• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Sarasota County in...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Sarasota County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025740/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Sarasota County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 147 p., 2, 31 folded p. of plates : ill. (some col.), maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hyde, Adam G
Hurt, G. Wade
Wettstein, Carol A
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.
Publication Date: 1991
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Sarasota County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Sarasota County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 91-92) and index to map sheets.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department, and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "By Adam G. Hyde, G. Wade Hurt, and Carol A. Wettstein"--P. 1.
General Note: "Issued September 1991"--P. iii.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025740
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001726838
notis - AJD9389
oclc - 26129906
lccn - 92600017

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Sarasota County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    How this survey was made
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Map unit composition
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
    General soil map units
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 45
        Crops and pasture
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 49
            Page 50
        Rangeland and grazeable woodland
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Recreation
            Page 54
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 55
            Page 56
        Engineering
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
    Soil properties
        Page 63
        Engineering index properties
            Page 63
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 64
        Soil and water features
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
    Classification of the soils
        Page 69
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 69
        Astor series
            Page 69
        Boca series
            Page 70
        Bradenton series
            Page 71
        Canaveral series
            Page 71
        Cassia series
            Page 72
        Delray series
            Page 73
        EauGallie series
            Page 73
        Felda series
            Page 74
        Floridana series
            Page 75
        Ft. Green series
            Page 75
        Gator series
            Page 76
        Hallandale series
            Page 77
        Holopaw series
            Page 77
        Kesson series
            Page 78
        Malabar series
            Page 79
        Manatee series
            Page 79
        Matlacha series
            Page 80
        Myakka series
            Page 81
        Ona series
            Page 81
        Orsino series
            Page 82
        Pineda series
            Page 82
        Pomello series
            Page 83
        Pompano series
            Page 84
        Pople series
            Page 84
        Smyrna series
            Page 85
        St. Augustine series
            Page 85
        Tavares series
            Page 86
        Wabasso series
            Page 87
        Wulfert series
            Page 87
            Page 88
    Formation of the soils
        Page 89
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 89
        Processes of horizon differentiation
            Page 90
    Reference
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Glossary
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Tables
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
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        Page 121
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        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    General soil map
        Page 149
    Index to map sheets
        Page 150
        Page 151
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
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        Page 17
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Full Text


United States In cooperation with il r f
Department of the University of Florida, S o uy
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, Sarasota County
Soil Agricultural Experimentarasota County,
Conservation Stations, and Soil F I ri
Service Science Department; and F lo id a
the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services

































IA
i ,
,ID t






Sarasota Soil & Water Cons. District
2900 Ringling Blvd.
Sarasota, FL 34237
813-951-4210





How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas. -

-Kok( mo
To find information about N /
your area of interest, 1 t
locate that area on the '.- Q
Index to Map Sheets, y 13 MAP SHEET
which precedes the soil ____
maps. Note the number of 11...... I 19 o
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet. INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
that sheet.

WaF
Locate your area of Fa BaC
interest on the map AsB
sheet. Note the map unit B ac /
symbols that are in that a
area. Turn to the Index .
to Map Units (see Con- AREA OF INTEREST
tents), which lists the map NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
ns w lss t ma survey may consist only of numbers or
units by symbol and letters, or they may be a combination
name and shows the __ ot numbers and letters.
page where each map MAP SHEET
unit is described.

The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal part
of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1984. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1987. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1987. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance
furnished to the Sarasota County Soil and Water Conservation District. The
Sarasota County Board of Commissioners contributed funds to accelerate the
completion of the survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: Urban and residential areas and beaches adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico. Tourism and
retirement living are important industries in Sarasota County. Photo courtesy of the Florida
Division of Tourism.

















ii
















Contents


Index to map units ............................. iv Felda series ................................. 74
Summary of tables ............................... v Floridana series ............................... 75
Foreword ...................................... vii Ft. Green series ............................... 75
General nature of the county ...................... 1 Gator series ................................... 76
How this survey was made ........................ 6 Hallandale series .......................... .. 77
Map unit composition ........................... 8 Holopaw series ............................... 77
General soil map units ..................... 11 Kesson series ................................. 78
Detailed soil map units ......................... 17 Malabar series ................................. 79
Use and management of the soils................ 45 Manatee series ............................. 79
Crops and pasture ............................ 45 Matlacha series............ ................... 80
Woodland management and productivity ........ 49 Myakka series ................................ 81
Rangeland and grazeable woodland ............. 51 Ona series ................................... 81
Recreation ................................... 54 Orsino series ................................. 82
Wildlife habitat ................................. 55 Pineda series .................. ............. 82
Engineering ........... ........................ 57 Pomello series ................. ............. 83
Soil properties ................................ 63 Pompano series ............................. 84
Engineering index properties .................... 63 Pople series .................................. 84
Physical and chemical properties ................ 64 Smyrna series ................................. 85
Soil and water features ........................ 65 St. Augustine series ........................... 85
Classification of the soils ....................... 69 Tavares series ................................. 86
Soil series and their morphology ................... 69 Wabasso series .............................. 87
Astor series ................................... 69 Wulfert series ............................... 87
Boca series ................................... 70 Formation of the soils .......................... 89
Bradenton series............................. 71 Factors of soil formation ....................... 89
Canaveral series .............................. 71 Processes of horizon differentiation .............. 90
Cassia series ..................... ............ 72 References ............... .. ............. 91
Delray series ................................. 73 Glossary................................... 93
EauGallie series ............................... 73 Tables ......................................... 101

Issued September 1991













iii
















Index to Map Units


2- Beaches ..................................... 17 21- Ft. Green fine sand .......................... 31
3-Boca and Hallandale soils .................... 18 22-Holopaw fine sand, depressional ............. 32
4-Bradenton fine sand......................... 19 24-Kesson and Wulfert mucks, frequently flooded.. 33
5-Bradenton fine sand, frequently flooded ........ 19 25-Malabar fine sand........................... 33
6-Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...... 20 26-Manatee loamy fine sand, depressional ........ 35
7-Cassia fine sand .............................. 21 27-Matlacha gravelly sand ....................... 35
8-Delray fine sand, depressional ................. 22 29-Orsino fine sand ............................. 36
9-Delray and Astor soils, frequently flooded ...... 23 30-Ona fine sand .............................. 36
10-EauGallie and Myakka fine sands ............ 24 31-Pineda fine sand............................ 37
11-Felda fine sand.............................. 26 32-Pits and Dumps ............................. 38
12-Felda fine sand, depressional ................ 27 33-Pomello fine sand ........................... 38
13-Felda and Pompano fine sands, frequently 34-Pompano fine sand, depressional ............. 39
flooded ..................................... 28 36-Pople fine sand ............................ 39
14-Floridana mucky fine sand .................. 29 38-Smyrna fine sand ............................ 40
15-Floridana and Gator soils, depressional ....... 29 39-St. Augustine fine sand...................... 41
16-Floridana and Gator soils, frequently flooded ... 30 40-Tavares fine sand........................... 41
17- Gator muck ................................. 31 41-Wabasso fine sand .......................... 42

























iv
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) ................... .............. 102

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 2) ............... 103
Acres. Percent.

Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 3)... 104
Land capability. Oranges. Grapefruit. Tomatoes. Cabbage.
Pasture.

Woodland management and productivity (table 4)...................... 106
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.

Rangeland productivity (table 5) ......................................... 112
Range site. Potential annual production for kind of growing
season.

Recreational development (table 6) ..................................... 114
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.

Wildlife habitat (table 7) ........................ ........................ 118
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.

Building site development (table 8) ...................................... 121
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.

Sanitary facilities (table 9) .............................................. 124
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.

Construction materials (table 10) ....................................... 128
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.






v




















Water management (table 11)............................................ 131
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.

Engineering index properties (table 12) .................................. 136
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 13)................... 141
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.

Soil and water features (table 14) .............. .............. ....... 144
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Depth to
bedrock. Subsidence. Risk of corrosion.

Classification of the soils (table 15)...................................... 147
Family or higher taxonomic class.





















vi
















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Sarasota County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil,
improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of selected
land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the
management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and
pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are moderately deep over
bedrock. Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or
roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to underground development.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service









vii




































































Location of Sarasota County in Florida.













Soil Survey of

Sarasota County, Florida


By Adam G. Hyde, G. Wade Hurt, and Carol A. Wettstein, Soil Conservation Service

Soils surveyed by Robert Wildermuth and Joseph L. Huber, Soil Conservation Service;
Ralph G. Leighty, Soil Conservation Service and University of Florida, Agricultural
Experiment Stations; and Orlando E. Cruz, Victor W. Carlisle, and James H. Walker,
University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations

Soils recorrelated by Adam G. Hyde, G. Wade Hurt, and DeWayne Williams,
Soil Conservation Service

.United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services


SARASOTA COUNTY is in the southwestern part of the Its population during the tourist season, which runs from
peninsula of Florida. It is bordered on the west by the October through April, is about double that in summer.
Gulf of Mexico, on the north by Manatee County, on the This soil survey updates the survey of Sarasota
east by Manatee and De Soto Counties, and on the County published in 1959 (18). It describes the soils to
south by Charlotte County. Sarasota County has a land a greater depth. Many of the series and map unit
area of 366,810 acres, or about 573 square miles. An names have been changed because of new information
additional 13,530 acres of water is within the about the soils. Though some soil boundaries have
boundaries of the county. Along the coast is a string of been adjusted, most are essentially the same as those
barrier islands. These are the southern portion of in the older survey.
Longboat Key, Lido Key, Siesta Key, Casey Key, and
Manasota Key. They are separated from the mainland
by shallow bays. Urban areas are on the coast, along General Nature of the County
U.S. Highway 41, which generally extends from north to In this section the environmental and cultural factors
south. Sarasota, the county seat, is the largest of the that affect the use and management of the soils in
incorporated cities. It is on the coast. Sarasota County are described. These factors are
Interstate 75 separates the urban areas from the climate; history; physiography, drainage, and
rural areas. This major highway parallels U.S. Highway stratigraphy; water supply; agriculture; transportation
41. The rural areas are characterized by open facilities; and recreation.
rangeland, small areas of woodland, citrus groves,
cropland, pasture, and areas of native habitat. Climate
Tourism has been an important factor in the urban
development of Sarasota County. A favorable The climate of Sarasota County is oceanic and
subtropical climate and the location on the gulf attracts subtropical. The temperature is influenced by latitude,
both tourists and retirees from all over the world. As a low elevation, winds that sweep across the peninsula,
result, the county is one of the fastest urbanizing and the proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. The climate is
counties in the nation. Sarasota is a well known resort. characterized by high relative humidity, short mild







2 Soil Survey


winters, long warm summers, and rainfall that is and Little Salt Springs shows that Indian tribes in the
abundant throughout the year but is heaviest from June survey area depended on large game for survival (12).
through September. Later, as these food sources may have become more
The climate is tempered by the Gulf of Mexico and scarce inland, these people turned to marine life for
landlocked bays, rivers, and creeks. The bodies of food. Most of the prehistoric people, however, settled
water protect the county from frost in winter. Thus, along the shoreline, in areas where coastal streams
vegetables and citrus fruit can be grown. entered the bays. Food was most plentiful in these
Monthly and annual temperature and precipitation areas.
data are shown in table 1 (22). The table shows data Well into historic times, Sarasota County remained
from Bradenton and Punta Gorda, Florida. These data unsettled because of hostile Indians, infertile soil, poor
indicate conditions that can be expected in Sarasota drainage, and frequent storms. The first Spanish
County. explorer known to have visited the survey area was
Temperatures above 95 degrees F occur frequently Hernando de Soto, who landed on Longboat Key on
in summer. Such temperatures are of short duration July 9, 1539. The Spanish explorers did not stay
because thunderstorms, which usually occur in the because they found no gold. Diseases brought over by
afternoon, quickly cool the air. Temperatures fall below the Europeans wiped out the original Indians. Wars
the freezing point once or twice a year, generally in the between the Seminoles and the American military
eastern part of the county. Frost records kept at pushed the Indians into the Everglades before they
Bradenton over a 40-year period indicate that the latest could resettle in the survey area. For many years after
killing frost in spring occurred on March 25 and that the 1842, only a few fishermen settled in the area to
earliest one in autumn occurred on November 18. There harvest the rich marine resources.
were 13 years with no killing frost in spring and 21 The Armed Occupation Act of 1842 opened the
years with none in autumn. Sarasota area to settlement. By the end of the Civil
Some areas near bodies of water are frost free the War, small communities began to form along the
year round. The soils in these areas are suited to coastline. The early settlers built first in the areas of
gladiolus for bulbs and cut flowers. Also, tomatoes, well drained soils. The first post office in the survey
cabbage, peppers, escarole, lettuce, cucumbers, area was established on August 16, 1878. It was
eggplant, and celery are grown in winter and in most named Sara Sota. A group of Scotch colonists who
years are not damaged by frost. Grazing of native arrived in 1885 made the first major attempt to develop
grasses and of most of the improved pastures continues Sarasota. In 1920, the town was incorporated. Bee
throughout the year. Shelter for livestock generally is Ridge, Fruitville, and Myakka were established between
not needed. During occasional cold spells, fires are 1867 and 1883. The communities of Sara Sota and Bee
used to prevent damage to trees and fruit in citrus Ridge were located in the higher, drier areas. Fruitville
groves. Firing of the groves is seldom necessary, developed because of the rich organic mucks to the
however, because damaging freezes, which occur when east. The community of Myakka was established on the
temperatures fall to 28 degrees F or lower, occur only better drained soils in the valley of the Myakka River.
once or twice every 5 to 10 years. Sarasota County was established by the State
The seasonal distribution of rainfall is generally Legislature on May 14, 1921.
uniform. During periods of drought, which generally In 1950, the population of the county was 28,827. By
occur in spring, irrigation is used to prevent crop 1970, it had increased to 120,413. Between 1970 and
damage. Winter precipitation generally occurs as a 1978, it increased by more than 52 percent. In 1980, it
slow, steady drizzle, was 197,500. It is expected to be 254,500 by 1990 and
During September and early October, hurricanes are 295,900 by the year 2000 (12).
likely to form in the area of the Caribbean Sea. There is
generally one severe hurricane a year, and about one in Physiography, Drainage, and Stratigraphy
five strikes the peninsula of Florida. When a hurricane .
i i i Kenneth M. Campbell, professional geologist, Florida Geological
occurs, the accompanying rains damage crops as much Survey, prepared this section.
as or more than the wind.
The paragraphs that follow describe the
History physiography, drainage, and stratigraphy in the county.
The earliest evidence of human habitation in Physiography
Sarasota County dates back to more than 10,000 years Nearly all of Sarasota County is in the Gulf Coastal
ago. Archaeological evidence at Warm Mineral Springs Lowlands (23). Two small areas in the northeastern part







Sarasota County, Florida 3


of the county are within the boundaries of the De Soto county. The Myakka River and its tributaries are the
Plain. Barrier islands and lagoons are along most of the major streams. The county has numerous small
gulf coast in the county. streams. The county generally is an area of artesian
Elevations range from mean sea level along the gulf flow (8). The water table is at or near the surface
coast and the lower reaches of the Myakka River to a throughout much of the county. Natural drainage
maximum of about 100 feet above sea level in the systems have been channelized and extensive ditch
extreme northeastern part of the county, directly south systems constructed to improve drainage.
of Verna. Elevations increase almost imperceptibly from
the west and southwest toward the northeast. The Stratigraphy
topography tends to be flat. The steeper areas are in Sediments at or near the surface in Sarasota County
the vicinity of streams (11). consist of quartz sand, consolidated and unconsolidated
The prominent topographic features of the Gulf shell beds, clay, limestone, and dolomite. These
Coastal Lowlands in Sarasota County are scarps and sediments range in age from Oligocene (38 to 22.5
terraces that formed during Pleistocene sea level million years ago) to Holocene (10,000 years ago to the
stands. Four terraces are in the county (7). The Pamlico present).
terrace is at elevations of about 8 to 25 feet above The Oligocene Series occurs as Suwannee
mean sea level, the Talbot terrace is at 25 to 42 feet, Limestone in Sarasota County. This limestone is below
the Penholoway terrace is at 42 to 70 feet, and the the surface throughout the county. It is generally divided
Wicomico terrace is at 70 to 100 feet. The scarps that into two units.
separate these terraces generally are poorly defined. The upper unit is creamy white to light yellowish gray
Except for the coast at Venice, the gulf coast in the limestone containing darker dolomitized zones (11). The
county consists of barrier islands, spits, and lagoons. undolomitized parts are variably recrystallized
The barrier islands formed during the last 4,000 to packstone or wackestone that is poorly indurated to well
5,000 years, after sea level became reasonably stable. indurated. The upper unit is highly fossiliferous,
They represent the latest adjustment to changing containing abundant poorly preserved foraminifera,
conditions during this period. Barrier islands change mollusks, echinoids, and corals. Moldic and vuggy
size, shape, and position in response to both short-term porosity is common.
and long-term conditions. They can be merged together, The lower unit is generally pale gray to light yellow,
can be split into segments, can become attached to the calcilutitic limestone. It is typically softer, more
mainland, or can even disappear completely. The calcilutitic, and less porous and fossiliferous than the
method of formation and the original location may be upper unit and may contain finely divided pyrite (11).
obscured. The top of the Suwannee Limestone is about 350
Barrier islands require an abundant supply of sand. feet below mean sea level in the northeasternmost part
Since the present sea level has stabilized, very little of the county and dips to the south and west. In the
new sand has been added to the islands in this survey southernmost part of the county, the top of the
area. The result is that parts of the islands are being limestone is about 650 feet below mean sea level.
eroded. Most of the sand lost through erosion is The Suwannee Limestone in Sarasota County ranges
redeposited as spits at the ends of the islands, in from about 150 to more than 350 feet in thickness. It is
lagoons, or in offshore areas. thinnest in the extreme southwestern part of the county
The De Soto Plain is a flat area that is mainly in and thickest in the vicinity of Sarasota and in the
Manatee, Hardee, De Soto, Highlands, Glades, and eastern part of the county (11).
Charlotte Counties. Only a small part of the plain is in The Miocene Series in Sarasota County occurs as
Sarasota County. It extends into the northeast corner of the Hawthorn Group, which consists of the Arcadia
the county. That part of the plain in Sarasota County Formation and the overlying Peace River Formation.
consists mainly of the relatively steeper slopes between The Hawthorn Group has been raised from formation
the very edge of the plain and the inland edge of the status to group status (14). It includes those sediments
Gulf Coastal Lowlands. The De Soto Plain is a that in the past have been included in the Tampa,
submarine plain that probably formed under Wicomico Hawthorn, and Bone Valley Formations (10, 11).
seas, 70 to 100 feet above the present sea level (23). The Arcadia Formation in Sarasota County consists
of the Tampa Member and an unnamed upper member
Drainage (14). The Tampa Member overlies the Suwannee
Most of Sarasota County is poorly drained. Many Limestone and is lithologically similar to the typical
swamps, marshes, and ponds are throughout the Tampa Formation but has 1 to 3 percent phosphate and







4 Soil Survey


has greater area limits (14). The Tampa Member is over the Peace River Formation where the shell beds
white to tan, quartz sandy limestone that has a do not occur. These deposits consist of unconsolidated
carbonate mud matrix. Varying amounts of clay very fine to medium grained (/e6 to 1/2 millimeter) quartz
generally are disseminated throughout the rock. Some sand. The sand is white to light brown and contains
of the beds contain more than 50 percent quartz sand. trace amounts of phosphate sand and limestone or shell
Dolomite is relatively uncommon. The Tampa Member fragments.
is recognizable throughout most of the northern part of The clean quartz sand was deposited by Pleistocene
the county, but it becomes indistinct because of a faces seas at various sea levels. The scarps and terraces
change in the southern part of the county. described under the heading "Physiography" formed in
The upper member of the Arcadia Formation includes this sand. The maximum thickness of the surficial sand
those sediments that in the past have been referred to is 45 to 50 feet in the vicinity of Verna.
as the "Hawthorn carbonate unit" (14). Lithologically, The Anastasia Formation, which is probably of late
these sediments consist of white to yellowish gray, Pleistocene age, is evident at "Point of Rocks," Siesta
quartz sandy, phosphatic, and sometimes clayey Key. It forms a prominent outcrop that extends along
dolomite and limestone (uncommon). They have the beach for about 1 mile. The outcrop occurs as case-
occasional beds of carbonate-rich quartz sand and thin hardened, bedded coquina consisting mainly of mollusk
clay beds. shells and fragments (11). Wave action erodes and
The Arcadia Formation is below the surface undercuts this material into large slabs. The resistance
throughout Sarasota County. The top of the formation is to wave erosion accounts for the prominent seaward
approximately at mean sea level in the northeastern projection of the coastline at this point.
part of the county to just over 100 feet below mean sea Deposits of Holocene age (10,000 years ago to the
level in the southernmost part. The formation dips present) are limited mainly to present-day flood plains
gently to the south-southeast. It ranges from about 300 along streams and to beaches, intertidal swamps and
feet to more than 500 feet in thickness. The thickness marshes, and inland swamps, marshes, and lakes.
increases from the northeast and east to the west, These sediments consist of sand, silt, clay, and organic
southwest, and south (14). material.
The Peace River Formation in Sarasota County
consists of those sediments that have been described Water Supply
as "upper Hawthorn clastics" (14). Lithologically, these
sediments consist of yellowish gray to light olive green, Water is one of the most important natural resources
interbedded phosphatic sands, clayey sands, clays, and in Sarasota County. It is throughout the natural
dolomite stringers. The Peace River Formation is in all environment and can be classified into two systems: the
areas of the county, except for the immediate area of ground water system and the surface water system
the city of Sarasota. (12).
The top of the Peace River Formation is at or near In the ground water system there are two types of
mean sea level throughout much of the county. In the geologic formations-the confined and the unconfined
northeastern part of the county, however, it is 50 feet aquifers. The confined aquifer, called the Floridan
above mean sea level. The thickness of the formation Aquifer, extends under much of Florida. The Green
ranges from 0 in the vicinity of Sarasota to 110 feet in Swamp region in Polk County is believed to be a
the easternmost part of the county. The formation recharge area for the part of the Floridan Aquifer that
thickens to the east and south, underlies Sarasota County. Except for this recharge
Surficial deposits of Pliocene-Pleistocene age (5.3 to area in Polk County, most of the Floridan Aquifer is
0.1 million years ago) blanket the county. Throughout under a confining layer of clay or other impermeable
most of the county, they consist of sandy, silty, and material. This confining layer is responsible for artesian
clayey, variably indurated shell beds overlain by a thin water pressure. The Hawthorn Formation is the
veneer of clean quartz sand. The deposits are typically confining layer in Sarasota County.
15 to 30 feet thick. The shell beds are not evident in the The good quality of the water in the Floridan Aquifer
eastern and western parts of the northern third of the is being threatened by pumping rates, which may
county (11). The beds generally are 5 to 6 feet thick but exceed recharge rates. As this pumping occurs, the
range from 2 to 15 feet in thickness. They are good-quality water is replaced by water of lesser quality
commonly iron stained. An iron-cemented hardpan is from below. A number of wells in the southern part of
common, the county have had a high saline content over the last
Clean quartz sand of Pleistocene age (1.6 to .01 few years.
million years ago) forms a veneer over the shell beds or Most users of potable and agricultural water in the






Sarasota County, Florida 5


county depend on the Floridan Aquifer as a primary efficient low-volume system, such as a drip system or a
source. Because of an increased demand for good- mist sprayer. Each tree may be irrigated by one or two
quality water, agricultural users are developing new emitters, which supply enough water to meet the
water sources from the unconfined aquifer. Some are requirements for several days during a drought.
excavating reservoirs and depend on ground water Vegetables and other crops are irrigated by a
recharge for most of their needs. Much of this recharge, semiclosed system, in which water is supplied to an
however, depends heavily on rainfall, and most of the open ditch furrow by way of a pipeline.
water used during the dry spring growing season is None of the soils in the county meet the
consumed faster than the recharge rate. When this rate requirements for prime farmland as defined by the U.S.
of consumption occurs, wells fed from the Floridan Department of Agriculture. The soils are too wet
Aquifer are pumped to recharge the reservoir, because of a seasonal high water table, are too
frequently flooded, or are too drought during the
Agriculture growing season of most crops to meet these
requirements.
Mild year-round temperatures, ample rainfall, Urbanization of agricultural land in Sarasota County
abundant sunshine, long growing seasons, and has occurred mainly along the coastal strip. Almost all
responsive soils favor agriculture in Sarasota County. of the land east of Interstate 75 is unimproved
Citrus groves and various truck crops are among the rangeland or woodland that is either idle or is being
products of the flourishing agricultural enterprises in the grazed by cattle.
county. The livestock enterprise continues to be the Of the 206,000 acres classified as rangeland or
principal agricultural activity in the county. woodland in 1983, about 122,160 acres was used for
In 1983, about 28,400 acres in Sarasota County was beef and dairy production (3). Native rangeland is used
cropland or improved pasture and 206,000 acres was for grazing in about 83 percent of the livestock
native rangeland or woodland (3). Celery and salad enterprises in the county. All of the commercial ranches
vegetables have been grown successfully on about are cow-calf enterprises. The county currently has 35
1,200 acres of organic soils in the Fruitville area. livestock enterprises that are commercial, purebred, or
Tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, and watermelons are both. It has about 22,000 head of beef cattle and dairy
grown on about 500 acres in various parts of the county cows. The total number of cattle is not expected to
(fig. 1). Most of these are grown on leased land where increase because the range is in fair or poor condition.
the farmer clears the native vegetation from a field, Salt and minerals are used to supplement the native
drills a well for water, and then uses the field for two forage during the year.
growing seasons. The field is then planted to improved A trend over the years has been for farmers to clear
pasture grasses. Because of escalating clearing costs, rangeland and to farm the land for the cost of clearing
however, farmers are returning to fields that were and of installing a well. After one or two growing
cleared and farmed 4 or 5 years earlier. seasons, the land is planted to improved pasture
Because of problems with pests, most of the soils in grasses and the use of the land reverts to the rancher.
Sarasota County can be economically farmed only once Because of the high cost of clearing and the expense of
in every 4 or 5 years. Corn and other crops used for drilling a well, however, most farmers are returning to
silage have been successfully grown, and the extent of old pastures that were farmed at least 4 or 5 years
this kind of crop production appears to be increasing, earlier. Also, most of the larger areas of contiguous
The silage is supplied to one dairy in Sarasota County rangeland have been cleared, and the only remaining
and to other dairies in Manatee County. parcels are those that have numerous ponds. The
About 1,600 acres is used for citrus groves. Most of conversion of rangeland to improved pasture is not
the old groves planted in the 1920's and 1930's have likely to be common in the next few years.
been converted to urban land. New groves are being
planted throughout the county, however, and the trend Transportation Facilities
is toward an increasing acreage. Most of the groves are
planted on small acreages because of the cost of Most of the major roads in Sarasota County were
minimizing soil limitations. fairly well established by 1927. Most of the road
Almost all food, grain, and hay crops require some network is west of Interstate 75. The east-west roads
form of irrigation to survive in Sarasota County. were built along section lines. They linked the rural
Because of the inherently low available water capacity areas to the coastal population centers. Most of the
of the soils, frequent, often daily, irrigation is needed. major thoroughfares are not adequate for the traffic
Most of the citrus groves are irrigated by a highly






6 Soil Survey



































Figure 1.-Tomatoes in an area of EauGallle and Myakka fine sands. A water-control system is needed if vegetable crops are grown on
these soils.



congestion caused by rapid population growth and 18,929 acres of which is in Sarasota County. The public
seasonal tourism. beaches in the county are international attractions
The Sarasota-Bradenton Airport provides Sarasota because of the opportunities that they provide for
County with airline service by five commercial carriers, various water sports and because of their scenic
The county has three other airports, two public and one qualities.
private. Bus service also is available. The county provides opportunities for visitors and
residents to watch tennis matches, golf, and baseball
Recreation games. Venice is the winter headquarters of one of the
largest circuses in the world. The Asolo State Theatre
Opportunities for a variety of recreational activities a te in Meu 2) p e to o the
are available in Sarasota County. Some of the active
recreational activities include freshwater and saltwater many cultural activities available in the county.
fishing, swimming, boating, waterskiing, and horseback
riding. One of the first golf courses in North America How This Survey Was Made
was built in Sarasota in 1886. The county also has two
state parks. The Myakka River State Park, which is the This survey was made to provide information about
largest state park in Florida, makes up 28,875 acres, the soils in the survey area. The information includes a







Sarasota County, Florida 7


description of the soils and their location and a relief, climate, and the natural vegetation of the area.
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and Each kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
slopes; the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
crops and native plants growing on the soils; and the scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
kinds of bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or the soil scientist to predict with a considerable degree
horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the surface of accuracy the kind of soil at a specific location on the
down into the unconsolidated material in which the soil landscape.
formed. The unconsolidated material is devoid of roots Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
and other living organisms and has not been changed into one another as their characteristics gradually
by other biological activity, change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
pattern that is related to the geology, the landforms, the soils. They can observe only a limited number of




























Figure 2.-The Rinlin Museum, which is in an area of Matacha ravel sand. Photo courtesy of the Florida Division of Tourism.



ip ,
!.




Figure 2.-The Ringling Museum, which is in an area of Matlacha gravelly sand. Photo courtesy of the Florida Division of Tourism.







8 Soil Survey


soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
supplemented by an understanding of the soil- photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
determine the boundaries, accurately.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil In Sarasota County a ground penetrating radar
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture, system was used to document the type and variability of
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of the soils occurring in the map units (5, 6, 9, 15). This
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, reaction, and system was successfully used on most of the soils to
other features that enable them to identify soils. After detect the presence of and measure the depth to major
describing the soils in the survey area and determining soil horizons or other soil features and to determine the
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to variability of those features. A total of 650 random
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are transects were made with ground penetrating radar in
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil the county. Information from notes and ground-truth
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes observations made in the field was used, along with
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils radar data from this study, to classify the soils and to
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification determine the composition of the map units. The map
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind units described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units"
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of are based on this data and on data in the previous
horizons within the profile (19). After the soil scientists survey.
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the Map Unit Composition
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
confirm data and assemble additional data based on A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
experience and research. area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
of the soils in the area generally are collected for identified and named according to the taxonomic
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
scientists interpret the data from these analyses and taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
the soil properties to determine the expected behavior the soils are natural objects. In common with other
of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
the soils are field tested through observation of the soils their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
in different uses under different levels of management. properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
and some new interpretations are developed to meet class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
local needs. Data are assembled from other sources, areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
such as research information, production records, and Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
field experience of specialists. For example, data on soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to
crop yields under defined levels of management are other taxonomic classes. These latter soils are called

assembled from farm records and from field or plot inclusions or included soils.
experiments on the same kinds of soil. Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
soil properties but also on such variables as climate the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
over long periods of time, but they are not predictable inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
soil will have a high water table within certain depths in or require different management. These are contrasting
most years, but they cannot assure that a high water (dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
specific date. because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
After soil scientists located and identified the of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been







Sarasota County, Florida 9


observed and consequently are not mentioned in the taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so landscape into segments that have similar use and
complex that it was impractical to make enough management requirements. The delineation of such
observations to identify all of the kinds of soil on the landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
landscape. information for the development of resource plans, but
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data. in small areas.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure



















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication glasswort, seashore saltgrass, and seashore paspalum
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of grow in some areas.
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general This map unit makes up about 1 percent of the
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map county. It includes about 4,600 acres. It is about 75
unit consists of one or more major soils and some percent Canaveral soils, 14 percent Beaches, 8 percent
minor soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils Kesson soils, and 3 percent soils of minor extent.
making up one unit can occur in other units but in a Canaveral soils are on low, dunelike ridges. They are
different pattern, moderately well drained or somewhat poorly drained.
The general soil map can be used to compare the They consist of a mixture of light colored quartz sand
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of grains and multicolored shell fragments.
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, Beaches are long and narrow and are adjacent to the
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified, gulf. They consist of quartz sand and many generally
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for small shell fragments. They are subject to continuous
planning the management of a farm or field or for wave action.
selecting a site for a road or a building or other Kesson soils are in the low mangroves, mainly on the
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from bay side of the coastal islands. They are very poorly
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other drained. They are muck to a depth of about 7 inches.
characteristics that affect management. The underlying material is fine sand containing shell
fragments. These soils are flooded during normal high
Soils on the Coastal Islands tides.
These soils are nearly level to gently sloping and are The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
moderately well drained to very poorly drained. On the EauGallie soils, the depressional Pompano soils, and
gulf side of the islands, they are on low coastal dunes St. Augustine and Wulfert soils.
and sandy beaches. On parts of the bay side, they are The soils in this unit are used for urban and
very low and mucky. recreational development.

