6. Inoculating legumes.
7. Applying and maintaining appropriate soil and
water conservation, such as sodding of waterways,
contour tillage, and stripcropping.
S. Cultivating row crops according to current re-
commendations of the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Stations.
9. Using a cropping system that will help control
erosion, maintain the structure of the soil, and
add organic matter.
The level of management needed to get the yields in
the B columns is about equivalent to that described for
the soils in the subsection "(Capability Groups of Soils."

Capability Groups of Soils
The capability classification is a grouping that shows,
in a general way, how suitable soils are for most kinds
of farming. It is a practical grouping based on limi-
tations of the soils, the risk of damage when they are
used, and the way they respond to treatment.
In this system all the kinds of soil are grouped at three
levels, the capability class, subclass, and unit. The eight
capability classes in the broadest grouping are designated
by Roman numerals I through VIII. Soils in class I,
for example, have few limitations, the widest range of
use, and the least risk of damage when they are used.
Those in the other classes have progressively greater nat-
ural limitations. Soils in class VIII are so rough, or
shallow, or otherwise limited that they do not produce
worthwhile yields of crops, forage, or wood products.
The sulclasses indicate major limitations within the
classes. Within most of the classes there can be up to


four kinds of subclasses. The subclass is indicated by
adding a small letter, e. c, s. or c, to the class numeral,
for example, IIe. The letter e shows that the main limi-
tation is risk of erosion unless close-growing plant cover
is maintained; w means that water in or on the soil in-
terferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some soils
wetness can be partly corrected by artificial drainage);
s shows that the soil is limited mainly because it is
shallow, drought, or stony: and c. which is not used
in Suwannee County, indicates that the chief limitation
is climate that is too cold or too dry.
Most soils in Suwannee County have two subclass
limitations almost equal in their effect on use and man-
agement. Some excessively drained soils are both
drought and subject to wind and water erosion; hence
have both x and e limitations. Many perennially wet
soils (subclass iw) have serious limitations (subclass s or
e) even if adequately drained. Those soils having two
limitations have two small letters following their class
numeral, for example, IIIse. The first letter represents
the more severe limitation.
Class I has no subclasses, beaulse the soils in this class
have few or no limitations. Class V can have, at the
most, only subclasses i. s. and c. because the soils in it
are not likely to erode but have other limitations that
restrict their use largely to pasture, woodland, or wild-
life.
Within the subclasses are the capability units, which
are groups of soils enough alike to be suited to the same
crops and pasture plants, to require similar manage-
ment, and to have similar productivity and other re-
sponses to management. Thus, the capability unit is a
convenient grouping for making many statements about
management of soils. Capability units are generally
identified by numbers assigned locally, for example, IIe-1
or IIIse-2.
Soils are placed in capability classes, subclasses, and
units according to the degree and kind of their per-
manent limitations, but without considering possible but
unlikely reclamation projects, or major and generally
expensive landforming to change slope, depth, or other
characteristics of the soil.
The eight classes in the capability system, and the sub-
classes and units in this county are described in the list
that follows.
Class I. Soils that have few limitations that restrict
their use. (Suwannee County has no class I soils.)
Class II. Soils that have some limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate conserva-
tion practices.
Sulblass lie. Soils subject to moderate erosion if
they are not protected.
I nit Ile-1.--Gently sloping, well-drained, deep
soils that have a loamy fine sand surface laver
and a well-developed, clayey subsoil: permea-
bility is moderately slow in the subsoil.
Subclass lies. Soils moderately limited by risk of
erosion if not protected, and by moisture capacity
and low natural fertility.
Unit IIes-1.-Gently sloping, slightly eroded.
well-drained soils that have sandy surface
layers and a friable to firm, clayey subsoil.









SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


TABLE 2.-Estimated average acre yields of principal crops and carrying capacity of pasture under two levels of management

[Yields in A columns are to be expected under common management; those in B columns, under improved management excluding irriga-
tion. Absence of yield in a column indicates that the crop is not commonly grown, that yields would be too low if the crop were
grown, or that needed management is too exacting to warrant growing the crop]


Map
symbol


Al Alluvial land_______________
AhA Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 0 to 2 percent
slopes ..-...------_- _-_________________
Ah B Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 2 to 5 percent
slopes-------------------__--__--_..___
AhC Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 5 to 8 percent
slopes--------------------- -..___..._--
AnA Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, thick surface,
0 to 2 percent slopes------------
AnB Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, thick surface,
2 to 5 percent slopes ..-----------.......
AnC Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, thick surface,
5 to 8 percent slopes--- ----------
ArB Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .--
ArC Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ---
ArD Arredondo fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes- --
AsB Arredondo fine sand, moderately shallow, 0 to
5 percent slopes----------------
AsC Arredondo fine sand, moderately shallow, 5 to
8 percent slopes__----------------
Bb Bayboro fine sandy loam-- ____-__
BfB Blanton fine sand, high, 0 to 5 percent slopes-_
BfC Blanton fine sand, high, 5 to 8 percent slopes -
BfD Blanton fine sand, high, 8 to 12 percent slopes_
BfE Blanton fine sand, high, 12 to 35 percent slopes-
BhB Blanton fine sand, high, moderately shallow,
0 to 5 percent slopes--------------------
BmB Blanton fine sand, low, 0 to 5 percent slopes _
BmC Blanton fine sand, low, 5 to 8 percent slopes_ _
Bm D Blanton fine sand, low, 8 to 12 percent slopes--
BnB Blanton fine sand, low, moderately shallow,
0 to 5 percent slopes-------------__
BnC Blanton fine sand, low, moderately shallow,
5 to 8 percent slopes-------------
BoB Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna complex, 2 to 5
percent slopes-- ------------_--------_-_
BoC Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna complex, 5 to 8
percent slopes- --_------------__
BtB Blanton-Chiefland fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
slopes ----------_------- ___
BtC Blanton-Chiefland fine sands, 5 to 8 percent
slopes -----------------
BuA Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex, 0 to 2 percent
slopes-----------------
BuB Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex, 2 to 5 percent
slopes ----- ------------
BvB Bowie fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes--------
BvC Bowie fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes -------
BwB Bowie fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent
slopes---- --------_____
BwC Bowie fine sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent
slopes _- ---------_____
BxB Bowie-Blanton complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes
BxC Bowie-Blanton complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes
ChB Chiefland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes------
ChC Chiefland fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes_ ----
FfB Fellowship loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes ------------.-- -- --
FfC Fellowship loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes -- ..---- ----------------__._____ __
FfD Fellowship loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent
slopes ------_------------_------________
See footnote at end of table.


Corn



A B


i


Peanuts



A B


Lb.


1,600

1,450

1,300

1,600

1,450

1,300
1,100
1,000


1,100

1,000

900
800


900
1,600
1,400


1,200

1,050

1,200

1,050

1,500

1,350



1,400
1,250

1,400

1,250
1,350
1,250
1,500
1,350

1,600

1,450


L

1,I

1,(


1,:

1,(


1,4
1,(


1,:
1,1


1,(


1,:
1,(


1,1


1,<
1,


1,1
1,




1,(
1,.

1,2
1,0
1,2

1,1
1,0


Bright
tobacco


A B


b. Lb.


200 1,550

075 1,400

950 1,250

200 1,550

075 1,400

350 1,250
200 1,600
075 1,450


200 1,600

375 1,450

100 1,475
300 1,325


100 1,475
300 2,000
300 1,800
800 1,600

300 2,000

300 1,800

300 2,000

900 1,800

150 1,500

025 1,350




200 1,600
075 1,450

200 1,600

)75 1,450
200 1,600
175 1,450
150 1,500
)25 1,350


Water-
melons


A


ANo.


250

225

200

250

225

200
250
225


250

225

250
225


250
200
175
150

200

175

200

175

250

225


B


No.


360

325

300

360

325

300
360
325


360

325

325
300


325
300
275
250

300

275

300

275

345

310



360
325

360

325
360
325
345
310

350

315
_


Pasture


Grass Small grain


A B A B

Cow- Cow- ib. of Lb. of
days I days I beef beef


150 325 60 145

135 295 55 130

120 260 50 100

150 325 60 145

135 295 55 130

150 325 50 100
160 300 70 160
145 270 65 145
130 240 -----

160 300 70 160

145 270 65 145
150 325 -. ....
150 275 60 150
135 250 55 135
120 220 -....
80 200 ----

150 275 60 150
175 350 60 155
150 315 55 135
140 280 50 125

175 350 60 155

150 315 55 135

175 350 60 155

150 315 55 135

150 275 60 150

135 250 55 135

175 350 ------

175 350
150 320 80 160
135 290 70 145

150 320 80 160

135 290 70 145
150 320 80 160
135 290 70 145
150 275 60 150
135 250 55 135

160 375 45 120

145 340 40 110

130 300 --- --








34 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21

TABLE 2.-Estimated average acre yields of principal crops and carrying capacity of pasture under two levels of manage-
ment-Continued


FmC

GaB

GaC

GfB

Gr
Gx
HdB
HdC
KaB
KaC
KfB
LaB
LaC
LdB

LfA
LmA

Ln
Lo
Lp
Mp
Pa
PdA
PdB
Pf
Ph
Pm
PrD

Ps
Ru
SaB
ScC
Sd
SfB
SfC
SfC2

SfD
ShB

SnB

SnC

SnD

Sw
Wf
ZuB
ZuC
ZuC2

ZuE


Corn


A B


R??. R )


Fort Meade loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes-----------------------------------
Gainesville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes---------------------------------
Gainesville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes ---_------__ ______
Gainesville loamy fine sand, moderately
shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes------------
Grady fine sandy loam, thick surface --------
Grady, Bladen, and Coxville soils _--------
Hernando fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ----
Hernando fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ---
Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes-----
Kanapaha fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ----
Klej fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes----------
Lakeland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes-----
Lakeland fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-----
Lakeland and Jonesville fine sands, 0 to 5
percent slopes------- ----------
Leon fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ---------
Leon fine sand, loamy substratum, 0 to 5 per-
cent slopes------------ --------------
Leon and Ona fine sands----------
Local alluvial land----------------------
Local alluvial land, phosphatic --__-_---____-
Mine pits and dumps ---------------------
Peat-------------------------------------
Plummer fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes -----
Plummer fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes --_--
Plummer fine sand, depressions----------
Plummer fine sand, high-- __________________
Plummer fine sand, moderately shallow -----
Plummer, Bladen, and Rains soils, 5 to 17 per-
cent slopes ----_--_-_ --_---- --_--___..-
Pomello fine sand--------------------------
Rutlege fine sand---------------------------
Sandy and clayey land, gently sloping ------
Sandy and clayey land, sloping ---_--_-------
Scranton fine sand-----------------------
Susquehanna fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes-_
Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes--
Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded-------------- -------------
Susquehanna fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes-
Susquehanna fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5
percent slopes --------------
Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 2 to 5 per-
cent slopes -_-------------- -----
Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 5 to 8 percent
slopes--------------------------
Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 8 to 12 per-
cent slopes------------------------------
Swamp ----------------------------------
Weston fine sand, dark subsoil variant ------
Zuber loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes _
Zuber loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes-
Zuber loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
eroded--------------
Zuber loamy fine sand, 8 to 35 percent slopes


Peanuts


A


Lb.

700

800

700

800

800
700
500
450
600
500
450

800



600
650










500


700
600


B


Lb.

1,450

1,600

1,450

1,600

1,600
1,450
1,000
900
1,600
1,000
900

1,600



1,500
1,650










1,000


1,400
1,250



1,400

1,400





1,600
1,450

1,300


Bright
tobacco


A B A


Lb.

1,125

1,250

1,125

1,250

1,200
1,075
1,000
900
1,000
1,150
1,025

1,150



1,400
1,500









1,200

1,200


1,075



1,200

1,200





1,430
1,300

1,150


Lb.

1,500

1,650

1,500

1,650

1,550
1,400
2,000
1,800
2,000
1,500
1,350

1,500



1,900
2,000




1,800




1,550


1,550
1,400



1,550

1,500





2,000
1,800

1,600


No.

225

250

225

250

250
225
200
175
200
250
225

250




225
225


Water-
melons


B


No.

325

360

325

360

360
325
300
275
300
360
325

345



350
350




300




300


325
300


Pasture


Grass Small grain

A B A B

Cow- Cow- Lb. of Lb. of
days days I beef be

150 300 70 150

165 325 75 165

150 285 70 150

165 325 75 165
175 350
175 350
150 325 60 145
135 300 55 130
175 350 60 155
150 315 55 140
175 350 60 155
150 275 60 150
135 250 55 135

150 275 60 150
160 325


160
175
200
200


100
100
100
175
100


75

150
135
200
150
135

120
120

150

150

135

120

175
150
135

120
80


325
350
350
380

300
225
225
225
350
225

200
275
320
290
350
325
290

260
260

325

325

290

260

350
350
315

290
250


60
70
75




60




40

60
60
55



60

60




60
90
80

70


' Number of days a year that 1 acre of pasture will graze 1 cow without injury to the pasture.


165
180
200




155




110

165
145
130



145

145




150
175
160

140


Map
symbol


35




40

70
40




40

40




45
75
65

60


I






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


Subclass IIws. Soils moderately limited by excess
water and sandy texture.
Unit IIws-1.-Nearly level, somewhat poorly
drained or poorly drained, deep, acid, sandy
soils having high organic-matter content.
Subclass IIse. Soils moderately limited by soil qual-
ities affecting the root zone and by risk of erosion
if not protected.
Unit IIse-1.-Nearly level, moderately well
drained to somewhat poorly drained, moder-
ately deep soils that have acid, sandy surface
layers and a friable or plastic clay subsoil
underlain in places by limestone.
Subclass IIsw. Soils moderately limited by soil
qualities affecting the root zone and by seasonal
wetness.
Unit IIsw-1.-Nearly level, moderately well
drained soils in depressions that are flooded
occasionally.
Class III. Soils that have severe limitations that reduce
the choice of plants, or that require special conserva-
tion practices, or both.
Subclass IIJe. Soils severely limited by risk of
erosion if they are tilled and not protected.
Unit IIIe-1.-Sloping, moderately eroded, well-
drained, deep soils that have a loamy sand
surface layer and a well-developed, moderately
permeable, clayey subsoil.
Subclass IIIes. Soils severely limited by risk of
erosion if cultivated and not protected, and by
limited available moisture capacity and low nat-
ural fertility.
Unit IIIes-1.-Strongly sloping, slightly eroded,
well-drained soils that have a fine sand sur-
face layer and a friable, clayey subsoil.
Subclass IIIws. Soils severely limited by excess
water, and by moisture capacity and natural fer-
tility.
Unit IIIws-1.-Nearly level, poorly drained,
strongly acid, wet soils that have dark-gray to
black fine sandy loam and loamy fine sand
surface layers and a very slowly permeable,
very firm, plastic clay subsoil.
Subclass IIIse. Soils severely limited by moisture
capacity and fertility, and by risk of erosion if
not protected.
Unit IIIse-1.-Gently sloping, well-drained,
medium acid soils that have rapidly permeable
loamy fine sand surface layers more than 30
inches thick.
Unit IIIse-2.-Nearly level to gently sloping,
very rapidly permeable soils that have sandy
layers 30 to more than 60 inches thick.
Unit IIIse-3.-Nearly level to gently sloping,
well-drained, very rapidly permeable, medium
acid to strongly acid, deep sands.
Unit IIIse-4.-Nearlv level to gently sloping,
strongly acid, rapidly permeable, deep sands.
Unit IIIse-5.-Gently sloping, well-drained,
moderately deep soils that have an acid, sandy
surface layer and a friable subsoil underlain
by limestone in places.


Subclass IIIsw. Soils severely limited by poor soil
characteristics and by excess water.
Unit IIIsw-1.-Nearly level to gently sloping,
slightly wet, medium acid, deep sands.
Unit IIIsw-2.-Gently sloping soils that have a
dark-gray to black loamy fine sand surface
layer and a slowly permeable, clayey subsoil;
excessively wet for short periods.
Class IV. Soils that have very severe limitations that
restrict the choice of plants, or that require very careful
management, or both.
Subclass IVe. Soils subject to very severe erosion
if they are cultivated and not protected.
Unit IVe-1.-Strongly sloping to very strongly
sloping, slightly eroded to moderately eroded,
well-drained to somewhat poorly drained,
moderately deep to deep soils that have a
loamy surface layer; permeability is moderate
to very slow in the subsoil.
Subclass IVes. Soils very severely limited by risk
of erosion if not protected, and by low available
moisture capacity and low natural fertility.
Unit IVes-1.-Strongly sloping to very strong-
ly sloping, slightly eroded to moderately
eroded, somewhat poorly drained to well
drained, moderately deep soils that have an
acid, sandy surface layer and a firm, sticky
clay subsoil underlain by limestone in places.
Subclass IVse. Soils very severely limited by low
available moisture capacity, low natural fertility,
and severe hazard of erosion if cultivated and not
protected.
Unit IVse-1.-Sloping to very strongly sloping,
well-drained, medium acid to neutral soils that
have loamy fine sand surface layers more than
30 inches thick; influenced by phosphatic ma-
terial.
Unit IVse-2.-Nearly level to strongly sloping,
slightly wet, strongly acid, rapidly permeable,
deep sands.
Unit IVse-3.-Sloping, slightly to moderately
wet, medium acid, deep sands influenced by
phosphatic material.
Unit IVse-4.-Sloping, deep, drought, very
rapidly permeable sands.
Unit IVse-5.-Sloping to strongly sloping, well-
drained, very rapidly permeable, medium acid
to neutral, deep sands influenced by phosphatic
material or limestone.
Unit IVse-6.-Gently sloping to sloping, slight-
ly eroded to moderately eroded, moderately
well drained and somewhat poorly drained,
moderately deep to shallow soils that have a
sandy or loamy surface layer and a very slow-
ly permeable, clayey subsoil.
Subclass IVsw. Soils very severely limited by low
natural fertility and low available moisture ca-
pacity, and by excess water.
Unit IVsw-1.-Nearly level, wet to slightly wet,
strongly acid, rapidly permeable, deep, sandy
soils.






SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


Unit IVsw-2.-Nearly level, moderately wet to
wet, strongly acid, sandy soils that are shal-
low to an organic matter-stained layer or pan.
Class V. Soils that are not likely to erode but that have
other limitations, impractical to remove, that restrict
their use largely to pasture, woodland, or food and
cover for wildlife.
Subclass Vws. Soils unsuitable for cultivation be-
cause of excess water and poor soil qualities.
Unit Vws-1.-Nearly level to gently sloping,
strongly acid, wet soils that overflow periodi-
cally.
Unit Vws-2.-Nearly level, strongly acid, very
wet, deep sands.
Subclass Vsw. Soils generally unsuitable for culti-
vation because of poor soil qualities and wetness.
Unit Vsw-1.-Level and gently sloping, slightly
wet, deep, nearly white sands.
Unit Vsw-2.-Nearly level, wet to moderately
wet, strongly acid, sandy soils that have an
organic pan at a depth of less than 30 inches.
Class VI. Soils that have severe limitations that make
them generally unsuitable for cultivation and that re-
strict their use largely to pasture, range, woodland, or
wildlife.
Subclass VIe. Soils not suitable for crop produc-
tion and limited for other uses chiefly by the risk
of erosion.
Unit VIe-1.-Strongly -1li.inuir-, slightly eroded,
phosphatic soils that have a loamy fine sand
surface layer and a slowly permeable, clayey
subsoil.
Subclass VIes. Soils generally unsuitable for culti-
vation and limited for other uses by risk of erosion
and by poor soil characteristics.
Unit VIes-1.-Sloping and strongly -1.i.ii.,
slightly eroded to moderately eroded, shallow
or very shallow, moderately well drained and
well drained soils that have sandy or loamy
surface layers and a very slowly permeable,
clayey subsoil.
Subclass VIse. Soils generally unsuitable for culti-
vation and limited for other uses by their low
available moisture capacity and low natural fer-
tility, and by a severe risk of erosion.
Unit VIse-1.-Strongly sloping, well-drained,
strongly acid, deep sands.
Unit VIse-2.-Strongly sloping, slightly eroded
to moderately eroded, medium acid sands more
than 42 inches thick and influenced by phos-
phatic material.
Class VII. Soils that have very severe limitations that
make them unsuitable for cultivation and that restrict
their use largely to grazing, woodland, or wildlife.
Subclass VIIe. Soils very severely limited, chiefly
by risk of erosion.
Unit VIIe-1.-Strongly sloping to steep, slight-
ly eroded to moderately eroded, well-drained,
moderately deep to deep, phosphatic soils that
have a loamy fine sand surface layer and a
clayey subsoil.
Subclass VIIws. Soils very severely limited by ex-
cess water and by poor soil qualities.


Unit VIIws-1.-Nearly level to steep, poorly
drained and very poorly drained soils adja-
cent to streams and on seepy hillsides.
Unit VIIws-2.-Level, very wet, very strongly
acid to extremely acid, deep, woody and felty
organic material.
Subclass VIIse. Soils and miscellaneous land types
very severely limited by low fertility and avail-
able moisture capacity, and by risk of erosion.
Unit VIIse-1.-Steep, well-drained, deep sands.
Unit VIIse-2.-Mine pits and dumps.
Class VIII. Soils and landforms that have no agricul-
tural value because of limitations that restrict their
use to recreation, wildlife, water supply, or esthetic pur-
poses. (Suwannee County has no class VIII soils.)

