• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 Summary of tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Sumter County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025741/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Sumter County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 204 p. : ill., maps (some col.) ; 31 cm. +
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1989]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Sumter County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Sumter County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 115).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 89-341-P.
General Note: "Issued November 1988"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025741
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001619901
notis - AHP4459
oclc - 19968212
lccn - 89602306

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ia
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    Summary of tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Geology
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
    How this survey was made
        Page 6
        Map unit composition
            Page 7
            Page 8
    General soil map units
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 65
        Crops and pasture
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
        Rangeland and grazable woodland
            Page 70
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
        Recreation
            Page 74
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 74
            Page 75
        Engineering
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
    Soil properties
        Page 81
        Engineering index properties
            Page 81
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 82
        Soil and water features
            Page 83
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
        Engineering index test data
            Page 87
            Page 88
    Classification of the soils
        Page 89
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Formation of the soils
        Page 113
        Formation of the soils
            Page 113
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 114
    References
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Glossary
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Tables
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
    General soil map
        Page 205
    Index to map sheets
        Page 206
        Page 207
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
Full Text

% United States In cooperation with
Department of University of Florida, S il survey of
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Soil Agricultural Experiment Stations S um te r C o unty
Conservation and Soil Science Department, S um ter C
Service Florida Department of
Transportation, F lo rid a
and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and
Consumer Services






























,* -













'. ,

a
I ,* .

.,. i, l ,





HOW TO US


Locate your area of interest on
1 the "Index to Map Sheets."

A Kokomo
I 2 3 4 _

,0i_ I- i

Note the number of the map
-. sheet and turn to that sheet.





Locate your area of interest
3. on the map sheet.
151C



134A 148B







4 List the map unit symbols
4* that are in your area. Sy
Symbols

151C / 27C
\-56B

A6B 134A

134A 14i85C





uIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5 which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. --




















See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6- Contents) for location of additional data -- ... -,.
on a specific soil use.


-. k i-l -l *y l:'-*l'














Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1984. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1984. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1981-84. This soil
survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, Florida Department of
Transportation, and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the Sumter Soil and
Water Conservation District. The Sumter County Recreation and Water
Conservation and Control Authority contributed financially to accelerate the
completion of the fieldwork for this survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: Raising beef cattle is the principle agricultural activity in Sumter County. These
Bradford cattle are on improved pasture on Sparr fine sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 to 5
percent slopes.


















ii

















Contents


Index to m ap units ......................... ..................... iv Engineering ........................................ ..................... 76
Sum m ary of tables........................ ................. v Soil properties ............................................................... 81
Foreword........................................ vii Engineering index properties...................................... 81
General nature of the county........................... 1 Physical and chemical properties.............................. 82
Geology ........................................ 3 Soil and water features ............................................... 83
How this survey was made ..................................... 6 Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
at ...............................selected soils .................................... ........ 84
M ap unit com position ................................................. 7 Engineering index test data........................................ 87
General soil map units .................................. ...... 9 Classification of the soils............................................ 89
Detailed soil map units............................................... 17 Soil series and their morphology................................... 89
Use and management of the soils............................ 65 Formation of the soils.............................................. 113
Crops and pasture................................................. 65 Factors of soil formation........................................... 113
Rangeland and grazable woodland .......................... 70 Processes of soil formation...................................... 114
Woodland management and productivity .............. 71 References ............................................................... 115
Recreation ................................................. 74 Glossary ................................... ..... 117
W wildlife habitat ................................... ................. 74 T ab les ................................ .. ............................ 125


Soil Series

Adam sville series................ ................ ................... 89 M alabar series ........................... .......... .......... ..... 101
Apopka series................................ .......................... 90 M illhopper series .......................................... .......... .... 101
Arredondo series .................. ........ ......................... 90 M onteocha series.................................. ........................ 102
Astatula series ..................................................... 91 Myakka series.......................................................... ....... 103
Basinger series ..................................... ................... 91 Nittaw series ................................ ........................ 103
C andler series............................................................ 92 O keelanta series.................................. ........................ 104
Chobee series....................................... ..................... 92 O ldsm ar series......................................................... 104
Delray series ........................................ ............... 93 Ona series...................................................................... 106
E auG allie series......................... ............ ...................... 93 Paisley series .................................................................. 105
Electra series ...................................................... 94 Placid series......................... ............................................ 106
Everglades series.................................. .................... 95 Pomello series ................................................... 107
Florahome series............................................... 95 Pompano series.................................. 107
Floridana series ........................................................... 96 Seffner series...... ...................... ..... 108
Ft. Green series.......................................... 97 Smyrna series ................................. ........................ 108
Gator series ..................................................................... 97 Sparr series................................................................. ..... 109
Im m okalee series ................................................. 98 Sum terville series ......................... ... ..................... 109
Kanapaha series..................................... 98 Tarrytown series .............................................................. 110
Kendrick series .......................................... 99 Tavares series .............................................. ............... 111
Lake series .......................................... ........................ 99 Terra C eia series ......................... .... ................... 111
M abel series............................... ................................ 100 V ero series ........................... ...... ........................... 111
Issued November 1988








iii

















Index to Map Units


1-Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 17 37-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes............ 44
3-Astatula fine sand, rolling..................................... 18 39-Mabel fine sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 to 5
4-Candler sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ................... 18 percent slopes ................................... ........... 44
5-Candler sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ................ 20 40-Millhopper sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 to 5
6-Kendrick fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .......... 20 percent slopes ................................... ........... 45
8-Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.................. 21 41-Everglades muck, frequently flooded ................... 46
9-Paisley fine sand, bouldery subsurface ............... 22 42-Adamsville fine sand.............................................. 46
10-Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............... 22 43-Basinger fine sand, depressional.......................... 47
11-Millhopper sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 23 44-Oldsmar fine sand, bouldery subsurface............. 47
13-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 24 45-Electra fine sand, bouldery subsurface................ 48
14-Lake fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes................. 25 46-Ft. Green fine sand, bouldery subsurface............ 49
15-Adamsville fine sand, bouldery subsurface.......... 25 47-Okeelanta muck, frequently flooded.................... 50
16-Apopka fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 26 48-Malabar fine sand, frequently flooded.................. 50
17-Sumterville-Mabel-Tavares association, 49-Terra Ceia muck, frequently flooded .................. 51
bouldery subsurface, 0 to 5 percent slopes......... 27 50-Immokalee sand.................... .................... 51
18- Okeelanta m uck...................................................... 28 51- Pits-Dumps com plex............................................... 52
19-Apopka fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............. 29 52-Candler sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes .............. 52
20-Florahome sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............. 29 53-Tavares fine sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 to 5
21-EauGallie fine sand, bouldery subsurface............ 30 percent slopes ................................... ........... 53
22-Smyrna fine sand ........................................ 31 54-Monteocha fine sand, depressional..................... 53
23-Ona fine sand.................................................... 32 55-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 54
24-Basinger fine sand............................................. 33 56-Vero fine sand, depressional................................ 55
25-Kanapaha sand, bouldery subsurface ................. 33 57-Gator muck, frequently flooded.............................. 55
26-Vero fine sand, bouldery subsurface.................... 34 58-Paisley fine sand, depressional........................... 56
27-Sumterville fine sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 to 59-Arents, organic substratum.................................... 57
5 percent slopes...................................................... 35 60-Delray fine sand, depressional.............................. 57
28-Seffner fine sand................................. ......... 36 61-EauGallie fine sand................................................. 58
29-Nittaw muck, frequently flooded.......................... 36 62-Urban land......................................... ........... 59
30-Placid fine sand, depressional............................. 38 63-Floridana-Basinger association, frequently
31- M yakka sand.................................... 39 flooded ....................................................................... 59
32-Pompano fine sand............................................... 40 64-Gator muck ............................................................ 60
33-Sparr fine sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 to 5 65-Candler sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 to 5
percent slopes ......................................................... 40 percent slopes ......................................................... 60
34-Tarrytown sandy clay loam, bouldery 66-Arredondo fine sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 to
subsurface ..................... ...........................42 5 percent slopes...................................................... 61
35-Pompano fine sand, depressional ..................... 42 67-Vero fine sand ................................... ........... 62
36-Floridana mucky fine sand, depressional........... 43 68-Chobee loamy fine sand, frequently flooded....... 62













iv

















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)............................ ............... 126
Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2) .......................... ... ................ 127
Probability. Temperature.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3) ................................ 128
Acres. Percent.
Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table
4 ) .......................................................................................................... . .. 13 0
Watermelons. Tomatoes. Cucumbers. Bell peppers.
Squash. Bahiagrass. Sorghum silage.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 5).................................................... 134
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Rangeland productivity (table 6) .................................. .................... 135
Range site. Potential annual production.
Woodland management and productivity (table 7)........................................ 138
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 8)............................................................... 145
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 9) ................................................................................... 150
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 10) ............................................................. 154
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 11)............................................................................. 159
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction m materials (table 12) ................................................................ 165
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel Topsoil
W ater m anagem ent (table 13)...................................................................... 170
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.



v




















Engineering index properties (table 14) ......................................................... 178
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15) ............................. 186
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Shrink-swell potential.
Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.
Soil and water features (table 16)...................................................................... 191
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.
Physical analyses of selected soils (table 17).............................................. 195
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution-Sand, Silt, Clay.
Hydraulic conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.
Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 18)............................................. 198
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate dithionite extractable.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 19)................................................. 201
Depth. Horizon. Clay minerals.
Engineering index test data (table 20) ........................................................... 202
FDOT report number. Classification. Grain-size distribution.
Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Moisture density
Classification of the soils (table 21)................................................................ 204
Family or higher taxonomic class.
















vi

















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Sumter County, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are too unstable to be
used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly
suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil
poorly suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service













vii










































































Location of Sumter County in Florida.













Soil Survey of

Sumter County, Florida


By Howard Yamataki, Alfred O. Jones, Darrell E. Leach,
William E. Puckett, and Kevin J. Sullivan, Soil Conservation Service

Participating in the fieldwork were Scott W. Anderson, Berry B. Matheson,
and Gerald W. McCormick, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department,
Florida Department of Transportation,
and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




SUMTER COUNTY is in the central part of the Florida Climate
peninsula. It is bordered on the north by Marion County,
on the east by Lake County, on the south by Polk The climate of Sumter County is characterized by long,
County, and on the west by Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus warm, and relatively humid summers and mild, dry
Counties. winters. In an average year, about 56 percent of the total
The survey area includes about 359,175 acres or annual precipitation falls from June through September.
about 561 square miles. The county is about 44 miles The other 44 percent is more or less evenly distributed
long from north to south in the eastern part of Sumter throughout the rest of the year. Summarized climatic
County and about 28 miles long in the western part. It is data (4, 15) based on records collected at a weather
about 21 miles wide at the widest point and 6 miles wide station east of Bushnell are shown in table 1.
in the southern one-third of the county. Most summer precipitation is from afternoon or early
Agriculture is the main enterprise in the county. evening local thundershowers. From June through
September, measurable rain can be expected on about
Nonagricultural industries include light manufacturing Septemer measuain this period. Summer showers are
plants, building supply companies, a railroad transport 80 of the days in this period. Summer showers are
plants, building supply companies, a railroad transport sometimes heavy with 2 or 3 inches of rain falling in an
system, and several trade and service enterprises. In the hour or two. Daylong rains in summer are rare and are
area are a few mines where rock is being excavated to generally associated with a tropical storm. Winter and
be used in roadbeds. spring rains are generally associated with large-scale
continental weather developments and are of longer
duration. Some last for 24 hours or longer. The long
General Nature of the County duration rains are generally not as intense as the
thundershowers but occasionally release relatively large
This section gives general information about the amounts of precipitation over large areas.
environmental and cultural factors that affect the use Extended periods of dry weather or droughts can
and management of soils in Sumter County. These occur in any season, but they are most common in the
factors are climate; history and development; water spring and the fall. By definition, a drought occurs when
resources; farming; transportation; recreation; and the soil does not have enough available water capacity
physiography, stratigraphy, and economic geology, for plants to maintain normal growth. Consequently,
during some periods in a normal year, rain does not







2 Soil Survey



supply as much water as is needed by most crops. Another agricultural pursuit, prior to the creation of
Droughts or dry periods in April and May, although Sumter County, was the planting of citrus groves. Many
generally of shorter duration than those in the fall, tend of the groves were planted around Lake Panasoffkee
to be intensified by higher temperatures. and along the shores of the Withlacoochee River. When
During the summer months, the average day to day the citrus industry was evolving, the fruit was picked and
temperature is fairly uniform. Afternoon temperatures transported to Panasoffkee, where it was packaged and
regularly reach 90 degrees F, or higher, and at night the shipped to northern markets. Severe freezes in the
temperatures may fall to as low as 70 degrees. 1880's and 1890's practically wiped out the citrus
Temperatures in winter vary considerably from day-to- industry. A Florida directory, published in 1886, listed the
day as periodic cold fronts move southward across the names of more than 100 orange growers in the area that
state. Temperatures may vary from the 70's during is now Sumter County.
midday to an early morning low in the high 30's. Frost or About the beginning of the 20th century, farmers
freezing temperatures in the colder sections of the began to plant vegetables on a large scale. For many
county occur at least once every winter on an average of years, Coleman was recognized as the cabbage center
4 times a year. Temperatures as low as 20 degrees are of the United States, and Center Hill was known as the
rare. Freeze data shown in table 2 were taken at a string bean capital. Bushnell and Webster were known
weather station 2 miles east of Bushnell. for their large production of tomatoes and cucumbers
and Wildwood and Oxford were known for their
History and Development production of watermelons.
Cattle raising is now the principal agricultural activity of
Broward Miller, past president of the Sumter County Historical Sumter County; although a large amount of vegetables is
Society, prepared this section, still produced. Citrus production is very limited. The trend
Sumter County was established by an act of the in Sumter County economy is difficult to define at this
legislature on January 8, 1853. It was formed from a time, but it is expected that cattle raising will continue to
large area of southern Marion County and a segment of be an important factor in the agricultural field, that the
what is now Lake County. production of fresh vegetables will decline, and that the
Many of the early settlers of the area that was to retiree population will continue to increase.
become Sumter County had migrated from South
Carolina. It was only natural that the new county was Water Resources
named in honor of General Charles Sumter, one of the
partisan leaders" of the American Revolution. The major rivers in Sumter County are the
The first federal census, which was taken after the Withlacoochee and Little Withlacoochee. These rivers
establishment of Sumter County, showed a population of serve as the county line for Sumter County and Citrus
1,549. Most of the early settlers in the county had and Hernando Counties on the west and Polk County on
secured land grants under the provisions of the Armed the south. The Dead River, Outlet River, and Jumper
Occupation Act of 1842. This act had been created to Creek are major waterways that discharge water into the
encourage settlers to move into the area that was Withlacoochee River. These waterways are fed by small
recently vacated by the Seminole Indians at the close of lakes, four major watersheds, and artesian springs from
the Second Seminole Indian War. the aquifer.
The Armed Occupation Act of 1842 designated Lake Panasoffkee is the largest lake in the county. It
Adamsville to be the county seat. In 1858, the county covers approximately 4,500 acres. Deaton, Big Grant,
commissioners moved the county seat to Sumterville. In Little Grant, Minoa, and Okeehumpka Lakes cover less
1860, the State legislature directed that the seat of than 1,000 acres. The four watersheds are the Big Four,
county government be moved to Leesburg. It remained Big Prairie, Jumper Creek, and South Sumter.
there until 1881 when an election was held and Water for towns, communities, and individual homes in
Sumterville was designated as the county seat. On the county is supplied by wells.
January 1, 1909, the courthouse burned and immediately
a movement developed to move the seat of government Farming
to another community in the county. A number of
elections were held, and finally, it was decided to locate Farming has always been important to the economy of
the courthouse in Bushnell. Sumter County. Farming is diversified mainly because of
Most of the farmers in the new county were engaged the variety of suitable soils. Although the land use
in the cultivation of staple crops, such as corn, peanuts, patterns are changing, farmers have been able to
sugar cane, and sweet potatoes. A few of the large increase yields by improved management and by slightly
landowners planted cotton, and a few were recorded as increasing the farmed acreage.
tobacco growers. Cattle and hogs roamed the open Crops commonly grown are watermelons, tomatoes,
range until 1947, when the No-Fence Law was enacted, cucumbers, bell peppers, and squash. These crops are







Sumter County, Florida 3



sent to the local packinghouses located in Bushnell, much larger lake which occupied most of the Tsala
Center Hill, Oxford, and Webster. Sorghum grain, Apopka Plain (18).
bahiagrass, and coastal bermudagrass are used for
improved pasture, for temporary grazing, or for hay and Brooksville Ridge
silage. Beef production is the leading income producer. The Brooksville Ridge forms the western boundary of
Most beef is sold through the livestock auction in the Western Valley. The ridge is only in a small part of
Webster. Also several poultry producing facilities add to west-central Sumter County in the vicinity of Nobleton.
the economy of the county. The Brooksville Ridge trends north to south. Elevation
ranges from 70 to 200 feet. The southern part of the
Recreation ridge crosses central Citrus, Hernando, and Pasco
Counties to the west of Sumter County.
Public recreation activities available in Sumter County The Brooksville Ridge is composed of a core of
are generally related to picnic areas. Several State and limestone that is overlain by clayey sand, sandy clay,
county parks are located throughout the county for and clay, which in turn are overlain by Pleistocene sand.
picnics and other recreational activities. Most privately- The clay and clayey sediments have limited downward
owned recreational facilities are located near the percolation of ground water, which limits the amount of
Withlacoochee River, Lake Panasoffkee, and other small dissolution of the limestone core of the ridge. As a
lakes in the area. result, the Brooksville Ridge stands high in relation to
The State forest in the southern and southeastern part the Western Valley and the Tsala Apopka Plain.
of the county offers camp sites, day use areas, and
hunting. Golf is available in the Wildwood area. Sumter and Lake Uplands

The Sumter and Lake Uplands occupy the
Geology northeastern corner of the county and form part of the
eastern boundary. These uplands are separated by the
Kenneth M. Cambell, Florida Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology, Lake Harris Cross Valley. In general, the elevation
Department of Natural Resources, Tallahassee, Florida, prepared this decreases in a northerly direction. Within Sumter County,
section, the elevation of the uplands ranges from about 50 to
100 feet in the northern part and from about 75 to 140
Physiography feet in the southern part.
This discussion of the physiography of Sumter County The Sumter and Lake Uplands are similar to the
is based on William A. White's classification of the Brooksville Ridge in composition. These uplands also are
physiography of the Florida peninsula (19). made up of a limestone core overlain by clayey sediment
physiographyst of Sumter County lies withpeninsula the Western Valley which in turn is overlain by Pleistocene sand. Dissolution
Most of Sumter County lies within the Western Valley of limestone has been limited by the clayey sediment
and Tsala Apopka Plain. Other major physiographic and has restore has been limited in the relatively high elevation of the
features of Sumter County include Brooksville Ridge and and has resulted in the relatively high elevation of the
the Sumter and Lake Uplands. Sumter and Lake Uplands.

Western Valley Stratigraphy
The Western Valley is a large irregularly shaped low The surface sediment and near surface sediment in
area that is bounded on the west by the Brooksville Sumter County consist of quartz sand, clay, peat,
Ridge and on the east by the Sumter and Lake Uplands. limestone, and dolomite. The sediments discussed below
The Western Valley is connected to the Central Valley range from Middle Eocene age (40 to 45 million years
by the Lake Harris Cross Valley. The Lake Harris Cross ago) to Holocene age (10,000 years ago to present) (see
Valley is an east-west trending gap separating the figs. 1, 2, and 3).
Sumter and Lake Uplands. Elevation ranges from about
40 to 100 feet in the Western Valley. Eocene Series

Tsala Apopka Plain Avon Park Limestone
The boundaries of the Tsala Apopka Plain are the Avon Park Limestone is of Middle Eocene age and is
Brooksville Ridge on the west and the Withlacoochee the oldest formation to crop out in Florida. The Avon
River on the east. The plain forms the lowest and flattest Park Limestone is present in the subsurface throughout
part of the Western Valley (19). Tsala Apopka Lake Sumter County but is not exposed in the county.
occupies the northern part of the plain. Elevation ranges In Sumter County, the Avon Park Limestone may be
from about 40 feet (Tsala Apopka Lake) to about 75 limestone or dolomite. Generally, the uppermost 30 to 70
feet. Tsala Apopka Lake is thought to be a relict of a feet of the formation consists of limestone that is







4 Soil Survey



A may be thin bedded to relatively structureless and
commonly contains flecks and thin seams of organic
material. Where the formation is dolomitized, it is
microcrystalline to fine grained, unconsolidated to
strongly indurated, euhedral to subhedral dolomite
crystals.
The Avon Park Limestone unconformably underlies the
B Ocala Group throughout the county with the possible
B. exception of two small areas. R. O. Vernon (17) mapped
B two areas, one north of Center Hill and the other
southeast of Webster, where the Ocala Group has been
removed. Supporting data, however, is limited, and the
configuration of these areas is unknown. In these areas,
the Avon Park Limestone is overlain unconformably by
Miocene age to Holocene age plastic sediment.
Characteristic fossil groups in the Avon Park
C' Limestone include echinoids, foraminifera, bryozoa,
C molluscs, and corals. These groups are indications of a
shallow, marine depositional environment.

Ocala Group
A' The Ocala Group consists of three formations, which
in ascending order are the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal
River Formations. For the purposes of this survey, the
Figure 1.-Geological cross sections A-A', B-B', and C-C' in Inglis and Williston Formations are not differentiated.
Sumter County. These two formations are discussed as the lower Ocala
Group. Essentially, all of Sumter County is underlain by
limestone of the Ocala Group.

Lower Ocala Group
The lower Ocala Group in Sumter County is a white to
underlain predominantly by dolomite or dolomitic cream or tan, granular and variably chalky or
limestone. Typically, Avon Park Limestone is white, recrystallized limestone. Where not extensively
cream, or brown, weakly to strongly indurated, calcilutite recrystallized, the lower Ocala Group is weakly to
(clay and silt size) to very fine grained. The limestone strongly indurated calcarenite composed mostly of





MARION COUNTY SUMMER COUNTY


AP M N | jA'
100 -
MSL- Crystal River Formation
MSL CSaCI

100 -
Avon Park Limestone Avon Park Limestone
200

300


Figure 2.-Geological cross section A-A' shows stratigraphy in Sumter County. Vertical numbers preceded by a w" are well numbers.








Sumter County, Florida
5




CITRUS COUNTY
SUMTER COUNTY LAKECOUNTY


B B
o S S B'
100 r3

Sands and Clays

MSL Crystal River Sandsand
o 6r Formation Clays


Avon Park Ocala Group
100
Limestone


200


300













PASCO COUNTY SUMTERCOUNTY LAKECOUNTY
LAKE COUNTY


CC
N c 0 c '
ID 0

100
Sands and Clays
MSL crystal River Formation Sands and Clays
MSL- I Crystal __-- -- ^
Lower Ocala Group Hawthorn

1001 Group

Avon Park Limestone

200


300


Figure 3.-Geological cross sections B-B' and C-C' shows stratigraphy in Sumter County and adjacent counties. Vertical numbers
preceded by a "w" are well numbers.







6 Soil Survey



miliolid foraminifera. Cement may be calcite or dolomite, materials to either the Hawthorn or Alachua Formations
The lower part is commonly dolomitized. Dolomitic (8, 17).
sections consist of weakly indurated to strongly The general lithology of the undifferentiated surficial
indurated, microcrystalline (silt size) to very fine grained, sediments varies from fine to coarse grained sand to
euhedral dolomite crystals. clayey sand, sandy clay, and clay. The content of clay
The lower Ocala Group is abundantly fossiliferous, generally increases with depth. Limestone and
commonly forming a foraminiferal coquina. The most phosphatic limestone fragments are common in the
common fossils include miliolid foraminifera, other lower part. Peat or organic rich sediment is on the
foraminifera, molluscs, and echinoids. surface layer in some parts of the county.
Limestone of the lower Ocala Group forms the
bedrock in the Tsala Apopka Plain in the northern and Economic Geology
western parts of Sumter County. The lower Ocala Group
unconformably overlies the middle Eocene age Avon Stone
Park Limestone and conformably underlies the Crystal
River Formation where that formation has not been Crushed limestone is the major mineral commodity
removed by erosion. The boundary between the Crystal produced in Sumter County. Several companies are
River Formation and the lower Ocala Group is mining predominantly from the Late Eocene age Crystal
transitional. Where the Crystal River Formation has been River Formation. The quarries are located in the central
removed by erosion, the lower Ocala Group is overlain part of the county.
by Miocene age to Holocene age plastic sediment. All limestone is mined from open-pit quarries.
Generally, overburden must be removed by bulldozers
Crystal River Formation prior to mining. In some areas, the limestone is soft
The general lithology of the Crystal River Formation is enough that bulldozers equipped with a claw can rip the
described by R. O. Vernon (17) as a white or cream, rock loose. Drilling and blasting are necessary to fracture
soft, very massive, friable coquina of large foraminifera the harder rock. If mining extends below the water table
set in a pasty calcite (calcilutite) matrix. In the southern and the pits remain flooded, draglines are needed to
part of Sumter County, the calcilutite matrix is mine the limestone. The mined material is transported by
predominant, truck to processing plants to be crushed and stockpiled.
The Crystal River Formation is abundantly The main products produced are dense road base
fossiliferous, commonly forming a coquina of large material and agricultural lime.
foraminifera. The most common fossil types include
foraminifera (large and small) echinoids, molluscs, Peat
bryozoa, and oysters. Two companies are currently mining peat from
The Crystal River Formation is conformably and Holocene age deposits in Sumter County. These
gradationally underlain by the lower Ocala Group. In deposits are located east of Oxford near the Lake
Sumter County, the Crystal River Formation is County boundary and near the Withlacoochee River,
unconformably overlain by Miocene age to Holocene age southwest of Tarrytown.
plastic sediment. The Crystal River Formation forms Mining is accomplished by clearing the surface of
most of the bedrock in Sumter County. vegetation, pumping to dewater the peat, then
e t H S excavating the peat with a dragline. The peat is then
Miocene to Holocene Series shredded and stockpiled to dry. All of the peat produced
Undifferentiated Surficial Sands and Clays is used in landscaping or as potting soil or for other
horticultural purposes. Some of the peat is suitable for
The surficial sediment throughout most of Sumter energy applications.
County consists of quartz sand, clayey sand, and clay.
The sediment ranges in thickness from a few feet to
almost 100 feet. How This Survey Was Made
The Oligocene age (23.7-35.6 million years ago)
Suwannee Limestone, which overlies the Ocala Group This survey was made to provide information about the
throughout much of peninsular Florida, is not present in soils in the survey area. The information includes a
Sumter County. If the formation was originally deposited description of the soils and their location and a
in the area, it has since been removed by erosion. The discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management
Miocene age Hawthorn Group sediments have also been of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed
removed by erosion. Some of the undifferentiated the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general
sediments that consist of quartz sand and clay are pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants
phosphatic and are considered to be residual material of growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug
the Hawthorn Group. Some authors have assigned these many holes to study the soil profile, which is the







Sumter County, Florida 7



sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
profile extends from the surface down into the sources, such as research information, production
unconsolidated material from which the soil formed. The records, and field experience of specialists. For example,
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other data on crop yields under defined levels of management
living organisms and has not been changed by other were assembled from farm records and from field or plot
biological activity, experiments on the same kinds of soil.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief, soil properties but also on such variables as climate and
climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over
kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of long periods of time, but they are not predictable from
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil a high water table within certain depths in most years,
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils but they cannot assure that a high water table will
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy date.
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape. After soil scientists located and identified the
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
into one another as their characteristics gradually drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
scientists must determine the boundaries between the Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented accurately.
by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in Map Unit Composition
an area and to determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture, area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and identified and named according to the taxonomic
other features that enable them to identify soils. After classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
describing the soils in the survey area and determining taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil objects, they have a characteristic variability in their
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes. In
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the the detailed soil map units, these latter soils are called
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could inclusions or included soils. In the general soil map units,
confirm data and assemble additional data based on they are called soils of minor extent.
experience and research. Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the soils in the area are generally collected for laboratory the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils or require different management. These are contrasting
were field tested through observation of the soils in (dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas
different uses under different levels of management. and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit







8



descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so landscape into segments that have similar use and
complex that it was impractical to make enough management requirements. The delineation of such
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
landscape. information for the development of resource plans, but
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data. in small areas.







9








General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of Candler, Lake, and Tavares soils.
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general Most of the acreage in this map unit is in native
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map vegetation. The rest is mostly in improved pasture.
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up 2. Candler-Millhopper-Apopka
one unit can occur in other units but in a different
pattern. Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained to
The general soil map can be used to compare the moderately well drained, sandy soils; most are sandy
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of throughout, and some have a loamy subsoil at a depth
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, of more than 40 inches
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. The soils in this map unit are on knolls and broad
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for ridges on the uplands. The slopes range from 0 to 12
planning the management of a farm or field or for percent. Most of these soils are in the north-central to
selecting a site for a road or a building or other structure, northeastern part of Sumter County. Small areas of soils
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place in this map unit are in the western part of the county that
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that is adjacent to Hernando County. The native vegetation is
affect management. mostly longleaf pine, sand pine, turkey oak, and scrub

Sandy Soils of the Upland Ridges oak. The understory is running oak, saw palmetto, and
various grasses.
The five general soil map units in this group consist of This map unit makes up about 12 percent, or 43,438
nearly level to moderately steep, excessively drained to acres, of Sumter County. It is about 55 percent Candler
somewhat poorly drained soils. Most of these soils are soils, 11 percent Millhopper soils, 7 percent Apopka
sandy throughout, and some have a clayey subsoil. The soils, and 27 percent soils of minor extent.
soils in these map units are mainly in the east-central Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
and northern part of Sumter County. They make up surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 8 inches
about 32 percent of the survey area. thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 50
inches, is light yellowish brown and yellowish brown
1. Astatula sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is yellow
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained soils sand that has strong brown lamellae.
that are sandy to a depth of more than 80 inches Apopka soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
The soils in this map unit are on gently undulating to layer is grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick.
rolling sandhills and ridges. The slopes range from 0 to The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 47 inches, is
15 percent. Most of these soils are in the northern part pale brown to very pale brown fine sand. The subsoil to
of Sumter County. The native vegetation is sand pine, a depth of about 80 inches is strong brown and reddish
bluejack oak, turkey oak, and scrub oak. The understory yellow fine sandy loam.
is rosemary, running oak, and scattered saw palmetto. Millhopper soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
This map unit makes up about 1 percent, or 5,232 the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 5
acres, of Sumter County. It is about 90 percent Astatula inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
soils and 10 percent soils of minor extent. 50 inches, is light yellowish brown, very pale brown, and
Typically, the surface layer of the Astatula soils is dark brownish yellow fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of
gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The upper part of about 80 inches or more is brownish yellow and light
the underlying material, to a depth of about 40 inches, is gray sandy clay loam.
pale brown and light yellowish brown fine sand. The The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
lower part is very pale brown fine sand to a depth of 80 Arredondo, Astatula, Kendrick, Lake, Sparr, and Tavares
inches or more. soils.