1. Canaveral-Beaches-Kesson Soils on Hammocks
These soils are nearly level and are poorly drained
Beaches and nearly level to gently sloping, moderately e oo draine A dense stand of live oak and
well drained, somewhat poorly drained, and very poorlyy c testi on e so
drained, sandy soils that have shell fragments and that in a
very poorly drained areas have a surface layer of muck 2. Wabasso-EauGallie-Felda
This map unit consists mainly of soils on the coastal
islands and on a narrow strip between the Gulf of Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
Mexico and the mainland. The vegetation in the higher that have a sandy and loamy subsoil or a loamy subsoil
areas consists of Australian pine, sand live oak, This map unit consists of soils that are mainly on
cabbage palm, and a sparse cover of various grasses hammocks but in some areas are on flatwoods. Most of
and sedges. Beaches are generally devoid of the unit is in a narrow strip on both sides of the Myakka
vegetation, although a sparse cover of seaoats, railroad River. The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, slash
vine, and other salt-tolerant plants is near the inland pine, cabbage palm, live oak, magnolia, saw palmetto,
edges. Red, black, and white mangroves grow in areas inkberry, waxmyrtle, bluestem, indiangrass, Florida
of the tidal swamps. Searocket, saltwort, perennial paspalum, pineland threeawn, panicum, deer tongue,







12 Soil Survey


grassleaf goldaster, huckleberry, and running oak. subsoil, are sandy throughout, or have a sandy surface
This map unit makes up about 2 percent of the layer and a loamy subsoil
county. It includes about 8,000 acres. It is about 30 This map unit consists of soils on broad flatwoods
percent Wabasso soils, 25 percent EauGallie soils, 20 interspersed with sloughs surrounding many
percent the depressional Felda soils, and 25 percent depressions that are seasonally ponded. It is the
soils of minor extent. dominant unit in the county, occurring in all areas,
Wabasso soils are poorly drained. Typically, the except for those very near the coast.
surface layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The natural vegetation consists of South Florida
The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of slash pine and scattered cabbage palm. The understory
about 8 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of about includes inkberry, saw palmetto, chalky bluestem,
80 inches. The upper 10 inches is very dark gray fine creeping bluestem, pineland threeawn, waxmyrtle,
sand that is coated with colloidal organic matter. The panicum, and other grasses. Baldcypress, pondcypress,
next 7 inches is very light gray fine sand. The lower 55 cabbage palm, waxmyrtle, sand cordgrass, St.
inches is dark gray sandy loam and fine sandy loam. Johnswort, and blue maidencane grow on the very
EauGallie soils are poorly drained. Typically, the poorly drained soils.
surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. This map unit makes up about 83 percent of the
The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of county. It includes about 305,905 acres. It is about 30
about 22 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of percent EauGallie soils, 23 percent Myakka soils, 15
about 66 inches. The upper 22 inches is fine sand percent the depressional Holopaw soils, 14 percent
coated with organic matter. It is dark reddish brown Pineda soils, and 18 percent soils of minor extent.
grading to dark brown. The next 4 inches is light gray EauGallie soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
fine sand. The lower 18 inches is grayish brown sandy surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick.
loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of
is gray fine sandy loam. about 22 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of
The depressional Felda soils are very poorly drained, about 66 inches. The upper 22 inches is fine sand
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown coated with organic matter. It is dark reddish brown
fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grading to dark brown. The next 4 inches is light gray
gray and light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of fine sand. The lower 18 inches is grayish brown sandy
about 22 inches. The subsoil to a depth of about 60 loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more
inches is gray sandy loam. The substratum to a depth is gray fine sandy loam.
of 80 inches or more is gray loamy sand. Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 6
Bradenton and Ft. Green soils and the depressional inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine
Manatee soils. sand about 18 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand to
The soils in this unit are used mainly for wildlife a depth of about 60 inches. The upper 11 inches is very
habitat, recreational development, and improved dark grayish brown, the next 7 inches is very dark gray,
pasture. and the lower 18 inches is light yellowish brown. The
Soils on Flatwoods substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is pale
brown fine sand.
These soils are nearly level and are moderately well The depressional Holopaw soils are very poorly
drained, poorly drained, or very poorly drained. This is drained. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine
the largest group of soils in the county. It is in all parts sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
of the county, except for barrier islands, flood plains, gray and grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about
and mangrove swamps. In most areas the soils are 50 inches. The subsoil to a depth of about 66 inches is
sandy and have a dark subsoil overlying a gray, loamy brown sandy loam that has pockets of brown fine sand.
subsoil. In some areas they are sandy throughout and The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is olive
have a dark subsoil. In other areas they have a gray, gray loamy fine sand that has pockets of brown fine
loamy subsoil. sand.
3a Pineda soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
a layer is dark gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils subsurface layer is gray fine sand about 14 inches
that have a sandy surface layer and a sandy and loamy thick. The upper part of the subsoil is dark yellowish







Sarasota County, Florida 13


brown and pale brown fine sand about 14 inches thick. and the lower 18 inches is light yellowish brown. The
The lower part to a depth of about 48 inches is light substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is pale
brownish gray fine sandy loam that has dark yellowish brown fine sand.
brown mottles. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches EauGallie soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
or more is grayish brown and dark grayish brown fine surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick.
sand. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a depth of
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include about 22 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of
Boca, Bradenton, Delray, Felda, Hallandale, Malabar, about 66 inches. The upper 22 inches is fine sand
Pople, and Smyrna soils, coated with organic matter. It is dark reddish brown
The soils in this map unit are well suited to improved grading to dark brown. The next 4 inches is light gray
pasture. In most areas they are used as improved fine sand. The lower 18 inches is grayish brown sandy
pasture. In some areas they are used as range that is loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more
cut over and undeveloped. In places they are used for is gray fine sandy loam.
tomatoes and other truck crops. The soils of minor extent in this map unit are the
Delray, Holopaw, Orsino, St. Augustine, and Tavares
4. Pomello-Myakka-EauGallie soils. Delray and Holopaw soils are in depressions and
Nearly level, moderately well drained and poorly drained, sloughs. rsino and Tavaressoils are on ridges. St.
Augustine soils are in areas that have been dredged
sandy soils that in some areas are sandy in the upper and filled.
part of the subsoil and loamy in the lower part o o e an dee en in n
Most of the urban development in Sarasota County
This map unit consists of soils on flatwoods that are has taken place in areas of this map unit because of
interspersed with low ridges. The major area of the unit the better drainage of some of the soils. Other uses
occurs as a 1- to 2-mile strip extending from Sarasota include pasture, range, and truck crops.
to Englewood and paralleling the coast. Small areas are
around Old Myakka and Deer Prairie Creek. Soils in Depressions
The natural vegetation on the ridges consists of These soils are very poorly drained and are in large,
south Florida slash pine, scrub live oak, saw palmetto, low areas throughout the eastern part of the county.
fetterbush, rusty lyonia, running oak, indiangrass, The soils are sandy and have a loamy subsoil. Ponding
pineland threeawn, grassleaf goldaster, flag pawpaw, is common in most areas.
mosses, lichens, panicums, bluestems, and various
other grasses. Sand pine grows on some of the better 5. Floridana
drained soils. The natural vegetation on the lower
flatwoods consists of South Florida slash pine and Nearly level, very poorly drained, sandy soils that have a
scattered cabbage palm. The understory includes loamy subsoil
inkberry, saw palmetto, chalky bluestem, creeping This map unit consists mainly of very poorly drained
bluestem, pineland threeawn, and various other soils that are nearly level or depressional. The soils are
grasses, in two small areas east of Fruitville. The natural
This map unit makes up about 7 percent of the vegetation consists of sand cordgrass, maidencane, St.
county. It includes about 23,205 acres. It is about 30 Johnswort, scattered waxmyrtle, Carolina willow,
percent Pomello and the similar Cassia soils, 25 pickerelweed, cutgrass, primrose willow, sawgrass, and
percent Myakka soils, 20 percent EauGallie soils, and other water-tolerant grasses. A few cypress, bay, and
25 percent soils of minor extent, maple trees grow in some areas.
Pomello soils are moderately well drained. Typically, This map unit makes up less than 1 percent of the
the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 4 inches county. It includes about 3,200 acres. It is about 85
thick. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of about percent Floridana soils and 15 percent soils of minor
48 inches. It is light gray fine sand. The subsoil to a extent.
depth of 80 inches or more is dark reddish brown fine Typically, the surface layer of the Floridana soils is
sand. black mucky fine sand about 14 inches thick. The
Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the subsurface layer is light gray and light brownish gray
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 6 sand to a depth of about 22 inches. The subsoil
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine extends to a depth of about 60 inches. It is gray sandy
sand about 18 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand to loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more
a depth of about 60 inches. The upper 11 inches is very is gray loamy sand.
dark grayish brown, the next 7 inches is very dark gray, The soils of minor extent in this map unit are the







14 Soil Survey


Delray, Felda, Gator, Manatee, and Holopaw soils. EauGallie, Floridana, Ft. Green, Gator, Manatee,
These soils are in landscape positions similar to those Myakka, and Pineda soils. EauGallie, Ft. Green,
of the Floridana soils. Gator soils formed in organic Myakka, and Pineda soils are at the slightly higher
material. They are more extensive than the other minor elevations and are not subject to ponding.
soils. Most areas of this map unit support natural
In places the soils support natural vegetation. In vegetation and provide excellent habitat for wading
some areas they are subject to ponding. In many areas, birds and other wetland wildlife. A few areas have been
however, a water-control system has been installed, drained and are used for truck crops or pasture.
The areas that have been drained generally are used
for truck farming, but some are used for improved Soils on Flood Plains
pasture. These soils are poorly drained or very poorly drained.
They are subject to flooding. Some are sandy in the
6. Felda-Holopaw-Delray upper part and have a loamy subsoil, and others are
Nearly level, very poorly drained, sandy soils that have a sandy throughout. Some are organic and have a high
loamy subsoil content of sulfur, and others are sandy and have a high
content of sulfur.
This map unit consists mainly of very poorly drained
soils that are nearly level or depressional. The soils are 7. Delray-Felda-Pompano
in small areas, generally in the northeastern part of the
county. Most areas are narrow and winding or Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained,
irregularly shaped. The natural vegetation consists of sandy soils that in most areas have a loamy subsoil but
blue maidencane, broomsedge, St. Johnswort, in some areas are sandy throughout
waxmyrtle, panicums, sand cordgrass, white bracted This map unit consists of nearly level soils adjacent
sedge, pipewort, stiff paspalum, cutgrass, and various to the Myakka River. The soils are frequently flooded.
other water-tolerant weeds and grasses. Cypress, bay, Areas are long and narrow. The natural vegetation
and maple grow in some areas, consists mostly of cabbage palm, cypress, gum, oaks,
This map unit makes up about 4 percent of the maple, and scattered pine. In a few places it includes
county. It includes about 13,000 acres. It is about 30 water-tolerant grasses.
percent the depressional Felda soils, 30 percent the This map unit makes up about 2 percent of the
depressional Holopaw soils, 10 percent the county. It includes about 7,000 acres. It is about 30
depressional Delray soils, and 30 percent soils of minor percent Delray and the similar Astor and Floridana
extent. soils, 25 percent Felda and the similar Bradenton soils,
Typically, the surface layer of the Felda soils is very 11 percent Pompano soils, and 34 percent soils of
dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The minor extent.
subsurface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand to a Delray soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
depth of about 24 inches. The subsoil is sandy clay surface layer is black fine sand about 30 inches thick.
loam to a depth of about 65 inches. The upper 24 The subsurface layer is dark gray fine sand to a depth
inches is dark grayish brown, and the lower 17 inches is of about 54 inches. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches
grayish brown. The substratum to a depth of about 80 or more is gray sandy loam.
inches is light gray loamy sand. Felda soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
Typically, the surface layer of the Holopaw soils is layer is very dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick.
dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The The subsurface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand to
subsurface layer is light gray and grayish brown fine a depth of about 24 inches. The subsoil is sandy clay
sand to a depth of about 50 inches. The subsoil to a loam to a depth of about 65 inches. The upper 24
depth of about 66 inches is brown sandy loam that has inches is dark grayish brown, and the lower 17 inches is
pockets of brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth grayish brown. The substratum to a depth of about 80
of 80 inches or more is olive gray loamy fine sand that inches is light gray loamy sand.
has pockets of brown fine sand. Pompano soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Typically, the surface layer of the Delray soils is surface layer is black fine sand about 3 inches thick.
black fine sand about 30 inches thick. The subsurface The underlying material to a depth of about 80 inches is
layer is light brownish gray fine sand to a depth of gray, light brownish gray, and grayish brown fine sand.
about 54 inches. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or The soils of minor extent in this map unit are similar
more is olive gray fine sandy loam. to the major soils or are various soils adjacent to the
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are the







Sarasota County, Florida 15


flood plains, the most significant of which are the dark reddish brown muck about 7 inches thick. The
Wabasso soils, underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
Almost all areas of this map unit support natural gray, grayish brown, and dark greenish gray fine sand.
vegetation and are used for wildlife habitat. Shell fragments are common in the underlying material.
The soils have a high content of sulfur and may
8. Kesson-Wulfert become very acid after drying.
Typically, the surface layer of the Wulfert soils is
Nearly level, very poorly drained, sandy and organic soils black muck about 38 inches thick. The underlying
in mangrove swamps material to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark gray
This map unit consists of very poorly drained soils in and grayish brown fine sand. The soils have a high
mangrove swamps at the mouth of the Myakka River content of sulfur and may become very acid after
and around Roberts Bay. The native vegetation consists drying.
mainly of black mangrove, but it includes red and white The minor soils in this map unit are various mineral
mangroves. In some areas it consists of seashore and organic soils that have a lower content of sulfur
saltgrass, searocket, saltwort, perennial glasswort, and than the major soils and Delray, EauGallie, Ft. Green,
seashore paspalum. and Pineda soils in some small areas. Also of minor
This map unit makes up less than 1 percent of the extent are shallow bodies of water.
county. It includes about 1,900 acres. It is about 50 Almost all areas of this map unit support natural
percent Kesson soils, 40 percent Wulfert soils, and 10 vegetation. These areas are very important to many
percent soils of minor extent. species of fish and wildlife as spawning grounds,
Typically, the surface layer of the Kesson soils is rookeries, and feeding grounds.









17








Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back other than those for which the map unit is named.
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area. Some of these included soils have properties that differ
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and differences could significantly affect use and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be management of the soils in the map unit. The included
used to plan the management needed for those uses. soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
under "Use and Management of the Soils." a special symbol on the soil maps.
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more areas have little or no soil material and support little or
soils for which the unit is named. no vegetation. The map unit Beaches is an example.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit Miscellaneous areas are normally shown on the soil
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes maps. Some that are too small to be shown are
general facts about the soil and gives the principal identified by a special symbol on the soil maps. Urban
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for land is a miscellaneous area that is not shown on the
specific uses. maps of Sarasota County.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up Table 2 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
surface layer or of the substratum, all the soils of a Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
series have major horizons that are similar in capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
composition, thickness, and arrangement. defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the substratum. They also can differ in slope, 2-Beaches. This map unit occurs as nearly level to
stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, and sloping, narrow strips of tide- and surf-washed sandy
other characteristics that affect their use. On the basis material and shell fragments along the Gulf of Mexico
of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil shoreline. The unit commonly is a mixture of moderately
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil alkaline sand and fine shell fragments.
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil Beaches range from less than 100 to about 300 feet
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or in width. About half of the beach area may be flooded
management. For example, Felda fine sand is a phase daily during high tides, and all of the beaches can be
of the Felda series, flooded by storm tides. Most have a uniform, gentle
Some map units are made up of two or more major slope to the edge of the water, although the shape and
soils. These map units are called undifferentiated slope can change with every storm.
groups. An undifferentiated group is made up of two or Beaches generally support no vegetation, although a
more soils that could be mapped individually but are sparse cover of seaoats, railroad vine, or other salt-
mapped as one unit because similar interpretations can tolerant plants is near the inland edges.
be made for use and management. The pattern and Depth to the water table varies greatly, commonly
proportion of the soils in a mapped area are not ranging from 0 to 6 feet, depending on the distance
uniform. An area can be made up of only one of the from the shore, elevation, and tidal condition.
major soils, or it can be made up of all of them. The Beaches can be used only as recreational areas and
map unit Boca and Hallandale soils is an as habitat for wildlife. Severe erosion is often a problem
undifferentiated group in this survey area. during severe storms. Because the beaches have great
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils







18 Soil Survey


esthetic value, they are an important part of the measures are applied. A water-control system that
coastline. removes excess water during wet periods and provides
This map unit is in capability subclass VIllw. water through subsurface irrigation during dry periods is
needed. Because of rock near the surface of the
3-Boca and Hallandale soils. These nearly level, Hallandale soil, however, construction of such a system
poorly drained soils are on broad flatwoods and in low is difficult. Soil-improving crops and crop residue
areas within the flatwoods. Individual areas range from management help to control erosion and maintain the
about 5 to 60 acres. Slopes are smooth or slightly content of organic matter. Seedbed preparation should
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. include bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be applied
The components of this map unit do not occur in a according to the needs of the crop.
regular and repeating pattern. Some areas are entirely Under natural conditions, these soils are poorly
Boca and similar soils, some are entirely Hallandale suited to citrus trees because of the wetness and the
and similar soils, and some are made up of Boca, shallowness to limestone. In areas that usually are not
Hallandale, and other soils. The Boca and similar soils subject to freezing temperatures, however, the
make up about 45 percent of the map unit, and the suitability is fair if a water-control system maintains the
Hallandale and similar soils make up about 35 percent. water table below a depth of about 4 feet and if
Typically, the surface layer of the Boca soil is black intensive management is applied. Planting the trees on
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is beds results in good surface drainage. A good close-
light gray and light yellowish brown fine sand about 18 growing cover crop between the tree rows helps to
inches thick. The subsoil is brownish yellow fine sandy control soil blowing. Regular applications of fertilizer are
loam to a depth of about 25 inches. The substratum is needed.
very pale brown, calcareous loamy fine sand about 7 The suitability of these soils for improved pasture and
inches thick. Hard, fractured limestone is at a depth of hay crops is good. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass,
about 32 inches, and white clover grow well in properly managed areas.
Typically, the surface layer of the Hallandale soil is Management should include a water-control system to
dark gray sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying remove excess surface water after heavy rains, regular
material extends to a depth of about 14 inches. The applications of fertilizer and lime, and controlled
upper 6 inches is brown sand, and the lower 8 inches is grazing.
light gray fine sand. Below this is hard, fractured The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
limestone bedrock. is moderate. The equipment limitation, seedling
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas mortality, the windthrow hazard, and plant competition
of Felda, Pineda, and Pompano soils. Also included are are the main management concerns. South Florida
small areas of exposed limestone bedrock. Included slash pine and slash pine are suitable for planting.
areas make up less than 20 percent of the map unit. These soils are moderately suited to the production
The Boca and Hallandale soils have a seasonal high of desirable range plants. The dominant forage is
water table at a depth of 6 to 18 inches for 2 to 4 creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland
months or more. The water table recedes below the threeawn, South Florida bluestem, and chalky bluestem.
limestone for about 6 months during dry periods. Management should include deferred grazing and brush
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, subsurface control. The soils are in the South Florida Flatwoods
layer, and substratum of the Boca soil and moderate in range site.
the subsoil. It is rapid in the surface layer of the These soils are severely limited as sites for buildings,

Hallandale soil and moderate to rapid in the underlying sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. Water-control
material. The available water capacity is very low in measures are needed. Fill material is needed to
both soils. Natural fertility and the organic matter overcome the shallowness to bedrock in the Hallandale
content are low. soil. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons and sanitary
Most areas of these soils support natural vegetation landfills with impervious soil material helps to prevent
of South Florida slash pine and scattered cabbage palm seepage. Mounding may be needed on sites for septic
and laurel oak. The understory is saw palmetto, tank absorption fields. The sandy surface layer should
waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, chalky bluestem, be stabilized on sites for recreational uses. Because of
maidencane, and various weeds and grasses, the shallowness to bedrock in the Hallandale soil,
Under natural conditions, these soils are not suited to excavation is difficult and special equipment may be
cultivated crops because of the wetness and the needed.
shallowness to limestone. The number of suitable crops The Boca soil is in capability subclass IIIw, and the
is limited unless good water-control and soil-improving Hallandale soil is in capability subclass IVw.







Sarasota County, Florida 19


4-Bradenton fine sand. This nearly level, poorly and white clover grow well in properly managed areas.
drained soil is on low ridges and hammocks adjacent to Management should include a water-control system to
flood plains, sloughs, and depressions. Individual areas remove excess surface water after heavy rains, regular
are irregularly shaped or elongated and range from 5 to applications of fertilizer and lime, and controlled
150 acres in size. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 grazing.
to 2 percent. The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine moderately high. The equipment limitation and seedling
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light mortality are management concerns. Water-control
gray fine sand about 13 inches thick. The subsoil to a measures are necessary. Bedding of rows helps to
depth of about 62 inches is gray sandy loam. The control wetness. South Florida slash pine and slash
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray pine are suitable for planting.
loamy sand. This soil is poorly suited to the production of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of desirable range plants. The vegetative community is
Felda, Floridana, and Ft. Green soils. These soils make cabbage palm, laurel oak, live oak, scattered saw
up about 15 percent of the map unit. palmetto, wild coffee, and various grasses. Because of
The Bradenton soil has a seasonal high water table the dense canopy of palm trees, this range site is a
within 12 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months and at preferred shading and resting area for cattle. As a
a depth of 12 to 40 inches for more than 6 months. In result, the site usually is overgrazed. Management
dry periods the water table recedes to a depth of more should include deferred grazing, brush control, and
than 40 inches. Many areas of this soil have been proper stocking rates. The soil is in the Cabbage Palm
artificially drained. Permeability is rapid in the surface Flatwoods range site.
layer and subsurface layer, moderate in the subsoil, This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
and moderate or moderately rapid in the substratum. sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. Water-control
The available water capacity is moderate. Natural measures are needed. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons
fertility is low, and the organic matter content is and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil
moderate or high. material helps to prevent seepage. Mounding sites for
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation. A septic tank absorption fields helps to control wetness.
few areas are used for improved pasture or for urban The sides of shallow excavations should be shored.
development. The natural vegetation is slash pine, The capability subclass is IIIw.
South Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, laurel oak, live
oak, cabbage palm, and magnolia. The understory 5-Bradenton fine sand, frequently flooded. This
includes scattered saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, wild coffee, nearly level, poorly drained soil is along streams and
bluestem, longleaf uniola, and panicum. rivers and on low ridges and hammocks on flood plains.
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to It is flooded for brief periods following heavy, prolonged
cultivated crops because of the wetness. The suitability rains. Individual areas are long and narrow and range
for vegetable crops is fair, however, if a water-control from 5 to 20 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
system removes excess water rapidly during wet concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
periods and provides water through subsurface Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
irrigation during dry periods. Soil-improving crops and sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
crop residue management help to control erosion and gray fine sand about 13 inches thick. The subsoil to a
maintain the content of organic matter. Seedbed depth of about 62 inches is gray sandy loam. The
preparation should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray
and lime should be applied according to the needs of loamy sand.
the crop. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
In areas that usually are not subject to freezing Astor, Felda, and Pineda soils. These soils make up
temperatures, the suitability of this soil for citrus trees is about 15 percent of the map unit.
good if a water-control system maintains the water table The Bradenton soil has a seasonal high water table
below a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on within 12 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months. This
beds results in good surface drainage. A good close- soil usually is flooded every year and more than once in
growing cover crop between the tree rows helps to most years. The duration and extent of flooding vary,
control soil blowing. Regular applications of fertilizer are depending on the intensity and frequency of rainfall.
needed. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
The suitability of this soil for improved pasture and subsurface layer, moderate in the subsoil, and
hay crops is good. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, moderate or moderately rapid in the substratum. The







20 Soil Survey


available water capacity is moderate. Natural fertility is needed on sites for local roads and streets, small
medium, and the organic matter content is moderate or commercial buildings, and playgrounds.
high. This soil is well suited to habitat for wetland and
Most areas are used as native range or as woodland, woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas can be easily
The natural vegetation is slash pine, South Florida developed, and the vegetation provides abundant food
slash pine, longleaf pine, laurel oak, live oak, cabbage and shelter.
palm, scattered saw palmetto, and sweetgum. The The capability subclass is Vw.
understory includes waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn,
maidencane, longleaf uniola, switchgrass, panicum, and 6-Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
other water-tolerant grasses. nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to drained or moderately well drained soil is on low,
cultivated crops, citrus trees, or improved pasture. The dunelike ridges and side slopes bordering sloughs and
suitability for some vegetable crops and improved mangrove swamps. Individual areas range from 20 to
pasture is fair, however, if an extensive water-control about 300 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or convex.
system reduces the hazard of flooding, removes excess Typically, the surface layer is about 7 inches thick. It
water rapidly, and provides water through subsurface is fine sand mixed with about 10 percent sand-sized
irrigation during dry periods. Soil-improving crops and shell fragments. It is dark gray grading to gray. The
crop residue management help to control erosion and underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
maintain the content of organic matter. Seedbed light gray, light yellowish brown, pale brown, and light
preparation should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer gray fine sand mixed with about 10 to 40 percent sand-
should be applied according to the needs of the crop. sized, multicolored shell fragments.
Improved bahiagrass grows well in properly managed Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
areas. Management should include controlled grazing Pompano and St. Augustine soils. Also included are
and applications of fertilizer and lime. soils that are similar to the Canaveral soil but have a
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is thicker dark surface layer, are steeper, or have a thin,
high. Water-control measures are necessary to remove discontinuous ledge of limestone at various depths.
excess surface water and reduce the hazard of flooding. Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map
Bedding of rows helps to overcome the wetness. The unit.
equipment limitation and seedling mortality are the main Under natural conditions, the Canaveral soil has a
management concerns. South Florida slash pine and water table at a depth of 12 to 40 inches for 2 to 6
slash pine are suitable for planting. months during most years and within a depth of 60
This soil is poorly suit"d to the production of inches for most of the remainder of the year.
desirable range plants. The vegetative community is Permeability is very rapid, and the available water
cabbage palm, laurel oak, live oak, sweetgum, and capacity is very low. Natural fertility and the organic
various grasses. Because of the dense canopy of palm matter content also are very low.
trees and other trees, this range site is a preferred The native vegetation is sand live oak, cabbage
shading and resting area for cattle (fig. 3). As a result, palm, scattered saw palmetto, southern magnolia, and
the site usually is overgrazed. Management should scattered slash pine. The understory is inkberry,
include deferred grazing, brush control, proper stocking pineland threeawn, and various weeds and grasses.
rates, and erosion control in areas along sloping Australian pine, cabbage palm, and a sparse ground
streambanks where cattle might enter the stream. The cover of various grasses and sedges are in many
soil is in the Wetland Hardwood Hammock range site. areas.
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
sanitary facilities, and recreational uses because of the cultivated crops or improved pasture grasses. The very
flooding and the wetness. Major flood-control structures low available water capacity and the very low natural
and extensive local drainage systems are needed to fertility severely restrict the variety of grasses that can
protect the soil against flooding. Limitations are severe be grown.
on sites for septic tank absorption fields. Installing Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
water-control measures, adding fill material, and citrus trees. The suitability is fair, however, if intensive
mounding the absorption field help to overcome management, including irrigation and regular
wetness. The proximity to a stream or aquifer recharge applications of fertilizer, is applied. A close-growing
area should be considered when a site is selected for cover crop between the trees helps to control soil
sanitary facilities because the effluent from these blowing.
facilities can contaminate water supplies. Fill material is This soil generally is not used as range or forest. It is







Sarasota County, Florida 21
























i,- .. ..-











Figure 3.-An area of Bradenton fine sand, frequently flooded. The canopy of trees on this soil provides shade for livestock.



in the South Florida Coastal Strand ecological plant higher than the adjacent flatwoods and on shoulder
community. slopes adjacent to drainageways. Individual areas are
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, irregularly shaped, elongated, or broad and range from
sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. Water-control 6 to 175 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or convex
measures are needed. The sandy surface layer should and range from 0 to 2 percent.
be stabilized on sites for recreational uses. Applying Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
water-control measures and sealing or lining trench about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine
sanitary landfills and sewage lagoons with impervious sand about 20 inches thick. The subsoil is dark reddish
soil material help to prevent seepage. The sides of brown fine sand to a depth of 34 inches. The
shallow excavations should be shored. Native plants substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is fine sand.
should be selected for landscaping because of the The upper 9 inches is dark brown, the next 20 inches is
droughtiness of the soil. pale brown, and the lower 15 inches or more is light
The capability subclass is VIs. gray.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
7-Cassia fine sand. This nearly level, somewhat EauGallie, Myakka, and Pomello soils. Also included
poorly drained soil is on low ridges that are slightly are small areas of soils that are similar to the Cassia







22 Soil Survey


soil but have a thin, brown subsoil that is weakly coated with basements and for recreational uses. It is
with colloidal organic matter, have a subsoil that is moderately limited as a site for dwellings without
more than 20 inches thick, or are underlain by material basements, for small commercial buildings, and for local
that has shell fragments below a depth of 60 inches. roads and streets. Water-control measures are needed.
The Cassia soil has a seasonal high water table at a An increase in the size of septic tank absorption fields
depth of 18 to 42 inches for about 6 months. The water may be needed because of the wetness. The rapid
table recedes to a depth of more than 42 inches during permeability can cause pollution of ground water in
extended dry periods. Permeability is rapid in the areas of septic tank absorption fields. Community
surface layer, subsurface layer, and substratum. It is sewage systems help to prevent this pollution in areas
moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil. The of moderate or high housing density. The proximity to a
available water capacity is low. stream or aquifer recharge area should be considered
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation of when a site for sanitary facilities is selected. Applying
slash pine, South Florida slash pine, sand live oak, water-control measures and sealing or lining sewage
sand pine, and a few longleaf pines. The understory lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil
includes saw palmetto, running oak, creeping bluestem, material help to prevent seepage. The sandy surface
broomsedge bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland layer should be stabilized on sites for recreational uses.
threeawn, cinnamon fern, panicum, and various other The sides of shallow excavations should be shored.
grasses. The capability subclass is Vis.
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops and to citrus trees because of the 8-Delray fine sand, depressional. This nearly level,
periodic wetness and the low available water capacity, very poorly drained soil is in depressions on flatwoods.
The suitability for some vegetable crops is fair, Individual areas are oval, irregularly shaped, or
however, if adequate water-control and soil-improving elongated and range from 5 to 200 acres in size.
measures are applied. The water-control system should Slopes are concave and are less than 2 percent.
remove excess water during wet periods and provide Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about
water through subsurface irrigation during dry periods. 30 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish
Soil-improving crops and crop residue management gray fine sand to a depth of about 54 inches. The
help to control erosion and maintain the content of subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is olive gray
organic matter. Fertilizer and lime should be applied fine sandy loam.
according to the needs of the crop. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
In areas that usually are not subject to freezing Astor, Felda, Gator, and Pompano soils. Also included
temperatures, the suitability for citrus trees is fair if are soils that are similar to the Deiray soil but have a
good management is applied. The water-control system thin surface layer of muck. Included soils make up less
should maintain the water table below a depth of about than 20 percent of the map unit.
4 feet during wet periods and provide water through Under natural conditions, the Delray soil is ponded
subsurface irrigation during periods of low rainfall, for 6 to 9 months or more each year. For much of the
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. A remainder of most years, the seasonal high water table
suitable cover crop between the tree rows helps to is within a depth of 12 inches. Permeability is rapid in
control soil blowing, the surface layer and subsurface layer and moderate or
The suitability of this soil for improved pasture moderately rapid in the subsoil. The available water
grasses is fair. Bahiagrass and pangolagrass are the capacity is moderate. Natural fertility is medium, and
best suited species. Regular applications of fertilizer the organic matter content is moderate or high.
and lime are needed. Overgrazing should be prevented. Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation of
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is cypress, pickerelweed, maidencane, arrowhead,
moderate. Seedling mortality is the main management cutgrass, sand cordgrass, sedges, ferns, and other
concern. Longleaf pine, slash pine, and South Florida water-tolerant grasses. They provide excellent habitat
slash pine are suitable for planting. for wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
This soil is poorly suited to the production of Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
desirable range plants. The vegetative community is a cultivated crops because of the ponding. Establishing
dense understory of saw palmetto, running oak, and an adequate drainage system is difficult because most
cinnamon fern. Although seldom grazed by livestock, areas do not have a suitable drainage outlet. The
this site provides protection for the livestock in winter, suitability for many vegetable crops remains poor even
The soil is in the Sand Pine Scrub range site. if intensive management and soil-improving measures
This soil is severely limited as a site for dwellings are applied and a water-control system removes excess