Management by Capability Units
In the following pages, each of the capability units in
Suwannee County is described, the soils in each are listed,
and management for each group 1- -i_'._--.. t'1.
Capability unit Ile-1
Zuber loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, is the
only soil in this unit. It is a deep, well-drained, me-
dium acid, phosphatic soil that occurs as small areas. Its
acreage in the county is small.
The loamy fine sand is 10 to 18 inches thick. The sub-
soil is friable sandy clay loam or firm sandy clay 12 to 24

inches thick.
This soil is easily kept in good tilth. The root zone
is moderately deep to deep. The organic-matter content
is moderate in the surface and subsurface layers. This
soil is well able to hold plant nutrients in available form.
It is above average in natural fertility and has an
especially high content of phosphate. The available
moisture capacity is moderately high to high.
Use and management.-This soil is suited to many
kinds of crops, is not subject to leaching, and in most
years does not need irrigation. It erodes easily if cul-
tivated and not protected, but it is highly productive if
crop residues are conserved, lime and fertilizer are ap-
plied, and a cropping system is used that keeps sod crops
or green-manure crops on the soil at least half the time.
This soil is suited to most grasses and legumes grown
in the county. Lupine, indigo, and crimson clover grow
well under good management. Summer grasses, includ-
ing bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass, are well
suited and produce large quantities of hay and pasture
when adequately fertilized and limed.
Capability unit IIes-1
This unit consists of shallow to moderately deep,
strongly acid soils that are no more than slightly eroded.
Many of the slopes are short. The soils are-
Bowie fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Bowie fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Bowie-Blanton complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
The fine sand surface layer of these soils ranges from
8 to 30 inches in thickness but in most places is 18 to
30 inches thick. In a few small areas this layer is thicker
than 30 inches. The subsoil is friable to firm sandy clay
to clay 12 to 30 inches thick. The lower part is mottled






SUWANNEE COUNTY. FLORIDA


and usually denser than the upper part. The mottled
substrata below the subsoil consist of very firm and
compact sandy clay or plastic clay.
These soils are low in natural fertility. The surface
layer is low to medium in organic-matter content; it is
very permeable and has moderately low available mois-
ture capacity. The upper part of the subsoil is mod-
erately permeable to slowly permeable; it has a mod-
erately high available moisture capacity. The lower part
of the subsoil and the substrata are very slowly per-
meable. Water and air move very slowly through these
layers, and plant roots cannot penetrate easily.
Use and management.-These soils are only moderate-
ly well suited to cultivated crops and are susceptible to
erosion. Crop yields are low unless good management
is practiced. Productivity can be increased by conserv-
ing crop residues, applying lime and fertilizer'regularly,
and using green-manure crops or cover crops in the rota-
tion (fig. 14). Cultivated crops should not be grown
more than half the time. Improved pasture grasses
should occupy the soils at least 2 years out of 4.
Moderately good pasture can be grown. Most of the
tame grasses adapted to the Florida climate are suitable.
Most legumes grow only moderately well, but the more
drought resistant ones grow successfully on the deeper
soils. To control erosion, the soils should be seeded as
soon as possible after the land has been prepared, and
quick growth of the grasses and legumes should be en-
couraged. Regular application of lime and fertilizer is
necessary to insure satisfactory growth of pasture.
Capability unit IIws--
Scranton fine sand is the only soil in this unit. It is
a somewhat poorly drained or poorly drained soil that
developed from acid sand and clay. It occurs in small
low areas. The slope range is 0 to 5 percent.
The surface layer consists of very dark gray or black
fine sand. It is 7 to 18 inches thick and overlies a porous


Figure 14.-Rotating row crops with legume cover crops is a good
practice for Bowie fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes,
and for other soils in capability unit IIes-1.


layer of graIy or grayish-brown fine sand 12 to 24 inches
thick. These layers are underlain by more porous fine
sand. Fine-textured substrata are at a depth below
30 inches.
This soil is high in organic-matter content and me-
dium to high in natural fertility. Surface runoff is slow,
but the soil is very permeable and water moves rapidly
through it. In wet seasons the water table rises to with-
in a few inches of the surface. In dry seasons it may
recede to a depth below 60 inches.
Use and i... 'i. 'v, ,,,,!.-The deep sandy surface layer,
rapid permeability, rapid leaching, and other inherent
characteristics place minor restrictions on the use of this
soil. Imperfect drainage causes periodic wetness and
restricts the variety of crops that can grow, or make
simple drainage necessary. Erosion is not a problem.
This soil is good for truck crops, potatoes, corn, small
grains, soybeans, and other cultivated crops. Its pro-
ductivity can be increased by conserving crop residues,
applying lime and fertilizer regularly, and keeping
green-manure crops, cover crops, or other soil-improving
crops on the soil at least half the time. If cultivated
crops are rotated with improved pasture, well-managed
sod of high quality should occupy the soil at least 2
years out of 4. Simple surface drainage and bedding
usually are sufficient to prevent damage to most crops.
Control of the water table is essential if truck crops
are grown.
If well managed, this soil produces excellent improved
pasture. Because it has high organic-matter content and
favorable moisture conditions, it is well suited to clover-
grass pastures for winter grazing and to improved tame
grass pastures for warm-weather grazing. Pastures
should be established and managed according to the most
up-to-date methods. Liberal liming is required, and
yields are closely related to the quantity of fertilizer
applied. Simple drainage is required to remove excess
surface water after heavy rains.
Capability unit lse-1
This unit consists of nearly level, moderately well
drained or somewhat poorly (rained soils that are af-
fected by limestone in places. The soils are-
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands. 0 to 2 percent slopes.
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, thick surface, 0 to 2 percent
slopes.
The surface layer of these soils consists of fine sand
or loamy fine sand. Its thickness varies widely within
short distances but is 6 to 30 inches in most places. The
subsoil is friable or plastic, somewhat mottled fine sandy
clay or sandy clay. Its thickness ranges from 6 inches to
more than 30 inches. Some small areas do not have this
clayey layer, and many areas are underlain by limestone
within 4 feet of the surface.
These soils are low to moderate in natural fertility.
The surface layer is low in organic-matter content and
very strongly acid. It has a low available moisture
capacity. The subsoil is strongly acid to neutral. It
has a high available moisture capacity. Water moves
rapidly through the surface layer. It is somewhat re-
stricted in the slowly permeable subsoil, but in most
areas it drains through numerous sand pockets into the
underlying porous strata.






SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


T['e and manai ment.-These soils are suited to a wide
variety of uses. They can be cultivated safely if ade-
quate fertility is maintained, moisture conditions are im-
proved. and permeability of the subsoil is increased.
Water erosion is only a slight hazard, but wind erosion
can Ie severe. Strips of vegetation across cultivated
fields are needed to keep the soils from blowing.
Most of the commoll n crops can grow on these soils,
but yields are low unless soil-improving practices are
followed. Fertilizer and lime should be applied fre-
quently: crop residues should be left on the surface:
and cover crops should be kept on the soils at least half
the time. If cultivated crops are rotated with improved
pastmre, well-managed sod of high quality should oc-
cupy the soils at least 2 years out of 4. The sod should
be plowed under when the soils are again planted to
cult ivated crops.
Most tame grasses adapted to the well-drained soils of
central and northern Florida grow well on these soils
if adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime are applied.
The response to fertilizer warrants fairly heavy applica-
tions. Although hairy indigo, lupine, sweetclover, and
other deep-rooting legumes can grow successfully, grass-
legume pastures are difficult to establish and maintain.
Capability unit IIsw-1
This unit consists of moderately well drained land
types. They occur as small isolated areas in pockets
or other low positions at the bottom of slopes. The land
types are-
LoI al 1lhluvinal land.
Local alluvial land. pihosphiatic.
These land types vary in texture and in stratification
because they consist of deposits of soil material from ad-
jacent areas. Recently deposited material is predomi-
nantly coarse textured, and material that has accumu-
lated over a long period is fine textured in most places.
The characteristics of these land types depend somewhat
on the nature of the soils from which they have formed.
The surface layer ranges from gray or dark gray
to black in color and from 4 to 12 inches in thickness.
The texture ranges from sand to sandy clay loam. The
material below the surface layer varies widely in color
and texture.
Most of the new deposits are low in organic-matter
content, whereas the older ones are high in organic-mat-
ter content. All areas are moderately high to high in
natural fertility. The available moisture capacity varies
from place to place, Ibut it is high in most places.
',se nrd ,iniagemewn.-lThese land types are suitable
for intensive cultivation. Occasionally they are flooded
by runoff from adjacent areas. Eacl area presents its
own problem in water management, but seldom does an
area require more than simple drainage or diversion of
water from higher places. Only moderate conservation
practices are needed to maintain good soil qualities.
Erosion is not a problem.
In many places these land types occur as small areas
in fields of other soils. Because they are more fertile,
they support plants better than the surrounding soils
that have received similar treatment.
These land types are suited to most of the crops com-
monly grown in the county. Crops are damaged occas-


ionally by runoff from adjacent slopes. Excess water has
to drain internally, since surface outlets are seldom avail-
able. (lean-tilled crops should not occupy the land more
than half the time: they should bIe rotated with green-
mianure crops. If clean-tilled crops are rotated with im-
proved pasture, well-managed sod should occupy the
Ilnd at least 2 years out of 4. Although moderately
fertile, the soils respond well to heavy applications of
lime and fertilizer.
These land types are well suited to improved pastures.
Most of the tame grasses adapted to the Florida climate
grow well if lime and fertilizer are used and if grazing
is controlled. Deep-rooting clover also grows well. On
the more loamy areas, pasture shows excellent response
to fertilizer.
Capability unit Ille-1
Zuler loamyV fine sand. 5 to percent slopes, is the
only soil in this unit. It is a deep, well-drained soil
that developed from unconsolidated sand and clay mixed
with some fragments of phosphatic rock.
This soil has a surface layer of loamy sand. It has a
well-defined subsoil of friable to firm sandy clay loam
or sandy clay within 30 inches of the surface.
This soil is easily kept in good tiltl. It has a mod-
erately deep to deep root zone. It is medium acid to
strongly acid, has moderate organic-matter content, and
is well able to hold plant nutrients in available form.
Its available moisture capacity is moderately higl to
high. Permeability is moderate to rapid in the sur-
face layer and moderate to slow in the subsoil.
T'xe and managemnt.-Because of good soil qualities,
including high natural fertility, this soil is suited to
many crops. Runoff is rapid, however, because of steep
slopes and slow infiltration: consequently, the hazard
of erosion is severe. Nevertheless, if intensive erosion
control practices are employed, this soil can be cultivated.
This soil can le highly productive if crops are ar-
ranged in strips on the contour, if crop residues are
left on it, if lime and fertilizer are applied regularly.
and if soil-improving perennials and cover crops or
green-manure crops are used in the rotation at least
two-thirds of the time. If cultivated crops are rotated
with improved pasture, well-managed sod of high qual-
ity should occupy the soil at least 2 years out of 3, or
4 years out of 6.
Crops will grow without irrigation because the supply
of soil moisture is favorable. Sprinkler irrigation, how-
ever, can supplement rainfall, especially at critical times,
to obtain the best yields of high-value crops.
This soil is suited to most grasses and legumes grown
in Florida. If adequately fertilized and limed, it is a
good soil for tall fescue, white clover, crimson clover.
sweetclover, and other cool-season plants. It is well
adapted to summer grasses, including bermudagrass and
balnagrass, and can produce high yields of hay and pas-
ture. To control erosion, the soil should Ie seeded as
soon as possible after the land has been prepared, and
quick growth of the grasses should be encouraged.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed
for satisfactory growth. Phosphate requirements are
low, but the response to other fertilizers is so good that
heavy fertilization is practical.








SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


Capability unit llles-1
The soils in this unit are well drained and either not
eroded or only slightly eroded. They are-
Bowie fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Bowie fine sand, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Bowie-Blanton complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
In most places fine sand extends to a depth of 10 to
30 inches. In a few places it extends below 30 inches.
The fine sand in the uppermost 4 to 6 inches is grayish
brown to gray. The subsoil is friable to firm sandy clay
to clay 12 to 30 inches thick. In most places it is mot-
tied in the lower part. Layers of highly mottled, firm,
compact, strongly acid sandy clay or plastic clay under-
lie the subsoil.
The organic-matter content is medium to low in the
surface layer. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers, moderately slow in the upper part
of the subsoil, and slow below that. The available mois-
ture capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderately high in the upper part of the subsoil.
Use and management.-Because of good soil qualities,
including the capacity to hold available plant nutrients
and a moderately deep root zone, these soils are suited
to most plants. Runoff is rapid, however, because of
steep slopes and slow infiltration; consequently, the haz-
ard of erosion is severe. Nevertheless, if intensive erosion
control practices are followed, these soils can be culti-
vated.
These soils are not readily leached, and they retain
fertilizers well. They can be highly productive if crops
are arranged in strips across the slope, if crop residues
are conserved, if lime and fertilizer are applied in ade-
quate amounts, and if soil-improving perennials and
cover crops or green-manure crops are used in the ro-
tation at least three-fourths of the time. If cultivated
crops are rotated with improved pasture, well-managed
pasture should occupy the soils at least 3 years out of
4. All natural draws and other points of water concen-
tration should be kept in perennial close-growing vege-
tation.
These soils are suited to most grasses and legumes
grown in Florida. If adequately fertilized and limed,
they are good soils for crimson clover, sweetclover, and
other cool-season plants. They also are well adapted to
summer grasses, particularly improved bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, and produce high yields. To control erosion,
the soils should be seeded as soon as possible after tlhe
land has been prepared, and quick growth of the grasses
should he encouraged. Regular applications of fertilizer
and lime are needed for satisfactory growth. The good
response to fertilizers warrants heavy applications.
Capability unit IIws-1
This unit consists of poorly drained soils that occur
in low, flat areas and in depressions. The soils are-
Bayboro fine sandy loam.
Weston fine sand. dark subsoil variant.
The upper layers of these soils range from loamy
fine sand to fine sandy loam in texture and from 8 to
30 inches in thickness. The uppermost 8 to 18 inches is
dark gray to black and grades to light gray or gray.
The subsoil is mottled, very plastic sandy clay.
729-251--65---4


These soils are strongly acid throughout. They are
moderate in natural fertility and medium to very high
in organic-matter content. The most poorly drained areas
are highest in organic-matter content. The available
moisture capacity is high. Permeability is slow to very
slow in the subsoil.
VTe and management.-Because of somewhat favor-
able soil qualities, including good surface texture, me-
dium to very high organic-matter content, high available
moisture capacity, and moderate fertility, these soils are
suitable for cultivation. Wetness, however, is a major
limitation. The very slowly permeable subsoil makes
adequate water control difficult. Even if well-established
drains are provided, some soils are still subject to water-
logging during wet seasons. The very poorly aerated
subsoil restricts the root zone and thereby limits the
range of crops.
If they are cultivated, these soils need properly spaced
shallow ditches and bedding that remove surface water.
Also needed are lime and fertilizer in adequate amounts
and a cropping system that frequently includes deep-
rooting green-manure crops to help improve structure,
tilth, and permeability. In most places permeability in
the surface laver is too slow to allow effective subirriga-
tion. rThe soils are not drought; their available mois-
ture capacity is high.
The soils in this unit are well suited to most of the
tame grasses grown in Florida. Simple drains are needed
to remove surface water if these soils are to be used as
improved pasture. Tall fescue, white clover, sweetclover,
and other cool-season plants grow well if the soils are
fertilized and limed. Heavy applications of fertilizer
and lime are needed for best returns.
Capability unit IIIse-1
This unit consists of well-drained, sandy soils that de-
veloped from deep loamy sand influenced by phosphatic
material. They occur as broad areas on uplands. The
soils are-
Gainesville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Gainesville loamy fine sand. moderately shallow, 0 to 5 per-
cent slopes.
In most places the surface and subsurface horizons
consist of loamy fine sand and extend to a delth of
more than 42 inches. In some places, however, they are
underlain by fine-textured material at a depth of 30 to
42 inches. Gullies have formed in a few areas.
These soils are medium acid and moderate in natural
fertility. They are somewhat drought in dry seasons
because they are porous and have low available moisture
capacity. Water and air move rapidly through them,
and added plant nutrients leach out readily.
l'se and management.-Because low available moisture
capacity and rapid permeability make these soils both
drought and low in plant nutrients, they need intensive
management if they are cultivated. Furthermore, they
are moderately susceptible to both wind and water ero-
sion if they are not protected.
Most of the common crops are grown on these soils,
but yields are low unless intensive soil-improving
practices are followed. For tilled crops the prac-
tices generally needed are cultivating on the contour,
applying fertilizer and lime frequently, working crop








SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


residues into the soil, and practicing a rotation that keeps
sod crops or cover crops on the land at least two-thirds of
the time. If cultivated crops are rotated with improved
pasture, a well-managed sod of high-quality is needed on
the soils at least 4 years out of 6. The sod should be
plowed under when the soils are to be planted to tilled
crops.
These soils are well suited to pasture. They are good
for most grasses and for indigo, crimson clover, and
sweetclover. but they are too sandy for fescue or white
clover. These soils need adequate appllications of lime
and fertilizer to produce satisfactory yields of grasses
and legumes. Since the soils respond well to fertilizer,
heavy applications are practical. Erosion can be con-
trolled by seeding the land soon after it has been pre-
pared and by encouraging quick growth of the grasses.
Grazing should le rotated and controlled to prevent
stunting of the grasses.
Capability unit IIse-2
This unit consists of well-drained, slightly eroded,
sandy soils that occur as broad areas on uplands. The
soils are-
Blanton fine sand. high. 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, high. moderately shallow. 0 to 5 percent
slopes.
Lakeland fine sand. 0 to 5 percent slopes.
The surface and subsurface layers consist of sand or
fine sand 30 to more than 60 inches thick. In most
places they are underlain )elow a depth of 60 inches by
layers of fine sandy loam to sandy clay loam.
These soils are strongly acid, low in organic-matter
content, and low in natural fertility. They are porous
and have a low available moisture capacity. Water and
air move rapidly through them. and added plant nutri-
ents leach out readily.
T.-re a .n.J ni.i.ii., ,.,. ,Ir.-Droughtiness and low plant-
nutrient content severely limit the suitability of these soils
for agricultural use. Water erosion is only a minor
hazard, but wind erosion is often severe if the soils are
not protected.
These soils are well suited to watermelons, bright to-
)acco, and a few other special crops. Cultivated crops
should be rotated with cover crops so as to keep the soil-
improving crops on the soil at least two-thirds of the
time. If row crops are rotated with improved pasture,
well-managed sod should occupy the soil 4 years out of
6. )During the 2 years of cultivation, furthermore, row
crops should be followed by cover crops. Terraces are not
necessary, because the soils are porous enough to absorb
excess water, but crops should be grown in strips across
the slope to provide adequate protection against wind
erosion. Liberal use of fertilizer is necessary. Where
an easily accessible supply of water is available, sprin-
kler irrigation for special crops of high value is desirable.
These soils are moderately well suited to improved
pasture. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and other deep-root-
ing grasses grow well. Although hairy indigo, lupine.
and other deep-rooting legumes grow successfully, they
are difficult to establish and maintain. Pasture manage-
ment should provide adequate fertilizing and liming,
and also controlled grazing.


Capability unit IIlse-3
This unit consists of nearly level to gently sloping,
well-drained soils that developed from sand and fine sand
influenced in places by phosphatic material or by lime-
stone. The soils are-
Arredondo fine sand. 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Arredondo fine sand. moderately shallow, 0 to 5 percent
slopes.
Blanton-Chiefland fine sands. 0 to 5 percent slopes.
('iiefland fine sand. 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Lakeland and Jonesville fine sands. 0 to 5 percent slopes.
These soils have fine sand to a depth of 30 to 60
inches. In a few small areas, however, they are less
than 30 inches deep. In places the tine sand overlies
phosphatic material or limestone.
These soils are medium acid to strongly acid and low
in most of the essential plant nutrients. They are
drought during normal dry seasons because they have
poor moisture-holding properties. They are porous;
water and air move rapidly through them.
VI'x and manqgemta'n.-Sandy texture and associated
poor qualities severely limit the suitability of these soils
for cultivation. Low natural fertility. low available
moisture capacity, and rapid permeability restrict the
choice of crops and make it necessary to use soil-inmprov-
ing crops frequently in the rotation. Water erosion is
only a minor problem, but wind erosion is a hazard if
the soils are not protected (fig. 15).
These soils are poorly suited to most culltivated crops.
They are suited to watermelons, peanuts, bright tobacco,
and a few other special crops. Soil-improving cover
crops should be kept on the soils at least two-thirds of
the time. If cultivated crops are rotated with improved


Figure 15.-Windbreak of slash pine protects Blanton-Chiefland
fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and other loose sand soils from
wind erosion.








SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


pasture, well-managed sod should occupy the soils 4
years out of 6. Also, during the 2 years of cultivation,
row crops should be followed by annual cover crops.
Terraces are neither necessary nor desirable, but crops
should be grown in strips across the slope to provide
protection from wind erosion. Liberal use of fertilizer
is necessary. Where an easily accessible supply of water
is available, sprinkler irrigation for special crops of
high value is desirable.
Soils in this unit are moderately well suited to im-
proved pasture. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and other
deep-rooting grasses grow well. Although hairy indigo,
lupine, and other deep-rooting legumes grow successful-
ly, they are difficult to maintain. Pasture management
should provide adequate fertilizing and liming, as well
as controlled grazing.
Capability unit IIIse-4
This unit consists of well drained and moderately wall
drained soils that developed from thick beds of sand.' The
soils are-
Blanton fine sand. low. 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, low. moderately shallow, 0 to 5 percent
slopes.
Blanton-Bowie-Susqluechltna complex. 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Klej fine sand. 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Susqluhanna-Bllanton complex, 2 to .3 percent slopes.
The surface layer of these soils is sand or fine sand.
It is 3 to 12 inches thick and overlies faintly mottled
sand or fine sand that, except in a few places, extends
to a depth of more than 30 inches. In some places
sandy clay underlies sand or fine sand at a depth of 30
to 42 inches.
These soils are low in natural fertility, and they are
porous. Water moves rapidly through them: consequent-
ly, they are drought. The depth to the water table
varies, but normally the water table is 36 to 72 inches
below the surface. The water table is high enough to
affect the amount of moisture in the subsoil: consequent-
ly, these soils are less drought during a normal dry
season than are the associated soils at higher elevations.
[U. and iut,.n,,ii., i./.-Conservation practices needed
for the soils in this unit are mainly those that enable
the soils to retain more water and plant nutrients. Ero-
sion, particularly that caused by wind. is a hazard inl
unprotected areas. Ordinarily, however, the practices
that improve the soils also control erosion.
Soils in this unit are moderately well suited to most
of the common crops but need intensive soil-improving
practices if they are to produce high yields. All crop
residue should be left on the soils and incorporated in
the surface layer. Cover crops should be grown at least
two-thirds of the time and worked into the soil when
they mature. Improved pasture can be rotated with cul-
tivated crops (fig. 16) to provide well-managed, high-
quality sod 3 years out of 4, or 4 years out of 6.
Since much of their acreage is in large, nearly level.
relatively uniform tracts, these soils are well suited to
large field layouts. In these large fields, cover crops
should be planted in strips spaced at short intervals to
reduce soil blowing. Some areas of these soils are small
and difficult to manage properly because they are sur-
rounded by either wetter or drier soils. In these small


Figure 16.-Rotating tobacco with bahiagrass pasture is a good
practice on soils in capability unit IIIse-4.

areas, fertilizer and lime should be applied regularly,
just as in the large fields.
If they are properly fertilized and limed and are
otherwise well managed, the soils in this unit are well
suited to the deep-rooting tame grasses and the legumes
that grow well on sandy uplands. Pastures are less
affected by drought on these soils than on similar soils
in capability unit IIIse-2.
Capability unit IIlse-5
This unit consists of gently sloping, well-drained,
sandy soils that are moderately eroded in places. The
soils are-
Arcl'er-Sulsqlelmlalnla fine sandsl. 2 to 51 percent slopes.
Archer-Susluelihainna tine sands. lhick surface. 2 to .5 percent
slopes.
Hertmando fine sand. 2 to 5 percent slopes.
The surface layer of these soils is fine sand or loamy
fine sand. It grades to fine sandy loam. The thickness
of the surface and subsurface layers varies within short
distances and ranges from 6 to 30 inches in most places.
The subsoil is somewhat mottled, firm clay or sanlv
(lay. Within short distances the thickness of the sulb-
soil ranges from 6( inches to more than 30 inches. Lime-
stone underlies these soils in most places.
These soils are slightly acid to medium acid and low
to moderate in natural fertility. The available moisture
capacity is low in the sandy surface and subsurface
l:ier'-- and high in the subsoil. Water moves rapidly
through the surface and subsurface layers. It is some-
what restricted in the slowly permeable subsoil but
drains through many small sand-filled openings and
into the underlying porous substrata.