10 Soil Survey



Most of the acreage in this map unit is used as sweetgum. The understory is running oak, saw palmetto,
improved pasture. A few small areas remain in native and various grasses.
vegetation. This map unit makes up about 6 percent, or 20,640
acres, of Sumter County. It is about 47 percent Tavares
3. Lake-Arredondo-Millhopper soils, 29 percent Adamsville soils, and 24 percent soils
of minor extent.
Nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained to Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
moderately we drained, sandy soils; some are sandy the surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand
of more than 40 inches about 8 inches thick. The underlying material, to a depth
f me tn 40 i s of about 68 inches, is grayish brown, pale brown, and
The soils in this map unit are on low ridges on the very pale brown fine sand and is white fine sand to a
uplands. The slopes mainly range from 0 to 5 percent, depth of 80 inches or more.
Most of these soils are in the extreme northern part of Adamsville soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Sumter County. Small areas of soils in this map unit are Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5
fn t J^est p Tf ^ea oy tt in a t t a Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5
in the western part of the county that is adjacent to inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material,
turkey oak, and laurel oak. The understory is greenbrier oak, to a depth of about 29 inches, is brown, light yellowish
turksaw palmetto, and grapevines oak. The understory is greenbrier, brown, and very pale brown fine sand. The lower part to
saw palmetto, and grapevines. a depth of about 80 inches or more is white fine sand.
This map unit makes up about 2 percent, or 7,680 a depth of about 80 inches or more is white fine sand.
acres, of Sumter County. It is about 40 percent Lake The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
soils, 30 percent Arredondo soils, 20 percent Millhopper Basinger, Immokalee, Lake, Myakka, Placid, and
soils, and 10 percent soils of minor extent. Pompano soils.
Lake soils are excessively drained. Typically, the Most of the acreage in this map unit is used as
surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand about improved pasture. A few areas remain in native
9 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material, vegetation.
to a depth of about 63 inches, is brown, yellowish brown,
and strong brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 5. Sparr-Millhopper-Sumterville
80 inches or more is brownish yellow fine sand.
Arredondo soils are well drained. Typically, the surface Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand about 9 inches and moderately well drained, sandy soils; most have a
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 57 loamy subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches, and
inches, is yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and strong sncehave a clayey subsoi at a depth of 20 to 40
brown fine sand and loamy fine sand. The subsoil is
yellowish brown and brown fine sandy loam and sandy The soils in this map unit are on low knolls and ridges
clay loam. on the uplands. The slopes range from 0 to 5 percent.
Millhopper soils are moderately well drained. Typically, Most of these soils are in the northern part of Sumter
the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 5 County. The native vegetation is mostly live oak, water
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about oak, and turkey oak. The understory is pineland
50 inches, is light yellowish brown, very pale brown, and threeawn, saw palmetto, and greenbrier.
brownish yellow fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of This map unit makes up about 11 percent, or 40,930
about 80 inches or more is brownish yellow and light acres, of Sumter County. It is about 37 percent Sparr
gray sandy clay loam. soils, 18 percent Millhopper soils, 9 percent Sumterville
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include soils, and 36 percent soils of minor extent.
Candler, Kendrick, Sparr, and Tavares soils. Sparr soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the
Most of the acreage in this map unit is used as surface layer is gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
improved pasture or as cropland. subsurface layer, to a depth of about 45 inches, is gray,
pale brown, and very pale brown fine sand.. The upper
4. Tavares-Adamsville part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 51 inches, is light
gray sandy clay loam. The middle part, to a depth of 71
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained inches, is light gray sandy clay loam. The lower part to a
and somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray sandy clay loam.
depth of more than 80 inches Millhopper soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
The soils in this map unit are on low knolls, ridges, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 5
and in nearly level areas on the uplands. The slopes inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
range from 0 to 5 percent. Most of these soils are in the 50 inches, is light yellowish brown, very pale brown, and
central part of Sumter County. The native vegetation is brownish yellow fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 80
mostly longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak, turkey oak, and inches or more, is sandy clay loam. The upper 6 inches







Sumter County, Florida 11



of the subsoil is brownish yellow, and the lower 24 a depth of about 80 inches is gray cobbly sandy clay
inches is light gray. loam.
Sumterville soils are somewhat poorly drained. Vero soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 9 layer is black and dark gray fine sand about 7 inches
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 13
29 inches, is light yellowish brown and very pale brown inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The upper part
fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is of the subsoil, to a depth of 21 inches, is dark brown fine
light gray sandy clay. sand. The middle part, to a depth of about 30 inches, is
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include grayish brown fine sandy loam. The lower part, to a
Arredondo, EauGallie, Tavares, and Vero soils. depth of about 60 inches, is gray and light gray sandy
Most of the acreage in this map unit is used as clay. The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is
improved pasture. Some areas are used for cultivated light gray sandy clay loam.
crops or as woodland. The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Chobee, EauGallie, Floridana, Gator, Mabel, and Nittaw
Sandy Soils of the Low Ridges soils.
The three general soil map units in this group consist Most of the acreage in this map unit is in native
of nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly vegetation. Some areas are used as improved pasture
drained to poorly drained soils. Most of these soils have and as rangeland.
a clayey or loamy subsoil, and some are sandy
throughout. The soils in these map units are in the 7. Sparr-Seffner-Ona
central part of Sumter County. They make up about 23
percent of the survey area. Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
to poorly drained, sandy soils; some have a loamy
6. Paisley-Ft. Green-Vero subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches, some are
sandy throughout, and some have a sandy, dark subsoil
Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained, sandy within a depth of 20 inches.
soils; some have a clayey or loamy subsoil, and some The soils in this map unit are on low, broad ridges,
are sandy and dark in the upper part of the subsoil and knolls, and flatwoods. The slopes range from 0 to 5
loamy and clayey in the lower part percent. These soils are in the south-central part of
The soils in this map unit are on the flatwoods and on Sumter County, north of the Little Withlacoochee River.
broad ridges, low flats, and small knolls. The slopes The native vegetation on the oak hammocks is live oak,
range from 0 to 3 percent. Most of these soils are north water oak, greenbrier, forbs, and scattered saw palmetto.
of Lake Panasoffkee, along the Outlet River, south of The vegetation on the flatwoods includes slash pine, live
Center Hill, and north of the Polk County line. The native oak, and palmettos.
vegetation is scattered slash pine and longleaf pine, live This map unit makes up about 8 percent, or 28,605
oak, hickory, palms, and sweetgum. The understory is acres, of Sumter County. It is about 28 percent Sparr
saw palmetto, inkberry, pineland threeawn, gallberry, soils, 25 percent Seffner soils, 22 percent Ona soils, and
waxmyrtle, panicums, and grapevines. 25 percent soils of minor extent.
This map unit makes up about 13 percent, or 45,898 Sparr soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the
acres, of Sumter County. It is about 40 percent Paisley surface layer is gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
soils, 25 percent Ft. Green soils, 20 percent Vero soils, subsurface layer, to a depth of about 45 inches, is pale
and 15 percent soils of minor extent. brown and very pale brown fine sand. The upper part of
Paisley soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface the subsoil, to a depth of about 51 inches, is mottled
layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches light gray fine sandy loam. The lower part to a depth of
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 16 about 80 inches is mottled light gray sandy clay loam.
inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The upper part Seffner soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
of the subsoil, to a depth of about 25 inches, is gray the surface layer is dark brown sand about 12 inches
sandy clay; the middle part, to a depth of about 45 thick. The upper part of the underlying material, to a
inches, is gray clay; and the lower part, to a depth of depth of about 33 inches, is dark brown and brown fine
about 68 inches, is light gray sandy clay. The substratum sand. The middle part, to a depth of about 55 inches, is
to a depth of 80 inches or more is light gray sandy clay. light gray fine sand that has mottles in shades of yellow.
Ft. Green soils are poorly drained. Typically, the The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is white
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 6 fine sand.
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about Ona soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
28 inches, is grayish brown and light gray fine sand. The layer is very dark gray fine sand about 9 inches thick.
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 58 inches, The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 13
is gray and dark gray sandy clay loam. The lower part to inches, is very dark gray fine sand that has sand grains







12 Soil Survey



well coated with organic matter. The lower part, to a The soils of minor extent include EauGallie, Floridana,
depth of about 20 inches, is dark brown fine sand. The Immokalee, Millhopper, Oldsmar, Paisley, and Sparr
upper part of the substratum, to a depth of about 40 soils.
inches, is brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth Most of the acreage in this map unit is used as
of about 55 inches, is light yellowish brown fine sand. pasture. Most of the remaining acreage is in native
The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is brown vegetation.
and pale brown fine sand.
The soils of minor extent include Adamsville, Sandy Soils of the Flatwoods and Depressions
EauGallie, Florahome, Ft Green Kanapaha, and The three general soil map units in this group consist
Sumterville soils. tof nearly level, poorly drained to very poorly drained
Most of the acreage in this map unit is used as soils. Most of these soils have a sandy, dark subsoil,
pasture or cropland some have a loamy subsoil, some do not have a subsoil,
and some are sandy throughout. The soils in this group
8. Sumterville-Mabel-Ft. Green are throughout Sumter County but generally are in the
western and southern parts. The largest areas of these
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained soils are in the southern panhandle, in a band that
and poorly drained, sandy soils; most have a cayeypanhandle, in a band that
andpoorly drained, sandy soils most have a clayey extends north from the Little Withlacoochee River to
west of Bushnell, and in an area northwest of Lake
The soils in this map unit are on broad ridges and Panasoffkee that is parallel to the Withlacoochee River.
knolls on the uplands and on small knolls on the These soils make up about 32 percent of the survey
flatwoods. The slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. Most area.
of these soils are in the central part of Sumter County,
south of County Road 470 and east of U.S. Interstate 9. EauGallie-Delray
Highway 75. The native vegetation is scattered slash
pine, loblolly pine, live oak, laurel oak, water oak, Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained,
sweetgum, and cabbage palm. The understory is sandy soils; some have a sandy, dark subsoil within 30
waxmyrtle, briers, saw palmetto, paspalums, panicums, inches of the surface; and all have a loamy subsoil at a
and native grasses. The vegetation in the depressions depth of more than 40 inches
include maidencane, pickerelweed, sawgrass, chalky The soils in this map unit are on nearly level flatwoods
bluestem, bluejoint panicum, and various other perennial and oak hammocks that are interspersed with
grasses. depressions that are connected by narrow drainageways.
This map unit makes up about 2 percent, or 7,442 The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The largest area
acres, of Sumter County. It is about 38 percent of these soils is in the southern panhandle. Other areas
Sumterville soils, 25 percent Mabel soils, 11 percent Ft. are scattered around the southern part of the county.
Green soils, and 26 percent soils of minor extent. The native vegetation is slash pine, water oak, laurel
Sumterville soils are somewhat poorly drained, oak, saw palmetto, and running oak and also cypress in
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 9 depressional areas.
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about This map unit makes up about 19 percent, or 69,886
29 inches, is light yellowish brown and very pale brown acres, of Sumter County. It is about 43 percent EauGallie
fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is soils, 14 percent Delray soils, and 43 percent soils of
light gray sandy clay. minor extent. Kanapaha soils make up a large part of the
Mabel soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, minor soils that are in an area between Florida Highway
the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 6 inches 50 and Sumter County Road 48.
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 16 EauGallie soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
inches, is light grayish brown and brownish gray fine surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 30 inches, is subsurface layer, to a depth of about 21 inches, is light
yellowish brown sandy clay loam and clay. The gray and grayish brown fine sand. The upper part of the
substratum to a depth of 80 inches is light gray clay and subsoil, to a depth of about 34 inches, is very dark
clay loam. brown and very dark grayish brown fine sand. The next
Ft. Green soils are poorly drained. Typically, the layer, to a depth of about 50 inches, is grayish brown
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 6 fine sand. The next layer, to a depth of about 53 inches,
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about is light brownish gray fine sandy loam. The lower part of
28 inches, is grayish brown and light gray fine sand. The the subsoil, to a depth of about 65 inches, is light gray
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 58 inches, sandy clay loam. The substratum to a depth of about 80
is gray and dark gray sandy clay loam. The lower part to inches or more is light gray fine sandy loam.
a depth of about 80 inches is gray cobbly sandy clay Delray soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
loam. surface layer is black and very dark gray fine sand about







Sumter County, Florida 13



16 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of of the subsoil and loamy or clayey in the lower part, and
about 60 inches, is grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil some have a loamy subsoil
to a depth of about 80 inches is light brownish gray The soils in this map unit are on the flatwoods, mainly
sandy clay loam. in the northwestern part of Sumter County. The slopes
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include range from 0 to 2 percent. The largest area of these
Chobee, Electra, Floridana, Ft. Green, Immokalee, soils extends from near the Lake Panasoffkee River
Kanapaha, Mabel, Myakka, Okeelanta, Ona, Paisley, outlet to the Marion County line. Another area is
Sparr, Sumterville, and Vero soils. between Coleman and Wildwood. The native vegetation
Most of the acreage in this map unit is in native of the flatwoods is scattered longleaf pine and slash
vegetation. pine. The understory is saw palmetto, waxmyrtle,
10. Myakka-Placid-Ona gallberry, and running oak. The vegetation in
depressions and swamps ranges from dense stands of
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained, maidencane and pickerelweed to mixed stands of
sandy soils; some have a sandy, dark subsoil, and some cypress, bay, and gum trees.
are sandy throughout and do not have a subsoil This map unit makes up about 7 percent, or 23,919
The soils in this map unit are on the flatwoods, mainly acres, of Sumter County. It is about 40 percent Vero
in the east-central part of Sumter County that is adjacent soils, 35 percent Floridana soils, 11 percent Oldsmar
to Lake County and west of Coleman. The slopes range soils, and 14 percent soils of minor extent.
from 0 to 2 percent. The native vegetation is longleaf Vero soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
pine, slash pine, gallberry, and saw palmetto and also layer is black and dark gray fine sand about 7 inches
cypress in depressional areas. thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 13
This map unit makes up 6 percent, or 21,778 acres, of inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The upper part
Sumter County. It is about 30 percent Myakka soils, 28 of the subsoil, to a depth of 21 inches, is dark brown fine
percent Placid soils, 15 percent Ona soils, and 27 sand and loamy fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of
percent soils of minor extent. 30 inches, is grayish brown fine sandy loam that has
Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface mottles in shades of brown. The lower part, to a depth of
layer is black sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface 60 inches, is gray and light gray sandy clay that has
layer, to a depth of about 25 inches, is gray sand and mottles in shades of red and brown. The substratum to a
fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of depth of 80 inches or more is gray sandy clay loam.
about 31 inches, is black fine sand well coated with .
organic matter. The lower part, to a depth of about 40 Flordana soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
inches, is dark brown fine sand. The substratum to a surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 4 inches
depth of 80 inches or more is light brownish yellow and thick. Beneath the muck is very dark gray fine sand to a
light gray fine sand. depth of about 12 inches. The subsurface layer, to a
Placid soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the depth of about 25 inches, is dark grayish brown and light
surface layer is black fine sand about 10 inches thick brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80
underlain by very dark gray fine sand to a depth of about inches or more is light brownish gray and grayish brown
16 inches. The underlying material to a depth of about sandy clay loam that has mottles in shades of brown and
80 inches is grayish brown and light gray fine sand. yellow.
Ona soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface Oldsmar soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is about 9 inches thick. It is very dark gray fine layer is very dark gray fine sand and dark gray fine sand
sand that has many uncoated sand grains. The upper about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 13 inches, is very about 31 inches, is light brownish gray and light gray fine
dark gray fine sand that has many sand grains well sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about
coated with organic matter. The lower part, to a depth of 38 inches, is black fine sand. The middle part, to a depth
about 20 inches, is dark brown fine sand that has many of 48 inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The lower
sand grains well coated with organic matter. The part to a depth of 80 inches or more is light olive gray
substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is brown, light and greenish gray sandy clay loam that has mottles in
yellowish brown, and pale brown fine sand. shades of brown and olive.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include The soils of minor extent in this map unit include small
Adamsville, Basinger, EauGallie, and Pompano soils. areas of Adamsville, Basinger, EauGallie, Ft. Green,
Most of the acreage in this map unit is used as Gator, Immokalee, Mabel, Malabar, Monteocha, Paisley,
rangeland or woodland. Pomello, Placid, and Sparr soils.
11. Vero-Fr About one-half of the acreage in this map unit remains
11. Vero-Floridana-Oldsmar in native vegetation. Many areas of this soil are improved
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained, pasture. Slash pine trees have been planted in some
sandy soils; some are sandy and dark in the upper part areas.







14 Soil Survey



Mucky and Sandy Soils of the Swamps, Marshes, and southern part along the Withlacoochee River and Jumper
River Flood Plains Creek, and they are also in the northwestern and
The three general soil map units in this group consist northeastern parts. The native vegetation is cypress,
mostly of very poorly drained soils. Most of these soils hickory, redbay, and sweetgum. The understory is
are mucky, some have a clayey or loamy subsoil, and pickerelweed, willow, sawgrass, lilies, greenbrier, poison
some are sandy and have a loamy or sandy subsoil. The ivy, sedges, reeds, and other aquatic plants.
soils in these map units are mainly along the This map unit makes up about 10 percent, or 34,134
Withlacoochee and Little Withlacoochee Rivers and in acres, of Sumter County. It is about 30 percent Gator
areas northeast of Lake Panasoffkee. They make up soils, 30 percent Okeelanta soils, 15 percent Terra Ceia
about 13 percent of the survey area. soils, and 25 percent soils of minor extent.
Gator soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
12. Floridana-Basinger surface layer is very dark grayish brown and black muck
Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained, about 25 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying
sandy soils; some have a loamy subsoil, and some have material, to a depth of about 40 inches, is light gray fine
a sandy subsoil sand. The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is
The soils in this map unit are on the Little gray sandy clay loam and fine sandy loam.
Withlacoochee River flood plain that is adjacent to Okeelanta soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
Hernando County. These landscapes are long and surface layer, to a depth of about 38 inches, is black and
narrow and are subject to frequent flooding. The slopes dark reddish brown organic material. The underlying
range from 0 to 2 percent. The native vegetation is material to a depth of about 80 inches is grayish brown
mostly water oak, cypress, sweetgum, hickory, and light gray fine sand.
maidencane, buttonbush, smartweed, sedges, and other Terra Ceia soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
water-tolerant plants. surface layer is very dark gray muck about 10 inches
This map unit makes up about 1 percent, or 3,685 thick. It is underlain by black muck to a depth of about
acres, of Sumter County. It is about 65 percent Floridana 80 inches.
soils, 20 percent Basinger soils, and 15 percent soils of The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
minor extent. Floridana, Ft. Green, Mabel, Nittaw, Paisley, and
Floridana soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the Pompano soils.
surface layer is black mucky fine sand and very dark Most of the acreage in this map unit is in native
gray fine sand about 12 inches thick. The subsurface vegetation. These soils flood frequently. They provide
layer, to a depth of about 25 inches, is dark grayish good habitat for wildlife.
brown and light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil to a
depth of about 80 inches is light brownish gray and 14. Nittaw-Chobee
grayish brown sandy clay loam.
Basinger soils are poorly drained. Typically, the Nearly level, very poorly drained, mucky and sandy soils
surface layer is black fine sand about 8 inches thick. The that have a clayey or loamy subsoil
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 27 inches, is light The soils in this map unit are in nearly level to
brownish gray and light gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depressional hardwood and cypress swamps. The slopes
depth of about 45 inches, is dark brown fine sand. The range from 0 to 1 percent. These soils are in areas that
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is grayish are adjacent to the Withlacoochee River between Silver
brown fine sand. Lake and Hog Island and along the Polk County line.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include Most of these soils are in the Devils Creek Swamp. The
Chobee, Delray, Malabar, Pompano, and Okeelanta soils. native vegetation is baldcypress, cabbage palms,
Most of the acreage in this map unit is in native sweetgum, and various hardwoods. The understory is
vegetation. A few small areas are used as rangeland. water-tolerant plants, such as maidencane, sawgrass,
13. Gator-Okeelanta-Terra Ceia swamp primrose, buttonbush, greenbrier, poison ivy, and
sedges.
Nearly level, very poorly drained, mucky soils; some are This map unit makes up about 2 percent, or 6,512
mucky to a depth of 52 inches or more, and some are acres, of Sumter County. It is about 75 percent Nittaw
mucky to a depth of 16 to 40 inches and are underlain soils, 15 percent Chobee soils, and 10 percent soils of
by sandy or loamy material minor extent.
The soils in this map unit are on landscapes that are Nittaw soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
adjacent to lakes, rivers, and streams and are in surface layer is dark reddish brown muck about 5 inches
depressions on the flatwoods. The slopes range from 0 thick and is underlain by 7 inches of very dark grayish
to 1 percent. Most of these soils are in the eastern part brown fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 65
of Sumter County along Lake Panasoffkee, in the inches, is very dark gray and gray sandy clay and clay.







Sumter County, Florida 15



The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is light substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray
gray loamy fine sand. fine sandy loam.
Chobee soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
surface layer is black loamy fine sand about 6 inches Floridana, Gator, Okeelanta, and Paisley soils.
thick. The subsoil, to a depth of about 41 inches, is very Most of the acreage in this map unit is in native
dark gray, dark brown, and gray sandy clay loam. The vegetation. These soils flood frequently. They provide
good habitat for wildlife.










17









Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of management of the soils in the map unit. The included
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and a special symbol on the soil maps.
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
used to plan the management needed for those uses. have little or no soil material and support little or no
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given vegetation. Urban land is an example. Miscellaneous
under Use and Management of the Soils." areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils the soil maps.
for which the unit is named. Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit each map unit. Other tables (see Summary of Tables")
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes give properties of the soils and the limitations,
general facts about the soil and gives the principal capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up 1-Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is well
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of drained. It is in broad, upland areas. The mapped areas
a series have major horizons that are similar in are wide and follow the contour of the uplands and
composition, thickness, and arrangement. range from 10 to 400 acres. The slopes are convex.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, a depth of about 37 inches, is yellowish brown and
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the brownish yellow fine sand. The next layer, to a depth of
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil 57 inches, is strong brown loamy fine sand. The subsoil
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil to a depth of 80 inches or more is yellowish brown and
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil brown fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
management. For example, Paisley fine sand, Candler, Kendrick, Lake, and Millhopper soils. Also
depressional, is one of several phases in the Paisley included are areas of Arredondo soils that have random
series. boulders. These areas are adjacent to a map unit that
Some map units are made up of two or more major has a bouldery subsurface layer. The included soils
soils. These map units are called soil associations. make up about 15 to 20 percent of this map unit.
A soil association is made up of two or more In most years, this soil does not have a high water
geographically associated soils that are shown as one table within 80 inches of the surface. The available water
unit on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers.
uses in the survey area, it was not considered practical Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
or necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern and is moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is
and relative proportion of the soils are somewhat similar. moderate.
Sumterville-Mable-Tavares association, bouldery Most of the acreage in this map unit is in orange
subsurface, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is an example. groves or improved pasture. Native vegetation is laurel
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils oak, live oak, bluestem, paspalum, and threeawn.
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some This Arredondo soil has severe limitations for
of these included soils have properties that differ cultivated crops because of droughtiness and the rapid
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such leaching of plant nutrients. If this soil is cultivated, row
differences could significantly affect use and crops should be planted on the contour. Close-growing







18 Soil Survey



cover crops should be included in the rotation system at boulders. These areas are adjacent to a map unit that
least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops has a bouldery subsurface layer. The included soils
and the residue of other crops should be used to protect make up about 20 percent of this map unit.
the soil from erosion. Conservation tillage helps to This soil does not have a high water table within 80
conserve moisture and controls erosion. Irrigation of inches of the surface. The available water capacity is
high-value crops is generally feasible if water is readily very low. Permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility is
available, very low.
This soil is well suited to use as pasture. Coastal Native vegetation is mostly turkey oak and sand pine.
bermudagrass and bahiagrass grow well on this soil, but The understory includes pineland threeawn, bluestem,
yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Grazing should and paspalum.
be controlled to maintain plant vigor and a good ground This Astatula soil is generally not suitable for most
cover. commonly cultivated crops or pasture because of
This soil has moderately high potential for production droughtiness, steep slopes, and rapid leaching of plant
of pine trees. Equipment use limitations and the seedling nutrients. Improved pasture grasses produce low
mortality rate are moderate concerns in management. amounts of forage even when good management
Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the most suitable practices are used. Grasses, such as pangolagrass and
trees to plant for commercial wood production, bahiagrass, are better suited to this soil.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleafpine trees.
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. This community occurs potential is low for the produ of ionn trees.
on rolling land that is nearly level to strongly sloping. It is Equipment use limitations, hazard of erosion on steeper
readily recognized by the landform and dominant slopes, and seedlin mortality are the man concerns in
vegetation of longleaf pine and turkey oak. Natural management Sand pine is the preferred tree to plant.
fertility is low because of the rapid movement of plant Typically, this soil is characterized by the Sand Pine
nutrients and water through the soil. Forage production Scrub ran ge site. This site can be identified by a fairly
and quality are poor, and cattle do not use this range dense stand of sand pine trees and a dense understory
site if other sites are available. Desirable forage on this of oaks, saw palmetto, and other shrubs. Depending on
site includes creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, past timber management practices, sand pines may not
and low panicum. be present. The drought nature of this soil limits its
This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses. potential for producing native forage. If grazing is
Seepage is a severe limitation to use of this soil for controlled, this range site can provide limited amounts of
sewage lagoons or landfill areas. If used for sewage lopsided indiangrass, creeping bluestem, and
lagoons or landfill areas, the sidewalls should be sealed. switchgrass. Livestock generally do not use this range
The sandy texture is a severe limitation for recreational site if a more productive site is available. This community
use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved areas. A provides summer shade, winter protection, and a dry
suitable topsoil fill material should be used or some type resting area during the wet periods.
of surface stabilization is needed to reduce or overcome Slope is a moderate limitation for most urban uses.
this limitation. Seepage is a severe limitation to use of this soil for
This Arredondo soil is in capability subclass Ills and in sewage lagoons or landfill areas. If used for sewage
woodland suitability group 10S. lagoons or landfill areas, the floor and sidewalls should
be sealed. The sandy texture is a severe limitation for
3-Astatula fine sand, rolling. This soil is moderately recreational use. Slope is a severe limitation for
sloping to strongly sloping and is excessively drained. It playgrounds. A suitable topsoil fill material should be
is on the sandhills of Sumter County. The mapped areas used or some type of surface stabilization is needed to
are irregular in shape. Most areas range from 20 to 700 reduce or overcome these limitations.
acres. The slopes are complex and range from about 8 This Astatula soil is in capability subclass VIls and in
to 15 percent. woodland suitability group 3S.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 3 inches thick underlain by pale brown and grayish 4-Candler sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is
brown fine sand to a depth of about 6 inches. The upper nearly level to gently sloping and is excessively drained.
part of the underlying material, to a depth of about 27 It is on ridges, knolls, and broad uplands. The mapped
inches, is light yellowish brown fine sand. The middle areas mostly are irregular in shape and range from 100
part, to a depth of about 40 inches, is pale brown fine to 1,000 acres. The slopes range from smooth to
sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is broken.
very pale brown fine sand. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
Candler, Florahome, Lake, and Tavares soils. Also about 50 inches, is light yellowish brown and yellowish
included are areas of Astatula soils that have random brown sand. The next layers to a depth of 80 inches or







Sumter County, Florida 19



more are yellow sand that has thin, strong brown textural Native vegetation is mostly turkey oak (fig. 4), live oak,
bands. pineland threeawn, and running oak.
Included in this soil in mapping are small areas of This Candler soil has very severe limitations for
Apopka, Astatula, Lake, Millhopper, and Tavares soils, cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
These soils are in the same slope position as the plant nutrients reduce crop yields. If this soil is cultivated,
Candler soil. A few of the associated soils, such as row crops should be planted on the contour. Close-
Apopka, Astatula, and Lake soils, also have slopes of growing cover crops should be included in the rotation
about 8 percent. Also included are areas of Candler soil system at least three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving
that have random boulders. These areas are adjacent to cover crops and the residue of other crops should be
a map unit that has a bouldery subsurface layer. The used to protect the soil from erosion. Irrigation of high-
included soils make up less than 15 percent of this map value crops is generally feasible if water is readily
unit. available.
This soil does not have a high water table within 80 The soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay crops.
inches of the surface. The available water capacity is Deep-rooting plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
very low throughout. Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility bahiagrass, are well suited to this soil, but yields are
is low. reduced by periodic droughts. Regular applications of







































Figure 4.-Turkey oak is a common tree on this Candler sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.







20 Soil Survey



fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be are adapted to this soil, but yields are reduced by
controlled to help maintain plant vigor, periodic droughts. Grazing should be restricted to help
Potential is moderate for the production of pine trees. maintain plant vigor, to obtain high yields, and to help
Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality are keep a good ground cover on the soil.
concerns in management. Sand pine, slash pine, and The potential of this soil is moderate for production of
longleaf pine are the most suitable trees to plant for pine trees. Equipment use limitations and seedling
commercial wood production, mortality are concerns in management. Sand pine, slash
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleaf pine, and longleaf pine are the most suitable trees to
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. It is readily recognized plant for commercial wood production.
by the landform and dominant vegetation of longleaf Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleaf
pine and turkey oak. Natural fertility is low because of Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. It is readily recognized
the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through by the landform and dominant vegetation of longleaf
the soil. Forage production and quality are poor, and pine and turkey oak. Natural fertility is low because of
cattle do not use this range site if other sites are the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through
available. Desirable forage on this site includes creeping the soil. Forage production and quality are poor, and
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and low panicum. cattle do not utilize this range site if other sites are
This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses. available. Desirable forage on this site includes creeping
Seepage and cutbank caving are severe limitations to bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and low panicum.
use of this soil for sewage lagoons or landfill areas. If This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses.
used for sewage lagoons or landfill areas, the floor and
sidewalls should be lined and sealed. The sandy texture Seepage is a severe limitation to use of this soil for
is a severe limitation for recreational uses. Wind erosion sewage lagoons or sanitary landfill areas. If used for
sewage lagoons or landfill areas, the floor and sidewalls
is a hazard if the surface soil is exposed. A good should be sealed The sand texture of this soil is a
vegetative cover and windbreaks should be establishedita
and maintained on this soil. Adding a suitable topsoil fill traf litin unpaved reas. A stae topsoil f
trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill
material or using some form of surface stabilization also material should be used or some form or surface
will reduce or overcome these limitations for most urban sa an s e to
stabilization is needed to reduce or overcome this
uses.
limitation.
This Candler soil is in capability subclass IVs and in limitation.
woodland suitability group 9. This Candler soil is in capability subclass VIs and in
woodland suitability group 9S.
5-Candler sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil is sand to cet sle
moderately sloping and is excessively drained. It is on 6-Kendrick fine san, to 5 erent slopes. This
ridges and knolls. The mapped areas mostly follow the soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is well drained. It
shape of the ridges and knolls and range from 20 to 50 is on the uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in
acres. The slopes are concave. shape and range from 10 to 50 acres. The slopes are
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand convex.
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
about 56 inches, is pale brown sand. The next layer to a sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of 80 inches or more has thin textural bands. depth of about 33 inches, is yellowish brown fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 68
Apopka, Astatula, and Lake soils. Also included are inches, is strong brown fine sandy loam. The lower part
areas of Candler soils that have random boulders. These to a depth of 80 inches or more is reddish yellow sandy
areas are adjacent to a map unit that has a bouldery clay loam.
subsurface layer. The included soils make up about 20 Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
percent of this map unit. Apopka, Arredondo, Sumterville, Millhopper, and Tavares
The soil does not have a high water table within 80 soils. Also included are areas of Kendrick soils that have
inches of the surface. The available water capacity is low random boulders. These areas are adjacent to a map
to very low. Permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility is unit that has a bouldery subsurface layer. The included
low. soils make up about 20 percent of this map unit.
Native vegetation is turkey oak and live oak. The This soil does not have a high water table within 72
understory includes pineland threeawn and running oak. inches of the surface. The available water capacity is
This Candler soil is not suited to cultivated crops moderate. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
because of its poor quality, slope, and susceptibility to subsurface layers and is moderate or moderately slow in
erosion, the substratum. Natural fertility is moderate.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Deep-rooting Native vegetation is mainly longleaf, loblolly, and slash
plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, pines and live, laurel, turkey, and water oaks. The







Sumter County, Florida 21



understory includes several bluestem species, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
indiangrass, low panicum, and annual forbs. Arredondo, Candler, Millhopper, and Tavares soils. Also
This Kendrick soil has moderate limitations for included are areas of Lake soils that have random
cultivated crops because of poor soil qualities. Kendrick boulders. These areas are adjacent to a map unit that
soil can be cultivated if good farming methods are used, has a bouldery subsurface layer. The included soils
but droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients make up about 20 percent of this map unit.
limit the choice of crops and reduce crop yields. If good This soil does not have a high water table within 80
conservation practices are used, corn, soybeans, inches of the surface. The available water capacity is low
peanuts, and tobacco can be grown. Row crops should throughout. Permeability is rapid or very rapid. Natural
be planted on the contour in alternate strips with cover fertility is low.
crops. Cover crops should be included in the rotation Native vegetation is mostly backack, hickory, laurel,
system at least half of the time. Cover crops should be used to maintain and live oaks. The understory includes scattered saw
residue of other crops should be used to maintain palmetto, pineland threeawn, and bluestems.
organic matter content and to protect the soil from palmetto, pineland threeawn, and bluestems.
erosion. For best yields, good seedbed preparation and This Lake soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
proper application of fertilizer and lime are required. crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
Irrigation of some high-value crops, such as tobacco, is reduce crop yields. If this soil is cultivated, row crops
generally feasible if water is readily available, should be planted on the contour. Close-growing cover
This soil is well suited to pasture. Deep-rooting plants, crops should be included in the rotation system at least
such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, produce three-fourths of the time and crop residue should be left
well when they are fertilized and limed. Grazing should on the surface to reduce erosion. Conservation tillage
be controlled to increase plant vigor for maximum yields helps to conserve moisture and controls erosion.
and to help maintain good ground cover. Irrigation of high-value crops is generally feasible if water
The potential of this soil is high for production of pine is readily available.
trees. Limitations to use as woodland are slight. Slash, This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
loblolly, and longleaf pines are the most suitable trees to crops. Deep-rooting plants, such as Coastal
plant for commercial wood production. bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well suited to this
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleaf soil, but yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. It is readily recognized applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
by the landform and dominant vegetation of longleaf should be controlled to help maintain plant vigor.
pine and turkey oak. Natural fertility is low because of The potential is moderate for the production of pine
the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through trees. Equipment use limitations and seedling mortality
the soil. Forage production and quality are poor, and are concerns in management. Slash and longleaf pines
cattle do not use this range site if other sites are are the most suitable trees to plant for commercial wood
available. Desirable forage on this site includes creeping production.
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and low panicum. Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleaf
This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses. Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. It is readily recognized
Seepage is a severe limitation to use of this soil for by the landform and dominant vegetation of longleaf
sewage lagoons or landfill areas. If used for sewage pine and turkey oak. Natural fertility is low because of
lagoons or landfill areas, the sidewalls should be sealed. the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through
Cutbank caving is a severe limitation for shallow he rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through
excavations. This soil has slight limitations for the soil. Forage production and quality are poor, and
recreaitatal use. cattle do not use this range site if other sites are
This Kendrick soil is in capability subclass lie and in available. Desirable forage includes creeping bluestem,
woodland suitability group 11S. lopsided indiangrass, and low panicum.
This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses.
8-Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil Seepage and cutbank caving are severe limitations to
is nearly level to gently sloping and is excessively use of this soil for sewage lagoons or landfill areas. If
drained. It is on ridges and knolls and in broad upland used for sewage lagoons or landfill areas, the floor and
areas. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and sidewalls should be lined and sealed. The sandy texture
range from 40 to 300 acres. The slopes are convex, is a severe limitation for recreational use and causes
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown poor trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill
fine sand about 9 inches thick. The upper part of the material should be used or some form of surface
underlying material, to a depth of about 63 inches, is stabilization is needed to reduce or overcome this
brown, yellowish brown, and strong brown fine sand. The limitation.
lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is brownish This Lake soil is in capability subclass IVs and in
yellow fine sand. woodland suitability group 10S.







22 Soil Survey



9-Paisley fine sand, bouldery subsurface. This soil The potential of this soil is very high for production of
is nearly level and is poorly drained. It is on low broad pine trees. Because of wetness, equipment use and
flats and small knolls. The mapped areas are irregular in seedling mortality are severe limitations to use as
shape and range from 20 to 300 acres. Surface and woodland. Slash and loblolly pines are the most suitable
subsurface boulders are approximately 30 to 150 feet trees to plant for commercial wood production.
apart. They occur randomly in small groups or Typically, this soil is characterized by the Oak
individually. Although most boulders have been removed Hammock range site. This community is readily identified
from the cropland and improved pasture, the remaining by the dense canopy cover of dominant live oak trees.
subsurface boulders can damage equipment that Cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting
penetrates the soil. The slopes are smooth and range areas because of the dense canopy and relatively open
from 0 to 2 percent. understory. Desirable forage on this site includes
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown longleaf uniola, low panicum, low paspalum, switchgrass,
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to and lopsided indiangrass.
a depth of about 16 inches, is light brownish gray fine Wetness and the high shrink-swell potential of the
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about clayey subsoil are severe limitations for urban and
25 inches, is gray sandy clay. The middle part, to a recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be
depth of about 45 inches, is gray clay. The lower part, to reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to
a depth of about 68 inches, is light gray sandy clay. The lower the high water table during wet periods. Mounding
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is light gray may be needed in places for septic tank absorption
sandy clay. fields because of wetness and slow permeability.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Random large boulders or groups of boulders may
EauGallie, Floridana, Ft. Green, Mabel, Sumterville, and require use of a modified installation design or an
Vero soils. The included soils make up about 20 percent alternate site in the map unit for many urban uses. The
of this map unit. sandy surface texture causes poor trafficability in
During most years, this soil has a high water table unpaved areas and is a severe limitation for recreational
within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months. The use. A suitable topsoil fill material should be used or
available water capacity is moderate. Permeability is some type of surface stabilization is needed to overcome
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and is slow in this limitation.
the subsoil and substratum. Natural fertility is low. This Paisley soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in
Native vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak, woodland suitability group 13W.
hickory, palms, and sweetgum. The understory includes
saw palmetto, American beauty bush, inkberry, pineland 10-Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil
threeawn, hairy and low panicums, and grapevines, is nearly level to gently sloping and is somewhat poorly
This Paisley soil has severe limitations for cultivated drained. It is on broad, low ridges and knolls. The
crops because of wetness. Boulders at or near the mapped areas mostly are irregular in shape and range
surface are a continuing nuisance during tillage from 20 to 100 acres. The slopes are convex.
operations. Most tillage operations are not impractical if Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 9
the boulders are removed. A drainage system does not inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
function well because of the slow permeability of the 45 inches, is pale brown and very pale brown fine sand.
subsoil. With adequate drainage, this soil is suited to The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 51
several high-value crops. A water control system is inches, is mottled light gray fine sandy loam. The lower
needed to remove excess surface water and subsurface part to a depth of about 80 inches is mottled light gray
water rapidly. Seedbed preparation should include sandy clay loam.
bedding of the rows. Close-growing cover crops should Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
be included in the rotation system at least two-thirds of EauGallie, Millhopper, and Vero soils. Also included are
the time. Conservation tillage helps to conserve moisture areas of soils that are somewhat poorly drained but are
and controls-erosion. Fertilizer and lime should be loamy within 40 inches of the surface layer, some areas
applied according to the need of the crops to increase of soils that have a weak stain above the loamy layer,
yields. and some areas of Sparr soils that have random
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. A boulders. These areas are adjacent to a map unit that
drainage system is needed to remove excess surface has a bouldery subsurface layer. The included soils
water during heavy rains. Coastal bermudagrass, make up about 25 percent of this map unit.
bahiagrass, and clover are well adapted to this soil. This soil has a high water table within 20 to 40 inches
Good management practices include water control, of the surface for 1 month to 4 months. The available
applications of fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing. water capacity is low to a depth of 60 inches. The
Boulders should be removed to help prevent equipment available water capacity is low in the surface and
damage, subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.