Sarasota County, Florida 23


water rapidly. Adequate seedbed preparation and crop Delray and similar soils, some are entirely Astor and
rotations are needed. Seedbed preparation should similar soils, and some are made up of Delray, Astor,
include bedding of rows. Soil-improving crops and crop and other soils. The Delray and similar soils make up
residue management help to control erosion and about 45 percent of the map unit, and the Astor and
maintain the content of organic matter. Fertilizer and similar soils make up about 35 percent.
lime should be applied according to the needs of the Typically, the surface layer of the Delray soil is black
crop. fine sand about 30 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to dark gray fine sand to a depth of about 54 inches. The
citrus trees. The suitability is fair, however, if intensive subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray sandy
management and soil-improving measures are applied loam.
and if a water-control system removes excess water Typically, the surface layer of the Astor soil is 32
rapidly and maintains the water table below a depth of inches thick. The upper 2 inches is black mucky fine
about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds lowers the sand. The next 20 inches is very dark gray mucky fine
effective depth of the water table. A good close-growing sand. The lower 10 inches is very dark gray fine sand.
cover crop between the tree rows helps to control soil The underlying material extends to a depth of about 80
blowing. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed. inches or more. The upper 15 inches is grayish brown
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to loamy sand. The next 7 inches is light brownish gray
improved pasture grasses. The suitability is fair, loamy sand. The lower 26 inches or more is light
however, if an adequate water-control system removes brownish gray fine sand.
excess surface water after heavy rains. Pangolagrass, Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well in of Felda and Floridana soils. These included soils make
properly managed areas. Controlled grazing and regular up less than 20 percent of the map unit.
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. The Delray and Astor soils have a seasonal high
This soil is not suitable for the commercial production water table at or above the surface during the summer
of pine trees because of the long periods of ponding. rainy season. During dry periods the water table may
This soil is moderately suited to the production of recede to a depth of 30 inches or more. Sheet flow
desirable range plants. The dominant forage is occurs during periods of heavy rainfall. The duration
maidencane and cutgrass. Grazing is naturally deferred and extent of flooding vary, depending on the intensity
when the water table is close to the surface. This rest and frequency of rainfall. Permeability is rapid in the
period increases forage production, but the high water Astor soil and moderate or moderately rapid in the
levels may reduce the grazing value of the site. The soil subsoil of the Delray soil. The available water capacity
is in the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. is moderate in both soils. Natural fertility is high in both
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, soils, and the organic matter content is very high or
sanitary facilities, and recreational development. Water- high.
control measures are needed. Sealing or lining sewage Most areas of these soils support natural vegetation
lagoons and trench type sanitary landfills with of cypress, sweetgum, water oak, laurel oak, red maple,
impervious soil material helps to prevent seepage. Fill cabbage palm, and pine. The understory is scattered
material should be used on sites for septic tank saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, greenbrier, poison ivy,
absorption fields, local roads and streets, small maidencane, chalky bluestem, sedges, and other water-
commercial buildings, and playgrounds. The sides of tolerant grasses.
shallow excavations should be shored. Mounding may Under natural conditions, these soils are unsuited to
be needed on sites for septic tank absorption fields. cultivated crops and citrus trees because of the
The capability subclass is Vllw. frequent flooding and very poor drainage. The suitability
for many vegetable crops is fair, however, if intensive
9-Delray and Astor soils, frequently flooded, management and soil-improving measures are applied
These level and nearly level, very poorly drained soils and if a water-control system removes excess water
are on the flood plain along the Myakka River and in rapidly. Adequate seedbed preparation and crop
swamps adjacent to Lake Myakka. The soils are rotations are needed. Seedbed preparation should
frequently flooded after prolonged heavy rains, include bedding of rows. Cover crops and crop residue
Individual areas are irregularly shaped or elongated and management help to control erosion and maintain the
range from 10 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are smooth content of organic matter. Fertilizer and lime should be
or concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. applied according to the needs of the crop.
The components of this map unit do not occur in a Under natural conditions, these soils are poorly
regular and repeating pattern. Some areas are entirely suited to improved pasture. The suitability is good,








24 Soil Survey


however, if an adequate water-control system removes brown grading to dark brown. The next 4 inches is light
excess surface water after periods of heavy rainfall, gray fine sand. The lower 18 inches is grayish brown
Pangolagrass and improved bahiagrass grow well in sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of about 80
properly managed areas. Regular applications of inches or more is gray fine sandy loam.
fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps Typically, the surface layer of the Myakka soil is dark
to maintain plant vigor, grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about 18 inches
is high. Water-control measures are necessary to thick. The subsoil to a depth of 60 inches is fine sand.
remove excess surface water and reduce the hazard of The upper 11 inches is very dark grayish brown, the
flooding. The equipment limitation and seedling next 7 inches is very dark gray, and the lower 18 inches
mortality are the main management concerns. South is light yellowish brown. The substratum to a depth of
Florida slash pine and slash pine are suitable for 80 inches or more is pale brown fine sand.
planting. Included with these soils in mapping are areas of
These soils generally are not used as rangeland. Ona, Smyrna, and Wabasso soils. Also included are
They are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological plant small areas of soils that are similar to the EauGallie and
community. Myakka soils but have a subsoil that is low in content of
These soils are severely limited as sites for buildings, organic matter and is less than 12 inches thick.
sanitary facilities, and recreational uses because of the Included soils make up 10 to 15 percent of the map
flooding and the wetness. Major flood-control structures unit.
and extensive local drainage systems are needed. Under natural conditions, the EauGallie and Myakka
Limitations are severe on sites for septic tank soils have a seasonal high water table at a depth of 6
absorption fields. Installing water-control measures, to 18 inches for 1 to 3 months and within a depth of 40
adding fill material, and mounding help to overcome inches for 2 to 6 months. The water table recedes to a
wetness on sites for septic tank absorption fields. The depth of more than 40 inches during extended dry
proximity to a stream or aquifer recharge area should periods. The available water capacity is low in both
be considered when a site for sanitary facilities is soils. Natural fertility also is low. Permeability is rapid in
selected because the effluent from these facilities can the sandy surface layer, subsurface layer, and
contaminate water supplies. Fill material is needed on substratum. It is moderate or moderately rapid in the
sites for local roads and streets, small commercial sandy subsoil of both soils and slow or moderately slow
buildings, and playgrounds. in the loamy part of the EauGallie soil.
These soils are well suited to habitat for wetland and Most areas of these soils support natural vegetation
woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas can be easily (fig. 4). Some areas have been cleared and planted to
developed, and the vegetation provides abundant food citrus trees. The natural vegetation is slash pine, South
and shelter. Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, and scattered cabbage
These soils are in capability subclass VIw. palm and oak. The understory includes inkberry, saw
palmetto, chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, pineland
10-EauGallie and Myakka fine sands. These threeawn, and various other grasses.
nearly level, poorly drained soils are on broad If a water-control system maintains the water table
flatwoods. Individual areas are long and broad or are below a depth of about 4 feet, the suitability of these
irregular in shape and range from 20 to more than 700 soils for citrus trees is good in areas that usually are
acres in size. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 not subject to freezing temperatures. Planting the trees
percent. on beds lowers the effective depth of the water table. A
The components of this map unit do not occur in a close-growing cover crop between the tree rows helps
regular and repeating pattern. Some areas are entirely to control soil blowing. Regular applications of lime and
EauGallie and similar soils, some are entirely Myakka fertilizer are needed.
and similar soils, and some are made up of EauGallie, Under natural conditions, these soils are poorly
Myakka, and other soils. The EauGallie and similar soils suited to cultivated crops because of the wetness and
make up about 45 percent of the map unit, and the the sandy texture in the root zone. The suitability for a
Myakka and similar soils make up about 40 percent. number of vegetable crops is fair, however, if a water-
Typically, the surface layer of the EauGallie soil is control system removes excess water during wet
black fine sand. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand periods and provides water through subsurface
to a depth of about 22 inches. The subsoil extends to a irrigation during dry periods. Soil-improving crops and
depth of about 66 inches. The upper 22 inches is fine crop residue management help to control erosion and
sand coated with organic matter. It is dark reddish maintain the content of organic matter. Seedbed







Sarasota County, Florida 25










































Figure 4.-The natural vegetation on EauGallie and Myakka fine sands.



preparation should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
and lime should be applied according to the needs of is moderately high. The equipment limitation, seedling
the crop. mortality, and plant competition are the main
The suitability of these soils for improved pasture and management concerns. South Florida slash pine and
hay crops is good. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, slash pine are suitable for planting.
and white clover grow well in properly managed areas. These soils are moderately suited to the production
Water-control measures should remove excess surface of desirable range plants. The dominant forage is
water after heavy rains. Regular applications of lime creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland
and fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should be threeawn, and chalky bluestem. Management should
prevented. include deferred grazing and brush control. The soils






26 Soil Survey


are in the South Florida Flatwoods range site. layer is gray and light brownish gray fine sand to a
These soils are severely limited as sites for sanitary depth of about 22 inches. The subsoil to a depth of
facilities, buildings, and recreational uses. Water-control about 60 inches is gray sandy loam. The substratum to
measures are needed. Enlarged or modified septic tank a depth of about 80 inches is gray loamy sand.
absorption fields may be needed (fig. 5). Sealing or Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
lining sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with Bradenton, Holopaw, and Myakka soils and some areas
impervious soil material helps to prevent seepage. The of Pompano soils that are occasionally flooded. Also
sandy surface layer should be stabilized on sites for included are areas of soils that are similar to the
recreational development. The sides of shallow Pompano soils but have a weakly stained layer of
excavations should be shored. organic matter at a depth of more than 20 inches.
These soils are in capability subclass IVw. Included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map
unit.
11-Felda fine sand. This nearly level, poorly Under natural conditions, the Felda soil has a
drained soil is in sloughs and in poorly defined seasonal high water table within 12 inches of the
drainageways. Individual areas range from 10 to 100 surface for 2 to 6 months during most years. It is within
acres in size. Slopes are smooth or concave and range 30 inches of the surface for more than 9 months during
from 0 to 2 percent. the drier periods. Some areas are subject to sheet flow
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish during periods of heavy rainfall. Permeability is rapid in
brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface the surface layer, subsurface layer, and substratum. It


































Figure 5.-A septic tank absorption field in an area of EauGallie and Myakka fine sands. Both the septic tank and the absorption lines are
elevated above the ground surface so that the absorption system can function properly.







Sarasota County, Florida 27


is moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil. The The capability subclass is Illw.
available water capacity is low. Natural fertility and the
organic matter content also are low. 12-Felda fine sand, depressional. This nearly
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation of level, very poorly drained soil is in depressions.
slash pine, South Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, Individual areas range from 5 to 100 acres in size.
laurel oak, saw palmetto, cabbage palm, blue Slopes are concave and are less than 2 percent.
maidencane, pineland threeawn, sand cordgrass, low Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
panicum, and various weeds and grasses, brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is fair if a layer is gray and light brownish gray fine sand to a
water-control system maintains the water table below a depth of about 22 inches. The subsoil to a depth of
depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds results about 60 inches is gray sandy loam. The substratum to
in good surface drainage. A close-growing cover crop a depth of 80 inches or more is gray loamy sand.
between the tree rows helps to control soil blowing. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are needed. Bradenton, Floridana, and Holopaw soils. Also included
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to are soils that are similar to the Felda soil but have a
cultivated crops because of the wetness and the sandy surface layer of muck or mucky fine sand less than 15
texture. The number of suitable crops is limited unless inches thick. Included soils make up less than 20
intensive management is applied. If good management percent of the map unit.
is applied, the suitability for cropland is fair. A water- The Felda soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or more
control system is needed to remove excess water each year. The water table is within a depth of 12
rapidly and provide water through subsurface irrigation inches for 2 to 4 months of the year and is at a depth of
during dry periods. Soil-improving crops and crop 12 to 40 inches during most of the remainder of the
residue management help to control erosion and year. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer,
maintain the content of organic matter. Seedbed subsurface layer, and substratum. It is moderate or
preparation should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer moderately rapid in the subsoil. The available water
and lime should be applied according to the needs of capacity is low. Natural fertility and the organic matter
the crop. content also are low.
The suitability of this soil for pasture and hay crops is The natural vegetation is baldcypress, pondcypress,
good. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white cabbage palm, sand cordgrass, cutgrass, maidencane,
clover grow well in properly managed areas. and various other water-tolerant weeds and grasses.
Management should include a water-control system that This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
removes excess surface water after heavy rains, regular of the ponding. Most areas do not have a suitable
applications of fertilizer and lime, and controlled drainage outlet. As a result, establishing an adequate
grazing. drainage system is difficult. If intensive management
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is and soil-improving measures are applied and if a water-
moderate. The equipment limitation and seedling control system removes excess water rapidly, the soil is
mortality are the main management concerns. Water- moderately suited to vegetable crops. Crop rotations
control measures are needed to remove excess surface and adequate seedbed preparation, including bedding
water. South Florida slash pine and slash pine are of rows, are needed. Soil-improving crops and crop
suitable for planting, residue management help to control erosion and
This soil is well suited to the production of desirable maintain the organic matter content. Fertilizer and lime
range plants. The dominant forage is blue maidencane, should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum. Management Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
should include deferred grazing. The soil is in the citrus trees. It is poorly suited to these trees even if
Slough range site. intensive management is applied and the water-control
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, system is adequate.
sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. Water-control The suitability of this soil for improved pasture is fair
measures are needed. An increase in the size of septic if very intensive management and soil-improving
tank absorption fields may be needed. Sealing or lining measures are applied and if a water-control system is
sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with installed. Pangolagrass and improved bahiagrass grow
impervious soil material helps to prevent seepage. The well in properly managed areas. Water-control
sandy surface layer should be stabilized on sites for measures are needed to remove excess surface water
recreational uses. The sides of shallow excavations after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and
should be shored.







28 Soil Survey


lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain 15 inches thick. Included soils make up about 20
plant vigor. percent of the map unit.
This soil is not suitable for the commercial production The Felda and Pompano soils have a seasonal high
of pine trees because of the long periods of ponding. water table within 12 inches of the surface for 2 to 6
This soil is moderately suited to the production of months in most years. These soils usually are flooded
desirable range plants. The dominant forage is every year and more than once in most years. The
maidencane and cutgrass. Grazing is naturally deferred duration and extent of flooding vary, depending on the
when the water table is near the surface. This rest intensity and frequency of rainfall. Permeability is rapid
period increases forage production, but the high water or very rapid in the sandy layers and moderate or
levels reduce the grazing value of the site. The soil is in moderately rapid in the loamy layers. The available
the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. water capacity is low. Natural fertility also is low.
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, Most areas of these soils support natural vegetation
sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. Water-control of baldcypress, laurel oak, water oak, pond pine, slash
measures are needed. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons pine, South Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, and
and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil cabbage palm. The understory vegetation is waxmyrtle,
material helps to prevent excessive seepage. Fill pineland threeawn, maidencane, greenbrier, poison ivy,
material is needed on sites for septic tank absorption and other water-tolerant grasses and plants.
fields, local roads and streets, small commercial Under natural conditions, these soils are not suited to
buildings, and playgrounds. The sides of shallow cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture. The
excavations should be shored. Mounding may be suitability for some vegetable crops and improved
needed on sites for septic tank absorption fields, pasture is fair, however, if a water-control system
The capability subclass is Vllw. reduces the hazard of flooding, removes excess water
rapidly, and provides water through subsurface irrigation
13-Felda and Pompano fine sands, frequently during dry periods. Soil-improving crops and crop
flooded. These nearly level, poorly drained soils are on residue management help to control erosion and
flood plains throughout the county. They are frequently maintain the content of organic matter. Seedbed
flooded following prolonged, heavy rains. Individual preparation should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer
areas are elongated and range from 10 to more than should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
100 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or concave and Improved bahiagrass grows well in properly managed
range from 0 to 2 percent. areas. Management should include controlled grazing
The components of this map unit do not occur in a and applications of fertilizer and lime.
regular and repeating pattern. Some areas are entirely The potential productivity of these soils for pine trees
Felda and similar soils, some are entirely Pompano and is moderate. South Florida slash pine and slash pine
similar soils, and some are made up of Felda, are suitable for planting. Water-control measures are
Pompano, and other soils. The Felda and similar soils needed. Bedding of rows helps to overcome wetness.
make up about 45 percent of the map unit, and the The equipment limitation and seedling mortality are the
Pompano and similar soils make up about 35 percent, main management concerns.
Typically, the surface layer of the Felda soil is very These soils generally are not used as rangeland.
dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The They are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological plant
subsurface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand to a community.
depth of about 24 inches. The subsoil to a depth of 65 These soils are severely limited as sites for buildings,
inches is sandy clay loam. The upper 24 inches is dark sanitary facilities, and recreational uses because of the
grayish brown, and the lower 17 inches is grayish flooding and the wetness. Major flood-control structures
brown. The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is and extensive local drainage systems are needed.
light gray loamy sand. Limitations are severe on sites for septic tank
Typically, the surface layer of the Pompano soil is absorption fields. Installing water-control measures,
black fine sand about 3 inches thick. The underlying adding fill material, and mounding the absorption field
material to a depth of about 80 inches is gray, light can help to overcome wetness. The proximity to a
brownish gray, and grayish brown fine sand. stream or aquifer recharge area should be considered
Included with these soils in mapping are areas of when a site for sanitary facilities is selected because
Astor, Bradenton, Delray, and Holopaw soils. Also the effluent from these facilities can contaminate water
included are a few areas of soils that are similar to the supplies. Fill material is needed on sites for local roads
Felda soil but have an organic surface layer as much as and streets, small commercial buildings, and
playgrounds.







Sarasota County, Florida 29


These soils are well suited to habitat for wetland and 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective
woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas can be easily depth of the water table. A close-growing cover crop
developed, and the vegetation provides abundant food between the tree rows helps to control soil blowing.
and shelter. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
The Felda soil is in capability subclass Vw, and the Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
Pompano soil is in capability subclass VIw. improved pasture. The suitability is fair, however, if an
adequate water-control system removes excess surface
14-Floridana mucky fine sand. This nearly level, water after heavy rains. Pangolagrass and improved
very poorly drained soil is in poorly defined bahiagrass grow well in properly managed areas.
drainageways on broad, low flats. Individual areas are Controlled grazing and regular applications of fertilizer
larger than 100 acres. Slopes are smooth or concave and lime are needed.
and range from 0 to 2 percent. The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
Typically, the surface layer is black mucky fine sand moderately high. South Florida slash pine and slash
about 14 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray pine are suitable for planting. Water-control measures
and light brownish gray sand to a depth of 22 inches, are needed before trees can be planted. The equipment
The subsoil to a depth of about 60 inches is gray sandy limitation and seedling mortality are the main
loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more management concerns.
is gray loamy sand. This soil is moderately suited to the production of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of desirable range plants. The dominant forage is
Delray, Felda, and Manatee soils. Also included are maidencane and cutgrass. Grazing is naturally deferred
small areas of soils that are similar to the Floridana soil when the water table is near the surface. This rest
but have a thin layer of muck at the surface. Included period increases forage production, but the high water
soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit. levels reduce the grazing value of the site. The soil is in
The Floridana soil has a water table above the the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.
surface for short periods after heavy rainfall and within This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
12 inches of the surface for.more than 6 months during sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. Water-control
most years. The water table is at a depth of 12 to 30 measures are needed. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons
inches for short dry periods. Permeability is rapid in the and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil
surface layer and subsurface layer and slow or very material can help to prevent seepage. Fill material is
slow in the subsoil and substratum. The available water needed on sites for septic tank absorption fields, local
capacity is moderate. Natural fertility is medium, and roads and streets, small commercial buildings, and
the organic matter content is high. playgrounds. The sides of shallow excavations should
Many areas of this soil are drained and used for be shored. Mounding may be needed on sites for septic
citrus trees or cultivated crops. The natural vegetation is tank absorption fields.
mainly sand cordgrass, maidencane, St. Johnswort, The capability subclass is Illw.
scattered waxmyrtle, Carolina willow, pickerelweed,
cutgrass, primrose willow, sawgrass, and other water- 15-Floridana and Gator soils, depressional. These
tolerant grasses. very poorly drained, nearly level soils are in
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to depressions. They are subject to ponding. Individual
cultivated crops. The suitability for many vegetable areas are oval or irregular in shape and range from 5 to
crops is fair, however, if intensive management and about 100 acres in size. Slopes are dominantly concave
soil-improving measures are applied and if a water- and are less than 2 percent.
control system removes excess water rapidly. Adequate The components of this map unit do not occur in a
seedbed preparation and crop rotations are needed. regular and repeating pattern. Some areas are entirely
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of rows. Floridana and similar soils, some are entirely Gator and
Soil-improving crops and crop residue management similar soils, and some are made up of Floridana,
help to control erosion and maintain the content of Gator, and other soils. The Floridana and similar soils
organic matter. Fertilizer and lime should be applied make up about 75 percent of the map unit, and the
according to the needs of the crop. Gator and similar soils make up about 25 percent.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to Typically, the surface layer of the Floridana soil is
citrus trees. The suitability is fair, however, if intensive about 14 inches of black mucky fine sand and fine
management and soil-improving measures are applied sand. The subsurface layer to a depth of about 22
and if a water-control system removes excess water inches is gray and light gray fine sand. The subsoil to a
rapidly and maintains good drainage to a depth of about depth of about 52 inches is grayish brown sandy clay







30 Soil Survey


loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more of desirable range plants. The dominant forage is
is grayish brown sandy loam. maidencane and cutgrass. Grazing is naturally deferred
Typically, the surface layer of the Gator soil is very when the water table is near the surface. This rest
dark brown muck about 22 inches thick. The upper 4 period increases forage production, but the high water
inches of the underlying material is very dark gray levels may reduce the grazing value of the site. The soil
loamy sand, the next 34 inches is dark gray sandy clay is in the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.
loam, and the lower part to a depth of 80 inches is These soils are severely limited as sites for buildings,
greenish gray sand. sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. Water-control
The Floridana and Gator soils are ponded for 6 to 9 measures are needed. Sewage lagoons and trench type
months during most years. The water table is within 12 sanitary landfills should be sealed or lined with
inches of the surface for much of the remainder of the impervious soil material. Fill material is needed on sites
year. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and for septic tank absorption fields, local roads and streets,
subsurface layer and moderately slow or very slow in small commercial buildings, and playgrounds. The sides
the loamy subsoil and underlying material. The of shallow excavations should be shored. Mounding
available water capacity is dominantly moderate to very may be needed on sites for septic tank absorption
high. Natural fertility is medium. fields.
Most areas of these soils support natural vegetation These soils are in capability subclass Vllw.
of sand cordgrass, maidencane, St. Johnswort,
scattered waxmyrtle, and other water-tolerant weeds 16-Floridana and Gator soils, frequently flooded.
and grasses. They provide excellent habitat for wading These very poorly drained, nearly level soils are on
birds and other wetland wildlife. flood plains. They are frequently flooded after
Under natural conditions, these soils are not suited to prolonged, heavy rains. Individual areas are oblong or
cultivated crops because of the ponding. Establishing are narrow and elongated. They range from 5 to 60
an adequate drainage system is difficult because most acres in size. Slopes are smooth or concave and range
areas do not have a suitable drainage outlet. The from 0 to 2 percent.
suitability for many vegetable crops is poor even if The components of this map unit do not occur in a
intensive management and soil-improving measures are regular and repeating pattern. Some areas are entirely
applied and if a water-control system removes excess Floridana and similar soils, some are entirely Gator and
water rapidly. Adequate seedbed preparation and crop similar soils, and some are made up of Floridana,
rotations are needed. Seedbed preparation should Gator, and other soils. The Floridana and similar soils
include bedding of rows. Cover crops and crop residue make up about 75 percent of the map unit, and the
management increase the content of organic matter. Gator and similar soils make up about 25 percent.
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the Typically, the surface layer of the Floridana soil is
needs of the crop. about 14 inches of very dark gray mucky fine sand and
Under natural conditions, these soils are not suited to fine sand. The subsurface layer is gray and grayish
citrus trees. These trees grow fairly well, however, if brown fine sand to a depth of about 36 inches. The
intensive management and soil-improving measures are subsoil to a depth of about 52 inches is grayish brown
applied and if a good water-control system removes fine sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of 80
excess water rapidly and maintains good drainage to a inches or more is grayish brown sandy loam.
depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds lowers Typically, the surface layer of the Gator soil is very
the effective depth of the water table. A close-growing dark brown muck about 22 inches thick. The upper 4
cover crop between the tree rows helps to control soil inches of the underlying material is very dark gray
blowing. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed. loamy sand. The next 34 inches is dark gray sandy clay
Under natural conditions, these soils are not suited to loam. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is greenish
improved pasture grasses. The suitability is fair, gray sand.
however, if an adequate water-control system removes The Floridana and Gator soils are frequently flooded
excess surface water after heavy rains. Pangolagrass during the rainy season in most years. The water table
and improved bahiagrass grow well in properly is within 12 inches of the surface for much of the year.
managed areas. Controlled grazing and regular Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. subsurface layer and slow or very slow in the loamy
These soils are not suitable for the commercial subsoil and underlying material. The available water
production of pine trees because of the long periods of capacity is moderate or high. Natural fertility is medium.
ponding. The natural vegetation is blackgum, red maple,
These soils are moderately suited to the production sweetgum, cabbage palm, cypress, laurel and water







Sarasota County, Florida 31


oak, and loblollybay gordonia. The understory is control system removes excess surface water rapidly.
smartweed, fern, sedges, and other water-tolerant The water-control system should remove the excess
grasses, water when crops are on the soil. Keeping the water
In their natural state, these soils are not suited to table near the surface helps to prevent subsidence of
most agricultural uses or to the commercial production the organic material needed for crop and forage
of pine trees because the flooding is a severe hazard. production. Management should include seedbed
These soils generally are not used as rangeland. preparation and crop rotations. Soil-improving crops and
They are in the Swamp Hardwoods ecological plant crop residue management can help to control erosion
community. and maintain the organic matter content. Fertilizer and
These soils are not suited to most urban uses lime should be applied according to the needs of the
because of a severe hazard of flooding and the crop.
wetness. In its natural state, this soil is not suitable for citrus
The Floridana soil is in capability subclass Vw, and trees. It is poorly suited even if intensive management,
the Gator soil is in capability subclass Vllw. such as bedding of rows, is applied and the water-
control system is adequate.
17-Gator muck. This nearly level, very poorly In its natural state, this soil is not suitable for
drained soil is in freshwater swamps and marshes. improved pasture grasses. The suitability is good,
Individual areas range from 20 to 1,500 acres in size. however, if an adequate water-control system removes
Slopes are smooth and are less than 1 percent. excess surface water after heavy rains. Keeping the
Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown muck water table near the surface helps to prevent excessive
about 22 inches thick. The upper 4 inches of the subsidence of the organic material. Pangolagrass,
underlying material is very dark gray loamy sand. The improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well in
next 34 inches is dark gray sandy clay loam. The lower properly managed areas. Regular applications of
part to a depth of about 80 inches is greenish gray sand fertilizer and lime are needed. Overgrazing should be
that has yellowish brown stains and splotches of sandy prevented.
loam. This soil is not suitable for the commercial production
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of of pine trees because of the long periods of ponding.
Delray, Floridana, and Manatee soils. Also included are This soil generally is not used as rangeland. It is in
small areas of soils that are similar to the Gator soil but the Swamp Hardwoods ecological plant community.
have a thin layer of fibers from woody plants in the This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
organic part of the profile. Included soils make up less sanitary facilities, and recreational uses because of the
than 20 percent of the map unit. ponding and the excess humus. Water-control
Under natural conditions, the Gator soil has a water measures are needed. Because of low soil strength, the
table above the surface for most of the year. In drained organic material should be replaced with suitable
areas the water table is controlled at a depth of 12 to material. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons and trench
36 inches or according to the needs of the crop. It is at sanitary landfills with impervious soil material helps to
or above the surface for short periods after heavy control seepage. The sides of shallow excavations
rainfall and during the normal periods of high seasonal should be shored. Mounding may be needed on sites
rainfall. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and for septic tank absorption fields.
slow or very slow in the underlying material. The The capability subclass is IIIw.
available water capacity is high. Natural fertility and the
organic matter content are very high. 21-Ft. Green fine sand. This deep, nearly level,
Some areas are drained and used for improved poorly drained soil is on broad flatwoods. Individual
pasture or for crops. The natural vegetation is a dense areas range from 10 to 150 acres in size. Slopes are
stand of red maple, redbay, cypress, Carolina willow, smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
primrose willow, waxmyrtle, pickerelweed, sawgrass, Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
cattail, buttonbush, arrowhead, ferns, maidencane, and about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
other water-tolerant grasses. Areas of this soil provide brownish gray and grayish brown fine sand to a depth
cover for deer and are excellent habitat for wading birds of about 26 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of
aand other wetland wildlife. about 80 inches. It is gray cobbly sandy loam in the
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suitable for upper 12 inches, gray and light gray sandy clay loam in
cultivated crops. The suitability for many vegetable the next 10 inches, and light gray sandy loam in the
crops is good, however, if intensive management and lower 32 inches.
soil-improving measures are applied and if a water- Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of







32 Soil Survey


EauGallie, Holopaw, Malabar, and Wabasso soils. Also sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. Water-control
included are wet soils in scattered small depressions. measures are needed. An increase in the size of septic
Included soils make up less than 15 percent of the map tank absorption fields may be needed because of the
unit. slow permeability. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons
The Ft. Green soil has a water table at a depth of 6 with impervious soil material helps to control seepage.
to 18 inches for 2 to 4 months during wet periods and The sandy surface layer should be stabilized on sites
within a depth of 40 inches for more than 6 months, for recreational uses. The sides of shallow excavations
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and should be shored.
subsurface layer and slow or moderately slow in the The capability subclass is IIIw.
subsoil. The available water capacity is low. Natural
fertility also is low. 22-Holopaw fine sand, depressional. This nearly
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation, level, very poorly drained soil is in depressions.
Areas that have been cleared are used dominantly for Individual areas range from 4 to 50 acres in size.
citrus trees. The natural vegetation is slash pine, South Slopes are concave and are less than 2 percent.
Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, cabbage palm, saw Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
palmetto, inkberry, rusty lyonia, blackroot, pennyroyal, about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
pineland threeawn, chalky bluestem, panicum, and and grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 50
various other weeds and grasses. inches. The subsoil to a depth of 66 inches is grayish
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good if a brown sandy loam that has pockets of brown fine sand.
water-control system maintains the water table below a The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is olive
depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds lowers gray loamy fine sand that has pockets of brown fine
the effective depth of the water table. A suitable cover sand.
crop between the tree rows helps to control erosion. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Floridana, Manatee, Malabar, and Pineda soils. Also
This soil is very severely limited if it is used for included are soils that are similar to the Holopaw soil
cultivated crops because of the wetness and the sandy but have a surface layer of muck or mucky fine sand
texture in the root zone. The suitability for many less than 15 inches thick. Included soils make up less
vegetable crops is fair, however, if a water-control than 20 percent of the map unit.
system removes excess water and provides water The Holopaw soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or
through subsurface irrigation during dry periods. Soil- more each year. The water table is within 12 inches of
improving crops and crop residue management can the surface for 2 to 4 months of the year and at a depth
help to control erosion and maintain the organic matter of 12 to 40 inches during most of the remainder of the
content. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of year. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to subsurface layer and moderately slow or moderate in
the needs of the crop. the subsoil. The available water capacity is low. Natural
The suitability of this soil for improved pasture is fertility and the organic matter content also are low.
good. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white The natural vegetation is blue maidencane,
clover grow well in properly managed areas. Water- broomsedge, St. Johnswort, waxmyrtle, panicum, sand
control measures are needed to remove excess surface cordgrass, white bracted sedge, pipewort, stiff
water after heavy rains. Regular applications of lime paspalum, and various other water-tolerant weeds and
and fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should be grasses. Areas of this soil provide excellent habitat for
prevented, wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is Under natural conditions, this soil is not suitable for
moderately high. The equipment limitation, seedling cultivated crops. Even if a water-control system protects
mortality, and plant competition are the main the soil from ponding and removes excess water
management concerns. South Florida slash pine and rapidly, the suitability for vegetable crops is poor. Crop
slash pine are suitable for planting. rotations, soil-improving crops, and crop residue
This soil is moderately suited to the production of management help to control erosion and maintain the
desirable range plants. The dominant forage is creeping organic matter content. Seedbed preparation should
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and include bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be applied
chalky bluestem. Management should include deferred according to the needs of the crop.
grazing and brush control. The soil is in the South The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is poor. A
Florida Flatwoods range site. water-control system that maintains good drainage to a
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, depth of about 4 feet is needed. Planting the trees on