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


Use and management.-These soils are suited to a
wide variety of uses. They can be cultivated safely
under management designed to maintain an adequate
fertility level, to improve moisture conditions, and to
improve permeability in the subsoil. Water erosion is
only a moderate hazard, but wind erosion is a severe
one.
Most of the common crops are grown on these soils,
but yields are low unless soil-improving practices are
followed. Fertilizer should be applied frequently, and
lime occasionally. Crop residues should be worked into
the soils, and clean-tilled crops rotated with cover crops
at least two-thirds of the time.
Strips of vegetation across cultivated fields are needed
to keep the soils from blowing. If cultivated crops are
rotated with improved pasture, well-managed sod of
high-quality should occupy the soils at least 4 years out
of 6. The sod should be plowed under when the soils
are cultivated again. Terraces are not practical on these
soils.
Most tame grasses adapted to the well-drained soils
of central and northern Florida grow well on these soils
if adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime are applied.
The response to fertilizer warrants fairly heavy appli-
cations. Although hairy indigo, lupine, sweetclover, and
other deep-rooting legumes can grow successfully, grass-
legume pastures are difficult to establish and maintain.
Capability unit IIIsw-1
Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is the only
soil in this unit. It is a moderately well drained or some-
what poorly drained, sandy soil that developed from
moderately thick beds of sand underlain by phosphatic
sandy clay loam.
This soil has layers of fine sand extending to a depth
of more than 42 inches, but in some areas sandy clay
material is at a depth between 30 and 42 inches. Numer-
ous pebbles are scattered throughout the profile in places.
This soil is medium acid and low in natural fertility.
It is very porous. Water and air move rapidly through
it. Normally the water table fluctuates between 12 and
60 inches below the surface. The available moisture
capacity is low, but because of favorable moisture con-
ditions in the lower profile, this soil is less drought
during a normal dry season than the associated soils at
higher elevations.
'se and manaqgemint.-Lovw fertility and periodic wet-
ness are the main restrictions on use for cultivated crops.
The practices needed are chiefly those that enable the
soil to retain plant nutrients. Though it is rapidly
permeable, this soil may become saturated to the surface
during a prolonged wet period. Wind erosion and water
erosion are not hazards.
Most of the common crops are grown on this soil, but
usually yields are low unless soil-improving practices
are followed. Fertilizer and lime should be applied reg-
ularly; crop residues should be left on the surface; and
cover crops should occupy the soil at least two-thirds
of the time and should be chopped into the soil when
mature. A rotation that includes improved pasture and
cultivated crops also improves soil qualities. A good sod
should be established and maintained 4 years out of 6;
it should be plowed under before the soil is cultivated.


Some isolated areas of this soil are small and difficult
to manage properly because they are surrounded by
either wetter or drier soils.
If it is properly fertilized and limed and otherwise
well managed, this soil is well suited to the deep-rooting
tame grasses and legumes that grow well on sandy up-
lands. Because of the high water table, pastures are
less affected by drought on this soil than on similar sandy
soils.
Capability unit IIIsw-2
Fellowship loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, is
the only soil in this unit. It is a gently sloping soil de-
rived from thin deposits of sand overlying clayey phos-
phatic material.
In most places this soil has surface and subsurface ho-
rizons of loamy fine sand less than 18 inches thick. In a
few places these horizons are 18 to 30 inches thick. The
subsoil is plastic sandy clay loam to clay. Texture and
thickness of the subsoil vary within short distances. Un-
derlying geologic material is stratified sand and heavy
clay with high content of phosphatic, pebbly material.
This soil is medium in natural fertility. It has a
moderately high available moisture capacity. Plant nu-
trients leach out slowly. Water moves very slowly
through the subsoil. Consequently, the soil is water-
logged for short periods after heavy rains.
T'se and mamnagement.-This soil is suitable for culti-
vation but requires intensive soil-improving and erosion
control practices. Runoff is rapid during heavy rainfall.
because the soil is slowly permeable. The soil erodes
easily, and it is excessively wet for short periods after
heavy rainfall.
This soil is moderately well suited to cultivated crops.
Yields are moderately high and can be increased con-
siderably if crop residues are incorporated into the soil:
if deep-rooting, soil-improving crops are included in the
rotation: and if complete fertilizers and lime are ap-
plied regularly. A good cover of vegetation should be
established to protect against erosion. Clean-tilled crops
should not be grown more than one-third of the time.
A close-growing annual cover crop should be grown
between rows of clean-tilled crops. If cultivated crops
are rotated with improved pasture, well-managed sod
of high quality should occupy the soil at least 4 years
out of 6.
If adequately fertilized and limed, this soil is suited
to most grasses and legumes adapted to Florida, includ-
ing sweetclover and other cool-season plants, bermuda-
grass, pangolagrass, bahiagrass, hairy indigo, and other
summer grasses and legumes. Plant growth is satis-
factory and yields, both of hay and pasture, are high.
Phosphate requirements are relatively low, but heavy
applications of other fertilizers are practical for high-
est yields.
Capability unit IVe-1
This unit consists of well-drained to somewhat poorly
drained soils that developed from phosp)hatic sand and
clay. They are slightly eroded to moderately eroded.
The soils are-
Fellowship loamy fine sand. 5 to S percent slopes.
Zuber loamy fine sand. 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


The horizons of loamy fine sand are less than 30
inches thick. They overlie a friable to firm sandy clay
loam or sandy clay subsoil. The parent material is
unconsolidated sand and clay with some fragments of
phosphatic rock.
These soils are medium acid to strongly acid. Their
root zone is moderately deep to deep. The organic-mat-
ter content is moderate to high in the loamy fine sand
horizons. The available moisture capacity is moder-
ately high to high. Permeability is moderate to rapid
above the subsoil and moderate to very slow in the sub-
soil. The soils are well able to hold plant nutrients in
available form.
Use and management.-Runoff is rapid because of
steep slopes and slow infiltration; consequently, the haz-
ard of erosion is severe. Nevertheless, if intensive ero-
sion control practices are followed, the soils can be
cultivated.
These soils are suited to many crops. They are above
average in fertility and are particularly high in phos-
phate. They are not readily leached and retain fertil-
izers well. They can be highly productive soils if crop
residues are conserved, if adequate amounts of lime and
fertilizer are applied, and if grass sod or other effec-
tive close-growing cover crops and green-manure crops
make up at least three-fourths of the crop rotation. If
cultivated crops are rotated with improved pasture, well-
managed pasture should occupy the land at least 3 years
out of 4. All natural draws and other points of water
concentration should be kept in perennial close-grow-
ing vegetation. Cultivation should be in strips on the
contour. The slopes are too steep and too irregular to
be terraced. They do not need irrigation.
Most grasses and legumes grown in Florida are adapted
to these soils. If adequately fertilized and limed, the
soils can produce high yields of summer grasses, par-
ticularly improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass. Under
good management, white clover grows well with pasture
grasses. To control erosion, the soils should be seeded
as soon as possible after the land has been prepared,
and quick grass growth should be encouraged. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for satis-
factory growth. Phosphate requirements are low, but
the favorable response to other fertilizers makes heavy
fertilization practical.
Capability unit IVes-1
This unit consists of well-drained to somewhat poorly
drained, slightly eroded to moderately eroded soils that
are underlain by limestone in most places. The soils
are-
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, thick surface, 5 to 8 percent
slopes.
Hernando fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
The surface layer is fine sand or loamy fine sand that
grades to fine sandy loam. It varies in thickness within
short distances but is less than 30 inches thick in most
places. The subsoil is firm or plastic, slowly permeable,
mottled fine sandy clay or clay. It ranges from 6 inches
to more than 30 inches in thickness. In some small areas
this layer is absent.


These soils are slightly acid to medium acid and low
to moderate in natural fertility. Their available mois-
ture capacity is low in the surface layer and high in the
subsoil. Water moves rapidly through the surface layer
but is somewhat restricted in the subsoil. It drains
through small sand-filled openings in the subsoil and
into the underlying strata.
Use and' management.-Runoff is very rapid because
of steep slopes and slow permeability in the subsoil;
consequently, the hazard of erosion is severe. Wind ero-
sion is also a serious hazard if the soils are not protected
by vegetation.
The suitability of these soils for cultivation is severe-
ly limited by the hazard of erosion. Grass sod or cover
crops should occupy the land at least three-fourths of
the time, and a strip rotation should be followed. If
the soils are cultivated they should be fertilized frequent-
ly and limed occasionally. All crop residues should be
worked into the soil. If cultivated crops are rotated
with improved pasture, well-managed sod of high qual-
ity should occupy the land at least 3 years out of 4. The
surface is too irregular for contour cultivation or
terraces.
These soils are well suited to improved pasture and
hay. If adequately fertilized and limed, they produce
good yields of most tame grasses adapted to the well-
drained soils of central and northern Florida. Response
to fertilizer warrants fairly heavy applications. Al-
though hairy indigo, sweetclover, and other deep-root-
ing legumes grow successfully, grass-legume pastures
are difficult to establish and maintain.
Capability unit IVse-1
This unit consists of well-drained, sandy soils that
developed from deep loamy sand influenced by phosphatic
material. The soils are-
Fort Meade loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Gainesville loamy fine said, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
The surface layer and subsurface layers consist of
loamy fine sand and extend to a depth of more than 42
inches. In places fine-textured material is at a depth
between 30 and 42 inches. Active gullies have formed
in some areas.
These soils are medium acid to neutral in reaction and
moderate in natural fertility. They have a moderate to
low available moisture capacity and are somewhat
drought in dry season. They are porous; water and
air move rapidly through them, and added plant nu-
trients leach out readily.
Use and management.-The suitability of these soils
for agricultural use is severely limited because they are
drought and low in plant nutrients. Because of the
steep slopes, they are susceptible to water erosion.
Most of the crops common to the surrounding areas
are grown on these soils, but yields are low unless in-
tenpsive soil-improving practices are followed. Grass
sod or cover crops should occupy the land at least three-
fourths of the time, and a strip rotation should be fol-
lowed. If cultivated crops are rotated with improved
pasture, well-managed pasture of high quality should
occupy the land at least 3 years out of 4. All crop resi-
dues should be worked into the soil. Plowing should
be on the contour and sod strips left at intervals, or an






SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


annual cover crop should be grown between rows of cul-
tivated crops. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
frequently. The soils are too sandy for terraces. Ero-
sion should be controlled by means of vegetation.
These soils are well suited to pasture. They are good
soils for indigo, sweetclover, and most summer grasses
but are too sandy for fescue and white clover. They
need to be well fertilized and limed to produce satis-
factory yields of grasses and legumes. Good response
to fertilizer makes heavy applications practical. To
control erosion, the soils should be seeded as soon as
possible after the land has been prepared, and quick
growth of the grasses should be encouraged. Grazing
should be rotated and controlled to prevent stunting of
the grasses.
Capability unit IVse-2
The soils in this unit are deep and moderately well
drained for the most part. They are moderately eroded
in some small areas. The soils are-
Blanton fine sand, low, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, low, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, low, moderately shallow, 5 to 8 percent
slopes.
Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
These soils are usually mottled or splotched below the
surface. Their surface layer is fine sand and extends to
a depth of 30 inches or more. In a few somewhat poorly
drained areas, fine-textured material is at a depth of 12
to 30 inches.
These soils are strongly acid throughout. They are
very porous within the root zone; water drains rapidly
and leaches out plant nutrients. Because they retain
little water, the soils are drought. Those on long, nar-
row slope breaks are affected by the variable high water
table of the adjoining, nearly level soils of the same type.
Those in other, more extensive areas are wet in the sub-
soil because of seepage from higher slopes. This free
water in the lower part of the root zone reduces drought-
iness.
Use and management.-The soils in this unit usually
occur as small areas within the larger areas of soils in
capability unit IIIse-4. They require more intensive
treatment than the surrounding soils. Because they are
low in natural fertility, they need to be fertilized and
limed. Soil-improving crops are needed also to produce
even moderate yields.
These soils are suited to the same crops as those that
can be grown on soils in capability unit IIIse-4 but, be-
cause erosion is a greater hazard on these soils, they
should be planted to close-growing cover crops most of
the time. They should not be planted to clean-tilled
crops more than one-fourth of the time.
If properly fertilized, limed, and otherwise well man-
aged, these soils are well suited to the deep-rooting
tame grasses and the legumes that grow well on sandy
uplands. Management requirements for improved pas-
ture are similar to those of soils in capability unit
IIIse-4.
Capability unit IVse-3
Kanapaha fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, is the only
soil in this unit. It is a moderately well drained soil
that developed from moderately thick beds of sand and


fine sand overlying phosphatic sandy clay loam. This
soil is inextensive and occurs as small areas on slope
breaks.
The fine sand surface layer ordinarily extends to a
depth of more than 42 inches. In places, however, sandy
clay material underlies the surface layer at a depth be-
tween 30 and 42 inches. Pebbles are scattered through-
out the profile.
This soil is medium acid, low in natural fertility, and
low in organic-matter content. It is very porous; water
and air move rapidly through it and plant nutrients are
readily leached. In wet seasons, however, the soil is
quickly saturated and the ensuing runoff is rapid. The
loose sand surface layer erodes easily if not protected
by vegetation. The available moisture capacity is low,
but seepage keeps the soil wet most of the time. In
places where seepage water is not abundant, the soil is
drought. Because of seepage, this soil is less drought
during a normal dry season than the associated soils.
Use and management.-Usually this soil occurs as
small areas within larger areas of the soil in capability
unit IIIsw-1. It requires more intensive treatment than
the surrounding, more gently sloping soil.
This soil is suited to the same crops as those grown
on the soil in capability unit IIIsw-1, but, because ero-
sion is a greater hazard on this soil, it should be planted
to close-growing cover crops most of the time. It should
not be planted to clean-tilled crops more than one-fourth
of the time. Because this soil is low in natural fertility,
it requires fertilizer and lime, along with intensive use
of soil-improving crops, to produce even moderate yields.
If properly established, adequately fertilized and
limed, and otherwise well managed, this soil is well
suited to the deep-rooting tame grasses and the legumes
adapted to sandy uplands. Pastures are affected less
by drought on this soil than on similar sandy soils be-
cause seepage keeps the root zone moist even during dry
seasons.
Capability unit IVse-4
This unit consists of well-drained, uneroded, sandy
soils on uplands. The soils are-
Blanton fine sand, high, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Lakeland fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
The upper layers are 42 to more than 60 inches thick.
In most places they are underlain below 60 inches by
fine sandy loam to sandy clay loam.
These soils are strongly acid, low in natural fertility,
and low in organic-matter content. They have a low
available moisture capacity and are drought. They are
very porous. Water and air move rapidly through them,
and added plant nutrients leach out readily.
Use and management.-The suitability of these soils
for cultivation is severely limited by poor soil qualities.
Conservation practices needed are mainly those that en-
able the soils to retain more water and plant nutrients.
Erosion is a moderate hazard on unprotected slopes, but
the practices needed to improve the soils are also ade-
quate to control the erosion.
These soils are suited to a very limited number of cul-
tivated crops. Watermelons and bright tobacco grow
successfully, but these and other cultivated crops should
be grown in a rotation that keeps soil-improving cover






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


crops on the soils at least three-fourths of the time. Cover
crops should be planted in strips across the slope to con-
trol wind erosion. If cultivated crops are rotated with
improved pasture, well-managed sod should occupy the
soils 3 years out of 4. Liberal applications of fertilizers
are needed.
These soils are moderately well suited to improved
pasture. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and other deep-root-
ing grasses grow well. Hairy indigo and other deep-
rooting legumes also grow well, but careful management
is needed to establish and maintain them as grass sod.
Controlled grazing and frequent fertilizing and liming
are necessary.
Capability unit IVse-5
This unit consists of well-drained, slightly eroded soils
that developed from sand and fine sand overlying and
influenced by phosphatic material or limestone. The soils
are-
Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Arredondo fine sand, moderately shallow, 5 to 8 percent
slopes.
Blanton-Chiefland fine sands, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Chiefland fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
The surface horizon of these soils normally extends to
a depth of more than 42 inches. In a few places, how-
ever, fine-textured material is at a depth between 30 and
42 inches.
These soils are medium acid to neutral in reaction and
low in most of the essential plant nutrients. They have
very poor moisture-holding properties and are drought
during a normal dry season. They are very porous.
Water and air move rapidly through them.
Use and management.-The suitability of these soils
for cultivation is severely limited by poor soil qual-
ities. Furthermore, wind erosion is a severe hazard if
the soils are unprotected, and water erosion is a mod-
erate hazard on unprotected slopes. The conservation
practices needed, mainly those that enable the soils to
retain more water and plant nutrients, also control
erosion.
These soils are well suited only to watermelons, pea-
nuts, bright tobacco, and a few other special crops.
Soil-improving cover crops or grass sod should be used
in the rotation at least three-fourths of the time. If cul-
tivated crops are rotated with improved pasture, well-
managed sod of high quality should occupy the soils at
least 3 years out of 4. Terraces are not practical, but
cover crops should be planted in strips across the slope.
Liberal use of fertilizer is necessary.
These soils are moderately well suited to improved
pasture. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and other deep-root-
ing grasses grow well. Hairy indigo and other deep-
rooting legumes also grow well but are difficult to main-
tain as pasture. Carefully controlled grazing and fre-
quent fertilizing and liming are necessary.
Capability unit IVse-6
The soils in this unit are moderately well drained and
somewhat poorly drained. They are slightly eroded for
the most part and moderately eroded in places. Shal-
low gullies are common. The soils are-
Sandy and clayey land, gently sloping.
Susquehanna fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.


Susquehanna fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
The surface layer is gray fine sand to fine sandy loam
6 to 18 inches thick. It is underlain by a very slowly
permeable subsoil of plastic or compact sandy clay to
clay. The subsoil grades to very slowly permeable,
highly mottled sandy clay and clay.
These soils are strongly acid, low in organic-matter
content, and low in natural fertility. The root zone is
shallow because the subsoil is poorly aerated and other-
wise not favorable to root development. The available
moisture capacity of the root zone is low.
Use and management.-The suitability of these soils
for cultivation is very severely limited by unfavorable
internal soil conditions. Furthermore, crops are affected
by excess water during seasons of heavy rainfall and
by drought during dry seasons. Also, the soils are quickly
saturated, and the ensuing runoff is rapid. Consequent-
ly, erosion is a serious hazard. The shallower soils are
in poor tilth and are difficult to plow.
These soils, for the most part, are poorly suited to
commonly grown row crops. If row crops are grown,
grass sod or close-growing cover crops should be on the
soils at least three-fourths of the time. If tilled crops
are rotated with improved pasture, well-managed sod
should occupy the soils at least 3 years out of 4. Excess
water should be controlled by strips of vegetation and
by contour cultivation. Use of complete fertilizers and
lime is necessary. Terraces are not practical.
Moderately good improved pastures can grow on these
soils. Most tame grasses adapted to the Florida climate
can grow also, but their growth is stunted in dry seasons
because roots cannot penetrate deeply. Most legumes do
not grow well, but the more drought-resistant ones grow
successfully on the deeper soils if the soils are well man-
aged. To prevent erosion, the soils should be seeded as
soon as possible after the land has been prepared, and
quick growth should be encouraged. Regular applica-
tions of fertilizer and periodic liming are needed for
satisfactory growth. Active gullies should receive spe-
cial attention. Water should be diverted away from
them and a good sod established.
Capability unit IVsw-1
Plummer fine sand, high, is the only soil in this unit.
This is a somewhat poorly drained soil that developed
from thick beds of sand. It occurs as small, isolated areas
surrounded by entirely different kinds of soils. The
slope range is 0 to 5 percent, but most of the slopes are
less than 2 percent.
The surface layer is light-gray to dark-gray fine sand
3 to 6 inches thick. It grades to faintly mottled, light-
gray fine sand that extends to a depth of more than 30
inches.
This soil is strongly acid and low in natural fertility.
It is very porous. Water and air move rapidly through
it, and plant nutrients leach out readily. The water
table normally fluctuates within 24 to 48 inches of
the surface, but in an extremely dry season it may recede
to a depth of more than 60 inches. The soil is drought
when the water table is low. It has a low available
moisture capacity but benefits from the capillary water
that rises from the water table into the root zone. In






SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


a wet season the soil is saturated to within a few inches
of the surface.
Use and management.-The sandy, deep upper layers
and other poor soil qualities limit the suitability of this
soil for cultivation. Conservation practices needed are
primarily those that improve soil-moisture conditions.
Erosion is not a serious problem and usually is adequate-
ly controlled by soil-improving practices.
Most of the common crops are grown on this soil, but
usually yields are low. To increase productivity, the
soil should be limed and fertilized regularly, all crop
residues should be left on the surface, and grass sod or
cover crops should occupy the soil at least three-fourths
of the time. A rotation that includes improved pasture
also improves the soil. If crops are rotated with im-
proved pasture, a well-managed sod should occupy the
soil 3 years out of 4.
Deep-rooting tame grasses and legumes, including pan-
golagrass, bahiagrass, and indigo, are well adapted to
this soil and grow well if the soil is fertilized, limed,
and otherwise well managed.
Capability unit IVsw-2
Leon and Ona fine sands, as they occur in an undif-
ferentiated soil group, make up this unit. These soils
are nearly level and somewhat poorly drained or poorly
drained.
The surface layer is gray or dark-gray to black fine
sand 3 to more than 7 inches thick. Leon fine sand has
a leached subsurface layer of lighter colored fine sand
4 to 24 inches thick. It overlies a weakly cemented to
strongly cemented organic pan 3 to 8 inches thick. Ona
fine sand lacks a leached subsurface layer. It has an or-
ganic-stained layer or a weakly cemented pan beneath the
surface layer. In most places both soils have a layer of
light-colored fine sand below the pan.
These soils are very strongly acid. They are low in
natural fertility but respond well to fertilizer. They
have a low available moisture capacity, and they are
rapidly permeable. They are affected by a fluctuating
water table that rises to within a few inches of the sur-
face in wet seasons and drops to 36 inches or more below
the surface in dry seasons.
Use and management.-Several poor qualities limit
the suitability of these soils for cultivation. They are
readily leached, are drought in normal dry seasons, and
have a restricted root zone. Periodic wetness further
limits their suitability. Simple drainage practices are
adequate to remove surplus water in wet seasons, but
more complex practices are needed to overcome poor
soil qualities.
These soils are only moderately suited to general farm
crops. They are well suited to truck crops and other
specialized crops if conditions are favorable. The water
table should be carefully controlled. Drainage systems
need to be carefully designed, installed, and maintained
to provide rapid removal of excess water during heavy
rainfall. Heavy applications of lime and complete fer-
tilizers should be added to obtain best yields of most
crops. Cropping systems should keep soil-improving
grasses and legumes on the soils at least two-thirds of
the time. If cultivated crops are rotated with pasture,
well-managed sod of high quality should occupy the land
at least 4 years out of 6.