Sumter County, Florida 23



Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers about 50 inches, is light yellowish brown, very pale
and is slow or moderately slow in the subsoil. Natural brown, and brownish yellow fine sand. The upper part of
fertility is low. the subsoil, to a depth of about 56 inches, is brownish
Native vegetation is water, live, and scrub oaks. The yellow sandy clay loam that has strong brown mottles.
understory includes pineland threeawn, scattered saw The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray
palmetto, and greenbrier. sandy clay loam that has brownish yellow, red, and
This Sparr soil has severe limitations for cultivated strong brown mottles.
crops because of periodic wetness and poor soil Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
qualities. During wet periods, a high water table can Arredondo, Sparr, Sumterville, and Tavares soils. Also
cause some retardation of root development. A well- included are areas of Millhopper soils that have random
designed drainage system can help overcome this boulders. These areas are adjacent to a map unit that
limitation. With good management practices and water has a bouldery subsurface layer. The included soils
control measures, this soil is suited to most locally grown make up about 15 to 20 percent of this map unit.
crops. Good conservation practices, such as including In most years, this soil has a high water table within 40
close-growing, soil-improving cover crops in the cropping to 60 inches of the surface for 1 month to 4 months and
system at least two-thirds of the time, returning crop at a depth of 60 to 80 inches for 2 to 4 months. The
residue to the soil, and proper fertilizing and liming, available water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid in
should be used. Conservation tillage helps control the surface and subsurface layers and is moderate in the
erosion and conserves moisture. subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass, Most of the acreage in this map unit is in improved
bahiagrass, and clover are well suited to this soil. Good pasture. The native vegetation is live oak and turkey oak.
pastures of grass or of mixtures of grass and clover can This Millhopper soil has severe limitations for most
be grown with good management. This soil requires cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
regular applications of fertilizer and lime. Grazing should plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce crop
be controlled to obtain high yields. yields. If this soil is cultivated, row crops should be
The potential of this soil for production of pine trees is planted on the contour. Close-growing cover crops
moderately high. Equipment use and seedling mortality should be included in the rotation system and the
are moderate limitations to use as woodland. Slash, residue of other crops should be left on the surface to
loblolly, and longleaf pines are the most suitable trees to protect the soil from erosion. Irrigation of high-value
plant for commercial wood production. crops is generally feasible if water is readily available
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Oak (fig. 5).
Hammock range site. This community is readily identified This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
by the dense canopy cover of dominantly live oak trees. Coastal bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass are well
Cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting suited to this soil, but yields are reduced by periodic
areas because of the dense canopy and relatively open droughts. Grasses respond to regular applications of
understory. Desirable forage on this site includes fertilizer and lime. Grazing should be controlled to
longleaf uniola, low panicum, low paspalum, switchgrass, maintain plant vigor and a good ground cover.
and lopsided indiangrass. The potential of this soil is moderately high for the
This soil has moderate limitations to use as sites for production of pine trees. \Equipment use limitations,
homes and small commercial buildings and for local seedling mortality, and plant competition are concerns in
roads and streets. The depth of the water table during management. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the
wet periods is a severe limitation to use of this soil for most suitable trees to plant for commercial wood
septic tank absorption fields or for sanitary landfills. The production.
sandy texture is a severe limitation for recreational use Typically, this soil is characterized by the Oak
and causes poor trafficability in unpaved areas. A Hammock range site. This community is readily identified
suitable topsoil fill material should be used or some by the dense canopy cover of dominantly live oak trees.
other form of surface stabilization is needed to reduce or Cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting
overcome this limitation, areas because of the dense canopy and relatively open
This Sparr soil is in capability subclass Illw and in understory. Desirable forage on this site includes
woodland suitability group 10W. longleaf uniola, low panicum, low paspalum, switchgrass,
and lopsided indiangrass.
11-Millhopper sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This This soil has slight limitations to use as sites for
soil is gently sloping and is moderately well drained. It is homes and small commercial buildings and for local
on the uplands. The mapped areas are broad and range roads and streets. The depth of the water table during
from 50 to 200 acres, wet periods is a moderate limitation as septic tank
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand absorption fields. Seepage is a severe limitation for
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of sewage lagoons or landfill areas. If used for sewage







24 Soil Survey



































Figure 5.-Irrigation is a common practice for most cultivated crops in Sumter County. These bell peppers are growing on Millhopper sand,
0 to 5 percent slopes.



lagoons or landfill areas, the sandy sidewalls should be sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is
sealed. The sandy texture is a severe limitation for white fine sand.
recreational use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
areas. A suitable topsoil fill material should be used or Apopka, Candler, Millhopper, and Smyrna soils. Also
some form of surface stabilization is needed to reduce or included are some areas of soils that have a stained
overcome this limitation. layer at a depth of more than 60 inches and some areas
This Millhopper soil is in capability subclass Ills and in of Tavares soils that have random boulders. These areas
woodland suitability group 10S. are adjacent to a map unit that has a bouldery
subsurface layer. The included soils make up about 20
13-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This percent of this map unit.
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is moderately During most years, this soil has a high water table
well drained. It is on low, broad ridges and knolls. The within 40 to 80 inches of the surface for more than 6
mapped areas are irregular in shape and are about 100 months but recedes to a depth of more than 80 inches
acres. The slopes are generally convex. during drought periods. The available water capacity is
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown low to very low. Permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The upper part of the is low.
underlying material, to a depth of about 28 inches, is Native vegetation is slash and longleaf pines,
grayish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of scattered blackjack oak, turkey oak, and live oak. The
about 68 inches, is pale brown and very pale brown fine understory includes pineland threeawn and scattered
saw palmetto.







Sumter County, Florida 25



This Tavares soil has severe limitations for most Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of sand about 8 inches thick. The upper part of the
plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce crop underlying material, to a depth of about 50 inches, is
yields. A water table between depths of 40 and 60 brown and pale brown fine sand. The lower part to a
inches affects the availability of water by providing water depth of 80 inches or more is brownish yellow fine sand.
through capillary rise to supplement the low available Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
water capacity. In very dry periods, the water table drops Astatula, Candler, and Tavares soils. Also included are
well below the root zone, and little capillary water is areas of Lake soils that have random boulders. These
available to plants. Row crops should be planted on the areas are adjacent to a map unit that has a bouldery
contour in alternate strips with close-growing cover subsurface layer. The included soils make up about 20
crops. Close-growing cover crops should be included in percent of this map unit.
the rotation system at least two-thirds of the time. This soil does not have a high water table within 80
Conservation tillage helps to conserve moisture and inches of the surface. The available water capacity is
controls erosion. All crops should be fertilized and limed, very low. Permeability is rapid or very rapid. Natural
Soil-improving cover crops and the residue of other fertility is very low.
crops should be used to protect the soil from erosion. Native vegetation is longleaf and slash pines and
Irrigation of high-value crops is generally feasible if water turkey oak. The understory includes scattered saw
is readily available. palmetto, pineland threeawn, and bluestems.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass, This Lake soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, white clover, and crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
lespedeza are well adapted to this soil. High yields can are the main limitations. Steepness of slope also limits
be obtained if these grasses and legumes are fertilized the use of this soil for cultivated crops because tillage
and limed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant operations are more difficult and the hazard of erosion is
vigor for maximum yields. increased.
The potential of this soil is moderately high for This soil is moderately suited to use as pasture.
The potential of pine this rees. Equipment use limitations and Grasses, such as pangolagrass and bahiagrass, respond
production of pine trees. Equipment use mtatons and fairly well to regular applications of fertilizer. Grazing
seedling mortality are the main concerns in should be controlled to help maintain plant vigor for high
management. Slash and longleaf pines are the preferred yields.
trees to plant for commercial wood production. Potential is moderate for the production of pine trees.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleaf Equipment use and seedling mortality are concerns in
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. It is readily recognized management. Slash and longleaf pines are the most
by the landform and dominant vegetation of longleaf suitable trees to plant for commercial wood production.
pine and turkey oak. Natural fertility is low because of Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleaf
the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. It is readily recognized
the soil. Forage production and quality are poor, and by the landform and dominant vegetation of longleaf
cattle do not use this range site if other sites are pine and turkey oak. Natural fertility is low because of
available. Desirable forage includes creeping bluestem, the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through
lopsided indiangrass, and low panicum. the soil. Forage production and quality are poor, and
This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses. cattle do not use this range site if other sites are
Seepage is a severe limitation to use of this soil for available. Desirable forage includes creeping bluestem,
sewage lagoons or landfill areas. If used for sewage lopsided indiangrass, and low panicum.
lagoons or landfill areas, the floor and sidewalls should This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses.
be lined and sealed. The sandy texture is a severe Seepage is a severe limitation to use of this soil for
limitation for recreational use and causes poor sewage lagoons or sanitary landfill areas. If used for
trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill sewage lagoons or landfill areas, the floor and sidewalls
material should be used or some form of surface should be sealed. The sandy texture is a severe
stabilization is needed to reduce or overcome this limitation for recreational use and causes poor
limitation, trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill
This Tavares soil is in capability subclass Ills and in material should be used or some form of surface
woodland suitability group 10S. stabilization is needed to reduce or overcome this
limitation.
14-Lake fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil This Lake soil is in capability subclass Vis and in
is moderately sloping and is excessively drained. It is on woodland suitability group 10S.
gently rolling sandhills. The mapped areas follow the
contour of the sandhills and range from 30 to 100 acres. 15-Adamsville fine sand, bouldery subsurface.
The slopes are convex. This soil is nearly level and is somewhat poorly drained.







26 Soil Survey



It is on low, broad flats and knolls. The mapped areas Potential is moderately high for the production of pine
are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 400 acres, trees. Equipment use, seedling mortality, and plant
Surface and subsurface boulders are about 60 to 250 competition are concerns in management. Slash and
feet apart. They occur randomly in small groups or longleaf pines are the most suitable trees to plant for
individually. Although most boulders have been removed commercial wood production.
from the cropland and improved pasture, the remaining Typically, this soil is characterized by the Oak
subsurface boulders can damage equipment that Hammock range site. This community is readily identified
penetrates the soil. The slopes are smooth and range by the dense canopy cover of dominantly live oak trees.
from 0 to 2 percent. Cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 5 areas because of the dense canopy and relatively open
inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material, understory. Desirable forage includes longleaf uniola, low
to a depth of about 17 inches, is brown sand and light panicum, low paspalum, switchgrass, and lopsided
yellowish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of indiangrass.
about 29 inches, is very pale brown sand. The lower part Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and
to a depth of 80 inches or more is white fine sand. recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to
Ona, Pompano, Sparr, and Tavares soils. The included lower the high water table during wet periods. Mounding
soils make up about 15 percent of this map unit. may be needed in places for septic tank absorption
In most years, this soil has a high water table within 20 fields because of wetness. Random large boulders or
to 40 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months and at a groups of boulders may require use of a modified
depth of less than 60 inches for more than 9 months. It installation design or an alternate site in the map unit for
is at a depth of 10 to 20 inches for about 2 weeks in many urban uses. The sandy texture is a severe
some years. The available water capacity is low limitation for recreational use and causes poor
throughout. Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility is low. trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill
Native vegetation is pine, laurel oak, live oak, and material should be used or some type of surface
water oak. The understory includes saw palmetto, stabilization is needed to overcome this limitation.
pineland threeawn, indiangrass, bluestem grasses, and This Adamsville soil is in capability subclass IlIw and in
several low panicums. woodland suitability group 10W.
This Adamsville soil has severe limitations for
cultivated crops because of periodic wetness. Boulders 16-Apopka fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
at or near the surface are a continuing nuisance during soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is well drained. It
tillage operations. Most tillage operations are not is on the uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in
impractical if the boulders are removed. The adapted shape and range from about 10 to 250 acres. The
crops are very limited unless intensive water control slopes are convex.
measures are used. A water control system is needed to Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
remove excess surface water in wet periods and to about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry periods, about 54 inches, is pale brown and very pale brown fine
With adequate drainage, this soil is well suited to many sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about
kinds of flowers and vegetable crops. Good conservation 63 inches or more, is brownish yellow sandy loam. The
practices, in addition to water control measures, should lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is reddish
be used if this soil is cultivated. A close-growing cover yellow sandy loam.
crop should be included in the cropping system at least Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops and Arredondo, Astatula, Candler, Kendrick, Lake, Millhopper,
the residue of other crops should be used to control and Tavares soils. Also included are areas of Apopka
erosion and maintain organic matter content. Fertilizer soils that have random boulders. These areas are
and lime should be applied according to the need of the adjacent to a map unit that has a bouldery subsurface
crops to increase crop yields. layer. The included soils make up about 20 to 25 percent
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture. of this map unit.
Pangolagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted to this This soil does not have a high water table within 72
soil. A drainage system is required to remove excess inches of the surface in most years. The available water
surface water during heavy rains. Regular applications of capacity is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
fertilizers may be needed to maintain crop yields. Some subsurface layers and is moderate in the subsoil. Natural
areas of this soil respond well to lime. Grazing should be fertility is low.
carefully controlled to maintain plant vigor and to obtain Most of the acreage in this map unit is in improved
high yields. Boulders should be removed to help prevent pasture. The native vegetation is mostly live oak,
equipment damage, bluestem, dogfennel, paspalum, and threeawn.







Sumter County, Florida 27



This Apopka soil has severe limitations for cultivated percent Mabel soil, and 10 to 15 percent Tavares soil.
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients Sumterville soil is on narrow ridges that are about 50 to
are the main limitations. If this soil is cultivated, row 100 feet wide. The mapped areas of the Sumterville soil
crops should be planted on the contour. Close-growing are about 20 acres. Mabel soil is on the higher
cover crops should be included in the cropping system elevations and on the side slopes. The mapped areas of
at least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops the Mabel soil are irregular in shape and are about 8
and residue of other crops should be used to protect the acres. The Tavares soil is on the side slopes or in the
soil from erosion. Conservation tillage helps conserve concave areas between ridges and also in the convex
moisture and controls erosion. Irrigation of high-value areas on the ridges. The mapped areas of the Tavares
crops is generally feasible if water is readily available, soil are about 6 acres.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Coastal Sumterville soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine
bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted to this sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
soil, but yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Grazing depth of about 25 inches, is light yellowish brown and
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor and a good very pale brown fine sand that has yellow and yellowish
ground cover. brown mottles. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth
The potential of this soil is moderately high for the of about 43 inches, is light gray sandy clay that has
production of pine trees. Equipment use and seedling yellowish red and brown mottles. The lower part to a
mortality are moderate limitations to use as woodland, depth of about 76 inches is light gray sandy clay that
Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the most suitable has mottles of brown and yellow.
trees to plant for commercial wood production. During most years, Sumterville soil has a high water
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleaf table at a depth of 18 to 36 inches for 2 to 3 months. It
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. It is readily recognized recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches during the
by the landform and dominant vegetation of longleaf drier periods. Permeability is moderately rapid in the
pine and turkey oak. Natural fertility is low because of surface and subsurface layers and is slow in the subsoil.
the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through The available water capacity is medium.
the soil. Forage production and quality are poor, and Mabel soil has a surface layer of gray fine sand about
cattle do not use this range site if other sites are 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
available. Desirable forage includes creeping bluestem, 14 inches, is grayish brown and light brownish gray fine
lopsided indiangrass, and low panicum. sand that has yellowish brown mottles. The upper part of
This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses, the subsoil, to a depth of about 26 inches, is yellowish
Seepage is a severe limitation to use of this soil for brown sandy clay that has red mottles. The lower part, to
sewage lagoons or landfill areas. If used for sewage a depth of about 52 inches, is light gray sandy clay that
lagoons or landfill areas, the sidewalls should be sealed has yellow and brown bottles. The substratum to a
The sandy texture is a severe limitation for recreational depth of 80 inches is light gray fine sandy loam.
use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved areas. A During most years, Mabel soil has a high water table
suitable topsoil fill material should be used or some form During most years, Mabel soil has a high water tae I
of surface stabilization is needed to reduce or overcome at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 1 month to 4 months. It
this limitation, recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during the
This Apopka soil is in capability subclass Ills and in drier periods. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
w oodland sutail i i iiy s l n n subsurface layers and is moderate to moderately slow in
woodland suitability group 10S. the subsoil. The available water capacity is medium.

17-Sumterville-Mabel-Tavares association, Tavares soil has a surface layer of very dark grayish
bouldery subsurface, 0 to 5 percent slopes. The soils brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. The upper part of
in this map unit consist of nearly level to gently sloping, the underlying material, to a depth of about 46 inches, is
somewhat poorly drained to moderately well drained grayish brown and pale brown fine sand. The middle
soils. Individual areas in this map unit are too part, to a depth of about 68 inches, is very pale brown
intermingled and small to map separately at the selected fine sand that has yellow mottles. The lower part to a
scale. These soils are in wide areas on the uplands. depth of 80 inches or more is white fine sand that has
They range from 100 to 300 acres. Surface and yellow mottles.
subsurface boulders are about 30 to 150 feet apart. During most years, Tavares soil has a high water table
They occur randomly in small groups or individually, at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 month to 4 months. It
Although most boulders have been removed from recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches during the
cropland and improved pasture, the remaining drier periods. Permeability is rapid. The available water
subsurface boulders can damage equipment that capacity is low.
penetrates the soil. Included with these soils in mapping are some areas
This map unit is made up of about 45 to 60 percent of Millhopper soils. The included soil makes up as much
Sumterville soil and closely similar soils, 15 to 25 as 15 percent of some of the mapped areas.







28 Soil Survey



Native vegetation on the soils in this map unit is turkey be used or some form of surface stabilization is needed
oak, live oak, slash pine, longleaf pine, scattered to reduce or overcome this limitation.
blackjack oak, and post oak. The understory includes This Sumterville soil is in capability subclass Ilw and in
pineland threeawn and scattered saw palmetto. woodland suitability group 11A. Mabel soil is in capability
The soils in this map unit have moderate limitations for subclass Illw and in woodland suitability group 11W.
most cultivated crops because of poor soil quality. Tavares soil is in capability subclass Ills and in woodland
Boulders at or near the surface are a continuing suitability group 10S.
nuisance during tillage operations. Most tillage
operations are not impractical if the boulders are 18-Okeelanta muck. This soil is nearly level and is
removed. If the soils in this association are cultivated, very poorly drained. It is in depressional areas. The
close-growing cover crops should be included in the mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 10
rotation system at least two-thirds of the time. Soil- to 100 acres. The slopes range from 0 to 1 percent.
improving cover crops and the residue of other crops Typically, the surface layer, to a depth of about 38
should be used to protect the soil from erosion. Irrigation inches, is black muck underlain by dark reddish brown
of high-value crops is generally feasible if water is readily muck. The underlying material to a depth of about 80
available. inches is grayish brown and light gray fine sand.
These soils are moderately well suited to pasture and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
hay crops. Coastal bermudagrass and improved Gator, Placid, Pompano, and Terra Ceia soils. The
bahiagrass are well suited to these soils, but yields are included soils make up about 15 percent of this map
reduced by periodic droughts. Grasses respond to unit.
regular applications of fertilizer and lime. Grazing should The soil is covered by water 6 to 12 months during
be controlled to maintain plant vigor and a good ground most years unless drained. The available water capacity
cover. Boulders should be removed to help prevent is high throughout. Permeability is rapid throughout.
equipment damage. Natural fertility is moderate.
Sumterville and Mabel soils have high potential for Native vegetation is pickerelweed, willow, sawgrass,
production of pine trees, but Tavares soil has moderately lilies, and other water-tolerant plants.
high potential. Equipment use limitations, seedling This Okeelanta soil is not suitable for cultivated crops
mortality, and plant competition are concerns in unless it is drained. With adequate drainage, it is well
management. Slash and longleaf pines are the most suited to most vegetable crops and to sugarcane. A well-
suitable trees to plant for commercial wood production, designed and maintained water control system should
Typically, Sumterville soil is characterized by the Oak provide for the removal of excess surface water when
Hammock range site, Mabel soil is characterized by the crops are on the land and should keep the soils
Upland Hardwood Hammock range site, and Tavares soil saturated at all other times. Fertilizers that contain
is characterized by the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills phosphates, potash, and minor elements are needed.
range site. These communities are readily identified by Water-tolerant cover crops should be on the soils when
the dense canopy cover of dominantly live oak trees, they are not planted to row crops.
Cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting In its natural state, this soil is not suited to improved
areas because of the dense canopy and relatively open pasture; however, most improved grasses and clovers
understory. Desirable forage includes longleaf uniola, low adapted to the area grow well on these soils when water
panicum, low paspalum, switchgrass, and lopsided is properly controlled. Pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and
indiangrass. white clover grow well. A water control system is needed
The soils in this association have slight to severe to help maintain the water table near the surface to
limitations for most urban uses. Wetness and slow prevent excessive oxidation of the organic horizons.
permeability are severe limitations to use of Sumterville Fertilizers that have a high content of potash,
and Mabel soils as septic tank absorption fields. phosphorus, and minor elements are needed. Grazing
Wetness and slow permeability are moderate limitations should be controlled to maintain plant vigor and to obtain
on Tavares soils. The shrink-swell potential of the clayey maximum yields.
subsoil is a limitation for building sites on Sumterville and This soil is not suited to pine trees because of
Mabel soils. Seepage is a severe limitation for sewage ponding.
lagoons or landfill areas. If used for sewage lagoons or Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater
landfill areas, the sandy sidewalls should be sealed. Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
Random large boulders or groups of boulders may identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
require the use of a modified installation design or an rushes, and other herbaceous plants. If grazing is
alternate site in the map unit for many urban uses. The controlled, this range site has the potential to produce
sandy texture of the soils in this association causes poor more forage than any of the other range sites. Chalky
trafficability in unpaved areas and is a severe limitation bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the drier parts
for recreational use. A suitable topsoil fill material should of the range site, and maidencane is the dominant plant







Sumter County, Florida 29



in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage on this site seedling mortality are concerns in management. Slash,
includes cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and loblolly, and longleaf pines are the most suitable trees to
low panicum. Periodic high water levels provide a natural plant for commercial wood production.
deferment from cattle grazing. Carpetgrass, an Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleaf
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of the Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. It is readily recognized
range site if the soil is overgrazed. by the landform and dominant vegetation of longleaf
Excess humus and wetness are severe limitations for pine and turkey oak. Natural fertility is low because of
urban and recreational uses. Removal of organic the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through
material and backfilling will not overcome the wetness the soil. Forage production and quality are poor, and
limitation unless a substantial amount of suitable fill cattle do not use this range site if other sites are
material is used. available. Desirable forage includes creeping bluestem,
This Okeelanta soil is in capability subclass VIlw and lopsided indiangrass, and low panicum.
in woodland suitability group 6W. This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses.
Seepage is a severe limitation to use of this soil for
19-Apopka fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This sewage lagoons or landfill areas. Slope can also be a
soil is sloping and is well drained. It is on wide ridges factor affecting sewage lagoons. If this soil is used for
and knolls. The mapped areas mostly follow the shape sewage lagoons or landfill areas, the sidewalls should be
of the ridges and knolls and are 20 to 200 acres. The sealed. The sandy texture is a severe limitation for
slopes are concave. recreational use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand areas. A suitable topsoil fill material should be used or
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of some form of surface stabilization is needed to reduce or
about 45 inches, is pale brown and very pale brown fine overcome this limitation.
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about This Apopka soil is in capability subclass IVs and in
52 inches, is reddish yellow sandy loam. The lower part woodland suitability group 10S.
to a depth of about 80 inches is reddish yellow sandy
loam that has red mottles. 20-Florahome sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is moderately
Arredondo, Candler, Kendrick, and Millhopper soils. Also well drained. It is on the broad uplands. The mapped
included are areas of Apopka soils that have random areas mostly are irregular in shape and range from 50 to
boulders. These areas are adjacent to a map unit that 100 acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 5
has a bouldery subsurface layer. The included soils percent.
make up about 20 percent of this map unit. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray grading to
This soil does not have a high water table within 72 very dark grayish brown sand about 20 inches thick (fig.
inches of the surface. The available water capacity is 6). The next layer, to a depth of about 33 inches, is
low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface brown sand. The underlying material to a depth of 80
layers and is moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is inches or more is pale brown and light gray sand.
low. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Native vegetation is turkey oak and live oak. The Adamsville, Millhopper, Sparr, and Tavares soils. Also
understory includes bluestem, paspalum, and threeawn. included are some small areas of soils that are similar to
This Apopka soil has very severe limitations for the other included soils and to Florahome soil, but they
cultivated crops because of poor soil qualities and have a weak Bh horizon at a depth of more than 70
steepness of slope. If this soil is cultivated, special soil- inches. In some places are areas of Florahome soils that
improving measures and erosion control measures are have random boulders. These areas are adjacent to a
required. Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, map unit that has a bouldery subsurface layer. The
and erosion are the main limitations to use of this soil for included soils make up about 20 percent of this map
row crops. Cultivated crops should be planted on the unit.
contour. Conservation tillage helps to conserve moisture During most years, this soil has a high water table
and controls erosion. Frequent applications of fertilizers within 48 to 60 inches of the surface for 1 month to 4
and lime are needed. months and at a depth of 60 to 72 inches for 2 to 4
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay months. It is at a depth of 30 to 48 inches for about 2
crops. Deep-rooting plants, such as Coastal weeks in some years. The available water capacity is low
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, normally grow well if they to very low. Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility is low.
are fertilized and limed. Yields are occasionally restricted Native vegetation is live oak, laurel oak, bluejack oak,
by extended droughts. Grazing should be controlled to and scattered slash pine. The understory includes
maintain plant vigor and to obtain high yields. pineland threeawn and scattered saw palmetto.
The potential of this soil is moderately high for the This Florahome soil has severe limitations for most
production of pine trees. Equipment use limitations and cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of







30 Soil Survey



season, a tile drainage system or other types of drainage
may be needed to reduce crop damage.
This soil is well suited to use as pasture.
S. Pangolagrass, Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and
white clover and lespedezas are well adapted to this soil.
High yields can be obtained if these grasses and
legumes are fertilized and limed. Grazing should be
controlled to maintain plant vigor for maximum yields.
Potential is moderately high for the production of pine
trees. Equipment use, seedling mortality, and plant
competition are concerns in management. Slash and
longleaf pines are the preferred trees to plant for
commercial wood production.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Oak
Hammock range site. This community is readily identified
by the dense canopy cover of dominantly live oak trees.
Cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting
areas because of the dense canopy and relatively open
understory. Desirable forage includes longleaf uniola, low
panicum, low paspalum, switchgrass, and lopsided
indiangrass.
This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses.
Seepage is a severe limitation to use of this soil for
sewage lagoons or landfill areas. If used for sewage
lagoons or landfill areas, the floor and sidewalls should
be lined and sealed. The sandy texture is a severe
limitation for recreational use and causes poor
trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill
material should be used or some form of surface
stabilization is needed to reduce or overcome this
limitation.
This Florahome soil is in capability subclass Ills and in
woodland suitability group 10S.
Figure 6.-This profile of Florahome sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
shows a dark surface layer that is 20 inches thick. 21-EauGallie fine sand, bouldery subsurface. This
soil is nearly level and is poorly drained. It is on the
broad flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in
shape and range from 20 to 300 acres. Surface and
plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce crop subsurface boulders are approximately 60 to 250 feet
yields. A water table between depths of 40 and 60 apart. They occur randomly in small groups or
inches affects the availability of water by providing water individually. Although most boulders have been removed
through capillary rise to supplement the low available from the cropland and improved pasture, the remaining
water capacity. In very dry periods, the water table drops subsurface boulders can damage equipment that
well below the root zone, and little capillary water is penetrates the soil. The slopes are smooth and range
available to plants. Row crops should be planted on the from 0 to 2 percent.
contour in alternate strips with close-growing cover Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
crops. Close-growing cover crops should be included in about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
the rotation system at least two-thirds of the time. about 25 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part
Conservation tillage helps to conserve moisture and of the subsoil, to a depth of about 36 inches, is very dark
controls erosion. This soil should be fertilized and limed brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 57
inches, is brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of
according to the need of the crops. Soil-improving cover 80 inches or more is gray sandy clay loam that has
crops and the residue of other crops should be used to mottles in shades of yellow and red.
protect the soil from erosion. Irrigation of high-value Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
crops is generally feasible if water is readily available. Mabel, Myakka, Paisley, and Vero soils. The included
Because of a high water table during the growing soils make up about 20 percent of this map unit.