Sarasota County, Florida 33


beds lowers the effective depth of the water table. A of Beaches and St. Augustine soils. Also included are
close-growing cover crop between the tree rows helps soils that are similar to the Kesson soil but have an
to control soil blowing. Regular applications of fertilizer organic surface layer 8 to 15 inches thick. Included soils
are needed. make up less than 10 percent of the map unit.
The suitability of this soil for pasture and hay crops is Under natural conditions, the Kesson and Wulfert
fair. Pangolagrass and improved bahiagrass grow well soils are flooded during normal high tides. Permeability
in properly managed areas. A water-control system is is moderately rapid or rapid. The available water
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy Capacity and natural fertility are high for saltwater-
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed, tolerant plants. The organic matter content is very high.
Overgrazing should be prevented. The native vegetation is red, black, and white
This soil is not suitable for the commercial production mangroves. Searocket, saltwort, perennial glasswort,
of pine trees because of the long periods of ponding. seashore saltgrass, and seashore paspalum grow in
This soil is moderately suited to the production of some areas.
desirable range plants. The dominant forage is Because of the tidal flooding, these soils are not
maidencane and cutgrass. Grazing is naturally deferred suited to cropland, citrus, improved pasture, rangeland,
when the water table is near the surface. This rest woodland, or urban uses. They are in the Mangrove
period increases forage production, but the high water Swamp ecological plant community.
levels reduce the grazing value of the site. The soil is in These soils are in mangrove swamps (fig. 6), which
the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. are unique, biologically productive areas that are very
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, important to many species of fish and wildlife. Many
sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. Water-control sport and commercial finfish, shellfish, and other
measures are needed. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons crustaceans use these areas as spawning grounds and
and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil nurseries. Birds use the areas as rookeries and feeding
material helps to control seepage. Fill material is grounds. Mangrove swamps also serve as protective
needed on sites for septic tank absorption fields, local barriers against excessive wave action in estuaries
roads and streets, small commercial buildings, and during tropical storms.
playgrounds. The sides of shallow excavations should The capability subclass is VIllw.
be shored. Mounding may be needed on sites for septic
tank absorption fields. 25-Malabar fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
The capability subclass is Vllw. drained soil is in low, narrow to broad sloughs and
poorly defined drainageways and on flats. Individual
24-Kesson and Wulfert mucks, frequently areas range from 20 to 250 acres in size. Slopes are
flooded. These nearly level, very poorly drained soils smooth or concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
are in tidal marshes and tidal swamps adjacent to Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
coastal islands and estuaries. Individual areas are sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
irregular in shape and range from about 2 to 80 acres in depth of 13 inches is gray fine sand. The subsoil is
size. Slopes are smooth and are less than 1 percent. brownish yellow and reddish yellow fine sand in the
The components of this map unit do not occur in a upper 32 inches, dark grayish brown sandy clay loam in
regular and repeating pattern. Some areas are entirely the next 5 inches, and light gray sandy loam in the
Kesson and similar soils, some are entirely Wulfert and lower 30 inches.
similar soils, and some are made up of Kesson, Wulfert, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and other soils. The Kesson and similar soils make up Felda, Pineda, Pompano, and Wabasso soils. Also
about 50 percent of the map unit, and the Wulfert and included are soils in small depressional areas that are
similar soils make up about 40 percent. ponded. Included soils make up less than 15 percent of
Typically, the surface layer of the Kesson soil is dark the map unit.
reddish brown muck about 7 inches thick. The The Malabar soil has a water table within 12 inches
underlying material to a depth of more than 80 inches is of the surface for 2 to 6 months and at a depth of 12 to
gray, grayish brown, and dark greenish gray fine sand. 40 inches for most of each year. Permeability is rapid in
Shell fragments are common in the underlying material, the surface layer and subsurface layer and in the upper
Typically, the upper 38 inches of the Wulfert soil is part of the subsoil. It is slow or very slow in the lower
black muck. The underlying material to a depth of more part of the subsoil. The available water capacity is low.
than 80 inches is dark gray and grayish brown fine Natural fertility and the organic matter content also are
sand. low.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation of







34 Soil Survey













L


















Figure 6.-An area of Kesson and Wulfert mucks, frequently flooded, In a mangrove swamp. Mangrove trees are the dominant vegetation.



slash pine, South Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, good. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover
oaks, cabbage palm, scattered saw palmetto, grow well in properly managed areas. Management
waxmyrtle, inkberry, maidencane, creeping bluestem, should include a water-control system that removes
pineland threeawn, laurel oak, bulrush, greenbrier, excess surface water after heavy rains, regular
panicum, and various other sedges and grasses. applications of fertilizer, and controlled grazing.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. It is The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderately well suited to vegetable crops, however, if a moderately high. South Florida slash pine and slash
water-control system removes excess surface water pine are suitable for planting. Water-control measures
rapidly and provides water through subsurface irrigation are needed. The equipment limitation and seedling
during dry periods. Soil-improving crops and crop mortality are the main management concerns.
residue management help to control erosion and This soil is well suited to the production of desirable
maintain the organic matter content. Seedbed range plants. The dominant forage is creeping
preparation should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer bluestem, chalky bluestem, and blue maidencane.
should be applied according to the needs of the crop. Management should include deferred grazing and brush
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good if a control. The soil is in the Cabbage Palm Flatwoods
water-control system maintains the water table below a range site.
depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds results This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
in good surface drainage. A close-growing cover crop sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. Water-control
between the tree rows helps to control soil blowing. measures and fill material are needed. Sealing or lining
Regular applications of fertilizer are needed. sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with
The suitability of this soil for pasture and hay crops is impervious soil material helps to prevent seepage.







Sarasota County, Florida 35


Mounding may be needed on sites for septic tank Intensive management and soil-improving measures
absorption fields. The sandy surface layer should be should be applied, and a water-control system should
stabilized on sites for recreational uses. The sides of be installed to remove excess surface water rapidly
shallow excavations should be shored. after heavy rains. Pangolagrass and improved
The capability subclass is IVw. bahiagrass grow well in properly managed areas.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
26-Manatee loamy fine sand, depressional. This Overgrazing should be prevented.
nearly level, very poorly drained soil is in depressions. This soil is not suitable for the commercial production
Individual areas range from 5 to 50 acres in size. of pine trees because of the extensive periods of
Slopes are concave and are less than 1 percent. ponding.
Typically, the surface layer is black loamy fine sand This soil is moderately suited to the production of
about 18 inches thick. The subsoil is very dark gray desirable range plants. The dominant forage is
sandy loam in the upper 11 inches and light gray sandy maidencane and cutgrass. Grazing is naturally deferred
loam in the lower 13 inches. The substratum to a depth when the water table is close to the surface. This rest
of 80 inches is gray and dark greenish gray sandy period increases forage production, but the high water
loam, sandy clay loam, and fine sand. levels reduce the grazing value of the site. The soil is in
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.
Felda, Floridana, Holopaw, Malabar, and Pineda soils. The ponding severely limits the suitability of this soil
Also included are soils that are similar to the Manatee as a site for buildings, sanitary facilities, and
soil but have a surface layer of muck more than 15 recreational uses. Water-control measures are needed.
inches thick. Included soils make up less than 20 Fill material is needed on sites for urban uses. Sealing
percent of the map unit. or lining sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills
The Manatee soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or with impervious soil material helps to prevent seepage.
more during most years. The water table is within 12 The sides of shallow excavations should be shored.
inches of the surface during most of the rest of the Mounding may be needed on sites for septic tank
year. Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface absorption fields.
layer and moderate in the subsoil and substratum. The The capability subclass is Vllw.
available water capacity is moderate. Natural fertility is
medium, and the organic matter content is high. 27-Matlacha gravelly sand. This nearly level,
The natural vegetation is sawgrass, maidencane, and somewhat poorly drained soil formed in dredge and fill
pickerelweed. Some areas support red maple, cypress, material from small manmade harbors. The material
blackgum, cabbage palm, loblollybay gordonia, was spread over the surface of former tidal areas. The
sweetbay, scattered waxmyrtle, sedges, ferns, and mineral soils in these areas are very poorly drained.
other water-tolerant grasses. Areas of this soil provide The fill material consists of a mixture of sand,
excellent habitat for wading birds and other wetland limestone, shell fragments, and loamy and silty
wildlife. sediments. Individual areas are adjacent to coastal
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops because of areas and are about 10 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are
the ponding. Establishing an adequate drainage system smooth and range from 0 to 3 percent.
is difficult because most areas do not have a suitable Typically, the upper 42 inches is dark brown, light
drainage outlet. The suitability for many vegetable crops brownish gray, and very pale brown gravelly sand that
is fair, however, if intensive management and soil- has lenses of sandy clay loam and is about 20 percent
improving measures are applied and if a water-control limestone and shell fragments. Below this to a depth of
system removes excess water rapidly. Adequate 80 inches or more is undisturbed fine sand. The upper
seedbed preparation and crop rotations are needed. 4 inches of the fine sand is dark gray, the next 32
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of rows. inches is light gray, and the lower 2 inches is very dark
Soil-improving crops and crop residue management grayish brown.
help to control erosion and maintain the organic matter Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
content. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according fill material that does not have loamy pockets or layers.
to the needs of the crop. Also included are areas of soils that have an organic
In its natural state, this soil is not suited to citrus layer at a depth of more than 60 inches and areas of
trees. The suitability is poor even if intensive soils that are poorly drained. Included soils make up
management, such as bedding of rows, is applied and less than 15 percent of the map unit.
the water-control system is adequate. Depth to the water table in the Matlacha soil varies,
This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture, depending on the amount of fill material and the extent







36 Soil Survey


of artificial drainage. The water table is at a depth of 24 some years without irrigation, but an irrigation system
to 36 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years. It is generally is necessary.
below a depth of 60 inches during extended dry This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
periods. The available water capacity varies but is Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
estimated to be low. Permeability varies within short reduce the variety of suitable crops and the crop yields.
distances but is estimated to be moderately rapid in the Row crops should be planted on the contour and in
fill material and rapid in the underlying material. Natural strips that alternate with strips of close-growing crops.
fertility is low. The close-growing crops should be included in the
Most of the acreage supports stands of pine, cropping sequence at least 3 out of every 4 years. Soil-
Brazilian pepper, sea daisy, and weedy grasses. Some improving crops and crop residue management help to
areas have been developed for urban uses. control erosion and maintain the organic matter content.
This soil is not used for cropland, improved pasture, An intensively managed irrigation system is needed.
citrus trees, woodland, wildlife habitat, or rangeland. It Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
consists of mixed soil material used as fill to make low needs of the crop.
tidal areas better suited to building site development or The suitability of this soil for pasture and hay crops is
other urban uses. The suitability for urban uses is fair. fair. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass
The wetness and brief periods of flooding are and bahiagrass, are suitable, but drought reduces the
limitations. Onsite investigation is recommended for all yields. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
uses. needed. Overgrazing should be prevented.
The capability subclass is Vis. The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
moderate. The equipment limitation, seedling mortality,
29-Orsino fine sand. This nearly level and gently and plant competition are the main management
sloping, moderately well drained soil is on ridges and concerns. South Florida slash pine, slash pine, and
knolls. It is slightly higher on the landscape than the longleaf pine are suitable for planting.
surrounding flatwoods. Individual areas range from 40 This soil is poorly suited to the production of
to 100 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or convex, desirable range plants. The vegetative community is a
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 6 dense understory of saw palmetto, Florida rosemary,
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine and scrub oak. Although seldom grazed by livestock,
sand to a depth of about 18 inches. The subsoil to a this site protects the livestock during winter. The soil is
depth of 22 inches is dark reddish brown and brown in the Sand Pine Scrub range site.
fine sand that has discontinuous lenses of brown and This soil is moderately limited as a site for septic
reddish brown fine sand. The next layer is very pale tank absorption fields. An increase in the size of the
brown fine sand to a depth of 40 inches. Below this to a absorption field may be needed. The proximity to a
depth of 80 inches is light gray fine sand. stream or canal should be considered because the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of effluent can pollute water sources. Limitations are slight
EauGallie, Pomello, and Myakka soils. These soils on sites for dwellings without basements, for small
make up less than 15 percent of the map unit. commercial buildings, and for local roads and streets
Under natural conditions, the Orsino soil has a water and are moderate on sites for dwellings with
table at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 6 months or basements. Land shaping may be needed. The soil is
more during most years. The water table recedes to a severely limited as a site for trench sanitary landfills,
depth of more than 60 inches during drought periods, shallow excavations, and recreational uses. Sealing or
Permeability is very rapid. The available water capacity lining sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with
is very low. Natural fertility and the organic matter impervious soil material helps to prevent seepage.
content also are very low. Water-control measures are needed to lower the water
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation of table. The sides of shallow excavations should be
slash pine, South Florida slash pine, sand pine, longleaf shored. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized on
pine, scattered turkey oak, and sand live oak. The sites for recreational uses.
understory is pineland threeawn, indiangrass, The capability subclass is IVs.
bluestems, grassleaf goldaster, and various other
grasses and forbs. 30-Ona fine sand. This nearly level, poorly drained
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is fair. A soil is on broad flatwoods. Individual areas range from 5
close-growing cover crop between the tree rows helps to 125 acres in size. Slopes are smooth and range from
to control erosion. High yields of fruit can be obtained in 0 to 2 percent.







Sarasota County, Florida 37


Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand desirable range plants. The dominant forage is creeping
about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is dark reddish brown bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn,
and dark brown fine sand to a depth of about 16 inches. South Florida bluestem, and chalky bluestem.
Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is brown and Management should include deferred grazing and brush
gray fine sand. control. The soil is in the South Florida Flatwoods range
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of site.
EauGallie, Myakka, Pomello, and Pompano soils. Some This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
areas of the Myakka soils are depressional. Also sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. Water-control
included are areas of soils that are similar to the Ona measures are needed. An increase in the size of septic
soil but have a surface layer more than 9 inches thick. tank absorption fields may be needed. Sealing or lining
Included soils make up about 15 percent of the map sewage lagoons with impervious soil material helps to
unit. prevent seepage. The sandy surface layer should be
Under natural conditions, the Ona soil has a water stabilized on sites for recreational uses. The sides of
table within a depth of 40 inches for more than 6 shallow excavations should be shored.
months during most years and at a depth of 6 to 18 The capability subclass is Illw.
inches for 1 to 3 months during wet periods.
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and 31-Pineda fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
substratum and moderate in the subsoil. The available drained soil is on low hammocks and in broad, poorly
water capacity is low. Natural fertility and the organic defined sloughs. Individual areas range from 10 to 200
matter content are low or medium. acres in size. Slopes are smooth or concave and range
Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation of from 0 to 2 percent.
slash pine, South Florida slash pine, and longleaf pine Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
and scattered live oak, inkberry, fetterbush, waxmyrtle, about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 14 inches
pineland threeawn, bluestems, panicum, and various of gray fine sand. The upper 14 inches of the subsoil is
other grasses. dark yellowish brown and pale brown fine sand. The
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good if a lower 12 inches is light brownish gray fine sandy loam
water-control system is installed to maintain the water mottled with dark yellowish brown. The substratum to a
table below a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees depth of 80 inches or more is grayish brown and dark
on beds lowers the effective depth of the water table. grayish brown fine sand.
Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are needed. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to EauGallie, Felda, Malabar, and Pople soils. Also
cultivated crops because of the wetness and the sandy included are a few areas of soils that have a thin layer
texture in the root zone. The suitability for many of very friable, calcareous material at a depth of 10 to
vegetable crops is good, however, if a water-control 30 inches. Included soils make up less than 20 percent
system removes excess water during wet periods and of the map unit.
provides water through subsurface irrigation during dry The Pineda soil has a water table that is above the
periods. Soil-improving crops and crop residue surface for a short period after heavy rainfall. The water
management help to control erosion and maintain the table is within 12 inches of the surface for 1 to 6
organic matter content. Seedbed preparation should months and at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for more than
include bedding of rows. Regular applications of 6 months. The available water capacity is low.
fertilizer and lime are needed. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
The suitability of this soil for improved pasture is subsurface layer and in the upper part of the subsoil,
good. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white slow or very slow in the lower part of the subsoil, and
clover grow well in properly managed areas. Water- moderately rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility and
control measures are needed to remove excess surface the organic matter content are low.
water after heavy rains. Regular applications of lime A large part of the acreage of this soil has been
and fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should be cleared and supports citrus trees. The natural
prevented, vegetation is scattered slash pine, South Florida slash
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is pine, longleaf pine, cabbage palm, waxmyrtle, scattered
moderate. The equipment limitation, seedling mortality, saw palmetto, blue maidencane, pineland threeawn, low
and plant competition are the main management panicum, bluestems, and various weeds and grasses.
concerns. South Florida slash pine and slash pine are This soil is severely limited if it is used for cultivated
suitable for planting. crops. The suitability for vegetable crops is fair if a
This soil is moderately suited to the production of water-control system removes excess water rapidly







38 Soil Survey


during wet periods and provides water through 33-Pomello fine sand. This nearly level, moderately
subsurface irrigation during dry periods. Soil-improving well drained soil is on low ridges and knolls on
crops and crop residue management help to control flatwoods. Individual areas range from 20 to 150 acres
erosion and maintain the organic matter content. in size. Slopes are smooth or convex.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of rows. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
Fertilizer should be applied according to the needs of about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of
the crop. about 48 inches is light gray fine sand. The subsoil to a
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good if a depth of about 80 inches or more is dark reddish brown
water-control system maintains the water table below a fine sand.
depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds results Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
in good surface drainage. A close-growing cover crop EauGallie and Tavares soils and areas of soils that are
between the tree rows helps to control soil blowing, similar to the Pomello soil but have a thin, brownish
Regular applications of fertilizer are needed. yellow layer directly below the surface layer. Also
The suitability of this soil for pasture and hay crops is included are areas of soils that have a subsoil below a
good. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover depth of 50 inches and areas of soils that have a
grow well in properly managed areas. A water-control weakly cemented subsoil. Included soils make up less
system is needed to remove excess surface water after than 15 percent of the map unit.
heavy rains. Management should include regular Under natural conditions, the Pomello soil usually
applications of fertilizer and controlled grazing. has a water table at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1 to
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is 4 months during wet periods and at a depth of 40 to 60
moderately high. Slash pine and South Florida slash inches during the drier periods. Permeability is very
pine are suitable for planting. Water-control measures rapid in the surface layer and subsurface layer and
are necessary. The equipment limitation and seedling moderately rapid in the subsoil. The available water
mortality are the main management concerns. capacity is low. Natural fertility and the organic matter
This soil is well suited to the production of desirable content are very low.
range plants. The dominant forage is blue maidencane, Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation of
chalky bluestem, and bluejoint panicum. Management slash pine, South Florida slash pine, longleaf pine,
should include deferred grazing. The soil is in the scrub live oak, saw palmetto, fetterbush, rusty lyonia,
Slough range site. running oak, indiangrass, pineland threeawn, grassleaf
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, goldaster, flag pawpaw, mosses, lichens, panicum,
sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. Water-control bluestems, and various other grasses. Sand pine grows
measures are needed. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons in some areas.
with impervious soil material helps to prevent seepage. This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. Only fair
Mounding may be needed on sites for septic tank yields can be obtained even if the level of management
absorption fields. The sandy surface layer should be is high. A water-control system is necessary to maintain
stabilized on sites for recreational uses. The sides of the water table below a depth of about 4 feet during wet
shallow excavations should be shored. periods and to provide water for irrigation during dry
The capability subclass is IIIw. periods. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed. A suitable cover crop between the tree rows
32-Pits and Dumps. This map unit consists of helps to control soil blowing.
excavated areas where limestone and phosphate have This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. If
been mined. The refuse from mining activities has been intensive management is applied, however, a few crops
left on the adjoining land. Several areas are in the can be grown. The number of suitable crops is limited
northern part of the county. Most areas have been unless intensive management is applied. Irrigation is
abandoned, needed. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according
Excavations made to obtain marl, shells, clay, or to the needs of the crop.
other material for road construction or fill and the waste The suitability of this soil for improved pasture
material from these excavations are part of this unit. grasses is fair. Bahiagrass is the best suited species.
This map unit is not used for cropland, improved Droughtiness is the major limitation during the drier
pasture, citrus, woodland, or rangeland. Some periods. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are
revegetated areas provide good wildlife habitat. Onsite needed. Overgrazing should be prevented.
investigation is recommended for all uses. The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
This map unit is not assigned to a capability moderate. Seedling mortality, plant competition, and the
subclass, equipment limitation are the main management







Sarasota County, Florida 39


concerns. South Florida slash pine, slash pine, and cultivated crops because of the ponding. Establishing
longleaf pine are suitable for planting. an adequate drainage system is difficult because most
This soil is poorly suited to the production of areas do not have a suitable drainage outlet. Even if
desirable range plants. The vegetative community is a intensive management and soil-improving measures are
dense understory of saw palmetto, Florida rosemary, applied and a water-control system removes excess
and scrub oak. Although seldom grazed by livestock, water rapidly, the suitability for vegetable crops is poor.
this site protects the livestock during winter. The soil is Adequate seedbed preparation and crop rotations are
in the Sand Pine Scrub range site. needed. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of
This soil is limited as a site for buildings, sanitary rows. Soil-improving crops and crop residue
facilities, and recreational uses. Limitations are management help to control erosion and maintain the
moderate on sites for dwellings without basements and organic matter content. Fertilizer and lime should be
for small commercial buildings. Water-control measures applied according to the needs of the crop.
are needed. An increase in the size of septic tank In its natural state, this soil is not suited to citrus
absorption fields may be needed. Because of the very trees. The suitability is poor even if intensive
rapid permeability, the effluent in septic tank absorption management, such as bedding of rows, is applied and
fields can pollute ground water. Applying water-control the water-control system is adequate.
measures and sealing or lining sewage lagoons and In its natural state, this soil is poorly suited to
trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil material improved pasture. The suitability is fair, however, if an
help to prevent seepage. The sandy surface layer adequate water-control system removes excess surface
should be stabilized on sites for recreational uses. The water after heavy rains. Pangolagrass, improved
sides of shallow excavations should be shored. bahiagrass, and white clover grow well in properly
The capability subclass is VIs. managed areas. Controlled grazing is needed.
This soil is not suitable for the commercial production
34-Pompano fine sand, depressional. This nearly of pine trees because of the extensive periods of
level, very poorly drained soil is in depressions. ponding.
Individual areas range from 5 to 100 acres in size. This soil generally is not used as rangeland. It is in
Slopes are concave and are 0 to 1 percent. the Cypress Swamp ecological plant community.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 3 This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
inches thick. The upper 13 inches of the underlying sanitary facilities, and recreational uses because of the
material is gray fine sand, and the lower 64 inches or ponding. Water-control measures are needed. Fill
more is light brownish gray and grayish brown fine material is needed on sites for urban uses. Sealing or
sand. lining sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of impervious soil material helps to prevent seepage. The
Delray, Felda, and Holopaw soils and small areas of sides of shallow excavations should be shored.
soils that are similar to the Pompano soil but have an Mounding may be needed on sites for septic tank
organic surface layer as much as 20 inches thick. Also absorption fields.
included are small areas of soils that have a weakly The capability subclass is Vllw.
stained layer of organic material at a depth of more
than 20 inches. Included soils make up less than 20 36-Pople fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
percent of the map unit. drained soil is on low hammocks and in poorly defined
The Pompano soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months during drainageways and broad sloughs. Individual areas
most years. The water table is within 12 inches of the range from 20 to 50 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
surface for most of the remainder of the year. concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Permeability is rapid. The available water capacity is Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
very low. Natural fertility and the organic matter content brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
are low. layer is light brownish gray fine sand about 3 inches
The natural vegetation is baldcypress, scattered thick. The subsoil is brown and brownish yellow fine
blackgum, loblollybay gordonia, sweetbay, cabbage sand in the upper 21 inches and gray fine sandy loam
palm, red maple, waxmyrtle, Carolina willow, St. in the lower 28 inches. The substratum to a depth of 80
Johnswort, maidencane, stiff paspalum, sedges, and inches is gray fine sand.
other water-tolerant weeds and grasses. Areas of this Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
soil provide excellent habitat for wading birds and other Bradenton, EauGallie, and Wabasso soils. Also
wetland wildlife. included are areas of soils that have a weakly stained
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to layer of organic material above the subsoil and







40 Soil Survey


extending into the subsoil and areas of soils that have control. The soil is in the Cabbage Palm Flatwoods
small fragments or nodules of iron-cemented sandstone range site.
or calcareous material at a depth of 10 to 30 inches. This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
Included soils make up less than 15 percent of the map sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. Water-control
unit. measures are needed. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons
The Pople soil has a water table within 12 inches of and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil
the surface for 1 to 6 months and at a depth of 12 to 40 material generally helps to prevent seepage. Mounding
inches for more than 6 months. The water table recedes sites for septic tank absorption fields helps to control
to a depth of more than 40 inches during extended dry wetness. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized
periods and is above the surface for short periods after on sites for recreational uses. The sides of shallow
heavy rainfall. The available water capacity is low. excavations should be shored.
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and The capability subclass is Illw.
subsurface layer, slow or very slow in the loamy part of
the subsoil, and moderate or moderately slow in the 38-Smyrna fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
substratum. Natural fertility and the organic matter drained soil is on broad flatwoods. Individual areas
content are low. range from 10 to 50 acres in size. Slopes are smooth
Most areas have been cleared and support citrus and range from 0 to 2 percent.
trees. The natural vegetation is slash pine, South Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, cabbage palm, about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
waxmyrtle, scattered saw palmetto, laurel oak, blue fine sand to a depth of about 12 inches. The subsoil to
maidencane, pineland threeawn, creeping bluestem, a depth of about 30 inches is dark reddish brown fine
South Florida bluestem, sand cordgrass, low panicum, sand. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more
and various weeds and grasses. is pale brown and very pale brown fine sand.
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
cultivated crops. It is fairly well suited to vegetable EauGallie, Pompano, and Ona soils. Also included are
crops, however, if a water-control system removes areas of soils that are similar to the Smyrna soil but
excess water rapidly in wet periods and provides water have a thicker dark surface layer. Included soils make
through subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Soil- up about 15 percent of the map unit.
improving crops and crop residue management help to Under natural conditions, the Smyrna soil usually has
control erosion and maintain the organic matter content, a water table within a depth of 40 inches for more than
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of rows. 6 months and at a depth of 6 to 18 inches for 1 to 3
Fertilizer should be applied according to the needs of months. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer,
the crop. subsurface layer, and substratum and moderate or
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good if a moderately rapid in the subsoil: The available water
water-control system maintains the water table below a capacity is low. Natural fertility and the organic matter
depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds results content also are low.
in good surface drainage. A close-growing cover crop Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation of
between the tree rows helps to control soil blowing, slash pine, South Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, live
Regular applications of fertilizer are needed. oak, and water oak. The understory is saw palmetto,
The suitability of this soil for pasture and hay crops is running oak, inkberry, fetterbush, waxmyrtle, pineland
good. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover threeawn, bluestems, panicum, and other grasses.
grow well in properly managed areas. Management The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good if a
should include a water-control system that removes water-control system maintains the water table below a
excess surface water after heavy rains, regular depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds lowers
applications of fertilizer, and controlled grazing, the effective depth of the water table. A suitable cover
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is crop between the tree rows helps to control erosion.
moderately high. South Florida slash pine and slash Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are needed.
pine are suitable for planting. Water-control measures This soil is very severely limited if it is used for
are necessary. The equipment limitation and seedling cultivated crops because of the wetness and the sandy
mortality are the main management concerns, texture in the root zone. The suitability for many
This soil is well suited to the production of desirable vegetable crops is fair, however, if a water-control
range plants. The dominant forage is creeping system removes excess water in wet periods and
bluestem, chalky bluestem, and blue maidencane. provides water through subsurface irrigation in dry
Management should include deferred grazing and brush periods. Soil-improving crops and crop residue








Sarasota County, Florida 41


management help to control erosion and maintain the 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. The
organic matter content. Seedbed preparation should water table is within a depth of 20 inches during periods
include bedding of rows. Fertilizer and lime should be of heavy rainfall. In some areas daily tides affect the
applied according to the needs of the crop. water table. This soil is flooded for brief periods during
The suitability of this soil for improved pasture is the hurricane season. Permeability is rapid or
good. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white moderately rapid. The available water capacity is very
clover grow well in properly managed areas. Water- low in the sandy part of the fill material.
control measures generally are needed. Regular Most of the acreage supports stands of Australian
applications of lime and fertilizer also are needed. pine, Brazilian pepper, sea daisy, and weedy grasses.
Overgrazing should be prevented. Some areas have been developed for urban uses.
The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is This soil is not used for cropland, improved pasture,
moderate. The equipment limitation, seedling mortality, citrus trees, woodland, wildlife habitat, or rangeland. It
and plant competition are the main management consists of mixed soil material used as fill to make low
concerns. South Florida slash pine and slash pine are tidal areas better suited to building site development or
suitable for planting. other urban uses. The suitability for urban uses is fair.
This soil is moderately suited to the production of The wetness and the flooding are limitations. Onsite
desirable range plants. The dominant forage is creeping investigation is recommended for all uses.
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and The capability subclass is VIIs.
chalky bluestem. Management should include deferred
grazing and brush control. The soil is in the South 40-Tavares fine sand. This nearly level, moderately
Florida Flatwoods range site. well drained soil is on ridges and knolls on flatwoods.
This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings, Individual areas range from 20 to 200 acres in size.
local roads and streets, shallow excavations, sewage Slopes are smooth or convex.
lagoons, sanitary landfills, and recreational uses. Water- Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
control measures are needed. Sealing or lining sewage sand about 6 inches thick. The upper 22 inches of the
lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil underlying material is brownish yellow sand, and the
material can help to prevent seepage. An increase in lower 52 inches or more is gray fine sand.
the size of septic tank absorption fields may be needed. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The sandy surface layer should be stabilized on sites Cassia, Orsino, and Pomello soils. These soils make up
for recreational uses. The sides of shallow excavations less than 15 percent of the map unit.
should be shored. The Tavares soil usually has a water table at a depth
The capability subclass is IVw. of 40 to 60 inches during wet periods and at a depth of
more than 80 inches during drought periods.
39-St. Augustine fine sand. This nearly level, Permeability is very rapid throughout the profile. The
somewhat poorly drained soil formed in dredge and fill available water capacity is very low. Natural fertility and
material from small manmade harbors. The material the organic matter content also are very low.
was spread over the surface of former tidal areas. The Most areas of this soil support natural vegetation of
mineral soils in these areas are very poorly drained, slash pine, South Florida slash pine, longleaf pine, sand
The fill material is a mixture of sand, shell fragments, pine, saw palmetto, scrub oak, fetterbush, running oak,
and loamy and silty sediments. Individual areas are turkey oak, indiangrass, broomsedge bluestem and
adjacent to the coastal areas and are about 10 to 100 other bluestem species, and pineland threeawn.
acres in size. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 In its natural state, this soil is poorly suited to
percent, cultivated crops. It is fairly well suited to citrus trees if
Typically, the fill material is about 80 inches thick. It good management is applied. Management should
is brownish and grayish fine sand and sandy clay loam include irrigation and regular applications of fertilizer
with sand-sized shell fragments, and lime. A close-growing cover crop between the trees
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of helps to control soil blowing.
Matlacha soils and areas of fill material that does not The suitability of this soil for improved pasture
have loamy pockets or layers. Also included are some grasses is poor. Intensive management is needed to
areas of soils that have a thin or weakly expressed overcome the droughtiness and very low fertility.
organic layer at a depth of more than 60 inches and Bahiagrass is the best suited species. Clover is not
some areas of soils that are poorly drained. Included suitable.
soils make up less than 15 percent of the map unit. The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
The St. Augustine soil has a water table at a depth of moderately high. Seedling mortality and the equipment







42 Soil Survey
































Figure 7.-A pastured area of Wabasso fine sand. Laurel oak and live oak provide shade for livestock.



limitation are the main management concerns. South impervious soil material helps to prevent seepage.
Florida slash pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine are The capability subclass is Ills.
suitable for planting.
This soil is poorly suited to the production of 41-Wabasso fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
desirable range plants. The vegetative community is a drained soil is on broad flatwoods. Individual areas are
dense understory of saw palmetto, Florida rosemary, 20 to 300 acres in size. Slopes are smooth and range
scrub oak, indiangrass, creeping bluestem, beaked from 0 to 2 percent.
panicum, and various other grasses and perennial Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
legumes. Although seldom grazed by livestock, this site inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand
protects the livestock during winter. The soil is in the about 3 inches thick. The upper 8 inches of the subsoil
Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. is very dark gray fine sand that is coated with colloidal
This soil is well suited to dwellings without organic matter. The next 7 inches is light gray fine
basements, to small commercial buildings, and to local sand. The lower 55 inches is dark gray sandy loam and
roads and streets. No corrective measures are needed. fine sandy loam.
The soil is severely limited as a site for septic tank Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
absorption fields and recreational uses. Water-control EauGallie, Felda, and Myakka soils and areas of soils
measures are needed. The sandy surface layer should that are similar to the Wabasso soil but have a thicker
be stabilized on sites for recreational uses. The sides of dark surface layer. Also included are some areas of wet
shallow excavations should be shored. '.imitations are soils in scattered small depressions. Included soils
severe on sites for trench sanitary landfills and sewage make up less than 15 percent of the map unit.
lagoons. Sealing or lining the landfills and lagoons with The Wabasso soil usually has a water table within a







Sarasota County, Florida 43


depth of 40 inches for more than 6 months and at a The suitability of this soil for pasture is good (fig. 7).
depth of 6 to 18 inches for 1 to 2 months. The available Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover
water capacity is low. Permeability is rapid in the grow well in properly managed areas. Water-control
surface layer and subsurface layer. It is moderate in the measures are needed. Regular applications of lime and
sandy part of the subsoil and slow or very slow in the fertilizer also are needed. Overgrazing should be
loamy part. Natural fertility is low. prevented.
Most areas of this soil support citrus trees, but some The potential productivity of this soil for pine trees is
support natural vegetation of slash pine, South Florida moderately high. The equipment limitation, seedling
slash pine, longleaf pine, scattered cabbage palm, mortality, and plant competition are the main
water oak, live oak, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, management concerns. South Florida slash pine and
fetterbush, inkberry, pineland threeawn, bluestems, slash pine are suitable for planting.
panicum, and other grasses. This soil is moderately suited to the production of
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good if a desirable range plants. The dominant forage is creeping
water-control system maintains the water table below a bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and
depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds lowers chalky bluestem. Management should include deferred
the effective depth of the water table. A suitable cover grazing and brush control. The soil is in the South
crop between the tree rows helps to control erosion. Florida Flatwoods range site.
Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are needed. This soil is severely limited as a site for buildings,
Because of the wetness and the sandy texture in the local roads and streets, recreational uses, sewage
root zone, this soil is very severely limited if it is used lagoons, septic tank absorption fields, trench sanitary
for cultivated crops. The suitability for many vegetable landfills, and shallow excavations. Water-control
crops is fair, however, if a water-control system measures are needed. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons
removes excess water in wet periods and provides and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil
water through subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Soil- material helps to prevent seepage. An increase in the
improving crops and crop residue management help to size of septic tank absorption fields may be needed
control erosion and maintain the organic matter content, because of the slow permeability. The sides of shallow
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of rows. excavations should be shored. The sandy surface layer
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the should be stabilized on sites for recreational uses.
needs of the crop. The capability subclass is Illw.









45









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural land capability classification used by the Soil.
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
soil-related failures in land uses. yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, listed for each soil.
conservationists, engineers, and others collect Planners of management systems for individual fields
extensive field data about the nature and behavior or farms should consider the detailed information given
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
various soil uses and management. Field experience local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
and collected data on soil properties and performance Cooperative Extension Service.
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior. About 28,400 acres in the county was used for crops
Information in this section can be used to plan the or improved pasture in 1983 (3). About 1,600 acres was
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as used for citrus crops; about 12,000 acres was used for
rangeland and woodland; as\sites for buildings, sanitary other specialty crops, mainly cucumbers, tomatoes,
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, cabbage, lettuce, celery, watermelons, sod, and nursery
and parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife plants; and the rest was used for improved pasture. If
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and economic conditions are favorable, eggplants, squash,
limitations of each soil for specific and uses and to help and sweet corn can be grown. Oranges are the main
to prevent construction failures caus d by unfavorable citrus crop. Grapefruit and specialty fruits also are
soil properties. grown.
Planners and others using soil survey information The acreage used as woodland or rangeland has
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on gradually decreased as more and more land is used for
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the urban development, citrus crops, or improved pasture.
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain The acreage of vegetable crops has remained stable
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with over the past several years. The acreage of improved
nature. pasture has increased slightly.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of The following paragraphs describe the main concerns
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to in managing the soils in the county for crops and
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil pasture. The main management needs are measures
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, that control water erosion and soil blowing, drainage
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and and irrigation systems, and measures that maintain or
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can improve fertility and tilth.
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate Water erosion is a hazard on disturbed soils in areas
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, undergoing development. It can damage these soils if
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. rains are intensive and the surface has no vegetation or
ro a P r mulch.
Crops and Pasture Loss of the surface layer through erosion is
William F. Kuenstler, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, damaging for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced
helped prepare this section. as the topsoil is lost and the subsoil is exposed.
General management needed for crops and pasture Second, erosion results in the sedimentation of streams
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants and lakes. Control of erosion minimizes this pollution






45









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural land capability classification used by the Soil.
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
soil-related failures in land uses. yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, listed for each soil.
conservationists, engineers, and others collect Planners of management systems for individual fields
extensive field data about the nature and behavior or farms should consider the detailed information given
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
various soil uses and management. Field experience local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
and collected data on soil properties and performance Cooperative Extension Service.
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior. About 28,400 acres in the county was used for crops
Information in this section can be used to plan the or improved pasture in 1983 (3). About 1,600 acres was
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as used for citrus crops; about 12,000 acres was used for
rangeland and woodland; as\sites for buildings, sanitary other specialty crops, mainly cucumbers, tomatoes,
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, cabbage, lettuce, celery, watermelons, sod, and nursery
and parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife plants; and the rest was used for improved pasture. If
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and economic conditions are favorable, eggplants, squash,
limitations of each soil for specific and uses and to help and sweet corn can be grown. Oranges are the main
to prevent construction failures caus d by unfavorable citrus crop. Grapefruit and specialty fruits also are
soil properties. grown.
Planners and others using soil survey information The acreage used as woodland or rangeland has
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on gradually decreased as more and more land is used for
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the urban development, citrus crops, or improved pasture.
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain The acreage of vegetable crops has remained stable
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with over the past several years. The acreage of improved
nature. pasture has increased slightly.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of The following paragraphs describe the main concerns
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to in managing the soils in the county for crops and
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil pasture. The main management needs are measures
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, that control water erosion and soil blowing, drainage
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and and irrigation systems, and measures that maintain or
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can improve fertility and tilth.
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate Water erosion is a hazard on disturbed soils in areas
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, undergoing development. It can damage these soils if
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. rains are intensive and the surface has no vegetation or
ro a P r mulch.
Crops and Pasture Loss of the surface layer through erosion is
William F. Kuenstler, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, damaging for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced
helped prepare this section. as the topsoil is lost and the subsoil is exposed.
General management needed for crops and pasture Second, erosion results in the sedimentation of streams
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants and lakes. Control of erosion minimizes this pollution







46 Soil Survey


and improves the quality of water for municipal use, for Therefore, a combination of drainage measures and
recreation, and for fish and wildlife. Erosion-control irrigation systems is needed if the soils are used for
measures, such as cover crops and vegetative filter intensive crop or forage production. The design of
strips, provide a protective cover, help to control runoff, drainage and irrigation systems varies, depending on
and increase the rate of water infiltration, the kind of soil and the crops or pasture plants growing
Soil blowing is a hazard in unprotected, open areas on the soil.
of sandy and organic soils. It can damage the soils and If the drainage and irrigation systems are adequate,
tender crops in a few hours if winds are strong and the vegetable and citrus crops can be grown on the poorly
soil is dry and has no vegetation or surface mulch. Soil drained and very poorly drained soils (fig. 8) in the
blowing reduces fertility by removing the finer soil county. Successful citrus production requires more
particles and organic matter; damages or destroys intensive management on these soils than on other
crops through sandblasting; spreads disease, insects, soils. Citrus trees have a deep taproot and require a
and weed seeds; and creates health and cleaning deep root zone. A high water table restricts the rooting
problems. Control of soil blowing minimizes duststorms depth. A surface and subsurface drainage system and
and improves air quality. Maintaining a good plant cover an irrigation system are needed in areas used for
and surface mulch minimizes soil blowing, intensive citrus production. Low-volume irrigation is
Field windbreaks and vegetative wind barriers are gaining widespread use in the county. The design of
plantings made at right angles to the prevailing wind both the drainage and irrigation systems varies,
and at specific intervals across the field. The interval depending on the kind of soil and the citrus crop grown
depends on the erodibility of the soil and the on the soil.
susceptibility of the crop to the damage caused by EauGallie, Malabar, Myakka, Ona, Smyrna, and
sandblasting. Windbreaks and vegetative barriers Wabasso soils have a subsoil that is coated with
reduce windspeed and the distance that the wind blows organic matter, which slows the movement of water
across the field. Field windbreaks of suitable trees and through the profile. These soils are wetter during rainy
shrubs, such as eucalyptus, South Florida slash pine, seasons and remain wet long after the rainy season is
and southern redcedar, and vegetative barriers of millet, over.
small grain, sugarcane, and sorghum and sudangrass When organic soils, such as Gator muck, are
hybrids are effective in reducing the hazard of soil drained, the pore spaces are filled with air and the
blowing and the extent of crop damage caused by organic material subsides and oxidizes. Therefore,
sandblasting. special drainage and irrigation systems are needed to
Clearing and disturbing only the minimum area control the depth and period of drainage. Oxidation and
needed for works and improvements reduce the runoff subsidence of these soils can be minimized by keeping
rate and the hazard of soil blowing. Mulching reduces the water table at the highest practical level for the crop
the extent of the crop damage caused by runoff and soil and cultivation practices during the growing season and
blowing and improves moisture conditions for newly by raising the water table to the surface the rest of the
established vegetation, time.
Most of the mineral soils in the county have a sandy In some soils, such as Hallandale soils, hard
surface layer and are subject to soil blowing if they are limestone bedrock is within a depth of 20 inches, and in
plowed several weeks before planting. They generally other soils, such as Boca soils, it is within a depth of 40
should be plowed only a short time before planting. inches. These soils are saturated during rainy periods
Information about the design of erosion-control and drought during dry periods. Because of the
measures for each kind of soil is provided in "Water bedrock, installing drainage and irrigation systems is
and Wind Erosion Control Handbook for Florida," difficult.
available in local offices of the Soil Conservation Information about drainage and irrigation systems for
Service. each kind of soil is provided in the Technical Guide,
Soil drainage is a major management concern on which is available in local offices of the Soil
much of the acreage used for crops and pasture in the Conservation Service.
survey area. Under natural conditions, very poorly Fertility is naturally low in most of the soils in the
drained, depressional soils, such as Delray, Felda, county. Most of the mineral soils have a sandy, light
Floridana, Gator, Holopaw, and Manatee soils, are so colored surface layer. Exceptions are Floridana soils
wet that production of the crops and pasture plants and the Ona soils that have a dark surface layer.
commonly grown in the county generally is not possible. Some of the mineral soils are sandy to a depth of 80
Also, most of these soils have a low available water inches or more, some are sandy in the upper part and
capacity and are drought during dry periods, have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches, and







Sarasota County, Florida 47





































Figure 8.-A water-control system in an area of EauGallie and Myakka fine sands. This system lowers the water table during wet periods
and provides irrigation water during dry periods.



some have a sandy subsoil that is coated with organic applied to these soils should contain minor elements,
matter. The soils are rapidly leached of plant nutrients especially copper. On all soils, additions of lime and
and do not respond so well as loamy soils to fertilizer should be based on the results of soil tests, the
applications of fertilizer and management. Pompano needs of the crop, and the expected level of yields. The
soils are an example. Cassia and Tavares soils also are Cooperative Extension Service can help in determining
drought and low in fertility and may be unsuited to the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime to be
most crops. applied.
Most of the soils in the survey area have a strongly Soil tilth is an important factor affecting the
acid or very strongly acid surface layer. If the soils have germination of seeds and the infiltration of water into
never been limed, applications of ground limestone are the soil. Soils with good tilth have granular structure
needed to supply calcium and raise the pH level and are porous. Most of the mineral soils in the county
sufficiently for crops and pasture grasses to grow well. have a light colored, sandy surface layer in which the
The levels of nitrogen, potassium, and available content of organic matter is low and tilth is poor.
phosphorus are naturally low in most of the mineral Generally, mineral soils have weak structure or are
soils. The organic soils, such as Gator soils, are low in structureless. During periods of heavy rainfall on dry
most plant nutrients, except for nitrogen. The fertilizer soils that are low in content of organic matter, the







48 Soil Survey


colloidal material cements, forming a thin crust. The phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
crust is hard when dry and is slightly impervious to crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
water. It reduces the rate of water infiltration and and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures
increases the runoff rate. Regular additions of crop the smallest possible loss.
residue, manure, and other organic material can The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
improve soil structure and prevent excessive crusting. of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
The pasture in the county is used to produce forage likely to increase as new production technology is
for beef cattle and dairy cattle. Cow-calf enterprises are developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
the major beef cattle systems. Bahiagrass and with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change.
pangolagrass are the main pasture plants. Excess grass Crops other than those shown in table 3 are grown in
is harvested for hay when the weather is favorable. The the county, but estimated yields are not listed because
dairies chop green feed daily for feeding. the acreage of such crops is small. The local office of
If drained, most of the poorly drained soils and some the Soil Conservation Service or of the Cooperative
of the very poorly drained soils, such as Floridana and Extension Service can provide information about the
Manatee soils, are suited to pasture. The poorly drained management and productivity of the soils for those
and very poorly drained soils are suited to limpograss. crops.
They are well suited to legumes, such as white clover, if
lime and fertilizer are applied and the pasture is well Land Capability Classification
managed. Land capability classification shows, in a general
The pastures in many parts of the county have been way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops
greatly depleted by continued excessive grazing. that require special management are excluded. The
Forage yields can be increased by applying lime and soils are grouped according to their limitations for field
fertilizer, planting legumes, applying a system of crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops,
rotation grazing, irrigating, and applying other good and the way they respond to management. The criteria
management measures. Differences in the amount and used in grouping the soils do not include major and
kind of pasture yields are closely related to the kind of generally expensive landforming that would change
soil. Pasture management is based on the relationship slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do
among soils, pasture plants, lime, fertilizer, and they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
moisture. Further information about managing pasture projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for
can be obtained from local offices of the Cooperative interpretations designed to show suitability and
Extension Service and the Soil Conservation Service. limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for
woodland, and for engineering purposes.
Yields Per Acre In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
The average yields per acre that can be expected of at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
the principal crops under a high level of management class and subclass are used in this survey.
are shown in table 3. In any given year, yields may be Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
higher or lower than those indicated in the table designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
because of variations in rainfall and other climatic numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
factors. The land capability classification of each map narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
unit also is shown in the table. defined as follows:
The yields are based mainly on the experience and Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension use.
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
results of field trials and demonstrations also are the choice of plants or that require moderate
considered. conservation practices.
The management needed to obtain the indicated Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil choice of plants or that require special conservation
and the crop. Management can include drainage, practices, or both.
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of management, or both.
weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,







Sarasota County, Florida 49


other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their watersheds, wildlife habitat, and recreational areas.
use. The acreage used for timber in the county has been
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them reduced through the years because of intensive
generally unsuitable for cultivation, ranching enterprises, urban encroachment, and the lack
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make of local markets for wood products. Management of the
them unsuitable for cultivation, timber resource has generally consisted of natural
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have regeneration after harvest cutting. Although not
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial extensively used in woodland management, prescribed
crop production. fire plays an important role in reducing the extent of
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one "rough" and in exposing mineral soil that can be used
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e. as a seedbed for natural regeneration. It also improves
w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The the availability, desirability, and nutrient quality of the
letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of native forage. Further information about woodland
erosion unless a close-growing plant cover is management can be obtained from the Florida Division
maintained; w shows that water in or on the soil of Forestry, Soil Conservation Service, and the
interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some soils Cooperative Extension Service.
the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth,
drainage); s shows that the soil is limited mainly fertility, texture, and available water capacity influence
because it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate determine
only some parts of the United States, shows that the the kinds of trees that can grow on a site. Available
chief limitation is climate that is very cold or very dry. water capacity and depth of the root zone are major
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils influences affecting tree growth. Elevation and aspect
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V are of particular importance in mountainous areas.
are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland, planning ways to increase the productivity of woodland.
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V Some soils respond better to applications of fertilizer
contains only the subclasses indicated by w, s, or c. than others, and some are more susceptible to
The land capability classification of each map unit is landslides and erosion after roads are built and timber
given in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" and in is harvested. On some soils special reforestation efforts
table 3. are needed. In the section "Detailed Soil Map Units,"
the description of each map unit in the county suitable
Woodland Management and Productivity for timber includes information about productivity and
the limitations that affect timber harvesting and timber
Bill Schilling, forester, Division of Forestry, Florida Department of production. The common forest understory plants also
Agriculture and Consumer Services, helped prepare this section.
are specified. Table 4 summarizes this forestry
About 55,000 acres in Sarasota County is information and rates the soils for a number of factors
commercial woodland that is privately owned (3). Nearly to be considered in management. Slight, moderate, and
19,000 acres of Myakka River State Park is in Sarasota severe are used to indicate the degree of the major soil
County. Most of this acreage is managed as woodland. limitations to be considered in forest management.
The rest of the land in the county is not classified as The first tree listed for each soil under the column
woodland but has definite potential for woodland (16). "Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil.
South Florida slash pine is the most economically An indicator species is a tree that is common in the
important and abundant tree in the county. It grows on area and that is generally the most productive on a
the majority of the soils. It is used mainly for pulpwood, given soil.
fenceposts, poles, and lumber production. Table 4 indicates the ordination symbol for each soil.
About 42 percent of the woodland supports wetland The first part of the ordination symbol, a number,
hardwoods (fig. 9). The major trees in these areas are indicates the potential productivity of a soil for the
live oak, laurel oak, and cabbage palm. Other species indicator species in cubic meters per hectare. The
are red maple, sweetgum, and bay. The county has larger the number, the greater the potential productivity.
very little baldcypress. The wetland hardwoods grow in Potential productivity is based on the site index and the
freshwater swamps, on the flood plains along the point where the mean annual increment is greatest.
Myakka River, and in the major depressions in the The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
county. Most of these forested areas have little value as indicates the major kind of soil limitation affecting use
commercial woodland, but they have very high value as and management. The letter W indicates a soil in which







50 Soil Survey















4





















Figure 9.-Wetland hardwoods in an area of Delray and Astor soils, frequently flooded.



excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, is a Ratings of equipment limitation indicate restrictions on
significant limitation, and the letter S indicates a dry, the use of forest management equipment, year-round or
sandy soil. seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope,
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability wetness, stoniness, or susceptibility of the surface layer
that damage may occur if site preparation or harvesting to compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it
activities expose the soil. The risk is slight if no becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On
particular preventive measures are needed under the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be used.
ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion-control On the steepest slopes, even tracked equipment cannot
measures are needed for particular silvicultural be operated and more sophisticated systems are
activities; and severe if special precautions are needed needed. The rating is slight if equipment use is
to control erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings restricted by soil wetness for less than 2 months and if
of moderate or severe indicate the need for construction special equipment is not needed. The rating is moderate
of higher standard roads, additional maintenance of if the soil is so steep that wheeled equipment cannot be
roads, additional care in planning harvesting and operated safely across the slopes, if soil wetness
reforestation activities, or the use of specialized restricts equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, if
equipment. stoniness restricts the use of ground-based equipment,







Sarasota County, Florida 51


or if special equipment is needed to prevent or minimize restricted root zone that holds moisture. A rating of
soil compaction. The rating is severe if the soil is so slight indicates that competition from undesirable plants
steep that tracked equipment cannot be operated safely hinders adequate natural or artificial reforestation but
across the slopes, if soil wetness restricts equipment does not necessitate intensive site preparation and
use for more than 6 months per year, if stoniness maintenance. A rating of moderate indicates that
restricts the use of ground-based equipment, or if competition from undesirable plants hinders natural or
special equipment is needed to prevent or minimize soil artificial reforestation so much that intensive site
compaction. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate the preparation and maintenance are needed. A rating of
need to choose the best suited equipment and to severe indicates that competition from undesirable
carefully plan the timing of harvesting and other plants prevents adequate natural or artificial
management activities, reforestation unless the site is intensively prepared and
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of maintained. A moderate or severe rating indicates the
death of naturally occurring or properly planted need for site preparation to ensure the development of
seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as an adequately stocked stand. Managers must plan site
influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features. preparation measures to ensure reforestation without
Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much delays.
water or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil The potential productivity of common trees on a soil
for seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer, is expressed as a site index and a productivity class.
depth and duration of the water table, rock fragments in Common trees are listed in the order of their observed
the surface layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of the general occurrence. Generally, only two or three
slope. The mortality rate generally is highest on soils species dominate.
that have a sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk is The site index is determined by taking height
slight if, after site preparation, expected mortality is less measurements and determining the age of selected
than 25 percent; moderate if expected mortality is trees within stands of a given species. This index is the
between 25 and 50 percent; and severe if expected average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a
mortality exceeds 50 percent. Ratings of moderate or specified number of years. This index applies to fully
severe indicate that it may be necessary to plant stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Site index
containerized or larger than usual nursery stock or to values given in table 4 are based on standard
make special site preparations, such as bedding, procedures and techniques (13, 20, 21).
furrowing, installing a surface drainage system, or The productivity class represents an expected volume
providing artificial shade for seedlings. Reinforcement produced by the most important trees, expressed in
planting is often needed if the risk is moderate or cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per
severe, hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by
Ratings of windthrow hazard indicate the likelihood of multiplying by 14.3. It can be converted to board feet by
trees being uprooted by the wind. A restricted rooting multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, a
depth is the main reason for windthrow. The rooting productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected
depth can be restricted by a high water table, a to produce about 114 cubic feet per acre per year at the
fragipan, or bedrock or by a combination of such factors point where the mean annual increment culminates, or
as soil wetness, texture, structure, and depth. The risk about 568 board feet per acre per year.
is slight if strong winds cause trees to break but do not Trees to plant are those that are used for
uproot them; moderate if strong winds cause an reforestation or, under suitable conditions, for natural
occasional tree to be blown over and many trees to regeneration. They are suited to the soils and can
break; and severe if moderate or strong winds produce a commercial wood crop. The desired product,
commonly blow trees over. Ratings of moderate or the topographic position (such as a low, wet area), and
severe indicate the need for care in thinning or possibly personal preference are three factors among many that
not thinning at all. Specialized equipment may be can influence the choice of trees for reforestation.
needed to avoid damage to shallow root systems in
partial cutting operations. A plan for the periodic Rangeland and Grazeable Woodland
removal of windthrown trees and the maintenance of a
road and trail system may be needed. R. Gregory Hendricks, range conservationist, Soil Conservation
.Service, helped prepare this section.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of Service, helped prepare this section.
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant Native forage can provide livestock producers an
competition is more severe on the more productive economical alternative to tame pasture forage, which
soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils having a requires a high degree of maintenance. Native forage







52 Soil Survey


grows on a variety of sites ranging from extremely condition if it produces 26 to 50 percent of the potential,
drought sandhills to marshlands. Typically, it is most and in poor condition if it produces 0 to 25 percent of
productive in areas that are considered too wet for the potential. About 90 percent of the rangeland in
other uses unless a water-control system is installed. Florida is in poor or fair condition.
Native forage can be grown on about 206,000 acres in Table 5 shows for each soil that supports rangeland
Sarasota County. About 151,000 acres is used primarily vegetation suitable for grazing the range site name and
as rangeland, and 55,000 acres is used primarily as the annual forage production in favorable, average, and
woodland (3). unfavorable years. Annual forage production refers to
Many areas in Sarasota County support ecological the amount of air-dry herbage, in pounds per acre per
plant communities that are of little value to the livestock year, that can be expected to grow on well managed
industry. These plant communities are in areas where rangeland in good or excellent condition. In a favorable
the soils are not assigned to range sites. They generally year, the amount and distribution of precipitation and
provide little forage for livestock. These plant the temperatures make growing conditions substantially
communities are South Florida Coastal Strand, which is better than average. In an unfavorable year, growing
in areas of Canaveral soils; Cypress Swamp, in areas conditions are well below average.
of Pompano soils; Mangrove Swamp, in areas of The productivity of range sites is closely related to
Kesson and Wulfert soils; and Swamp Hardwoods, in the natural drainage of the soil. The wettest soils, such
areas of Gator soils and the frequently flooded Astor, as those in freshwater and saltwater marshes, produce
Delray, Felda, Pompano, and Floridana soils. the most vegetation, and deep, drought soils on
Some soils in Sarasota County are in neither a range sandhills normally produce the least amount of annual
site nor an ecological plant community. These include forage. The potential productivity should be considered
Floridana and Gator soils that are used entirely as when the management of range sites is planned. Soils
cropland. They also include Matlacha and St. Augustine that have the highest production potential should be
soils, which are in areas that have been dredged and given the highest priority if economic considerations are
filled, important.
The major management considerations involve
Rangeland livestock grazing. The objective in range management
The dominant native forage species that grow is to control grazing so that the native plants growing on
naturally on a soil are generally the most productive a site are about the same in kind and amount as the
and the most suitable for livestock. They can be potential native composition for that site. Such
naturally maintained on the site as long as the management generally results in the optimum
environment does not change. These forage species production of vegetation, conservation of water, and
are grouped into three categories, depending on their control of erosion. The length of time that a site should
response to grazing. These categories are decreasers, be grazed and rested, the season when it should be
increases, and invaders. grazed and rested, the grazing pattern within a pasture
Decreasers are generally the most abundant and that includes more than one soil, and the palatability of
most palatable plants on a given range site in good or the dominant plants on the soil are basic considerations
excellent condition. They decrease in abundance in if rangeland is to be improved or maintained.
response to continuous heavy grazing. Increasers are Range improvement measures, such as mechanical
less palatable to livestock than decreasers. They brush control, controlled burning, and controlled
increase in abundance for a short time in response to livestock grazing, are beneficial on the rangeland in
continuous heavy grazing, but they too eventually Florida. Predicting the effects of these measures is of
decrease. Invaders are native to rangeland in small utmost importance. Proper range management results
amounts. They have very little value as forage, so they in maximum sustained forage production and
tend to become the new dominant plants as the conservation of soil and water resources. It also
decreaser and increase plants are depleted. improves the habitat for many wildlife species.
Range condition is determined by comparing the Seven range sites in Sarasota County are important
present plant community with the potential native plant to the livestock industry. The most extensive of these
community on a particular range site. The more closely are the South Florida Flatwoods and the Slough range
the existing community resembles its potential, the sites. A brief description of the seven range sites
better the range condition. The range is in excellent follows.
condition if it produces 76 to 100 percent of the South Florida Flatwoods.-This range site is on
potential native plant community, in good condition if it nearly level flatwoods. Scattered to numerous pine
produces 51 to 75 percent of the potential, in fair trees are common, and scattered saw palmetto,








Sarasota County, Florida 53


inkberry, and other woody plants grow throughout the somewhat poorly drained or poorly drained. Laurel oak,
site. The site produces an abundant quantity of live oak, water oak, cabbage palm, red maple,
grasses. Creeping bluestem is the dominant grass. The sweetgum, and cypress dominate the forest canopy.
site also produces significant amounts of indiangrass, Because of the density of the canopy, the potential for
chalky bluestem, panicum, and pineland threeawn. As forage production is low. Longleaf uniola, eastern
the site deteriorates because of uncontrolled livestock gamagrass, switchgrass, chalky bluestem, maidencane,
grazing and annual burning, the abundance of saw and blue maidencane are important forage species
palmetto and pineland threeawn increases significantly. when the site is in excellent condition. When the site is
Because of their higher palatability, bluestem, panicum, in poor or fair condition, wiregrasses, dogfennel, and
and indiangrass decrease in abundance. carpetgrass are common in the understory.
If this site is in excellent condition, the annual If the site is in excellent condition, the annual
production ranges from about 6,000 pounds of air-dry production of air-dry herbage from all sources ranges
herbage per acre in favorable years to 3,000 pounds from about 3,500 pounds per acre in favorable years to
per acre in unfavorable years. If the site is in excellent 2,000 pounds per acre in unfavorable years. The
condition, the total annual production is about 75 average annual production is 2,500 pounds per acre.
percent grasses and grasslike plants, 10 percent forbs, The total annual production is about 40 percent grasses
and 15 percent woody plants and trees. and grasslike plants, 40 percent woody plants and
Slough.-This range site is on open grassland where trees, and 20 percent forbs.
early level areas act as broad natural drainageways on Sand Pine Scrub.-This range site is on dunelike
flatwoods. The potential plant community is dominated sand ridges. It has limited potential for the production of
by blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, and native forage plants. It supports a fairly dense stand of
toothachegrass. These grasses are all readily grazed by sand pine and a dense woody understory. Livestock do
livestock. If overgrazing continues for prolonged not graze on this site if other range sites are available.
periods, carpetgrass, pineland threeawn, and sedges The principal forage plants are bluestems, indiangrass,
replace the better grasses. and panicum. Numerous legumes and forbs grow in
In areas that are in excellent condition, the annual these areas.
production of air-dry herbage from all sources ranges In areas thai are in excellent condition, the annual
from about 8,000 pounds per acre in favorable years to production of air-dry herbage from all sources ranges
about 4,000 pounds per acre in unfavorable years. If from about 3,500 pounds per acre in favorable years to
the range condition is excellent, the total annual about 1,500 pounds per acre in unfavorable years. If
production is about 85 percent grasses and grasslike the range site is in excellent condition, the total annual
plants and 15 percent forbs and the site supports a few production is about 40 percent grasses and grasslike
woody plants and trees, plants, 20 percent forbs, and 40 percent woody plants
Freshwater Marshes and Ponds.-This range site is and trees.
in areas of open grassland marshes or ponds (fig. 10). Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills.-This range site is in
It can produce significant amounts of maidencane and areas of nearly level to gently sloping, well drained to
cutgrass. The water level fluctuates throughout the excessively drained, coarse textured soils. It has a
year. Livestock grazing is naturally deferred during moderately low potential for the production of important
periods of high water. This site is a preferred grazing forage species. It can be easily recognized because it
area, but prolonged overgrazing causes deterioration of supports scattered longleaf pine and turkey oak. The
the plant community. Overgrazing results in an increase important forage species include creeping bluestem,
in the abundance of pickerelweed and in places an paintbrush bluestem, purple bluestem, and indiangrass.
increase in the abundance of sawgrass. Prolonged This site provides excellent winter shelter for cattle,
overgrazing results in an increase in the abundance of escape cover for wildlife, and important habitat for many
buttonbush, willows, and waxmyrtle. species of wildlife.
If in excellent condition, this range site can produce In areas that are in excellent condition, the annual
more than 10,000 pounds of air-dry herbage per acre in production of air-dry herbage from all sources ranges
favorable years and 5,000 pounds per acre in from about 4,000 pounds per acre in favorable years to
unfavorable years. If the site is in excellent condition, 2,000 pounds per acre in unfavorable years. The
the total annual production is about 80 percent grasses average annual production is 3,000 pounds per acre.
and grasslike plants, 15 percent forbs, and 5 percent The total annual production is about 60 percent grasses
woody plants and trees, and grasslike plants, 20 percent forbs, and 20 percent
Wetland Hardwood Hammock.-This range site is in woody plants and trees.
wooded areas where the soils are nearly level and are Cabbage Palm Flatwoods.-This range site is in







54 Soil Survey


























Figure 10.-An area of Holopaw fine sand, depressional, which is in the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. The adjacent area of
Pineda fine sand is used as improved pasture.



nearly level areas that support scattered cabbage palm Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs,
and saw palmetto. It is a preferred livestock grazing shrubs, and other plants within reach of livestock or of
area. It produces a high quantity of good-quality forage grazing or browsing wildlife. A well managed wooded
plants if it is in excellent condition. Creeping bluestem, area can produce enough understory vegetation to
chalky bluestem, South Florida bluestem, and several support optimum numbers of livestock, wildlife, or both.
desirable panicum species are the dominant forage Forage production varies, depending on the kind of
grasses. Pineland threeawn and saw palmetto increase grazeable woodland; the amount of shade provided by
in abundance as the site deteriorates, the canopy; the accumulation of fallen needles; the
If the range is in excellent condition, the annual influence of the time and intensity of grazing on the
production of air-dry herbage from all sources ranges grass species; the number, size, and spacing of tree
from about 9,000 pounds per acre in favorable years to plantings; and the method of site preparation.
about 4,500 pounds per acre in unfavorable years. The
total annual production is about 70 percent grasses and Recreation
grasslike plants, 15 percent forbs, and 15 percent
woody plants and trees. In table 6, the soils in the county are rated according
Gr e W d to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
Grazeable woodland has an understory of native features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory is an surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
integral part of the forest plant community. The native Not considered in the ratings, but important in
plants can be grazed without significantly impairing the evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
other forest values. Grazing is compatible with timber the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
management if it is controlled or managed in such a quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
manner that both the timber and the forage resources impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
are maintained or enhanced. The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent







Sarasota County, Florida 55


and the ability of the soil to support vegetation also are Wildlife Habitat
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning prepare this section.
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height, Sarasota County has extensive areas of good wildlife
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is habitat, even though much of the highly desirable
essential. habitat in the coastal areas has been developed. The
In table 6, the degree of soil limitation is expressed beaches, mangroves, and hardwood harpmock areas
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil are still under heavy pressure for development.
properties are generally favorable and that limitations, if The primary game species are bobwhite quail and
any, are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means white-tailed deer (fig. 11). Some opportunities for
that limitations can be overcome or alleviated by hunting also are provided by wild turkey, squirrels, feral
planning, design, or special maintenance. Severe hogs, snipe, and waterfowl. The chief species of
means that soil properties are unfavorable and that waterfowl are Florida duck in inland areas and teal,
limitations can be offset only by soil reclamation, special gadwall, pintail, ringneck, and scaup in the coastal
design, intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a areas. Nongame species include raccoon, opossum,
combination of these measures. skunk, armadillo, bobcat, gray fox, otter, owls,
The information in table 6 can be supplemented by songbirds, wading birds, shore birds, woodpeckers,
other information in this survey, for example, reptiles, and amphibians. Numerous fish species
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 9 provide excellent opportunities for fishing in the brackish
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and and saltwater areas. Largemouth bass and various
for local roads and streets in table 8. sunfish are the primary species caught in areas of
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping freshwater.
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing Most of the inland areas are used as large cattle
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary ranches, but some are used for vegetable crops. These
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to areas, especially those used as native range, provide
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best wildlife habitat, but the habitat could be improved by
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to modification of poor grazing and burning practices.
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs A number of endangered or threatened species
rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when inhabit the county, including the seldom-seen red-
dry. cockaded woodpecker and sandhill crane and more
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most common species, such as alligator and pelican. A
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking complete list of such species and detailed information
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, regarding their range and habitat can be obtained from
are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to flooding the local office of the Soil Conservation Service.
during the period of use. Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry. If distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat
grading is needed, the depth of the soil over bedrock or can be created or improved by planting appropriate
a hardpan should be considered. vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding by promoting the natural establishment of desirable
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best plants.
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty In table 7, the soils in the county are rated according
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than to their potential for providing habitat for various kinds
once a year during the period of use. of wildlife. This information can be used in planning
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and other
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
to prolonged flooding during the period of use. The the intensity of management needed for each element
suitability of the soil for tees or greens is not considered of the habitat.
in rating the soils. The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or







56 Soil Survey





























Figure 11.-An area of EauGallie, Myakka, and Pineda fine sands that provides habitat for white-tailed deer. The EauGallle and Myakka soils
are in the pastured area in the foreground, and the Pineda soil is in the background.



very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, moisture also are considerations. Examples of grain
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair and seed crops are corn, wheat, oats, millet, and grain
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be sorghum.
established, improved, or maintained in most places. Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
Moderately intensive management is required for and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
limitations are severe for the designated element or of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood
maintained in most places, but management is difficult hazard, and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates also are considerations. Examples of grasses and
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are legumes are bahiagrass, cowpeas, clover, and
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be sesbania.
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
impractical or impossible. established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the properties and features that affect the growth of these
following paragraphs. plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops moisture also are considerations. Examples of wild
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod, Florida








Sarasota County, Florida 57


beggarweed, partridge pea, and switchgrass. Engineering
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. This section provides information for planning land
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of uses related to urban development and to water
hardwoods and shrubs are depth of the root zone, the management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
these plants are oak, wild grape, sweetgum, cabbage given in the following tables: Building site development,
palm, hawthorn, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
blueberry. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are management. The ratings are based on observed
suitable for planting on soils rated good are wild plum, performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
firethorn, and waxmyrtle. test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil Information in this section is intended for land use
properties and features that affect the growth of planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of e in.gati
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness. For example, estimates and other data generally apply
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
ae e a ae e e ad only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
ea. Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
Wetland plants are annual and perennial, wild may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites. soil.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil The information is not site specific and does not
properties and features affecting wetland plants are eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity, for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
and slope. Examples of wetland plants are smartweed, design and construction of engineering works.
wild millet, pickerelweed, saltgrass, cordgrass, rushes, State and county ordinances and regulations that
sedges, reeds, and maidencane. restrict certain land uses or impose specific design
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less criteria were not considered in preparing the information
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are in this section. These ordinances and regulations must
created by dams, levees, or other water-control be considered in planning, in site selection, and in
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow design.
water areas are the depth to bedrock, wetness, slope, Soil properties, site features, and observed
and permeability. Examples of shallow water areas are performance were considered in determining the ratings
marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds. in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
in the following paragraphs. liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland, bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 or 6 feet of the
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand fraction,
areas include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field and the kinds of adsorbed cations. Estimates were
sparrow, cottontail, red fox, armadillo, and sandhill made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-
crane. swell potential, available water capacity, and other
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses.
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and This information can be used to evaluate the
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild and recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
turkey, thrushes, woodpeckers, owls, squirrels, gray fox, construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
raccoon, deer, and bobcat. roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
attracted to such areas are ducks, herons, shore birds, detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
mink, beaver, egrets, and alligators, locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,








58 Soil Survey

ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water and fills of more than 5 or 6 feet are not considered.
conservation; and predict performance of proposed Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
small structures and pavements by comparing the and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.
performance of existing similar structures on the same They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base
or similar soils. of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material; and a
The information in the tables, along with the soil flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
this survey, can be used to make additional properties, site features, and observed performance of
interpretations. the soils. Depth to bedrock, a high water table, flooding,
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a and slope affect the ease of excavating and grading.
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the Soil strength (as inferred from the engineering
Glossary. classification of the soil), shrink-swell potential, and
depth to a high water table affect the traffic-supporting
Building Site Development capacity.
Table 8 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established
without basements, small commercial buildings, local and maintained. The ratings are based on soil
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The properties, site features, and observed performance of
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and the soils. Soil reaction, a high water table, depth to
site features are generally favorable for the indicated bedrock, the available water capacity in the upper 40
use and limitations, if any, are minor and easily inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope,
are moderately favorable for the indicated use and and the amount of sand, clay, or organic matter in the
special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to surface layer affect trafficability after vegetation is
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil established.
properties or site features are unfavorable for the use
and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires Sanitary Facilities
special design, extra maintenance, or alteration. Table 9 shows the degree and the kind of soil
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves, sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The are considered slight if soil properties and site features
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and are generally favorable for the indicated use and
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging, limitations, if any, are minor and easily overcome;
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to moderate if soil properties or site features are
bedrock, soil texture, and slope. The time of the year moderately favorable for the indicated use and special
that excavations can be made is affected by the depth planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
to a seasonal high water table and the susceptibility of overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if one
the soil to flooding. The resistance of the excavation or more soil properties or site features are unfavorable
walls or banks to sloughing or caving is affected by soil for the use and overcoming the unfavorable properties
texture and depth to the water table. requires special design, extra maintenance, or
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are alteration.
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed Table 9 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are that soil properties and site features are favorable for
made for small commercial buildings without the use and that good performance and low
basements, for dwellings with basements, and for maintenance can be expected; fair indicates that soil
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on properties and site features are moderately favorable
soil properties, site features, and observed performance for the use and one or more soil properties or site
of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrink-swell features make the soil less desirable than the soils
potential, and organic layers can cause the movement rated good; and poor indicates that one or more soil
of footings. A high water table, depth to bedrock, slope, properties or site features are unfavorable for the use
and flooding affect the ease of excavation and and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires
construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts special design, extra maintenance, or alteration.







Sarasota County, Florida


Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil layer of soil from a source away from the site.
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground-
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
features, and observed performance of the soils. needs to be considered.
Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock, and The ratings in table 9 are based on soil properties,
flooding affect absorption of the effluent. Bedrock site features, and observed performance of the soils.
interferes with installation. Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption depth to the water table, slope, and flooding affect both
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent, types of landfill. Texture, highly organic layers, soil
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect reaction, and content of salts affect trench type landfills.
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly Unless otherwise stated, the ratings apply only to that
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less part of the soil within a depth of about 6 feet. For
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if deeper trenches, a limitation rated slight or moderate
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the may not be valid. Onsite investigation is needed.
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
beneath the absorption field to filter the effluent to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
effectively. Many local and state ordinances require that landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
this material be of a certain thickness. to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly during wet and dry periods. Loamy soils that are free of
level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of excess gravel are the best cover for a landfill. Clayey
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold soils are sticky or cloddy and are difficult to spread;
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly sandy soils are subject to soil blowing.
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is After soil material has been removed, the soil
required to minimize seepage and contamination of material remaining in the borrow area must be thick
ground water. enough over bedrock or the water table to permit
Table 9 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
excavated to provide material for the embankments, and the best potential for plants. Material from the
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final
and observed performance of the soils. Considered in cover.
the ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table,
depth to bedrock, flooding, and the content of organic Construction Materials
matter. Table 10 gives information about the soils as a
Excessive seepage resulting from rapid permeability source of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils
in the soil or a water table that is high enough to raise are rated good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and
the level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to topsoil. They are rated as a probable or improbable
function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is source of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on
excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high soil properties and site features that affect the removal
content of organic matter is detrimental to proper of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic compaction, minor processing, and other standard
activity. Slope and bedrock can cause construction construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
problems. evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of and used in road embankments in another place. In this
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the exacting in design than higher embankments.
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil







60 Soil Survey


layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading, inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow
their profile. The table showing engineering index area.
properties provides detailed information about each soil Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
layer. This information can help determine the suitability properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
considered in the ratings. texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
The ratings are based on soil properties, site of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
features, and observed performance of the soils. The rock fragments, and bedrock.
thickness of suitable material is a major consideration. Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a
The ease of excavation is affected by a high water table depth of at least 40 inches. They have little or no gravel
and slope. How well the soil performs in place after it and have slopes of less than 8 percent. They are low in
has been compacted and drained is determined by its content of soluble salts, are naturally fertile or respond
strength (as inferred from the engineering classification well to fertilizer, and are not so wet that excavation is
of the soil) and shrink-swell potential. difficult.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20
material and a low shrink-swell potential. Depth to the to 40 inches of suitable material, or soils that have an
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more appreciable amount of gravel or soluble salts. The soils
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a are not so wet that excavation is difficult.
plasticity index of less than 10. They have a moderate Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
shrink-swell potential. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large
feet. Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more amount of gravel or soluble salts, have slopes of more
than 10 or a high shrink-swell potential. They are wet, than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
and the depth to the water table is less than 1 foot. near the surface.
These soils may have layers of suitable material, but The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
the material is less than 3 feet thick. for topsoil because of its organic matter content.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand retention of moisture and releases a variety of plant
and gravel are used in many kinds of construction, nutrients as it decomposes.
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 10,
only the probability of finding material in suitable Water Management
quantity is evaluated. The suitability of the material for Table 11 gives information on the soil properties and
specific purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that site features that affect water management. The degree
affect excavation of the material, and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as excavated ponds. The limitations are considered slight if
indicated by the engineering classification of the soil), soil properties and site features are generally favorable
the thickness of suitable material, and the content of for the indicated use and limitations, if any, are minor
rock fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification and are easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or
are given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of site features are moderately favorable for the indicated
grain sizes is given in the table on engineering index use and special planning, design, or maintenance is
properties. needed to overcome or minimize the limitations; and
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of severe if soil properties or site features are unfavorable
clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is for the use. Special design, possibly increased
as much as 12 percent silty fines. This material must be maintenance, or alteration are required.
at least 3 feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, This table also gives the restrictive features that
large stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable affect each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as diversions, and grassed waterways.
shale and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
gravel, embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 potential is determined by the permeability in the soil







Sarasota County, Florida
61

and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable to a high water table or depth of standing water if the
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage soil is subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to
capacity of the reservoir area. flooding; and subsidence of organic layers. Excavating
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures and grading and the stability of ditchbanks are affected
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, by depth to bedrock, large stones, slope, and the
constructed to impound water or to protect land against hazard of cutbanks caving. The productivity of the soil
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of after drainage is adversely affected by extreme acidity
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the or by toxic substances in the root zone, such as salts,
soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is not
5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly considered in the ratings.
mixed and compacted during construction. Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a design and management of an irrigation system are
depth greater than the height of the embankment can affected by depth to the water table, the need for
affect performance and safety of the embankment. drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The
determine these properties. construction of a system is affected by depth to
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to bedrock. The performance of a system is affected by
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable the'depth of the root zone, the amount of salts, and soil
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features reaction.
include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
content of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts. combination of channels and ridges constructed across
A high water table affects the amount of usable a slope to control erosion and conserve moisture by
material. It also affects trafficability. intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, and depth to
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the construction of
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a terraces and diversions. A restricted rooting depth, a
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed severe hazard of soil blowing or water erosion, an
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that excessively coarse texture, and restricted permeability
impound water 3 feet or more above the original adversely affect maintenance.
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
the salinity of the soil. Depth to bedrock affects the surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity.
ease of excavation. Wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock affect the
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and construction of grassed waterways. A hazard of soil
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and blowing, low available water capacity, restricted rooting
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to depth, toxic substances such as salts or sodium, and
bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that restricted permeability adversely affect the growth and
affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth maintenance of the grass after construction.











63








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
the course of the soil survey. The data and the defined in the Glossary.
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are Classification of the soils is determined according to
explained on the following pages. the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
Soil properties are determined by field examination of adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some and Transportation Officials (1).
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are The Unified system classifies soils according to
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are properties that affect their use as construction material.
made and examined to identify and classify the soils Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
and to delineate them on the soil maps. of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
Estimates of soil properties are based on field according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
accurately by field observation, and help characterize properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
key soils. for example, SP-SM.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg those properties that affect roadway construction and
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Engineering Index Properties Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
Table 12 gives estimates of the engineering soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
classification and of the range of index properties for are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most inspection.
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
upper 5 or 6 feet. indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each weight basis. The percentages are estimates
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information determined mainly by converting volume percentage in
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil the field to weight percentage.
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)








63








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
the course of the soil survey. The data and the defined in the Glossary.
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are Classification of the soils is determined according to
explained on the following pages. the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
Soil properties are determined by field examination of adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some and Transportation Officials (1).
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are The Unified system classifies soils according to
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are properties that affect their use as construction material.
made and examined to identify and classify the soils Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
and to delineate them on the soil maps. of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
Estimates of soil properties are based on field according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
accurately by field observation, and help characterize properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
key soils. for example, SP-SM.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg those properties that affect roadway construction and
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Engineering Index Properties Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
Table 12 gives estimates of the engineering soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
classification and of the range of index properties for are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most inspection.
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
upper 5 or 6 feet. indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each weight basis. The percentages are estimates
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information determined mainly by converting volume percentage in
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil the field to weight percentage.
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)








64 Soil Survey


indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
estimates are based on test data from the survey area The most important properties are the content of
or from nearby areas and on field examination, organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
Physical and Chemical Properties in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
design and management of irrigation systems. Available
Table 13 shows estimates of some characteristics water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates water actually available to plants at any given time.
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
area. The estimates are based on field observations is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
and on test data for these and similar soils. of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
in diameter. In this table, the estimated content of clay and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
in each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters corrosion.
in diameter. Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink- 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil laboratory measurements at representative sites of
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
operations. frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
/3 bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after construction material, and the potential of the soil to
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the corrode metal and concrete.
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, minerals with water and varies with the amount and
available water capacity, total pore space, and other type of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on
soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the soil and the magnitude of the change in soil
the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk moisture content influence the amount of swelling of
density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and soils in place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For
texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil others, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind
structure. and amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit measurements of similar soils.
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
movement of water through the soil when the soil is high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and often needed.
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
construction where the rate of water movement under content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The

Available water capacity refers to the quantity of change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change
water that the soil is capable of storing for use by of less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and
plants. The capacity for water storage in each major soil high, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9
layer is stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The percent, is sometimes used.
capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil








Sarasota County, Florida
65

to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six 8. Soils that are not subject to soil blowing because
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) of coarse fragments on the surface or because of
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet surface wetness.
and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
per year. These estimates are based primarily on soil at various stages of decomposition. In table 13, the
percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4 estimated content of organic matter is expressed as a
percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less
of K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the than 2 millimeters in diameter.
more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by The content of organic matter in a soil can be
water. maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
Erosion factor Tis an estimate of the maximum soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
that can occur over a sustained period without affecting other nutrients for crops.
crop productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre
per year. Soil and Water Features
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to soil Table 14 gives estimates of various soil and water
blowing in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the features. The estimates are used in land use planning
susceptibility to soil blowing. Soils are grouped that involves engineering considerations.
according to the following distinctions: Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
1. Coarse sands, sands, fine sands, and very fine from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
sands. These soils are extremely erodible, and groups. They are grouped according to the infiltration of
vegetation is difficult to reestablish after cultivation, water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
2. Loamy coarse sands, loamy sands, loamy fine precipitation from long-duration storms.
sands, loamy very fine sands, and sapric soil material. The four hydrologic soil groups are:
These soils are very highly erodible. Crops can be Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
used. mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained
3. Coarse sandy loams, sandy loams, fine sandy sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are water transmission.
highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate
measures to control soil blowing are used. when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
4L. Calcareous loams, silt loams, clay loams, and moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or
silty clay loams. These soils are erodible. Crops can be well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are moderately coarse texture. These soils have a
used. moderate rate of water transmission.
4. Clays, silty clays, noncalcareous clay loams, and Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
silty clay loams that are more than 35 percent clay. thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
These soils are moderately erodible. Crops can be layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
grown if measures to control soil blowing are used. soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
5. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are less soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
than 20 percent clay and sandy clay loams, sandy Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate
clays, and hemic soil material. These soils are slightly (high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These
erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to control soil consist chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell
blowing are used. potential, soils that have a permanent high water table,
6. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the
more than 20 percent clay and noncalcareous clay surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly
loams that are less than 35 percent clay. These soils impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate
are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if of water transmission.
ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used. If a soil is assigned to two hydrologic groups in table
7. Silts, noncalcareous silty clay loams that are less 14, the first letter is for drained areas and the second is
than 35 percent clay, and fibric soil material. These for undrained areas. Onsite investigation is needed to
soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if determine the hydrologic group of the soil in a particular
ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used. area.







66 Soil Survey


Flooding, the temporary covering of the surface by stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. An
runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high artesian water table is under hydrostatic head, generally
tides. Shallow water standing or flowing for short below an impermeable layer. When this layer is
periods after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered penetrated, the water level rises in an uncased
flooding. Standing water in swamps and marshes or in borehole. A perched water table is water standing
a closed depression is considered ponding. above an unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or
Table 14 gives the frequency and duration of flooding perched, water table is separated from a lower one by a
and the time of year when flooding is most likely to dry zone.
occur. Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
occurrence are estimated. Frequency generally is indicates that the water table is above the surface of
expressed as none, rare, occasional, or frequent. None the soil. The first numeral in the range indicates how
means that flooding is not probable. Rare means that high the water table rises above the surface. The
flooding is unlikely but possible under unusual weather second numeral indicates the depth below the surface.
conditions (the chance of flooding is near 0 to 5 percent Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth
in any year). Occasional means that flooding occurs of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and
infrequently under normal weather conditions (the on observations during soil mapping. The rock is
chance of flooding is 5 to 50 percent in any year). specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or
Frequent means that flooding occurs often under normal fractured, excavations can be made with trenching
weather conditions (the chance of flooding is more than machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard
50 percent in any year). Duration is expressed as very or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is
brief (less than 2 days), brief (2 to 7 days), long (7 days needed for excavation.
to 1 month), and very long (more than 1 month). The Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
time of year that floods are most likely to occur is saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
expressed in months. About two-thirds to three-fourths results from either desiccation and shrinkage or
of all flooding occurs during the stated period, oxidation of organic material, or both, following
The information on flooding is based on evidence in drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually
the soil profile, namely, thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, over a period of several years. Table 14 shows the
or clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of
organic matter content with increasing depth; and drainage, and total subsidence, which results from a
absence of distinctive horizons that are characteristic of combination of factors.
soils that are not subject to flooding. Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
Also considered is local information about the extent imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on water throughout an extensive area as a result of
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the lowering the water table.
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
levels, corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils, of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
The estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the soil. Special site examination and design may be
soil. Indicated in table 14 are the depth to the seasonal needed if the combination of factors creates a severely
high water table; the kind of water table, that is, corrosive environment. The steel in installations that
perched, artesian, or apparent; and the months of the intersect soil boundaries or soil layers is more
year that the water table commonly is highest. A water susceptible to corrosion than steel in installations that
table that is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not are entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil
indicated in table 14. layer.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage







Sarasota County, Florida 67


class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation
extract. extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion also is expressed









69








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (19). other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and where there is much biological activity. Among the
series. Classification is based on soil properties properties and characteristics considered are particle-
observed in the field or inferred from those observations size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
or on laboratory measurements. Table 15 shows the of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
classification of the soils in the survey area. The slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The soil properties. An example is sandy, siliceous,
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- hyperthermic Typic Haplaquods.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
example is Spodosol. in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties of the surface layer or of the substratum within a series.
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, Soil Series and Their Morphology
meaning water, plus od, from Spodosol). In this section, each soil series recognized in the
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, in alphabetic order.
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and formed are identified for each series. The soil is
base status. Each great group is identified by the name compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hapl, meaning ,
of the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hap!, meaning of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
minimal horizonation, plus aquod, the suborder of the described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
Spodosols that has an aquic moisture regime)* follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (17). Many
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The defined in Soil Taxonomy (19). Unless otherwise stated,
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are the pedon description is the range of important
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. characteristics of the soils in the series.
Extragrades have some properties that are not The map units of each soil series are described in
representative of the great group but do not indicate the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives Astor Series
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great The soils of the Astor series are sandy, siliceous,
group. An example is Typic Haplaquods. hyperthermic Cumulic Haplaquolls. They are very poorly
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine






69








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (19). other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and where there is much biological activity. Among the
series. Classification is based on soil properties properties and characteristics considered are particle-
observed in the field or inferred from those observations size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
or on laboratory measurements. Table 15 shows the of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
classification of the soils in the survey area. The slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The soil properties. An example is sandy, siliceous,
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- hyperthermic Typic Haplaquods.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
example is Spodosol. in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties of the surface layer or of the substratum within a series.
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, Soil Series and Their Morphology
meaning water, plus od, from Spodosol). In this section, each soil series recognized in the
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, in alphabetic order.
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and formed are identified for each series. The soil is
base status. Each great group is identified by the name compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hapl, meaning ,
of the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hap!, meaning of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
minimal horizonation, plus aquod, the suborder of the described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
Spodosols that has an aquic moisture regime)* follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (17). Many
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The defined in Soil Taxonomy (19). Unless otherwise stated,
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are the pedon description is the range of important
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. characteristics of the soils in the series.
Extragrades have some properties that are not The map units of each soil series are described in
representative of the great group but do not indicate the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives Astor Series
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great The soils of the Astor series are sandy, siliceous,
group. An example is Typic Haplaquods. hyperthermic Cumulic Haplaquolls. They are very poorly
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine






69








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (19). other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and where there is much biological activity. Among the
series. Classification is based on soil properties properties and characteristics considered are particle-
observed in the field or inferred from those observations size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
or on laboratory measurements. Table 15 shows the of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
classification of the soils in the survey area. The slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The soil properties. An example is sandy, siliceous,
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- hyperthermic Typic Haplaquods.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
example is Spodosol. in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties of the surface layer or of the substratum within a series.
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, Soil Series and Their Morphology
meaning water, plus od, from Spodosol). In this section, each soil series recognized in the
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, in alphabetic order.
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and formed are identified for each series. The soil is
base status. Each great group is identified by the name compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hapl, meaning ,
of the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hap!, meaning of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
minimal horizonation, plus aquod, the suborder of the described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
Spodosols that has an aquic moisture regime)* follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (17). Many
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The defined in Soil Taxonomy (19). Unless otherwise stated,
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are the pedon description is the range of important
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. characteristics of the soils in the series.
Extragrades have some properties that are not The map units of each soil series are described in
representative of the great group but do not indicate the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives Astor Series
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great The soils of the Astor series are sandy, siliceous,
group. An example is Typic Haplaquods. hyperthermic Cumulic Haplaquolls. They are very poorly
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy marine







70 Soil Survey


sediments. These nearly level soils are on flood plains, fragments of sand size are in the lower part of the C
The slope is dominantly less than 1 percent but in some horizon in some pedons.
areas is 2 percent.
Astor soils are associated with Bradenton, Delray, Boca Series
Felda, Floridana, Gator, Holopaw, and Pompano soils.
Felda, Holopaw, and Pompano soils are in landscape The soils of the Boca series are loamy, siliceous,
positions similar to those of the Astor soils. They do not hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. They are poorly
have a mollic epipedon. Bradenton soils are on slightly drained soils that formed in moderately thick beds of
elevated ridges or hammocks adjacent to flood plains sandy and loamy marine sediments. They are underlain
and depressions. They do not have a mollic epipedon. by a hard, limestone ledge that has numerous fractures
Gator soils are organic in the upper part. Delray and and solution holes. These nearly level soils are mostly
Floridana soils are in landscape positions similar to on flatwoods. The slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
those of the Astor soils. They have a mollic epipedon Boca soils are associated with Felda, Hallandale,
that is less than 20 inches thick. Myakka, Pineda, Pompano, and Wabasso soils. Of
Typical pedon of Astor mucky fine sand, in an area of these associated soils, only the Hallandale soils are
Delray and Astor soils, frequently flooded; on the flood underlain by limestone bedrock. They have limestone
plain along the Myakka River, about 2.2 miles north of bedrock within a depth of 20 inches and do not have an
the entrance to Myakka River State Park, along the argillic horizon.
entrance road, and 200 feet north of the road, Typical pedon of Boca fine sand, in an area of Boca
NW1/4NW/4NE1/4 sec. 22, T. 37 S., R. 20 E. and Hallandale soils; about 2,500 feet west of River
Road and 400 feet south of U.S. Highway 41,
A1-0 to 2 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand; NW/4NE1SE1/ sec. 33, T. 39 S., R. 20 E.
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary. Ap-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; single
A2-2 to 22 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) mucky grained; loose; common fine roots; strongly acid;
fine sand; weak medium subangular blocky clear smooth boundary.
structure; very friable; many fine roots; neutral; clear E-4 to 18 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
smooth boundary. single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear smooth
A3-22 to 32 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine boundary.
sand; single grained; loose; many fine roots; EB-18 to 22 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/3)
neutral; clear smooth boundary. fine sand; single grained; loose; medium acid;
Cgl-32 to 47 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy abrupt smooth boundary.
sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very Bt-22 to 25 inches; mottled light gray (10YR 6/1) and
friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; few fine roots; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6, 5/4) fine sandy loam;
neutral; clear smooth boundary. weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable,
Cg2-47 to 54 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) slightly sticky and nonplastic; moderately alkaline;
loamy sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; abrupt irregular boundary.
very friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; few fine Ck-25 to 32 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) loamy
roots; mildly alkaline; clear smooth boundary. fine sand; massive; friable, nonsticky and
Cg3-54 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) nonplastic; common fine distinct brownish yellow
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine faint (10YR 6/8) mottles; about 10 percent sand-sized
brownish yellow mottles; mildly alkaline, white shell fragments; moderately alkaline; abrupt
smooth boundary.
Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately R-32 inches; fractured, hard limestone bedrock.
alkaline throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and The thickness of the solum and the depth to
chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand, fine sand, or mucky fine limestone generally range from 22 to 40 inches. In
sand. It is 24 to 50 inches thick. solution holes and fractures, however, the depth to
The C horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 3 to limestone ranges from 22 to more than 50 inches.
6, and chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons it has mottles Depth to the argillic horizon ranges from 20 to 36
in shades of gray or yellow. It is dominantly sand, fine inches in more than half of the pedons.
sand, or loamy sand. In some pedons, however, it has Reaction ranges from strongly acid to moderately
thin, discontinuous strata of loamy fine sand. Shell alkaline in the A, E, and EB horizons and from slightly
acid to moderately alkaline in the Bt horizon.







Sarasota County, Florida 71


The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or Btg2-34 to 62 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy loam;
4, and chroma of 1. It is 6 to 9 inches thick. The E common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma 5/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
of 2 or 3. It is 7 to 15 inches thick. The EB horizon has structure; slightly sticky; sand grains coated and
hue of 10YR, value of 4, and chroma of 3. It is 0 to 15 bridged with clay; moderately alkaline; clear smooth
inches thick. The A, Ap, E, and EB horizons are sand or boundary.
fine sand. Cg-62 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) loamy sand; few
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and medium pockets of light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
chroma of 1 to 3 or has hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and fine sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
chroma of 2. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or very friable, slightly sticky; moderately alkaline.
sandy clay loam. It is 3 to 12 inches thick.
The Ck horizon, if it occurs, has colors and textures The thickness of the solum ranges from 40 to 80
similar to those of the E horizon. It has more than 10 inches. The combined thickness of the A and E
percent calcium carbonate and as much as 10 percent, horizons is less than 20 inches. Reaction is slightly acid
by volume, shell fragments 2 to 20 millimeters in size. or neutral in the A horizon and ranges from slightly acid
The layer of hard limestone has many fractures and to moderately alkaline in all of the other horizons.
solution holes. The bedrock is 6 to 18 inches thick. The The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
upper surface of the bedrock is smooth, and the lower 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 3 to 9 inches thick. It is
surface is quite irregular. Layers of sand to sandy loam sand or fine sand. The E horizon also is sand or fine
are below the bedrock. Some of these layers have a sand. It has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma
varying amount of shell fragments. of 1 or 2.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 7,
Bradenton Series and chroma of 1 or 2 or has hue of 5Y, value of 5, and
chroma of 1. In some pedons it has yellowish brown,
The soils of the Bradenton series are coarse-loamy, light olive brown, or dark grayish brown mottles. It is
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Ochraqualfs. They are sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. In
poorly drained soils that formed in beds of sandy and some pedons it has small fragments or nodules of iron-
loamy marine sediments. These nearly level soils are cemented sandstone or calcareous material. It is 4 to
on low hammocks; in poorly defined drainageways; on 12 inches thick.
broad, low flats; and on flood plains. The slope ranges Some pedons have a BCg horizon. This horizon has
from 0 to 2 percent, hue of 5GY, value of 5, and chroma of 1. It is loamy
Bradenton soils are associated with Delray, sand or sandy loam. It is 0 to 9 inches thick.
EauGallie, Manatee, Pineda, and Wabasso soils. The Cg horizon has hue of 5Y or 5GY, value of 5 or
EauGallie and Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon. 6, and chroma of 1 or has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,
Pineda soils have a Bw horizon. Delray and Manatee and chroma of 1. It ranges from loamy fine sand to a
soils have a mollic epipedon. They are very poorly mixture of sand and shell fragments or a mixture of
drained. loamy sand, shell fragments, and calcium carbonate
Typical pedon of Bradenton fine sand, frequently nodules.
flooded; on a flood plain about 100 feet south of
Myakka State Park Road and about 800 feet east of Canaveral Series
Myakka River bridge, NW/4NE1/SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 37 S.,
R. 20 E. The soils of the Canaveral series are hyperthermic,
uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments. They are somewhat
A-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; poorly drained or moderately well drained soils that
single grained; loose; few medium and many fine formed in thick deposits of sand and fine shell
roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. fragments. These nearly level to gently sloping soils are
E-5 to 18 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; on low, dunelike ridges and on side slopes bordering
single grained; loose; few medium and fine roots; sloughs and mangrove swamps. The slope ranges from
slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary. 0 to 5 percent.
Btg1-18 to 34 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; Canaveral soils are associated with Kesson, Orsino,
few coarse prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) Pompano, St. Augustine, and Wulfert soils. Kesson and
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; Wulfert soils are very poorly drained and are in tidal
friable, slightly sticky; sand grains coated and areas. Pompano soils are poorly drained and are in
bridged with clay; neutral; clear wavy boundary, sloughs. Orsino soils are moderately well drained. They







Sarasota County, Florida 71


The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or Btg2-34 to 62 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy loam;
4, and chroma of 1. It is 6 to 9 inches thick. The E common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma 5/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
of 2 or 3. It is 7 to 15 inches thick. The EB horizon has structure; slightly sticky; sand grains coated and
hue of 10YR, value of 4, and chroma of 3. It is 0 to 15 bridged with clay; moderately alkaline; clear smooth
inches thick. The A, Ap, E, and EB horizons are sand or boundary.
fine sand. Cg-62 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) loamy sand; few
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and medium pockets of light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
chroma of 1 to 3 or has hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and fine sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
chroma of 2. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or very friable, slightly sticky; moderately alkaline.
sandy clay loam. It is 3 to 12 inches thick.
The Ck horizon, if it occurs, has colors and textures The thickness of the solum ranges from 40 to 80
similar to those of the E horizon. It has more than 10 inches. The combined thickness of the A and E
percent calcium carbonate and as much as 10 percent, horizons is less than 20 inches. Reaction is slightly acid
by volume, shell fragments 2 to 20 millimeters in size. or neutral in the A horizon and ranges from slightly acid
The layer of hard limestone has many fractures and to moderately alkaline in all of the other horizons.
solution holes. The bedrock is 6 to 18 inches thick. The The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
upper surface of the bedrock is smooth, and the lower 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 3 to 9 inches thick. It is
surface is quite irregular. Layers of sand to sandy loam sand or fine sand. The E horizon also is sand or fine
are below the bedrock. Some of these layers have a sand. It has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma
varying amount of shell fragments. of 1 or 2.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 7,
Bradenton Series and chroma of 1 or 2 or has hue of 5Y, value of 5, and
chroma of 1. In some pedons it has yellowish brown,
The soils of the Bradenton series are coarse-loamy, light olive brown, or dark grayish brown mottles. It is
siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Ochraqualfs. They are sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. In
poorly drained soils that formed in beds of sandy and some pedons it has small fragments or nodules of iron-
loamy marine sediments. These nearly level soils are cemented sandstone or calcareous material. It is 4 to
on low hammocks; in poorly defined drainageways; on 12 inches thick.
broad, low flats; and on flood plains. The slope ranges Some pedons have a BCg horizon. This horizon has
from 0 to 2 percent, hue of 5GY, value of 5, and chroma of 1. It is loamy
Bradenton soils are associated with Delray, sand or sandy loam. It is 0 to 9 inches thick.
EauGallie, Manatee, Pineda, and Wabasso soils. The Cg horizon has hue of 5Y or 5GY, value of 5 or
EauGallie and Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon. 6, and chroma of 1 or has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7,
Pineda soils have a Bw horizon. Delray and Manatee and chroma of 1. It ranges from loamy fine sand to a
soils have a mollic epipedon. They are very poorly mixture of sand and shell fragments or a mixture of
drained. loamy sand, shell fragments, and calcium carbonate
Typical pedon of Bradenton fine sand, frequently nodules.
flooded; on a flood plain about 100 feet south of
Myakka State Park Road and about 800 feet east of Canaveral Series
Myakka River bridge, NW/4NE1/SE1/4 sec. 21, T. 37 S.,
R. 20 E. The soils of the Canaveral series are hyperthermic,
uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments. They are somewhat
A-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; poorly drained or moderately well drained soils that
single grained; loose; few medium and many fine formed in thick deposits of sand and fine shell
roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. fragments. These nearly level to gently sloping soils are
E-5 to 18 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; on low, dunelike ridges and on side slopes bordering
single grained; loose; few medium and fine roots; sloughs and mangrove swamps. The slope ranges from
slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary. 0 to 5 percent.
Btg1-18 to 34 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam; Canaveral soils are associated with Kesson, Orsino,
few coarse prominent yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) Pompano, St. Augustine, and Wulfert soils. Kesson and
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; Wulfert soils are very poorly drained and are in tidal
friable, slightly sticky; sand grains coated and areas. Pompano soils are poorly drained and are in
bridged with clay; neutral; clear wavy boundary, sloughs. Orsino soils are moderately well drained. They







72 Soil Survey


have Bw and Bh horizons. St. Augustine soils formed in stratified sand and shell fragments. The content of shell
mixed sandy, loamy, and silty material in areas that fragments ranges from 5 to 60 percent.
have been dredged and filled.
Typical pedon of Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent Cassia Series
slopes; on Casey Key, about 1,700 feet north of the
intersection of Casey Key Road and State Road 789, The soils of the Cassia series are sandy, siliceous,
SE/4SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 9, T. 38 S., R. 18 E. hyperthermic Typic Haplohumods. They are somewhat
poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy
A-0 to 7 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand, marine sediments. These nearly level soils are on
grading to gray (10YR 5/1) in the lower part; single coastal ridges and on slightly elevated knolls on
grained; loose; common fine to coarse roots; about flatwoods. The slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
10 percent sand-sized shell fragments; mildly Cassia soils are associated with EauGallie, Myakka,
alkaline; strongly effervescent; clear wavy boundary. Orsino, and Pomello soils. EauGallie and Myakka soils
C1-7 to 16 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; are poorly drained. Orsino soils have a weakly
single grained; loose; about 10 percent sand-sized expressed Bh horizon. Pomello soils have a spodic
shell fragments; common fine and medium and few horizon within a depth of 50 inches. They are
coarse roots; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy moderately well drained.
boundary. Typical pedon of Cassia fine sand; in the Old Myakka
C2-16 to 20 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) area, about 1,700 feet north of the intersection of State
fine sand; single grained; loose; common medium Highway 780 and Wilson Road and about 1,200 feet
roots; about 30 percent multicolored sand-sized east of State Highway 780, SE1/NW/4SW1/4 sec. 25, T.
shell fragments; neutral; strongly effervescent; 36 S., R. 20 E.
gradual smooth boundary.
C3-20 to 42 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; A-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; grained; loose; many fine and very fine roots;
about 5 percent multicolored sand-sized shell strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
fragments; mildly alkaline; strongly effervescent; E-4 to 24 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single
clear wavy boundary. grained; loose; many fine and medium and few
C4-42 to 60 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; coarse roots that decrease in number with
common medium prominent light yellowish brown increasing depth; medium acid; abrupt wavy
(10YR 6/4) mottles; single grained; loose; about 15 boundary.
percent multicolored sand-sized shell fragments; a Bh-24 to 34 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) fine
few shell fragments as much as 1 inch in diameter; sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
mildly alkaline; strongly effervescent; clear wavy strongly acid; weakly cemented in about 20 percent
boundary, of the horizon; clear smooth boundary.
C5-60 to 90 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) BC-34 to 45 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sand;
fine sand; few fine prominent light yellowish brown single grained; loose; medium acid; clear smooth
(10YR 6/4) mottles; single grained; loose; about 40 boundary.
percent multicolored sand-sized shell fragments; C1-45 to 65 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
mildly alkaline; strongly effervescent, single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alkaline C2-65 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
to a depth of 80 inches or more. Because of the shell single grained; loose; medium acid.
fragments, these soils are strongly effervescent. All
horizons are sand or fine sand mixed with varying The solum is more than 40 inches thick. Depth to the
amounts of sand-sized shell fragments. spodic horizon is less than 30 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and The texture is sand or fine sand throughout the
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 4 to 8 inches thick. The content profile. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to medium
of shell fragments in this horizon ranges from 5 to 10 acid throughout the profile.
percent. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1. It is 1 to 6 inches thick. The E horizon has
chroma of 1 to 4 or has hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 1. It has
chroma of 2. It is a mixture of fine sand or sand and darker stains and streaks in old root channels. The
multicolored shell fragments. In some pedons it is







Sarasota County, Florida 73


combined thickness of the A and E horizons is less than and in the Cg horizon, if it occurs.
30 inches. The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and 3, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has
chroma of 1 or 2 or has hue of 5YR, value of 3, and value of 2. It can have few medium very dark gray, dark
chroma of 2 or 3. Cementation varies in most pedons, gray, or grayish brown splotches or pockets of sand. It
but less than half of the horizon in each pedon is is sand, fine sand, mucky loamy fine sand, or mucky
weakly cemented to strongly cemented. In some fine sand. The content of organic matter in this horizon
pedons, this horizon has pockets of material from the E ranges from about 2 to 16 percent. The horizon is 14 to
horizon. 20 inches thick.
In some pedons a transitional layer is between the The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6,
Bh and C horizons. This layer has hue of 10YR, value and chroma of 2. It can have very dark gray or dark
of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. The C horizon has hue gray splotches or thin streaks along root channels. It is
of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is sand or fine sand. It is 20 to 39 inches thick.
sand or fine sand. The Btg horizon has hue of 5GY or 5Y, value of 5 or
6, and chroma of 2 or has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
Delray Series chroma of 2. It can have mottles in shades of gray,
yellow, or brown. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or
The soils of the Delray series are loamy, siliceous, sandy clay loam. It is 7 to 28 inches thick.
hyperthermic Grossarenic Argiaquolls. They are very Some pedons have a Cg horizon. This horizon has
poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy hue of 5Y or 5GY, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1. It
and loamy marine sediments. These nearly level soils has pockets of marl or shell and calcium carbonate
are in depressions and in poorly defined drainageways. fragments. It is fine sandy loam or loamy fine sand.
The slope is less than 2 percent.
Delray soils are associated with Astor, Felda, EauGallie Series
Floridana, Pompano, and Wabasso soils. Felda,
Pompano, and Wabasso soils do not have a mollic The soils of the EauGallie series are sandy,
epipedon. Astor and Pompano soils are sandy to a siliceous, hyperthermic Alfic Haplaquods. They are
depth of 80 inches or more. The sandy A and E poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy
horizons in Floridana soils have a combined thickness and loamy marine sediments. These nearly level soils
of 20 to 40 inches. Astor, Floridana, and Pompano soils are on broad flatwoods. The slope ranges from 0 to 2
are in landscape positions similar to those of the Delray percent.
soils. Felda and Wabasso soils are on flatwoods. EauGallie soils are associated with Myakka and
Typical pedon of Delray fine sand, depressional; Wabasso soils. Myakka soils do not have an argillic
about 2.3 miles west of the De Soto County line, along horizon. Wabasso soils are shallower to a Bt horizon
State Highway 72, and 50 feet north of the highway, than the EauGallie soils.
SW1/4SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 3, T. 38 S., R. 22 E. Typical pedon of EauGallie fine sand, in an area of
EauGallie and Myakka fine sands; about 9.8 miles west
A-0 to 30 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; few of the De Soto County line, on State Highway 72, about
coarse distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) streaks 2,500 feet south of the highway, NW/4SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 9,
and splotches; weak medium granular structure; T. 38 S., R. 21 E.
friable; common fine roots; slightly acid; gradual
wavy boundary. Ap-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
Eg-30 to 54 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; fine granular structure; very friable; very strongly
single grained; loose; slightly acid; clear wavy acid; clear wavy boundary.
boundary. E-6 to 22 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
Btg-54 to 80 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) sandy loam; grained; loose; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
few medium distinct light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) boundary.
and light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) mottles; weak Bhl-22 to 30 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
medium subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
and nonplastiocfew fine roots; neutral. very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bh2-30 to 44 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
The solum is more than 50 inches thick. Reaction is sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
medium acid or slightly acid in the A and E horizons very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
and slightly acid to mildly alkaline in the Btg horizon E'-44 to 48 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;







Sarasota County, Florida 73


combined thickness of the A and E horizons is less than and in the Cg horizon, if it occurs.
30 inches. The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and 3, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has
chroma of 1 or 2 or has hue of 5YR, value of 3, and value of 2. It can have few medium very dark gray, dark
chroma of 2 or 3. Cementation varies in most pedons, gray, or grayish brown splotches or pockets of sand. It
but less than half of the horizon in each pedon is is sand, fine sand, mucky loamy fine sand, or mucky
weakly cemented to strongly cemented. In some fine sand. The content of organic matter in this horizon
pedons, this horizon has pockets of material from the E ranges from about 2 to 16 percent. The horizon is 14 to
horizon. 20 inches thick.
In some pedons a transitional layer is between the The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6,
Bh and C horizons. This layer has hue of 10YR, value and chroma of 2. It can have very dark gray or dark
of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. The C horizon has hue gray splotches or thin streaks along root channels. It is
of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is sand or fine sand. It is 20 to 39 inches thick.
sand or fine sand. The Btg horizon has hue of 5GY or 5Y, value of 5 or
6, and chroma of 2 or has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
Delray Series chroma of 2. It can have mottles in shades of gray,
yellow, or brown. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or
The soils of the Delray series are loamy, siliceous, sandy clay loam. It is 7 to 28 inches thick.
hyperthermic Grossarenic Argiaquolls. They are very Some pedons have a Cg horizon. This horizon has
poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy hue of 5Y or 5GY, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1. It
and loamy marine sediments. These nearly level soils has pockets of marl or shell and calcium carbonate
are in depressions and in poorly defined drainageways. fragments. It is fine sandy loam or loamy fine sand.
The slope is less than 2 percent.
Delray soils are associated with Astor, Felda, EauGallie Series
Floridana, Pompano, and Wabasso soils. Felda,
Pompano, and Wabasso soils do not have a mollic The soils of the EauGallie series are sandy,
epipedon. Astor and Pompano soils are sandy to a siliceous, hyperthermic Alfic Haplaquods. They are
depth of 80 inches or more. The sandy A and E poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy
horizons in Floridana soils have a combined thickness and loamy marine sediments. These nearly level soils
of 20 to 40 inches. Astor, Floridana, and Pompano soils are on broad flatwoods. The slope ranges from 0 to 2
are in landscape positions similar to those of the Delray percent.
soils. Felda and Wabasso soils are on flatwoods. EauGallie soils are associated with Myakka and
Typical pedon of Delray fine sand, depressional; Wabasso soils. Myakka soils do not have an argillic
about 2.3 miles west of the De Soto County line, along horizon. Wabasso soils are shallower to a Bt horizon
State Highway 72, and 50 feet north of the highway, than the EauGallie soils.
SW1/4SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 3, T. 38 S., R. 22 E. Typical pedon of EauGallie fine sand, in an area of
EauGallie and Myakka fine sands; about 9.8 miles west
A-0 to 30 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; few of the De Soto County line, on State Highway 72, about
coarse distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) streaks 2,500 feet south of the highway, NW/4SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 9,
and splotches; weak medium granular structure; T. 38 S., R. 21 E.
friable; common fine roots; slightly acid; gradual
wavy boundary. Ap-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
Eg-30 to 54 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; fine granular structure; very friable; very strongly
single grained; loose; slightly acid; clear wavy acid; clear wavy boundary.
boundary. E-6 to 22 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
Btg-54 to 80 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) sandy loam; grained; loose; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
few medium distinct light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) boundary.
and light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) mottles; weak Bhl-22 to 30 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
medium subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
and nonplastiocfew fine roots; neutral. very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bh2-30 to 44 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
The solum is more than 50 inches thick. Reaction is sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
medium acid or slightly acid in the A and E horizons very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
and slightly acid to mildly alkaline in the Btg horizon E'-44 to 48 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;







74 Soil Survey


single grained; loose; strongly acid; abrupt wavy drained or very poorly drained soils that formed in beds
boundary. of sandy and loamy marine sediments. These nearly
Btg-48 to 66 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy level soils are on low hammocks or flood plains; on
loam; few medium distinct dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) broad, low flats; and in depressions. The slope ranges
streaks and common medium brown (10YR 5/3) from 0 to 2 percent.
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; Felda soils are associated with Bradenton, Floridana,
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; medium acid; Holopaw, Pineda, and Wabasso soils. Wabasso soils
clear wavy boundary. have a spodic horizon. Pineda soils have a Bw horizon.
Cg-66 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) Floridana soils have a mollic epipedon. They are very
loamy fine sand; single grained; loose; medium poorly drained. Holopaw soils have an argillic horizon at
acid. a depth of more than 40 inches. Bradenton soils have
an argillic horizon within a depth of 20 inches.
The solum is more than 50 inches thick. Depth to the anar horizon within a of 20 inches
spodic horizon ranges from 15 to 30 inches. Depth to Typical pedon of Felda fine sand, depressional;
the argillic horizon ranges from 40 to 80 inches. The A, about 2.75 miles south of the Manatee County line and
E, and Bh horizons are sand or fine sand. about 1.3 miles north of State Highway 780,
After rubbing, the A horizon has hue of 10YR, value NW1/4SE/4SW/4 sec. 11, T. 36 S., R. 20 E.
of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1. Where value is less than A-0 to 3 inches; very dark grayish brown (1 YR 3/2)
S;?A-0 to 3 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
3.5, this horizon is less than 10 inches thick. Unrubbed fine sand; single grained; loose; few medium and
colors may have a salt-and-pepper appearance. The E many fine roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma Egl-3 to 8 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
of 1 or 2. The combined thickness of the A and E
f grained; loose; few medium and fine roots; slightly
horizons is less than 30 inches. Reaction ranges from ad; gral smoo boundary.
very strongly acid to moderately alkaline in areas where g2-8 to 22 inches; light brownish gray (1YR 6/2)
Eg2--8 to 22 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
Ssrf lyer has been l fine sand; single grained; loose; few medium roots;
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and slightly acid; abrupt irregular boundary.
chroma of 1 or 2 or has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, Btg1-22to 45 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy loam; few
and chroma of 1 to 3. The sand grains in this horizon coarse prominent yellowish brown (YR 5/6)
are well coated with organic matter. The horizon is 3 to mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
36 inches thick. It ranges from very strongly acid to structure; friable, slightly sticky; sand grains coated
slightly acid. Some pedons have a BE horizon. This and bridged with clay; slightly acid; clear wavy
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma boundary
of 3. It is 0 to 17 inches thick. It is fine sand. The E' g 5 o
horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, parent ye h bron
common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR
and chroma of 2. It is sand or fine sand. It is 0 to 11 5/6) mot medium subangular blocky
5/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
inches tk. structure; slightly sticky; sand grains coated and
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, bridged with clay; slightly acid; gradual wavy
and chroma of 3; hue of 10YR, value of 5, and chroma boundary
of 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5, and chroma of 2; hue ofg60 to 80inches; gray (5Y 5/1) loamy sand; few
Cg-60 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) loamy sand; few
5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1; or hue of 5Y, medium pockets of light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
value of 5, and chroma of 2. Few or common fine or subangular blocky structure;
fine sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
medium brown, yellowish brown, or brownish yellow very friable, slightly sticky; neutral.
mottles can be throughout this horizon. The horizon is
sandy loam or sandy clay loam. It is about 6 to 20 The thickness of the solum ranges from 40 to 80
inches thick. It ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid. inches. The combined thickness of the A and E
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 6, horizons is 20 to 40 inches. Reaction is slightly acid or
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand or loamy fine sand. In neutral in the A or Ap horizon and ranges from slightly
some pedons it has as much as 16 percent light gray acid to mildly alkaline in all of the other horizons.
shell fragments about 1 centimeter in size. It ranges The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
from medium acid to mildly alkaline. 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 3 to 9 inches thick. It is
Fea S s sand or fine sand. The E horizon also is sand or fine
eda ees sand. It has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma
The soils of the Felda series are loamy, siliceous, of 1 or 2 or has hue of 10YR, value of 5, and chroma of
hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. They are poorly 1. It is 15 to 29 inches thick.







Sarasota County, Florida 75


The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to loam; many fine and medium distinct yellowish
7, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; weak fine subangular
value of 4 to 7. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or blocky structure; many fine and medium white
sandy clay loam. (10YR 8/1) pockets of soft calcium carbonate;
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5G, value of 4 to strongly effervescent; mildly alkaline.
8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand, fine sand, or loamy
sand. The content of shell fragments ranges from none The solum is more than 35 inches thick. Reaction
to many. ranges from very strongly acid to moderately alkaline
throughout the profile.
Floridana Series The A or Ap horizon has hue of O1YR, value of 2 or
3, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has
The soils of the Floridana series are loamy, siliceous, value of 2. It is sand, fine sand, or mucky fine sand. It is
hyperthermic Arenic Argiaquolls. They are very poorly 12 to 21 inches thick. The E horizon has hue of 10YR,
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand or fine
loamy marine sediments. These nearly level soils are in sand. It is 6 to 10 inches thick.
depressions; in poorly defined drainageways; and on The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5,
broad, low flats. The slope is less than 2 percent. and chroma of 1 or 2 or has hue of 5Y, value of 5, and
Floridana soils are associated with Delray, Gator, chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons it has pockets of
and Manatee soils. All of the associated soils are in loamy fine sand, calcium carbonate fragments, and
landscape positions similar to those of the Floridana nodules 1 to 4 millimeters in size. It is 10 to 20 inches
soils. Delray soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of thick. Some pedons have a BCg horizon. This horizon
40 to 80 inches. Manatee soils have an argillic horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of
within a depth of 20 inches. Gator soils are organic in 1 or 2. In some pedons it has pockets of loamy fine
the upper part. sand, calcium carbonate fragments, nodules 1 to 3
Typical pedon of Floridana mucky fine sand, in an millimeters in size, or accumulations of soft, marly
area of Floridana and Gator soils, depressional; about material. It is 3 to 28 inches thick. In some pedons the
1,500 feet south of the Manatee County line and about Btg and BCg horizons have gray, yellow, or brown
4 miles east of Interstate 75, SW/4NW/4NE1/4 sec. 3, T. mottles. These horizons are sandy loam, fine sandy
36 S., R. 19 E. loam, or sandy clay loam.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, 5Y, or 5GY, value
A1-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand, of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1. It is loamy sand, sandy
very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) dry; moderate loam, or sandy clay loam. In some pedons it has
medium granular structure; friable; few very fine and pockets of marl or shell and calcium carbonate
common fine and medium roots; neutral; gradual fragments.
wavy boundary.
A2-5 to 14 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand, very Ft. Green Series
dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) dry; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; few very fine and The soils of the Ft. Green series are loamy, siliceous,
common fine and medium roots; neutral; clear wavy hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. They are poorly
boundary. drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and
Eg1-14 to 22 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single loamy marine sediments. These nearly level soils are
grained; loose; common fine and few medium roots; on broad flatwoods. The slope ranges from 0 to 2
slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. percent.
Eg2-22 to 36 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; Ft. Green soils are associated with EauGallie, Felda,
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; and Holopaw soils. All of the associated soils are in
medium acid; clear wavy boundary, landscape positions similar to those of the Ft. Green
Btg-36 to 52 inches; grayish brown (10YR 6/2) sandy soils. EauGallie soils have a spodic horizon. Felda soils
clay loam; common fine and medium distinct do not have iron-cemented sandstone cobbles in the
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak fine subsurface layer or subsoil. The sandy A and E
subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky and horizons in Holopaw soils have a combined thickness of
slightly plastic; few fine and medium pockets and more than 40 inches.
streaks of black (N 2/0) material along old root Typical pedon of Ft. Green fine sand; about 2 miles
channels; slightly acid; gradual irregular boundary. south of the Manatee County line and 1.5 miles north of
Cg-52 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy







Sarasota County, Florida 75


The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to loam; many fine and medium distinct yellowish
7, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; weak fine subangular
value of 4 to 7. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or blocky structure; many fine and medium white
sandy clay loam. (10YR 8/1) pockets of soft calcium carbonate;
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5G, value of 4 to strongly effervescent; mildly alkaline.
8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand, fine sand, or loamy
sand. The content of shell fragments ranges from none The solum is more than 35 inches thick. Reaction
to many. ranges from very strongly acid to moderately alkaline
throughout the profile.
Floridana Series The A or Ap horizon has hue of O1YR, value of 2 or
3, and chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has
The soils of the Floridana series are loamy, siliceous, value of 2. It is sand, fine sand, or mucky fine sand. It is
hyperthermic Arenic Argiaquolls. They are very poorly 12 to 21 inches thick. The E horizon has hue of 10YR,
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand or fine
loamy marine sediments. These nearly level soils are in sand. It is 6 to 10 inches thick.
depressions; in poorly defined drainageways; and on The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5,
broad, low flats. The slope is less than 2 percent. and chroma of 1 or 2 or has hue of 5Y, value of 5, and
Floridana soils are associated with Delray, Gator, chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons it has pockets of
and Manatee soils. All of the associated soils are in loamy fine sand, calcium carbonate fragments, and
landscape positions similar to those of the Floridana nodules 1 to 4 millimeters in size. It is 10 to 20 inches
soils. Delray soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of thick. Some pedons have a BCg horizon. This horizon
40 to 80 inches. Manatee soils have an argillic horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of
within a depth of 20 inches. Gator soils are organic in 1 or 2. In some pedons it has pockets of loamy fine
the upper part. sand, calcium carbonate fragments, nodules 1 to 3
Typical pedon of Floridana mucky fine sand, in an millimeters in size, or accumulations of soft, marly
area of Floridana and Gator soils, depressional; about material. It is 3 to 28 inches thick. In some pedons the
1,500 feet south of the Manatee County line and about Btg and BCg horizons have gray, yellow, or brown
4 miles east of Interstate 75, SW/4NW/4NE1/4 sec. 3, T. mottles. These horizons are sandy loam, fine sandy
36 S., R. 19 E. loam, or sandy clay loam.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, 5Y, or 5GY, value
A1-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand, of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1. It is loamy sand, sandy
very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) dry; moderate loam, or sandy clay loam. In some pedons it has
medium granular structure; friable; few very fine and pockets of marl or shell and calcium carbonate
common fine and medium roots; neutral; gradual fragments.
wavy boundary.
A2-5 to 14 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand, very Ft. Green Series
dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) dry; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; few very fine and The soils of the Ft. Green series are loamy, siliceous,
common fine and medium roots; neutral; clear wavy hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. They are poorly
boundary. drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and
Eg1-14 to 22 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single loamy marine sediments. These nearly level soils are
grained; loose; common fine and few medium roots; on broad flatwoods. The slope ranges from 0 to 2
slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. percent.
Eg2-22 to 36 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; Ft. Green soils are associated with EauGallie, Felda,
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; and Holopaw soils. All of the associated soils are in
medium acid; clear wavy boundary, landscape positions similar to those of the Ft. Green
Btg-36 to 52 inches; grayish brown (10YR 6/2) sandy soils. EauGallie soils have a spodic horizon. Felda soils
clay loam; common fine and medium distinct do not have iron-cemented sandstone cobbles in the
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles; weak fine subsurface layer or subsoil. The sandy A and E
subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky and horizons in Holopaw soils have a combined thickness of
slightly plastic; few fine and medium pockets and more than 40 inches.
streaks of black (N 2/0) material along old root Typical pedon of Ft. Green fine sand; about 2 miles
channels; slightly acid; gradual irregular boundary. south of the Manatee County line and 1.5 miles north of
Cg-52 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy








76 Soil Survey


State Highway 780, SE/4SE/4SE1/4 sec. 11, T. 36 S., R. or a mixture of loamy sand, shell fragments, and
20 E. calcium carbonate nodules.

A-0 to 3 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single Gator Series
grained; loose, nonsticky and nonplastic; slightly
acid; clear wavy boundary. The soils of the Gator series are loamy, siliceous,
E1-3 to 18 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine euic, hyperthermic Terric Medisaprists. They are very
sand; single grained; loose, nonsticky and poorly drained soils that formed in moderately thick
nonplastic; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. beds of hydrophytic plant remains underlain by beds of
E2-18 to 26 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine loamy and sandy marine sediments. These nearly level
sand; single grained; loose, nonsticky and soils are in freshwater swamps and marshes. The slope
nonplastic; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary, is 0 to 1 percent.
Btg1-26 to 38 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) cobbly sandy Gator soils are associated with the mineral Delray,
loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; Floridana, and Manatee soils. All three of the
friable, slightly sticky and nonplastic; about 15 associated soils have a mollic epipedon. Delray soils
percent iron-cemented sandstone cobbles; neutral; have an argillic horizon at a depth of 40 to 80 inches.
gradual wavy boundary. Floridana soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20
Btg2-38 to 44 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay to 40 inches. Manatee soils have an argillic horizon
loam; moderate medium subangular blocky within a depth of 20 inches.
structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; Typical pedon of Gator muck; in a pasture 250 feet
neutral; gradual wavy boundary, east of Cow Pen Slough Canal, NW1/4SE/4NE1/4 sec.
Btg3-44 to 48 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy clay 33, T. 37 S., R. 19 E.
loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; Oap-0 to 6 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) muck;
neutral; gradual wavy boundary. about 10 percent fiber unrubbed, less than 5
BCg-48 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy percent rubbed; weak fine subangular blocky
loam; weak medium granular structure; friable, structure; very friable; common fine and very fine
nonsticky and nonplastic; neutral. roots; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) sodium
pyrophosphate extract; slightly acid (pH 5.3 in 0.01
Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral in the A molar calcium chloride solution); clear smooth
and E horizons and from medium acid to moderately boundary.
alkaline in the Btg and BCg horizons. The solum is 60 Oa-6 to 22 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) muck;
to more than 80 inches thick. few common dark brown (10YR 3/3) streaks; about
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and 40 percent fiber unrubbed, 5 percent rubbed;
chroma of 1 or 2. It is 2 to 8 inches thick. The E horizon moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. friable; many fine and very fine roots; brown (10YR
It is fine sand or sand. The combined thickness of the A 5/3) sodium pyrophosphate extract; slightly acid (pH
and E horizons is 20 to 40 inches. 4.4 in 0.01 molar calcium chloride solution); abrupt
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to smooth boundary.
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons it has mottles Cg1-22 to 26 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy
in shades of brown or yellow. It is cobbly fine sandy sand; many fine and very fine roots; few fine dark
loam, cobbly sandy loam, or cobbly sandy clay loam in gray stains along root channels; slightly acid; abrupt
the upper part and sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or smooth boundary.
sandy clay loam in the lower part. The content of Cg2-26 to 44 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
cobbles ranges from 15 to 25 percent in at least one loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
Btg subhorizon. structure; common nonintersecting pressure faces
The BCg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 6 on peds; slightly sticky and plastic; common fine
to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is loamy fine sand to fine roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
sandy loam. Cg3-44 to 60 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) sandy clay
Some pedons have a Cg horizon. This horizon has loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
hue of 5Y or 5GY, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or structure; slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few fine
has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1. It is roots; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
loamy fine sand, a mixture of sand and shell fragments, Cg4-60 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 5/1) sand;







Sarasota County, Florida 77


massive; nonsticky and nonplastic; common have an argillic horizon at a depth of more than 40
medium distinct dark gray (5Y 4/1) streaks along old inches.
root channels; common medium prominent Typical pedon of Hallandale fine sand, in an area of
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) stains and splotches of Boca and Hallandale soils; about 400 feet west of River
sandy loam; slightly effervescent; moderately Road and 0.4 mile northeast of the junction of River
alkaline. Road and U.S. Highway 41, NE/4SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 44, T.
39 S., R. 20 E.
The depth to mineral material is less than 51 inches.
It commonly ranges from 22 to 46 inches. Measured by A-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak fine
the He!lige-Truog method, reaction is slightly acid to granular structure; very friable, nonsticky and
mildly alkaline in the Oap and Oa horizons. It is very nonplastic; neutral; many medium roots; many very
strongly acid to moderately alkaline in the Cgl horizon fine interstitial pores; abrupt smooth boundary.
and slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the other Cg Bwl-4 to 8 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) sand; single
horizons. grained; loose; neutral; many medium roots; many
The Oa or Oap horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR or is very fine interstitial pores; abrupt smooth boundary.
neutral in hue. It has value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 2 or Bw2-8 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand;
less. The sodium pyrophosphate extract has hue of single grained; loose; neutral; many medium roots;
10YR, value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 4 or less; hue of many very fine interstitial pores; abrupt smooth
10YR, value of 5, and chroma of 2 to 4; or hue of boundary.
10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 3 or 4. Cg-10 to 14 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
The upper part of the Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, single grained; loose; moderately alkaline; few fine
value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1; has hue of 10YR, roots; many fine interstitial pores; many medium
value of 2, and chroma of 2; or is neutral in hue and distinct white (10YR 8/1) mottles; few small soft
has value of 2 to 4. It can have mottles and streaks in carbonate nodules; abrupt smooth boundary.
shades of brown or gray. It is dominantly sandy loam, R-14 inches; hard, fractured limestone bedrock.
sandy clay loam, or sandy clay. In some pedons, Fractured limestone bedrock is at a depth of 8 to 18
however, a layer of sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine inches. It has scattered solution holes, which range
sand 4 to 15 inches thick is directly below the Oa from 4 inches to 2 feet in diameter. The texture is sand
horizon. The content of clay ranges from 18 to 40 or fine sand throughout the profile.
percent. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
The lower part of the Cg horizon has hue of 5GY or chroma of 1 or 2. The Bw horizon has hue of 10YR,
5Y, value of 5, and chroma of 1. It can have light olive value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3. The A and Bw
brown, olive brown, or olive yellow mottles and streaks, horizons are slightly acid or neutral. The Cg horizon has
It is sandy clay loam or sandy loam that has lenses of hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It
sand and loamy sand or that in some pedons is has as much as 10 percent limestone gravel or soft
underlain by sand or fine sand. It has few or common, carbonate nodules.
fine or medium, soft or hard, light gray fragments of
carbonatic material. Holopaw Series

Hallandale Series The soils of the Holopaw series are loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Grossarenic Ochraqualfs. They are very
The soils of the Hallandale series are siliceous, poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy
hyperthermic Lithic Psammaquents. They are poorly and loamy marine sediments. These nearly level soils
drained soils that formed in thin beds of sandy marine are on broad, low flats; in poorly defined drainageways;
sediments. They are underlain by fractured limestone and in depressions. The slope ranges from 0 to 2
bedrock. These nearly level soils are on flats and percent.
hammocks. The slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Holopaw soils are associated with EauGallie, Felda,
Hallandale soils are associated with Boca, Delray, Malabar, Pineda, Pompano, and Wabasso soils.
EauGallie, Felda, Floridana, Holopaw, Myakka, and EauGallie and Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon.
Pineda soils. Boca soils have limestone at a depth of 20 Malabar soils have a Bw horizon. Felda and Pineda
to 40 inches. EauGallie and Myakka soils have a spodic soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40
horizon. Felda and Pineda soils have an argillic horizon inches. Pineda soils have a Bw horizon. Pompano soils
at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Delray and Holopaw soils are sandy throughout.







Sarasota County, Florida 77


massive; nonsticky and nonplastic; common have an argillic horizon at a depth of more than 40
medium distinct dark gray (5Y 4/1) streaks along old inches.
root channels; common medium prominent Typical pedon of Hallandale fine sand, in an area of
yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) stains and splotches of Boca and Hallandale soils; about 400 feet west of River
sandy loam; slightly effervescent; moderately Road and 0.4 mile northeast of the junction of River
alkaline. Road and U.S. Highway 41, NE/4SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 44, T.
39 S., R. 20 E.
The depth to mineral material is less than 51 inches.
It commonly ranges from 22 to 46 inches. Measured by A-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak fine
the He!lige-Truog method, reaction is slightly acid to granular structure; very friable, nonsticky and
mildly alkaline in the Oap and Oa horizons. It is very nonplastic; neutral; many medium roots; many very
strongly acid to moderately alkaline in the Cgl horizon fine interstitial pores; abrupt smooth boundary.
and slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the other Cg Bwl-4 to 8 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) sand; single
horizons. grained; loose; neutral; many medium roots; many
The Oa or Oap horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR or is very fine interstitial pores; abrupt smooth boundary.
neutral in hue. It has value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 2 or Bw2-8 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand;
less. The sodium pyrophosphate extract has hue of single grained; loose; neutral; many medium roots;
10YR, value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 4 or less; hue of many very fine interstitial pores; abrupt smooth
10YR, value of 5, and chroma of 2 to 4; or hue of boundary.
10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 3 or 4. Cg-10 to 14 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
The upper part of the Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, single grained; loose; moderately alkaline; few fine
value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1; has hue of 10YR, roots; many fine interstitial pores; many medium
value of 2, and chroma of 2; or is neutral in hue and distinct white (10YR 8/1) mottles; few small soft
has value of 2 to 4. It can have mottles and streaks in carbonate nodules; abrupt smooth boundary.
shades of brown or gray. It is dominantly sandy loam, R-14 inches; hard, fractured limestone bedrock.
sandy clay loam, or sandy clay. In some pedons, Fractured limestone bedrock is at a depth of 8 to 18
however, a layer of sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine inches. It has scattered solution holes, which range
sand 4 to 15 inches thick is directly below the Oa from 4 inches to 2 feet in diameter. The texture is sand
horizon. The content of clay ranges from 18 to 40 or fine sand throughout the profile.
percent. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and
The lower part of the Cg horizon has hue of 5GY or chroma of 1 or 2. The Bw horizon has hue of 10YR,
5Y, value of 5, and chroma of 1. It can have light olive value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3. The A and Bw
brown, olive brown, or olive yellow mottles and streaks, horizons are slightly acid or neutral. The Cg horizon has
It is sandy clay loam or sandy loam that has lenses of hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. It
sand and loamy sand or that in some pedons is has as much as 10 percent limestone gravel or soft
underlain by sand or fine sand. It has few or common, carbonate nodules.
fine or medium, soft or hard, light gray fragments of
carbonatic material. Holopaw Series

Hallandale Series The soils of the Holopaw series are loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Grossarenic Ochraqualfs. They are very
The soils of the Hallandale series are siliceous, poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy
hyperthermic Lithic Psammaquents. They are poorly and loamy marine sediments. These nearly level soils
drained soils that formed in thin beds of sandy marine are on broad, low flats; in poorly defined drainageways;
sediments. They are underlain by fractured limestone and in depressions. The slope ranges from 0 to 2
bedrock. These nearly level soils are on flats and percent.
hammocks. The slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. Holopaw soils are associated with EauGallie, Felda,
Hallandale soils are associated with Boca, Delray, Malabar, Pineda, Pompano, and Wabasso soils.
EauGallie, Felda, Floridana, Holopaw, Myakka, and EauGallie and Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon.
Pineda soils. Boca soils have limestone at a depth of 20 Malabar soils have a Bw horizon. Felda and Pineda
to 40 inches. EauGallie and Myakka soils have a spodic soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40
horizon. Felda and Pineda soils have an argillic horizon inches. Pineda soils have a Bw horizon. Pompano soils
at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Delray and Holopaw soils are sandy throughout.







78 Soil Survey


Typical pedon of Holopaw fine sand, depressional; Kesson Series
about 0.5 mile east of the Big Slough Canal and about
5.5 miles north of U.S. Highway 41, NE1/SE/4SW/4 The soils of the Kesson series are siliceous,
sec. 3, T. 39 S., R. 21 E. hyperthermic Typic Psammaquents. They are deep,
very poorly drained soils that formed in thick marine
Ap-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; a deposits of sand and shell fragments. These nearly
mixture of organic matter and light gray sand grains level soils are in tidal swamps and marshes. Under
having a salt-and-pepper appearance when dry; natural conditions, they are flooded during normal high
weak fine granular structure; very friable; common tides. The slope is less than 1 percent.
fine roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Kesson soils are associated with the organic Wulfert
E1-4 to 40 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; soils. Wulfert soils are in landscape positions similar to
single grained; loose; few medium roots; slightly those of the Kesson soils.
acid; clear smooth boundary. Typical pedon of Kesson muck, in an area of Kesson
E2-40 to 45 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine and Wulfert mucks, frequently flooded; on Longboat Key
sand; single grained; loose; slightly acid; abrupt about 1,500 feet northwest of the New Pass Bridge and
wavy boundary. 50 feet north of State Highway 789, sec. 32, T. 36 S.,
E3-45 to 50 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) R. 17 E.
fine sand; single grained; loose; slightly acid; clear
wavy boundary. Oa-0 to 7 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) muck;
Btg-50 to 66 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy massive; friable; about 30 percent fiber unrubbed,
loam; few fine faint yellowish brown mottles; less than 5 percent rubbed; many very fine roots;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; strongly alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
slightly sticky and slightly plastic; common pockets Cgl-7 to 16 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
of brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; neutral; gradual grained; loose; many very fine and fine roots; few
wavy boundary. fine and medium pockets of dark reddish brown
Cg-66 to 80 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) loamy fine muck; about 10 percent shell fragments; strongly
sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; alkaline; calcareous; gradual irregular boundary.
nonsticky and nonplastic; few pockets of brown Cg2-16 to 30 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
(10YR 5/3) fine sand; neutral. sand; single grained; loose; few very fine and fine
roots; common fine and medium very dark grayish
The thickness of the solum ranges from 50 to more brown (10YR 3/2) streaks; about 20 percent shell
than 80 inches. Reaction is slightly acid or neutral in the fragments; moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear
surface layer and subsurface layer and slightly acid to smooth boundary.
moderately alkaline in the subsoil and substratum. Cg3-30 to 80 inches; dark greenish gray (5GY 4/1)
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to fine sand; single grained; loose; few very fine roots;
4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 2 to 13 inches thick. It is about 5 percent shell fragments; a few shell
less than 7 inches thick if value is 3 or less. The E fragments 3 to 30 millimeters in diameter;
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma calcareous; moderately alkaline.
of 1 or 2 or has hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma of
3. In some pedons it has yellowish brown mottles. The These soils are mildly alkaline to strongly alkaline
A and E horizons are sand or fine sand. The combined throughout. They do not become extremely acid when
thickness of these horizons is more than 40 inches. dry. They are calcareous. Below the Oa horizon, the
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 or texture is sand or fine sand.
5, and chroma of 1 or 2. It has mottles in shades of The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2
brown or yellow. It is dominantly sandy loam, fine sandy or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 0 to 7 inches thick. The
loam, or sandy clay loam. In many pedons, however, it fiber content ranges from 30 to 40 percent before
has pockets and lenses of sand or fine sand. It is 12 to rubbing and is less than 10 percent after rubbing. Some
20 inches thick. Some pedons have a BCg horizon, pedons have an A horizon.
This horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 or 5, The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, 5Y, or 5GY, value
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sandy loam or fine sandy of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2 or has hue of 5GY or
loam. 5G, value of 4, and chroma of 1. The content of shell
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5, fragments in the lower part of this horizon increases to
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand, fine sand, loamy fine a maximum of 30 percent with increasing depth. The
sand, or loamy sand.







Sarasota County, Florida 79


upper part of the horizon can have a few fine and from slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the subsoil
medium pockets of dark reddish brown or black muck. and substratum.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
Malabar Series 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 2 to 4 inches thick. The E
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma of 2
The soils of the Malabar series are loamy, siliceous, to 4 or has hue of 10YR, value of 7, and chroma of 2.
hyperthermic Grossarenic Ochraqualfs. They are poorly In some pedons it has brownish yellow, grayish brown,
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and or dark grayish brown mottles or stains. It is 9 to 14
loamy marine sediments. These nearly level soils are in inches thick. The A and E horizons are sand or fine
low, narrow or broad sloughs; on flats; and in poorly sand.
defined drainageways. The slope ranges from 0 to 2 The Bw horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7,
percent. and chroma of 4 to 8; hue of 10YR, value of 6, and
Malabar soils are associated with EauGallie, Felda, chroma of 3 to 8; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 7, and
Floridana, Pompano, Holopaw, and Pineda soils. chroma of 6. It is sand or fine sand. It is 24 to 37 inches
EauGallie soils have a spodic horizon. Floridana soils thick.
have a mollic epipedon. They are very poorly drained. The Btg horizon and the BCg horizon, if it occurs,
Felda and Pineda soils have an argillic horizon at a have hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or
depth of 20 to 40 inches. Holopaw soils do not have a 2 or have hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1
high-chroma Bw horizon. Pompano soils are sandy or 2. In some pedons they have dark yellowish brown,
throughout. yellow, light olive brown, or light brownish gray mottles.
Typical pedon of Malabar fine sand; about 2 miles They are dominantly sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or
north of Richardson Road and 4,500 feet south of the sandy clay loam. In many pedons, however, the Btg
boundary between Manatee County and Sarasota horizon has a few intrusions of coarser textured
County, SW/4SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 4, T. 36 S., R. 19 E. material from the overlying horizons. In some pedons
the BCg horizon is loamy fine sand. The combined
A-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; a y
thickness of the Btg and BCg horizons ranges from 12
mixture of organic matter and light gray sand grains to more than 24 inches.
having a salt-and-pepper appearance when dry;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine Manatee Series
and few medium roots; slightly acid; gradual smooth
boundary. The soils of the Manatee series are coarse-loamy,
E-4 to 13 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls. They are very
grained; loose; common fine and few medium roots; poorly drained soils that formed in sandy and loamy
medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. marine sediments. These nearly level soils are in
Bw1-13 to 30 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) fine depressions. The slope is dominantly less than 1
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium percent but in some areas is 2 percent.
roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary. Manatee soils are commonly associated with Delray,
Bw2-30 to 45 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/6) fine EauGallie, Floridana, and Wabasso soils. Delray and
sand; single grained; loose; neutral; abrupt wavy Floridana soils are in landscape positions similar to
boundary. those of the Manatee soils. The sandy surface layer
Btg1-45 to 50 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and subsurface layer in Delray soils have a combined
sandy clay loam; few fine distinct yellowish red thickness of more than 40 inches, and those in
(5YR 4/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular Floridana soils have a combined thickness of 20 to 40
blocky structure; slightly sticky and nonplastic; inches. EauGallie and Wabasso soils are on flatwoods.
neutral; gradual wavy boundary. They have a spodic horizon.
Btg2-50 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) sandy clay Typical pedon of Manatee loamy fine sand,
loam; few fine faint light brownish gray mottles; depressional; about 2.5 miles east of State Highway
weak medium subangular blocky structure; slightly 775 and about 2.75 miles west of State Highway 777,
sticky and nonplastic; moderately alkaline. NW1/4SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 7, T. 40 S., R. 20 E.

The thickness of the solum ranges from 46 to more A-0 to 18 inches; black (N 2/0) loamy fine sand; weak
than 80 inches. Reaction is medium acid or slightly acid fine granular structure; very friable, slightly sticky
in the surface layer and subsurface layer and ranges and nonplastic; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Bt-18 to 29 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy







Sarasota County, Florida 79


upper part of the horizon can have a few fine and from slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the subsoil
medium pockets of dark reddish brown or black muck. and substratum.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
Malabar Series 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 2 to 4 inches thick. The E
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma of 2
The soils of the Malabar series are loamy, siliceous, to 4 or has hue of 10YR, value of 7, and chroma of 2.
hyperthermic Grossarenic Ochraqualfs. They are poorly In some pedons it has brownish yellow, grayish brown,
drained soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and or dark grayish brown mottles or stains. It is 9 to 14
loamy marine sediments. These nearly level soils are in inches thick. The A and E horizons are sand or fine
low, narrow or broad sloughs; on flats; and in poorly sand.
defined drainageways. The slope ranges from 0 to 2 The Bw horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7,
percent. and chroma of 4 to 8; hue of 10YR, value of 6, and
Malabar soils are associated with EauGallie, Felda, chroma of 3 to 8; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 7, and
Floridana, Pompano, Holopaw, and Pineda soils. chroma of 6. It is sand or fine sand. It is 24 to 37 inches
EauGallie soils have a spodic horizon. Floridana soils thick.
have a mollic epipedon. They are very poorly drained. The Btg horizon and the BCg horizon, if it occurs,
Felda and Pineda soils have an argillic horizon at a have hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or
depth of 20 to 40 inches. Holopaw soils do not have a 2 or have hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1
high-chroma Bw horizon. Pompano soils are sandy or 2. In some pedons they have dark yellowish brown,
throughout. yellow, light olive brown, or light brownish gray mottles.
Typical pedon of Malabar fine sand; about 2 miles They are dominantly sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or
north of Richardson Road and 4,500 feet south of the sandy clay loam. In many pedons, however, the Btg
boundary between Manatee County and Sarasota horizon has a few intrusions of coarser textured
County, SW/4SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 4, T. 36 S., R. 19 E. material from the overlying horizons. In some pedons
the BCg horizon is loamy fine sand. The combined
A-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; a y
thickness of the Btg and BCg horizons ranges from 12
mixture of organic matter and light gray sand grains to more than 24 inches.
having a salt-and-pepper appearance when dry;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine Manatee Series
and few medium roots; slightly acid; gradual smooth
boundary. The soils of the Manatee series are coarse-loamy,
E-4 to 13 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single siliceous, hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls. They are very
grained; loose; common fine and few medium roots; poorly drained soils that formed in sandy and loamy
medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. marine sediments. These nearly level soils are in
Bw1-13 to 30 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) fine depressions. The slope is dominantly less than 1
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium percent but in some areas is 2 percent.
roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary. Manatee soils are commonly associated with Delray,
Bw2-30 to 45 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/6) fine EauGallie, Floridana, and Wabasso soils. Delray and
sand; single grained; loose; neutral; abrupt wavy Floridana soils are in landscape positions similar to
boundary. those of the Manatee soils. The sandy surface layer
Btg1-45 to 50 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and subsurface layer in Delray soils have a combined
sandy clay loam; few fine distinct yellowish red thickness of more than 40 inches, and those in
(5YR 4/6) mottles; moderate medium subangular Floridana soils have a combined thickness of 20 to 40
blocky structure; slightly sticky and nonplastic; inches. EauGallie and Wabasso soils are on flatwoods.
neutral; gradual wavy boundary. They have a spodic horizon.
Btg2-50 to 80 inches; light gray (5Y 7/1) sandy clay Typical pedon of Manatee loamy fine sand,
loam; few fine faint light brownish gray mottles; depressional; about 2.5 miles east of State Highway
weak medium subangular blocky structure; slightly 775 and about 2.75 miles west of State Highway 777,
sticky and nonplastic; moderately alkaline. NW1/4SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 7, T. 40 S., R. 20 E.

The thickness of the solum ranges from 46 to more A-0 to 18 inches; black (N 2/0) loamy fine sand; weak
than 80 inches. Reaction is medium acid or slightly acid fine granular structure; very friable, slightly sticky
in the surface layer and subsurface layer and ranges and nonplastic; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Bt-18 to 29 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy







80 Soil Survey


loam; few fine faint yellowish red mottles; weak fine Matlacha Series
subangular blocky structure; very friable, slightly
sticky and nonplastic; mildly alkaline; clear smooth The soils of the Matlacha series are sandy, siliceous,
boundary, hyperthermic Alfic Udarents. They are somewhat poorly
Btg-29 to 34 inches; light gray (5Y 6/1) sandy loam; drained soils in areas that have been dredged and
weak fine subangular blocky structure; very friable, filled. The dredge and fill material was spread over the
slightly sticky and nonplastic; mildly alkaline; clear surface of other soils. The fill material is a mixture of
smooth boundary, sand, shell fragments, loamy and silty sediments, and a
BCkg-34 to 42 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) sandy few fragments of organic material. These nearly level
loam that has intrusions of calcareous sandy loam; soils are adjacent to coastal areas. They are subject to
few fine faint yellow (2.5Y 7/6) mottles; weak fine flooding for very brief periods during the hurricane
subangular blocky structure; very friable, slightly season. The slope is 0 to 2 percent.
sticky and slightly plastic; about 5 percent white, Matlacha soils are commonly associated with
hard calcium carbonate nodules; moderately EauGallie, Felda, Myakka, and Pompano soils. None of
alkaline; clear wavy boundary, these soils are manmade. Pompano soils do not have
Cgl-42 to 60 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy loam; few fragments or diagnostic horizons. They are poorly
fine faint yellow and white and common medium drained. EauGallie and Myakka soils have a spodic
distinct dark greenish gray (5GY 4/1) mottles; horizon. Felda soils are poorly drained. They have an
massive; very friable, slightly sticky and slightly argillic horizon.
plastic; moderately alkaline; clear smooth boundary. Typical pedon of Matlacha gravelly sand; about 1,000
Cg2-60 to 75 inches; dark greenish gray (5GY 4/1) feet northwest of the entrance of U.S. Highway 41 to
and gray (5Y 5/1), stratified sandy loam and sandy Charlotte County, on a spoil bank on the north side of
clay loam; massive; very friable, slightly sticky and the Cocoplum Waterway, SW/4SE1/4SW/4 sec. 34, T. 39
slightly plastic; clear smooth boundary. S., R. 21 E.
Cg3-75 to 80 inches; dark greenish gray (5GY 4/1)
fine sand; single grained; loose, nonsticky and C-0 to 42 inches; mixed dark brown (10YR 3/3), light
nonplastic; moderately alkaline, brownish gray (10YR 6/2), and very pale brown
(10YR 7/3) gravelly sand; massive; very friable,
Reaction is medium acid to mildly alkaline in the A nonsticky and nonplastic; about 20 percent
horizon and mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline in the limestone gravel and shell fragments; common
B and C horizons. lenses of dark brown (10YR 4/3) sandy clay loam;
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and moderately alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary.
chroma of 1, or it is neutral in hue and has value of 2. It Ab-42 to 46 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
is 10 to 12 inches thick, single grained; loose, nonsticky and nonplastic;
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
chroma of 1; has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and chroma Eb-46 to 78 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
of 2; or is neutral in hue and has value of 2. It is fine single grained; loose, nonsticky and nonplastic;
sandy loam or sandy loam. It is 3 to 13 inches thick. slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 7, Bhb-78 to 80 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
and chroma of 1. It is dominantly fine sandy loam, 3/2) fine sand; single grained; very friable, nonsticky
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. In some pedons, and nonplastic; slightly acid.
however, it has small pockets or streaks of fine sand or
loamy fine sand. It is 9 to 29 inches thick. The fill material is 20 to 60 inches thick. Reaction is
The BCkg horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, neutral to moderately alkaline in the fill material and
value of 4, and chroma of 1 or 2 or has hue of 2.5Y, medium acid to neutral in all other horizons. The
value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 2. It is loamy fine sand, content of gravel-sized shell and rock fragments in the
fine sandy loam, or sandy loam. It is 0 to 14 inches fill material ranges from 10 to 30 percent.
thick. The material below the fill varies, depending on the
The Cg horizon has hue of 5GY or 5Y, value of 5 or original soil. In some pedons it is several feet of sand
6, and chroma of 1; hue of 5Y, value of 7, and chroma over loamy material, and in other pedons it is sandy
of 1; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and chroma of 2. It is throughout.
fine sand, loamy fine sand, fine sandy loam, or sandy The fill material has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 7,
loam. In some pedons it has shell fragments. and chroma of 1 to 4. It is dominantly gravelly sand, but







Sarasota County, Florida 81


the range includes fine sand, very gravelly fine sand, chroma of 1. Before rubbing, colors may have a salt-
and gravelly loamy sand. Lenses or lumps of sandy and-pepper appearance. The E horizon has hue of
loam or sandy clay loam are common. 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or has hue of
10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2. The combined
Myakka Series thickness of the A and E horizons is 20 to 30 inches.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR or 10YR, value of 2
The soils of the Myakka series are sandy, siliceous, or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3, or it is neutral in hue and
hyperthermic Aeric Haplaquods. They are poorly has value of 2. In some pedons it has very dark gray
drained soils that formed in beds of sandy marine streaks or weakly cemented spodic fragments. It can be
sediments. These nearly level soils are on broad weakly cemented in less than 50 percent of any
flatwoods. The slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. subhorizon. In some pedons a dense mat of partially
Myakka soils are associated with EauGallie, Pomello, decomposed medium and fine roots overlies the Bh
Ona, and Smyrna soils. EauGallie soils have an argillic horizon. This horizon is 9 to 30 inches thick. The BC
horizon below the Bh horizon. Pomello soils are deeper horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma
to a Bh horizon than the Myakka soils. They are of 2 or 3.
moderately well drained. Ona and Smyrna soils have a Some pedons have E' and B'h horizons below the Bh
Bh horizon within a depth of 20 inches. horizon. These horizons have colors that are similar to
Typical pedon of Myakka fine sand, in an area of those of the E and Bh horizons.
EauGallie and Myakka fine sands; about 50 feet north Some pedons have a C horizon. This horizon has
of Richardson Road and about 800 feet east of the hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 3.
intersection of Richardson and Brown Roads,
NE/4SW1/4SW14 sec. 18, T. 36 S., R. 19 E. Ona Series

A-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; The soils of the Ona series are sandy, siliceous,
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine hyperthermic Typic Haplaquods. They are poorly
and common medium roots; strongly acid; clear drained soils that formed in beds of sandy marine
smooth boundary, sediments. These nearly level soils are on broad
E-6 to 24 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; flatwoods. The slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
single grained; loose; common medium roots; Ona soils are associated with EauGallie, Pomello,
medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary. Myakka, and Smyrna soils. EauGallie soils have an
Bh1-24 to 35 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak argillic horizon below the Bh horizon. Pomello soils are
fine subangular blocky structure; friable; dense mat moderately well drained. Myakka and Smyrna soils
of partially decomposed fine and medium roots in have a Bh horizon below the E horizon.
the upper part; sand grains well coated with organic Typical pedon of Ona fine sand; about 25 feet north
matter; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary, of Laurel Road and about 0.75 mile east of the
Bh2-35 to 42 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) intersection of Laurel Road and U.S. Highway 41,
fine sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; SE1/4SW1/4SW/4 sec. 30, T. 38 S., R. 19 E.
friable; few fine distinct very dark gray (5YR 3/1)
streaks; medium acid; clear smooth boundary. A-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
BC-42 to 60 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) grained; loose, nonsticky and nonplastic; very
fine sand; single grained; loose; medium acid; clear strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
smooth boundary. Bh1-6 to 9 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) fine
C-60 to 80 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; sand; single grained; loose, nonsticky and
single grained; loose; medium acid. nonplastic; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bh2-9 to 16 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) fine sand;
The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Depth to the moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
spodic horizon ranges from 16 to 29 inches. The texture friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; very strongly acid;
is sand or fine sand throughout the profile. Reaction clear wavy boundary.
generally ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid BC-16 to 28 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
throughout the profile. It ranges from neutral to fine sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
moderately alkaline, however, in some pedons that very friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; very strongly
have shell fragments at a depth of about 50 inches or acid; clear smooth boundary.
more. C1-28 to 40 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and sand; single grained; loose, nonsticky and







Sarasota County, Florida 81


the range includes fine sand, very gravelly fine sand, chroma of 1. Before rubbing, colors may have a salt-
and gravelly loamy sand. Lenses or lumps of sandy and-pepper appearance. The E horizon has hue of
loam or sandy clay loam are common. 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or has hue of
10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2. The combined
Myakka Series thickness of the A and E horizons is 20 to 30 inches.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR or 10YR, value of 2
The soils of the Myakka series are sandy, siliceous, or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3, or it is neutral in hue and
hyperthermic Aeric Haplaquods. They are poorly has value of 2. In some pedons it has very dark gray
drained soils that formed in beds of sandy marine streaks or weakly cemented spodic fragments. It can be
sediments. These nearly level soils are on broad weakly cemented in less than 50 percent of any
flatwoods. The slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. subhorizon. In some pedons a dense mat of partially
Myakka soils are associated with EauGallie, Pomello, decomposed medium and fine roots overlies the Bh
Ona, and Smyrna soils. EauGallie soils have an argillic horizon. This horizon is 9 to 30 inches thick. The BC
horizon below the Bh horizon. Pomello soils are deeper horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma
to a Bh horizon than the Myakka soils. They are of 2 or 3.
moderately well drained. Ona and Smyrna soils have a Some pedons have E' and B'h horizons below the Bh
Bh horizon within a depth of 20 inches. horizon. These horizons have colors that are similar to
Typical pedon of Myakka fine sand, in an area of those of the E and Bh horizons.
EauGallie and Myakka fine sands; about 50 feet north Some pedons have a C horizon. This horizon has
of Richardson Road and about 800 feet east of the hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 3.
intersection of Richardson and Brown Roads,
NE/4SW1/4SW14 sec. 18, T. 36 S., R. 19 E. Ona Series

A-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; The soils of the Ona series are sandy, siliceous,
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine hyperthermic Typic Haplaquods. They are poorly
and common medium roots; strongly acid; clear drained soils that formed in beds of sandy marine
smooth boundary, sediments. These nearly level soils are on broad
E-6 to 24 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; flatwoods. The slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
single grained; loose; common medium roots; Ona soils are associated with EauGallie, Pomello,
medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary. Myakka, and Smyrna soils. EauGallie soils have an
Bh1-24 to 35 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak argillic horizon below the Bh horizon. Pomello soils are
fine subangular blocky structure; friable; dense mat moderately well drained. Myakka and Smyrna soils
of partially decomposed fine and medium roots in have a Bh horizon below the E horizon.
the upper part; sand grains well coated with organic Typical pedon of Ona fine sand; about 25 feet north
matter; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary, of Laurel Road and about 0.75 mile east of the
Bh2-35 to 42 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) intersection of Laurel Road and U.S. Highway 41,
fine sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; SE1/4SW1/4SW/4 sec. 30, T. 38 S., R. 19 E.
friable; few fine distinct very dark gray (5YR 3/1)
streaks; medium acid; clear smooth boundary. A-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
BC-42 to 60 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) grained; loose, nonsticky and nonplastic; very
fine sand; single grained; loose; medium acid; clear strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
smooth boundary. Bh1-6 to 9 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) fine
C-60 to 80 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; sand; single grained; loose, nonsticky and
single grained; loose; medium acid. nonplastic; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bh2-9 to 16 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) fine sand;
The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Depth to the moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
spodic horizon ranges from 16 to 29 inches. The texture friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; very strongly acid;
is sand or fine sand throughout the profile. Reaction clear wavy boundary.
generally ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid BC-16 to 28 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
throughout the profile. It ranges from neutral to fine sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
moderately alkaline, however, in some pedons that very friable, nonsticky and nonplastic; very strongly
have shell fragments at a depth of about 50 inches or acid; clear smooth boundary.
more. C1-28 to 40 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and sand; single grained; loose, nonsticky and




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