Highly productive warm-weather pastures of improved
grasses can be established and maintained. Simple drain-
age systems are needed to remove excess water during
wet seasons. Liberal applications of lime and fertilizer
are needed also. Clovers can be grown successfully with
grasses for winter pasture. Pastures should be estab-
lished and managed according to good agronomy
practices.
Capability unit Vws-1
The soils in this unit are poorly drained and very
poorly drained., They occur mostly in flats or depres-
sions, but some are intermixed with better drained soils on
gentle slopes near the rivers. The soils are-
Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Grady, Bladen, and Coxville soils.
Grady fine sandy loam, thick surface.
The surface layer of these soils ranges from gray to
black loamy fine sand to fine sandy loam, 4 to 12 inches
thick. The subsoil is predominantly mottled, very plas-
tic sandy clay loam to clay, although in places it is fine
sand or fine sandy loam. Depth to the subsoil, except
in the sandy areas, ranges from 6 to 18 inches but is
less than 10 inches in most places.
These soils are moderate in natural fertility. In the
surface layer, they range from high to low in organic-
matter content. They have a high available moisture
capacity. In most places their subsoil is slowly per-
meable to very slowly permeable and poorly aerated.
Use and .. .,,.. /i,.'.-These soils are not suitable
for cultivation. Excess water in the soil, which is very
difficult to remove, is the dominant limitation, especial-
ly in low areas where the soils are very slowly permeable.
The risk of periodic flooding is a limitation in areas
adjacent to the major streams. Even if the soils were
drained, they would be poorly suited to cultivation be-
cause their surface layer is fine textured and can be
tilled safely only within a narrow range of moisture
content.
Under intensive management these soils are capable
of producing high-quality pastures. A drainage system
designed to remove surface water rapidly is essential
on the most poorly drained soils. If heavily limed and
fertilized and adequately drained, the soils in this unit
are well suited to clover-grass pastures for winter graz-
ing. They are also well suited to several warm-weather
grasses. Grazing should be rotated and controlled to
permit healthy growth of grasses and legumes and to
prevent puddling or packing of the surface soil by the
animals. Most of the soils along the streams could pro-
duce good pasture, but floods might damage the pasture
and endanger the livestock.
Capability unit Vws-2
The soils in this unit occur in shallow ponds, in poorly
defined drainageways, in poorly drained flats, and in
seepage areas on gentle slopes. The soils are-
Plummer fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
Plummer fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Plummer fine sand, moderately shallow.
Plummer fine sand, depressions.
Rutlege fine sand.






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


The surface layer of these soils is gray to black fine
sand 4 to 7 inches thick. It is underlain by a layer of
light-gray to gray sand or fine sand more than 30 inches
thick.
These soils are strongly acid and low in all of the
essential plant nutrients. Some of the soils have high
organic-matter content in their upper layers. The soils
have a low available moisture capacity, and they are
porous. Water and air would move rapidly through
them, but in most places ground water is at or just
below the surface during most of the year.
Use and ,....,,'. ,,;.--The suitability of these soils
for agriculture is limited mainly by wetness. Other im-
portant limitations include sandy texture, low natural
fertility, and low available moisture capacity.
Highly productive pastures of improved grasses can
be maintained on these soils. Drainage systems are
needed to remove excess surface water during wet sea-
sons. Liberal applications of lime and fertilizer are also
needed. Yields of grass are closely related to the amount
of fertilizer used. Clover can be grown successfully with
grass for winter pasture, but irrigation is needed to
insure satisfactory growth.
Capability unit Vsw-1
Pomello fine sand is the only soil in this unit. It is a
moderately well drained, sandy soil that occurs on low
ridges and on slightly elevated islands in the flatwoods.
This soil is primarily a thick bed of white quartz sand
that has a thin surface layer stained gray or dark gray
by organic matter. A pan stained by organic matter
occurs in most places at a depth between 30 and 42
inches, and it is underlain by light-colored sand.
This soil has a very low available moisture capacity.
It is very porous, highly leached, and drought in dry
seasons. Water moves rapidly through it. The water
table level rises to within 2 feet of the surface during
wet seasons.
Use and /..,,,., .' ,, '.--Normally, this soil is too sandy,
too low in fertility, and too drought for cultivation,
even under intensive management. Fair yields of im-
proved grasses for pasture are possible if the soil is
managed intensively. Bahiagrass and other deep-root-
ing, drou gt-resistant grasses grow moderately well only
if the soilis heavily fertilized and limed and if grazing
is carefully controlled.
Capability unit Vsw-2
This unit consists of poorly drained and somewhat
poorly drained, deep, sandy soils that are affected by a
seasonally high, fluctuating water table. The soils are-
Leon fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
Leon fine sand, loamy substratum, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
The surface layer ranges from 4 to 6 inches in thick-
ness in most places but is as much as 12 inches thick in
a few areas. It is gray to very dark gray, depending
on the number of black organic particles, and it over-
lies a leached layer of gray to white fine sand 10 to 24
inches thick. At a depth of less than 30 inches the
leached layer abruptly overlies a weakly to strongly
cemented, brown to black pan stained by organic mat-
ter. In some places this pan is underlain by fine sand
and in other places by fine-textured strata.


These soils are strongly acid and have a very low cat-
ion-exchange capacity. They are low in natural fer-
tility and usually low in organic-matter content. Or-
ganic residues oxidize quickly. The soils have a very
low available moisture capacity, and they are very porous
and readily leached. Water and air move rapidly
through them.
Use and management.-The restricted root zone, the
droughtiness during normal dry seasons, and the hazard
of periodic wetness combine to make these soils unsuit-
able for cultivation. Highly productive pastures of im-
proved grasses, however, can be maintained on these
soils. Simple drainage systems are needed to remove
excess water that accumulates during wet seasons. Lib-
eral applications of lime and fertilizer are also needed.
Grass yields are closely related to the amount of fertil-
izer used. Clovers can be grown successfully with
grasses for winter pasture, but irrigation is needed to
insure satisfactory growth.
Capability unit VIe-1
Fellowship loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes,
is the only soil in this unit. It is a slightly eroded soil
that was derived from thin deposits of sand overlying
clayey, phosphatic material.
The upper layers of this soil are loamy fine sand and
less than 30 inches thick. The subsoil is plastic sandy
clay loam to clay. It varies in texture and thickness
within short disances. The underlying geologic material
is stratified sand and clay with numerous phosphatic
pebbles.
This soil has a moderately high available moisture
capacity. It is waterlogged for short periods after heavy
rainfall, because water moves very slowly through the
subsoil. Runoff is rapid; consequently, erosion is a haz-
ard unless the soil is protected by permanent, close-
growing vegetation. Effective control of erosion is dif-
ficult to put into practice because slopes are steep.
Use and management.-This soil is too steep for safe
cultivation but, like the soils in capability unit IVe-1, is
suited to improved pasture. Since it is steeper than the
soils in unit IVe-1, more intensive management is needed
to get a good protective cover. Cool-season grasses and
legumes, and summer grasses, including pangolagrass,
improved bermudagrass, and bahiagrass, grow well if
the soil is adequately fertilized and limed.
Capability unit VIes-1
The soils in this unit are shallow or very shallow,
moderately well drained and well drained, and slightly
eroded to moderately eroded. Shallow gullies have
formed in some eroded areas. The soils are-
Sandy and clayey land, sloping.
Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8. percent slopes.
Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
Susquehanna fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
The upper layers are gray and range from sand to
fine sandy loam in texture and from 6 to 30 inches in
thickness. They are underlain by a compact sandy clay
and clay subsoil that grades to slowly permeable, highly
mottled sandy clay and clay substrata. Intricate varia-
tions occur within some small areas.






SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


These soils are strongly acid and low in organic-
matter content and in natural fertility. They have low
available moisture capacity in their root zone. The root
zone is shallow because the fine-textured subsoil is slow-
ly permeable, poorly aerated, compact, and otherwise
unfavorable for root development.
Use and management.-The soils in this unit are not
suitable for cultivation because they are susceptible to
erosion and have other unfavorable characteristics. If
they must be cultivated, they require very intensive con-
servation treatment. Each individual field should be
studied carefully and treatment planned accordingly.
Moderately good improved pastures can be grown on
these soils, some of which are similar to soils in ca-
pability unit IVse-6. Most tame grasses adapted to the
Florida climate can be grown, but their growth is stunted
during dry seasons because roots cannot penetrate deep-
ly. Most legumes are not well adapted, but the more
drought-resistant ones can grow successfully on the
deeper soils if the soils receive good management. To
prevent erosion, the soils should be seeded as soon as
possible after the land has been prepared, and quick
growth should be encouraged. Regular use of fertilizer
and periodic liming are necessary for satisfactory growth.
Active gullies should receive special attention; water
should be diverted away from them and an adequate,
protective sod established. Intricate local variations in
the soils are reflected in differences in plant growth.
Capability unit VIse-1
Blanton fine sand, high, 8 to 12 percent slopes, is the
only soil in this unit. It is a well-drained, strongly acid,
deep, sandy soil. Fine sand extends to a depth of 30
inches or more.
The soil is very low in natural fertility and low in
organic-matter content. It has a very low available mois-
ture capacity and is very porous and readily leached.
Water and air move rapidly through it.
Use ad management.-This soil has several severe
limitations that make it generally unsuitable for culti-
vation and seriously restrict its suitability for other uses.
Because of steep slopes, erosion is a serious hazard un-
less the soil is well protected by vegetation. The poor
qualities of this soil make it difficult to establish such
vegetation.
This soil, though steeper, is similar to soils in ca-
pability units IVse-2, IVse-4, and IVse-5. Under un-
usually intensive management, it can be used for very
limited cultivation of close-growing crops. It is not
well suited to high-quality improved pasture, but under
good management it produces fair yields of deep-rooting,
drought-resistant grasses. Production is difficult to main-
tain at a constant level, however, because the soil is
drought and readily leached. If good cover is to be
maintained, grazing must be restricted more on this
soil than on similar soils that are on gentler slopes.
Capability unit VIse-2
Arredondo fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes, is the
only soil in this unit. It is a well-drained soil that de-
veloped from fine sand overlying and influenced by phos-
phatic material. The surface and subsurface layers con-


sist of more than 42 inches of fine sand. Erosion caused
by both water and wind is slight to moderate.
This soil is medium acid, low in organic-matter con-
tent, and low in natural fertility. It has a low avail-
able moisture capacity and is very porous. Water and
air move rapidly through it. During normal dry sea-
sons the soil is drought.
Use and management.-This soil has several severe
limitations that make it generally unsuitable for culti-
vation and seriously restrict its suitability for other uses.
Because of steep slopes, erosion is a very serious hazard
and gullies form readily unless the soil is well protected
by a good cover of vegetation. Poor soil qualities make
it difficult to establish such cover.
Under unusually intensive management, this soil may
be used to very limited extent for close-growing culti-
vated crops. It is not well suited to high-quality im-
proved pasture, but under good management it produces
fair yields of deep-rooting, drought-resistant grasses.
Production is difficult to maintain, however, because the
soil is drought and readily leached. If good cover is to
be maintained throughout the year, grazing must be
restricted more on this soil than on similar soils that
are on gentler slopes.
Capability unit VIle-1
Zuber loamy fine sand, 8 to 35 percent slopes, is the
only soil in this unit. It is a moderately deep to deep,
well-drained soil that developed from stratified phos-
phatic sand and clay. It is slightly eroded to moderately
eroded.
The upper layers consist of loamy fine sand and are
less than 30 inches thick. They are underlain by a firm
to friable sandy clay loam subsoil. Stratified sand and
clay occur below the subsoil.
This soil is medium acid to strongly acid, low to me-
dium in organic-matter content, and moderate to high
in natural fertility. It has a moderate to high avail-
able moisture capacity and is moderately permeable
to slowly permeable. The root zone is moderately deep.
Use and management.-This soil is unsuitable for cul-
tivation primarily because of the very severe hazard of
erosion. Furthermore, if it were cultivated, adequate
erosion control practices could not be applied because
of the steep slopes, nor could farm equipment be op-
erated effectively. For the same reason, this soil is not
suited to improved pasture or to hay. Seeding, liming,
fertilizing, water management practices, and other prac-
tices needed to maintain an effective sod cover usually
are not practical on this soil. If it must be used as
pasture, this soil must be managed carefully. While
pasture is being established, the soil must be protected
by gully stabilization, diversion ditches, or strip planting
on the contour. It must be adequately limed and fertil-
ized to insure rapid initial growth and satisfactory
growth thereafter. Overgrazing and undue trampling
in critical areas should be avoided.
Capability unit VIIws-1
This unit consists of poorly drained and very poorly
drained soils on stream bottoms, and wet seepy soils on






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


steep slopes. Many areas are made up of contrasting
soils. The soils in this unit are-
Alluvial land.
Plummer, Bladen, and Rains soils, 5 to 17 percent slopes.
These soils vary widely in texture and in organic-mat-
ter content. Most of them have poor soil qualities.
Those on bottom lands are subject to periodic flooding
by stream overflow.
Use and ,,,.,,,11,,,, ,,.-Without major reclamation
work, these soils are not suitable for cultivated crops,
and they are of limited suitability for improved pasture
and hay. Improved grass and clover grow well in most
areas but are subject to serious damage by floods on
the bottom lands. Thus, the frequency and duration
of floods greatly affects the suitability of these soils for
improved grasses and clover.
Capability unit VIIws-2
Peat that consists of very strongly acid to extremely
acid organic material is in this unit. It was derived
from the remains of trees, grasses, lilies, and other
plants, and it occurs in wet depressions and swamps
where outlets for surplus water are poor. Most areas
are small and covered with dense swampy -'e.-tl:tioin.
In a typical profile more than 12 inches of brown or red-
dish-brown woody and felty material overlies sand and
clay.
Use and tii,,,.i, ,,,,, t.-Since drainage outlets would
be difficult to establish in most areas and the dense growth
would be expensive to remove, peat is best suited to
trees and to use as a wildlife refuge.
Capability unit Vllse-1
Blanton fine sand, high, 12 to 35 percent slopes, is the
only soil in this unit. It is a well-drained, deep soil.
Fine sand or loamy sand extends to a depth of 30 inches
or more. It is slightly eroded on slopes of more than
12 percent.
This soil is low in natural fertility. It has a low
available moisture capacity, is very porous, and leaches
readily. Water and air move rapidly through it.
(Ue and ii,,rr ,1,q ,n,.--This soil is not suitable for
cultivation or for improved pasture, primarily because
of poor soil qualities but also because of the very severe
erosion hazard. If it were cultivated or used as pas-
ture, adequate erosion control practices could not be ap-
plied, and farm equipment could not be operated effec-
tively because of the steep slopes. This soil can be planted
to native grasses for limited grazing.
Capability unit VIIse-2
Mine pits and dumps are in this unit. Most areas are
composed of loose sand or raw geologic material.
U.se and ni.,,, ii, i, 'T.-These areas are not suitable
for cultivation or for improved pasture. They have lit-
tle or no agricultural value. They erode severely if
left unprotected.
Unclassified
Swamp, a miscellaneous land type, was not included
in the capability grouping. because excess water or thick
vegetation make it inaccessible for close examination.


Use of the Soils for Woodland

The area that is now Suwannee County was covered
with lush, virgin forest before it was settled. Land
was cleared for farming operations during the last half
of the 1800's. During this period, and in the early
1900's, the lumber industry clear-cut large areas of wood-
land. Nevertheless, timber and forest products still con-
tribute to the county's economy. Pulpwood, sawlogs,
poles and piling, fenceposts, gum, and veneer are some
of the major products.
In 1959, more than 45 percent of the county (approxi-
mately 197,200 acres) was in commercial forests. .M1-r
of this acreage was owned either by farmers or by in-
dividuals who received the IImai.r part of their income
from other than the wooded land they own. The wood-
lands in general can be improved greatly and thereby
bring more income to the owners and contribute to the
economy of the county.
Hardwoods greatly outnumber pines. The hardwoods,
however, are of low grade in many large areas. Their
quality could be improved and greater volume growth
encouraged. Pines have a ready market in a variety
of products. In 1960, over 30,000 cords of pulpwood
were cut from line forests in the county. Improved
management could greatly increase this figure.
In the past few years, a considerable acreage of aban-
doned farmland lhas been planted to pine trees (fig. 17)
additional acreage was put in trees under the Soil Bank
program: and tree fr;.riniiiil. as such, has been on the
increase.

General Woodland Management
One of the primary functions of good woodland is
to protect the soil. A properly managed stand of trees
can do much to prevent soil deterioration and to insure
proper conservation of soil and water resources. Trees


Figure 17.-Three-year-old slash pines on Blanton fine sand, low.
Many acres of once cultivated land have been planted to slash pines
in recent years.
By EDWARD 1). HOI.COMBE, woodland conservationist, Soil Con-
servation Service.






SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


steep slopes. Many areas are made up of contrasting
soils. The soils in this unit are-
Alluvial land.
Plummer, Bladen, and Rains soils, 5 to 17 percent slopes.
These soils vary widely in texture and in organic-mat-
ter content. Most of them have poor soil qualities.
Those on bottom lands are subject to periodic flooding
by stream overflow.
Use and ,,,.,,,11,,,, ,,.-Without major reclamation
work, these soils are not suitable for cultivated crops,
and they are of limited suitability for improved pasture
and hay. Improved grass and clover grow well in most
areas but are subject to serious damage by floods on
the bottom lands. Thus, the frequency and duration
of floods greatly affects the suitability of these soils for
improved grasses and clover.
Capability unit VIIws-2
Peat that consists of very strongly acid to extremely
acid organic material is in this unit. It was derived
from the remains of trees, grasses, lilies, and other
plants, and it occurs in wet depressions and swamps
where outlets for surplus water are poor. Most areas
are small and covered with dense swampy -'e.-tl:tioin.
In a typical profile more than 12 inches of brown or red-
dish-brown woody and felty material overlies sand and
clay.
Use and tii,,,.i, ,,,,, t.-Since drainage outlets would
be difficult to establish in most areas and the dense growth
would be expensive to remove, peat is best suited to
trees and to use as a wildlife refuge.
Capability unit Vllse-1
Blanton fine sand, high, 12 to 35 percent slopes, is the
only soil in this unit. It is a well-drained, deep soil.
Fine sand or loamy sand extends to a depth of 30 inches
or more. It is slightly eroded on slopes of more than
12 percent.
This soil is low in natural fertility. It has a low
available moisture capacity, is very porous, and leaches
readily. Water and air move rapidly through it.
(Ue and ii,,rr ,1,q ,n,.--This soil is not suitable for
cultivation or for improved pasture, primarily because
of poor soil qualities but also because of the very severe
erosion hazard. If it were cultivated or used as pas-
ture, adequate erosion control practices could not be ap-
plied, and farm equipment could not be operated effec-
tively because of the steep slopes. This soil can be planted
to native grasses for limited grazing.
Capability unit VIIse-2
Mine pits and dumps are in this unit. Most areas are
composed of loose sand or raw geologic material.
U.se and ni.,,, ii, i, 'T.-These areas are not suitable
for cultivation or for improved pasture. They have lit-
tle or no agricultural value. They erode severely if
left unprotected.
Unclassified
Swamp, a miscellaneous land type, was not included
in the capability grouping. because excess water or thick
vegetation make it inaccessible for close examination.


Use of the Soils for Woodland

The area that is now Suwannee County was covered
with lush, virgin forest before it was settled. Land
was cleared for farming operations during the last half
of the 1800's. During this period, and in the early
1900's, the lumber industry clear-cut large areas of wood-
land. Nevertheless, timber and forest products still con-
tribute to the county's economy. Pulpwood, sawlogs,
poles and piling, fenceposts, gum, and veneer are some
of the major products.
In 1959, more than 45 percent of the county (approxi-
mately 197,200 acres) was in commercial forests. .M1-r
of this acreage was owned either by farmers or by in-
dividuals who received the IImai.r part of their income
from other than the wooded land they own. The wood-
lands in general can be improved greatly and thereby
bring more income to the owners and contribute to the
economy of the county.
Hardwoods greatly outnumber pines. The hardwoods,
however, are of low grade in many large areas. Their
quality could be improved and greater volume growth
encouraged. Pines have a ready market in a variety
of products. In 1960, over 30,000 cords of pulpwood
were cut from line forests in the county. Improved
management could greatly increase this figure.
In the past few years, a considerable acreage of aban-
doned farmland lhas been planted to pine trees (fig. 17)
additional acreage was put in trees under the Soil Bank
program: and tree fr;.riniiiil. as such, has been on the
increase.