Sumter County, Florida 31



In most years, this soil has a high water table within 10 Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and
to 40 inches of the surface for more than 6 months and recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be
at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 month to 4 reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to
months. The available water capacity is moderate. lower the high water table during wet periods. Mounding
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface may be needed in places for septic tank absorption
layers. It is moderate or moderately rapid in the upper fields. Seepage should be controlled before using this
part of the subsoil and moderately slow in the lower part. soil for sanitary facilities because of the possibility of
Natural fertility is low. pollution of water supplies. Random large boulders or
Native vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak, groups of boulders may require use of a modified
and water oak. The understory includes saw palmetto, installation design or an alternate site in the map unit for
gallberry, running oak, and pineland threeawn. many urban uses. The sandy texture is a severe
This EauGallie soil has very severe limitations for limitation for recreational use and causes poor
cultivated crops because of wetness. Boulders at or near trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill
the surface are a continuing nuisance during tillage material should be used or some type of surface
operations. Most tillage operations are not impractical if stabilization is needed to overcome this limitation.
the boulders are removed. The adapted crops are limited This EauGallie soil is in capability subclass IVw and in
unless very intensive conservation practices are woodland suitability group 10W.
followed. Good conservation practices and water control 22-S a fe .
measures should be used if this soil is cultivated. With 22--Smyrna fine sand. This soil is nearly level and is
adequate drainage, this soil is well suited to many poorly drained. It is on the broad flatwoods. The mapped
adequate drainage, this soil is well suited to many areas are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 200
vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to areas are igular n shape and range from 0 to 20
remove excess surface water in wet periods and to acres. The sopes are smooth and range from to 2
provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry periods. percent.
Row crops should be planted on the contour. Soil Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
Row crops should be planted on the contour. Soil about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
improving cover crops should be included in the rotation about 15 inches, is light brownish gray and light gray fine
system three-fourths of the time. Conservation tillage sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 17
helps to conserve moisture and controls plant damage inches, is very dark grayish brown fine sand. The middle
from blowing soil. Seedbed preparation should include part, to a depth of 28 inches, is dark brown fine sand.
bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be The lower part, to a depth of about 36 inches, is brown
applied according to the need of the crops. fine sand. The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. is yellowish brown, very pale brown, and light yellowish
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are well adapted brown fine sand.
to this soil and grow well if they are properly managed. A Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
drainage system is needed to remove excess surface EauGallie, Myakka, and Ona soils. The included soils
water during heavy rains. These grasses and legumes make up about 10 to 15 percent of this map unit.
also require regular applications of fertilizer and lime. In most years, this soil has a high water table between
Grazing should be carefully controlled to maintain depths of 10 and 40 inches for more than 6 months and

healthy plants for maximum yields. Boulders should be at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 month to 4
removed to help prevent equipment damage. months. The available water capacity is low to very low
The potential is moderately high for the production of in the surface and subsurface layers and is moderate in
pine trees. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer,
and plant competition are concerns in management. moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil, and rapid in
Slash pine is the preferred tree to plant for commercial the substratum. Natural fertility is low.
wood production. Native vegetation is longleaf pine and slash pine. The
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South Florida understory includes saw palmetto, running oak, gallberry,
Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn.
scattered pine trees and an understory of saw palmetto This Smyrna soil has very severe limitations for
and grasses. If grazing is controlled, the site has the cultivated crops because of wetness. The adapted crops
potential to produce significant amounts of creeping suited to this soil are limited unless intensive water
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and control measures are used. If a water control system is
various panicums. As range deterioration occurs designed to remove excess water, this soil is suitable for
because of overgrazing, the site is dominated by saw vegetable crops. Good conservation practices, in
palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Some areas addition to water control measures, should be used
of this soil support dense stands of oak trees. This soil when this soil is cultivated. Close-growing, soil-improving
provides good shade and resting areas for cattle but cover crops should be included in the rotation system at
provides insufficient grazing. least two-thirds of the time. These crops and the residue






32 Soil Survey



of the other crops should be used to protect the soil 40 inches, is brown fine sand. The next layer, to a depth
from wind erosion. Conservation tillage helps to of 55 inches, is light yellowish brown fine sand. The next
conserve moisture and controls erosion. Fertilizer and layer, to a depth of 65 inches, is brown fine sand. The
lime should be applied according to the need of the lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is pale brown
crop. fine sand.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
bahiagrass, and clover are well adapted to this soil and Adamsville, EauGallie, Myakka, and Smyrna soils. Also
grow well if properly managed. A water control system is included are areas of Ona soils that have random
needed to remove excess surface water during heavy boulders. These areas are adjacent to a map unit that
rains. To increase yields, regular applications of fertilizer has a bouldery subsurface layer. The included soils
are needed, and grazing should be controlled to maintain make up about 15 percent of this map unit.
plant vigor. In most years, this soil has a high water table between
This soil has moderate potential for the production of depths of 10 and 40 inches for 4 to 6 months and at a
pine trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality depth of less than 10 inches for 1 month to 2 months.
are the main concerns in management. A good drainage The available water capacity is low throughout.
system is needed to remove the excess water. Slash Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, moderate in the
pine is the preferred tree to plant for commercial wood subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility is
production. low.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South Florida Native vegetation is slash pine and longleaf pine. The
Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by understory includes saw palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle,
scattered pine trees and an understory of saw palmetto and pineland threeawn.
and grasses. If grazing is controlled, the site has the This Ona soil has severe limitations for cultivated
potential to produce significant amounts of creeping crops unless intensive water control measures are used.
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and A water control system is needed to remove excess
various panicums. As range deterioration occurs surface water in wet periods and provide water for
because of overgrazing, the site is dominated by saw subsurface irrigation in dry periods. With adequate
palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass). A few areas drainage, this soil is well suited to many kinds of flower
of this soil support dense stands of oak trees. This soil and vegetable crops. Close-growing, soil-improving cover
provides good shade and resting areas for cattle but crops should be included in the rotation system at least
provides insufficient grazing. two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops and
Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and the residues of other crops should be used to protect
recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be the soil from erosion. Fertilizer and lime should be
reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to applied according to the need of the crop.
lower the high water table during wet periods. Seepage These soils are well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
should be controlled before using this soil for sanitary bahiagrass, and clover grow well when they are properly
facilities because of the possibility of pollution of water managed. To obtain maximum yields, a drainage system
supplies. The sandy texture is a severe limitation for is needed to remove excess water. Regular applications
recreational use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved of fertilizers and lime are needed, and grazing should be
areas. A suitable topsoil fill material should be used or controlled to maintain plant vigor.
some other type of surface stabilization is needed to Potential is moderately high for the production of pine
overcome this limitation, trees. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
This Smyrna soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the main concerns in management. Slash pine is the
woodland suitability group 10W. preferred tree to plant for commercial wood production.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South Florida
23-Ona fine sand. This soil is nearly level and is Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by
poorly drained. It is on the broad flatwoods. The mapped scattered pine trees and an understory of saw palmetto
areas are irregular in shape and range from 20 to 100 and grasses. If grazing is controlled, the site has the
acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
percent. bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
Typically, the surface layer is about 9 inches thick. It is various panicums. As range deterioration occurs
very dark gray fine sand that has many uncoated sand because of overgrazing, the site is dominated by saw
grains. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
13 inches, is very dark gray fine sand that has many Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and
sand grains well coated with organic matter. The lower recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be
part, to a depth of about 20 inches, is dark brown fine reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to
sand that has many sand grains well coated with organic lower the high water table during wet periods. Seepage
matter. The upper part of the substratum, to a depth of should be controlled before using this soil for sanitary







Sumter County, Florida 33



facilities because of the possibility of pollution of water main concerns in management. A drainage system is
supplies. The sandy texture is a severe limitation for needed to remove excess water if this soil's potential is
recreational use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved to be realized. Slash pine is the preferred tree to plant
areas. A suitable topsoil fill material should be used or for commercial wood production.
some other type of surface stabilization is needed to Typically, this soil is characterized by the Slough range
overcome this limitation. site. This site can be identified by an open expanse of
This Ona soil is in capability subclass Illw and in grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area where the soil is
woodland suitability group 10W. saturated during the rainy period. If grazing is controlled,
forage production on this site is almost as high as that
24-Basinger fine sand. This soil is nearly level and on the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.
is poorly drained. It is in poorly defined drainageways. Desirable forage plants on the Slough range site include
The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from blue maidencane, maidencane, chalky bluestem,
10 to 60 acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 toothachegrass, and South Florida bluestem.
to 2 percent. Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to dominate the
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 8 range site if the soil is overgrazed.
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and
27 inches, is light brownish gray and light gray fine sand. recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be
The subsoil, to a depth of 45 inches, is dark brown fine reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to
sand. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is lower the high water table during wet periods. Seepage
grayish brown fine sand. should be controlled before using this soil for sanitary
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of facilities because of the possibility of pollution of water
Myakka, Ona, Placid, and Pompano soils. The included supplies. The sandy texture is a severe limitation for
soils make up about 15 percent of this map unit. recreational use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved
In most years, this soil has a high water table between areas. A suitable topsoil fill material should be used or
depths of 10 and 30 inches for more than 6 months and some other type of surface stabilization is needed to
at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months. The overcome this limitation.
available water capacity is low throughout. Permeability This Basinger soil is in capability subclass IVw and in
is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is low. woodland suitability group 8W.
Native vegetation is scattered longleaf pine and slash
pine. The understory includes waxmyrtle, St. Johnswort, 25-Kanapaha sand, bouldery subsurface. This soil
pineland threeawn, and saw palmetto. is nearly level and is poorly drained. It is on low, broad
This Basinger soil has very severe limitations for flats and low knolls. The mapped areas are irregular in
cultivated crops because of wetness and poor soil shape and range from 10 to 100 acres. Surface and
quality. The adapted crops are limited unless very subsurface boulders are approximately 60 to 250 feet
intensive conservation practices are used. If this soil is apart. They occur randomly in small groups or
adequately drained and good conservation practices are individually. Although most boulders have been removed
applied, many vegetable crops can be grown. A water from the cropland and improved pasture, the remaining
control system is needed to remove excess surface subsurface boulders can damage equipment that
water in wet periods and to provide water for subsurface penetrates the soil. The slopes are smooth and range
irrigation in dry periods. Row crops should be rotated from 0 to 2 percent.
with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops. Soil- Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
improving cover crops should be included in the rotation about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface
system three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving cover layer, to a depth of 33 inches, is grayish brown sand.
crops and the residue of other crops should be used to The lower part, to a depth of about 45 inches, is light
maintain organic matter content and to control erosion, gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of rows. of 55 inches, is light gray sandy loam. The middle part,
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the to a depth of 70 inches, is light brownish gray sandy clay
need of the crops. loam. The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is
These soils are well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass light brownish gray sandy loam.
and improved bahiagrass and white clover grow well Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
when they are properly managed. A water control system EauGallie, Pompano, and Sparr soils. The included soils
is needed to remove excess surface water after heavy make up about 15 percent of this map unit.
rains. Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are This soil has a high water table within 10 to 40 inches
needed, and grazing should be controlled to maintain of the surface for 3 to 4 months and at a depth of less
plant vigor. than 10 inches for 1 month to 3 months during most
Potential is moderate for the production of pine trees. years. In drier periods, the water table recedes to a
Equipment use limitation and seedling mortality are the depth of more than 40 inches. The available water







34 Soil Survey



capacity is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and sandy texture is a severe limitation for recreational use
subsurface layers and is moderately slow or slow in the and causes poor trafficability in unpaved areas. A
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. suitable topsoil fill material should be used or some type
Native vegetation is sweetgum, live and water oaks, of surface stabilization is needed to overcome this
maple, magnolia, hickory, slash pine, longleaf pine, and limitation.
loblolly pine. The understory includes hairy panicum, This Kanapaha soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in
several varieties of bluestems and threeawns, and woodland suitability group 10W.
numerous forbs.
This Kanapaha soil has severe limitations for 26-Vero fine sand, bouldery subsurface. This soil
cultivated crops because of wetness and the thick, is nearly level and is poorly drained. It is on broad
sandy texture. Boulders at or near the surface are a flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
continuing nuisance during tillage operations. Most tillage range from 10 to 200 acres. Surface and subsurface
operations are not impractical if the boulders are boulders are approximately 60 to 250 feet apart. They
removed. Many vegetable crops can be grown on this occur randomly in small groups or individually. Although
soil if very intensive conservation practices and water most boulders have been removed from cropland and
control measures are used. A water control system is improved pasture, the remaining subsurface boulders
needed to remove excess surface water in wet periods can damage equipment that penetrates the soil. The
and to provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
periods. Row crops should be rotated with close- Typically, the surface layer is black and dark gray fine
growing, soil-improving cover crops. Soil-improving cover sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
crops should be included in the rotation system three- depth of about 13 inches, is light brownish gray fine
fourths of the time. Conservation tillage helps to sand. The next layer, to a depth of 15 inches, is a
conserve moisture and controls erosion. Seedbed mixture of dark brown fine sand subsurface and subsoil
preparation should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer material. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 21
and lime should be applied according to the need of the inches, is dark brown loamy fine sand. The next layer, to
crops. a depth of 30 inches, is grayish brown fine sandy loam
The soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass, that has mottles in shades of brown. The lower part, to a
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they depth of 60 inches, is gray and light gray sandy clay that
are properly managed. A water control system is needed has mottles in shades of red and brown. The substratum
to remove excess surface water after heavy rains, to a depth of 80 inches or more is light gray sandy clay
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime should be loam.
applied according to the need of the crops. Grazing Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor. Boulders EauGallie, Mabel, and Paisley soils. The included soils
should be removed to help prevent equipment damage. make up about 15 to 25 percent of this map unit.
This soil has moderately high potential for the In most years, this soil has a high water table between
production of pine trees. The main concerns in depths of 10 and 40 inches for more than 6 months. It is
management are the use of equipment when the soil is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 month to 4
wet and undesirable plant competition. Seedling mortality months. The available water capacity is moderate.
is high. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the most Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
suitable trees to plant for commercial wood production, and slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Oak Native vegetation is slash pine and longleaf pine. The
Hammock range site. This community is readily identified understory includes saw palmetto, gallery, waxmyrtle,
by the dense canopy cover of dominantly live oak trees, and pineland threeawn.
Cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting This Vero soil has severe limitations for cultivated
areas because of the dense canopy and relatively open crops because of wetness. Boulders at or near the
understory. Desirable forage includes longleaf uniola, low surface are a continuing nuisance during tilling
panicum, low paspalum, switchgrass, and lopsided operations. Most tilling operations are not impractical if
indiangrass. the boulders are removed. The adapted crops are limited
Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and unless very intensive management practices are used. A
recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be water control system is needed to remove excess
reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to surface water in wet periods and to provide water for
lower the high water table during wet periods. Mounding subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Row crops should be
may be needed in places for septic tank absorption rotated with close-growing, soil-improving crops. Soil-
fields because of wetness and slow permeability, improving cover crops should be included in the rotation
Random large boulders or groups of boulders may system three-fourths of the time. Conservation tillage
require use of a modified installation design or an helps to conserve moisture and controls plant damage
alternate site in the map unit for many urban uses. The from blowing soil. Seedbed preparation should include







Sumter County, Florida 35



bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
applied according to the need of the crops. about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. about 29 inches, is light yellowish brown and very pale
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are well adapted brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 80
and grow well when they are properly managed. A inches is mottled light gray sandy clay.
drainage system is needed to remove excess surface Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
water during heavy rains. These grasses and legumes Mabel and Sparr soils. Also included are small isolated
need regular applications of fertilizers and lime. Grazing areas of Sumterville soils in the northeast part of the
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor and to obtain county that have no boulders. These soils are on the
high yields. Boulders should be removed to help prevent hilltops. The included soils make up about 20 percent of
equipment damage, this map unit.
The potential of this soil is moderately high for the In most years, this soil has a high water table within 18
production of pine trees. Equipment use limitations, to 36 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months and at a
seedling mortality, and plant competition are concerns in depth of less than 60 inches for more than 6 months.
management. Slash and longleaf pines are the most The available water capacity is moderate. Permeability is
suitable trees to plant for commercial wood production. moderately rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South Florida and is slow in the subsoil and substratum. Natural fertility
Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by is low.
scattered pine trees and an understory of saw palmetto Native vegetation is slash and loblolly pines and live,
and grasses. If grazing is controlled, the site has the laurel, water, and turkey oaks. The understory includes
potential to produce significant amounts of creeping waxmyrtle, briers, and native grasses.
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and This Sumterville soil has moderate limitations for
various panicums. As range deterioration occurs cultivated crops because of wetness. Boulders at or near
because of overgrazing, the site is dominated by saw the surface are a continuing nuisance during tillage
palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Some areas operations. Most tillage operations are not impractical if
of this soil support dense stands of oak trees. This soil the boulders are removed. The number of adapted crops
provides good shade and resting areas for the cattle but is limited. With adequate drainage, these soils are
provides insufficient grazing. suitable for most crops. A water control system is
Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and needed to remove excess surface water rapidly and to
recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be provide water for subsurface irrigation. Close-growing
reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to cover crops should be included in the rotation system at
lower the high water table during wet periods. Mounding least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops
may be needed in places for septic tank absorption and the residue of other crops should be returned to the
fields because of wetness and slow permeability, soil. Conservation tillage helps to conserve moisture and
Random large boulders or groups of boulders may controls erosion. Other important conservation practices
require the use of a modified installation design or an are good seedbed preparation and proper bedding of
alternate site in the map unit for many urban uses. The rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to
sandy texture causes poor trafficability in unpaved areas the need of the crop.
and is a severe limitation for recreational use. A suitable This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
topsoil fill material should be used or some type of bahiagrass, and clover are well adapted to this soil.
surface stabilization is needed to overcome this Good pastures of grass or a mixture of grass and clover
limitation. can be grown with proper management. Regular
This Vero soil is in capability subclass Illw and in applications of fertilizer and lime and controlled grazing
woodland suitability group 11W. are required to obtain high yields. Boulders should be
removed to help prevent equipment damage.
27-Sumterville fine sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 Potential is moderately high for the production of pine
to 5 percent slopes. This soil is nearly level to gently trees. Equipment use and seedling mortality are
sloping and is somewhat poorly drained. It is on broad moderate to severe limitations to use of this soil as
ridges and knolls on the uplands. The mapped areas are woodland. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are most
irregular in shape and range from 10 to 100 acres, suitable trees to plant for commercial wood production.
Surface and subsurface boulders are approximately 30 Typically, this soil is characterized by the Oak
to 150 feet apart. They occur randomly in small groups Hammock range site. This community is readily identified
or individually. Although most boulders have been by the dense canopy cover of dominantly live oak trees.
removed from the cropland and improved pasture, the Cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting
remaining subsurface boulders can damage equipment areas because of the dense canopy and relatively open
that penetrates the soil. The slopes are convex, understory. Desirable forage includes longleaf uniola, low







36 Soil Survey



panicum, low paspalum, switchgrass, and lopsided This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass and
indiangrass. bahiagrass are well adapted to this soil. A drainage
This soil has slight to moderate limitations for most system is needed to remove excess surface water during
urban uses. Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this heavy rains. These grasses also need regular
soil as septic tank absorption fields, sewage lagoons, applications of fertilizer. In some areas, this soil
and sanitary landfills. Random large boulders or groups responds well to lime. Grazing should be controlled to
of boulders may require use of a modified installation maintain plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields.
design or an alternate site in the map unit for many Potential is moderately high for the production of pine
urban uses.
urban uses. trees. Equipment use, seedling mortality, and plant
This Sumterville soil is in capability subclass IIw and inn e te in o ns in nn
competition are the main concerns in management.
a a rSlash and longleaf pines are the most suitable trees to
28-Seffner fine sand. This soil is nearly level and is plant for commercial wood production.
somewhat poorly drained. It is on low, broad flats and Typically, this soil is characterized by the Oak
low knolls. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and Hammock range site. This community is readily identified
range from 50 to 150 acres. The slopes are smooth and by the dense canopy cover of dominantly live oak trees.
range from 0 to 2 percent. Cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand areas because of the dense canopy and relatively open
about 12 inches thick underlain by dark brown and understory. Desirable forage includes longleaf uniola, low
brown fine sand to a depth of about 18 inches. The panicum, low paspalum, switchgrass, and lopsided
upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of about indiangrass.
33 inches, is brown fine sand. The middle part, to a Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and recreation
depth of 55 inches, is light gray fine sand that has uses. This wetness limitation can be reduced or
mottles in shades of yellow. The lower part to a depth of overcome by installing a drainage system to lower the
80 inches or more is white fine sand. high water table during wet periods. Mounding may be
Included with soil in mapping are small areas of needed in places for septic tank absorption fields
Adamsville, Florahome, Ona, Pompano, and Sparr soils. because of wetness. The sandy texture is a severe
Also included are some small areas of soils that have an limitation for recreational use and causes poor
limitation for recreational use and causes poor
organic stain at a depth of more than 70 inches, and ty in u d a A s t
areas of Seffner soils that have random boulders in the trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill
areas of Seffner soils that have random boulders in the material should be used or some type of surface
soil. These areas are adjacent to a map unit that has a material should be used or some type of surface
bouldery subsurface layer. The included soils make up stabilization is needed to overcome this limitation.
about 20 to 25 percent of this map unit. This Seffner soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in
In most years, this soil has a high water table within 20 woodland suitability group 11W.
to 40 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months and at a
depth of less than 60 inches for more than 9 months. It 29-Nittaw muck, frequently flooded. This soil is
is at a depth of 10 to 20 inches for about 2 weeks in nearly level and is very poorly drained. It is in hardwood
some years. The available water capacity is low. swamps on the lake and river flood plains. The mapped
Permeability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is low. areas are irregular in shape and range from 100 to 1,500
Native vegetation is pine, laurel oak, and water oak. acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 1
The understory includes saw palmetto, pineland percent.
threeawn, indiangrass, bluestem grasses, and several Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown muck
low panicums. about 5 inches thick and is underlain by very dark
This Seffner soil has severe limitations for cultivated grayish brown fine sand to a depth of 12 inches. The
crops because of periodic wetness. The adapted crops subsoil, to a depth of about 65 inches, is very dark gray
are very limited unless intensive water control measures and gray sandy clay and clay. The substratum to a depth
are used. A water control system is needed to remove of 80 inches or more is light gray loamy fine sand.
excess surface water in wet periods and provide water Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
for subsurface irrigation in dry periods. With adequate Floridana, Gator, and Terra Ceia soils. Also included are
drainage, this soil is well suited to many kinds of flowers areas of Nittaw soils that have random boulders. These
and vegetables (fig. 7). Good conservation practices, in
areas are adjacent to a map unit that has a bouldery
addition to water control measures, should be used if the
soil is cultivated. Close-growing cover crops should be subsurface layer. The included soils make up about 25
included in the rotation system at least two-thirds of the percent of this map unit.
time. Soil-improving cover crops and the residue of the This soil is frequently flooded for very long periods.
other crops should be returned to the soil to maintain The available water capacity is high. Permeability is
organic matter content and protect the soil from erosion, moderately rapid in the surface layer and is slow in the
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate.
need of the crops.







Sumter County, Florida 37




































Figure 7.-Tomatoes grow well on Seffner fine sand if the soil is adequately drained.



Native vegetation is baldcypress, cabbage palms, and system is provided, it is well suited to this use. Coastal
various hardwood trees. The understory includes aquatic bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if
plants, greenbrier, and poison ivy. good management practices are used. Fertilizer is
In its natural state, this Nittaw soil is not suited to needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
cultivated crops because of flooding and wetness and a vigor and to obtain high yields.
slowly permeable clayey subsoil. These limitations can In its natural state, this soil is not suited to pine trees
be overcome only if a major flood control system or a because of flooding and wetness. If these limitations can
land drainage system is provided. With adequate be overcome, the potential then becomes high. Severe
drainage, important crops, such as corn and soybeans, equipment use limitations and seedling mortality are
can be grown. A water control system is needed to concerns in management. Slash and loblolly pine are the
remove excess surface water rapidly after heavy rains most suitable trees to plant for commercial tree
and provide rapid subsurface drainage. Seedbed production.
preparation should include the bedding of rows. Close- This Nittaw soil has not been assigned to a range site.
growing, soil-improving cover crops should be included in Flooding and wetness are severe limitations for all
the cropping system at least two-thirds of the time. All urban uses. In addition, the shrink-swell potential of this
crop residue should be used to maintain organic matter soil is a limitation to use for building site development.
content and protect the soil from erosion. Fertilizer The slow percolation of the soil limits its use as septic
should be applied according to the need of the crops. tank absorption fields.
In its natural state, this soil is not suited to pasture and This Nittaw soil is in capability subclass Vw and in
hay crops; but if a drainage system and flood control woodland suitability group 6W.







38 Soil Survey



30-Placid fine sand, depressional. This soil is Native vegetation is pickerelweed, maidencane, and
nearly level and is very poorly drained. It is in various aquatic plants.
depressional areas and in poorly defined drainageways In its natural state, this Placid soil is not suited to
that pond. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and cultivated crops because of ponding (fig. 8). With
range from 20 to 100 acres. The slopes are concave adequate drainage, Placid soil is well suited to many
and range from 0 to 2 percent. high-value crops. A water control system is needed to
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 10 remove excess water rapidly during heavy rains. If the
inches thick underlain by very dark gray fine sand to a soil is cultivated, conservation practices, such as good
depth of about 16 inches. The underlying material, to a seedbed preparation, proper arrangement of rows, crop
depth of about 28 inches, is grayish brown fine sand and rotation, and regular applications of fertilizer, should be
to a depth of 80 inches or more is white fine sand. used. Cover crops should be included in the rotation
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of system two-thirds of the time. Cover crops and the
Basinger, Myakka, Ona, and Pompano soils. Also residue of other crops should be used to help maintain
included are some areas of soils that have loamy layers tilth and to control erosion.
at a depth of more than 60 inches. The included soils In its natural state, this soil is not suited to pasture
make up about 20 percent of this map unit. because of ponding. With adequate drainage, it is well
This soil has water above the surface for 6 to 8 suited to such plants as pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and
months. The available water capacity is moderate. clover. A drainage system is needed to remove excess
Permeability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is surface water. These grasses and legumes grow well if
moderate. they are properly fertilized and limed. Grazing should be


































Figure 8.-Ponded areas are common in the lower parts of Sumter County. The soil is Placid fine sand, depressional







Sumter County, Florida 39



controlled to maintain plant vigor and to obtain maximum In most years, this soil has a high water table within 10
yields. inches of the surface for 1 month to 4 months and
This soil is not suited to pine trees because of recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during very
ponding. dry periods. The available water capacity is low.
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, subsurface
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be layer, and substratum and is moderate or moderately
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges, rapid in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
rushes, and other herbaceous plants. If grazing is Native vegetation is longleaf pine and slash pine. The
controlled, this range site has the potential to produce understory includes saw palmetto, running oak, gallberry,
more forage than any of the other range sites. Chalky waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland threeawn, and
bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the drier parts scattered fetterbush.
of the range site, and maidencane is the dominant plant This Myakka soil has very severe limitations for
in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage includes cultivated crops because of wetness and poor soil
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low quality. The adapted crops are limited unless very
panicum. Periodic high water levels provide natural intensive management practices are used. With a good
deferment from cattle grazing. Carpetgrass, an water control system and soil-improving measures, this
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of the soil is suited to many vegetable crops. A water control
range site if the soil is overgrazed. Some areas that system is needed to remove excess surface water in wet
support dense stands of hardwood or cypress trees are periods and to provide water for subsurface irrigation in
poorly suited to rangeland. dry periods. Row crops should be rotated with close-
Ponding is a severe limitation for urban and growing, soil-improving cover crops. Soil-improving cover
recreational uses. This limitation can be overcome by crops should be included in the rotation system three-
installing a drainage system to lower the high water table fourths of the time. Soil-improving cover crops and
during wet periods and by using a suitable fill material in residue from other crops should be used to maintain
the depressions. Seepage should be controlled before organic matter content and to control erosion. Seedbed
using this soil for sanitary facilities because of the preparation should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer
possibility of pollution of water supplies. The sandy and lime should be applied according to the need of the
texture is a severe limitation for recreational use and crops.
causes poor trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
topsoil fill material should be used or some other type of bahiagrass, and clover are well adapted to this soil and
surface stabilization is needed to overcome this grow well if properly managed. A water control system is
limitation. needed to remove excess surface water during heavy
This Placid soil is in capability subclass VIIw and in rains. To obtain high yields, regular applications of
woodland suitability group 6W. fertilizer are needed. Grazing should be controlled to
maintain plant vigor.
31-Myakka sand. This soil is nearly level and is This soil has moderate potential for the production of
poorly drained. It is on broad areas on the flatwoods. pine trees. Equipment use limitations and seedling
The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from mortality are the main concerns in management. A
20 to 200 acres. The slopes are smooth to concave and drainage system is needed to remove the excess water
range from 0 to 2 percent. if the potential of this soil is to be realized. Slash pine is
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 6 the preferred tree to plant.
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about Typically, this soil is characterized by the South Florida
25 inches, is gray sand and fine sand. The upper part of Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by
the subsoil, to a depth of about 31 inches, is black fine scattered pine trees and an understory of saw palmetto
sand. The lower part, to a depth of 40 inches, is dark and grasses. If grazing is controlled, the site has the
brown fine sand. It is weakly cemented in a few places, potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
The upper part of the substratum, to a depth of 51 bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
inches, is light brownish yellow fine sand. The lower part various panicums. As range deterioration occurs
to a depth of 80 inches or more is light gray fine sand. because of overgrazing, the site is dominated by saw
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
Adamsville, Basinger, EauGallie, Ona, and Smyrna soils. Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and
Also included are areas of Myakka soils that have recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be
random boulders. These areas are adjacent to a map reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to
unit that has a bouldery subsurface layer. These soils lower the high water table during wet periods. Seepage
are generally south of the Jumper Creek Swamp area. should be controlled before using this soil for sanitary
The included soils make up about 20 percent of this map facilities because of the possibility of pollution of water
unit. supplies. The sandy texture is a severe limitation for







40 Soil Survey



recreational use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved This soil has moderate potential for the production of
areas. A suitable topsoil fill material should be used or pine trees. Equipment use limitations and plant
some other type of surface stabilization is needed to competition are the main concerns in management.
overcome this limitation. Seedling mortality is moderate. A drainage system and
This Myakka soil is in capability subclass IVw and in bedding of the trees are needed if this soil's potential is
woodland suitability group 9W. to be realized. Slash pine is the preferred tree to plant
for commercial wood production.
32-Pompano fine sand. This soil is nearly level and Typically, this soil is characterized by the Slough range
is poorly drained. It is on broad, low flats and in poorly site. This site can be identified by an open expanse of
defined drainageways. The mapped areas are irregular in grasses, sedges, and rushes in an area where the soil is
shape and range from 10 to 100 acres. The slopes are 0 saturated during the rainy periods. If grazing is
to 2 percent, controlled, forage production on this site is almost as
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand high as that on the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds
about 5 inches thick and is underlain by dark grayish range site. Desirable forage plants are blue maidencane,
brown fine sand to a depth of about 15 inches. The maidencane, chalky bluestem, toothachegrass, and
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is South Florida bluestem. Carpetgrass, an introduced
pale brown and light gray fine sand. plant, tends to dominate the range site if the soil is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of overgrazed.
Adamsville, Basinger, and Placid soils. Also included are Wetness and seepage are severe limitations for urban
areas of Pompano soils that have random boulders. and recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be
These areas are adjacent to a map unit that has a reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to
bouldery surface layer. These soils are generally south lower the high water table during wet periods. Seepage
of the Jumper Creek Swamp area. The included soils should be controlled before using this soil for sanitary
make up about 20 percent of this map unit. facilities because of the possibility of pollution of water
In most years, this soil has a high water table between supplies. The sandy texture is a severe limitation for
depths of 10 and 30 inches for more than 6 months and recreation use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved
at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months. The areas. A suitable topsoil fill material should be used or
available water capacity is very low. Permeability is very some other type of surface stabilization is needed to
rapid. Natural fertility is very low. overcome this limitation.
Native vegetation is water oak, sweetgum, and slash This Pompano soil is in capability subclass IVw and in
pine. The understory includes gallberry, saw palmetto, woodland suitability group 8W.
and native grasses.
This Pompano soil has very severe limitations for 33-Sparr fine sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 to 5
cultivated crops because of wetness and poor soil percent slopes. This soil is nearly level to gently sloping
quality. The adapted crops are limited unless very and is somewhat poorly drained. It is on broad, low
intensive management practices are used. With ridges and knolls. The mapped areas mostly are irregular
adequate drainage and the use of good conservation in shape and are approximately 20 to 100 acres. Surface
practices, this soil is suited to many vegetable crops. A and subsurface boulders are approximately 60 to 250
water control system is needed to remove excess feet apart. They occur randomly in small groups or
surface water in wet periods and to provide water for individually. Although most boulders have been removed
subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Row crops should be from the cropland and improved pasture, the remaining
rotated with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops. subsurface boulders can damage equipment that
Soil-improving cover crops should be included in the penetrates the soil. The slopes are generally convex.
rotation system three-fourths of the time. Crop residue Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 8
and soil-improving crops should be used to maintain inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
organic matter content and control erosion. Seedbed 46 inches, is gray and very pale brown fine sand that
preparation should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer has yellow mottles. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
and lime should be applied according to the need of the depth of about 58 inches, is light brownish yellow sandy
crops. clay loam that has gray and brown mottles. The lower
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass and part to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray sandy clay
improved bahiagrass and white clover grow well when that has yellowish red mottles.
they are properly managed. A water control system is Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy Adamsville, EauGallie, Mabel, and Millhopper soils. Also
rains. To obtain maximum yields, regular applications of included are areas of soils that are somewhat poorly
fertilizer and lime are needed, and grazing should be drained but are loamy within 40 inches of the surface
controlled to maintain plant vigor, layer, and some areas of soils that have a weak stain







Sumter County, Florida 41



above the loamy layer. The included soils make up about crops, including close-growing cover crops in the rotation
25 percent of this map unit. system at least two-thirds of the time, returning crop
This soil has a high water table within 20 to 40 inches residue to the soil, and applying fertilizer and lime,
of the surface for 1 month to 4 months. The available should be used on this soil. Conservation tillage helps to
water capacity is low. The available water capacity is low control erosion and conserves moisture.
in the surface and subsurface layers and medium in the This soil is well suited to pasture. Good pastures of
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and grass or a mixture of grass and clover can be grown with
subsurface layers and is slow or moderately slow in the proper management. This soil is well suited to
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. proper management. This soil is well suited to
pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover (fig. 9). To obtain
Native vegetation is water, live, and scrub oaks. The high yields, regular applications of fertilizers and lime are
understory includes pineland threeawn, scattered saw high yields regular applications of fertilizers and lime are
palmetto, and greenbrier. needed and grazing should be controlled. Boulders
This Sparr soil has severe limitations for cultivated should be removed to help prevent equipment damage.
crops because of periodic wetness and poor soil Potential for the production of pine trees on this soil is
qualities. Boulders at or near the surface are a moderately high. Equipment use and seedling mortality
continuing nuisance during tillage operations. Most tillage are moderate limitations to use of this soil as woodland.
operations are not impractical if the boulders are Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the most suitable
removed. During wet periods, the high water table can trees to plant for commercial wood production.
cause some retardation of root development. A properly Typically, this soil is characterized by the Oak
designed drainage system can eliminate this problem. Hammock range site. This community is readily identified
With good management and a water control system, the by the dense canopy cover of dominantly live oak trees.
soil is adapted to most locally grown crops. Good Cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting
conservation practices, such as growing row crops in areas because of the dense canopy and relatively open
rotation with the close-growing, soil-improving cover understory. Desirable forage includes longleaf uniola, low




























Figure 9.-Pasture grasses row well on this Sarr fine sand boulder subsurface to 5 percent ses.

Figure 9.-Pasture grasses grow well on this Sparr fine sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 to 5 percent slopes.