General Woodland Management
One of the primary functions of good woodland is
to protect the soil. A properly managed stand of trees
can do much to prevent soil deterioration and to insure
proper conservation of soil and water resources. Trees


Figure 17.-Three-year-old slash pines on Blanton fine sand, low.
Many acres of once cultivated land have been planted to slash pines
in recent years.
By EDWARD 1). HOI.COMBE, woodland conservationist, Soil Con-
servation Service.







50 SOIL SURVEY SEI

slow the force of rainfall; thus, the water drops gently
to the ground and the surface soil is able to absorb more
moisture. Litter from forest cover also cushions the
fall of raindrops and helps to hold the soil in place.
Tree roots help to hold the soil against the erosive ef-
fects of surface runoff.
So that trees can do their part in conserving soil,
proper management of woodlands is necessary. The
minimum practices are discussed in the paragraphs that
follow.
F;re protection.-Wiildfires destroy trees and ground
cover. This destruction can lessen the ability of the
soil to absorb moisture and eventually lead to increased
erosion. Fires also slow the growth of trees and cause
wounds, which provide an entry for insects and disease.
The Florida Forest Service provides fire protection to
the entire county. Individual landowners, however, can
assist this agency by observing all rules of fire preven-
tion. Landowners can also construct adequate firebreaks
around and through their woodlands. Because these
firebreaks can slow or stop a wildfire under normal con-
ditions, they give good protection to the woodland. Care
should le taken to provide protection against erosion
when constructing these firebreaks.
Tree plnting.-Since trees are crops, tree farming is
an accepted operation just as any other phase of farm-
ing. Trees can be planted and can grow well under a
variety of soil conditions. They grow well in eroded
areas, on gully banks, on slopes too steel) for safe culti-
vation, and in soils that are not suitable for cultivated
crops. Owners of idle land should consider planting
it to trees. The trees protect the soil and put it to a
use that can provide some profit for the area.
Proper cutting practice.R.-Regulated cutting of wood-
lands will provide adequate protection to the soil and
still bring economic gain to the landowner. Varying soil
conditions, of course, call for different cutting operations,
but the landowner can seek professional advice from
State foresters in the county.

Woodland Suitability Grouping of Soils
The soils in Suwannee County vary greatly in their
suitability for wood crops. Differences in slope and ele-
vation, and in texture and available moisture capacity
of the soil, largely determine the kinds of trees that can
l)e grown on a particular site.
Perhaps the most important factors affecting the pro-
ductivity of a soil for wood crops are the ability of the
soil to retain moisture andl the depth of the root zone.
Olher factors are thickness and texture of the surface
laver. the content of organic matter, the depth of fine-
textured material. and the depth to the water table.
Some soils are best suited to pine trees, and others, to
hardwoods. On the 1besl hardwood sites, it is not a(d-
visable to grow pines. On other sites, however, pines
bring the best returns, even with the added expense of
coat rolling competition from hardwoods. Sites at higher
elevations generally are not suitable for commercial
production of hardwoods.
To assist owners in planning the proper use and man-
agemenit of their woodlands, the soils in the county have
been placed in 11 woodland suitability groups. Each


RIES 1961, NO. 21


group consists of soils that are about the same in pro-
ductivity of trees and that have soil-related limitations
requiring about the same woodland management. The
11 woodland suitability groups are listed in table 3 and
described in the text.
Table 3 gives, in summary form, the estimated pro-
ductivity (expressed as site index) of pine trees for 10
of the 11 woodland suitability groups. Woodland suit-
ability group 11 is excluded because it consists of mis-
cellaneous land types not suitable for planned produc-
tion of wood crops. Table 3 also gives the relative
severity of the soil-related limitations for all groups ex-
celt woodland suitability group 11. The soil-related
hazards and limitations to be considered in woodland
management are plant competition, seedling mortality,
equipment limitation, erosion hazard, and windthrow
hazard. These limitations, and soil productivity for wood
crops, are explained in the following paragraphs.
PIbodif;rity.-The amount of a given wood crop that
a given soil can produce under a specified level of man-
agement is expressed as a site index. A site index is the
average height, in feet. that the best (dominant and
codominant) trees of a given species, growing on a speci-
fied soil, will reach in 50 years. The site index is not a
direct indicator of potential productivity of a soil, but
the higher tihe site index, tie greater the yields of com-
mercial t imber. The site index is the criterion least af-
fected by drought, fire, insects, disease, and other fac-
tors that restrict the development and productivity of
t rees.
The site indexes for slash pine, loblolly pine, and long-
leaf pine were converted to total merchantable volume,
board feet (Doyle rule) and cords, in table 4. These
conversions were made by reference to published re-
search material on growth of pines.4
Plant competition.-A site that has been disturbed by
fire, cutting, grazing, or other means may be invaded bv
undesirable trees, shrubs, or other plants. The invad-
ing plants compete with the desirable trees (fig. 1S) and
hinder their reestablishment and growth. Plant com-
petition is rated as follows:
Slight.-No problem is apparent. Undesirable
species will not impede natural regeneration and
growth of desired species.
Moderate.-Competition generally will not impede
adequate establishment of desired species. De-
velopment of a normal, fully stocked stand may
take longer because establishment may be delayed
and normal growth slowed. Some simple man-
agement practices can minimize the competition.
Severe.-Competition is so severe that natural re-
generation cannot be relied upon to provide ade-
quate restocking of desired species. Special man-
agement practices and site preparation are neces-
sary. If seedlings are planted, competition must
be controlled.
Seednli n morftlity.-Even when healthy seedlings are
properly planted or occur naturally in adequate num-
>ers, some of them will not survive if characteristics of
ST'NITFI STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICU'I.TIU.'RE. ME VOL-MEIELD.
AND STAND TARI.ES FOR SECOND-GROWTIT SOTTIIERN PINES. .S.
Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 56. 202 pp. 192.. [Now out of print.1








SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 51

TABLE 3.-Woodland suitability groups, average site indexes, and ratings for major limitations and hazards affecting
management


Woodland suitability groups
and soil symbols


Group 1: ArB, ArC, ArD, BfB.
BfC, BfD, BfE, BhB, BtB,
BtC, ChB, ChC, FmC, GaB,
GaC, GfB, LaB, LaC, LdB.

Group 2: AsB, AsC--..........

Group 3: BvB, BvC, BwB,
BwC, BxB, BxC, ZuB, ZuC,
ZuC2, ZuE.
Group 4: AhA, AhB, AhC,
AnA, AnB, AnC, HdB, HdC,
SaB, ScC, SfB, SfC, SfC2,
SfD, ShB, SnB, SnC, SnD.

Group 5: BmB, BmC, BmD,
BnB, BnC, BoB, BoC, KaB,
KaC, KfB.
Group 6: BuA, BuB, LfA,
LmA, Ln, Ph. Ps.
Group 7: FfB, FfC, FfD_...__.

Group 8: Lo, Lp_______

Group 9: Bb, Gr, Gx, Wf ....


Average site index

Long- Slash Lob-
leaf pine lolly
pine pine


Plant
competition


91 85 Moderate to
severe.


93 87 Moderate to
severe.
95 85 Moderate ..--


85



95


85

85

100

90


Seedling Equipment
mortality limitation


Severe.


Severe -_----

Slight ---....


85 Moderate- .- Slight --_



90 Moderate .- Slight ---


Severe .-----

Moderate .---

Severe -------

Severe ------


Moderate----


Erosion
hazard


Windthrow
hazard


Slight to Slight to Slight.
moderate. moderate.


Slight to >lhnlih to
moderate. moderate.

Slight -------- Moderate to
severe.


Moderate ----



Slight to
moderate.

Severe ---


Slight -------. Moderate to
severe.


Sli

M<


Group 10: PdA, PdB, Pf, Pm, 70 90 90 Severe ..|. M<
PrD, Ru, Sd. i
Group 11: Al, Pa, Sw --------- ----- (------ ------------_-


ght ..----
oderate to
severe.

moderate ---


Severe-------


Slight.

Slight.


Moderate to Moderate.
severe.


Moderate ----- Slight.


Slight -------- Moderate.

Moderate --... Slight.

Slight-------- Slight.


Severe------- Slight--------1 Moderate.


Severe-------


Slight-------


Slight to
moderate.


1 This group consists of miscellaneous land types not suitable for planned production of pine trees.


the soil are unfavorable. For both natural and planted
seedlings, normal environmental factors are assumed in
determining the ratings. Seedling mortality is rated as
follows:
Slight.-Ordinary losses are less than 25 percent of
the seedlings. Normally, satisfactory restocking
can be expected.
Mloderate.-Losses are between 25 and 50 percent.
In places some replanting or reseeding to fill in
openings is necessary. Natural reproduction is not
always enough for adequate and immediate re-
stocking.
Severe.-Losses ordinarily are more than 50 percent
of the seedlings. Natural regeneration cannot be
relied upon. Planting and replanting in places,
preparing special seedbeds, and using superior
planting techniques are needed to insure adequate
and immediate restocking.
Equipment limitation.-Drainage, slope, soil texture,
looseness, or other soil characteristics or topographic fea-


tures restrict or prohibit the use of equipment commonly
used in woodland management and harvesting. Different
soils may require different kinds of equipment, or spe-
cial methods of operation, or may be unsuitable for ma-
chine use at different seasons. Equipment limitation is
rated as follows:
Slighlt.-Little or no restriction on the type of equip-
ment that can be used or the time of year that
equipment can be used.
Moderate.-Not all kinds of equipment can be used.
Some periods of extreme wetness or dryness may
temporarily restrict use. Periods of restricted use
are not more than 3 months in the year.
Severe.-Equipment use is restricted for more than
3 months because of high water level or other
unfavorable soil characteristics. Use of equip-
ment could cause serious damage to the structure
and stability of the soil.
Erosion hazard.-This hazard is rated according to
the risk of erosion (both water and wind erosion) on


I


....







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


well-managed woodland that is not protected by special
practices. The ratings are as follows:
Slight.-Little or no hazard. Level or nearly level
soils generally are subject to slight erosion.
Moderate.-Medlium to coarse-textured soils on gen-
tle to moderate slopes exposed to direct rainfall
or water are subject to moderate erosion. Some
cover is essential. esl)e('ially to prevent winl ero-
sion.
Severe.-Soils that have a coarse-textIured surface
horizon and very slowly lpermeable subsurface ho-
rizons and are on moderate slopes will erode se-
verely if not protecte(l. Tree cover is essential.
Wl';lnd/hro hazard.--Soil characteristics affect the de-
velolmenit of tree roots and, consequently, determine tlhe
resistance of a tree to thie force of thie wind. Knowing
the degree of the windthrow hazard is important when
choosing trees to pllant or favor and when planning re-
lease cuttinigs or harvest cuttings. The ratings are as
follows:
Slight.-No problem is apparent, and root develol)-
ment is normal.
Moderate.-Root development is adequate; roots hold
thlie tree firmly, except during periods of extreme
wet ness and during periods of greatest wind ve-
locitv.
Severe.-Root develo)lment is not adequate to hold
trees firmly. Root restriction may result from a
high water level, a layer of rock, or a hardlpan.
The ratings in table 3 are based largely on the experi-
enice and ju(ldgImenit of local soil scientists, woodland con-


Figure 18.-Scrub oaks on Blanton fine sand, high. These weed
trees established themselves after the original longleaf pines were
clear cut and the area had been burned repeatedly. The pine trees
were unable to become reestablished because of competition from
the scrub oaks.


servationists, foresters, and landowners. They represent
the latest information available at the time of publica-
tion but are tentative and subject to revision as more
information becomes available.

Woodland suitability group 1
This group consists of deep, somewhat excessively
drained fine sands and loamy fine sands on ridges and
broad, gently sloping uplands that are well above ground
water level. The soils have a low available moisture
capacity and are very drought. They are-


ArB
ArC
ArD
BfB
BfC
BfD
BfE
BhB
BtB
BtC
ChB
ChC
FmC
GaB
GaC
GfB
LaB
LaC
LdB


Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Arredondo fine sand, 5 to S percent slopes.
Arrcdondo fine sand. S to 12 percent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, high, () to 5 percent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, high, 5 to S percent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, high, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
Blanton fine, sand, high, 12 to 35 percent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, high, moderately shallow, 0 to 5
percent slopes.
Blanton-Chiefland fine sands, 0 to 5 pertenrt slopes.
Blanton-Chiefland fille sands, 5 to S percent slopes.
hlieflaind filne sand, 0t to .5 pcertnt slopes.
Chicefland fine sand, 5 to S percelet slopes.
Fort IMeade loamy fine sand, 5 to S percent slolp)s.
(;ainesville loamy fine sand. 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Gainesville loamy fine sand, 5 to S percent slopes.
(;ainesville loamyi fine( sand, moderately shallow, () to 5
percent slopes .
Lakeland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Lakeland fine sand, 5 to S percent slopes.
Lakeland and Jonesville fine sands, () to .5 percent
slopes.


These soils have an average site in(lex of 91 for slash
pine, 80 for longleaf pine, and s., for olloblly pine.
Loblolly pine, however, is not found in large numbers
on these soils. The average annual yield from a 50-vear-
old, natural, unmanaged stand of pines is 310 board feet
)per acre for slash pine, 150 board feet per acre for long-
leaf pine, and 270 board feet per acre for loblolly pine,
all ,by the )oyle rule.
Plant colmpet ition is moderate to severe. Cont rol of
scrub vegetation is nee(led on most sites for successful
regeneration and( growth of desirale plants.
Seedling mortality is severe blecatuse of drought iness. and
some rel)lanting is almost always necessary.
The erosion hazard is slight to moderate. Wind ero-
sion can lbe serious on prepared sites. (are should be
taken to leave exposed as little soil as possible. 1Water
erosion may be a problem on prepared sites on tlihe
steeper slopes.
Equipment limitation is slight to mo(lerate. ()Operat-
ing some equipment luring extreme tdry weather is haz-
ardlous, especially on deep. sandy soils.
The windthrow hazard is slight.

Woodland suitability group 2
This group consists of somewhat excessively drained
fine sands on ridges and gently sloping uplands.
The surface is well above ground water level. The soils
have a low available mositure capacity and are rapidly
permeable. They have a low organic-mlatter content.
The soils are-
AsB Arredoindo fine sand, moderately shallow, I to 5 percent
slopes.
AsC Arrendondo fine sand, moderately shallow, 5 to S percent
slopes.








SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 0d

TABLE 4.-Volume, yield, and stand data on fully stocked, unmanaged, normally growing stands of slash pine, loblolly
pine, and longleaf pine '


Site
index


Tree


Slash pine------ 80




90


Age



Years


100


Loblolly pine_ ----


Longleaf pine-----


Total height
of average-
sized
dominants


Feet
48
63
73
80
85

54
71
83
90
95

61
79
92
100
106

43
59
72
80
85

48
67
81
90
96

54
74
90
100
107

31
44
53
60
65
70

36
52
62
70
77
82

41
59
71
80
87
93

46
66
80
90
98
105


Average Total merchantable volume
diameter
at breast Basal area s
height Cords 2 Board feet
(Doyle rule)


SBased on USDA Misc. Pub. 50. 1929. (Now out of print.)
2 1 cord equals 128 cubic feet of wood, bark, and air in a pile of
stacked cordwood 4 feet wide, 4 feet high, and 8 feet long.


Inches
4. 9
7.0
8.7
10. 0
10. 8

5.6
8.0
10. 0
11. 4
12.5

6.4
9. 1
11.4
13. 1
14. 2

5.0
7. 4
9.2
10. 7
12. 0

5.6
8.2
10. 2
12.0
13.4

6. 1
9.0
11. 2
13. 1
14. 6

3.3
4.9
6.0
7.0
7.8
8.5

3.8
5.5
6. 8
7. 9
8.8
9. 6

4. 3
6. 1
7.6
8.8
9. 8
10. 6

4. 7
6.7
8.3
9. 6
10. 7
11. 6


35 ()
48 1,500
58 6,000
65 10,000
69 12, 500

41 (4)
54 4,000
66 10, 000
73 15,000
78 18,000

46 3,500
59 11,000
72 14, 500
81 1 19, 500
86 23, 000

22 (4)
38 2,000
51 6,000
60 11,500
66 16,000

27 (4)
46 4,000
61 10,000
71 16, 500
78 22, 000

32 500
53 6,000
71 14, 500
84 23, 000
92 29, 500

8 (*)
19 (4)
27 500
34 2,000
40 3, 500
45 5,000

14 (')
28 (')
39 2,000
48 4, 500
55 7, 000
62 9, 500

20 ()
36 1,000
49 4,000
61 7,500
70 11,500
78 15,500

26 ()
43 2, 000
59 6, 500
72 11,500
84 17,000
94 22, 500


Total trees
per acre 3


Sgaare feet
148
158
161
163
164

149
159
163
165
166

150
160
164
166
167

129!
147
156
162
165

133
152
162
167
171

138
158
168
174
178

79
97
108
118
124
128

92
113
127
138
145
150

102
124
140
152
160
166

109
134
150
162
170
176


3 Trees 2 inches in diameter at breast height and over.
4 Volume not calculated because of small size of trees.


Number
1,090
610
380
295
250

835
470
295
220
195

625
365
225
175
150

950
510
345
255
210

790
420
290
220
180

690
375
255
190
155

1, 290
815
575
465
395
345

1, 150
730
515
415
355
305

1,050
655
465
375
315
270

910
575
405
330
275
240







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


The average site index is 93 for slash pine, 87 for loblolly
pine, and 82 for longleaf pine. A 50-year-old, natural,
unmanaged stand of trees should yield annually 320
board feet per acre of slash pine, 290 board feet per acre
of loblolly pine, and 165 board feet per acre of longleaf
pine. Loblolly pine usually is not abundant on these
soils.
Plant competition is moderate to severe; seedling
mortality is severe; the erosion hazard is slight to mod-
erate; equipment limitation is slight to moderate; and
the windthrow hazard is slight.

Woodland suitability group 3
This group consists of deep, well-drained, strongly
acid fine sands, loamy sands, and sandy loams that have
a clayey subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface
soil and moderately slow in the subsoil. The available
moisture capacity is moderate, and natural fertility is
moderately low. The soils are-


BvB
BvC
BwB
BwC
BxB
BxC
ZuB
ZuC
ZuC2
ZuE


Bowie fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Bowie fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Bowie fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Bowie fine sand, thick surface, 5 to S percent slopes.
Bowie-Blanton complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Bowie-Blanton complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Zuber loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Zuber loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Zuber loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
Zuber loamy fine sand, 8 to 35 percent slopes.


The average site index is 95 for slash pine, 85 for loblolly
pine, and 75 for longleaf pine. Annual yields per acre
from 50-year-old, natural, unmanaged stands should be
350 board feet for slash pine, 270 board feet for loblolly
pine, and 120 board feet for longleaf pine.
Plant competition is moderate. Control of unwanted
trees and shrubs usually is necessary to assure develop-
ment of well-stocked stands of pine (fig. 19).
Erosion is a moderate to severe hazard on exposed
slopes and along improperly located roads on slopes
greater than 12 percent. Wind erosion could be a prob-
lem in open areas. Seedling mortality is slight.

Woodland suitability group 4
This group consists of deep, well drained to moderately
well drained soils that have a sandy or loamy surface
laver and a slowly to very slowly permeable subsoil.
The available moisture capacity is moderate, and the
organic-matter content is low. Acidity is medium to
strong, but some soils have an alkaline subsoil. The soils
are-


AhA
AhB
AhC
AnA
AnB
AnC
HdB
HdC
SaB
ScC
SfB
SfC
SfC2
SfD


Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
Archer-Susquchanna fine sands, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, thick surface, 0 to 2
percent slopes.
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, thick surface, 2 to 5
percent slopes.
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, thick surface, 5 to 8
percent slopes.
Hernando fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
lHernando fine sand, 5 to S percent slopes.
Sandy and clayey land, gently sloping.
Sandy and clayey land, sloping.
Susquchanna fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Susquehanna fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, eroded.
Susquehanna fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes.


Figure 19.-Eleven-year-old slash pines on Bowie-Blanton complex
(woodland suitability group 3). Control of unwanted trees and
shrubs has aided the development of this well-stocked stand.

ShB Susquehanna fine sand, thick surface, 2 to 5 percent
slopes.
SnB Susquchanna-Blanton complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
SnC Susquehanna-Blanton complex, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
SnD Susquehanna-Blanton complex, S to 12 percent slopes.
The average site index is 85 for both slash pine and
lllollly pine and 75 for longleaf pine. A 5()-year-old,
fully stocked, unmanaiged, natural stand should yield
annually 270 board feet per acre of loblolly pine, 250
board feet of slash pine, and 120 board feet of long-
leaf pine.
Plant competition is moderate. Unwanted trees and
shrubs may have to be controlled to assure normal growth
and development of established pines.
Windthrow is a moderate hazard wherever a dense,
fine-textured subsoil limits root development.
Equipment use may be moderately limited on the
steeper slopes in extreme weather.
Slopes steeper than 8 percent are subject to moderate
or severe erosion. Open areas are subject to wind ero-
sion.
Woodland suitability group 5
This group consists of moderately well drained, deep
sands. The water table is normally 36 to 72 inches below
the surface. Water rapidly moves downward through the
surface soil. Fine-textured material is usually at a depth
of 30 inches or more. The soils in this group are-


BmB
BmC
BmD
BnB
BnC


Blanton fine sand, low, ( to 5 percent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, low, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, low, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, low, moderately shallow, 0 to 5 per-
cent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, low, moderately shallow, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes.







SUWANNEE COUNTY. FLORIDA


BoB Blanton-Bowie-Susquchanna complex, 2 to 5 percent
slopes.
BoC Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna complex, 5 to 8 percent
slopes.
KaB Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
KaC Kanapaha fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
KfB Klej fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
The average site index is 95 for slash pine, 90 for
loblolly pine, and 75 for longleaf pine. Loblolly pine is
not found in great numbers on these soils. Annual yields
per acre from a 50-year-old, unmanaged, natural stand
average 350 board feet for slash pine, 300 board feet for
loblolly pine, and 120 board feet for longleaf pine.
The most extensive soils in the county are in this
group. Because of favorable moisture conditions in
the lower profile, these soils are less drought than as-
sociated soils in higher positions.
Plant competition is moderate. Unwanted trees and
shrubs must be controlled in most places to assure nor-
mal development and growth of pine seedlings (fig. 20).
Erosion is a moderate hazard on exposed slopes. Equip-
ment limitations are slight to moderate.
Woodland suitability group 6
This group consists of somewhat poorly drained to
poorly drained, deep, acid sands. The water table is


normally 12 to 36 inches below the surface. The color of
the surface layer ranges from gray to black. Leon and
Pomello soils have an organic pan. The soils in this group
are-


BuA
BuB
LfA
LmA
Ln
Ph
Ps


Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf complex, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Leon fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
Leon fine sand, loamy substratum, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Leon and Ona fine sands.
Plummer fine sand, high.
Pomello fine sand.


The average site index is 90 for loblolly pine, 85 for slash
pine, and 70 for longleaf pine. Annual yields per acre
from a 50-year-old, unmanaged, natural stand average
300 board feet for loblolly pine, 250 board feet for slash
pine, and 100 board feet for longleaf pine.
Surface drainage or water control will improve growth
of pine trees on soils of this group.
Plant competition is severe. Established pine seed-
lings must be released from unwanted trees, shrubs, and
vines.
Seedling mortality is moderate during periods of ex-
treme wetness or dryness.
A high water table restricts root development and
thereby increases the severity of the windthrow hazard,
especially after heavy intermediate cuttings.


Figure 20.-Natural stand of longleaf pines on Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna complex (woodland suitability group 5). Pulpwood trees
have been removed, in foreground, and understory eliminated through frequent burning.







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


Soil wetness may restrict the operation of logging or
planting equipment for as much as 3 or 4 months a
year. Erosion is not a problem.
Woodland suitability group 7
The soils in this group are moderately well drained or
somewhat poorly drained. They have a sandy surface
layer and a moderately permeable to slowly permeable,
clayey subsoil. They are moderately acid and influenced
by phosphatic materials. Natural fertility is medium,
and the available moisture capacity is high. The soils
are-
FfB Fellowship loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
FfC Fellowship loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.
FfD Fellowship loamy fine sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes.
The average site index is 85 for both slash pine and
loblolly pine, and 70 for longleaf pine. A 50-year-old,
natural, unmanaged stand should yield annually 250
board feet per acre of slash pine, 100 board feet per acre
of longleaf pine, and 270 board feet per acre of loblolly
pine.
Trees can be planted or seeded with reasonable success
throughout most of the year. It is necessary to eliminate
or control competing plants at times.
Woodland suitability group 8
This group consists of slightly wet land types in depres-
sions. Their surface layer is composed of undifferentiated
soil material that has moved from adjacent areas. Nor-
mally the color and the texture vary considerably from
place to place. Permeability is moderate in the surface
layer and moderate to rapid in the subsoil. The available
moisture capacity and natural fertility vary but are
generally high. Land types mapped in this group are-
Lo Local alluvial land.
Lp Local alluvial land, phosphatic.
Site indexes average 100 for slash pine and loblolly pine,
and 80 for longleaf pine. These land types also yield
good-quality hardwoods. Annual yields from 50-year-old.
natural, unmanaged stands average 460 board feet per acre
for loblolly pine, 390 board feet for slash pine, and 150
board feet for longleaf pine.
Plant competition is severe, and special site preparation
is needed for the normal development and growth of
seedlings. Natural reproduction cannot be relied upon.
Planted seedlings may need release from competition even
after site preparation.
Equipment use may be restricted most of the year.
Some areas are subject to flooding after heavy rains. The
floods, however, are of short duration.
Woodland suitability group 9
This group consists of poorly drained or very poorly
drained sandy soils that have a moderately permeable to
slowly permeable, acid. clayey subsoil. These soils have
a relatively high available moisture capacity and moderate
natural fertility. They are-
Bb Bayboro fine sandy loam.
Gr (rady fine sandy loam, thick surface.
Gx Grady, Bladen, and Coxville soils.
Wf Weston fine sand, dark subsoil variant.
The average site index is 90 for slash pine, 85 for loblolly
pine, and 75 for longleaf pine. Annual yields at age 50


from an unmanaged, natural stand average 300 board feet
per acre for slash pine, 270 board feet per acre for loblolly
pine, and 120 board feet per acre for longleaf pine.
Drainage or water control is necessary for best growth;
without it seedling mortality may be moderate to severe.
Site preparation is essential for development of healthy
seedlings.
The use of equipment is restricted on all but well-
drained roads. The root zone may be restricted by a high
water table and a poorly aerated, clayey subsoil.
Woodland suitability group 10
This group consists of poorly drained or very poorly
drained, deep, sandy soils. The soils are leached; gen-
erally they are rapidly permeable and coarse textured to a
depth of more than 30 inches. The water table may be
near the surface during periods of normal rainfall, but
otherwise the available moisture capacity is moderately
high. The soils in this group are-
PdA Plummer fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
PdB Plummer fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Pf Plummer fine sand, depressions.
Pm Plummer fine sand, moderately shallow.
PrD Plummer, Bladen, and Rains soils, 5 to 17 percent slopes.
Ru Rutlege fine sand.
Sd Scranton fine sand.
The site indexes vary, but if moisture is controlled they
should be 90 for slash pine and loblolly pine, and 70 for
longleaf pine. Annual yields from a 50-year-old, unman-
aged, natural stand should be 280 to 320 board feet per
acre for slash and loblolly pines, and 100 board feet for
longleaf pine.
Water control is necessary for best growth. Many
areas are too wet for pines and must be drained if used for
pines. The water table is high most of the year. Plant
competition is severe, and site preparation is usually neces-
sary. The equipment limitation may be severe for long
periods because of wetness.
Woodland suitability group 11
This group consists of land types that are not generally
suited to planned production of pine trees. These land
types, except for Peat, are better suited to high-quality
hardwoods. At present, no detailed study of site indexes
has been made for hardwoods. These land types are wet
throughout most of the year. They are-
Al Alluvial land.
Pa Peat.
Sw Swamp.


Use of the Soils for Wildlife

The kind and number of wildlife within an area are
influenced by the soils in the area. Basically, the ca-
pability of the soils to produce desirable food and cover
determines the suitability of an area for different kinds
of wildlife.
In addition to the characteristics of the soils, topog-
raphy, agricultural development, extent of natural hab-
itats, and presence of open water also determine wild-
life populations.
By DAVID P. IowEi.r.. soil specialist for interpretation. anid
H. R. BIssLAND. biologist. Soil Conservation Service.







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


After naming plants suitable for food and cover for
the main game species in Suwannee County, this section
discusses the wildlife potential of the county.

Choice Food and Cover for Wildlife
'Tle main kinds of wildlife in Suwannee County are
white-tailed deer, eastern wild turkey, bobwhite (quail),
mourning dove, gray and fox squirrel, and rabbit. Opos-
sum, raccoon, skunk, and nongame birds are also com-
mon throughout the county.
Deer.-Choice foods for (leer are acorns, greenbrier,
saw-palnetto, gallberry, bracken, moss, mushrooms,
pineland three-awn, yellow-eyed grass, lovers, golden-
aster, goldenrod, alder, pipiewort. yaupon, and other na-
tive shrubs and herbs for browsing. For habitats, deer
require extensive wooded areas and areas where there
is not much farming.
Turkey.-Choice foods for turkey are insects, acorns,
pawpaws, yellow-eyed grass, blackberries, browntop mil-
let, clover leaves, corn, cowpeas, peanuts, dogwood fruits.
seed from Pensacola bahiagrass and carpetgrass, oats,
pine seed, and soybeans. For habitats, wild turkey re-
quire extensive wooded areas where there is not much
farming. They need surface water for daily drinking
and swami) areas for roosting.
Bobwhirte (quail).-(Choice foods for bobwhite are
acorns, pine seed, blackberries, wild black cherries, dog-
wood fruits, seeds of annual and bicolor lespedezas. beg-
garweed (tickclover), ragweed, and many cultivated crops,
including soybelans, cowpeas, browntop millet, corn, and
peanuts. Bobwhite eat many insects also. They have a
limited range and require food and shelter within a
relatively small areas. They thrive where general farm-
ing is practiced and fence rows and small woodlots are
conluon but are also found in wild, open areas that
have not been cultivated.
]Dore.-Choice foods for dove are browntop millet.
corn, peanuts, cowpeas. soybeans, ragweed, pine seed,
croton seed, and seed from other wild plants. These
birds do not eat insects. They roam widely and there-
fore do not need water near* the feeding ground, but
they do need water daily. They thrive in open farm-
land and feed in large. open fields and in woodlands.
Nidrr'cl. Gray.- Choice foods for gray squirrel are
acorns, hickory nuts. pine seed, chinquapins. pecans.
corn, small fruits, and mushrooms. These animals also
eat larvae and insects. They like protection and are
principally woodland animals but are common in Live
Oak and in other towns, and in public parks throughout
the county.
/SquIrrcl. Fo.r.-(Coice foods for fox squirrel are the
same as for gray squirrel. These are strictly woodland
animals, preferring areas of live oaks, pounded areas of
cypress, and areas of pine and oak. They do not like
popullated places.

Wildlife Suitability by Soil Association
Each soil has specific capability for producing de-
sirable plants. In a large area, however, the suitability
of the soils for different kinds of plants and, conse-
quently, for different kinds of wildlife is determined by


the pattern of soils within the area and the capability
of the soils in the pattern.
Using the soil associations, which are patterns of soils,
shown on the general soil map at the back of this re-
port. is a convenient way to interpret the suitability of
tle soils for wildlife. Because they are similar in their
suitability for wildlife, soil associations 5 and 6 are dis-
cussed together. The nine soil associations are described
generally in the section "General Soil Map."
Soil association 1
'The soils in the Blanton (high)-Lakeland association
are well-drained to excessively drained, deep, drought
sands. 'They are mostly gently undulating but are steep-
er and ldunelike in places. )Drainageways, ponds, or
other areas of open water are almost entirely absent.
Much of the acreage is cutover woodland on which
only a sparse cover of scrub oak and wiregrass remains.
In many places this association adjoins association 8,
which is also made up of extensive undeveloped areas.
A large area of this association occurs on the high
ground that borders the Suwannee River and Santa Fe
River flood plains and extends in a wide band across
the southern part of the county just north of O'Brien.
This area supports a small nuniler of deer, turkey, bob-
white, and squirrel. Food plants for wildlife are lim-
ited because the soils are drought and low in natural
fertility. The wildlife can be increased by using good
management in growing suitable food plants. There is
little potential for lakes or ponds for fish in these areas.
Smaller areas of this association, in tile eastern part
of the county between Live Oak and Wellborn. are
partly cultivated or are surrounded byv farmland. Fair
to good stands of pine trees occur in these areas. Bob-
white, dove. and squirrel are found, but not in great
mninmxrs. Their number can 1e increased, however, by
planting suitable food crops and by using other good
management t practices. Because they are too small and
too close to open farmland, the areas are not suitable
for deer and turkey. A few lakes to the east of Live
Oak produce only a limited number of fish lecause of
low natural fertility and encroacluhent by water weeds.
These lakes can )e improved by good management.
Soil association 2
The Blanton-C'hiefland association occurs as a broad,
nearly level, sandy area in the southern part of the
county. The soils are well drained to excessively
rainedd: they are underlain by limestone. Most of the
acreage is used agriculturally. Watermelons, tobacco,
peanuts, chufas, corn, and small grains are the com-
mnonly grown crops. cultivatedd fields on open farm-
land, small woodlols. fence rows of vegetation, and fal-
lowed fields provide good habitats for bobwhite and
dove. The soils and land use are well suited to these
birds. Watering sites are available at the bottom of
sinks and in depressions. The wildlife can be increased
appreciably by planting more of the choice-food crops
and by using otlier good management practices.
There are no streams or pounds in this area, and little
potential exists for the development of fish ponds.







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


After naming plants suitable for food and cover for
the main game species in Suwannee County, this section
discusses the wildlife potential of the county.

Choice Food and Cover for Wildlife
'Tle main kinds of wildlife in Suwannee County are
white-tailed deer, eastern wild turkey, bobwhite (quail),
mourning dove, gray and fox squirrel, and rabbit. Opos-
sum, raccoon, skunk, and nongame birds are also com-
mon throughout the county.
Deer.-Choice foods for (leer are acorns, greenbrier,
saw-palnetto, gallberry, bracken, moss, mushrooms,
pineland three-awn, yellow-eyed grass, lovers, golden-
aster, goldenrod, alder, pipiewort. yaupon, and other na-
tive shrubs and herbs for browsing. For habitats, deer
require extensive wooded areas and areas where there
is not much farming.
Turkey.-Choice foods for turkey are insects, acorns,
pawpaws, yellow-eyed grass, blackberries, browntop mil-
let, clover leaves, corn, cowpeas, peanuts, dogwood fruits.
seed from Pensacola bahiagrass and carpetgrass, oats,
pine seed, and soybeans. For habitats, wild turkey re-
quire extensive wooded areas where there is not much
farming. They need surface water for daily drinking
and swami) areas for roosting.
Bobwhirte (quail).-(Choice foods for bobwhite are
acorns, pine seed, blackberries, wild black cherries, dog-
wood fruits, seeds of annual and bicolor lespedezas. beg-
garweed (tickclover), ragweed, and many cultivated crops,
including soybelans, cowpeas, browntop millet, corn, and
peanuts. Bobwhite eat many insects also. They have a
limited range and require food and shelter within a
relatively small areas. They thrive where general farm-
ing is practiced and fence rows and small woodlots are
conluon but are also found in wild, open areas that
have not been cultivated.
]Dore.-Choice foods for dove are browntop millet.
corn, peanuts, cowpeas. soybeans, ragweed, pine seed,
croton seed, and seed from other wild plants. These
birds do not eat insects. They roam widely and there-
fore do not need water near* the feeding ground, but
they do need water daily. They thrive in open farm-
land and feed in large. open fields and in woodlands.
Nidrr'cl. Gray.- Choice foods for gray squirrel are
acorns, hickory nuts. pine seed, chinquapins. pecans.
corn, small fruits, and mushrooms. These animals also
eat larvae and insects. They like protection and are
principally woodland animals but are common in Live
Oak and in other towns, and in public parks throughout
the county.
/SquIrrcl. Fo.r.-(Coice foods for fox squirrel are the
same as for gray squirrel. These are strictly woodland
animals, preferring areas of live oaks, pounded areas of
cypress, and areas of pine and oak. They do not like
popullated places.

Wildlife Suitability by Soil Association
Each soil has specific capability for producing de-
sirable plants. In a large area, however, the suitability
of the soils for different kinds of plants and, conse-
quently, for different kinds of wildlife is determined by


the pattern of soils within the area and the capability
of the soils in the pattern.
Using the soil associations, which are patterns of soils,
shown on the general soil map at the back of this re-
port. is a convenient way to interpret the suitability of
tle soils for wildlife. Because they are similar in their
suitability for wildlife, soil associations 5 and 6 are dis-
cussed together. The nine soil associations are described
generally in the section "General Soil Map."
Soil association 1
'The soils in the Blanton (high)-Lakeland association
are well-drained to excessively drained, deep, drought
sands. 'They are mostly gently undulating but are steep-
er and ldunelike in places. )Drainageways, ponds, or
other areas of open water are almost entirely absent.
Much of the acreage is cutover woodland on which
only a sparse cover of scrub oak and wiregrass remains.
In many places this association adjoins association 8,
which is also made up of extensive undeveloped areas.
A large area of this association occurs on the high
ground that borders the Suwannee River and Santa Fe
River flood plains and extends in a wide band across
the southern part of the county just north of O'Brien.
This area supports a small nuniler of deer, turkey, bob-
white, and squirrel. Food plants for wildlife are lim-
ited because the soils are drought and low in natural
fertility. The wildlife can be increased by using good
management in growing suitable food plants. There is
little potential for lakes or ponds for fish in these areas.
Smaller areas of this association, in tile eastern part
of the county between Live Oak and Wellborn. are
partly cultivated or are surrounded byv farmland. Fair
to good stands of pine trees occur in these areas. Bob-
white, dove. and squirrel are found, but not in great
mninmxrs. Their number can 1e increased, however, by
planting suitable food crops and by using other good
management t practices. Because they are too small and
too close to open farmland, the areas are not suitable
for deer and turkey. A few lakes to the east of Live
Oak produce only a limited number of fish lecause of
low natural fertility and encroacluhent by water weeds.
These lakes can )e improved by good management.
Soil association 2
The Blanton-C'hiefland association occurs as a broad,
nearly level, sandy area in the southern part of the
county. The soils are well drained to excessively
rainedd: they are underlain by limestone. Most of the
acreage is used agriculturally. Watermelons, tobacco,
peanuts, chufas, corn, and small grains are the com-
mnonly grown crops. cultivatedd fields on open farm-
land, small woodlols. fence rows of vegetation, and fal-
lowed fields provide good habitats for bobwhite and
dove. The soils and land use are well suited to these
birds. Watering sites are available at the bottom of
sinks and in depressions. The wildlife can be increased
appreciably by planting more of the choice-food crops
and by using otlier good management practices.
There are no streams or pounds in this area, and little
potential exists for the development of fish ponds.







SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


Soil association 3
The most extensive areas of the Arredondo-Kanapalha
association are in the northern part of the county. The
soils on gently sloping to steep hillsides are among the
most fertile in the county. Those on steeper slopes are
wet and seepy. Most of the acreage has been cleared for
cultivation. Commonly grown crops are watermelons,
corn, peanuts, tobacco, cowpens, and small grains. The
cultivated fields: pastures: fence rows of trees, shrubs,
and grasses: and small woodlots provide good habitats
for bolwhite and dove. The soils and land use are
well suited to these birds. Watering sites are adequate.
The wildlife can be increased appreciably by planting
more of the choice food crops (fig. 21) and by using
other good management practices.
A few natural drains occur within this association
but there are no large streams or natural ponds. There
is little potential for fish-pond development.
Soil association 4
The soils in the Blanton (low) association are mod-
erately well drained, deep sands. They are nearly level
or gently sloping. The water table is normally 3 to 5
feet below the surface; consequently, many small areas
are wet. This association is most common in the east-
central part of the county; other areas are in the south-
ern and northwestern parts. Most areas have been
cleared and are used for cultivation or as pasture.
Watermelons, corn, small grains, cow-peas, peanuts, and
tobacco are the principal crops. Small woodlots are
common, and many fields have fence rows of vegeta-
tion. These areas are well suited to bobwhite and (love,
but their suitability can be improved if more choice
food crops are planted and other wildlife management
pract ices are followed.
The few ponds in this association are near Wellborn.
They are shallow and choked witli aquatic weeds but
can l)e improved for fish if the weeds are controlled and


Figure 21.-A field border of combine pea, thunberg lespedeza,
and browntop millet on Arredondo fine sand. Supplemental
plantings of choice food crops, such as this, can increase numbers
of wildlife.


other management practices are followed. Peacock Lake,
Bethea Lake, Lowe Lake, and a few others are deep and
clear, and good for fishing.
Soil associations 5 and 6
The Blanton (low)-Susquelanna-Bowie association
and the Susquehanna-Bowie association occur in large
areas throughout the central part of the county. Most
areas are gently undulating and consist of moderately
well drained sands overlying clay substrata. Small
swampy places occur throughout these areas. Much of
the acreage has been cleared and is used for general
farming. Principal crops are tobacco, corn, watermel-
ons, cowpeas, and small grains. Woodlots. fence rows
of trees or shrubs, and idle fields are common. The
areas are well suited to bobwhite and dove. Good wild-
life management together with good farm management
can increase the number of thpse birds.
There are no well-defined streams or lakes, but small,
wet depressions are common. Some of these are suit-
able sites for small, excavated ponds. Under good man-
agement, such ponds could produce large numbers of
fish.
Soil association 7
The Leon-Plummer association is composed princi-
pally of nearly level flatwoods interspersed with small
swampy areas. The soils are highly leached, somewhat
poorly drained sands. The water table normally is
within 36 inches of the surface. Most of the acreage
supports an open growth of pine trees and an under-
story of wiregrass, saw-palmetto, waxmyrtle. and gall-
berry. The low, swampy areas support cypress, bay,
maple, and other wetland hardwoods. Much of the
acreage is burned periodically. This association is well
suited to bobwhite and squirrel. Numbers of these wild-
life are low, however, because of poor management.
They can be increased appreciably if burning is con-
trolled and choice food crops are planted.
Small, shallow, grassy ponds can be improved for
fish if deepened and fertilized, and if aquatic plants are
controlled. Some low. swampy areas are suitable sites
for dug ponds.
Soil association 8
Tle Blanton-Kanlia-Swamp association is made up
of highly variable soils occurring along the flood plains
of the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers. The area ranges
from a few feet to nearly a mile in width. It is al-
most entirely wooded. Swamnpy places that stla wet
most of the time have a dense growth of wetland hard-
woods, vines, and -shrubs. Higher lyinll places support
pine trees. Tie entire area is periodically flooded.
These soils support fairly large numbers of gray and
fox squirrel. Good management can increase their inum-
ber. The number of white-tailed deer and eastern wild
turkey can be increased substantially if adequate cover
is provided and other good management practices are
applied.
Soil association 9
The Alluvial land-Swamp association consists mostly
of small swamps or ponded areas. Much of the acreage







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


is covered with water for most of the year. Most of the
soils are highly leached and sandy. There are shallow
to thick deposits of peat in some areas. The vegeta-
tion is cypress and other swampland hardwoods. None
of the areas have been cleared. These areas provide
cover and a limited supply of food to many kinds of
wildlife. Gray and fox squirrel and other game species
can be increased if good management is applied.