42 Soil Survey



panicum, low paspalum, switchgrass, and lopsided the boulders are removed. This soil is well suited to
indiangrass. some cultivated crops, but a high water table in the root
This soil has moderate limitations to use as sites for zone limits the kinds of crops that can be grown. Crops,
homes and small commercial buildings and for local such as cabbage, peanuts and tomatoes, can be grown
roads and streets. The depth of the high water table if the soil is adequately drained. Surface irrigation must
during wet periods is a severe limitation to use of this be used during dry periods. A close-growing cover crop
soil as septic tank absorption fields and sanitary landfills. should be included in the rotation system at least one-
Random large boulders or groups of boulders may half of the time. Soil-improving cover crops and the
require use of a modified installation design or an residue of other crops should be used to maintain
alternate site in the map unit for many urban uses. The organic matter, which prevents hardening of the surface
sandy texture is a severe limitation for recreational use layer. High crop yields require good seedbed preparation
and causes poor trafficability in unpaved areas. A that includes bedding of the rows and proper
suitable topsoil fill material should be used or some applications of fertilizer and lime.
other form of surface stabilization is needed to reduce or This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
overcome this limitation. Grasses, such as Coastal bermudagrass and the
This Sparr soil is in capability subclass Ills and in improved bahiagrasses, are well adapted to this soil, and
woodland suitability group 10S. white clover and other legumes are moderately well
suited. To obtain maximum yields, regular applications of
34-Tarrytown sandy clay loam, bouldery fertilizer and lime are needed, and grazing should be
subsurface. This soil is nearly level and is somewhat controlled to maintain plant vigor and ground cover,
poorly drained. It is on low, broad flats that are slightly Boulders should be removed to help prevent equipment
higher than the adjacent depressed areas. The mapped damage.
areas are irregular in shape and range from 20 to 100 This soil has high potential for the production of pine
acres. Surface and subsurface boulders are trees. Plant competition and equipment use limitations
approximately 30 to 150 feet apart. They occur randomly are moderate concerns in management. Slash, loblolly,
in small groups or individually. Although most boulders and longleaf pines are the most suitable trees to plant
have been removed from the cropland and improved for commercial wood production.
pasture, the remaining subsurface boulders can damage Typically, this soil is characterized by the Oak
equipment that penetrates the soil. The slopes are Hammock range site. This community is readily identified
smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. by the dense canopy cover of dominantly live oak trees.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown Cattle use these areas mainly for shade and resting
sandy clay loam about 7 inches thick. The subsoil, to a areas because of the dense canopy cover and relatively
depth of 14 inches, is dark yellowish brown and open understory. Desirable forage includes longleaf
yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The upper part of the uniola, low panicum, low paspalum, switchgrass, and
substratum, to a depth of about 22 inches, is light gray lopsided indiangrass.
and light yellowish brown, calcareous, clay loam. The Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and
middle part, to a depth of 50 inches, is white loam recreational uses. This limitation can be reduced or
containing shell fragments. The lower part to a depth of overcome by installing a drainage system to lower the
about 80 inches is mixed, light gray and brownish yellow high water table during wet periods. Mounding may be
fine sand. needed in places for septic tank absorption fields
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of because of wetness. Random large boulders or groups
Mabel and Paisley soils. The included soils make up of boulders may require use of a modified installation
about 15 percent of this map unit. design or an alternate site in the map unit for many
During most years, this soil has a high water table urban uses.
between depths of 12 and 24 inches for 1 month to 3 This Tarrytown soil is in capability subclass llw and in
months. The available water capacity is moderate. woodland suitability group 11W.
Permeability is moderate in the surface layer and in the
subsoil and is slow in the substratum to a depth of about 35-Pompano fine sand, depressional. This soil is
50 inches and is rapid to a depth of 80 inches or more. nearly level and is very poorly drained. It is in
Natural fertility is low. depressional areas. The mapped areas are irregular in
Native vegetation is mostly live oak, water oak, elm, shape and range from 5 to 100 acres. The slopes are
and cabbage palm. The understory includes saw smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
palmetto and greenbrier. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 9
This Tarrytown soil has moderate limitations for inches thick underlain by pale and dark grayish brown
cultivated crops because of wetness. Boulders at or near fine sand to a depth of about 12 inches. The upper part
the surface are a continuing nuisance during tillage of the underlying material, to a depth of about 40 inches,
operations. Most tillage operations are not impractical if is light yellowish brown fine sand, and the lower part to a







Sumter County, Florida 43



depth of 80 inches or more is light gray and white fine depth of 80 inches or more is light brownish gray and
sand. grayish brown sandy clay loam that has mottles in
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of shades of brown and yellow.
Basinger, Floridana, and Placid soils that have an Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
organic surface layer. The included soils make up about Gator and Placid soils. Also included are soils that are
15 percent of this map unit. similar to Floridana soil but have loamy or clayey layers
This soil is ponded for 6 to 8 months. The available within 20 inches of the surface layer. The included soils
water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid. Natural make up about 15 percent of this map unit.
fertility is low. This soil is ponded for more than 6 months during
Native vegetation is mostly cypress, gum, and willow most years. The available water capacity is moderate.
trees. The understory includes creeping bluestem, Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and is slow or
waxmyrtle, and panicum. very slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate.
In its natural state, this Pompano soil is not suited to Native vegetation is cypress, cattails, and dense
cultivated crops or pasture. Water stands on the surface stands of pickerelweed, maidencane, and sawgrass.
of this soil for long periods. An adequate drainage In its natural state, this Floridana soil is not suited to
system is difficult to establish in many places because cultivated crops because of wetness. However, if a good
suitable outlets are not available, water control system is provided, this soil is well suited
This soil is not suited to pine tree production. Planting to many locally grown, high-value crops. A water control
is feasible only with adequate surface drainage. Slash to many locally gowneeed o remove excess A water ray dur
pine is the preferred tree to plant for commercial wood system is needed to remove excess water rapidly during
production if drainage can be provided. heavy rains. Also good conservation practices should be
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater used, such as good seedbed preparation, crop rotation,
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be and timely applications of fertilizer and lime. Cover crops
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be should be rotated with row crops. Soil-improving cover
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges, should be rotated with row crops. Soil-improving cover
rushes, and other herbaceous plants. If grazing is crops should be included in the rotation system two-
controlled, this range site has the potential to produce thirds of the time Soil-improving cover crops and the
more forage than any of the other range sites. Chalky residue of other crops should be used to maintain
bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the drier parts organic matter content.
of the range site, and maidencane is the dominant plant In its natural state, this soil is not suited to improved
in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage includes pasture grasses and legumes because of ponding. If an
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low adequate drainage system can be provided to remove
panicums. Periodic high water levels provide natural excess surface water after heavy rains, pangolagrass,
deferment from cattle grazing. Carpetgrass, an bahiagrass, and clover grow well. To obtain maximum
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of the yields, fertilizer and lime should be applied according to
range site if the soil is overgrazed. Some areas that are the need of the crops. Grazing should be controlled to
dominated by dense stands of hardwood or cypress maintain plant vigor.
trees are poorly suited to rangeland. This soil is not suited to pine trees because of
Ponding is a severe limitation for urban and ponding. The use of equipment in these areas is difficult,
recreational uses. The sandy texture, poor filtering and seedlings would not survive. If a good water control
capacity, and seepage are additional limitations for some system is installed to remove the excess water, then
urban uses. Urban and recreational uses of this soil are trees can be planted. Slash and loblolly pines are the
rare because the ponding limitation is difficult to most suitable trees to plant if long term drainage can be
overcome. provided.
This Pompano soil is in capability subclass Vllw and in Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater
woodland suitability group 6W. Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
36-Floridana mucky fine sand, depressional. This rushes, and other herbaceous plants. If grazing is
soil is nearly level and is very poorly drained. It is in wet, controlled, this range site has the potential to produce
depressional areas. The mapped areas are both more forage than any of the other range sites. Chalky
elongated and irregular in shape and range from 10 to bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the drier parts
200 acres. The slopes are smooth and are less than 2 of this range site, and maidencane is the dominant plant
percent. in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage includes
Typically, the surface layer is black mucky fine sand cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low
about 4 inches thick underlain by very dark gray fine panicum. Periodic high water levels provide natural
sand to a depth of about 12 inches. The subsurface deferment from cattle grazing. Carpetgrass, an
layer, to a depth of about 25 inches, is dark grayish introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of the
brown and light brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil to a range site if the soil is overgrazed. Some areas that







44 Soil Survey



support dense stands of hardwood or cypress trees are controlled, the site has the potential to produce limited
poorly suited to rangeland. amounts of lopsided indiangrass, creeping bluestem, and
This soil is not suited to urban and recreational uses switchgrass. Livestock generally do not use this range
because of ponding. This wetness limitation can be site if more productive sites are available. The
reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to community provides summer shade, winter protection,
lower the high water table to an acceptable depth or by and a dry resting area during the wet periods.
adding suitable fill material in the depressions. The This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses.
sandy texture is a severe limitation for recreational use Seepage is a severe limitation to use of this soil for
and causes poor trafficability in unpaved areas. A sewage lagoons or sanitary landfills. If used for sewage
suitable topsoil fill material should be used or some lagoons or sanitary landfills, the floor and sidewalls
other type of surface stabilization is needed to overcome should be sealed. The sandy texture is a severe
this limitation. limitation for recreational use and causes poor
This Floridana soil is in capability subclass Vllw and in trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill
woodland suitability group 6W. material should be used or some form of surface
stabilization is needed to reduce or overcome this
37-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This limitation.
soil is nearly level to moderately sloping and is This Astatula soil is in capability subclass Vis and in
excessively drained. It is on the sandhills. The mapped woodland suitability group 3S.
areas follow the contour of the sandhills and range from
60 to 500 acres. The slopes are convex and range from 39-Mabel fine sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 to 5
0 to 8 percent, percent slopes. This soil is nearly level to gently sloping
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand and is somewhat poorly drained. It is on broad ridges
about 5 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying and knolls on the flatwoods. The mapped areas mostly
material, to a depth of about 47 inches, is light yellowish follow the contour of the ridges and knolls and are 10 to
brown, pale brown, and yellow fine sand. The lower part 200 acres. Surface and subsurface boulders are about
to a depth of 80 inches or more is very pale brown fine 30 to 150 feet apart. They occur randomly in small
sand. groups or individually. Although most boulders have been
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of removed from the cropland and improved pasture, the
Candler, Lake, and Tavares soils. Also included are remaining subsurface boulders can damage equipment
areas of Astatula soils that have random boulders. that penetrates the soil. The slopes are convex.
These areas are adjacent to a map unit that has a Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
bouldery subsurface layer. The included soils make up about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
about 20 percent of this map unit. about 16 inches, is grayish brown and light brownish
This soil does not have a high water table within 80 gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 30 inches, is
inches of the surface. The available water capacity is mottled yellowish brown sandy clay loam and clay. The
very low. Permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility is substratum to a depth of 80 inches is light gray clay and
very low. clay loam.
Native vegetation is sand pine and turkey oak. The Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
understory includes scattered saw palmetto, pineland Oldsmar, Paisley, Sumterville, and Vero soils. The
threeawn, bluestem, and rosemary, included soils make up about 20 percent of this map
This Astatula soil has very severe limitations for unit.
cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of This soil has a high water table within 20 to 40 inches
plant nutrients are the main limitations, of the surface for 1 month to 4 months. The available
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Grasses, water capacity is moderate. Permeability is rapid in the
such as pangolagrass and bahiagrass, respond fairly well surface and subsurface layers and is moderately slow in
to regular applications of fertilizer, the subsoil and in the substratum. Natural fertility is low.
The potential of this soil is low for the production of Native vegetation is cabbage palm, live and water
pine trees. Equipment use and seedling mortality are oaks, and sweetgum. The understory includes saw
concerns in management. Sand pines are the preferred palmetto, paspalum, and panicum.
trees to plant. This Mabel soil has severe limitations for cultivated
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Sand Pine crops because of periodic wetness. Boulders at or near
Scrub range site. This site can be identified by a fairly the surface are a continuing nuisance during tillage
dense stand of sand pine trees and a dense understory operations. Most tillage operations are not impractical if
of oaks, saw palmetto, and other shrubs. Depending on the boulders are removed. The adapted crops are limited
past timber management practices, the sand pines may unless the soil is adequately drained and soil-improving
not be present. The drought nature of this soil limits the measures are used. These soils are suitable for many
soil's potential for producing native forage. If grazing is vegetable crops if a water control system is provided to







Sumter County, Florida 45



remove excess surface water in wet periods and to brownish yellow mottles. The upper part of the subsoil,
provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry periods, to a depth of about 70 inches, is brownish yellow and
Row crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil- light gray sandy clay loam that has gray and brown
improving cover crops. Soil-improving cover crops should mottles. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more
be included in the rotation system two-thirds of the time. is light gray fine sandy loam that has brown mottles.
Conservation tillage helps to conserve moisture and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
controls erosion. Seedbed preparation should include Candler, Mabel, Sumterville, and Tavares soils. The
bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be included soils make up about 15 percent of this map
applied according to the need of the crops. unit.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass, In most years, this soil has a high water table within 40
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well when to 60 inches of the surface for 1 month to 4 months and
they are properly managed. A water control system is at a depth of 60 to 80 inches for 2 to 4 months. The
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy available water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid in
rains. To obtain maximum yields, regular applications of the surface and subsurface layers and is moderate in the
fertilizers and lime are needed, and grazing should be subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
controlled to maintain plant vigor. Boulders should be Most of the acreage in this map unit is in improved
removed to help prevent equipment damage, pasture. The native vegetation is live oak and turkey oak.
This soil has high potential for pine trees. Equipment This Millhopper soil has severe limitations for most
use limitations are concerns in management. Slash, cultivated crops. Boulders at or near the surface are a
loblolly, and longleaf pines are the most suitable trees to continuing nuisance during tillage operations. Most tillage
plant for commercial wood production. operations are not impractical if the boulders are
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Upland removed. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
Hardwood Hammock range site. This community is nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce crop
readily identified by the dense canopy cover of oak, yields. If this soil is cultivated, row crops should be
magnolia, and hickory trees. Cattle use these areas planted on the contour. Close-growing cover crops
primarily for shade and resting areas because of the should be included in the rotation system. Crop residue
dense canopy and relatively open understory. Desirable should be left on the surface to protect the soil from
forage includes indiangrass, switchgrass, longleaf uniola, erosion. Irrigation of high-value crops is generally
and chalky bluestem. feasible if water is readily available.
This soil has severe limitations for most urban uses. This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
The clayey subsoil, shrink-swell potential, and low soil Coastal bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass are well
strength are severe limitations for building site suited to this soil, but yields are reduced by periodic
development. Wetness is a severe limitation for shallow droughts. Grasses respond to regular fertilizing and
excavations, dwellings with basements, and sanitary liming. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
facilities. Because of the slow percolation of this soil, vigor and a good ground cover. Boulders should be
wetness also is a severe limitation to use of this soil as removed to help prevent equipment damage.
septic tank absorption fields. Random large boulders or Potential is moderately high for the production of pine
groups of boulders may require use of a modified trees. Equipment use limitation, seedling mortality, and
installation design or an alternate site in the map unit for plant competition are the main concerns in management.
many urban uses. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the most suitable
This Mabel soil is in capability subclass Illw and in trees to plant for commercial wood production.
woodland suitability group 11W. Typically, this soil is characterized by the Oak
Hammock range site. This community is readily identified
40-Millhopper sand, bouldery subsurface, O to 5 by the dense canopy cover of dominantly live oak trees.
percent slopes. This soil is nearly level to gently sloping Cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting
and is moderately well drained. It is in large areas on the areas because of the dense canopy and relatively open
uplands. The mapped areas are wide and range from 50 understory. Desirable forage includes longleaf uniola, low
to 150 acres. Surface and subsurface boulders are about panicum, low paspalum, switchgrass, and lopsided
60 to 250 feet apart. They occur randomly in small indiangrass.
groups or individually. Although most boulders have been This soil has slight limitations to use as sites for
removed from the cropland and improved pasture, the homes and small commercial buildings and for local
remaining subsurface boulders can damage equipment roads and streets. The depth of the water table during
that penetrates the soil. The slopes are generally wet periods moderately limits the use of this soil as
convex. septic tank absorption fields. Seepage is a severe
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand limitation for sewage lagoons or landfill areas. If used for
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of sewage lagoons or landfill areas, the sandy sidewalls
about 45 inches, is pale brown fine sand that has should be sealed. Random large boulders or groups of






46 Soil Survey



boulders may require use of a modified installation flooding problems unless a substantial amount of
design or an alternate site in the map unit for many suitable fill material is used.
urban uses. The sandy texture is a severe limitation for This Everglades soil is in capability subclass Vllw and
recreational use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved in woodland suitability group 6W.
areas. A suitable topsoil fill material should be used or
some form of surface stabilization is needed to reduce or 42-Adamsville fine sand. This soil is nearly level
overcome this limitation. and is somewhat poorly drained. It is on low, broad flats
This Millhopper soil is in capability subclass Ills and in and low knolls. The mapped areas are irregular in shape
woodland suitability group 11S. and range from 10 to 200 acres. The slopes are smooth
and range from 0 to 2 percent.
41-Everglades muck, frequently flooded. This soil Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
is nearly level and is very poorly drained. It is in broad about 8 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying
marsh areas on the lake and river flood plains. The material, to a depth of about 16 inches, is dark grayish
mapped areas range from 100 to 1,000 acres. The brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of about 60
slopes are concave and range from 0 to 1 percent. inches, is brown fine sand that has mottles in shades of
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown and black yellow and brown. The lower part to a depth of 80
muck underlain by dark reddish brown, black, dark inches or more is light gray fine sand that has mottles in
brown, and very dark grayish brown mucky peat to a shades of brown and yellow.
depth of about 80 inches. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Ona, Pompano, Sparr, and Tavares soils. Also included
Gator, Okeelanta, and Terra Ceia soils. The included are areas of Adamsville soils that have random boulders.
soils make up about 15 percent of this map unit. These areas are adjacent to a map unit that has a
This soil is frequently flooded from adjacent lakes, bouldery subsurface layer. The included soils make up
rivers, and springs. The available water capacity is very about 15 percent of this map unit.
high throughout. Permeability is rapid throughout. Natural In most years, this soil has a high water table within 20
fertility is moderate. to 40 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months and at a
Native vegetation is Florida willow, sawgrass, reeds, depth of less than 60 inches for more than 9 months. It
lilies, and other aquatic, fibrous, nonwoody plants and is at a depth of 10 to 20 inches for about 2 weeks in
hardwood trees. some years. The available water capacity is low.
In its natural state, this Everglades soil is not suited to Permeability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is low.
cultivated crops or pasture because of flooding and Native vegetation is pine, laurel oak, and water oak.
wetness. The understory includes saw palmetto, pineland
With adequate drainage, this soil is well suited to most threeawn, indiangrass, bluestem grasses, and several
vegetable crops and sugarcane. A water control system low panicums.
is needed to remove excess water, to provide flood This Adamsville soil has severe limitations for
protection when crops are on the land, and to help keep cultivated crops because of periodic wetness. The
the soil saturated at all other times. Fertilizers that adapted crops are very limited unless intensive water
contain phosphates, potash, and minor elements are control measures are used. With adequate drainage, this
needed. Water-tolerant cover crops should be grown on soil is well suited to many kinds of flowers and
this soil when it is not used for row crops. vegetables. A water control system is needed to remove
This soil is not suited to pasture because of flooding; excess surface water in wet periods and to provide water
however, most improved grasses and clovers adapted to for subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Good
the area grow well if water is properly controlled, conservation practices, in addition to water control
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover grow well on measures, should be used on this soil. Close-growing
this soil. A water control system is needed to maintain cover crops should be included in the rotation system at
the water table near the surface to prevent excessive least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving crops and the
oxidation of the organic horizons. Fertilizers that have a residue of other crops should be used to maintain the
high content of potash, phosphorus, and minor elements organic matter content and to help control erosion.
are needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields. need of the crops.
This soil is not suitable for pine trees. This soil is moderately well suited to pasture.
This Everglades soil has not been assigned to a range Pangolagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted to this
site. soil. A drainage system is needed to remove excess
Excess humus, wetness, and flooding are severe surface water during heavy rains. Regular applications of
limitations for urban and recreational uses. Removal of fertilizer are needed to obtain maximum yields. In some
organic material and backfilling will not overcome the areas, this soil responds well to lime. Grazing should be







Sumter County, Florida 47



controlled to maintain plant vigor and to obtain high Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater
yields. Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be
Potential is moderately high for the production of pine identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
trees. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, and rushes, and other herbaceous plants. If grazing is
plant competition are concerns in management. Slash controlled, this range site has the potential to produce
and longleaf pines are the most suitable trees to plant more forage than any of the other range sites. Chalky
for commercial wood production. bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the drier parts
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Oak of the range site, and maidencane is the dominant plant
Hammock range site. This community is readily identified in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage on this site
by the dense canopy cover of dominantly live oak trees. includes cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and
Cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting low panicum. Periodic high water levels provide a natural
areas because of the dense canopy and relatively open deferment from cattle grazing. Carpetgrass, an
understory. Desirable forage includes longleaf uniola, low introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of the
panicum, low paspalum, switchgrass, and lopsided range site if the soil is overgrazed. Some areas that are
indiangrass. dominated by hardwood or cypress trees are poorly
Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and suited to rangeland.
recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be Ponding and seepage are severe limitations for urban
reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to and recreational uses. Most areas are difficult to drain;
lower the high water table during wet periods. Mounding however, the wetness limitation can be reduced or
may be needed in places for septic tank absorption overcome by installing a drainage system to remove
fields because of wetness. The sandy texture is a severe excess surface water and to lower the high water table
limitation for recreational use and causes poor during wet periods or by adding a suitable fill material in
trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill the depressions. Also, seepage should be controlled
material should be used or some type of surface before using this soil for sanitary facilities because of the
stabilization is needed to overcome this limitation, possibility of pollution of water supplies. The sandy
This Adamsville soil is in capability subclass Illw and in texture is a severe limitation for recreational use and
woodland suitability group 10W. causes poor trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable

43-Basinger fine sand, depressional. This soil is topsoil fill material should be used or some other type of
nearly level and is poorly drained. It is in depressional surface stabilization is needed to overcome this
areas. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and limitation.
range from 10 to 50 acres. The slopes are smooth to This Basinger soil is in capability subclass Vllw and in
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent, woodland suitability group 6W.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand 4r f b y s. hi
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 44-Oldsmar fine sand, boulder subsurface. This
about 15 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The soil is nearly level and is poorly drained It is n broad
subsoil, to a depth of about 30 inches, is dark brown fine areas on the flatwoods. The mapped areas are generally
sand. The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches or irregular in shape and range from 20 to 600 acres.
more is pale brown fine sand. Surface and subsurface boulders are about 60 to 250
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of feet apart. They occur randomly in small groups or
Floridana, Placid, Pompano, and Myakka soils. The individually. Although most boulders have been removed
included soils make up about 20 percent of this map from the cropland and improved pasture, the remaining
unit. subsurface boulders can damage equipment that
This soil is ponded for 6 to 8 months or more in most penetrates the soil. The slopes are smooth and range
years. The available water capacity is low. Permeability is from 0 to 2 percent.
rapid. Natural fertility is low. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray grading to
Native vegetation is mainly maidencane, panicum, dark gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface
creeping bluestem, and chalky bluestem. layer, to a depth of about 31 inches, is light brownish
In its natural state, this Basinger soil is not suited to gray and light gray fine sand. The upper part of the
cultivated crops or pasture. Water stands on the surface subsoil, to a depth of about 38 inches, is black fine sand.
for long periods. In many places, an adequate drainage The middle part, to a depth of about 48 inches, is dark
system is difficult to establish because suitable outlets reddish brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80
are not available. inches or more is light olive gray and greenish gray
This soil is not suited to pine trees because of sandy clay loam that has mottles in shades of brown and
ponding. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality, olive.
and plant competition are severe concerns in Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
management. EauGallie, Electra, Immokalee, and Vero soils. The







48 Soil Survey



included soils make up about 15 percent of this map reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to
unit. lower the high water table during wet periods. Mounding
In most years, this soil has a high water table at a may be needed in places for septic tank absorption
depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more and at a fields because of wetness and slow permeability.
depth of less than 10 inches for 1 month to 3 months. Random large boulders or groups of boulders may
The available water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid require use of a modified installation design or an
in the surface and subsurface layers. It is moderately alternate site in the map unit for many urban uses. The
rapid to moderately slow in the sandy part of the subsoil sandy texture is a severe limitation for recreational use
and slow to very slow in the loamy part. Natural fertility is and causes poor trafficability in unpaved areas. A
low. suitable topsoil fill material should be used or some type
The natural vegetation is mostly live and laurel oaks of surface stabilization is needed to overcome this
and slash pine. The understory includes saw palmetto, limitation.
waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn. This Oldsmar soil is in capability subclass IVw and in
This Oldsmar soil has very severe limitations for woodland suitability group 10W.
cultivated crops because of wetness and poor soil
quality. Boulders at or near the surface are a continuing 45-Electra fine sand, bouldery subsurface. This
nuisance during tillage operations. Most tillage soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is somewhat
operations are not impractical if the boulders are poorly drained. It is on slight ridges on the flatwoods.
removed. The adapted crops are limited unless very The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from
intensive management practices are used. With 30 to 100 acres. Surface and subsurface boulders are
adequate drainage and the use of good conservation about 60 to 250 feet apart. They occur randomly in small
practices, this soil is well suited to many vegetable groups or individually. Although most boulders have been
crops. A water control system is needed to remove removed from the cropland and improved pasture, the
excess surface water in wet periods and to provide water remaining subsurface boulders can damage equipment
for subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Row crops should that penetrates the soil. The slopes are smooth and
be rotated with close-growing, soil-improving cover range from 0 to 3 percent.
crops. Soil-improving cover crops should be included in Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
the rotation system three-fourths of the time. Crop inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
residues and soil-improving crops should be used to 35 inches, is white fine sand. The upper part of the
maintain organic matter content and to help control subsoil, to a depth of about 40 inches, is dark reddish
erosion, brown fine sand. The next layer, to a depth of about 46
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass, inches, is brown fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they to a depth of 80 inches or more is light brownish gray
are properly managed. A water control system is needed sandy clay loam grading to light gray fine sandy loam.
to remove excess surface water after heavy rains. To Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
obtain maximum yields, regular applications of fertilizers EauGallie, Pomello, Sparr, and Vero soils. The included
and lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled soils make up about 15 percent of this map unit.
to maintain plant vigor. Boulders should be removed to In most years, this soil has a high water table between
help prevent equipment damage. depths of 25 to 40 inches for about 4 months. It recedes
This soil has moderately high potential for the to a depth of more than 40 inches during drier periods.
production of pine trees. The main concerns in The available water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid
management are equipment use limitations during in the surface and subsurface layers. It is moderate in
periods of heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant the sandy part of the subsoil and slow or very slow in
competition. A drainage system is needed to remove the loamy part.
excess surface water. Slash pine is the preferred tree to Native vegetation is mostly slash pine. The understory
plant for commercial wood production. includes scrub oak, saw palmetto, lopsided indiangrass,
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South Florida pineland threeawn, and other grasses, vines, and forbs.
Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by This Electra soil has very severe limitations for
scattered pine trees and an understory of saw palmetto cultivated crops because of droughtiness and periodic
and grasses. If grazing is controlled, the site has the wetness. Boulders at or near the surface are a
potential to produce significant amounts of creeping continuing nuisance during tillage operations. Most tillage
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and operations are not impractical if the boulders are
various panicums. As range deterioration occurs removed. During wet periods, the high water table can
because of overgrazing, the site is dominated by saw cause some retardation of root development. A well
palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass). designed drainage system can help overcome this
Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and limitation. During most years, irrigation is needed for
recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be most crops.







Sumter County, Florida 49



This soil is only moderately suited to improved pasture gray grading to dark gray sandy clay loam. Below the
grasses. It is not suited to clover. Yields for grasses, subsoil to a depth of 80 inches is gray cobbly sandy clay
such as pangolagrass and bahiagrass, are fair if properly loam. About 10 to 20 percent cobbles are in the subsoil.
managed. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
to the need of the crops. Periodic drought reduces crop Mabel, Paisley, and Vero soils. The included soils make
yields. Grazing should be restricted to maintain plant up about 25 percent of this map unit.
vigor, to obtain high yields, and to help keep a good This soil has a high water table within 10 inches of the
ground cover. Boulders should be removed to help surface for 1 month to 4 months during most years. The
prevent equipment damage. available water capacity is moderate. Permeability is
The potential of this soil for the production of pine rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and is slow to
trees is moderate. Equipment limitations and seedling moderately slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
mortality are the main concerns in management. Slash Native vegetation is scattered longleaf pine, slash
pine is the preferred tree to plant for commercial wood pine, cabbage palms, live and laurel oaks, sweetgum,
production. saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, and many
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South Florida other native grasses, vines, and shrubs.
Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by This Ft. Green soil has severe limitations for cultivation
scattered pine trees and an understory of saw palmetto because of wetness. Boulders at or near the surface are
and grasses. If grazing is controlled, the site has the a continuing nuisance during tillage operations. Most
potential to produce significant amounts of creeping tillage operations are not impractical if the boulders are
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and removed. With adequate drainage, this soil is well suited
various panicums. As range deterioration occurs to many fruit and vegetable crops. A water control
because of overgrazing, the site is dominated by saw system is needed to remove excess surface water
palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Some areas rapidly and to provide water for subsurface irrigation.
of this soil support dense stands of oak trees. This soil Good conservation practices, in addition to water control
provides good shade and resting areas for cattle but measures, should be used if this soil is cultivated. Close-
provides insufficient grazing. growing cover crops should be included in the rotation
This soil has moderate limitations as sites for homes system at least two-thirds of the time. Conservation
and small commercial buildings and for local roads and tillage helps to conserve moisture and controls plant
streets. The depth of the water table during wet periods damage from blowing soil. Seedbed preparation should
is a severe limitation to use of this soil for septic tank include bedding of rows. Fertilizers should be applied
absorption fields and sanitary landfills. Random large according to the need of the crops.
boulders or groups of boulders may require use of a This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. It is
modified installation design or an alternate site in the well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
map unit for many urban uses. The sandy texture is a Excellent pastures of grass or a mixture of grass and
severe limitation for recreational use and causes poor clover can be grown if properly managed. To obtain
trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill maximum yields, fertilizer should be applied on a regular
material should be used or some other form of surface basis, and grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
stabilization is needed to reduce or overcome this vigor and good ground cover. Boulders should be
limitation. removed to help prevent equipment damage.
This Electra soil is in capability subclass Vis and in This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree
woodland suitability group 9S. production. The main concerns in management are the
use of equipment during heavy rains and plant
46-Ft. Green fine sand, bouldery subsurface. This competition. Seedling mortality is commonly high. Slash
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is poorly drained, pine is the preferred tree to plant for commercial wood
It is on broad, low ridges and small knolls. The mapped production.
areas are irregular in shape and range from 20 to 250 Typically, this soil is characterized by the Oak
acres. Surface and subsurface boulders are about 30 to Hammock range site. This community is readily identified
150 feet apart. They occur randomly in small groups or by the dense canopy cover of dominantly live oak trees.
individually. Although most boulders have been removed Cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting
from the cropland and improved pasture, the remaining areas because of the generally dense canopy and
subsurface boulders can damage equipment that relatively open understory. Desirable forage includes
penetrates the soil. The slopes are smooth and range longleaf uniola, low panicum, low paspalum, switchgrass,
from 0 to 3 percent, and lopsided indiangrass.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine Wetness is a severe limitation for most urban uses.
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a The wetness limitation can be reduced or overcome by
depth of about 28 inches, is grayish brown and light gray installing a drainage system to lower the high water table
fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 58 inches, is during wet periods. Mounding may be needed in places







50 Soil Survey



for septic tank absorption fields because of wetness and part to a depth of 80 inches or more is light gray sandy
slow permeability. Random large boulders or groups of clay loam.
boulders may require use of a modified installation Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
design or an alternate site in the map unit for many EauGallie, Ft. Green, Kanapaha, Oldsmar, and Pompano
urban uses. The sandy texture is a severe limitation for soils. Also included are areas of Malabar soils that have
recreational use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved random boulders. These areas are adjacent to a map
areas. A suitable topsoil fill material should be used or unit that has a bouldery subsurface layer. The included
some type of surface stabilization is needed to overcome soils make up about 20 percent of this map unit.
this limitation. In most years, this soil has a high water table at a
This Ft. Green soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in depth of 10 inches for about 6 months. These soils are
woodland suitability group 11W. frequently flooded for very long periods during the rainy
season. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
47-Okeelanta muck, frequently flooded. This soil is is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers. It is rapid in
nearly level and is very poorly drained. It is in swamps the upper part of the subsoil and slow to very slow in the
and marshes along the flood plains of the major rivers, lower part. Natural fertility is low.
lakes, and streams in Sumter County. The mapped areas Native vegetation is scattered saw palmetto, cabbage
mostly are narrow and long and range from about 50 to palm, water oak, slash pine, sweetgum, hickory,
200 acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 1 panicum, sedges, and other water-tolerant plants.
percent. In its natural state, this Malabar soil is not suited to
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown muck cultivated crops or improved pasture because of its
about 19 inches thick. The underlying material to 80 susceptibility to flooding, which severely restricts its use.
inches is grayish brown and light gray fine sand. If the hazard of flooding can be overcome and very
Included in mapping are small areas of Gator and intensive conservation practices are used, this soil is well
Terra Ceia soils. The included soils make up about 25 suited to many vegetable crops and is suitable for
percent of this map unit. pasture. A water control system is needed to remove
This soil is frequently flooded for very long periods, excess surface water in wet periods and to provide water
The available water capacity is high. Permeability is rapid for subsurface irrigation in dry periods. If planted, row
throughout. Natural fertility is moderate. crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil-
Native vegetation is baldcypress, sweetgum, and water improving cover crops. Soil-improving cover crops should
hickory. be included in the rotation system three-fourths of the
time. Crop residues of other crops and soil-improving
This Okeelanta soil is not suited to cultivated crops or cover crops should be used to maintain tilth and organic
pasture because of flooding. An adequate drainage matter content and to protect the soil from erosion.
system is difficult to establish since it generally requires Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
regulating streamflow. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
This soil is not suited to pine trees because of flooding need of the crops.
and extended periods of wetness. This soil is not suited to pasture unless a flood control
This soil has not been assigned to a range site. system and a drainage system is provided.
Excess humus and flooding are severe limitations for Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well if they
urban and recreational uses. Removal of organic are properly managed. To obtain maximum yields,
material and backfilling will not overcome the flooding regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, and
limitation unless a substantial amount of suitable fill grazing should be controlled to maintain plant vigor.
material is used. This soil has moderate potential for the production of
This Okeelanta soil is in capability subclass Vllw and slash pine trees if properly managed. Planting the trees
in woodland suitability group 6W. on beds provides good surface drainage. Before the
soil's potential can be reached, a water control system
48-Malabar fine sand, frequently flooded. This soil to reduce the hazard of flooding and remove excess
is nearly level and is poorly drained. It is along the flood surface water is also needed before the trees are
plains of major rivers and streams. The mapped areas planted.
are irregular in shape and range from 20 to 400 acres. This soil has not been assigned to a range site.
The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. This soil is not suited to urban and recreational uses
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6 because of the hazard of flooding. The wetness
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 24 limitation can be reduced or overcome if the areas are
inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the protected from flood waters and a drainage system is
subsoil, to a depth of about 48 inches, is pale brown and installed to lower the high water table to an acceptable
very pale brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of depth. The addition of fill material may also be needed
about 74 inches, is olive gray fine sandy loam. The lower to overcome the wetness limitation. The sandy texture is







Sumter County, Florida 51



a severe limitation for recreational use and causes poor This Terra Ceia soil is in capability subclass Vllw and
trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill in woodland suitability group 6W.
material should be used or some other type of surface
stabilization is needed to overcome this limitation. 50-lmmokalee sand. This soil is nearly level and is
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass VIw and in poorly drained. It is on the broad flatwoods. The mapped
woodland suitability group 6W. areas are irregular in shape and range from 40 to 150
acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2
49-Terra Ceia muck, frequently flooded. This soil percent.
is nearly level and is very poorly drained. It is in Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
hardwood swamps. The mapped areas are large and about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of
wide and range from 50 to 2,500 acres. The slopes are about 34 inches, is light gray sand. The subsoil, to a
smooth and range from 0 to 1 percent. depth of about 58 inches, is dark reddish brown and
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray muck dark brown sand. The substratum to a depth of 80
about 10 inches thick and underlain by black muck to a inches or more is brown sand.
depth of about 80 inches. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Basinger, Myakka, Oldsmar, and Pomello soils. Also
Gator and Okeelanta soils. The included soils make up included are areas of Immokalee soils that have random
less than 15 percent of this map unit. boulders. These areas are adjacent to a map unit that
The soil is frequently flooded. The available water has a bouldery subsurface layer. These soils are
capacity is very high throughout. Permeability is generally south of the Jumper Creek Swamp area. The
moderate or moderately rapid throughout. Natural fertility included soils make up about 15 percent of this map
is moderate. unit.
Native vegetation is cypress and various hardwood In most years, this soil has a high water table within 10
trees. The understory includes sawgrass, lilies, sedges, inches of the surface for 1 month to 4 months. It
reeds, and other aquatic plants. recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during dry
In its natural state, this Terra Ceia soil is not suited to periods. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
cultivated crops because of flooding. With adequate is rapid throughout except in the moderately permeable
flood control, it is well suited to most vegetable crops. A subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
well designed and maintained water control system is Native vegetation is longleaf pine and slash pine. The
needed. A water control system is needed to remove understory includes saw palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle,
excess surface water when crops are on the land and to pineland threeawn, and bluestem.
keep the soil saturated at all other times. Fertilizers that This Immokalee soil has very severe limitations for
contain phosphates, potash, and minor elements are cultivated crops because of wetness and poor soil
needed. Water-tolerant cover crops should be kept on quality. The adapted crops are limited unless very
the soil when it is not used for row crops. Cover crops intensive management practices are used. Good
and the residue of other crops should be used to conservation practices, in addition to water control
maintain the organic matter content and to protect the measures, should be used if this soil is cultivated. With
soil from wind erosion. adequate drainage, this soil is suited to a variety of
This soil is not suited to pasture because of flooding. If vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to
water can be properly controlled, most improved grasses remove excess surface water in wet periods and to
and clovers adapted to the area will grow well. High provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry periods.
yields of pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover can Row crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil-
be grown. A water control system is needed to maintain improving cover crops. Soil-improving cover crops should
the water table near the surface to prevent excessive be included in the rotation system three-fourths of the
oxidation of the organic horizons. Fertilizers that have a time. Soil improving cover crops and the residue of other
high content of potash, phosphorus, and minor elements crops should be used to maintain organic matter content
are needed. Grazing should be controlled to obtain and to protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed
maximum yields, preparation should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer
This soil is not suitable for pine trees. and lime should be applied according to the need of the
The soil in this map unit has not been assigned to a crops.
range site. This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
This soil is not suitable for urban and recreational uses improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they
because of excess humus and flooding. Subsidence are properly managed. A water control system is needed
because of the oxidation of organic matter is a major to remove excess surface water after heavy rains. To
hazard. Removal of organic material and backfilling will obtain maximum yields, regular applications of fertilizer
not overcome the flooding problems unless a substantial and lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled
amount of suitable fill material is used. to maintain plant vigor.