Engineering Characteristics of the
Soils 6

Soil engineering is well established today. It is, in
a broad sense, a subdivision of structural engineering,
for it deals with soil as foundation material and as struc-
tural material. To the engineer, soil is a natural ma-
terial that varies widely from place to place. The engi-
neering properties of this material also vary widely, even
within the boundaries of a single project. Generally,
soil is used in the condition in which it occurs in the
locality. A large part of soil engineering, however, in-
volves selecting the best possible soil or soils for each
construction project. In doing so, engineers determine
the engineering properties of the soils at a proposed
site and correlate them with construction requirements.
The characteristics of the soils in Suwannee County
are described in detail in the section "Descriptions of
the Soils." Those characteristics that affect engineering
are interpreted in this section for engineers and others
concerned with use of soil material in construction.
Special emphasis has been placed on engineering prop-
erties as related to agricultural structures. The section
"Formation and Classification of Soils" also contains
information that can be of value in planning engineering
work.
Information in this section is useful in-
1. Selecting and developing sites for industry, busi-
ness, homes, and recreation.
2. Selecting locations for highways, pipelines, and
airports.
3. Determining the suitability of the soils for agri-
cultural drainage systems, farm ponds, irrigation
systems, and diversion terraces.
4. Locating sand for construction purposes.
5 Correlating pavement performance with kinds of
soils and thus developing information that will
aid in designing and maintaining pavements.
6. Determining whether or not vehicles and con-
struction equipment can be moved over the soils.
7. Making maps and reports that can be used
readily by engineers.
Engineers from the Florida State Road Department
and from the Soil Conservation Service collaborated with
the soil scientists in preparing this part of the report.
These engineers interpreted laboratory tests and field

6DAVID P. POWELL, soil specialist for interpretation, Soil Con-
servation Service; JAMES W. NORRIS, agricultural engineer, Soil
Conservation Service; and WILLIAM GARTNER, JR., engineer of
research, Florida State Road Department, assisted in preparing
this section.


data and determined the effect of the soils on engineering
practices.
The interpretations are necessarily generalized and do
not eliminate the need for sampling and testing the soil
material in place at the proposed site of a project; they
should be used primarily in planning more detailed field
investigations.
At many construction sites, the soil material varies
greatly from horizon to horizon. Also, several different
soils may be found within short distances. The maps,
soil descriptions, and other data in this report can be
used in planning detailed engineering surveys of the
soils at construction sites. By using this information,
the engineer can concentrate on the most suitable soils.
After observing the behavior of the soils in place under
varying conditions and testing soil samples in the lab-
oratory, the engineer should be able to anticipate, to some
extent, the properties of individual soils wherever they
are mapped.
The terminology in this report is that used by agricul-
turalists. Some terms have a special meaning to soil
scientists and may be unfamiliar to engineers. These
terms and others are defined in the Glossary at the back
of this report.
The engineering data are presented in three tables.
Table 5 provides data resulting from laboratory anal-
yses of several representative soils; table 6 lists all the
soils in the county and provides estimates of soil properties
significant in engineering; and table 7 lists all the soils and
mentions those characteristics that affect specified engi-
neering practices.

Engineering Classification Systems
The engineering classification systems now most wide-
ly used are the American Association of State High-
way Officials (AASHO) system7 and the Unified system.8
Both classify soil material according to gradation and
plasticity characteristics
The AASHO system is used by most highway engineers.
It places soil material in seven principal groups. The
groups range from A-i, which consists of gravelly soils of
high bearing capacity, to A-7, which consists of clayey soils
that have low strength when wet. Within each group the
relative engineering value of the soil material is indicated
by a group index number. The numbers range from 0 for
the best material to 20 for the poorest. Table 5, in the next
to last column, shows the group index numbers of the soils
tested. The numbers are in parentheses following the
AASHO soil group symbol.
The Unified Soil Classification system is preferred by
some engineers. This system classifies soil material as
coarse grained (eight classes), fine grained (six classes), or
highly organic (one class). The last column of table 5
shows the Unified classification of the soils tested.
Table 6 shows the estimated classification of all soils
in the county according to both systems.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY OFFICIALS. STAND-
ARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY MATERIALS AND METHODS OF
SAMPLING AND TESTING (THE CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS AND SOIL-
AGGREGATE MIXTURES FOR HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION PURPOSES, DESIG-
NATION: M 145-49). Pt. 1, Ed. 8.1961.
WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. UNI-
FIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM. Tech. Memo. No. 3-357, v. 1
1953.







SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


is covered with water for most of the year. Most of the
soils are highly leached and sandy. There are shallow
to thick deposits of peat in some areas. The vegeta-
tion is cypress and other swampland hardwoods. None
of the areas have been cleared. These areas provide
cover and a limited supply of food to many kinds of
wildlife. Gray and fox squirrel and other game species
can be increased if good management is applied.


Engineering Characteristics of the
Soils 6

Soil engineering is well established today. It is, in
a broad sense, a subdivision of structural engineering,
for it deals with soil as foundation material and as struc-
tural material. To the engineer, soil is a natural ma-
terial that varies widely from place to place. The engi-
neering properties of this material also vary widely, even
within the boundaries of a single project. Generally,
soil is used in the condition in which it occurs in the
locality. A large part of soil engineering, however, in-
volves selecting the best possible soil or soils for each
construction project. In doing so, engineers determine
the engineering properties of the soils at a proposed
site and correlate them with construction requirements.
The characteristics of the soils in Suwannee County
are described in detail in the section "Descriptions of
the Soils." Those characteristics that affect engineering
are interpreted in this section for engineers and others
concerned with use of soil material in construction.
Special emphasis has been placed on engineering prop-
erties as related to agricultural structures. The section
"Formation and Classification of Soils" also contains
information that can be of value in planning engineering
work.
Information in this section is useful in-
1. Selecting and developing sites for industry, busi-
ness, homes, and recreation.
2. Selecting locations for highways, pipelines, and
airports.
3. Determining the suitability of the soils for agri-
cultural drainage systems, farm ponds, irrigation
systems, and diversion terraces.
4. Locating sand for construction purposes.
5 Correlating pavement performance with kinds of
soils and thus developing information that will
aid in designing and maintaining pavements.
6. Determining whether or not vehicles and con-
struction equipment can be moved over the soils.
7. Making maps and reports that can be used
readily by engineers.
Engineers from the Florida State Road Department
and from the Soil Conservation Service collaborated with
the soil scientists in preparing this part of the report.
These engineers interpreted laboratory tests and field

6DAVID P. POWELL, soil specialist for interpretation, Soil Con-
servation Service; JAMES W. NORRIS, agricultural engineer, Soil
Conservation Service; and WILLIAM GARTNER, JR., engineer of
research, Florida State Road Department, assisted in preparing
this section.


data and determined the effect of the soils on engineering
practices.
The interpretations are necessarily generalized and do
not eliminate the need for sampling and testing the soil
material in place at the proposed site of a project; they
should be used primarily in planning more detailed field
investigations.
At many construction sites, the soil material varies
greatly from horizon to horizon. Also, several different
soils may be found within short distances. The maps,
soil descriptions, and other data in this report can be
used in planning detailed engineering surveys of the
soils at construction sites. By using this information,
the engineer can concentrate on the most suitable soils.
After observing the behavior of the soils in place under
varying conditions and testing soil samples in the lab-
oratory, the engineer should be able to anticipate, to some
extent, the properties of individual soils wherever they
are mapped.
The terminology in this report is that used by agricul-
turalists. Some terms have a special meaning to soil
scientists and may be unfamiliar to engineers. These
terms and others are defined in the Glossary at the back
of this report.
The engineering data are presented in three tables.
Table 5 provides data resulting from laboratory anal-
yses of several representative soils; table 6 lists all the
soils in the county and provides estimates of soil properties
significant in engineering; and table 7 lists all the soils and
mentions those characteristics that affect specified engi-
neering practices.

Engineering Classification Systems
The engineering classification systems now most wide-
ly used are the American Association of State High-
way Officials (AASHO) system7 and the Unified system.8
Both classify soil material according to gradation and
plasticity characteristics
The AASHO system is used by most highway engineers.
It places soil material in seven principal groups. The
groups range from A-i, which consists of gravelly soils of
high bearing capacity, to A-7, which consists of clayey soils
that have low strength when wet. Within each group the
relative engineering value of the soil material is indicated
by a group index number. The numbers range from 0 for
the best material to 20 for the poorest. Table 5, in the next
to last column, shows the group index numbers of the soils
tested. The numbers are in parentheses following the
AASHO soil group symbol.
The Unified Soil Classification system is preferred by
some engineers. This system classifies soil material as
coarse grained (eight classes), fine grained (six classes), or
highly organic (one class). The last column of table 5
shows the Unified classification of the soils tested.
Table 6 shows the estimated classification of all soils
in the county according to both systems.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY OFFICIALS. STAND-
ARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY MATERIALS AND METHODS OF
SAMPLING AND TESTING (THE CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS AND SOIL-
AGGREGATE MIXTURES FOR HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION PURPOSES, DESIG-
NATION: M 145-49). Pt. 1, Ed. 8.1961.
WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. UNI-
FIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM. Tech. Memo. No. 3-357, v. 1
1953.








60 SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21

TABLE 5.-Engineering

[Tests performed by Bureau of Public Roads in accordance with standard


Soil name and location of sample


Archer fiesad


Archer fine sand:
SW14SE4NW}4 sec. 8, T. 6 S., R. 14 E. (Modal)


SE. cor. of SW4SE}4NWY} sec. 18, T. 5 S., R. 14 E. (Modal)


Center of NW/SW} sec. 10, T. 6 S., R. 14 E. (Sandy sub-
stratum)


Center of NE4NENW} sec. 9, T. 6 S., R. 14 E. (Thicker
sandy surface layer)


Arredondo fine sand:
SW'4SE/4 sec. 13, T. 2 S., R. 14 E. (Modal)

NE1NW}' sec. 8, T. 4 S., R. 14 E. (Shallow phase)


SE4SW:} sec. 10, T. 2 S., R. 14 E. (Less phosphatic and higher
water table)


Bowie fine sand:
NE/4NESW sec. 2, T. 4 S., R. 13 E. (Modal)


NW. cor. of NW4NE}/SW^ sec. 35, T. 2 S., R. 13 E. (Modal)


NEMNE4 sec. 28, T. 3 S., R. 13 E. (Lighter textured)



NE. cor. of NW4SEY sec. 3, T. 4 S., R. 13 E. (Lighter textured
substratum)


Chiefland fine sand:
SEMNEY sec. 20, T. 6 S., R. 15 E. (Modal)


NWMNE4 sec. 15, T. 6 S., R. 14 E. (Deep phase)


SWYNEY sec. 20, T. 6 S., R. 15 E. (Shallow phase)


Hernando fine sand:
Center of NWMNE4 sec. 9, T. 6 S., R. 14 E. (Modal)


Parent material


Limestone and limonitic
clay.


Limestone and limonitic
clay.


Limestone.


Limestone.



Phosphatic sand.

Phosphatic sand.


Phosphatic sand.



Acid clay.


Acid clay.


Acid clay.


Acid clay.



Acid sand over lime-
stone.

Acid sand over lime-
stone.


Acid sand over lime-
stone.


Limestone and limonitic
clay.


Bureau of
Public Roads
report No.


S37204
S37205
837206

837201
S37202
537203

S37207
S37208
837209

S37210
837211
S37212


837213
S37214

S37215
S37216
S37217

S37218
S37219
S37220


S37221
S37222
S37223

S37224
S37225
837226

S37227
837228
837229

S37230
837231
S37232


S37245
837246
837247

837248
S37249
837250

837251
S37252
837253


S37254
S37255
837256


Depth





Inches
0 to 5
21 to 29
29 to 41

0 to 4
12 to 21
31 to 39

0 to 9
13 to 25
25 to 34

0 to 8
21 to 24
24 to 32


0 to 8
14 to 50

0 to 6
26 to 36
43 to 54

0 to 9
25 to 43
43 to 78


11 to 24
24 to 30
41 to 55

0 to 7
25 to 32
55 to 67

0 to 6
24 to 30
30 to 52

0 to 6
23 to 32
38 to 62

0 to 5
5 to 26
49 to 56

0 to 5
5 to 27
48 to 72+

0 to 7
16 to 36
36 to 39


0 to 3
3 to 12
24 to 34


Horizon






Al_._____.
Dl .
D2._____.

Al________
B3/D______
D2_.._____

Ap ___-__--
B2___._...
C

Ap ......
B/D1______


Al
B2---_____-

Al --__-
A32_______-
Cl-------

Ap--.----
A22___-_--
C1l


A22 ___--
B2_ -----
D1 or Cl _-

Ap----.__
B21_ --_
D3-----

Al
B2--------
Dl------

Al --
B2------..
Dl- ----


Al------
C01--------
D12--------

Al_-- _
Cl.--------
C22-------

Ap------
C2
Dl------

Al _...
A2----
D ------








SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 01

test data

procedures of American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO)]


Mechanical analysis '


Percentage passing sieve-


No. 10
(2.0 mm.)


No. 200
(0.074
mm.)


0.05 mm.


P


100
100
100

100
100
100

100
100
100

100
100
100


100
100

100
100
100

100
100
100


100


100
100
100

100
100
100

100
100
99

100
100
100

100
100
100

100
100
100


No. 40
(0.42
mm.)


97
99
99

96
97
98

85
84
82

95
96
98

80
81

93
92
98

92
91
90


99
100
100

97
97
98

98
98
98

99
99
98

96
96
97

90
90
90

96
96
94

93
95
95


Classification


percentagee smaller than-

0.005 0.002
0.02 mm. mm. mm.



15 8 5
57 49 47
69 54 50

10 6 4
41 40 37
55 54 52

8 7 5
26 24 21
30 29 27

8 4 2
28 25 24
55 53 52

10 6 4
9 6 4

13 9 6
14 12 10
50 47 44

7 4 2
5 4 2
4 4 2


6 3 2
28 28 26
24 24 23

5 2 1
21 18 17
46 44 43

8 4 2
25 22 20
40 39 38

7 6 2
32 30 29
46 44 43

5 3 1
3 1 1
25 24 22

6 3 1
3 1 1
2 1 1

4 2 1
4 2 1
15 13 11


4 NP
52
50

NP
52
71
4NP
29
37

NP
32
68

NP
NP

NP
NP
46

NP
NP
NP


NP
34
31

NP
25
70

NP
26
47

NP
37
49

NP
NP
30

NP
NP
NP

NP
NP
21


NP
31
43


100
100
100


Plasticity
index


< NP
30
30

NP
28
43
4 NP
11
18

NP
16
40

NP
NP

NP
NP
21

NP
NP
NP


NP
14
12

NP
8
42

NP
10
23

NP
14
17

NP
NP
13

NP
NP
NP

NP
NP
4


Liquid
limit


NP A-2-4(0) _- SP-SM.
14 A-2-6(1)-__ SC.
24 A-7-6(5)__- SC.


AASHO 2


A-4(2) _.-__
A-7-6(18)_
A-7-6(18) -

A-2-4(0) _
A-7-6 (8) __
A-7-6(15) -

A-2-4(0) __
A-2-6(0) _
A-2-6(2) _

A-2-4(0) _-
A-6(2) _-
A-7-6(16)

A-2-4(0) _
A-2-4(0)__

A-2-4(0) _
A-2-4(0) __
A-7-6(8) --

A-3(0) .---
A-3(0) .._
A-3(0)___


A-3(0) .._-
A-2-6(1) _
A-2-6(0)__

A-2-4(0) _
A-2-4(0) __
A-7-6(11)

A-2-4(0) _-
A-2-4(0) _-
A-7-6(6) _

A-3(0) ----
A-6(1) --_
A-7-5(6) __

A-3(0) -----
A-3(0) ---
A-2-6 (0) _-

A-2-4(0) _-
A-3(0)-- _-
A-3(0) -----

A-3(0) -----
A-3(0) ---.
A-2-4(0) -_


Unified 3


SM.
CH.
CL.

SM.
SC.
CH.

SM.
SC.
SC.

SM.
SC.
CH.

SM.
SM.

SM.
SM.
5 ML-CL.

SP-SM.
SP-SM.
SP-SM.


SP-SM.
SC.
SC.

SP-SM.
SC.
SC.

SM.
SC.
SC.

SP-SM.
SM-SC.
SM.

SP-SM.
SP-SM.
SC.

SP-SM.
SP-SM.
SP-SM.

SP-SM.
SP-SM.
SM-SC.








SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


TABLE 5.-Engineering


Soil name and location of sample





Hernando fine sand--Continued
Center of NWSEY sec. 18, T. 5 S., R. 14 E. (Sandy textured)


NE. part of SW4SE sec. 3, T. 6 S., R. 14 E. (Lighter tex-
tured substratum and no lime)
Susquehanna fine sand:
SE. part of SWMNEMNW% sec. 1, T. 4 S., R. 13 E. (Modal)


SW. cor. of SWMSWySWMY sec. 6, T. 4 S., R. 14 E. (Modal)


Center of NE1SEYSEE sec. 34, T. 1 S., R. 12 E. (Thin B
horizon)

NWMNWM sec. 26, T. 3 S., R. 14 E. (Sandy lower horizons)


SWM sec. 21, T. 2 S., R. 13E. (Thinner Al horizon)


NW. cor. of SW1NWMNE4 sec. 35, T. 3 S., R. 13 E.
(Texture of B/D horizons)

Weston fine sand:
SE. part of NE4NWMNEI4 sec. 10, T. 2 S., R. 13 E. (Modal)


NWMSEySE1 sec. 13, T. 4S., R. 14 E. (Modal)


NW. cor. of NWMNEy4SWM sec. 33, T. 3 S., R. 14 E. (Lighter
texture)

Center of SEMNEySWM sec. 4, T. 4 S., R. 15 E. (Wetter)

Zuber loamy fine sand:
NEMNE SSEM sec. 18, T. 2 S., R. 15 E. (Modal)


NE. cor. of NENE34SW4 sec. 20, T. 2 S., R. 14 E. (Modal)


NEMSEM sec. 2, T. 4 S., R. 14 E. (Thin surface layer and
clayey substratum)


Parent material






Limestone and limonitic
clay.

Deposit of acid clay and
sand within limestone
formation.
Acid clay.


Acid clay.


Acid clay.


Acid clay.


Acid clay


Acid clay.


Acid clay.


Acid clay.


Acid clay.


Acid clay and sand.


Weathered phosphatic
materials.

Weathered phosphatic
materials.

Weathered phosphatic
materials.


'According to AASHO Designation: T 88-57, "Mechanical
Analysis of Soils," in "Standard Specifications for Highway Ma-
terials and Methods of Sampling and Testing," pt. 2, Ed. 8 (1961),
published by the American Association of State Highway Officials.
Results by this procedure frequently differ somewhat from results
obtained by the soil survey procedure of the Soil Conservation
Service (SCS). In the AASHO procedure, the fine material is
analyzed by the hydrometer method, and the various grain-size


fractions are calculated on the basis of all the material, including
that coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. In the SCS soil survey
procedure, the fine material is analyzed by the pipette method and
the material coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter is excluded from
calculations of grain-size fractions. The mechanical analysis data
used in this table are not suitable for naming textural classes for
soils.


Bureau of
Public Roads
report No.





537257
S37258
S37259
S37260
S37261
S37262
S37263
S37264
S37265
S37266
S37267
S37268
S37269
S37270
S37271
S37272
S37273
S37274
S37275
S37276
S37277
S37278
S37279
537280

S37233
S37234
837235
S37236
S37237
S37238
S37239
S37240
S37241
S37242
S37243
S37244

S37281
S37282
S37283
S37284
S37285
S37286
S37287
S37288
S37289


Depth





Inches
8 to 24
27 to 33
33 to 54
0 to 6
21 to 32
51 to 70+
5 to 10
14 to 24
45 to 56+
0 to 8
8 to 12
36 to 52+
3 to 7
10 to 15
51 to 72+
0 to 3
13 to 57
57 to 63
3 to 8
8 to 14
14 to 36
0 to 6
21 to 32
57 to 72+

0 to 4
11 to 19
40 to 56
5 to 15
15 to 22
35 to 52+
0 to 6
21 to 24
24 to 60
0 to 5
21 to 33
48 to 72

0 to 5
23 to 32
48 to 57
0 to 7
24 to 30
56 to 82
0 to 4
4 to 14
40 to 72+


Horizon






A2--------
B2---------
Dl------
Ap-------
B2 -------
C2---------
A12 ------
B3/D------
D3 -------
Al--------
B2/D------
D3 -------
A2---------
B2/D-----
D3-------
Al -----
D1l-------
D2----
A2 -----
B2--------
Cl----
Al ----
B2 ----
D3--------

All-------
A3 -------
D2 ------
A12 -------
A/D-------
D2 -------
All---
B2 -------
Cl---------

Al
B2
D2---------

Ap------
B32-------
D2-------
Alp-------
B22___- __
C3 or D3---
Ap -----
B/C1 ----
D2_----._.


I








SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


test data-Continued


100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

10o
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
98
100
96
100

95
100


96
97
98
96
97
98
98
99
99
97
99
100
96
98
97
98
99
98
96
98
99
98
98
98
97
97
99
97
98
99
98
99
99
99
99
99
92
92
99
89
97
100
92
98
100


10
32
41
13
32
22
11
65
66
7
51
50
15
56
49
15
41
18
13
45'
67
11
35
41
11
15
28
13
36
65
14
28
33
14
29
25
16
26
36
15
36
35
11
39
43


4
25
36
8
28
16
6
62
61
3
48
48
18
54
46
7
35
15
6
42
64
6
32
37
4
10
23
5
28
54
6
23
28
6
23
18
12
22
34
8
31
33
8
37
42


2 Based on AASHO Designation: M 145-49, "The Classification
of Soils and Soil-aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction
Purposes," in "Standard Specifications for Highway Materials and
Methods of Sampling and Testing," pt. 1, Ed. 8 (1961), published
by the American Association of State Highway Officials.
3 Based on "The Unified Soil Classification System," Technical
Memorandum No. 3-357, v. 1 (1953) of the Waterways Experiment
Station, Corps of Engineers.
729-251-65- 5"


A-3(0) _---
A-2-6(1) -__
A-7-6(6) -_
A-2-4(0) -_
A-2-6(1) --
A-2-4(0) --
A-2-4(0) --
A-7-5(17)-
A-7-5(17) -
A-3(0) --_-
A-7-6(12)_-
A-7-6(11) _
A-2-4(0) _-
A-7-6(14) _-
A-7-6(11)--
A-2-4(0) -
A-6(4) --_-
A-2-4(0) _
A-2-4(0) --
A-7-6(7) --_
A-7-5(18) -
A-2-4 (0) -_
A-2-6(1) __
A-7-6 (6) _
A-2-4(0) --
A-2-4(0) -
A-2-6 (0) -_
A-2-4(0) -
A-4(0) ---
A-7-6(11)_
A-2-4(0) -
A-2-6(0)_ -
A-2-6(l) __
A-2-4(0) _
A-2-6(0) _-_
A-2-4(0) --
A-2-4(0) _
A-2-4(0) ---
A-6(2) ___.
A-2-4 (0) ---
A-6(1) -...
A-2-7(3) __
A-2-4(0) --
A-6(2) ___.
A-7-6(6) _--


SP-SM.
SC.
SC.
SM.
SC.
SM.
SP-SM.
MH-CH.
CH.
SP-SM.
MH-CH.
SC.
SM.
MH-CH.
SC.
SM.
SC.
SM.
SM.
SC.
MH.
SP-SM.
SC.
SC.
SP-SM.
SM.
SC.
SM.
SC.
CL.
SM.
SC.
SC.
SM.
SC.
SM-SC.
SM.
SM-SC.
SC.
SM.
SM-SC.
SC.
SP-SM.
SM-SC.
SM-SC.


4 NP stands for nonplastic.
5 Soil Conservation Service and Bureau of Public Roads have
agreed to consider that all soils having plasticity indexes within 2
points from A-line are to be given a borderline classification. Ex-
amples of such borderline classifications are ML-CL, SP-SM, and
SM-SC.


,








SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


TABLE 6.-Estimated physical properties

[Dashes indicate that soil has variable characteristics


Depth to
Map Soil Description of soil seasonally Depth from
symbol high water surface
table


Al

AhA

AhB

AhC

AnA

AnB

AnC

ArB

ArC

ArD

AsB

AsC

Bb




BfB

BfC

BfD

BfE

BhB



BmB

BmC

BmD

BnB

BnC


BtB

BtC


Alluvial land----------------------

Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 0 to
2 percent slopes.
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 2 to
5 percent slopes.
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, 5 to
8 percent slopes.

Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, thick
surface, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, thick
surface, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Archer-Susquehanna fine sands, thick
surface, 5 to 8 percent slopes.

Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes.
Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes.
Arredondo fine sand, 8 to 12 percent
slopes.
Arredondo fine sand, moderately
shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Arredondo fine sand, moderately
shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes.

Bayboro fine sandy loam__---------




Blanton fine sand, high, 0 to 5 per-
cent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, high, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, high, 8 to 12 per-
cent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, high, 12 to 35
percent slopes.

Blanton fine sand, high, moderately
shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes.


Blanton fine sand, low, 0 to 5 per-
cent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, low, 5 to 8 per-
cent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, low, 8 to 12 per-
cent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, low, moderately
shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
Blanton fine sand, low, moderately
shallow, 5 to 8 percent slopes.

Blanton-Chiefland fine sands, 0 to 5
percent slopes.
Blanton-Chiefland fine sands, 5 to 8
percent slopes.


Alluvial material that has variable characteristics .------.

Archer soils consist of less than 19 inches of fine sand to
loamy fine sand, underlain by a sandy clay loam to clay
subsoil. In places, limestone is at a depth ranging from
30 inches to 6 feet. These soils occur on undulating
uplands indented by numerous sinks. (See Susque-
hanna fine sand for properties of the Susquehanna soils.)

Archer soils consist of 18 to 30 inches of fine sand to loamy
fine sand, underlain by a sandy clay loam to clay subsoil.
In places, limestone is at a depth ranging from 30 inches
to 6 feet. (See Susquehanna fine sand for properties of
the Susquehanna soils.)

Thirty inches or more of well-drained, loose fine sand over
stratified layers of sandy loam or sandy clay. Fine-
textured material begins at a depth of 30 to 42 inches in
the shallow phases. Substrata contain phosphatic peb-
bles or gravel.





Poorly to very poorly drained soil. The loamy fine sand or
fine sandy loam surface soil is less than 18 inches thick.
The clay subsoil is acid, very plastic, and slowly perme-
able. This soil occurs on nearly level, low uplands, and
in depressions.

Thirty inches or more of moderately well drained to excessively
drained, loose fine sand over stratified layers of sandy
loam to sandy clay. Fine-textured material begins at a
depth of 30 to 42 inches in the shallow phases. In some
places, limestone underlies thin clayey substrata. In
areas of the Blanton-Chiefland complex, limestone is at a
depth of 42 to 60 inches.

See description above ----------- -------



See description above--------------------




See description above -----_--- ---------



See description above-


Feet

10+





10+





10+









0




10+







10+



2




2



4


Inches
-- .--- -

0 to 12--..

12 to 40 --

40+----


0 to 24-..

24 to 48---

48+ ---

0 to 72 ---

72 to 90 --







0 to 12-..-

12 to 60-..-


0 to 72---_

72 to 108-





0 to 36--

36 to 72 ---


0 to 60+-_




0 to 36---

36 to 48 --


0 to 48----

48+ -----








SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


significant to engineering

or that properties have not been estimated]

Texture classification Percentage passing
sieve- Avail- Shrink-
Permeabil- able Reaction swell
ity mois- potential
USDA Unified AASHO No. 10 No. 200 ture
(2.0 mm.) (0.074 mm.)


Fine sand to loamy fine sand_

Fine sandy clay to clay ---.-

Limestone-- -- ------


Fine sand to loamy fine sand_

Fine sandy clay loam to clay-

Limestone _-----------


Fine sand--------------

Fine sandy loam to fine
sandy clay loam.






Fine sandy loam .....----.--

Silty clay to clay ----



Fine sand----

Fine sandy loam to fine
sandy clay loam.




Fine sand-..-----------

Fine sandy loam to fine
sandy clay loam.

Fine sand-----




Fine sand-----------------

Fine sandy loam to fine
sandy clay loam.

Fine sand-------------

Limestone .._______--_-__


A-2 or A-4_

A-6 or A-7_

-----------


A-2 ..--._

A-6 or A-7_

-----


A-3 or A-2.

A-4 or A-6-


SM-SC or A-2 or A-4_
SM.
CL or CH_ A-6 or A-7_


100-...--

100---



100------

100.. --
100




98----
98 ......

95 -----







100------

100 -----


A-2 or A-3- 100 --

A-2 or A-6_ 100 ----


15 to 45 +-

40 to 90 ...

----- -----


10 to 30 ..

40 to 75-- .

--------- -


7 to 19 ..-

35 to 55 _..







20 to 50_...

75 to 90 ..-



5 to 15 --

35 to 50 ..


A-2 or A-3- 100----- 5 to 15-...

A-4 or A-6_ 100--...-- 35 to 50 __


100__.


A-2 or A-3_




A-2 or A-3-

A-4 or A-6-


A-2 or A-3. 100 .----


5 to 15-_


100.----- 5 to 15 ...

100------ 35 to 50 -..


5 to 15 -..


1------- --


Inches per
inch of soil


0. 092

.133



.092

.133




.066

.100







.117

.133


SM .-----

SC, CL, or
CH.
------- --


SM-SP or
SM.
SC, CL, or
CH.



SP-SM or
SM.
SM-SC or
SC to
ML-CL.


10+ ..------ .055


pHvalue


5.1 to 6.0--

5.1 to 6.0 --



5.1 to 6.0--_
5.1 to 6.0---




5.1 to 6.0 --

5.1 to 6.0---
- ---------












5.1 to 5.5--

5.1 to 5.5--
5.1 to 5.5 --


Inches per hour


5.0 to 10.0-

0.2 to 0.8-_

---- --------


5.0 to 10.0-

0.2 to 0.8-

------------


10+- ...

0.2 to 5.0-_







0.2 to 0.8-

0.05 to 0.2-_



10 ------

0.8 to 5.0-





10+- .-----

0.8 to 5.0-_


10+- ...-




10+ ---

0.8 to 5.0-_


.055 5.0 to 5.5 -

.117 -


.055


5.0 to 5.5---


Low.

Medium to
high.


Low.

Medium to
high.



Low.

Low.







Low to
medium.
Medium to
high.


Low.

Low to
medium.




Low.

Low to
medium.

Low.


.05 5.0 to 5.5--- Low.

. 117 ------------Low.


5.1 to 5.5 --


Low.


.055 5.0 to 5.5-_

. 117 5.0 to 5.5-


SP-SM or
SM.
SM-SC or
SC.




SP-SM or
SM.
SM-SC or
SC.

SP-SM or
SM.



SP-SM or
SM.
SM-SC or
SC.

SP-SM or
SM.








SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


TABLE 6.-Estimated physical properties


Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna
plex, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
Blanton-Bowie-Susquehanna
plex, 5 to 8 percent slopes.


Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf
2 percent slopes.
Blanton-Kalmia-Leaf
5 percent slopes.


Bowie fine
slopes.
Bowie fine
slopes.


com-

com-


complex, 0 to

complex, 2 to


sand, 2 to 5 percent

sand, 5 to 8 percent


BoB

BoC


BuA

BuB





BvB

BvC


BwB

BwC


BxB

BxC



ChB

ChC



FfB

FfC

FfD

FmC

GaB

GaC

GfB


Gr
Gx


surface, 2 to

surface, 5 to


Bowie-Blanton complex, 2 to
cent slopes.
Bowie-Blanton complex, 5 to
cent slopes.


Chiefland fine
slopes.
Chiefland fine
slopes.


5 per-

8 per-


sand, 0 to 5 percent

sand, 5 to 8 percent


Fellowship loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
percent slopes.
Fellowship loamy fine sand, 5 to 8
percent slopes.
Fellowship loamy fine sand, 8 to 12
percent slopes.

Fort Meade loamy fine sand, 5 to 8
percent slopes.
Gainesville loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
percent slopes.
Gainesville loamy fine sand, 5 to 8
percent slopes.
Gainesville loamy fine sand, moder-
ately shallow, 0 to 5 percent slopes.

Grady fine sandy loam, thick surface__
Grady, Bladen, and Coxville soils.


Description of soil


Somewhat poorly drained to well-drained fine sand to
loamy fine sand underlain by sand and clay. These soils
occur on gentle to sloping uplands. (See individual soils
of this complex for physical properties.)

Poorly drained to well-drained fine sand and loamy fine
sand, 6 to 42 inches or more thick, underlain by sand and
clay. These nearly level and gently sloping soils occur
near the Suwannee River. (See Blanton fine sand for
physical properties of the Blanton soil in this complex.
Kalmia and Leaf soils were not mapped separately in
Suwannee County; estimated physical properties are not
given for these soils.)

Less than 18 inches of well-drained fine sand and 6 to 12
inches of friable, well-aerated fine sandy loam to sandy
clay. These soils occur on gently sloping to sloping
areas.


The 18- to 30-inch, well-drained soil is fine sand, and the
6- to 24-inch, friable, well-aerated subsoil is fine sandy
loam to sandy clay. These soils occur in gently sloping
to sloping areas.


Moderately well drained to well drained fine sands, 6 to 42
inches or more in thickness, underlain by sand or friable
sandy clay loam. Blanton soils are sandy to a depth of
more than 30 inches. (See individual soils of this com-
plex for physical properties.)


Loose, well-drained sand or fine sand over limestone. In
most places, the layer of fine sand is 30 to 48 inches deep;
in a few places, it is 20 to 30 inches deep. A layer of fine
sandy loam or fine sandy clay loam is between the sandy
surface soil and the limestone in places.

The loamy fine sand surface soil, which is less than 18 inches
thick, and the plastic sandy clay or sandy clay loam sub-
soil, which is 6 to 24 inches thick, overlie slowly permeable,
stratified layers of clay, sandy clay, and gravelly clay.
Many phosphatic and sandstone pebbles are scattered
throughout the profile in some places.

Thirty inches or more of well-drained, loose loamy fine sand
over stratified layers of sandy loam to sandy clay. Fine-
textured material begins at a depth of 30 to 42 inches in
the shallow phases. Phosphatic pebbles or stones are in
the substrata.



Poorly drained and very poorly drained soils. A thin, fine-
textured surface soil overlies slowly permeable, acid sandy
clay or clay. These soils occur in depressions or in ponds.
Grady, Bladen, and Coxville soils have thinner first and
second horizons than Grady fine sandy loam, thick surface.


Map
symbol


Bowie fine sand, thick
5 percent slopes.
Bowie fine sand, thick
8 percent slopes.


Depth to
seasonally
high water
table


Feet
6




6












10











10+







0


Depth from
surface


Inches
0 to 10-.--
10 to 25 ---

25 to 42+--


0 to 24---

24 to 36----

36 to 48-..-







0 to 36 ---
36 to 42__

42+-------


0 to 14 ---

14 to 20_--

20 to 72-__


0 to 36___
36 to 72-.--

72+ ------




0 to 20----

20 to 30....
30 to 42--











SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 67


significant to engineering-Continued


Texture classification


USDA


Fine sand_ ---------
Fine sandy loam to fine
sandy clay loam.
Fine sandy clay to clay
loam.

Fine sand_---------------

Fine sandy loam to fine
sandy clay loam.
Fine sandy clay to clay ----







Fine sand-----.---------
Fine sandy loam to fine
sandy clay loam.
Limestone -- -----


Loamy fine sand_ --------

Fine sandy clay loam to fine
sandy clay.
Clay --------------------


Loamy fine sand --------
Loamy fine sand to fine
sandy loam.
Fine sandy clay loam.-----.




Fine sandy loam --------

Fine sandy clay loam -----
Clay-----------


Unified


SP-SM___
SM-SC or
SC.
SM, SC, or
CL.

SP-SM or
SM.
SM-SC or
SC.
SM, SC, or
CL.






SP-SM ....
SM-SC or
SC.


SM or SM-
SC.
SM-SC to
SC.
CL or CH__


SM .--_
SM-SC or
SM.
SM-SC or
SC.



SM or SM-
SC.
SC or CL_ _
CL or CH_


AASHO


A-2 or A-3_
A-2_ -----

A-6 or A-7-


A-2-4______

A-2 --....

A-6 or
A-7-6.






A-2 or A-3-
A-2 -----



A-2 ------

A-6 or A-7-

A-6 or A-7-


A-2 -------
A-2 or A-4-

A-2 or A-6-




A-4 ----..

A-4 ---
A-7---


Percentage passing
sieve-


I- -i ____________________________


_~---I-~ I-


No. 200
(0.074 mm.)
















5 to 15----
20 to 35___

40 to 55_--


10 to 15___

20 to 35___

40 to 60___


Permeabil-
ity


No. 10
(2.0 mm.)
















100 ----
100 ----

100 --.--


100 -....

100------

100 -----







100 -----
100 -----



90 to 100_

90 to 100-

90 to 100-


98 to 100-
98 to 100_

98 to 100-




100 -----

100---
100 --


7 to 12-... 10+ ----
15 to 30--.. 0.2 to 2.5._


20 to 35-- .

35 to 50 ..-

50 to 85 .--


15 to 30 .--
15 to 45.---

30 to 50 ...




35 to 50_ ._

40 to 55- ..
50 to 65 --.


Avail-
able
mois-
ture


Inches per
inch of soil
0. 092
.100

.117


.092

.100

.117







055
.070



.092

.133

133


.066
.092

100




.092

100
.108


Reaction


pHvalue
5.1 to 5.5-
5.1 to 5.5__

5.1 to 5.5--


5.1 to 5.5--

5.1 to 5.5_

5.1 to 5.5--







5.1 to 6.5-__
6.6 to 7.3---



5.1 to 6.0--
5.1 to 6.0 _

5.1 to 6.0-__

5.1 to 6.0-__


5.1 to 6.0-__
5.1 to 6.0-__

5.1 to 6.0 -




5.1 to 5.5---

5.1 to 5.5 --
5.1 to 5.5._.


Shrink-
swell
potential


Low.
Low.

Medium to
high.

Low.

Low.

Medium to
high.






Low.
Low.



Low.

Medium to
high.
High.

Low.
Low.

Low.




Medium.

Medium.
High.


5.0 to 10.0_

0.2 to 0.8__

Less than
0.05.

10+ -----
5.0 to 10+-

0.2 to 5.0-_




2.5 to 5.0-_

0.2 to 5.0_-
0.2 to 0.8--


1 I


Inches per hour
10+ __-_-
0.8 to 5.0-_

0.05 to 0.8-_


10+ ---..

0.8 to 5.0--

0.05 to 0.8-_








SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1961, NO. 21


TABLE 6.-Estimated physical properties


Depth to
Map Soil Description of soil seasonally Depth from
symbol high water surface
table


Hernando fine
slopes.
Hernando fine
slopes.


sand, 2 to 5 percent

sand, 5 to 8 percent


Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes.
Kanapaha fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes.
Klej fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.

Lakeland fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes.
Lakeland fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes.
Lakeland and Jonesville fine sands,
0 to 5 percent slopes.

Leon fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes__
Leon fine sand, loamy substratum,
0 to 5 percent slopes.
Leon and Ona fine sands.

Local alluvial land --_-- -----
Local alluvial land, phosphatic.

Mine pits and dumps ------------

Peat----------------------

Plummer fine sand, 0 to 2 percent
slopes.
Plummer fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
slopes.
Plummer fine sand, moderately shal-
low.
Plummer fine sand, high.
Plummer fine sand, depressions.

Plummer, Bladen, and Rains soils,
5 to 17 percent slopes.

Pomello fine sand_----------- ----





Rutlege fine sand-----------------
Scranton fine sand.


Fine sand to loamy fine sand, less than 18 inches thick,
underlain by sandy clay or clay subsoil. Limestone is at a
depth ranging from 30 inches to 4 feet. These gently
sloping to sloping soils occur in areas indented by numer-
ous sinks.


Moderately well drained, loose fine sand, 42 inches or more
deep. These nearly level or gently sloping soils occur on
low-lying uplands.


Well-drained, loose fine sand, 42 inches or more deep, under-
lain in places by thin layer of fine sandy loam or fine sandy
clay loam. Below this is limerock.



Somewhat poorly drained, deep, strongly acid sand under-
lain by sand or by clayey material; stained organic pan
within 30 inches of the surface. In the loamy substratum
phase, a fine-textured horizon is at a depth between 30 and
42 inches. These are nearly level soils.

Alluvial material in depressions on uplands; thickness and
texture variable.

Variable soil material in strip mines, pits, and dumps------ -

Organic soil material derived from remains of grasses, lilies,
and woody plants.

Somewhat poorly drained, poorly drained, and very poorly
drained, strongly acid soils occurring in ponds and adja-
cent slightly higher areas. The surface soil consists of
more than 30 inches of sand. In the moderately shallow
phase, fine-textured substrata are at a depth of 30 to 42
inches. Plummer fine sand, depressions, is covered with
water during wet seasons.

Wet, seepy soils on short breaks or hillsides -------------- -

Nearly level, deep, moderately well drained, very strongly
acid sand; stained organic pan at a depth below 30 inches.




Somewhat poorly drained to very poorly drained, acid sand
42 inches or more deep, occurring in ponds and the adja-
cent slightly higher areas. Upper 10 to 18 inches is high
in organic-matter content.


Sandy andclayeyland, gently sloping_ Soils of variable texture, structure, color, drainage, and
Sandy and clayey land, sloping, depth.


Feet
10+






1 to 3




10+





0 to 2




(2)



(3)

0









2





0 to 2




6


Inches
0 to 12--..
12 to 24----

24 to 38 ---

38+..-------

0 to 42_-..

42 to 72--..


0 to 52 ---

52 to 72--..



0 to 23----

23 to 29--..

29 to 72 ---

Variable----



0 to 60----

0 to 72____










0 to 39----

39 to 45-.--
45 to 58....

0to 10-.--

10 to 50----
50 to 72 ---








SUWANNEE COUNTY, FLORIDA


significant to engineering-Continued


Texture classification Percentage passing
sieve- Avail- Shrink-
Permeabil- able Reaction swell
ity mois- potential
USDA Unified AASHO No. 10 No. 200 ture
(2.0 mm.) (0.074 mm.)


Fine sand to loamy fine sand-

Fine sandy clay loam -----

Sandy clay to clay --------

Limestone -----------

Fine sand--------------

Fine sand to fine sandy loam.


Fine sand ------

Fine sand to fine sandy loam-



Fine sand ------

Fine sand--------

Fine sand -----

Sand to loamy fine sand __-


Peat --


Fine sand










Fine sand


Fine sand --------

Fine sand -------_


Fine sand--------------

Fine sand-------
Fine sandy clay loam to fine
sandy loam.

Variable_-------_ _.


SP-SM or
SM.
SC _._----

CH or MH_


SP-SM or
SM.
SM-SC or
SM.

SP-SM or
SM.
SM-SC or
SM.



SP or SP-
SM.
SP-SM or
SM.
SP or SP-
SM.


Ft..


SP-SM ..._










SP or SP-
SM.
SP-SM or
SM.
SP or SP-
SM.

SP-SM or
SM.
SP-SM-...
SC or CL___


A-2_--- .--

A-2 or A-6-

A-7------



A-2 or A-3_

A-2-4 or
A-4.


100------

100 -----

100 -----


100 -----

100------


10 to 15- .-

30 to 50 .-.

40 to 90 ---


5 to 15----

20 to 40 -..


Inches per hour
10+ ---

0.2 to 0.8---

Less than
0.2.


10+_-----

2.5 to 10+__


A-2 or A-3_ 100------ 5 to 15--.. 10 -------

A-2 or A-4_ 100------ 15 to 45 5.0to 10+-


A-3 -----

A-2 or A-3-

A-3 ------


100 -----

100 ---

100 -----

- - -


A-3- ......100-----


A-3 .----

A-3 .----

A-3 .----


A-2 or A-3-

A-3 .---
A-2 or A-6-


100 -----

100--

100 ---


100 ----

100 -
100 ------


4 to 7-----

8 to 15 --

2 to 10 -..


5 to 10---


2 to 7 ---

8 to 15 ---

2 to 10 .--

10 to 15..

5 to 10 --
20 to 55 .-.


10 +.-----

0.8 to 5.0 _

10 -----





10+ --...

10 __...


10 +------

2.5 to 5.0_ -

10+ -.----


5.0 to 10.0.-

10+. ---
0.8 to 2.5-__


Inches per
inch of soil
0. 092

117

.133



.066

.092


.050

.092



033

.050

042


pH value
5.1 to 5.5 --

5.5 to 6.0-__

6.1 to 7.3-__


5.1 to 5.5-_

4.5 to 5.0 --


5.1 to 5.5-_

5.5 to 7.3-_



4.5 to 5.0 --

4.5 to 5.0-__

4.5 to 5.0-__

5.1 to 5.5--



Below 4.5-


. 042 4.6 to 5.5_


.033

.050

.042


.092

.033
.117


4.5 to 5.0-__

Below 4.5__

4.5 to 5.0-_

4.6 to 5.5__

5.1 to 5.5 _
5.1 to 5.5-__


5.1 to 5.5__


Low.

Medium to
high.
High.


Low.

Low.


Low.

Low.



Low.

Low.

Low.

Low.






Low.










Low.

Low.

Low.


Low.

Low.
Low to me-
dium.




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