52 Soil Survey



The potential of this soil for the production of pine 52-Candler sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. This soil
trees is moderate. The main concerns in management is strongly sloping and is excessively drained. It is in the
are equipment use limitations during heavy rains, sandhills. The mapped areas are irregular in shape. Most
windthrow hazard, seedling mortality, and plant areas range from 20 to 1,000 acres. The slopes are
competition. To help overcome the equipment use concave.
limitation and reduce seedling mortality, a water control Typically, the surface is light gray sand about 5 inches
system should be installed to remove excess surface thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 52
water. Slash pine is the preferred tree to plant for inches, is pale yellow and very pale brown sand. The
commercial wood production, next layer to a depth of about 80 inches is yellow sand
Typically, this soil is characterized by the South Florida that has thin yellowish brown textural bands.
Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
scattered pine trees and an understory of saw palmetto Apopka, Astatula, Lake, Millhopper, and Tavares soils.
and grasses. If grazing is controlled, the site has the Also included are areas of Candler soils that have
potential to produce significant amounts of creeping random boulders. These areas are adjacent to a map
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and unit that has a bouldery subsurface layer. The included
various panicums. As range deterioration occurs soils make up about 20 percent of this map unit.
because of overgrazing, the site is dominated by saw This soil does not have a high water table within 80
palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass). inches of the surface. The available water capacity is
Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and very low. Permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility is low.
recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be Native vegetation is mostly turkey oak, scrub oak,
reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to pineland threeawn, and running oak.
lower the high water table during wet periods. Seepage This Candler soil is generally not suited to most
should be controlled before using this soil for sanitary commonly cultivated crops or pasture because of
facilities because of the possibility of pollution of water droughtiness, steep slopes, and rapid leaching of plant
supplies. The sandy texture is a severe limitation for nutrients.
recreational use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved This soil produces low yields of improved pasture
areas. A suitable topsoil fill material should be used or grasses, even if good management practices are used.
some other type of surface stabilization is needed to Grasses, such as pangolagrass and bahiagrass, are
overcome this limitation. better adapted to this soil.
This Immokalee soil is in capability subclass IVw and The potential of this soil for the production of pine
in woodland suitability group 9W. trees is moderate. The equipment use limitations, hazard
of erosion on steeper slopes, and seedling mortality are
51-Pits-Dumps complex. This map unit consists of the main concerns in management. Sand, longleaf, and
pits from which soil material and limestone or shell has slash pines are the preferred trees to plant for
been or is being removed and consists of dumps where commercial wood production.
these materials have been piled. It includes exposed soil Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleaf
material, shell, or limestone that is ready for mining, and Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. It is readily recognized
piles of topsoil that have been saved for use in by the landform and dominant vegetation of longleaf
revegetating the area after mining operations have pine and turkey oak. Natural fertility is low because of
ceased. Individual areas of pits and dumps are the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through
impractical to map separately. the soil. Forage production and quality are poor, and
Only a few areas mapped as Pits-Dumps complex are cattle do not use this range site if other sites are
still actively being mined. Most areas have been available. Desirable forage includes creeping bluestem,
abandoned and are not suitable for crops or trees, lopsided indiangrass, and low panicum.
However, these areas are highly suited to pasture, Slope is a moderate limitation for most urban uses.
habitat for wildlife, and recreation areas if they are Seepage is a severe limitation to use of this soil for
reshaped and revegetated to conform to the existing sewage lagoons or landfill areas. If used for sewage
landscapes. Most Pits contain water and are mapped lagoons or landfill areas, the floor and sidewalls should
separately as water. These Pits are well suited to fish if be sealed. The sandy texture is a severe limitation for
they are stocked and managed properly, recreational use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved
Also included in mapping are sanitary landfill areas. areas. Slope is a severe limitation for playgrounds. A
These areas consist of alternate layers of waste and soil suitable topsoil fill material should be used or some form
materials, of surface stabilization is needed to reduce or overcome
This map unit has not been assigned to a capability these limitations.
subclass, to a range site, or to a woodland suitability This Candler soil is in capability subclass Vis and in
group. woodland suitability group 8S.







Sumter County, Florida 53



53-Tavares fine sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 to 5 by the landform and dominant vegetation of longleaf
percent slopes. This soil is nearly level to gently sloping pine and turkey oak. Natural fertility is low because of
and is moderately well drained. It is on the broad the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through
uplands and knolls. The mapped areas are irregular in the soil. Forage production and quality are poor, and
shape and range from 20 to 100 acres. Surface and cattle do not use this range site if other sites are
subsurface boulders are about 60 to 250 feet apart. available. Desirable forage includes creeping bluestem,
They occur randomly in small groups or individually, lopsided indiangrass, and low panicum.
Although most boulders have been removed from the This soil has slight limitations to use as sites for
cropland and improved pasture, the remaining homes and small commercial buildings and for local
subsurface boulders can damage equipment that roads and streets. The depth of the water table during
penetrates the soil. The slopes are generally convex, wet periods is a moderate limitation to use of this soil as
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine septic tank absorption fields. Seepage is a severe
sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying material to a limitation for sewage lagoons or landfill areas. If used for
depth of 80 inches or more is pale brown to light gray sewage lagoons or landfill areas, the sandy sidewalls
fine sand. and floors should be sealed. Random large boulders or
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of groups of boulders may require use of a modified
Adamsville, Millhopper, and Sparr soils. Also included installation design or an alternate site in the map unit for
are some areas of soils that are similar to Tavares soil many urban uses. The sandy texture is a severe
but have a stained layer or coarse fragments at a depth limitation for recreational use and causes poor
of more than 70 inches. The included soils make up trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill
about 20 percent of this map unit. material should be used or some form of surface
During most years, this soil has a high water table stabilization is needed to reduce or overcome this
within 40 to 80 inches of the surface for more than 6 limitation.
months but recedes to a depth of more than 80 inches This Tavares soil is in capability subclass Ills and in
during drought periods. The available water capacity is woodland suitability group 10S.
low to very low. Permeability is very rapid or rapid.
Natural fertility is low. 54-Monteocha fine sand, depressional. This soil is
Native vegetation is live oak, slash pine, and longleaf nearly level and is very poorly drained. It is in wet
pine. The understory includes pineland threeawn and depressional areas. The mapped areas are irregular in
scattered saw palmetto. shape and range from 50 to 200 acres. The slopes are
This Tavares soil has severe limitations for most concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
cultivated crops. Boulders at or near the surface are a Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
continuing nuisance during tillage operations. Most tillage about 11 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth
operations are not impractical if the boulders are of about 28 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of
removed. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant the subsoil, to a depth of about 34 inches, is very dark
nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce crop grayish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of
yields. If this soil is cultivated, row crops should be about 55 inches, is dark grayish brown and brown fine
planted on the contour. Close-growing cover crops sand. The lower part of the subsoil to a depth of 80
should be included in the rotation system at least two- inches or more is gray fine sandy loam.
thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops and residue Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
of other crops should be used to protect the soil from Basinger, Floridana, Okeelanta, Placid, and Vero soils.
erosion. Irrigation of high-value crops is generally The included soils make up about 25 percent of this map
feasible if water is readily available, unit.
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. During most years, this soil has a high water table
Coastal bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass are well within 10 inches of the surface for 4 months or more and
suited to this soil, but yields are reduced by periodic is ponded for more than 6 months. The available water
droughts. Grasses respond to regular fertilizing and capacity is moderate. Permeability is rapid in the surface
liming. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant and subsurface layers. It is moderate or moderately rapid
vigor and a good ground cover. Boulders should be in the upper part of the subsoil and slow or moderately
removed to help prevent equipment damage. slow in the lower part. Natural fertility is low.
The potential of this soil is moderately high for the Native vegetation is maidencane, cypress, pond pine,
production of pine trees. Equipment use limitations, pickerelweed, water lilies, and various aquatic plants.
seedling mortality, and plant competition are concerns in In its natural state, this Monteocha soil is not suited to
management. Slash and longleaf pines are the most cultivated crops or improved pasture because of
suitable trees to plant for commercial wood production, ponding. Not only is wetness a very severe problem, but
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleaf drainage and water control are also severe problems.
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. It is readily recognized Water control systems are difficult to establish. Most







54 Soil Survey



areas of this soil are in isolated ponds that do not have During most years, this soil has a high water table
suitable drainage outlets. A good water control system within 24 to 42 inches of the surface for 1 month to 4
normally requires an extensive system of canals and months and recedes to a depth of more than 42 inches
ditches. With proper management, adapted grasses or during drier periods. The available water capacity is low.
grass-clover pastures can be grown if the areas can be Permeability is very rapid in the surface and subsurface
adequately drained and a good water control system can layers and is moderately rapid in the subsoil. Natural
be maintained, fertility is low.
This soil is not suited to pine trees because of Native vegetation is live oak, scrub oak, laurel oak,
ponding. magnolia, and sweetgum. The understory includes saw
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater palmetto, pineland threeawn, and bluestem.
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be This Pomello soil has very severe limitations for most
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges, cultivated crops. The high water table limits the rooting
rushes, and other herbaceous plants. If grazing is zone for most plants. During dry periods, the water table
controlled, this site has the potential to produce more recedes to a depth not available to most plants. A water
forage than any of the other range sites. Chalky control system is needed to remove excess surface
bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the drier parts water in wet periods. With adequate drainage, this soil is
of the range site, and maidencane is the dominant plant moderately suited to many kinds of flowers and
in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage on this site vegetables. Good conservation practices, in addition to a
includes cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and water control system, should be used if the soil is
includes panicutgrassm. Periodic high water levels provide natural cultivated. Close-growing cover crops should be included
defermelow panicum. Periodic high water levels provide natural an in the rotation system at least two-thirds of the time.
deferment from cattle grazing. Carpet grass, an Soil-improving cover crops and the residue of other
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of the Soil-improving cover crops and the residue of otherosion
site if the soil is overgrazed. Some areas of this soil that crops should be used to protect the soil from erosion and
support dense stands of hardwood or cypress are poorly and to maintain organic matter content. Fertilizer and
support dense stands of hardwood or cypress are poorly lime should be applied according to the need of the
suited to rangeland crops.
Pending is a severe limitation for urban and This soil is moderately well suited to pasture. Yields
recreational uses. This limitation can be reduced by for grasses, such as coastal bermudagrass and
installing a drainage system to lower the high water table bahiagrass, are fair if fertilizer is applied. A drainage
during wet periods or by adding a suitable fill material in system is needed to remove excess surface water during
the depressions. Seepage should be controlled before heavy rains. Grazing should be controlled to maintain
using this soil for sanitary facilities because of the plant vigor and to obtain high yields.
possibility of pollution of water supplies. The sandy The potential of this soil is moderate for pine tree
texture is a severe limitation for recreational use and production. Equipment use and seedling mortality are
causes poor trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable concerns in management. Slash pine is the preferred
topsoil fill material should be used or some other type of tree to plant for commercial wood production.
surface stabilization is needed to overcome this Typically, this soil is characterized by the South Florida
limitation. Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by
This Monteocha soil is in capability subclass VIIw and scattered pine trees and an understory of saw palmetto
in woodland suitability group 6W. and grasses. If grazing is controlled, the site has the
potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
55-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and is somewhat various panicums. As range deterioration occurs
poorly drained. It is on low ridges on the flatwoods. The because of overgrazing, the site is dominated by saw
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 10 palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass). A few areas
to 100 acres. The slopes are smooth. of this soil support dense stands of oak trees. This soil
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 6 provides good shade and resting areas for cattle but
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about provides insufficient grazing.
40 inches, is white fine sand. The upper part of the Wetness and seepage are severe limitations for urban
subsoil, to a depth of about 48 inches, is dark brown fine uses. This wetness limitation can be reduced or
sand. The middle part, to a depth of about 56 inches, is overcome by installing a drainage system to lower the
black fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches high water table during wet periods. Mounding may be
or more is dark brown fine sand. needed in areas used for septic tank absorption fields
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of because of wetness. If used for sewage lagoons or
Adamsville, Immokalee, Myakka, Oldsmar, and Sparr sanitary landfill areas, sidewalls should be sealed to
soils. The included soils make up about 15 percent of prevent seepage. The sandy texture is a severe
this map unit. limitation for recreational use and causes poor







Sumter County, Florida 55



trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill Ponding is a severe limitation for urban and
material should be used or some type of surface recreational uses. This limitation can be reduced by
stabilization is needed to overcome this limitation, installing a drainage system to lower the high water table
This Pomello soil is in capability subclass VIs and in during wet periods or by adding suitable fill material in
woodland suitability group 9S. the depressions. In addition, seepage should be
controlled before using this soil for sanitary facilities
56-Vero fine sand, depressional. This soil is nearly because of the possibility of pollution of water supplies.
level and is poorly drained. It is in wet depressional The sandy texture of this soil is a severe limitation for
areas. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and recreational use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved
range from 10 to 100 acres. The slopes are concave areas. A suitable topsoil fill material should be used or
and range from 0 to 2 percent. some other type of surface stabilization is needed to
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5 overcome this limitation.
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about This Vero soil is in capability subclass Vllw and in
12 inches, is grayish brown fine sand. The upper part of woodland suitability group 6W.
the subsoil, to a depth of about 28 inches, is dark brown
fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 55 inches, 57-Gator muck, frequently flooded. This soil is
is grayish brown sandy clay loam. The substratum to a nearly level and is very poorly drained. It is in swamps
depth of 80 inches or more is gray fine sandy loam. and marshes along the flood plains of the major rivers,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of lakes, and streams in Sumter County. The mapped areas
Floridana, Gator, Monteocha, and Paisley soils. The are mostly wide and long and range from 100 to 2,000
included soils make up about 25 percent of this map acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 1
unit. percent.
This soil is ponded for 6 to 8 months. The available Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
water capacity is medium. Permeability is rapid in the and black muck about25 inches thick. The upper part of
surface and subsurface layers and is moderately slow in the underlying material, to a depth of about 40 inches, is
the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. light gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of about
80 inches is gray sandy clay loam and fine sandy loam.
Native vegetation is pickerelweed, maidencane, and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
various aquatic plants. Floridana and Terra Ceia soils. Also included are some
In its natural state, this Vero soil is not suited to soils that are similar to Gator soil but have a loamy
cultivated crops or improved pasture because of surface layer and a few areas of soils that are sandy to a
ponding. Not only is wetness a very severe problem, but depth of more than 50 inches. The included soils make
drainage and water control are also severe problems. up about 25 percent of this map unit.
Water control systems are difficult to establish. Most This soil is frequently flooded for very long periods (fig.
areas of this soil are in isolated ponds that do not have 10). The available water capacity is very high.
suitable drainage outlets. A good water control system Permeability is rapid in the surface layer. It is also rapid
normally requires an extensive system of canals and in the sandy part of the substratum and moderate in the
ditches. With proper management, adapted grasses or loamy part. Natural fertility is moderate.
grass-clover pastures can be grown if the areas can be Native vegetation is mostly baldcypress, hickory,
adequately drained and a water control system can be redbay, and sweetgum. The understory includes
maintained. greenbrier and poison ivy.
This soil is not suited to pine trees because of In its natural state, this Gator soil is not suited to
ponding. cultivated crops because of flooding. With adequate
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater drainage, this soil is well suited to most vegetable crops
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be and sugarcane. A water control system is needed to
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges, remove excess water when crops are on the land and to
rushes, and other herbaceous plants. If grazing is keep the soil saturated at all other times. Fertilizers that
controlled, this site has the potential to produce more contain phosphates, potash, and minor elements are
forage than any of the other range sites. Chalky needed. Water-tolerant cover crops should be grown on
bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the drier parts this soil when it is not in row crops.
of the range site, and maidencane is the dominant plant In its natural state, this soil is not suited to pasture
in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage includes because of flooding; however, most improved grasses
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low and clovers adapted to the soil grow well if water is
panicum. Periodic high water levels provide natural properly controlled. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white
deferment from cattle grazing. Carpetgrass, an clover grow well on this soil. A water control system is
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of the needed to maintain the water table near the surface to
site if the soil is overgrazed, prevent excessive oxidation of the organic horizons.







56 Soil Survey


























-7~5










Figure 10.-Flooding can be a problem around lakes, rivers, and streams. This soil is Gator muck, frequently flooded.


Applications of fertilizers that have a high content of level, concave flats. The mapped areas are irregular in
potash, phosphorus, and minor elements are needed. shape and range from 10 to 60 acres. The slopes are
Grazing should be controlled to obtain maximum yields. less than 1 percent.
This soil is not suitable for pine trees. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
This map unit has not been assigned to a range site. inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
Excess humus and flooding are severe limitations for 13 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The upper
urban and recreational uses. Removal of organic part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 24 inches, is gray
material and backfilling will not overcome flooding sandy clay that has mottles in shades of yellow and
problems unless a substantial amount of suitable fill brown. The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is
material is used. dark gray sandy clay that has mottles in shades of
This Gator soil is in capability subclass Vllw and in yellow and brown.
woodland suitability group 6W. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Floridana, Ft. Green, and Nittaw soils. Also included are
58-Paisley fine sand, depressional. This soil is areas of Paisley soils that have random boulders. These
nearly level and is very poorly drained. It is on nearly areas are adjacent to a map unit that has a bouldery







Sumter County, Florida 57



subsurface layer. The included soils make up about 20 the depressions. The sandy texture is a severe limitation
percent of this map unit. for recreational use and causes poor trafficability in
During most years, this soil has a high water table that unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill material should be
is above the surface for 6 to 8 months and recedes to a used or some other type of surface stabilization is
depth of 10 inches or more for 1 month to 4 months needed to overcome this limitation.
during dry periods. The available water capacity is This Paisley soil is in capability subclass Vllw and in
moderate. Permeability is rapid in the surface and woodland suitability group 6W.
subsurface layers and is slow in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is medium. 59-Arents, organic substratum. This soil is
Native vegetation is maidencane, chalky bluestem, and somewhat poorly drained to moderately well drained. It is
pickerelweed. around ditches and in low areas that have been filled.
In its natural state, this Paisley soil is not suited to The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from
cultivated crops because of ponding. A drainage system 10 to 50 acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0
does not function well because of the slow permeability to 2 percent.
of the subsoil. With adequate drainage, this soil is suited Arents, organic substratum, is highly variable in short
to many locally grown high-value crops. A water control distances, but one of the more common profiles is about
system is needed to remove excess surface and 30 inches thick. It consists of mixed brown and dark gray
subsurface water rapidly. Conservation practices, such fine sand and few organic bodies underlain by about 20
as good seedbed preparation, crop rotation, and regular inches of black organic material and by brown and light
application of fertilizer and lime, should be used on this brownish gray fine sand.
soil if cultivated. Cover crops should be rotated with row Included with this soil in mapping are small areas that
crops. Cover crops should be included in the rotation have less than 20 inches of fill material overlying the
system two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops natural soil. The included areas make up about 25
and the residue of other crops should be used to percent of the map unit.
maintain organic matter content and to protect the soil This soil has a high water table within 20 to 40 inches
from erosion, of the surface during most of the year. The available
In its natural state, this soil is not suited to improved water capacity is moderate. Permeability is rapid
pasture grasses and legumes because of ponding; throughout. Natural fertility is low.
however, if a drainage system is provided to remove Most areas of this soil are used for urban
excess surface and subsurface water, coastal development.
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, tall fescuegrass, and clover The limitations for most urban uses are variable
are well adapted to this soil. Good conservation because of a wide range of soil properties. Low strength
practices, such as fertilizing, liming, and controlled and wetness are major limitations. Onsite investigation is
grazing, should be used to obtain maximum yields, necessary to determine the limitations and suitability of
This soil is not suited to pine trees because of the soil.
ponding. This soil has not been assigned to a capability
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater subclass, to a range site, or to a woodland suitability
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be group.
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges,
rushes, and other herbaceous plants. If grazing is 60-Delray fine sand, depressional. This soil is
controlled, this site has the potential to produce more nearly level and is very poorly drained. It is in wet
forage than any of the other range sites. Chalky depressional areas. The mapped areas are irregular in
bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the drier parts shape and range from 50 to 1,000 acres. The slopes are
of the site, and maidencane is the dominant plant in the concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
wetter parts. Other desirable forage includes cutgrass, Typically, the surface layer is black and very dark gray
bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low panicum. fine sand about 16 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
Periodic high water levels provide natural deferment from a depth of about 60 inches, is grayish brown fine sand.
cattle grazing. Carpetgrass, an introduced plant, tends to The subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is light
dominate the drier parts of the site if the soil is brownish gray sandy clay loam.
overgrazed. Some areas of this soil support dense Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
stands of hardwood or cypress trees but provide Basinger, Floridana, Pompano, and Placid soils. Also
insufficient grazing. included are some areas of soils that are similar to
This soil is not suited to urban and recreational uses Delray soil but have a muck surface. These soils occur
because of ponding. The wetness limitation can be near the center of the map unit. The included soils make
reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to up about 25 percent of this map unit.
lower the surface water and internal water to an This soil is ponded for more than 6 months during
acceptable depth or by adding a suitable fill material in most years. The available water capacity is moderate.







58 Soil Survey



Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
and is moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil. inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about
Natural fertility is low. 21 inches, is light gray and grayish brown fine sand. The
Native vegetation is baldcypress, bay trees, various upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 34 inches,
hardwoods, dense pickerelweed, arrowhead, and water is very dark brown and very dark grayish brown fine
lilies. sand. The next layer, to a depth of about 50 inches, is
In its natural state, this Delray soil is not suited to grayish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of
cultivated crops or improved pasture because of about 53 inches, is light brownish gray fine sandy loam.
ponding. Not only is wetness a very severe limitation, but The lower part, to a depth of about 65 inches, is light
drainage and water control are also severe problems. gray sandy clay loam. The substratum to a depth of 80
Water control systems are difficult to establish. Most inches or more is light gray fine sandy loam.
areas of this soil are in isolated ponds that do not have Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
suitable drainage outlets. A good water control system Immokalee, Myakka, Oldsmar, and Vero soils. Also
normally requires an extensive system of canals and included are areas of EauGallie soils that have random
ditches. With proper management, adapted grasses or boulders. These areas are adjacent to a map unit that
grass-clover pastures can be grown if the areas can be has a bouldery subsurface layer. The included soils
adequately drained and a good water control system can make up about 20 percent of this map unit.
be maintained. In most years, this soil has a high water table within 10
This soil is not suited to pine trees because of to 40 inches of the surface for more than 6 months and
ponding. at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 month to 4
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater months. The available water capacity is moderate.
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
identified by an open expanse of grasses sedges, layers. It is moderate or moderately rapid in the upper
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges, part of the subsoil and moderately slow in the lower part.
rushes, and other herbaceous plants. If grazing is Natural fertility is low.
controlled, this site has the potential to produce more Native vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak,
forage than any of the other range sites. Chalky and water oak. The understory includes saw palmetto,
bluestem and blue maidencane dominate the drier parts gallberry, running oak, and pineland threeawn.
of the range site, and maidencane is the dominant plant This EauGallie soil has very severe limitations for
in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage includes cultivated crops because of wetness. With good water
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low control measures and soil-improving measures, this soil
panicum. Periodic high water levels provide natural is well suited to many vegetable crops. A water control
deferment from cattle grazing. Carpetgrass, an system is needed to remove excess water in wet periods
introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of the and to provide water for surface irrigation in dry periods.
site if the soil is overgrazed. Some areas of this soil that Row crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil-
support dense stands of hardwood or cypress trees are improving cover crops. Soil-improving cover crops should
poorly suited to rangeland. be included in the rotation system three-fourths of the
Ponding is a severe limitation for urban and time. Conservation tillage helps to conserve moisture
recreational uses. This limitation can be reduced by and controls plant damage from blowing soil. Seedbed
installing a drainage system to lower the high water table preparation should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer
during wet periods or by adding a suitable fill material in and lime should be applied according to the need of the
the depressions. In addition, seepage should be crops.
controlled before using this soil for sanitary facilities This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
because of the possibility of pollution of water supplies. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are well adapted
The sandy texture is a severe limitation for recreational to this soil, and grow well if they are properly managed.
use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved areas. A These grasses require a drainage system to remove
suitable topsoil fill material should be used or some excess surface water during heavy rains. They also
other type of surface stabilization is needed to overcome require regular applications of fertilizer and lime. Grazing
this limitation, should be controlled to maintain plant vigor and to obtain
This Delray soil is in capability subclass Vllw and in high yields.
woodland suitability group 3W. The potential of this soil for pine tree production is
moderately high. Equipment use limitations, seedling
61-EauGallie fine sand. This soil is nearly level and mortality, and plant competition are concerns in
is poorly drained. It is on the broad flatwoods. The management. Slash and loblolly pines are the most
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 20 suitable trees to plant for commercial wood production.
to 150 acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 Typically, this soil is characterized by the South Florida
to 2 percent. Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by







Sumter County, Florida 59



scattered pine trees and an understory of saw palmetto about 26 inches, is gray fine sand. The subsoil to a
and grasses. This range site covers more land area than depth of 80 inches is gray and light brownish gray sandy
any of the other range sites in Florida. If grazing is clay loam that has mottles in shades of yellow and
controlled, the site has the potential to produce brown.
significant amounts of creeping bluestem, lopsided During most years, Floridana soil has a high water
indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and various panicums. As table at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 month to 4
range deterioration occurs because of overgrazing, the months, and it is frequently flooded. Permeability is rapid
site is dominated by saw palmetto and pineland in the surface layer and is slow or very slow in the
threeawn (wiregrass). subsoil. The available water capacity is moderate.
Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and Natural fertility is medium. The content of organic matter
recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be is high.
reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to Basinger soil is poorly drained. This soil makes up
lower the high water table during wet periods. Mounding about 20 percent of the association. Typically, the
may be needed in places for septic tank absorption surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 5 inches
fields. Seepage should be controlled before using this thick. The subsoil, to a depth of about 22 inches, is light
soil for sanitary facilities because of the possibility of brownish gray and brown sand. The substratum to a
pollution of water supplies. The sandy texture is a severe depth of 80 inches or more is dark grayish brown sand.
limitation for recreational use and causes poor Basinger soil is rapidly permeable. The available water
trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill capacity is low. Natural fertility is low.
material should be used or some type of surface Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of
stabilization is needed to overcome this limitation. Chobee, Delray, Malabar, and Pompano soils. Also
This EauGallie soil is in capability subclass IVw and in included are some soils that have loamy fluvial material
woodland suitability group 10W. on the surface. The included soils make up about 15
62-Urban land In this miscellaneous area, the percent of this map unit.
r62-Urban land. In this miscellaneous area the Native vegetation is cypress, water hickory, red maple,
original soil has been modified for urban development. ironwood, sedges, ferns, poison ivy, trumpet creeper,
Major soil properties that originally limited urban uses pickerelweed, and various aquatic plants.
have been overcome in an acceptable manner. pickerelweed, and various aquatic plants.
In their natural state, the soils in this association are
Urban facilities, such as paved parking areas, streets, cultivated crops or improved pasture.
railroad tracks, houses, and shopping centers have been not suitable for cul susceptible to flooding, which severely
constructed on 80 percent or more of this map unit. In These soils are suseptible to flooding, which severely
places not covered by urban facilities, the soils are so restricts their use. If the hazard of flooding can be
altered that identification is not feasible, overcome, the soils can be used for improved pasture
Urban land is primarily in downtown areas, shopping grasses.
districts, and along main thoroughfares in towns. It is These soils are not suited to pine trees because of
also in isolated shopping centers and small business wetness. Some type of drainage system and bedding of
areas. Small, less intensively developed areas and small the soils, which helps to provide surface drainage, is
areas of identifiable soils are in some places. needed before pine trees can be planted.
This miscellaneous area has not been assigned to a The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
capability subclass, to a range site, or to a woodland range site because of the heavy growth of understory in
suitability group. natural areas. This understory prevents satisfactory
growth of range grasses.
63-Floridana-Basinger association, frequently Even if the soils in this association are protected from
flooded. This association consists of poorly drained and flooding and proper water control measures are used,
very poorly drained soils in regular and repeating they still have severe limitations to use as septic tank
patterns along the Withlacoochee and Little absorption fields and for trench sanitary landfills, sewage
Withlacoochee Rivers. The Floridana soils are in the lagoons, shallow excavations, dwellings without
lowest positions on the landscape, and Basinger soils basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
are in slightly higher positions. The mapped areas are streets, and playgrounds. In addition, mounding is
mostly long and narrow but also include some broad needed for septic tank absorption fields, sealing or lining
areas near the mouth of the Little Withlacoochee River. with impervious material is needed for sewage lagoon
Individual areas range from 20 to 50 acres. areas, shoring of side slopes is needed for shallow
Floridana soil is very poorly drained. This soil makes excavations, and a suitable fill material is needed for
up about 65 percent of the association. Typically, the dwellings without basements, small commercial
surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 5 inches buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds.
thick underlain by very dark gray fine sand to a depth of This Floridana soil is in capability subclass Vw and in
about 11 inches. The subsurface layer, to a depth of woodland suitability group 3W. Basinger soil is in







60 Soil Survey



capability subclass Vlw and in woodland suitability group deferment from cattle grazing. Carpetgrass, an
6W. introduced plant, tends to dominate the drier parts of the
site if the soil is overgrazed. Some areas of this soil that
64-Gator muck. This soil is nearly level and is very support dense stands of hardwood or cypress trees are
poorly drained. It is in depressional areas. The mapped poorly suited to rangeland.
areas are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 100 Excess humus and wetness are severe limitations for
acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 1 urban and recreational uses. Removal of organic
percent, material and backfilling will not overcome the wetness
Typically, the surface layer, to a depth of about 38 limitation unless a substantial amount of suitable fill
inches, is dark reddish brown and very dark grayish material is used.
brown muck. The underlying material, to a depth of This Gator soil is in capability subclass Vllw but has
about 42 inches, is gray fine sand and is gray and dark not been assigned to a woodland suitability group.
gray sandy clay loam and sandy loam to a depth of
about 80 inches. 65-Candler sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 to 5
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of percent slopes. This soil is nearly level to gently sloping
Placid, Pompano, and Terra Ceia soils. The included and is excessively drained. It is on ridges, knolls, and
soils make up about 15 percent of this map unit. broad uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape
This soil has a high water table at a depth of less than and range from 20 to 180 acres. Surface and subsurface
10 inches, or it is covered by water 6 to 12 months boulders are about 60 to 250 feet apart. They occur
during most years. The available water capacity is high. randomly in small groups or individually. Although most
Permeability is rapid in the organic layers. Natural fertility boulders have been removed from the cropland and
is moderate. improved pasture, the remaining subsurface boulders
Native vegetation is pickerelweed, willow, sawgrass, can damage equipment that penetrates the soil. The
lilies, and other water-tolerant plants. slopes are smooth to broken.
In its natural state, this Gator soil is not suited to Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 3 inches
cultivated crops because of wetness. With adequate thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth
water control, this soil is well suited to most vegetable of about 25 inches, is light yellowish brown sand. The
crops and sugarcane. A water control system is needed lower part to a depth of about 80 inches or more is very
to remove excess water when crops are on the land and pale brown sand. It has thin yellowish brown textural
to keep the soil saturated at all other times. Fertilizers bands at a depth of more than 65 inches.
that contain phosphates, potash, and minor elements are Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
needed. Water-tolerant cover crops should be planted Arredondo, Astatula, Lake, Millhopper, and Tavares soils.
when the soil is not in row crops. The included soils make up about 20 percent of this map
In its natural state, this soil is not suited to use as unit.
improved pasture because of wetness; however, most This soil does not have a high water table within 80
improved grasses and clovers adapted to the area grow inches of the surface. The available water capacity is
well on these soils if water is properly controlled. very low. Permeability is rapid. Natural fertility is low.
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover grow well on Native vegetation is mostly turkey oak and scrub oak.
this soil. A water control system is needed to help The understory includes pineland threeawn and running
maintain the water table near the surface to prevent oak.
excessive oxidation of the organic horizons. Fertilizer This Candler soil has very severe limitations for
high in potash, phosphorus, and the minor elements is cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
needed. Grazing should be controlled to obtain maximum plant nutrients reduce crop yields. Boulders at or near
yields. the surface are a continuing nuisance during tillage
This soil is not suited to pine trees because of operations. Most tillage operations are not impractical if
ponding. the boulders are removed. If this soil is cultivated, row
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Freshwater crops should be planted on the contour. Close-growing
Marshes and Ponds range site. This site can be cover crops should be included in the rotation system at
identified by an open expanse of grasses, sedges, least three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving cover
rushes, and other herbaceous plants. If grazing is crops and the residue of other crops should be used to
controlled, this range site has the potential to produce protect the soil from erosion. Irrigation of high-value
more forage than any of the other range sites. Chalky crops is generally feasible if water is readily available.
bluestem and blue maidencane are dominant in the drier This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
part of the range site, and maidencane is the dominant crops. Deep-rooting plants, such as Coastal
plant in the wetter parts. Other desirable forage includes bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well suited to this
cutgrass, bluejoint panicum, sloughgrass, and low soil, but yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular
panicum. Periodic high water levels provide natural applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing







Sumter County, Florida 61



should be controlled to help maintain plant vigor. In most years, this soil does not have a high water
Boulders should be removed to help prevent equipment table within 72 inches of the surface. The available water
damage, capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers.
The potential of this soil is moderate for pine tree Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
production. Equipment use limitations and seedling and is moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is
mortality are concerns in management. Sand pine, slash moderate.
pine, and longleaf pine are the most suitable trees to Most of the acreage in this map unit is in improved
plant for commercial woodland production, pasture. Native vegetation is laurel oak, live oak,
Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleaf bluestem, dogfennel, paspalum, and threeawn.
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. It is readily recognized This Arredondo soil has severe limitations for most
by the landform and dominant vegetation of longleaf cultivated crops. Boulders at or near the surface are a
pine and turkey oak. Natural fertility is low because of continuing nuisance during tillage operations. Most tillage
the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through operations are not impractical if the boulders are
the soil. Forage production and quality are poor, and removed. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
cattle do not use this range site if other sites are nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce crop
available. Desirable forage includes creeping bluestem, yields. If this soil is cultivated, row crops should be
lopsided indiangrass, and low panicum. planted on the contour. Close-growing cover crops
This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses. should be included in the rotation system at least two-
Seepage and cutbank caving are severe limitations to thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops and the
use of this soil for sewage lagoons or landfill areas. If residue of other crops should be used to protect the soil
used for sewage lagoons or landfill areas, the floor and from erosion. Irrigation of high-value crops is generally
sidewalls should be lined and sealed. Random large feasible if water is readily available.
boulders or groups of boulders may require use of a The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
modified installation design or an alternate site in the Coastal bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass are well
map unit for many urban uses. The sandy texture is a suited to this soil, but yields are reduced by periodic
severe limitation for recreational use. Boulders on droughts. Grasses respond to regular applications of
playgrounds are severe limitations. Wind erosion is a fertilizer and lime. Grazing should be controlled to
hazard if the surface soil is exposed. Establishing and maintain plant vigor and a good ground cover. Boulders
maintaining windbreaks and a good vegetative cover and masn tain plant vigor help prevent equipment damage.
using a suitable topsoil fill material or some form of sou rov o p
surface stabilization can reduce or overcome these The potential of this soil is moderately high for pine
limitations. tree production. Equipment use limitations, seedling
This Candler soil is in capability subclass IVs and in mortality, and plant competition are concerns in
woodland suitability group 8S. management. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the
most suitable trees to plant for commercial wood
66-Arredondo fine sand, bouldery subsurface, 0 production.
to 5 percent slopes. This soil is nearly level to gently Typically, this soil is characterized by the Longleaf
sloping and is well drained. It is on the broad uplands. Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. It is readily recognized
The mapped areas are wide and follow the contour of by the landform and dominant vegetation of longleaf
the uplands and range from 50 to 300 acres. Surface pine and turkey oak. Natural fertility is low because of
and subsurface boulders are about 60 to 250 feet apart. the rapid movement of plant nutrients and water through
They occur randomly in small groups or individually, the soil. Forage production and quality are poor, and
Although most boulders have been removed from the cattle do not use this range site if other sites are
cropland and improved pasture, the remaining available. Desirable forage includes creeping bluestem,
subsurface boulders can damage equipment that lopsided indiangrass, and low panicum.
penetrates the soil. The slopes are convex and range This soil has slight limitations as sites for homes,
from 0 to 5 percent. septic tank absorption fields, and small commercial
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown buildings and for local roads and streets. Seepage is a
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to severe limitation to use of this soil for sewage lagoons or
a depth of about 58 inches, is brown, light yellowish landfill areas. If used for sewage lagoons or landfill
brown, and brownish yellow fine sand. The subsoil to a areas, the sandy sidewalls should be sealed. Random
depth of 80 inches or more is strong brown loamy fine large boulders or groups of boulders may require use of
sand and fine sandy loam. a modified installation design or an alternate site in the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of map unit for many urban uses. The sandy texture is a
Candler, Kendrick, Lake, Millhopper, and Tavares soils, severe limitation for recreational use and causes poor
The included soils make up about 20 to 25 percent of trafficability in unpaved areas. A suitable topsoil fill
this map unit. material should be used or some form of surface







62 Soil Survey



stabilization is needed to reduce or overcome this they are properly managed. A drainage system to
limitation. remove excess surface water during heavy rains must be
This Arredondo soil is in capability subclass Ills and in provided, and regular applications of fertilizers and lime
woodland suitability group 10S. are needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain
plant vigor for maximum yields.
67-Vero fine sand. This soil is nearly level and is Potential of this soil is moderately high for pine tree
poorly drained. It is on the broad flatwoods. The mapped production. Equipment use limitations, seedling mortality,
areas are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 100 and plant competition are concerns in management.
acres. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 Slash and longleaf pines are the most suitable trees to
percent. plant for commercial wood production.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4 Typically, this soil is characterized by the South Florida
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 21 Flatwoods range site. This site can be identified by
inches, is grayish brown fine sand. The upper part of the scattered pine trees and an understory of saw palmetto
subsoil, to a depth of about 26 inches, is very dark and grasses. If grazing is controlled, the site has the
brown loamy fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of potential to produce significant amounts of creeping
about 32 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, and
lower part, to a depth of about 65 inches, is light gray various panicums. As range deterioration occurs
and light brownish gray sandy clay loam that has mottles because of overgrazing, the site is dominated by saw
in shades of strong brown. The substratum to a depth of palmetto and pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Some areas
80 inches or more is light gray fine sandy loam that has of this soil support dense stands of oak trees. This soil
mottles in shades of strong brown. provides good shade and resting areas for cattle but
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of does not provide sufficient grazing.
EauGallie and Paisley soils. Also included are areas of Wetness is a severe limitation for urban and
Vero soils that have random boulders. These areas are recreational uses. This wetness limitation can be
adjacent to a map unit that has a bouldery subsurface reduced or overcome by installing a drainage system to
layer. The included soils make up about 20 percent of lower the high water table during wet periods. Mounding
this map unit. may be needed in places for septic tank absorption
In most years, this soil has a high water table within 10 fields because of wetness and slow permeability. The
to 40 inches of the surface for more than 6 months and sandy texture is also a severe limitation for recreational
at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 month to 4 use and causes poor trafficability in unpaved areas. A
months. The available water capacity is moderate, suitable topsoil fill material should be used or some type
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface of surface stabilization is needed to overcome this
layers. It is moderate or moderately rapid in the upper limitation.
part of the subsoil and moderately slow in the lower part. This Vero soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in
Natural fertility is low. woodland suitability group 10W.
Native vegetation is slash pine and longleaf pine. The
understory includes saw palmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, 68-Chobee loamy fine sand, frequently flooded.
and pineland threeawn. This soil is very poorly drained and is nearly level. It is
This Vero soil has severe limitations for cultivated on river flood plains and in long, narrow depressions that
crops because of wetness. The adapted crops are are connected to the rivers by flood channels. The
limited unless very intensive management practices are mapped areas are mostly long and narrow and tend to
used. With good water control measures and soil- parallel the rivers. The slopes are smooth and range
improving measures, this soil is well suited to many from 0 to 1 percent.
vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to Typically, the surface layer is black loamy fine sand
remove excess water in wet periods and to provide about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
water for subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Row crops depth of about 11 inches, is very dark gray sandy clay
should be rotated with close-growing, soil-improving loam. The middle part, to a depth of about 20 inches, is
cover crops. Soil-improving cover crops should be dark brown sandy clay loam that has dark yellowish
included in the rotation system three-fourths of the time. brown mottles. The lower part, to a depth of about 41
Conservation tillage helps to conserve moisture and inches, is gray to light gray sandy clay loam that has
controls plant damage from blowing soil. Seedbed yellowish brown mottles and light gray nodules of
preparation should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer calcium carbonate. The substratum to a depth of about
and lime should be applied according to the need of the 80 inches is light gray fine sandy loam that has yellowish
crops. brown mottles and white nodules of calcium carbonate.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are well adapted Floridana, Gator, and Nittaw soils. The included soils
to this soil. These grasses and legumes grow well when make up about 25 percent of this map unit.






Sumter County, Florida 63



The available water capacity is moderate. Permeability bahiagrass, and clover grow well on this soil if properly
is moderately rapid in the surface layer and slow or very managed. Regular applications of fertilizers and lime are
slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility is moderate. needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
Native vegetation is cypress, water oak, red maple, vigor and to obtain maximum yields.
ironwood, and sweetgum. The understory includes The potential of this soil for the production of slash
aquatic plants, greenbrier, and poison ivy. pine trees is moderate. Good management practices
In its natural state, this Chobee soil is not suited to should include bedding of rows to help provide surface
cultivated crops because of flooding and wetness. drainage. A water control system is needed to reduce
Without adequate drainage and a flood control system, the hazard of flooding and to remove excess surface
the adapted crops are very limited. The water control water.
system is needed to remove excess surface water This soil has not been assigned to a range site
rapidly after heavy rains and to provide subsurface because of the heavy growth of overstory in natural
drainage. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of
the rows. Good conservation practices, in addition to areas. This overstory prevents satisfactory growth of
water control measures, should be used if this soil is range grasses.
cultivated. Close-growing, soil-improving cover crops This soil is poorly suited to urban and recreational
should be included in the rotation system at least two- uses because of wetness and the hazard of flooding.
thirds of the time. Fertilizer should be applied according These limitations can be reduced or overcome by
to the need of the crops. Cover crops and residue of providing a flood control system and drainage system. A
other crops should be used to maintain organic matter suitable fill material may also be needed. Slow
content and to protect the soil from erosion. percolation limits the use of this soil as septic tank
In its natural state, this soil is not suited to improved absorption fields.
pastures. If flood control along with drainage is provided, This Chobee soil is in capability subclass Vw and in
this soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass, woodland suitability group 6W.










65









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under Detailed Soil Map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Approximately 150,000 acres in Sumter County was
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses used for crops and pasture according to the 1980
and management. Field experience and collected data Census of Agriculture, the Sumter County Extension
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis Service estimates, and the Florida Agricultural Statistics,
for predicting soil behavior. Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Of this
Information in this section can be used to plan the use total, 110,000 acres was used for pasture; less than
total, 110,000 acres was used for pasture; less than
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
1,000 acres for citrus; and 40,000 acres for special
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary 1,000 acres for citrus; and 40,000 acres for special
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and crops, mainly vegetables, such as cucumbers,
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife watermelons (fig. 11), peppers, squash, and eggplant.
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and Smaller acreages were planted in peas, sod, and nursery
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help plants.
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil The potential of the soils in Sumter County for
properties. increased food production is good. About 100,000 acres
Planners and others using soil survey information can of potentially good cropland could be added to the
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity present cropland acreage. For satisfactory crop
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. production, all of this acreage would require irrigation,
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a intensive conservation measures to prevent soil blowing,
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature, and relatively high applications of fertilizer. About one-
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of third of this acreage would also require flood control and
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to subsurface drainage in addition to irrigation. In addition
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil to the reserve capacity represented by this land, food
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, production could be increased considerably by extending
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and the latest agricultural technology to all cropland in the
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can county. This soil survey can greatly facilitate the
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate application of such technology.
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, Acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has gradually
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs, been decreasing as more and more land is used for
urban development. In 1982, an estimated 9,075 acres
Crops and Pasture of urban and built-up land was in the county. According
to Central Florida Regional Planning Council estimates,
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, and H.G. Roane, this acreage has been increasing about 10 percent, per
conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare this section. year, for the past 10 years. The use of this soil survey to
General management needed for crops and pasture is help make land use decisions that will influence the
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants future role of farming in the county is discussed in the
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly section General Soil Map Units."
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of Soil erosion is a problem on the more sloping soils if
land capability classification used by the Soil the soil surface is not protected by growing crops or by
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated leaving crop residue on the surface. Erosion is a hazard







65









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under Detailed Soil Map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Approximately 150,000 acres in Sumter County was
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses used for crops and pasture according to the 1980
and management. Field experience and collected data Census of Agriculture, the Sumter County Extension
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis Service estimates, and the Florida Agricultural Statistics,
for predicting soil behavior. Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Of this
Information in this section can be used to plan the use total, 110,000 acres was used for pasture; less than
total, 110,000 acres was used for pasture; less than
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
1,000 acres for citrus; and 40,000 acres for special
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary 1,000 acres for citrus; and 40,000 acres for special
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and crops, mainly vegetables, such as cucumbers,
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife watermelons (fig. 11), peppers, squash, and eggplant.
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and Smaller acreages were planted in peas, sod, and nursery
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help plants.
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil The potential of the soils in Sumter County for
properties. increased food production is good. About 100,000 acres
Planners and others using soil survey information can of potentially good cropland could be added to the
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity present cropland acreage. For satisfactory crop
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. production, all of this acreage would require irrigation,
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a intensive conservation measures to prevent soil blowing,
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature, and relatively high applications of fertilizer. About one-
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of third of this acreage would also require flood control and
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to subsurface drainage in addition to irrigation. In addition
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil to the reserve capacity represented by this land, food
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, production could be increased considerably by extending
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and the latest agricultural technology to all cropland in the
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can county. This soil survey can greatly facilitate the
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate application of such technology.
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, Acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has gradually
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs, been decreasing as more and more land is used for
urban development. In 1982, an estimated 9,075 acres
Crops and Pasture of urban and built-up land was in the county. According
to Central Florida Regional Planning Council estimates,
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, and H.G. Roane, this acreage has been increasing about 10 percent, per
conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare this section. year, for the past 10 years. The use of this soil survey to
General management needed for crops and pasture is help make land use decisions that will influence the
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants future role of farming in the county is discussed in the
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly section General Soil Map Units."
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of Soil erosion is a problem on the more sloping soils if
land capability classification used by the Soil the soil surface is not protected by growing crops or by
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated leaving crop residue on the surface. Erosion is a hazard







66 Soil Survey



















.4 .
















Figure 11.-Watermelons can be grown on a drought soil if the soil is irrigated. This soil is Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.



on Apopka, Candler, Millhopper, Tavares, and Sparr soils Conservation tillage leaves crop residue on the
that have slope of more than 2 percent. surface, increases infiltration, and reduces runoff and
Loss of soil by erosion reduces crop productivity and subsequent erosion. This practice can be adapted to
increases pollution. Productivity is reduced as the most soils in the county.
surface is lost, and organic matter is reduced as part of Soils in Sumter County are too sandy and slopes are
the subsoil is incorporated into the plow layer. If erosion too short and irregular for contour tillage or terracing.
is controlled, the pollution of streams by sediment can Stripcropping and diversions reduce the length of slope,
be reduced and the quality of water for municipal use, reduce runoff, and help control erosion. Contour farming
for recreation, and for fish and wildlife can be improved, and terracing are more practical on deep, well drained
Conservation practices, such as maintaining a soils that have regular slopes. On many fields, diversions
vegetative cover on the surface layer, reducing runoff, and grassed waterways reduce runoff and help control
and increasing infiltration, will help control erosion. A erosion. These conservation practices can be adapted to
cropping system that keeps vegetative cover on the
surface for extended periods can hold soil erosion losses mos sois in t county.
to amounts that do not reduce the productive capacity of Wind erosion is a major hazard on the sandy and
the soils. On livestock farms, legume and grass forage organic soils. Wind can damage soils and tender crops
crops should be included in the cropping system to in a few hours in open, unprotected areas if the wind is
reduce erosion on sloping land, provide nitrogen, and strong and the soil is dry and bare of vegetation or
improve tilth for the following crop.







Sumter County, Florida 67



surface mulch. Maintaining vegetative cover or surface county. Some soils that are naturally wet restrict
mulch minimizes wind erosion, production of many crops common to the area. The
Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It poorly drained soils in Sumter County are Basinger,
reduces soil fertility by removing the finer soil particles EauGallie, Ft. Green, Immokalee, Myakka, Paisley,
and the organic matter; damages or destroys crops by Pompano, Smyrna, and Vero soils; and the very poorly
sandblasting (fig. 12); spreads diseases, insects, and drained soils are Basinger, Chobee, Delray, Floridana,
weed seeds; and creates health hazards and cleaning Placid, and Pompano soils.
problems. Control of wind erosion minimizes the damage During the rainy seasons, excessive wetness in the
that duststorms can cause and improves the quality of root zone of some of the somewhat poorly drained soils
the air for a more healthful environment. dama in most ars unless th soils ar
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such as causes crop damage in most s unless the soils are
Carolina laurelcherry, slash pine, southern redcedar, artificially drained. Included in this category are
Japanese privet, and strip crops of small grain, are Adamsville, Seffner, and Sparr soils. Also, the excessive
Japanese privet, and strip crops of small grain, are wetness during the rainy seasons in some of the poorly
effective in reducing wind erosion and crop damage. wetness during the rainy seasons in some of the poorly
Field windbreaks and strip crops are planted at right drained soils causes some damage to pasture plants if
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals these soils are not artificially drained. The poorly drained
across the field. The intervals depend on the erodibility soils in the county are mainly Basinger, EauGallie,
of the soil and the susceptibility of the crop to damage Myakka, Ona, Paisley, Smyrna, and Vero soils. These
from sandblasting. soils have a low available water capacity and are
Information about conservation practices to control drought during dry periods. It is necessary to irrigate
erosion on each kind of soil in the county is available in these soils for adequate crop production.
the local offices of the Soil Conservation Service. The very poorly drained soils, such as Chobee, Delray,
Soil drainage is a major concern in management on Floridana, Gator, Nittaw, Okeelanta, Placid, and Terra
most of the acreage used for crops and pasture in the Ceia soils, are very wet during rainy seasons. Water































Figure 12.-This strip of rye is used to protect seedlings from wind damage on Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.







68 Soil Survey



stands on the surface in some areas and the production are subject to damaging erosion if they are plowed at
of good quality pasture is not possible without artificial this time. Also, about three-fourths of the county's crops
drainage, are grown on soils that are sandy and are subject to
The design of surface drainage and subsurface wind erosion.
irrigation systems varies with the kind of soil and the In many map units, bouldery subsurface" (fig. 13) is
crops grown. A combination of surface drainage and used to indicate random boulders within 20 inches of the
subsurface irrigation systems is needed for intensive soil surface. To use these soils and avoid equipment
pasture production. Information on the drainage and damage, it is important to consider the feasibility of
irrigation for each kind of soil is available in the local removing the boulders.
offices of the Soil Conservation Service. Many areas of this county that are in pasture or
Soil fertility is naturally low on most soils in the county. cropland have undergone removal operations. It is
Most of the soils have a sandy surface layer and are important to remember that the rancher or farmer must
light in color. Some of the soils have a loamy subsoil. In be cautious of boulders that were overlooked during
this category are the Apopka, Arredondo, Ft. Green, previous removal operations.
Millhopper, and Sparr soils. The Adamsville, Astatula, Field crops grown in the county are limited. The
Candler, Florahome, Lake, Placid, Pompano, Seffner, acreage in corn, grain, sorghum, sunflowers, and
and Tavares soils have sandy material at a depth of 80 sugarcane can be increased if economic conditions are
inches or more. The Basinger, EauGallie, Electra, favorable.
Myakka, Ona, Pomello, Pompano, Smyrna, and Vero Rye is the common close-growing crop that is grown
soils have an organically stained layer in the sandy in Sumter County. Wheat, oats, and triticale can also be
subsurface layer. Most soils have a surface layer that is grown.
strongly acid to very strongly acid. If the soils have never Special crops grown commercially in the county are
been limed, the application of ground limestone to raise mainly citrus, watermelons, cucumbers, and peppers. A
the pH level for good crop growth is required. Nitrogen, small acreage of squash, eggplant, cabbage, field peas,
potash, and available phosphorus levels are naturally low snap beans, grapes, nursery plants, and sod are also
in most of these soils. On all soils, additions of lime and grown. If economic conditions are favorable, the acreage
fertilizer should be based on the results of soil tests, on in grapes, nursery plants, sod, cabbage, cauliflower,
the needs of the crops, and on the expected level of collards, turnips, and mustard greens can be increased.
yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can help in Deep soils that have good natural drainage, such as
determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime Arredondo and Lake soils that have slope of less than 5
to apply. percent, are especially well suited to many vegetables
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of and small fruits if irrigated. If irrigated, Florahome,
seeds, root development, and the infiltration of water into Millhopper, and Tavares soils are well suited to
the soil. Soils that have good tilth are granular and vegetables and citrus. In addition, if adequate water
porous, which reflect the benefits of organic matter. control is provided, Adamsville, EauGallie, Ft. Green,
Most soils in the county have a sand or loamy sand Immokalee, Myakka, Ona, Seffner, Smyrna, and Vero
surface layer that is light in color and low to moderate in soils are also well suited to vegetables and citrus. Gator
organic matter content except the Chobee, Delray, and Terra Ceia soils are well suited to vegetables if an
Floridana, Gator, Monteocha, Nittaw, Okeelanta, Placid, adequate water control system can be established and
Tarrytown, and Terra Ceia soils. The Chobee, Delray, maintained.
Floridana, Monteocha, and Placid soils have a dark Most of the well drained and moderately well drained
surface layer and a high content of organic matter. The soils in the county are suitable for citrus and nursery
Nittaw, Okeelanta, and Terra Ceia soils are organic soils plants; however, because of the low winter temperatures
and have a muck surface layer. The Tarrytown soil has a in Sumter County, the production of crops that are
loamy surface layer. subject to damage by cold weather is very hazardous.
Generally, the structure of the surface layer of most The latest information and suggestions for growing
soils in the county is weak. In dry soils that are low in special crops can be obtained from local offices of the
organic matter content, heavy rains can cause the Cooperative Extension Service and the Soil Conservation
colloidal matter to cement and form a slight crust. The Service.
crust is slightly hard when it is dry, and it is slightly Pastures are used to produce forage for beef and
impervious to water. Once the crust forms, it reduces dairy cattle. Beef cattle cow-calf operations are the
infiltration and increases runoff. Regular additions of major cattle systems. Coastal bermudagrass and
crop residue, manure, and other organic material can bahiagrass are the major pasture plants grown in the
help to improve soil structure and to reduce crust county. Grass seeds are harvested from bahiagrass for
formation. improved pasture plantings and for commercial
Fall plowing is generally not a good practice in the purposes. Coastal bermudagrass is harvested during the
county. About one-fourth of the cropland is on soils that summer to use as winter feed.







Sumter County, Florida 69





































Figure 13.-Large relocated boulders are in soils throughout Sumter County. They affect many agricultural practices. The soil is Sparr fine
sand, boulder subsurface, 0 to 5 percent slopes.



In Sumter County, Apopka, Candler, and Tavares soils fertilizer as needed, by including forage crops and
are well suited to bahiagrass and improved legumes in the cropping system, and by irrigating during
bermudagrass. With good management, hairy indigo and the dry periods. Differences in the amount and kind of
alyce clover can be grown during the summer and fall. forage produced are related closely to the kind of soil.
Adamsville, Seffner, and Sparr soils are well suited to Effective management should be based on the
bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass. These grasses relationship among soils, pasture plants, lime, fertilizer,
can be grown with legumes, such as sweet clover, if the and moisture. Stocking rates and grazing rotation
soils are adequately limed and fertilized, systems must be considered for effective management.
If properly drained, Basinger, EauGallie, Ft. Green, Latest information and suggestions about pasture
Kanapaha, Immokalee, Myakka, Ona, Pompano, Smyrna, management can be obtained from the local offices of
and Vero soils are well suited to bahiagrass and the Cooperative Extension Service and the Soil
limpograss. If these soils are adequately limed and Conservation Service.
fertilized, they are well suited to legumes, such as white Crop and pasture yields expected under a high level of
clover. Irrigation increases the length of the growing management are shown in table 4. The yields are in
season and also increases forage production. animal-unit-months (AUM). An animal unit is the amount
Improved pasture in many parts of the county has of forage required to feed one cow and her calf.
been greatly depleted by continuous overgrazing.
Pasture yields can be increased by applying lime and







70 Soil Survey



Yields Per Acre class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
The average yields per acre that can be expected of are defined in the following paragraphs.
the principal crops under a high level of management Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be designated by Roman numerals I through VII. The
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
The yields are based mainly on the experience and defined as follows:
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use.
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
results of field trials and demonstrations are also choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
considered. practices.
The management needed to obtain the indicated Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil choice of plants or that require special conservation
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion practices, or both.
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; the choice of plants or that require very careful
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant management, or both.
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop use.
residue, barnyard manure, and green manure crops; and Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss. generally unsuitable for cultivation.
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops them unsuitable for cultivation.
grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum. They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, or s,
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e shows
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless a close-
to increase as new production technology is developed, growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that water in
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of or on the soil interferes with plant growth or cultivation
other soils, however, is not likely to change. (in some soils the wetness can be partly corrected by
Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in artificial drainage); and s shows that the soil is limited
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony.
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local There are no subclasses in class I because the soils
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V are
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information subject to little or no erosion, but they have other
about the management and productivity of the soils for limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland,
those crops, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V contains
only the subclasses indicated by w or s.
Land Capability Classification The acreage of soils in each capability class and
Land capability classification shows, in a general way, subclass is shown in table 5. The capability classification
the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops that of each map unit is given in the section Detailed Soil
require special management are excluded. The soils are Map Units."
grouped according to their limitations for field crops, the
risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the way Rangeland and Grazable Woodland
they respond to management. The criteria used in
grouping the soils do not include major, and generally Steve Mozley, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service,
expensive, landforming that would change slope, depth, helped prepare this section.
or other characteristics of the soils, nor do they include Native range plants are an important part of the year-
possible but unlikely major reclamation projects. round supply of forage to livestock producers in Sumter
Capability classification is not a substitute for County. This forage is readily available. It is economical
interpretations designed to show suitability and and provides important roughage needed by cattle.
limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for woodland, About 143,280 acres throughout the county is used as
and for engineering purposes. native range by domestic livestock. Of this acreage,
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at about 54,280 acres is used strictly as rangeland. The
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only remaining 89,000 acres is grazable woodland.







Sumter County, Florida 71



In areas that have similar climate and topography, The seven native range sites in Sumter County are
differences in the kind and amount of vegetation Freshwater Marshes and Ponds, Longleaf Pine-Turkey
produced on rangeland are closely related to the kind of Oak Hills, South Florida Flatwoods, Oak Hammock, Sand
soil. The dominant native forage plants that grow on a Pine Scrub, Slough, and Upland Hardwood Hammock.
particular soil generally are the most productive and the Each range site produces a climax plant community that
most suitable for livestock. These plants will maintain differs from the other plant communities in the kinds and
themselves as long as the environment is not altered amounts of range plants it produces. The relationship
from its natural condition. Improper burning, drainage, between soils and vegetation was established during this
and grazing are examples of practices that can cause survey; thus, range sites generally can be determined
these alterations. Effective management is based on the directly from the soil map. Soil properties that affect
relationship between the soils and vegetation and water. moisture supply and plant nutrients have the greatest
The native forage plants are grouped into three influence on the productivity of range plants. The wettest
categories according to their response to grazing- soils, such as those in the freshwater marshes, produce
decreasers, increases, and invaders. Decreasers the most vegetation. The deep, drought soils, such as
generally are the most palatable plants to livestock, and those on the upland sand ridges, produce the least
they decrease in abundance if the rangeland is under amount of forage annually.
continuous heavy grazing. Increasers are plants less Range management requires a knowledge of the kinds
palatable to livestock, and they increase for a while of soil and of the climax plant community. It also requires
under continuous heavy grazing but eventually decrease, an evaluation of the present range condition. The
Invaders are the least palatable plants. These invaders objective in range management is to control grazing so
tend to increase as the range site deteriorates from that the plants growing on a site are about the same in
excessive grazing over a period of years. kind and amount as the climax plant community for that
Range condition is a measure of the current site. Such management generally results in the optimum
productivity of the range in relation to its potential or production of vegetation, conservation of water, and
climax condition. The more closely the existing control of water and wind erosion. Sometimes, however,
community resembles the climax community, the better a range condition somewhat below the potential meets
the range condition. Four condition classes are used to grazing needs, provides wildlife habitat, and protects soil
measure range condition. These classes are- and water resources.
Excellent condition-producing 76 to 100 percent Grazable woodland is forest that has an understory of
of the potential native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory is an
Good condition-producing 51 to 75 percent of integral part of the forest plant community. The native
the potential plants can be grazed without significantly impairing other
Fair condition-producing 26 to 50 percent of the forest values. On such forest land, grazing is compatible
potential with timber management if it is controlled or managed in
Poor condition-producing 0 to 25 percent of the such a manner that timber and forage resources are
potential maintained or enhanced.
The ecological plant communities that produce Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs,
significant amounts of native forage suitable for grazing shrubs, and other plants used by livestock or by grazing
are referred to as range sites. Table 6 shows those soils or browsing wildlife. A well managed woodland area can
that are associated with the different range sites and produce enough understory vegetation to supply food to
their potential for producing livestock forage. In table 6, large numbers of livestock and wildlife.
yields are expressed in terms of pounds of air-dry The amount of forage production varies according to
herbage per acre for range in excellent condition for the different kinds of grazable woodland; the amount of
favorable, normal, and unfavorable years. Favorable shade cast by the canopy; the accumulation of fallen
years are those in which climatic factors, such as rainfall needles; the influence of time and intensity of grazing on
and temperatures, are favorable for plant growth. Forage the herbage; the number, size, and spacing of tree
refers to total vegetation produced whether or not it is plantings; and the method used for site preparation.
palatable to grazing animals and does not reflect forage
value or grazing potential. Woodland Management and Productivity
Total production is the amount of vegetation that can
be expected to grow annually on well managed Albert Lunday, Sumter County forester, Florida Division of Forestry,
rangeland that is supporting the potential natural plant and Broward Miller, past president of the Sumter County Historical
community. It includes grasses and forbs and the current Society, helped prepare this section.
year's growth of leaves, twigs, and fruits of woody This section contains information about the
plants. It does not include the increase in stem diameter relationship between soils and trees. It informs
of trees and shrubs. landowners and operators of the capability of soils to







72 Soil Survey



produce trees and suggests suitable management Most of the woodland in the county is understocked
practices. and in need of stand improvement. Tree farming is a
According to the Florida Statistical Abstract (16) about good land use in many areas. Idle land can be profitably
170,500 acres of commercial forest land is in Sumter used to grow desirable trees. Pine can grow on a variety
County. This is about 47 percent of the total acreage in of soils and, once established, require a minimum of
the county. care.
Between 1936 and 1939, the United States To profit most from tree farming, a woodland owner
Department of Agriculture purchased some cutover, should use proper cutting practices. These practices vary
burned-over timber land in Sumter County and in three with the condition of the woodland. Detailed information
adjoining counties to be used as a demonstration unit to on soils and forest management can be obtained from
promote proper land use. Approximately 30,000 acres in the local offices of the Soil Conservation Service and the
Sumter County was included in the Withlacoochee Land Florida Division of Forestry.
Use Project. The Withlacoochee Land Use Project was Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth,
first managed by the Soil Conservation Service and later fertility, texture, and the available water capacity
by the Forest Service. Their mission was to carry out influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate
programs and practices in timber and wildlife determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site.
management. Available water capacity and depth of the root zone are
In 1958, the State of Florida purchased the property major influences of tree growth. Elevation and aspect
and designated it as the Withlacoochee State Forest. are of particular importance in mountainous areas.
The forest is managed by the State Division of Forestry, This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
which uses the multiple-use concept of timber planning ways to increase the productivity of forest land.
management, wildlife management, and forest-related Some soils respond better to fertilization than others,
recreation management. and some are more susceptible to erosion after roads
A well-managed stand of trees prevents soil are built and timber is harvested. Some soils require
e anad te rves special efforts to reforest. In the section Detailed Soil
deterioration and helps to conserve soil and water
r esorce. The main nation o ood tree is to rtet Map Units," each map unit in the survey area suitable for
resources. The main function of good trees is to protect producing timber presents information about productivt
the soil. Trees slow the fall of rain and allow the soil to mao or ing timbebnts fomaond nao t ro tit
absorb more moisture. Erosion is not a problem on most concerns for producing timber. The common forest
forest land in the county, but the ability of tree cover to understor plants are also listed. Table 7 summarizes
allow more moisture to enter the soil is important to this forestry information and rates the soils for a number
maintaining ground water supplies. Properly managed of factors to be considered in management. Slight,
forests are an important part of the economy of the moderate, and severe are used to indicate the degree of
county. Practices to be considered in achieving proper the major soil limitations to be considered in forest
management are discussed briefly in this section. management.
Trees and ground cover are destroyed by uncontrolled The first tree listed for each soil under the column
wildfires. Growth is slowed in the trees that are not Important trees" is the indicator species for that soil. An
killed, or they can be scarred. This allows the entry of indicator species is a tree that is common in the area
insects and diseases, particularly in stands of and that is generally the most productive on a given soil.
hardwoods. Fire lessens the ability of the soil to absorb Table 7 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The
water and consumes litter that contributes organic matter first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates
to the soil. the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator
Countywide fire protection is furnished by the State species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the
Division of Forestry. Individual landowners, however, number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential
should observe all the rules of fire protection. Firebreaks productivity is based on the site index and the point
should be constructed and maintained around and where mean annual increment is the greatest.
through all woodland. These firebreaks can slow or stop The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
a fire under normal conditions. Prescribed burning should indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and
be practiced with the advice and assistance of the State management. The letter W indicates a soil in which
Division of Forestry or qualified consultant foresters. excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes a
Extensive reforestation has taken place in the Green significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry, sandy
Swamp area on land in the Withlacoochee State soil. The letter A indicates a soil that has no significant
Forest, and on land in the Southwest Florida Water restrictions or limitations for forest use and management.
Management District. This area gets very wet at If a soil has more than one limitation, the priority is as
times, and the use of bedding may be necessary prior to follows: W and S.
the planting of pine seedlings. Slash pine is the primary Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability
tree planted in this area. that damage may occur if site preparation activities or







Sumter County, Florida 73



harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is slight if Ratings of windthrow hazard consider the likelihood of
no particular preventive measures are needed under trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting
ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion control depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth
measures are needed for particular silvicultural activities; can be restricted by a high water table, fragipan, or
and severe if special precautions are needed to control bedrock, or by a combination of such factors as soil
erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings of wetness, texture, structure, and depth. The risk is slight if
moderate or severe indicate the need for construction of strong winds cause trees to break but do not uproot
higher standard roads, additional maintenance of roads, them; moderate if strong winds cause an occasional tree
additional care in planning of harvesting and to be blown over and many trees to break; and severe if
reforestation operations, or use of specialized moderate or strong winds commonly blow trees over.
equipment. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate the need for care
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the in thinning or possibly not thinning. Specialized
use of forest management equipment, year-round or equipment may be needed to avoid damage to shallow
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope, root systems in partial cutting operations. A plan for
wetness, stoniness, or susceptibility of the surface layer periodic salvage of windthrown trees and the
to compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it maintenance of a road and trail system may be needed.
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be used. On the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
the steepest slopes, even tracked equipment cannot competition becomes more severe on the more
operate; more sophisticated systems are needed. The productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils
rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by soil having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The
wetness for less than 2 months and if special equipment risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants
is not needed. The rating is moderate if slopes are steep reduces adequate natural or artificial reforestation but
enough that wheeled equipment cannot be operated does not necessitate intensive site preparation and
safely across the slope, if soil wetness restricts maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from
equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, if stoniness undesirable plants reduces natural or artificial
restricts ground-based equipment, or if special reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation
equipment is needed to avoid or reduce soil compaction. and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if
The rating is severe if slopes are steep enough that competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate
tracked equipment cannot be operated safely across the natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is
slope, if soil wetness restricts equipment use for more intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or
than 6 months per year, if stoniness restricts ground- severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to
based equipment, or if special equipment is needed to ensure the development of an adequately stocked stand.
avoid or reduce soil compaction. Ratings of moderate or Managers must plan site preparation measures to ensure
severe indicate a need to choose the most suitable reforestation without delays.
equipment and to carefully plan the timing of harvesting The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is
and other management operations. expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of the order of their observed general occurrence.
death of naturally occurring or properly planted seedlings Generally, only two or three tree species dominate.
of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as influenced The soils that are commonly used to produce timber
by kinds of soil or topographic features. Seedling have the yield predicted in cubic meters. The yield is
mortality is caused primarily by too much water or too predicted at the point where mean annual increment
little water. The factors used in rating a soil for seedling culminates.
mortality are texture of the surface layer, depth and The site index is determined by taking height
duration of the water table, rock fragments in the surface measurements and determining the age of selected
layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of the slope, trees within stands of a given species. This index is the
Mortality generally is greatest on soils that have a sandy average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a specified
or clayey surface layer. The risk is slight if, after site number of years. This index applies to fully stocked,
preparation, expected mortality is less than 25 percent; even-aged, unmanaged stands. Site index values given
moderate if expected mortality is between 25 and 50 in table 7 are based on standard procedures and
percent; and severe if expected mortality exceeds 50 techniques (5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 14).
percent. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate that it The productivity class represents an expected volume
may be necessary to use containerized or larger than produced by the most important trees, expressed in
usual planting stock or to make special site preparations, cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per
such as bedding, furrowing, installing surface drainage, hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by
or providing artificial shade for seedings. Reinforcement multiplying by 14.3. It can be converted to board feet by
planting is often needed if the risk is moderate or severe, multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, a







74 Soil Survey



productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected to areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at the point are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
where mean annual increment culminates, or about 568 during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
board feet per acre per year. stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
Trees to plant are those that are used for reforestation sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
or, if suitable conditions exist, natural regeneration. They Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
are suited to the soils and will produce a commercial foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wood crop. Desired product, topographic position (such wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
as a low, wet area), and personal preference are three surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
factors of many that can influence the choice of trees to and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
use for reforestation. depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
considered.
Recreation Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
In table 8, the soils of the survey area are rated not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for are not subject to flooding more than once a year during
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the or no stones or boulders on the surface.
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
vegetation, access to water, potential water prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also not considered in rating the soils.
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding Wildlife Habitat
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height, John F. Vance, biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential. this section.
In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as Good habitat for wildlife is available in most of Sumter
moderate or severe. Moderate means that limitations County. The large woodland areas in the southern part
can be overcome or alleviated by planning, design, or of the county and the wetland areas along the
special maintenance. Severe means that soil properties Withlacoochee River provide particularly valuable habitat
are unfavorable and that limitations can be offset only by for wildlife. These areas include the 32,000 acre
costly soil reclamation, special design, intensive Withlacoochee State Forest, the 10,000 acre Richloam
maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of these Wildlife Management Area, the 18,000 acre Southwest
measures. Florida Water Management District land, and the 10,000
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by acre Jumper Creek Swamp. Large areas of improved
other information in this survey, for example, pasture are in the central and northern parts of the
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table county, but the small wetlands and oak hammocks that
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements are interspersed throughout most of these areas provide
and for local roads and streets in table 10. good habitat for wildlife.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping The main game species in the county are deer, wild
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads turkey, squirrels, wood duck, dove, and quail. Nongame
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary species include raccoon, opossum, armadillo, gray fox,
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to bobcat, otter, skunks, and a variety of songbirds,
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best woodpeckers, wading birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to The Withlacoochee River, the large lakes, such as
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or Lake Panasoffkee and Lake Okahumpha, and numerous
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but small ponds, both natural and manmade, all provide
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes good fishing. The primary species caught in these waters
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of include largemouth bass, bluegills, redear sunfish,
constructing campsites. redbreast sunfish, black crappie, stumpknocker, catfish,
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most and chain pickerel and also some bowfin, gar, and
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking several species of minnow-size fish.







74 Soil Survey



productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected to areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at the point are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
where mean annual increment culminates, or about 568 during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
board feet per acre per year. stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
Trees to plant are those that are used for reforestation sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
or, if suitable conditions exist, natural regeneration. They Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
are suited to the soils and will produce a commercial foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wood crop. Desired product, topographic position (such wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
as a low, wet area), and personal preference are three surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
factors of many that can influence the choice of trees to and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
use for reforestation. depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
considered.
Recreation Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
In table 8, the soils of the survey area are rated not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for are not subject to flooding more than once a year during
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil the period of use. They have moderate slopes and few
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the or no stones or boulders on the surface.
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
vegetation, access to water, potential water prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also not considered in rating the soils.
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding Wildlife Habitat
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height, John F. Vance, biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential. this section.
In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as Good habitat for wildlife is available in most of Sumter
moderate or severe. Moderate means that limitations County. The large woodland areas in the southern part
can be overcome or alleviated by planning, design, or of the county and the wetland areas along the
special maintenance. Severe means that soil properties Withlacoochee River provide particularly valuable habitat
are unfavorable and that limitations can be offset only by for wildlife. These areas include the 32,000 acre
costly soil reclamation, special design, intensive Withlacoochee State Forest, the 10,000 acre Richloam
maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of these Wildlife Management Area, the 18,000 acre Southwest
measures. Florida Water Management District land, and the 10,000
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by acre Jumper Creek Swamp. Large areas of improved
other information in this survey, for example, pasture are in the central and northern parts of the
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table county, but the small wetlands and oak hammocks that
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements are interspersed throughout most of these areas provide
and for local roads and streets in table 10. good habitat for wildlife.
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping The main game species in the county are deer, wild
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads turkey, squirrels, wood duck, dove, and quail. Nongame
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary species include raccoon, opossum, armadillo, gray fox,
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to bobcat, otter, skunks, and a variety of songbirds,
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best woodpeckers, wading birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to The Withlacoochee River, the large lakes, such as
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or Lake Panasoffkee and Lake Okahumpha, and numerous
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but small ponds, both natural and manmade, all provide
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes good fishing. The primary species caught in these waters
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of include largemouth bass, bluegills, redear sunfish,
constructing campsites. redbreast sunfish, black crappie, stumpknocker, catfish,
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most and chain pickerel and also some bowfin, gar, and
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking several species of minnow-size fish.







Sumter County, Florida 75



A number of endangered and threatened species are and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
in Sumter County. They range from the seldom-seen red- considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
cockaded woodpecker to more commonly apparent bahiagrass, lovegrass, Florida beggarweed, clover, and
species, such as the Florida sandhill crane and the wood sesbania.
stork. A more detailed list of these species with Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
information on range and habitat needs is available from established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
the local office of the Soil Conservation Service. properties and features that affect the growth of these
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod,
be created or improved by planting appropriate beggarweed, partridge pea, and bristlegrasses.
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants. or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
In table 9, the soils in the survey area are rated properties and features that affect the growth of
according to their potential for providing habitat for hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and these plants are oak, saw palmetto, cherry, sweetgum,
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are wild grape, hawthorn, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining blueberry. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining suitable for planting on soils rated good are firethorn,
the intensity of management needed for each element of wild plum, and American beautyberry.
the habitat. Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or properties and features that affect the growth of
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, Examples of coniferous plants are pine, spruce, fir,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair cedar, and juniper.
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be Wetland plants are annual and perennial, wild
established, improved, or maintained in most places, herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Moderately intensive management is required for Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that properties and features affecting wetland plants are
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, slope,
of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland plants are
maintained in most places, but management is difficult smartweed, wild millet, wildrice, pickerelweed,
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates maidencane, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is created by dams, levees, or other water-control
impractical or impossible. structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the water areas are wetness, surface stoniness, slope, and
following paragraphs. permeability. Examples of shallow water areas are
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds.
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops the following paragraphs.
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
seed crops are corn, soybeans, wheat, browntop millet, herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas
and grain sorghum. include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow,
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses cottontail, and red fox.
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard, plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild







76 Soil Survey



turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil;
fox, raccoon, deer, and bear. plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds,
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife conservation; and predict performance of proposed small
attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore structures and pavements by comparing the performance
birds, otters, and alligators, of existing similar structures on the same or similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
Engineering the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
survey can be used to make additional interpretations.
This section provides information for planning land Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
uses related to urban development and to water special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the Glossary.
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
given in the following tables: Building site development, Building Site Development
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
test data in the Soil Properties" section, without basements, small commercial buildings, local
Information in this section is intended for land use roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
planning site investigations prior to design and features are generally favorable for the indicated use
construction. The information, however, has limitations. and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate
For example, estimates and other data generally apply if soil properties or site features are moderately
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet, favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
and because of the map scale, small areas of different design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
soils may be included within the mapped areas of a minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
specific soil. site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to
The information is not site specific and does not overcome that special design, soil reclamation, or
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or possibly increased maintenance is required. Special
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the feasibility studies may be required where the soil
design and construction of engineering works, limitations are severe.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
not considered in preparing the information in this utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
section. Local ordinances and regulations must be ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design. observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
Soil properties, site features, and observed filling, and compacting is affected by the stone content,
performance were considered in determining the ratings soil texture, and slope. The time of the year that
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, excavations can be made is affected by the depth to a
determinations were made about grain-size distribution, seasonal high water table and the susceptibility of the
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, soil wetness, soil to flooding. The resistance of the excavation walls or
depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, likelihood of banks to sloughing or caving is affected by soil texture
flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, and soil and the depth to the water table.
density. Data were collected about kinds of clay Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made
available water capacity, and other behavioral for small commercial buildings without basements, for
characteristics affecting engineering uses. dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without
This information can be used to: evaluate the potential basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and features, and observed performance of the soils. A high
recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground table, large stones, and flooding affect the ease of
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills, excavation and construction. Landscaping and grading
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan that require cuts and fills of more than 51 to 6 feet are not
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate considered.







Sumter County, Florida 77



Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface Sanitary Facilities
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They Table 11 shows the degree and the kind of soil
have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of an
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil are considered slight if soil properties and site features
properties, site features, and observed performance of are generally favorable for the indicated use and
the soils. A high water table, flooding, large stones, and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
slope affect the ease of excavating and grading. Soil soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
strength (as inferred from the engineering classification indicated use and special planning, design, or
of the soil), shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high maintenance may be needed to overcome or minimize
water table affect the traffic-supporting capacity. the limitations; and severe if soil properties or site
features are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and that special design, soil reclamation, or possibly
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and that special design, soil reclamation, or possibly
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site increased maintenance are required.
features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
reaction, depth to a high water table, and the available as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
water capacity in the upper 40 inches affect plant soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, stoniness, and the and that good performance and low maintenance can be
amount of sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
layer affect trafficability after vegetation is established, features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
more soil properties or site features make the soil less
Controlling Erosion on Building Sites desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
that one or more soil properties or site features are
Soil erosion is a problem on disturbed areas. Water unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
erosion can damage these soils if rains are intense and properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
the soils are bare of vegetation and surface mulch, costly alteration.
The disturbing or clearing of areas for construction Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
operations or for landscaping removes vegetation and effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
leaves the soil vulnerable to erosion. Wind and water through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
erosion can be reduced by clearing or disturbing only the part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
minimum area necessary for construction. evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
Exposed soil results in soil blowing and sedimentation features, and observed performance of the soils.
of streams. Control of erosion minimizes the pollution of Permeability, a high water table, and flooding affect
streams by sediment and improves the quality of water absorption of the effluent. Large stones interfere with
for municipal use, for recreation, and for fish and wildlife, installation.
Grading removes topsoil and may expose the sandy Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
clay loam or sandy clay subsoil in Ft. Green, Mabel, fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
Paisley, Sumterville, Tarrytown, and Vero soils. Ripping surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
the exposed subsoil and covering it with less erodible public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
topsoil reduce erosion. permeable sand and gravel is less than 4 feet below the
Soil blowing is a major hazard on sandy soil. Wind base of the absorption field, if slope is excessive, or if
erosion can damage soils in a few hours in open, the high water table is near the surface. There must be
unprotected areas if the winds are strong and the soil is unsaturated soil material beneath the absorption field to
dry and bare of vegetation and surface mulch. Blowing filter the effluent effectively. Many local ordinances
soil can affect drainage ditches, roads, fences, and require that this material be of a certain thickness.
equipment. The air pollution caused by blowing soil can Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
create health problems. hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
Wind erosion can be minimized by maintaining and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level
vegetative cover and surface mulch and by planting floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
windbreaks of trees and shrubs, compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
Mulching helps to reduce damage from water runoff the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
and soil blowing and improves moisture conditions for impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
seedlings, required to minimize seepage and contamination of
Information about conservation practices to control ground water.
erosion is available in local offices of the Soil Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
Conservation Service. up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1







78 Soil Survey



foot or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are Construction Materials
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The T 1 g i
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and Table r 1 gives information aboup the soils a source
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the of roadfill sand, grave and topsoil The soils are rated
ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
flooding, large stones, and content of organic matter. They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
soil or a high water table that is high enough to raise the properties and site features that affect the removal of
level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to the soil and its use as construction maternal. Normal
function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is compaction, minor processing, and other standard
excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
content of organic matter is detrimental to proper evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
activity. Slope can cause construction problems, and and used in road embankments in another place. In this
large stones can hinder compaction of the lagoon floor, table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of exacting in design than higher embankments.
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted, their profile. The table showing engineering index
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source properties provides detailed information about each soil
away from the site. layer. This information can help determine the suitability
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation in the ratings.
needs to be considered. The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties, and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
site features, and observed performance of the soils, suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of
Permeability, a high water table, slope, and flooding excavation is affected by large stones, a high water
affect both types of landfill. Texture, stones and table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place
boulders, highly organic layers, and soil reaction affect after it has been compacted and drained is determined
trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the ratings by its strength (as inferred from the engineering
apply only to that part of the soil within 6 feet of the classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
surface. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated slight or Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation is or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
needed. material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
to the landfill, and spread over the waste. plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material many stones. Depth to the high water table is 1 foot to 3
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are feet. Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover than 10, a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are slopes of more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing, depth to the high water table is less than 1 foot. They
After soil material has been removed, the soil material may have layers of suitable material, but the material is
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over less than 3 feet thick.
the water table to permit revegetation. The soil material Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
used as final cover for a landfill should be suitable for commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
plants. The surface layer generally has the best gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
workability, more organic matter, and the best potential Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 12, only
for plants. Material from the surface layer should be the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
stockpiled for use as the final cover, evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific







Sumter County, Florida 79



purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect the indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily
excavation of the material, overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of not favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
by the engineering classification of the soil), the minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to
fragments. Kinds of rock and stratification are given in overcome that special design, significant increase in
the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain sizes is construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
given in the table on engineering index properties. are required.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean This table also gives the restrictive features that affect
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and diversions,
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3 and grassed waterways.
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel, potential is determined by the permeability of the soil or
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation other permeable material. Excessive slope can affect the
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches storage capacity of the reservoir area.
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
the reclamation potential of the borrow area. of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such constructed to impound water or to protect land against
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a high water table, material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
soil texture, and thickness of suitable material. feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
Reclamation of the borrow area is affected by slope, a and compacted during construction.
high water table, rock fragments, and toxic material. The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and depth greater than the height of the embankment can
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less affect performance and safety of the embankment.
than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts, Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are determine these properties.
not so wet that excavation is difficult. Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include
40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soils that have of stones or boulders, or organic matter. A high water
slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are not so wet that table affects the amount of usable material. It also
excavation is difficult, affects trafficability.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
of gravel or stones, have slopes of more than 15 permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
percent, or have a seasonal high water table at or near only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
the surface. impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic water table and permeability of the aquifer. The content
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of of large stones affect the ease of excavation.
moisture and releases a variety of plant-available Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
nutrients as it decomposes. subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
Water Management effectively the soil is drained depends on the
permeability; depth to a high water table or depth of
Table 13 gives information on the soil properties and standing water if the soil is subject to ponding; slope;
site features that affect water management. The degree susceptibility to flooding; and subsidence of organic
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir layers. Excavating and grading and the stability of
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed ditchbanks are affected by large stones, slope, and the
ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil hazard of cutbanks caving. Availability of drainage
properties and site features are generally favorable for outlets is not considered in the ratings.







80



Irrigation is the controlled application of water to affect the construction of terraces and diversions. A
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design restricted rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or
and management of an irrigation system are affected by water erosion, an excessively coarse texture, and
depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding, restricted permeability adversely affect maintenance.
available water capacity, intake rate, permeability, Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
is affected by large stones. The performance of a surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
system is affected by the depth of the root zone and soil stones, wetness, and slope affect the construction of
reaction. grassed waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a available water capacity, restricted rooting depth, and
combination of channels and ridges constructed across restricted permeability adversely affect the growth and
a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, and large stones







81








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
table 20. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
accurately by field observation, and help characterize of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
key soils. grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
nd group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Engineering Index Properties groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Engee g Index Properties 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
or 6 feet. for soils tested, with group index numbers in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer parentheses, is given in table 20.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.







81








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
table 20. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
accurately by field observation, and help characterize of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
key soils. grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
nd group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
Engineering Index Properties groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Engee g Index Properties 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
classification and of the range of index properties for the can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
or 6 feet. for soils tested, with group index numbers in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer parentheses, is given in table 20.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.







82 Soil Survey



Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) capacity for water storage in each major soil layer is
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity
estimates are based on test data from the survey area, varies, depending on soil properties that affect the
or from nearby areas, and on field examination, retention of water and the depth of the root zone. The
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and most important properties are the content of organic
plasticity index are rounded to the nearest 5 percent, matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure.
Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg limits Available water capacity is an important factor in the
extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points) choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the design
across classification boundaries, the classification in the and management of irrigation systems. Available water
marginal zone is omitted in the table, capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
actually available to plants at any given time.
Physical and Chemical Properties Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics and each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
The estimates are based on field observations and on and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
test data for these and similar soils, fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of corrosion.
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
in diameter. of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink- place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
operations. measurements of similar soils.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying often needed.
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density is sometimes used.
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
kind.of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre
movement of water through the soil when the soil is per year. These estimates are based primarily on
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values of
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the
drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by
construction where the rate of water movement under water.
saturated conditions affects behavior. Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The can occur over a sustained period without affecting crop







Sumter County, Florida
83


productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre per Soil and Water Features
year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind features. The estimates are used in land use planning
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the that involves engineering considerations.
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
distinctions: groups. They are grouped according to the intake of
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. precipitation from long-duration storms.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to The four hydrologic soil groups are:
establish. Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
erosion are used. transmission.
3. ad as arse Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
3. Sandy oams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
oams, and very fin e sandy ioams. These soils are highly or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
control wind erosion are used. texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 transmission. ils have a moderate rate of water
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
are used. soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
control wind erosion are used. chiefly of clays that have high shrink-swell potential, soils
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and that have a permanent high water table, soils that have a
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and soils
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 that are shallow over nearly impervious material. These
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to Dual hydrologic groups are given for wet soils rated D
control wind erosion are used. in their natural condition that can be adequately drained.
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and It is considered that drainage is feasible and practical
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, and that drainage improves the hydrologic group by at
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly least two classes (from D to A or B). The first letter
erodible. Crops can easily be grown, applies to the drained condition.
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface by
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high tides.
be grown. Shallow water standing or flowing for short periods after
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding. Standing
to wind erosion. water in swamps and marshes or in a closed depression
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the is considered ponding.
soil at various stages of decomposition. Table 16 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
soil at various stages of decomposition. and the time of year when flooding is most likely to
In table 15, the estimated content of organic matter is occur.me of year when flooding is most to
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter are estimated Freuencyration, and probable dates of occurrence as
The content of organic matter of a soil can be are estimated. Frequency generally is expressed as
The content of organic matter of a soil can be none, rare, or frequent. None means that flooding is not
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the probable. Rare means that flooding is unlikely but
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity, possible under unusual weather conditions (there is a
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and near 0 to 5 percent chance of flooding in any year).
other nutrients for crops. Frequent means that flooding occurs often under normal







84 Soil Survey



weather conditions (there is more than a 50 percent total subsidence, which results from a combination of
chance of flooding in any year). Common is used when factors.
classification as occasional or frequent does not affect Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
interpretations. Duration is expressed as brief (2 to 7 imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
days), long (7 days to 1 month), and very long (more water throughout an extensive area as a result of
than 1 month). The time of year that floods are most lowering the water table.
likely to occur is expressed in months. November-May, Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
for example, means that flooding can occur during the electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
period November through May. About two-thirds to three- weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
fourths of all flooding occurs during the stated period, corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
The information on flooding is based on evidence in soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
the soil profile, namely, thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
organic matter content with increasing depth; and content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil.
absence of distinctive horizons, which are characteristic Special site examination and design may be needed if
of soils that are not subject to flooding, the combination of factors creates a severely corrosive
Also considered are local information about the extent environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than of soil or within one soil layer.
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
levels. total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a extract
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
soil. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to the seasonal
high water table; the kind of water table, that is, perched Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
or apparent; and the months of the year that the water Analyses of Selected Soils
table commonly is highest. A water table that is Dr. Victor W. Carlisle and Dr. Mary E. Collins, professor and assistant
seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated in professor, respectively, University of Florida, Soil Science Department,
table 16. prepared this section.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water properties of representative pedons sampled in Sumter
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is County are presented in tables 17, 18, and 19. The
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A perched analyses were conducted and coordinated by the Soil
water table is water standing above an unsaturated Characterization Laboratory at the University of Florida.
zone. In places an upper, or perched, water table is Detailed profile descriptions of soils analyzed are given
separated from a lower one by a dry zone. in the section Soil Series and Their Morphology."
The two numbers in the High water table-Depth" Laboratory data and profile information for other soils in
column indicate the normal range in depth to a saturated Sumter County, as well as for other counties in Florida,
zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot. The first are on file at the University of Florida, Soil Science
numeral in the range indicates the highest water level. A Department.
plus sign preceding the range in depth indicates that the Typifying pedons were sampled from pits at carefully
water table is above the surface of the soil. More than selected locations. Samples were air-dried, crushed, and
6.0" indicates that the water table is below a depth of 6 sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most analytical
feet or that the water table exists for less than a month, methods used are outlined in Soil Survey Investigations
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of Report No. 1 (13).
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence Particle-size distribution was determined using a
results from either desiccation and shrinkage or oxidation modified pipette method with sodium
of organic material, or both, following drainage. hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity
Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil
of several years. Table 16 shows the expected initial cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from
subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage, and duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe







Sumter County, Florida 85



pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at contained relatively large amounts of clay throughout
100 centimeters water (1/10 bar) and 345 centimeters except in the C horizon.
water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water Silt content was generally less than 4 percent in most
percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were of the soils in the county; however, silt content in excess
ovendried and ground to pass a 2 millimeter sieve, and of 10 percent was in one horizon or more of the Mabel,
the 15-bar water retention was determined. Organic Millhopper, Sparr, and Tarrytown soils and was 3 percent
carbon was determined by a modification of the Walkley- or less throughout the Adamsville, Candler, and Lake
Black wet combustion method, soils.
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils with Fine sand dominated the sand fractions in the
normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium Adamsville, Arredondo, Ft. Green, Lake, Mabel,
and potassium in the extract were determined by flame Millhopper, Myakka, Oldsmar, Sparr, Sumterville, and
emission. Calcium and magnesium extractable was Tarrytown soils. Horizons that had more than 50 percent
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. fine sand occurred in all of these soils except in the
Extractable acidity was determined by the barium Tarrytown series. Medium sand dominated the sand
chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. Cation- fractions in the Candler and Florahome soils; however,
exchange capacity was calculated by summation of the content of medium sand was generally less than 50
extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base percent. The content of very coarse and coarse sand
saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation- was generally less than 0.2 percent in Candler soil and 5
exchange capacity expressed in percent. The pH percent in Florahome soil. The content of very fine sand
measurements were made with a glass electrode using a generally ranged from 4 to 10 percent; however, most
soil-water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01 molar calcium chloride horizons in the Millhopper and Sparr soils slightly
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and 1 normal exceeded these values. Droughtiness is a common
potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio. characteristic of a sandy soil, particularly a soil that is
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with moderately well drained, well drained, or excessively
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron drained.
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate Low hydraulic conductivity values of less than 12
were determined by atomic absorption centimeters per hour were recorded throughout the
spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were Mabel and Tarrytown soils and in the deep horizons of
extracted from a probable spodic horizon with 0.1 molar Arredondo, Ft. Green, Millhopper, Myakka, Oldsmar,
sodium pyrophosphate. The determination of aluminum Sparr, and Sumterville soils. Horizons that had hydraulic
and iron was by atomic absorption and extracted carbon conductivity values of more than 60 centimeters per hour
by the Walkley-Black wet combustion method, occurred in the Candler, Florahome, and Lake soils.
Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 2 microns Horizons in the Ft. Green, Mabel, Millhopper, Oldsmar,
was ascertained by X-ray diffraction. Peak heights at 18, Sparr, Sumterville, and Tarrytown soils that had a
14, 7.2, 4.31, and 3.04 angstrom positions represent relatively high content of clay resulted in hydraulic
montmorillonite, interstratified expandable vermiculite, or conductivity values that were less than 1 centimeter per
14-angstrom intergrades, kaolinite, quartz, and calcite hour. Design and function of septic tank absorption fields
respectively. Peaks were measured, summed, and are affected by such low hydraulic conductivity values.
normalized to give the percent of the soil minerals Oldsmar soil contained a well-developed spodic horizon
identified in the X-ray diffractograms. These percentage that had low hydraulic conductivity values. The spodic
values do not indicate absolute determined quantities of horizon in the Myakka soil had higher hydraulic
soil minerals but do imply a relative distribution of conductivityvalues than are generally recorded for the
minerals in a particular mineral suite. Absolute spodic horizon in most Florida soils. The available water
percentages would require additional knowledge of capacity for plants can be estimated from bulk density
particle size, crystallinity, unit structure substitution, and and water content data. Soils that had an excessive
matrix problems. content of sand and a low content of organic matter,
The inherently sandy nature of most of the soils in such as Candler sand, have very low available water
Sumter County (table 17) is apparent. All soils sampled capacity for plants. Conversely, the available water
had one horizon or more in which the content of sand capacity for plants is high in soils that have a high
exceeded 90 percent. Adamsville, Candler, Florahome, amount of fine textured material and a high content of
Lake, and Myakka soils were more than 90 percent sand organic matter, such as in the Tarrytown sandy clay
to a depth of 2 meters or more. Two horizons in the loam soil.
Oldsmar soil contained less than 90 percent sand. The chemical soil properties as presented in table 18
Deep horizons in the Arredondo, Ft. Green, Mabel, show that a low amount of extractable bases is present
Millhopper, Oldsmar, Sparr, and Sumterville soils in most of the soils in Sumter County. All horizons of
contained the largest amount of clay that ranged from Adamsville, Candler, Florahome, Lake, Millhopper, and
25.7 to 49.8 percent. Tarrytown sandy clay loam Sparr soils contained less than 2 milliequivalents per







86 Soil Survey



hundred grams extractable bases. Only Ft. Green, percent. Also, the content of organic carbon in the
Mabel, Myakka, Oldsmar, Sumterville, and Tarrytown spodic horizon of Myakka and Oldsmar soils ranged from
soils contained more than 5 milliequivalents per hundred 1.31 to 3.22 percent. In all other soils, the content of
grams extractable bases. The mild, humid climate in organic carbon decreased rapidly as soil depth
Sumter County results in depletion of basic soil cations increased. Since the content of organic carbon in a
(calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium) through surface layer is directly related to soil nutrient and water
leaching. retention capacity of sandy soils, conservation practices
Calcium was the dominant base in the soils in Sumter that conserve and maintain the content of organic
County; however, the deep horizons of Millhopper and carbon are desirable.
Sparr soils contained more magnesium than calcium. All Electrical conductivity values were all very low, ranging
other soils had at least one horizon that had more than 1 from nondetectable amounts in many horizons to a high
milliequivalent per hundred grams extractable calcium of 0.04 millimhos per centimeter in the surface layer of
except the Candler, Lake, and Sparr series. Extractable the Millhopper series. These data indicate that soluble
magnesium in excess of 1 milliequivalent per hundred salt content of soils sampled in Sumter County were
grams occurred only in one or two horizons of the insufficient to detrimentally affect the growth of salt-
Arredondo, Millhopper, Sparr, and Sumterville soils, but a sensitive plants.
lower content of magnesium was detectable throughout Soil reaction in water generally ranged between pH 5.0
all other soils. Sodium generally occurred in amounts of and 6.0. Slightly lower values were recorded for the
less than 0.1 milliequivalents per hundred grams; Myakka and Oldsmar soils and for the deep horizons of
however, one horizon or more in the Mabel, Millhopper, the Florahome soil. Slightly higher reaction values were
Myakka, Oldsmar, Sparr, Sumterville, and Tarrytown soils recorded throughout the Ft. Green and Tarrytown series
slightly exceeded this. Candler and Ft. Green soils and for some horizons in the Arredondo and Mabel soils.
contained one or two horizons that contained With few exceptions, soil reaction was 0.5 to 1.5 pH
nondetectable amounts of sodium. Most of the soils in units lower in calcium chloride than in water. Maximum
Sumter County contained less than 0.1 milliequivalents plant nutrient availability is generally attained when soil
per hundred grams potassium except a few horizons of reaction is between pH 6.5 and 7.5; however, under
the Arredondo, Mabel, Myakka, Sumterville, and Florida conditions, maintaining soil reaction above pH 6.5
Tarrytown soils that exceeded this amount. Adamsville, is not economically feasible for most agricultural
Candler, Florahome, Ft. Green, Immokalee, Lake, Mabel, production purposes.
Millhopper, Myakka, Oldsmar, Sparr, and Sumterville The ratio of pyrophosphate extractable carbon and
soils contained one horizon or more that had 0.01 aluminum to clay in the Bh horizon of the Myakka and
milliequivalents per hundred grams extractable Oldsmar soils was sufficient to meet chemical criteria
potassium. established for the spodic horizon. Sodium
Values for exchange capacity, an indication of plant pyrophosphate extractable iron was 0.03 percent or less
nutrient capacity, exceeded 10 milliequivalents per in the spodic horizon of Myakka and Oldsmar soils.
hundred grams in the surface horizon of Ft. Green, Citrate-dithionite extractable iron in the argillic horizon
Myakka, Oldsmar, and Tarrytown soils. Cation-exchange of Ultisols ranged from 0.01 percent in the Mabel soil to
capacity exceeded 10 milliequivalents per hundred 0.98 percent in the Millhopper soil. Similarly, these
grams in at least one horizon below the surface in the values in the Bh horizon of Spodosols were 0.01 percent
Arredondo, Ft. Green, Mabel, Myakka, Oldsmar, in the Myakka soil.
Sumterville, and Tarrytown soils. These higher cation- Aluminum extracted by citrate-dithionite from the Bt
exchange capacity values occurred in the spodic horizon horizon ranged from 0.02 percent in the Tarrytown soil to
of Myakka and Oldsmar soil. Soils that had low cation- 0.19 percent in the Arredondo soil. Amounts of iron and
exchange capacities in the surface layer, such as aluminum in the soils in Sumter County are not sufficient
Adamsville and Candler soils, require only small amounts to detrimentally affect phosphorus availability.
of lime to significantly alter the base status and soil Sand fractions of 2 to 0.05 millimeters were siliceous
reaction. Generally, soils of low inherent soil fertility are with quartz overwhelmingly dominant in all soils. Small
associated with low values for extractable bases and low amounts of heavy minerals occurred in most horizons
cation-exchange capacities, and fertile soils are with the greatest concentration in the very fine sand
associated with high values for extractable bases, high fraction. No weatherable minerals were observed.
base saturation values, and high cation-exchange Crystalline mineral components of the clay fraction of
capacities. less than 0.002 millimeters are reported in table 19 for
Organic carbon content was less than 1 percent major horizons of the soils sampled. The clay
throughout the Adamsville, Arredondo, Candler, mineralogical suite was composed of montmorillonite, a
Florahome, Sparr, and Sumterville soils. Only the surface 14-angstrom intergrade, kaolinite, quartz, and calcite.
layer of Ft. Green, Lake, Mabel, Millhopper, Myakka, and Montmorillonite occurred in all soils sampled except in
Tarrytown soils contained organic carbon in excess of 1 the Florahome, Lake, and Oldsmar soils. No detectable







Sumter County, Florida 87



amounts of montmorillonite were present throughout the dominated by kaolinite or quartz. Clay mineralogy of the
Adamsville, Arredondo, and Sumterville soils. Although soils in Sumter County influences their use and
kaolinite dominated the clay fraction of most soils management less frequently than does the total content
sampled, montmorillonite was dominant in the Ft. Green of clay.
and Tarrytown soils. Large amounts of montmorillonite
also occurred in the deep horizons of the Mabel and Engineering Index Test Data
Sumterville soils. The 14-angstrom intergrade minerals
occurred in all soils but dominated only the Lake soil. All Table 20 shows laboratory test data for several
soils contained varying amounts of quartz, but larger pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey
amounts occurred in the Myakka and Oldsmar soils, area. The pedons are typical of the series and are
Small amounts of calcite were detected in the Candler, described in the section Soil Series and Their
Millhopper, Sparr, and Sumterville soils. Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the Soils
Montmorillonite in Sumter County soils is probably the Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
least stable mineral component in the present acidic Bureau of Materials and Research.
environment. The large amounts of montmorillonite in These tests were made to help evaluate the soils for
the Ft. Green and Tarrytown soils are related to the high engineering purposes. The classifications given are
soil reaction associated with these soils. Considerable based on data obtained by mechanical analysis and by
volume changes can result from shrinkage when dry and tests to determine liquid limits and plasticity indices. The
swelling when wet of the montmorillonitic subsoil of the mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve and
Ft. Green soil and throughout the Tarrytown soil. The hydrometer methods (3). The various grain-size fractions
occurrence of relatively large amounts of 14-angstrom were calculated on the basis of all the material in the soil
intergrades and the general tendency for these minerals sample, including that coarser than 2 millimeters.
to decrease as soil depth increases suggest that the 14- Mechanical analyses used in this method should not be
angstrom intergrade minerals are among the most stable used in naming the textural classes of soils.
species in this weathering environment. The general, The testing methods generally are those of the
although inconsistent, tendency for kaolinite to increase American Association of State Highway and
as soil depth increases indicates that this mineral Transportation Officials (AASHTO) or the American
species is less stable than the 14-angstrom intergrade in Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
the severe weathering environment near the soil surface. The tests and methods are: AASHTO classification-M
Clay-sized quartz has primarily resulted from decrements 145 (AASHTO), D 3282 (ASTM); Unified classification-
of the silt fraction. The small amounts of calcite seem to D 2487 (ASTM); Mechanical analysis-T 88 (AASHTO),
occur at random in the soils in Sumter County. Soils D 2217 (ASTM); Liquid limit-T 89 (AASHTO), D 423
dominated by montmorillonite and 14-angstrom (ASTM); Plasticity index-T 90 (AASHTO), D 424
intergrades have a much higher cation-exchange (ASTM); Moisture density, Method A-T 99 (AASHTO), D
capacity and retain more plant nutrients than soils 698 (ASTM).




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs