• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Map
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map for broad land...
 Soil maps for detailed plannin...
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and morphology
 Formation of the soils
 Tables
 Map
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets






Title: Soil survey of Santa Rosa County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025739/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Santa Rosa County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 150 p., 87 fold. p. of plates : ill., maps ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Weeks, Herbert H., 1929-
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Publisher: Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: [1980]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Santa Rosa County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Santa Rosa County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 85.
Statement of Responsibility: by Herbert H. Weeks ... et al..
General Note: Prepared in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Dept., and Florida Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Issued May 1980.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025739
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001220195
oclc - 06407919
notis - AFX0531

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Map
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Climate
            Page 1
        Physiography, relief, and drainage
            Page 2
        Natural resources
            Page 2
        History and development
            Page 3
        Farming
            Page 4
    How this survey was made
        Page 4
    General soil map for broad land use planning
        Page 5
        Lakeland - Troup
            Page 5
        Ortega - Kureb
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Red Bay-Lucy
            Page 7
        Troup-Orangeburg-Dothan
            Page 8
        Dothan - Orangeburg
            Page 8
        Troup-Dothan-Bonifay
            Page 8
        Pactolus-Rutlege-Mulat
            Page 9
        Bibb-Kinston-Johns
            Page 10
        Dorovan-Pamlico
            Page 11
        Bohicket
            Page 11
        Chewacla-Wahee-Riverview
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
    Soil maps for detailed planning
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
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        Page 27
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        Page 30
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        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 42
        Crops and pasture
            Page 43
            Management concerns
                Page 43
            Yields per acre
                Page 44
            Land capability classification
                Page 45
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 45
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 46
        Recreation
            Page 47
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 48
        Engineering
            Page 49
            Building site development
                Page 50
            Sanitary facilities
                Page 50
            Construction materials
                Page 51
            Water management
                Page 52
    Soil properties
        Page 53
        Engineering properties
            Page 53
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 54
        Soil and water features
            Page 55
        Engineering test data
            Page 56
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 56
            Page 57
    Classification of the soils
        Page 58
    Soil series and morphology
        Page 58
        Albany series
            Page 59
        Angie series
            Page 59
        Bibb series
            Page 60
        Bohicket series
            Page 61
        Bonifay series
            Page 61
        Chewacla series
            Page 62
        Cowarts series
            Page 63
        Dorovan series
            Page 64
        Dothan series
            Page 64
        Escambia series
            Page 65
        Esto series
            Page 66
        Fuquay series
            Page 67
        Garcon series
            Page 67
        Handsboro series
            Page 68
        Johns series
            Page 69
        Kalmia series
            Page 70
        Kinston series
            Page 71
        Kureb series
            Page 71
        Lakeland series
            Page 72
        Leon series
            Page 72
        Lucy series
            Page 73
        Lynchburg series
            Page 74
        Maxton series
            Page 75
        Mulat series
            Page 76
        Orangeburg series
            Page 76
        Ortega series
            Page 77
        Pactolus series
            Page 78
        Pamlico series
            Page 78
        Pickney series
            Page 79
        Rains series
            Page 79
        Red Bay series
            Page 80
        Riverview series
            Page 80
        Rutlege series
            Page 81
        Tifton series
            Page 81
        Troup series
            Page 82
        Wahee series
            Page 83
    Formation of the soils
        Page 84
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 84
            Parent material
                Page 84
            Climate
                Page 84
            Plants and animals
                Page 84
            Relief
                Page 84
            Time
                Page 85
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
    Tables
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
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        Page 111
        Page 112
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        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
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        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    General soil map
        Page 151
    Index to map sheets
        Page 152
        Page 153
Full Text

SOIL SURVEY OF

SANTA ROSA COUNTY,

FLORIDA



United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department
and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




,. -- 7*-





HOW TO U


Locate your area of interest on
the "Index to Map Sheets" (the
last page of this publication).

7Kokomo
T 3 F

^^^-~^- -1---- -

-- Note the number of the me
";-.- --;---'- sheet and turn to that she





Locate your area of interest
* on the map sheet. -......



^ ,5\ 6B -3 13/1
I34A







S List the map unit symbols
that are in your area
Symbols

151C, 227C
134A 56B
S27 -131B
56B 131 ?-- 134A
/. 1^ 148B
134A/ 1 ---- 48B-J 151 C





IS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. -




















See "Summary of Tables" (following the --
Contents) for location of additional data -
on a specific soil use. i-'-i- .
















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
o agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homobuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.



















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of Agricul-
ture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of race,
color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was performed in the period 1969-1977.
Soil names and descriptions were approved in 1977. Unless otherwise indicat-
ed, statements in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1977.
This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the Uni-
versity of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experi-
ment Stations and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of Ag-
riculture and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance furnished
to the Blackwater Soil and Water Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.









Cover: Soybeans on Class I land in Santa Rosa County. Soil is
Orangeburg sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes.













i i









Contents

Page Page
Index to map units........................................................ iv Classification of the soils..... ..... ............. 58
Summary of tables................................................. v Soil series and morphology................................. 58
Foreword..... ....................vii Albany series......................... 59
Fo rew o rd ......................................................................... vii A lban erines ................................................................ 59
General nature of the county..... ......................... 1 Anie Variant.............................. 59
C lim ate 1 Bibb series..... .............. ..................................... 60
Physiography, relief, and drainage ............................ 2 Bohicket series........................ 61
Natural resources ................................................. 2 Chewa a series ...................... ...................... 62
History and development............................................ 3 Cowarts series ............................................................. 63
Farm ing ......................................................................... 4 Dorovan series............................................................ 64
How this survey was made......................................... 4 Dothan series............................................................ 64
General soil map for broad land use Escambia series..................................................... 65
planning ....................................................................... 5 Esto series.................................. ........................... 66
1. Lakeland-Troup ............................................ 5 Fuquay series......................................................... 67
2. O rtega-Kureb ................................................... 5 G arcon series.' ............................................................. 67
3. R e Bay-Lucy.................................................. 7 Handsboro series ........................................................ 68
3. Red Bay-Lucy ......... ............................. 8 Johns series......................................................... 69
4. Troup-Orangeburg-Dothan............................. 8 Kalmia series ........................................................ 70
5. Dothan-Orangeburg ........................................ 8 Kinston series ........................................... ............... 71
6. Troup-Dothan-Bonifay ................................. 8 Kureb series.............................................................. 71
7. Pactolus-Rutlege-Mulat.................................. 9 Lakeland series......................................................... 72
8. Bibb-Kinston-Johns...................................... 10 Leon series................................................................ 72
9. Dorovan-Pamlico........................... 11 Lucy series ................................................................. 73
10. Bohicket........................................................ 11 Lynchburg series ...................................................... 74
11. Chewacla-Wahee-Riverview...... ...... 11 Maxton series............................................................ 75
Soil maps for detailed planning.............................. 14 Mulat series ............................................................... 76
Use and management of the soils............................ 42 Orangeburg series ................................................ 76
Crops and pasture ............................. 43 Ortega series.......................................77
Management concerns ........................................... 43 Pamlico series......................................................... 78
Y ields per acre ......................................................... 44 Pickney series .............................................................. 79
Land capability classification.................................. 45 Rains series............................................................... 79
Woodland management and productivity .............. 45 Red Bay series ........................................................... 80
Windbreaks and environmental plantings.............. 46 Riverview series........................................................ 80
R creation ........................................................ ......... 47 R utlege series.................................................. .. 81
W wildlife habitat ...................................................... 48 Tifton series................................................................. 81
Engineering .............................. ... ....................... 49 Troup series .......................................................... 82
Building site development.................................... 50 Wahee series........................... ...................... 83
Sanitary facilities..................................................... 50 Formation of the soils formation ............................................. 84
Construction materials ............................................ 51 Parent material formaton.............................................. 84
Water management.............................................. 52 Climate...... ............................ ...................... 84
Soil properties ........................................................... 53 Plants and animals ...................... ................ ..... 84
Engineering properties............................................. 53 Relief ................................... .......84
Physical and chemical properties.......................... 54 Time ................................... ................................. 85
Soil and water features............................................ 55 Processes of soil formation .................................. 85
Engineering test data....................... 56 References .............................................................. 85
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of Glossary....................................................................... 85
selected soils............................ ................ 56 Tables ............................................................ 91

Issued May 1980








III









Index to map units

Page Page
1-Albany loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......... 15 24-Leon sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.... ............. 29
2- Angie Variant loam.................................................... 15 25- Lucy loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.............. 30
3-Bibb-Kinston association....................................... 16 26-Lucy loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes........... 30
4-Bohicket and Handsboro soils.............................. 17 27-Lynchburg fine sandy loam................................. 31
5-Bonifay loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........ 17 28-Maxton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.. 31
6-Chewacla-Wahee-Riverview association............. 18 29-Mulat loamy fine sand ......................................... 32
7-Dorovan-Pamlico association ............................. 19 30-Orangeburg sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes.. 33
8-Dothan fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes.... 19 31-Orangeburg sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes.. 33
9-Dothan fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes.... 20 32-Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes.. 34
10-Dothan fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent 33-Ortega sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...................... 34
0slopa fes sandy...............21 oe34-Pactolus loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ....... 35
slopes .................................... ............................ 21 35- Pickney loam y sand ................................................ 35
11-Escambia fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 36-Pits .................................. 36
slopes.................................................................... 21 37- Rains fine sandy loam .......................... ............... 36
12-Esto loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes....................... 22 38-Red Bay sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes....... 37
13-Esto loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes.......................... 22 39-Red Bay sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes....... 37
14-Fuquay loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes...... 23 40-Rutlege loamy sand .................... 37
15-Fuquay loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ...... 24 41-Tifton sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ........... 38
16-Garcon loamy fine sand ........................................ 24 42-Tifton sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes ......... 38
17-Gullied land........................................................... 25 43-Tifton sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes ......... 39
18-Johns fine sandy loam......................................... 25 44-Troup loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......... 40
19-Kalmia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes... 26 45-Troup loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ............ 40
20-Kureb sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes ....................... 26 46-Troup loamy sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes......... 41
21-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............... 27 47-Troup-Orangeburg-Cowarts complex, 5 to 12
22- Lakeland sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes............. 27 percent slopes ......................................................... 41
23- Lakeland sand, 12 to 30 percent slopes........... 29 48- Urban land................................................................ 42





























iv









Summary of tables

Page
Temperature and precipitation (table 1)........................................................ 92
Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2) ....................................................... 92
Freeze threshold temperature. Average date of last
occurrence in spring. Average date of first occur-
rence in fall. Average number of days between
dates. Number of occurrences in spring. Number of
occurrences in fall.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3)............................. 93
Acres. Percent.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 4) ............................................ 94
Cotton lint. Corn. Wheat. Peanuts. Soybeans. Bahia-
grass. Improved bermudagrass.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 5)................................................. 97
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Woodland management and productivity (table 6)...................................... 98
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational develop ent (table 7)............................................................... 101
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and
trails.
W wildlife habitat potential (table 8) .................................................................. 105
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat
for-Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland
wildlife.
Building site develop ent (table 9) ..................................... ....................... 108
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial build-
ings. Local raods and streets.
Sanitary facilities (table 10)............................................................................... 111
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily
cover for landfill.
C construction m materials (table 11) ...................................................................... 114
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
W ater m anagem ent (table 12)..................................................................... 117
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Fea-
tures affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and di-
versions, Grassed waterways.








v









Summary of tables-Continued
Page
Engineering properties and classifications (table 13).................................. 121
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified,
AASHTO. Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percent-
age passing sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid
limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of soils (table 14)................................... 127
Depth. Permeability. Available water capacity. Soil re-
action. Salinity. Shrink-swell potential. Erosion fac-
tors. Wind erodibility group.
Soil and w ater features (table 15)..................................................................... 131
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bed-
rock. Risk of corrosion.
Depth to water table at selected sites (table 16)......................................... 133
Soil and elevation. Year. Depth to water table in
inches.
Rainfall at selected sites (table 17) ............................................................... 134
Soil and elevation. Year. Monthly rainfall in inches.
Engineering test data (table 18)........................................................................ 135
Sample number. Depth. Moisture density-Maximum
dry density, Optimum moisture. Mechanical analysis.
Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Classification-AASHTO,
Unified.
Physical properties of selected soils (table 19)............................................ 139
Depth. Horizon. Particle size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density (field moisture). Water con-
tent by weight.
Chemical properties of selected soils (table 20).......................................... 143
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases-Ca, Mg, Na, K,
Sum. Extractable acidity. Sum of cations. Base satu-
ration. Organic carbon. Electrical conductivity. Reac-
tion. Dithionite-citrate extract-Fe, Al.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 21)................................................... 148
Depth. Horizon. Montmorillonite. 14-Angstrom inter-
grade. Kaolinite. Gibbsite. Quartz. Mica.
Classification of the soils (table 22)............................................................... 150
Family or higher taxonomic class.












vi









Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning pro-
grams in Santa Rosa County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for select-
ed land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the
soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of se-
lected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, stu-
dents, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and
pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and en-
hance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground instal-
lations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.





William E. Austin
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service
















vii















^TALLAHASSEE
PENSACOLA- ACKSONVILLE
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APPROXIMATE SCALES
ORLAN o
0 50o 100oo TAMPA
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KILOMETERSi





MIAMI


SState Agricultural Experiment Station


Location of Santa Rosa County in Florida.
Location of Santa Rosa County in Florida.









SOIL SURVEY OF SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA



By Herbert H. Weeks, Adam G. Hyde, Alfred Roberts, Douglas Lewis,
and Craig R. Peters, Soil Conservation Service. Also participating in the fieldwork were Robert C. Williams,
Willie L. Pittman, and George W. Allen

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations
and Soil Science Department and
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

SANTA ROSA COUNTY is in northwestern Florida General nature of the county
(see map on facing page). The county has a total area of
655,360 acres, or 1,024 square miles. About 1,250 acres This section gives general information about Santa
of the county is small bodies of water. The county is Rosa County. Discussed are climate; physiography, relief
about 45 miles across from north to south and 32 miles and drainage; natural resources; history and develop-
from east to west. meant; and farming.
The county is in the Florida Panhandle portion of the Climate
Coastal Plain. The Escambia River, which forms the
Condensed from U.S. Department of Commerce data; James T.
western boundary of the county, is the largest stream in Bradley, climatologist (10, 11).
the area. It flows through a deep gorge. South of the Santa Rosa County has a warm humid-temperate cli-
county is Santa Rosa Sound. A tributary of the Gulf of mate. Summer has l warm humid days. Winter is
mate. Summer has long, warm, humid days. Winter is
Mexico, the sound is separated from the Gulf by a mild and short. The Gulf of Mexico moderates high tem-
narrow strip of land called Santa Rosa Island. peratures in summer and lows in winter along the coast;
Elevation ranges from about 290 feet above sea level however, the Gulf's effect diminishes appreciably a few
in the northern part of the county to sea level in the miles inland. The average annual temperature is 67 de-
southern part (6). The topography is nearly level to grees F, and rainfall averages 65 inches a year.
gently sloping in the northwestern, southern, and central Rainfall is the main form of precipitation. Forty-five
parts of the county. In the northeastern, eastern, and percent of the rain falls during June, July, August, and
southeastern parts it is gently sloping to sloping. September, although unusual amounts may fall during
The county is dissected by a number of large streams; any month. The greatest amount of rain falls in July and
Escambia River to the west, Pond Creek and Goldwater September. October has the least rain. A large propor-
Escambia River to the west, Pond Creek and Goldwater tion of the rain falls during the afternoon and evening as
Creek near the center, and Juniper Creek, Blackwater thundershowers or showers. These showers, which
River, Yellow River, and East River to the east. Most of occur on 40 percent of the days, are widely scattered,
these streams flow southward or southwestward. East short, and often excessive. Sometimes 2 to 4 inches of
River flows westward from Okaloosa County. The rain falls within 1 or 2 hours.
streams meander through Santa Rosa County, causing Winter brings gentle rains of long duration, usually 1 to
some streambank cutting. 3 days. Long-lasting showers in summer usually are as-
Although Santa Rosa County is primarily rural and agri- sociated with tropical disturbances. Rainfall of more than
cultural, the economy is based on industry and the mili- 8 inches during some 24-hour period can be expected in
In 1970, oil was discovered about 1 year in 8, usually when a hurricane passes
tary. In 1970, oil was discovered, through the area.
Milton, the county seat, has a population of 11,500. Snow is rare, and measurable snow occurs about 1
Other towns and communities are Allentown, Bagdad, year in 10. Hailstorms are also infrequent and cover very
Chumuckla, Gulf Breeze, Jay, Holley, Munson, Navarre, restricted areas, so damage is restricted. Ground fog is
and Pace. usually confined to the night and early morning in late

1









SOIL SURVEY OF SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA



By Herbert H. Weeks, Adam G. Hyde, Alfred Roberts, Douglas Lewis,
and Craig R. Peters, Soil Conservation Service. Also participating in the fieldwork were Robert C. Williams,
Willie L. Pittman, and George W. Allen

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations
and Soil Science Department and
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

SANTA ROSA COUNTY is in northwestern Florida General nature of the county
(see map on facing page). The county has a total area of
655,360 acres, or 1,024 square miles. About 1,250 acres This section gives general information about Santa
of the county is small bodies of water. The county is Rosa County. Discussed are climate; physiography, relief
about 45 miles across from north to south and 32 miles and drainage; natural resources; history and develop-
from east to west. meant; and farming.
The county is in the Florida Panhandle portion of the Climate
Coastal Plain. The Escambia River, which forms the
Condensed from U.S. Department of Commerce data; James T.
western boundary of the county, is the largest stream in Bradley, climatologist (10, 11).
the area. It flows through a deep gorge. South of the Santa Rosa County has a warm humid-temperate cli-
county is Santa Rosa Sound. A tributary of the Gulf of mate. Summer has l warm humid days. Winter is
mate. Summer has long, warm, humid days. Winter is
Mexico, the sound is separated from the Gulf by a mild and short. The Gulf of Mexico moderates high tem-
narrow strip of land called Santa Rosa Island. peratures in summer and lows in winter along the coast;
Elevation ranges from about 290 feet above sea level however, the Gulf's effect diminishes appreciably a few
in the northern part of the county to sea level in the miles inland. The average annual temperature is 67 de-
southern part (6). The topography is nearly level to grees F, and rainfall averages 65 inches a year.
gently sloping in the northwestern, southern, and central Rainfall is the main form of precipitation. Forty-five
parts of the county. In the northeastern, eastern, and percent of the rain falls during June, July, August, and
southeastern parts it is gently sloping to sloping. September, although unusual amounts may fall during
The county is dissected by a number of large streams; any month. The greatest amount of rain falls in July and
Escambia River to the west, Pond Creek and Goldwater September. October has the least rain. A large propor-
Escambia River to the west, Pond Creek and Goldwater tion of the rain falls during the afternoon and evening as
Creek near the center, and Juniper Creek, Blackwater thundershowers or showers. These showers, which
River, Yellow River, and East River to the east. Most of occur on 40 percent of the days, are widely scattered,
these streams flow southward or southwestward. East short, and often excessive. Sometimes 2 to 4 inches of
River flows westward from Okaloosa County. The rain falls within 1 or 2 hours.
streams meander through Santa Rosa County, causing Winter brings gentle rains of long duration, usually 1 to
some streambank cutting. 3 days. Long-lasting showers in summer usually are as-
Although Santa Rosa County is primarily rural and agri- sociated with tropical disturbances. Rainfall of more than
cultural, the economy is based on industry and the mili- 8 inches during some 24-hour period can be expected in
In 1970, oil was discovered about 1 year in 8, usually when a hurricane passes
tary. In 1970, oil was discovered, through the area.
Milton, the county seat, has a population of 11,500. Snow is rare, and measurable snow occurs about 1
Other towns and communities are Allentown, Bagdad, year in 10. Hailstorms are also infrequent and cover very
Chumuckla, Gulf Breeze, Jay, Holley, Munson, Navarre, restricted areas, so damage is restricted. Ground fog is
and Pace. usually confined to the night and early morning in late

1







2 SOIL SURVEY


fall, winter, and early spring. The sun usually dissipates graphic divisions, the Western Highlands and the Gulf
the fog very quickly. Coastal Lowlands (4).
The Gulf of Mexico tempers the cold of winter, and The Western Highlands is a southwardly sloping pla-
causes cool sea breezes to move across the land on teau whose surface has been cut by numerous streams.
summer days. The average temperature in summer Most of Santa Rosa County is in the Western Highlands.
(June, July, August) is 80.1 degrees F. Cloudiness and Some of the best land for farming and forest is in this
associated thundershowers and showers relieve the heat area. Three principal streams-the Escambia, Black-
and humidity. The average temperature in winter (De- water, and Yellow Rivers-drain this area. The many
and humidity. The average temperature in winter (De- smaller streams that feed these rivers have a trellis
member, January, February) is 54.3 degrees. The highest drainage pattern. Many of these streams commonly head
recorded temperature is 104 degrees and the lowest is in small steep-sided box canyons known as "steep-
10 degrees, heads." Steepheads form where undermining by
Winter is mild but is punctuated by periodic invasions springs create steep slopes at the head of smaller
of cold air masses from the north. These cold periods streams. The soils on the Western Highlands are pre-
last 1 to 3 days. The second day is usually the coldest dominantly well drained to excessively drained and are
because during the night, under clear skies, radiational nearly level to gently rolling. Several faults in the north-
cooling is accelerated and temperature plummets during ern part of the county form steep hills. The elevation of
the early morning. Unprotected water pipes may freeze. this area ranges from 100 to 290 feet above sea level.
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation for The Gulf Coastal Lowlands is the low-lying area of
the survey area. southern Santa Rosa County. It consists of relatively
The average date of the last freezing temperature in undissected, nearly level plains. The highest terrace has
spring is February 18, and the average date of the earli- an elevation of about 100 feet. At least 50 miles of
est freeze in autumn is December 15. The average grow- shoreline scarps carved by the Penholoway sea are pre-
ing season is 300 days. The earliest freezing tempera- served along the valleys of the Escambia, Blackwater,
ture ever recorded in fall is October 27 and the latest in Yellow, and East Bay Rivers. The largest unbroken ter-
spring is April 10. Table 2 shows the expected dates for race area in westernmost Florida is the peninsula that
extends southward between the mouths of the Escambia
freezing temperatures in Santa Rosa County. and Yellow Rivers, separating Escambia Bay from East
March is the windiest month, and August has the Bay. This area covers about 27 square miles. The low-
lowest average windspeed. Windspeed averages be- lying area consists of flatwoods (fig. 1) and mixed hard-
tween 8 and 15 miles per hour during the day and wood swamps. The soils in the Gulf Coastal Lowlands
usually drops below 8 miles per hour at night. The pre- are predominantly moderately well drained to very poorly
vailing winds blow from the north and northwest during drained and are nearly level. Elevation ranges from sea
fall and winter and from the south and southwest in level to 30 feet above sea level.
spring and summer. During summer a moderate sea
breeze usually blows off the Gulf of Mexico, although the Natural resources
breeze diminishes greatly further inland. High winds of Soil is one of the main natural resources in Santa
short duration occur occasionally in connection with Rosa County. More than half of the soils in the county
thunderstorms in summer and with fronts moving across are productive of the common crops and pasture
the county in other seasons. Tropical disturbances can grasses. The long growing season, favorable climate,
generate very destructive winds up to 200 miles per and adequate water supply all help make this county
hour. These seriously destructive hurricanes occur 1 year good for farming.
in 8. Water is also a very important natural resource in
Hurricanes, with high winds and accompanying rainfall, Santa Rosa County. Most of the water for domestic and
can destroy crops by wind damage and flooding. There industrial uses comes from wells. There are many peren-
is also a greater erosion potential when more than one- nial streams throughout the county. Many of these
half inch of rain falls within an hour or two. streams offer a wide variety of recreational activities and
At the other extreme, there is an occasional short also have high potential for industrial uses. On many
drought late in spring, when plants are beginning to grow farms that do not have adequate surface water, earthfill
and temperature is high. This moisture deficit can ponds have been constructed. Most of these ponds pro-
damage crops, pastures, and gardens, and can only be vide water for livestock and opportunities for boating and
overcome by supplemental irrigation, fishing.
Forestry and forest products are important in Santa
Physiography, relief, and drainage Rosa County. Much of the county remains in woodland,
which will continue to be one of the major natural re-
Santa Rosa County lies in the Coastal Plain, a broad sources.
belt consisting primarily of unconsolidated sands, silts, Other natural resources of the county include oil, natu-
and clay (6). The county can be divided into two physio- ral gas, sand, gravel, and soil material suitable for road







2 SOIL SURVEY


fall, winter, and early spring. The sun usually dissipates graphic divisions, the Western Highlands and the Gulf
the fog very quickly. Coastal Lowlands (4).
The Gulf of Mexico tempers the cold of winter, and The Western Highlands is a southwardly sloping pla-
causes cool sea breezes to move across the land on teau whose surface has been cut by numerous streams.
summer days. The average temperature in summer Most of Santa Rosa County is in the Western Highlands.
(June, July, August) is 80.1 degrees F. Cloudiness and Some of the best land for farming and forest is in this
associated thundershowers and showers relieve the heat area. Three principal streams-the Escambia, Black-
and humidity. The average temperature in winter (De- water, and Yellow Rivers-drain this area. The many
and humidity. The average temperature in winter (De- smaller streams that feed these rivers have a trellis
member, January, February) is 54.3 degrees. The highest drainage pattern. Many of these streams commonly head
recorded temperature is 104 degrees and the lowest is in small steep-sided box canyons known as "steep-
10 degrees, heads." Steepheads form where undermining by
Winter is mild but is punctuated by periodic invasions springs create steep slopes at the head of smaller
of cold air masses from the north. These cold periods streams. The soils on the Western Highlands are pre-
last 1 to 3 days. The second day is usually the coldest dominantly well drained to excessively drained and are
because during the night, under clear skies, radiational nearly level to gently rolling. Several faults in the north-
cooling is accelerated and temperature plummets during ern part of the county form steep hills. The elevation of
the early morning. Unprotected water pipes may freeze. this area ranges from 100 to 290 feet above sea level.
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation for The Gulf Coastal Lowlands is the low-lying area of
the survey area. southern Santa Rosa County. It consists of relatively
The average date of the last freezing temperature in undissected, nearly level plains. The highest terrace has
spring is February 18, and the average date of the earli- an elevation of about 100 feet. At least 50 miles of
est freeze in autumn is December 15. The average grow- shoreline scarps carved by the Penholoway sea are pre-
ing season is 300 days. The earliest freezing tempera- served along the valleys of the Escambia, Blackwater,
ture ever recorded in fall is October 27 and the latest in Yellow, and East Bay Rivers. The largest unbroken ter-
spring is April 10. Table 2 shows the expected dates for race area in westernmost Florida is the peninsula that
extends southward between the mouths of the Escambia
freezing temperatures in Santa Rosa County. and Yellow Rivers, separating Escambia Bay from East
March is the windiest month, and August has the Bay. This area covers about 27 square miles. The low-
lowest average windspeed. Windspeed averages be- lying area consists of flatwoods (fig. 1) and mixed hard-
tween 8 and 15 miles per hour during the day and wood swamps. The soils in the Gulf Coastal Lowlands
usually drops below 8 miles per hour at night. The pre- are predominantly moderately well drained to very poorly
vailing winds blow from the north and northwest during drained and are nearly level. Elevation ranges from sea
fall and winter and from the south and southwest in level to 30 feet above sea level.
spring and summer. During summer a moderate sea
breeze usually blows off the Gulf of Mexico, although the Natural resources
breeze diminishes greatly further inland. High winds of Soil is one of the main natural resources in Santa
short duration occur occasionally in connection with Rosa County. More than half of the soils in the county
thunderstorms in summer and with fronts moving across are productive of the common crops and pasture
the county in other seasons. Tropical disturbances can grasses. The long growing season, favorable climate,
generate very destructive winds up to 200 miles per and adequate water supply all help make this county
hour. These seriously destructive hurricanes occur 1 year good for farming.
in 8. Water is also a very important natural resource in
Hurricanes, with high winds and accompanying rainfall, Santa Rosa County. Most of the water for domestic and
can destroy crops by wind damage and flooding. There industrial uses comes from wells. There are many peren-
is also a greater erosion potential when more than one- nial streams throughout the county. Many of these
half inch of rain falls within an hour or two. streams offer a wide variety of recreational activities and
At the other extreme, there is an occasional short also have high potential for industrial uses. On many
drought late in spring, when plants are beginning to grow farms that do not have adequate surface water, earthfill
and temperature is high. This moisture deficit can ponds have been constructed. Most of these ponds pro-
damage crops, pastures, and gardens, and can only be vide water for livestock and opportunities for boating and
overcome by supplemental irrigation, fishing.
Forestry and forest products are important in Santa
Physiography, relief, and drainage Rosa County. Much of the county remains in woodland,
which will continue to be one of the major natural re-
Santa Rosa County lies in the Coastal Plain, a broad sources.
belt consisting primarily of unconsolidated sands, silts, Other natural resources of the county include oil, natu-
and clay (6). The county can be divided into two physio- ral gas, sand, gravel, and soil material suitable for road







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 3










































Figure 1.-Leon sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, in the flatwoods. Typical vegetation on these poorly drained soils is sawpalmetto, pineland
threeawn, gallberry, and scattered pine.




construction. The major oil producing area is in the honor of the family of John Milton, an early governor of
northwestern part of the county. Florida. At this early date the trading post was accessi-
The natural resources in Santa Rosa County can be ble by river and by stagecoach (5).
developed in an orderly manner. Good management, Santa Rosa County was originally covered by dense
proper use, and wise conservation are needed to pre- forest. Longleaf pine grew on the uplands, and mixed
serve these resources for the future. hardwoods grew on the bottom lands. The early settlers
raised cattle, sheep, hogs, and poultry. Some of the
History and development crops grown were cotton, tobacco, sugarcane, cowpeas,
velvetbeans, Irish potatoes, corn, peanuts, and fruits.
Don Tristan de Luna, the Spanish conquistador, ex- In the early days, the principal industries were at
plored what is now Santa Rosa County in 1559. In 1825 Bagdad on the Blackwater River. The Bagdad Land and
a trading post was established and was named Milton in Lumber Company began in 1828 and operated continu-






4 SOIL SURVEY


ously until 1929. The first cotton textile mill in the South The enactment of Soil Conservation District legislation
was built near Milton. in 1937 stirred the interest of many landowners in Santa
Santa Rosa County was formed in 1842. Floridatown Rosa County. The Blackwater Soil and Water Conserva-
was the first county seat. The county seat was moved to tion District was organized on March 17, 1942. Its aim is
Milton after an epidemic of yellow fever in 1842. to provide an organized plan for assisting farmers, land
Industry has greatly changed since the early years of users, and public agencies with problems related to soil
settlement. The major sources of income are agriculture, and water conservation.
manufacturing, forestry, and military installations. Over The capability of many of the soils, the climate, and
half of the county is used for the production of forest present economic conditions indicate that farming will
products. Several major manufacturing companies have continue to be important in Santa Rosa County.
located here. Their products range from acrylic fibers
and lingerie to fertilizer. Two government installations are
also located in the county and are of great importance to How this survey was made
the local economy: Whiting Field Naval Air Station, and
Eglin Air Force Base. These installations train military Soil scientists made this survey to learn what soils are
personnel. The most recent industrial developments in in the survey area, where they are, and how they can be
the county are oil wells and refineries, used. They observed the steepness, length, and shape
Medical facilities in Santa Rosa County are complete of slopes; the size of streams and the general pattern of
and modern. There are hospitals in Milton and in Jay. drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops; and the
Other health services are provided by the County Health kinds of rock. They dug many holes to study soil profiles.
Department. A profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in
The county sponsors 22 schools with an enrollment of a soil. It extends from the surface down into the parent
more than 10,000 students. A private school is also material, which has been changed very little by leaching
available for grades K-12. Pensacola Junior College has or by plant roots.
a center at Milton. The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
Santa Rosa County has good transportation facilities, profiles they studied and compared those profiles with
Several county, State, and Federal highways provide effi- others in nearby counties and in more distant places.
cient mobility within and through the county. Rail and bus They classified and named the soils according to nation-
transportation is available in the county, along with sev- wide uniform procedures. They drew the boundaries of
eral truck lines. Commerical air service connections are the soils on aerial photographs. These photographs
available at Eglin Air Force Base and nearby Pensacola. show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and other details that
Milton is on the Blackwater River, and a 9-foot channel help in drawing boundaries accurately. The soil maps at
provides access for barges. Deepwater port facilities are the back of this publication were prepared from aerial
available at Pensacola, 22 miles from Milton. photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called map units.
Farming Most map units are made up of one kind of soil. Some
are made up of two or more kinds. The map units in this
Santa Rosa County is mainly a general farming area. survey area are described under "General soil map for
The principal crops are soybeans, corn, peanuts, cotton, broad land use planning" and "Soil maps for detailed
and small grains. Small acreages of truck crops and planning."
pecan groves are also grown. Most of the cropland is in While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
the northwestern part of the county north of U. S. High- soils are taken for laboratory measurements and for en-
way 90. Livestock production also contributes to the gineering tests. All soils are field tested to determine
farming industry of the county. Cattle, hogs, and poultry their characteristics. Interpretations of those characteris-
are the main livestock. tics may be modified during the survey. Data are assem-
Approximately 90,000 acres, or 14 percent, of Santa bled from other sources, such as test results, records,
Rosa County is in crops and pasture. About 19 percent field experience, and state and local specialists. For ex-
of this is pasture. The main pasture grasses used for ample, data on crop yields under defined management
livestock grazing and hay are bahiagrass and Coastal are assembled from farm records and from field or plot
bermudagrass. experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Much of the cropland is subject to water and wind But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
erosion. The soils in this county are some of the best in have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
Florida for farming, but because of their susceptibility to on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
erosion, conservation measures such as terraces, gully other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed
control structures, grassed waterways, and permanent information then needs to be organized so that it can be
vegetation are necessary for maximum protection. used by farmers, rangeland and woodland managers,






4 SOIL SURVEY


ously until 1929. The first cotton textile mill in the South The enactment of Soil Conservation District legislation
was built near Milton. in 1937 stirred the interest of many landowners in Santa
Santa Rosa County was formed in 1842. Floridatown Rosa County. The Blackwater Soil and Water Conserva-
was the first county seat. The county seat was moved to tion District was organized on March 17, 1942. Its aim is
Milton after an epidemic of yellow fever in 1842. to provide an organized plan for assisting farmers, land
Industry has greatly changed since the early years of users, and public agencies with problems related to soil
settlement. The major sources of income are agriculture, and water conservation.
manufacturing, forestry, and military installations. Over The capability of many of the soils, the climate, and
half of the county is used for the production of forest present economic conditions indicate that farming will
products. Several major manufacturing companies have continue to be important in Santa Rosa County.
located here. Their products range from acrylic fibers
and lingerie to fertilizer. Two government installations are
also located in the county and are of great importance to How this survey was made
the local economy: Whiting Field Naval Air Station, and
Eglin Air Force Base. These installations train military Soil scientists made this survey to learn what soils are
personnel. The most recent industrial developments in in the survey area, where they are, and how they can be
the county are oil wells and refineries, used. They observed the steepness, length, and shape
Medical facilities in Santa Rosa County are complete of slopes; the size of streams and the general pattern of
and modern. There are hospitals in Milton and in Jay. drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops; and the
Other health services are provided by the County Health kinds of rock. They dug many holes to study soil profiles.
Department. A profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in
The county sponsors 22 schools with an enrollment of a soil. It extends from the surface down into the parent
more than 10,000 students. A private school is also material, which has been changed very little by leaching
available for grades K-12. Pensacola Junior College has or by plant roots.
a center at Milton. The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
Santa Rosa County has good transportation facilities, profiles they studied and compared those profiles with
Several county, State, and Federal highways provide effi- others in nearby counties and in more distant places.
cient mobility within and through the county. Rail and bus They classified and named the soils according to nation-
transportation is available in the county, along with sev- wide uniform procedures. They drew the boundaries of
eral truck lines. Commerical air service connections are the soils on aerial photographs. These photographs
available at Eglin Air Force Base and nearby Pensacola. show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and other details that
Milton is on the Blackwater River, and a 9-foot channel help in drawing boundaries accurately. The soil maps at
provides access for barges. Deepwater port facilities are the back of this publication were prepared from aerial
available at Pensacola, 22 miles from Milton. photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called map units.
Farming Most map units are made up of one kind of soil. Some
are made up of two or more kinds. The map units in this
Santa Rosa County is mainly a general farming area. survey area are described under "General soil map for
The principal crops are soybeans, corn, peanuts, cotton, broad land use planning" and "Soil maps for detailed
and small grains. Small acreages of truck crops and planning."
pecan groves are also grown. Most of the cropland is in While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
the northwestern part of the county north of U. S. High- soils are taken for laboratory measurements and for en-
way 90. Livestock production also contributes to the gineering tests. All soils are field tested to determine
farming industry of the county. Cattle, hogs, and poultry their characteristics. Interpretations of those characteris-
are the main livestock. tics may be modified during the survey. Data are assem-
Approximately 90,000 acres, or 14 percent, of Santa bled from other sources, such as test results, records,
Rosa County is in crops and pasture. About 19 percent field experience, and state and local specialists. For ex-
of this is pasture. The main pasture grasses used for ample, data on crop yields under defined management
livestock grazing and hay are bahiagrass and Coastal are assembled from farm records and from field or plot
bermudagrass. experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Much of the cropland is subject to water and wind But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
erosion. The soils in this county are some of the best in have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
Florida for farming, but because of their susceptibility to on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
erosion, conservation measures such as terraces, gully other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed
control structures, grassed waterways, and permanent information then needs to be organized so that it can be
vegetation are necessary for maximum protection. used by farmers, rangeland and woodland managers,






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 5



engineers, planners, developers and builders, home Troup soils are nearly level to gently sloping and are
buyers, and others. well drained. The soils are 40 to 80 inches of sand over
sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
General soil map for broad land use The minor soils in this unit are well drained Bonifay
planning soils, moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
drained Pactolus soils, and very poorly drained Rutlege
The general soil map at the back of this publication soils.
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of Most of this unit remains in the native vegetation of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general scrub oak, wiregrass, and scattered pine. About 60 per-
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor cent of this unit is on a military reservation (Eglin Air
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up Force Base) and is used for troop training and seasonal
one unit can occur in other units but in a different pat- hunting.
tern. The soils in this unit have low potential for cultivated
The general soil map can be used to compare the crops and pasture because of low available water capac-
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of ity and steepness in some areas.
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, The soils in this unit are well suited to woodland and
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for wildlife habitat. The Troup soils produce better timber
planning the management of a farm or field or for select- than the Lakeland soils.
ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The In most areas the soils are well suited to development
soils in any one map unit differ from place to place in of recreation sites and to urban uses. The potential for
slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that sanitary facilities is high except in areas of Pactolus and
affect management. Rutlege soils.

Areas dominated by sandy, drought soils 2. Ortega-Kureb
The two map units of this group consist mainly of Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
excessively drained to moderately well drained, nearly and excessively drained soils that are sandy throughout
level to strongly sloping soils that are sandy to a depth This unit is in the flatwoods in the southern part of
of 80 inches or more. Less extensive are well drained Santa Rosa County between Santa Rosa Sound and
soils that have loamy material at a depth of 40 to 80 East Bay. This unit is higher than the surrounding soils.
inches. Ortega soils are on the high ridges, and Kureb soils are
This group is in the southern and southeastern parts at the higher elevations.
of Santa Rosa County. This unit covers about 15,000 acres, or about 2 per-
cent of the county. This map unit is about 35 percent
1. Lakeland-Troup Ortega soils, 22 percent Kureb soils, and 43 percent
Nearly level to strongly sloping soils; some are exces- soils of minor extent.
sively drained and sandy throughout, and some are well Ortega soils are moderately well drained. The surface
drained and have at least 40 inches of sand over a layer is very dark gray sand about 4 inches thick. Below
loamy subsoil this to a depth of 80 inches or more is sand in various
is primarily in the southeastern part of colors of brown and yellow. The water table is at a depth
This unit (fig. 2) is primarily in the southeastern part of of 40 to 60 inches for most of the year., Below the
Santa Rosa County. It consists of broad areas of rolling permanent water table, the soil is generally leached pale
sandhills interspersed with long, narrow bottom lands brown to white. The water table may be above a depth
surrounded by steep side slopes. The Troup soils are b
generally on side slopes in the sandhils and in broad of 40 inches during periods of heavy rainfall but general-
areas in other parts of the county. The Lakeland soils ly not for more than 2 months.
generally are higher than the Troup soils but in some Kureb soils are excessively drained and very drought.
places are at the same elevation. The surface layer is sand that has a salt-and-pepper
This map unit covers about 100,000 acres, or about 15 appearance. Below this is yellowish brown and pale
percent of the county. The map unit is about 75 percent brown sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. These soils
percent have no high water table or drainage problem.
Lakeland soils, 15 percent Troup soils, and 10 percent The minor soils in this unit are poorly drained Leon
soils of minor extent. soils, very poorly drained Rutlege soils, somewhat poorly
Lakeland soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, drained Pactolus soils, and excessively drained Lakeland
deep, excessively drained, and drought. They are sand soils.
more than 80 inches thick. Most of this unit is in live oak, scattered sand pine,






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 5



engineers, planners, developers and builders, home Troup soils are nearly level to gently sloping and are
buyers, and others. well drained. The soils are 40 to 80 inches of sand over
sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
General soil map for broad land use The minor soils in this unit are well drained Bonifay
planning soils, moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
drained Pactolus soils, and very poorly drained Rutlege
The general soil map at the back of this publication soils.
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of Most of this unit remains in the native vegetation of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general scrub oak, wiregrass, and scattered pine. About 60 per-
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor cent of this unit is on a military reservation (Eglin Air
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up Force Base) and is used for troop training and seasonal
one unit can occur in other units but in a different pat- hunting.
tern. The soils in this unit have low potential for cultivated
The general soil map can be used to compare the crops and pasture because of low available water capac-
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of ity and steepness in some areas.
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, The soils in this unit are well suited to woodland and
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for wildlife habitat. The Troup soils produce better timber
planning the management of a farm or field or for select- than the Lakeland soils.
ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The In most areas the soils are well suited to development
soils in any one map unit differ from place to place in of recreation sites and to urban uses. The potential for
slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that sanitary facilities is high except in areas of Pactolus and
affect management. Rutlege soils.

Areas dominated by sandy, drought soils 2. Ortega-Kureb
The two map units of this group consist mainly of Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
excessively drained to moderately well drained, nearly and excessively drained soils that are sandy throughout
level to strongly sloping soils that are sandy to a depth This unit is in the flatwoods in the southern part of
of 80 inches or more. Less extensive are well drained Santa Rosa County between Santa Rosa Sound and
soils that have loamy material at a depth of 40 to 80 East Bay. This unit is higher than the surrounding soils.
inches. Ortega soils are on the high ridges, and Kureb soils are
This group is in the southern and southeastern parts at the higher elevations.
of Santa Rosa County. This unit covers about 15,000 acres, or about 2 per-
cent of the county. This map unit is about 35 percent
1. Lakeland-Troup Ortega soils, 22 percent Kureb soils, and 43 percent
Nearly level to strongly sloping soils; some are exces- soils of minor extent.
sively drained and sandy throughout, and some are well Ortega soils are moderately well drained. The surface
drained and have at least 40 inches of sand over a layer is very dark gray sand about 4 inches thick. Below
loamy subsoil this to a depth of 80 inches or more is sand in various
is primarily in the southeastern part of colors of brown and yellow. The water table is at a depth
This unit (fig. 2) is primarily in the southeastern part of of 40 to 60 inches for most of the year., Below the
Santa Rosa County. It consists of broad areas of rolling permanent water table, the soil is generally leached pale
sandhills interspersed with long, narrow bottom lands brown to white. The water table may be above a depth
surrounded by steep side slopes. The Troup soils are b
generally on side slopes in the sandhils and in broad of 40 inches during periods of heavy rainfall but general-
areas in other parts of the county. The Lakeland soils ly not for more than 2 months.
generally are higher than the Troup soils but in some Kureb soils are excessively drained and very drought.
places are at the same elevation. The surface layer is sand that has a salt-and-pepper
This map unit covers about 100,000 acres, or about 15 appearance. Below this is yellowish brown and pale
percent of the county. The map unit is about 75 percent brown sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. These soils
percent have no high water table or drainage problem.
Lakeland soils, 15 percent Troup soils, and 10 percent The minor soils in this unit are poorly drained Leon
soils of minor extent. soils, very poorly drained Rutlege soils, somewhat poorly
Lakeland soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, drained Pactolus soils, and excessively drained Lakeland
deep, excessively drained, and drought. They are sand soils.
more than 80 inches thick. Most of this unit is in live oak, scattered sand pine,






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 5



engineers, planners, developers and builders, home Troup soils are nearly level to gently sloping and are
buyers, and others. well drained. The soils are 40 to 80 inches of sand over
sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
General soil map for broad land use The minor soils in this unit are well drained Bonifay
planning soils, moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
drained Pactolus soils, and very poorly drained Rutlege
The general soil map at the back of this publication soils.
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of Most of this unit remains in the native vegetation of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general scrub oak, wiregrass, and scattered pine. About 60 per-
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor cent of this unit is on a military reservation (Eglin Air
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up Force Base) and is used for troop training and seasonal
one unit can occur in other units but in a different pat- hunting.
tern. The soils in this unit have low potential for cultivated
The general soil map can be used to compare the crops and pasture because of low available water capac-
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of ity and steepness in some areas.
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, The soils in this unit are well suited to woodland and
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for wildlife habitat. The Troup soils produce better timber
planning the management of a farm or field or for select- than the Lakeland soils.
ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The In most areas the soils are well suited to development
soils in any one map unit differ from place to place in of recreation sites and to urban uses. The potential for
slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that sanitary facilities is high except in areas of Pactolus and
affect management. Rutlege soils.

Areas dominated by sandy, drought soils 2. Ortega-Kureb
The two map units of this group consist mainly of Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
excessively drained to moderately well drained, nearly and excessively drained soils that are sandy throughout
level to strongly sloping soils that are sandy to a depth This unit is in the flatwoods in the southern part of
of 80 inches or more. Less extensive are well drained Santa Rosa County between Santa Rosa Sound and
soils that have loamy material at a depth of 40 to 80 East Bay. This unit is higher than the surrounding soils.
inches. Ortega soils are on the high ridges, and Kureb soils are
This group is in the southern and southeastern parts at the higher elevations.
of Santa Rosa County. This unit covers about 15,000 acres, or about 2 per-
cent of the county. This map unit is about 35 percent
1. Lakeland-Troup Ortega soils, 22 percent Kureb soils, and 43 percent
Nearly level to strongly sloping soils; some are exces- soils of minor extent.
sively drained and sandy throughout, and some are well Ortega soils are moderately well drained. The surface
drained and have at least 40 inches of sand over a layer is very dark gray sand about 4 inches thick. Below
loamy subsoil this to a depth of 80 inches or more is sand in various
is primarily in the southeastern part of colors of brown and yellow. The water table is at a depth
This unit (fig. 2) is primarily in the southeastern part of of 40 to 60 inches for most of the year., Below the
Santa Rosa County. It consists of broad areas of rolling permanent water table, the soil is generally leached pale
sandhills interspersed with long, narrow bottom lands brown to white. The water table may be above a depth
surrounded by steep side slopes. The Troup soils are b
generally on side slopes in the sandhils and in broad of 40 inches during periods of heavy rainfall but general-
areas in other parts of the county. The Lakeland soils ly not for more than 2 months.
generally are higher than the Troup soils but in some Kureb soils are excessively drained and very drought.
places are at the same elevation. The surface layer is sand that has a salt-and-pepper
This map unit covers about 100,000 acres, or about 15 appearance. Below this is yellowish brown and pale
percent of the county. The map unit is about 75 percent brown sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. These soils
percent have no high water table or drainage problem.
Lakeland soils, 15 percent Troup soils, and 10 percent The minor soils in this unit are poorly drained Leon
soils of minor extent. soils, very poorly drained Rutlege soils, somewhat poorly
Lakeland soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, drained Pactolus soils, and excessively drained Lakeland
deep, excessively drained, and drought. They are sand soils.
more than 80 inches thick. Most of this unit is in live oak, scattered sand pine,







6 SOIL SURVEY










































Figure 2.-Turkey oak and pine with sparse ground cover on Lakeland-Troup general soil map unit. Soil is Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes.



and scrub oak. The ground cover is usually sparse on suited to urban development. The minor soils are limited
the Kureb soils and in most areas of the Ortega soils. by drainage.
Most of this unit is being developed for urban uses. A
few thousand acres in the southwest corner of the Areas dominated by well drained soils
county (the City of Gulf Breeze) is all urban. that have a loamy subsoil
The soils in this unit are poorly suited to cultivated The four map units of this group consist mainly of well
'drained, nearly level to strongly sloping, highly dissected
limitation. Irrigation, liming, and frequent applications of din a lvelo sol So hi dis
fertilizer are needed for the best production. soils that have a loamy subsoil. Some of these soilsthe
The soils in this unit are poorly suited to campsites, soils have 20 to 40 inches of sand over a loamy subsoil,
paths and trails, and other recreational uses because of and a large area is soils that have 40 to 80 inches of
the sandy surface layer. The soils are generally well sand over sandy clay loam.







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 7



This group lies north of Milton. The greatest area of subsoil. These soils appear dusky red in fields.
the soils that have a thin sandy surface layer is in the Lucy soils have 20 to 40 inches of sand over a red
northwestern part of the county. loamy subsoil. These soils are more sandy than Red Bay
soils and appear lighter in freshly cultivated fields.
3. Red Bay-Lucy The minor soils in this unit are well drained Dothan,
Nearly level to sloping, well drained, loamy and sandy Orangeburg, and Troup soils.
Nearly level to sloping we drained, loamy and sandy Most of this unit is used for cultivated crops. Nearly all
soils that have a red or dark red, loamy subsoil of the acreage has been cleared and is farmed exten-
This map unit consists of cleared and cultivated farm- sively. The soils of this unit have very few limitations for
land in the northwestern part of Santa Rosa County near any use and generally need only simple management.
Jay. A few thousand acres of this unit is near the center The soils in this unit have very few limitations for
of the county around Allentown, where farming is also farming. This map unit comprises the prime farmland of
quite extensive. The areas are mostly large and the soils Santa Rosa County.
flat; the sloping soils are along the edges of the fields The soils have high potential for woodland. Seedling
near sandy-bottomed creeks or streams. mortality is very low. Available water capacity is opti-
This unit covers about 36,000 acres, or about 5 per- mum.
cent of the county. This unit is about 42 percent Red The soils in this unit are well suited to campsites,
Bay soils, 33 percent Lucy soils, and 25 percent soils of hiking trails, picnic areas, and other recreational uses.
minor extent. The potential for urban uses and dwellings is high. Sani-
Red Bay soils have a thin sandy surface layer less tary facilities such as septic tank absorption fields work
than 10 inches thick over a dark red and red loamy quite adequately throughout this unit.


































Figure 3.-Pine and pineland threeawn on the steep Troup-Orangeburg-Dothan general soil map unit. Vegetation should be maintained on
these areas to prevent erosion.






8 SOIL SURVEY



4. Troup-Orangeburg-Dothan Dothan soils, 15 percent Orangeburg soils, and 50 per-
Sloping to strongly sloping, well drained, sandy and cent soils of minor extent.
loamy soils that have a loamy subsoil Dothan soils have a fine sandy loam surface layer less
than 20 inches thick over a yellow, loamy subsoil. During
This map unit (fig. 3) consists of undulating sandy soils periods of heavy rainfall, these soils may have a perched
on sides of steep hills separated by long, narrow stream water table over a restricting layer of firm and brittle
bottoms. These areas are mainly in the extreme western plinthite nodules.
and northwestern parts of Santa Rosa County where the pOirnte no ules.
uplands drop to the terraces adjacent to the Escambia Orangeburg soils have a red loamy subsoil at a depth
River bottom land. A small area is on rolling terrain in the of less than 20 inches. These soils are dryer than
north-central part of the county. Dothan soils.
This unit covers about 26,500 acres, or about 4 per- The minor soils in this unit are well drained Bonifay,
cent of the county. This map unit is about 45 percent Esto, Fuquay, Lucy, Tifton, and Troup soils; somewhat
Troup soils, 10 percent Orangeburg soils, 10 percent poorly drained Escambia and Lynchburg soils; and poorly
Dothan soils, and 35 percent soils of minor extent. drained Rains soils.
Troup soils have a yellowish brown sand surface layer Most of this unit is in forest of longleaf and splash
about 2 inches thick over 50 inches of loamy sand. The pine. Several thousand acres in the western part of the
subsoil is red sandy loam and sandy clay loam to a county is used for row crops and pasture. The wetter
depth of 80 inches or more. This soil is well drained and county is used for row crops and pasture. The wetter
contains more sand than the other soils of the unit. minor soils are used mainly for pasture. The soils in this
Orangeburg soils have a dark brown sandy loam sur- unit are well suited to most uses; limitations are few.
face layer about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is red sandy Some of the minor soils are limited by wetness.
clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. The soils in this unit have high potential for crops and
Dothan soils may have a perched water table during pasture. Row crops and pasture grow well on these
periods of heavy rainfall. The surface layer is very dark soils. Good management and terraces constructed
gray fine sandy loam about 7 inches thick. The subsoil is where slope is a limitation reduce erosion on land
yellow and brownish yellow sandy loam and sandy clay cleared for farming. Under such management, these
loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. In places this soil soils are highly productive.
contains as much as 15 percent reddish brown iron con- The soils in this unit are well suited to woodland,
cretions between depths of 20 and 60 inches. wildlife habitat, and recreation. Wetness is a concern in
The minor soils in this unit are well drained Bonifay, wildlife habitat, and recreation. Wetness is a concern in
Fuquay, and Lucy soils and the poorly drained Bibb soils. areas of minor soils. The major soils are highly erodible
Most of this unit is forested. The soils are highly erod- where slope is more than 5 percent.
ible because slopes are as steep as 35 percent. The potential for urban development is high. The po-
The soils in this unit are poorly suited to cultivated tential for sanitary facilities is moderate; absorption fields
crops. Steepness and susceptibility to erosion are the should be enlarged to compensate for the slower move-
main limitations. Terraces, grassed waterways, contour ment of effluent through these soils.
cropping, and rotations that include close-growing cover
crops reduce erosion. The various pasture grasses help 6. Troup-Dothan-Bonifay
stabilize slopes and are well suited to these soils.
The soils in this unit are well suited to woodland. Gently sloping to strongly sloping, well drained soils;
Trees help stabilize the slopes and keep the soil in some have 40 inches of sand over a loamy subsoil, and
place. Seedling mortality is low because moisture con- some are sandy or loamy and have a loamy subsoil at a
tent is optimum. shallow depth
The potential for urban development and recreational
uses is low. Steepness and susceptibility to erosion are This map unit is north of Milton. This unit is higher
the main limitations.ap unt s north of Mon hs nit is higher
than the surrounding soils. The soils are mainly undulat-
5. Dothan-Orangeburg ing. The Troup soils are generally higher than the other
soils in this unit.
Nearly level to sloping, well drained, loamy soils that This map unit covers about 179,000 acres, or about 27
have a loamy subsoil at a depth of less than 20 inches percent of the county. This unit is about 53 percent
Troup soils, 15 percent Dothan soils, 12 percent Bonifay
This map unit (fig. 4) is scattered throughout Santa soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
Rosa County north of U. S. Highway 90. Most of the unit Troup soils have a thick, sandy surface layer. Loamy
is in the north-central part of the county. The soils are red material is at a depth of 40 to 80 inches.
undulating. Dothan soils have a loamy surface layer less than 20
This unit covers about 108,700 acres, or about 17 inches thick. They have a yellow, loamy subsoil that
percent of the county. This unit is about 35 percent contains firm, brittle plinthite nodules. In places, these






8 SOIL SURVEY



4. Troup-Orangeburg-Dothan Dothan soils, 15 percent Orangeburg soils, and 50 per-
Sloping to strongly sloping, well drained, sandy and cent soils of minor extent.
loamy soils that have a loamy subsoil Dothan soils have a fine sandy loam surface layer less
than 20 inches thick over a yellow, loamy subsoil. During
This map unit (fig. 3) consists of undulating sandy soils periods of heavy rainfall, these soils may have a perched
on sides of steep hills separated by long, narrow stream water table over a restricting layer of firm and brittle
bottoms. These areas are mainly in the extreme western plinthite nodules.
and northwestern parts of Santa Rosa County where the pOirnte no ules.
uplands drop to the terraces adjacent to the Escambia Orangeburg soils have a red loamy subsoil at a depth
River bottom land. A small area is on rolling terrain in the of less than 20 inches. These soils are dryer than
north-central part of the county. Dothan soils.
This unit covers about 26,500 acres, or about 4 per- The minor soils in this unit are well drained Bonifay,
cent of the county. This map unit is about 45 percent Esto, Fuquay, Lucy, Tifton, and Troup soils; somewhat
Troup soils, 10 percent Orangeburg soils, 10 percent poorly drained Escambia and Lynchburg soils; and poorly
Dothan soils, and 35 percent soils of minor extent. drained Rains soils.
Troup soils have a yellowish brown sand surface layer Most of this unit is in forest of longleaf and splash
about 2 inches thick over 50 inches of loamy sand. The pine. Several thousand acres in the western part of the
subsoil is red sandy loam and sandy clay loam to a county is used for row crops and pasture. The wetter
depth of 80 inches or more. This soil is well drained and county is used for row crops and pasture. The wetter
contains more sand than the other soils of the unit. minor soils are used mainly for pasture. The soils in this
Orangeburg soils have a dark brown sandy loam sur- unit are well suited to most uses; limitations are few.
face layer about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is red sandy Some of the minor soils are limited by wetness.
clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. The soils in this unit have high potential for crops and
Dothan soils may have a perched water table during pasture. Row crops and pasture grow well on these
periods of heavy rainfall. The surface layer is very dark soils. Good management and terraces constructed
gray fine sandy loam about 7 inches thick. The subsoil is where slope is a limitation reduce erosion on land
yellow and brownish yellow sandy loam and sandy clay cleared for farming. Under such management, these
loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. In places this soil soils are highly productive.
contains as much as 15 percent reddish brown iron con- The soils in this unit are well suited to woodland,
cretions between depths of 20 and 60 inches. wildlife habitat, and recreation. Wetness is a concern in
The minor soils in this unit are well drained Bonifay, wildlife habitat, and recreation. Wetness is a concern in
Fuquay, and Lucy soils and the poorly drained Bibb soils. areas of minor soils. The major soils are highly erodible
Most of this unit is forested. The soils are highly erod- where slope is more than 5 percent.
ible because slopes are as steep as 35 percent. The potential for urban development is high. The po-
The soils in this unit are poorly suited to cultivated tential for sanitary facilities is moderate; absorption fields
crops. Steepness and susceptibility to erosion are the should be enlarged to compensate for the slower move-
main limitations. Terraces, grassed waterways, contour ment of effluent through these soils.
cropping, and rotations that include close-growing cover
crops reduce erosion. The various pasture grasses help 6. Troup-Dothan-Bonifay
stabilize slopes and are well suited to these soils.
The soils in this unit are well suited to woodland. Gently sloping to strongly sloping, well drained soils;
Trees help stabilize the slopes and keep the soil in some have 40 inches of sand over a loamy subsoil, and
place. Seedling mortality is low because moisture con- some are sandy or loamy and have a loamy subsoil at a
tent is optimum. shallow depth
The potential for urban development and recreational
uses is low. Steepness and susceptibility to erosion are This map unit is north of Milton. This unit is higher
the main limitations.ap unt s north of Mon hs nit is higher
than the surrounding soils. The soils are mainly undulat-
5. Dothan-Orangeburg ing. The Troup soils are generally higher than the other
soils in this unit.
Nearly level to sloping, well drained, loamy soils that This map unit covers about 179,000 acres, or about 27
have a loamy subsoil at a depth of less than 20 inches percent of the county. This unit is about 53 percent
Troup soils, 15 percent Dothan soils, 12 percent Bonifay
This map unit (fig. 4) is scattered throughout Santa soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
Rosa County north of U. S. Highway 90. Most of the unit Troup soils have a thick, sandy surface layer. Loamy
is in the north-central part of the county. The soils are red material is at a depth of 40 to 80 inches.
undulating. Dothan soils have a loamy surface layer less than 20
This unit covers about 108,700 acres, or about 17 inches thick. They have a yellow, loamy subsoil that
percent of the county. This unit is about 35 percent contains firm, brittle plinthite nodules. In places, these






8 SOIL SURVEY



4. Troup-Orangeburg-Dothan Dothan soils, 15 percent Orangeburg soils, and 50 per-
Sloping to strongly sloping, well drained, sandy and cent soils of minor extent.
loamy soils that have a loamy subsoil Dothan soils have a fine sandy loam surface layer less
than 20 inches thick over a yellow, loamy subsoil. During
This map unit (fig. 3) consists of undulating sandy soils periods of heavy rainfall, these soils may have a perched
on sides of steep hills separated by long, narrow stream water table over a restricting layer of firm and brittle
bottoms. These areas are mainly in the extreme western plinthite nodules.
and northwestern parts of Santa Rosa County where the pOirnte no ules.
uplands drop to the terraces adjacent to the Escambia Orangeburg soils have a red loamy subsoil at a depth
River bottom land. A small area is on rolling terrain in the of less than 20 inches. These soils are dryer than
north-central part of the county. Dothan soils.
This unit covers about 26,500 acres, or about 4 per- The minor soils in this unit are well drained Bonifay,
cent of the county. This map unit is about 45 percent Esto, Fuquay, Lucy, Tifton, and Troup soils; somewhat
Troup soils, 10 percent Orangeburg soils, 10 percent poorly drained Escambia and Lynchburg soils; and poorly
Dothan soils, and 35 percent soils of minor extent. drained Rains soils.
Troup soils have a yellowish brown sand surface layer Most of this unit is in forest of longleaf and splash
about 2 inches thick over 50 inches of loamy sand. The pine. Several thousand acres in the western part of the
subsoil is red sandy loam and sandy clay loam to a county is used for row crops and pasture. The wetter
depth of 80 inches or more. This soil is well drained and county is used for row crops and pasture. The wetter
contains more sand than the other soils of the unit. minor soils are used mainly for pasture. The soils in this
Orangeburg soils have a dark brown sandy loam sur- unit are well suited to most uses; limitations are few.
face layer about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is red sandy Some of the minor soils are limited by wetness.
clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. The soils in this unit have high potential for crops and
Dothan soils may have a perched water table during pasture. Row crops and pasture grow well on these
periods of heavy rainfall. The surface layer is very dark soils. Good management and terraces constructed
gray fine sandy loam about 7 inches thick. The subsoil is where slope is a limitation reduce erosion on land
yellow and brownish yellow sandy loam and sandy clay cleared for farming. Under such management, these
loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. In places this soil soils are highly productive.
contains as much as 15 percent reddish brown iron con- The soils in this unit are well suited to woodland,
cretions between depths of 20 and 60 inches. wildlife habitat, and recreation. Wetness is a concern in
The minor soils in this unit are well drained Bonifay, wildlife habitat, and recreation. Wetness is a concern in
Fuquay, and Lucy soils and the poorly drained Bibb soils. areas of minor soils. The major soils are highly erodible
Most of this unit is forested. The soils are highly erod- where slope is more than 5 percent.
ible because slopes are as steep as 35 percent. The potential for urban development is high. The po-
The soils in this unit are poorly suited to cultivated tential for sanitary facilities is moderate; absorption fields
crops. Steepness and susceptibility to erosion are the should be enlarged to compensate for the slower move-
main limitations. Terraces, grassed waterways, contour ment of effluent through these soils.
cropping, and rotations that include close-growing cover
crops reduce erosion. The various pasture grasses help 6. Troup-Dothan-Bonifay
stabilize slopes and are well suited to these soils.
The soils in this unit are well suited to woodland. Gently sloping to strongly sloping, well drained soils;
Trees help stabilize the slopes and keep the soil in some have 40 inches of sand over a loamy subsoil, and
place. Seedling mortality is low because moisture con- some are sandy or loamy and have a loamy subsoil at a
tent is optimum. shallow depth
The potential for urban development and recreational
uses is low. Steepness and susceptibility to erosion are This map unit is north of Milton. This unit is higher
the main limitations.ap unt s north of Mon hs nit is higher
than the surrounding soils. The soils are mainly undulat-
5. Dothan-Orangeburg ing. The Troup soils are generally higher than the other
soils in this unit.
Nearly level to sloping, well drained, loamy soils that This map unit covers about 179,000 acres, or about 27
have a loamy subsoil at a depth of less than 20 inches percent of the county. This unit is about 53 percent
Troup soils, 15 percent Dothan soils, 12 percent Bonifay
This map unit (fig. 4) is scattered throughout Santa soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
Rosa County north of U. S. Highway 90. Most of the unit Troup soils have a thick, sandy surface layer. Loamy
is in the north-central part of the county. The soils are red material is at a depth of 40 to 80 inches.
undulating. Dothan soils have a loamy surface layer less than 20
This unit covers about 108,700 acres, or about 17 inches thick. They have a yellow, loamy subsoil that
percent of the county. This unit is about 35 percent contains firm, brittle plinthite nodules. In places, these







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 9



nodules form a layer that restricts the flow of water. The potential for urban development is high. Septic
Bonifay soils have a thick, sandy surface layer. The tank absorption fields work well in these soils but need
subsoil is yellow and is generally at a depth of 40 to 65 to be lengthened in the Dothan soils. Slope is the main
inches. limitation.
The minor soils in this unit are well drained Fuquay
and Lucy soils and excessively drained Lakeland soils.
This unit is mainly forested. Some of the area in the Areas dominated by somewhat poorly
southwestern part of the county are used for urban de- drained to very poorly drained, sandy and
velopment. Being spread throughout the county, the soils loamy soils
are used for a variety of purposes. A few areas are
farmed. This group consist of somewhat poorly drained to very
The soils in this unit have low potential for crops poorly drained, level sandy soils. Some of these soils
because of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nu- have loamy horizons below a depth of 20 inches. All of
trients. Special management is also necessary in sloping the soils in this unit have sand at a depth of 60 inches or
areas because of the hazard of erosion. Terraces help to more.
prevent erosion and gullying. South of Milton and U. S. Highway 90, in the
These soils are moderately suited to pasture. Grasses flatwoods, this group is predominant.
such as bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are well
suited to these soils. Liming and extensive fertilizing are 7. Pactolus-Rutlege-Mulat
necessary for good production and good ground cover.
The soils in this unit have high potential for wildlife Level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained to very
habitat and for campsites and other recreational uses. poorly drained soils that are sandy and loamy throughout































Figure 4.-Soybeans planted on the contour to control erosion. Soil is Dothan fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, in Dothan-Orangeburg
general soil map unit.






10 SOIL SURVEY



This map unit consists of broad, flat areas of soils that Areas dominated by soils subject to
are normally wet during most years. This unit is in the flooding
southern part of the county and along the southernmost
strip of land between East Bay and Santa Rosa Sound. The four map units of this group consist of level, very
A few small areas extend to the central part of the poorly drained soils that generally have water at or
county, where this unit is lower than the surrounding above the surface most of the year. Some of these soils
soils. Pactolus soils are higher than the other soils in this are sandy and mucky at the surface; the muck may
unit. extend to a depth of more than 5 feet. Other soils in this
This unit covers about 60,000 acres, or 9 percent of group have a high sulfur content and a high content of
the county. This unit is about 25 percent Pactolus soils, organic matter in the upper 3 or 4 feet and are underlain
20 percent Rutlege soils, 10 percent Mulat soils, and 45 by sand or clay. Included in this group is a large area of
percent soils of minor extent. well drained, somewhat poorly drained and poorly
percent soils of minor extent drained soils on the alluvial flood plain. These soils are
Pactolus soils are somewhat poorly drained. They are loamy throughout or have a clayey subsoil. Some are
sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. The water table underlain by sand.
fluctuates in this soil but generally is stable at a depth of This group is mostly adjacent to the major streams
about 30 inches during most of the year. and rivers throughout the county.
Rutlege soils are very poorly drained, sandy soils.
They have a thick, dark surface layer 10 to 24 inches 8. Bibb-Kinston-Johns
thick. These soils have water at or near the surface for
most of the year. Ponding is quite common. Level soils; some are poorly drained and are stratified
Mulat soils are poorly drained, sandy and loamy soils, loamy and sandy material, and some are somewhat
The surface layer is dark and is usually less than 10 poorly drained and loamy
inches thick. Between depths of 20 and 60 inches is a This map unit is in swamps and on flood plains and
layer of sandy clay loam or sandy loam. The water table stream terraces throughout most of Santa Rosa County
is above a depth of 10 inches for 6 to 8 months in most except the southern and southeastern parts. This unit is
years and is above the surface during periods of heavy lower than the surrounding soils. The areas are generally
rainfall. long and narrow and are commonly surrounded by steep
The minor soils in this unit are somewhat poorly slopes or abrupt drop-offs from the uplands. The soils
drained Albany, Garcon, Johns, and Lynchburg soils; are sometimes flooded. The Bibb and Kinston soils are
poorly drained Leon soils; very poorly drained Dorovan, at the lower elevations on the flood plain, and the Johns
Pamlico, and Pickney soils; and moderately well drained soils are on the first stream terrace adjacent to the
Ortega soils. bottom land.
The soils in this unit are in natural vegetation and are This unit covers about 80,000 acres, or about 12 per-
mostly idle. Natural vegetation on the Rutlege and Mulat cent of the county. This unit is about 40 percent Bibb
soils is pitcher plant bogs. Areas of this unit are mainly soils, 20 percent Kinston soils, 7 percent Johns soils,
used for pasture. and 33 percent soils of minor extent.
The soils in this unit are moderately well suited to the Bibb soils are poorly drained. They are stratified sandy
commonly grown grasses such as Pensacola bahiagrass and loamy material throughout. The loamy material is
and Coastal bermudagrass. These grasses grow well if sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or silt loam. Some strata
properly managed. Controlled grazing helps maintain are gravel and gravelly loam. Since these soils are gen-
good ground cover and vigorous plant growth. Regular rally on flood plains, the thickness of the loamy and
applications of lime and fertilizer are also needed. Drain- sandy layers varies considerably.
The Kinston soils are poorly drained. The surface layer
age is required in places to remove surface water from is very dark gray silt loam about 9 inches thick. The
the minor soils that are wet for long periods. is very dark gray silt loam about 9 inches thick. The
the minor soils in this unit are wet for longdium potential for wood- subsoil is gray loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, or silty
The soils in this unit have medium potential for wood- clay loam. The water table is above a depth of 10 inches
land. Slash and longleaf pine grow well. Simple drainage during periods of heavy rainfall.
and removal of surface water are necessary on the Johns soils are mostly somewhat poorly drained, but in
wetter soils. Seedling mortality is moderate. Good man- some areas close to the uplands they are high enough
agement insures high production, that they are moderately well drained. These soils are
These soils have medium to low potential for recre- sandy loam and sandy clay loam in the upper 40 inches.
national facilities and shallow excavations because of wet- Below this is sand that is generally saturated with water.
ness. The Pactolus soils and a few of the minor soils The water table fluctuates in this soil; depth to the water
have high potential for septic tank absorption fields; the table depends on rainfall but is less than 18 inches for 2
shallowness of the water table is the only limitation, to 6 months each year.






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 11



The minor soils in this unit are somewhat poorly The soils in this unit have very low potential for urban
drained Albany, Lynchburg, and Pactolus soils and poorly uses because of the thick layers of organic material and
drained Rains soils. the high water table. There are no reasonable and prac-
Most of this unit has not been cleared; therefore, ex- tical measures to overcome the severe wetness.
tensive and costly land alteration would be needed for
use. Potential of the soils varies considerably. This unit is 10. Bohicket
extremely wet except in a few areas of minor-soils; Level, very poorly drained, clayey soils that are underlain
The soils in this unit have medium potential for good by sandy and loamy materials
pasture if the areas are cleared and water is controlled. This map unit consists of low lying, wet soils in salt
Surface water can be removed by surface drainage marshes. These soils are along the coast and the mouth
ditches. of major rivers and streams in the southern part of Santa
The soils in this unit have medium potential for wood- of major rivers and streams in the southern part of Santa
land. Seedling mortality is moderate to low, depending Rosa County. The areas are thoroughly dissected by
on rainfall. numerous small bayous and streams.
The soils in this unit provide good habitat for wildlife. This unit covers about 8,500 acres, or about 1 percent
The canopy offered by the mixed hardwoods and pine of the county. This unit is about 80 percent Bohicket
provides good shelter. soils, about 15 percent Handsboro soils, and about 5
The potential for recreational development is low be- percent soils of minor extent.
cause of wetness. Wetness and flooding limit the use of Bohicket soils are very poorly drained and are fre-
these soils for urban development and for sanitary facili- quently flooded by tides. The surface layer is clay and
ties such as septic tanks and sanitary landfills. silty clay. The sandy subsoil is at a depth of 40 inches or
more. These soils are very soft and compressible when
9. Dorovan-Pamlico wet. The surface layer has a moderate amount of organ-
Nearly level, very poorly drained, organic soils that are ic matter from decomposition of prominent plants. These
underlain by sandy material soils have a high content of sulfur.
Handsboro soils are also very poorly drained. They
This map unit (fig. 5) is mainly in the southern part of typically have a black muck surface layer matted with
Santa Rosa County. It consists of heavily vegetated roots; it is about 20 inches thick. The next 20 inches is
swamps in wet depressional areas adjacent to the allu- very dark gray stratified clay and muck. The next 24
vial flood plains. Dorovan soils are mainly toward the inches is very dark gray muck. Below this is dark olive
center of the areas, and Pamlico soils are mainly closer inches is very dark gray muck. Below this is dark olive
to the outer edges, gray silty clay to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The minor soils in this unit are similar to the Bohicket
This unit covers about 16,500 acres, or about 3 per- and Handsboro soils but have a silty clay loam or silty
cent of the county. This unit is about 50 percent Dorovan clay surface layer.
soils, 30 percent Pamlico soils, and 20 percent soils of This unit is entirely salt marshes that are saturated
minor extent. with tidal waters. Only salt-tolerant plants can survive.
Dorovan soils are muck at least 51 inches thick over The native vegetation is mainly cordgrasses and needle-
sandy material. rushes and a variety of other salt-tolerant plants, which
Pamlico soils are 16 to 51 inches of muck over sand, are the only plants that can survive on these soils.
which extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. The soils in this unit are poorly suited to crops or
The minor soils in this unit are poorly drained Bibb and pasture because of wetness and salt content.
Leon soils, somewhat poorly drained Pactolus soils, and These soils are not suited to woodland. They have no
very poorly drained Pickney and Rutlege soils. trees except a few cypress and bay along the edges of
All of the acreage of this unit is swampy and un- the marsh where wave action has built up a considerable
drained. Native vegetation is titi, scattered longleaf pine, amount of sand.
and mixed hardwoods. Wetness limits these soils for The potential for wetland wildlife habitat is low. The
farming and for most other uses. vegetation provides shelter for wildlife. This map unit is
The soils in this unit are not suited to cultivated crops better suited to wildlife habitat than to other uses.
or pasture because of flooding and a constantly high These soils have very low potential for urban develop-
water table. Also, clearing the land is not always feasi- ment and for sanitary facilities because of the frequent
ble. Drainage is difficult because no outlets are available, flooding. There are no practical and reasonable meas-
A well designed and well maintained water control ures to overcome the flooding.
system keeps the water at a proper depth for special
crops and reduces the hazard of subsidence resulting 11. Chewacla-Wahee-Riverview
from oxidation of organic matter if the soils are cleared.
The potential for woodland is very low. Seedling mor- Level, somewhat poorly drained and well drained, loamy
tality is very high because of the constantly high water soils
table. This map unit (fig. 6) consists of alluvial swamps. They






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 11



The minor soils in this unit are somewhat poorly The soils in this unit have very low potential for urban
drained Albany, Lynchburg, and Pactolus soils and poorly uses because of the thick layers of organic material and
drained Rains soils. the high water table. There are no reasonable and prac-
Most of this unit has not been cleared; therefore, ex- tical measures to overcome the severe wetness.
tensive and costly land alteration would be needed for
use. Potential of the soils varies considerably. This unit is 10. Bohicket
extremely wet except in a few areas of minor-soils; Level, very poorly drained, clayey soils that are underlain
The soils in this unit have medium potential for good by sandy and loamy materials
pasture if the areas are cleared and water is controlled. This map unit consists of low lying, wet soils in salt
Surface water can be removed by surface drainage marshes. These soils are along the coast and the mouth
ditches. of major rivers and streams in the southern part of Santa
The soils in this unit have medium potential for wood- of major rivers and streams in the southern part of Santa
land. Seedling mortality is moderate to low, depending Rosa County. The areas are thoroughly dissected by
on rainfall. numerous small bayous and streams.
The soils in this unit provide good habitat for wildlife. This unit covers about 8,500 acres, or about 1 percent
The canopy offered by the mixed hardwoods and pine of the county. This unit is about 80 percent Bohicket
provides good shelter. soils, about 15 percent Handsboro soils, and about 5
The potential for recreational development is low be- percent soils of minor extent.
cause of wetness. Wetness and flooding limit the use of Bohicket soils are very poorly drained and are fre-
these soils for urban development and for sanitary facili- quently flooded by tides. The surface layer is clay and
ties such as septic tanks and sanitary landfills. silty clay. The sandy subsoil is at a depth of 40 inches or
more. These soils are very soft and compressible when
9. Dorovan-Pamlico wet. The surface layer has a moderate amount of organ-
Nearly level, very poorly drained, organic soils that are ic matter from decomposition of prominent plants. These
underlain by sandy material soils have a high content of sulfur.
Handsboro soils are also very poorly drained. They
This map unit (fig. 5) is mainly in the southern part of typically have a black muck surface layer matted with
Santa Rosa County. It consists of heavily vegetated roots; it is about 20 inches thick. The next 20 inches is
swamps in wet depressional areas adjacent to the allu- very dark gray stratified clay and muck. The next 24
vial flood plains. Dorovan soils are mainly toward the inches is very dark gray muck. Below this is dark olive
center of the areas, and Pamlico soils are mainly closer inches is very dark gray muck. Below this is dark olive
to the outer edges, gray silty clay to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The minor soils in this unit are similar to the Bohicket
This unit covers about 16,500 acres, or about 3 per- and Handsboro soils but have a silty clay loam or silty
cent of the county. This unit is about 50 percent Dorovan clay surface layer.
soils, 30 percent Pamlico soils, and 20 percent soils of This unit is entirely salt marshes that are saturated
minor extent. with tidal waters. Only salt-tolerant plants can survive.
Dorovan soils are muck at least 51 inches thick over The native vegetation is mainly cordgrasses and needle-
sandy material. rushes and a variety of other salt-tolerant plants, which
Pamlico soils are 16 to 51 inches of muck over sand, are the only plants that can survive on these soils.
which extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. The soils in this unit are poorly suited to crops or
The minor soils in this unit are poorly drained Bibb and pasture because of wetness and salt content.
Leon soils, somewhat poorly drained Pactolus soils, and These soils are not suited to woodland. They have no
very poorly drained Pickney and Rutlege soils. trees except a few cypress and bay along the edges of
All of the acreage of this unit is swampy and un- the marsh where wave action has built up a considerable
drained. Native vegetation is titi, scattered longleaf pine, amount of sand.
and mixed hardwoods. Wetness limits these soils for The potential for wetland wildlife habitat is low. The
farming and for most other uses. vegetation provides shelter for wildlife. This map unit is
The soils in this unit are not suited to cultivated crops better suited to wildlife habitat than to other uses.
or pasture because of flooding and a constantly high These soils have very low potential for urban develop-
water table. Also, clearing the land is not always feasi- ment and for sanitary facilities because of the frequent
ble. Drainage is difficult because no outlets are available, flooding. There are no practical and reasonable meas-
A well designed and well maintained water control ures to overcome the flooding.
system keeps the water at a proper depth for special
crops and reduces the hazard of subsidence resulting 11. Chewacla-Wahee-Riverview
from oxidation of organic matter if the soils are cleared.
The potential for woodland is very low. Seedling mor- Level, somewhat poorly drained and well drained, loamy
tality is very high because of the constantly high water soils
table. This map unit (fig. 6) consists of alluvial swamps. They






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 11



The minor soils in this unit are somewhat poorly The soils in this unit have very low potential for urban
drained Albany, Lynchburg, and Pactolus soils and poorly uses because of the thick layers of organic material and
drained Rains soils. the high water table. There are no reasonable and prac-
Most of this unit has not been cleared; therefore, ex- tical measures to overcome the severe wetness.
tensive and costly land alteration would be needed for
use. Potential of the soils varies considerably. This unit is 10. Bohicket
extremely wet except in a few areas of minor-soils; Level, very poorly drained, clayey soils that are underlain
The soils in this unit have medium potential for good by sandy and loamy materials
pasture if the areas are cleared and water is controlled. This map unit consists of low lying, wet soils in salt
Surface water can be removed by surface drainage marshes. These soils are along the coast and the mouth
ditches. of major rivers and streams in the southern part of Santa
The soils in this unit have medium potential for wood- of major rivers and streams in the southern part of Santa
land. Seedling mortality is moderate to low, depending Rosa County. The areas are thoroughly dissected by
on rainfall. numerous small bayous and streams.
The soils in this unit provide good habitat for wildlife. This unit covers about 8,500 acres, or about 1 percent
The canopy offered by the mixed hardwoods and pine of the county. This unit is about 80 percent Bohicket
provides good shelter. soils, about 15 percent Handsboro soils, and about 5
The potential for recreational development is low be- percent soils of minor extent.
cause of wetness. Wetness and flooding limit the use of Bohicket soils are very poorly drained and are fre-
these soils for urban development and for sanitary facili- quently flooded by tides. The surface layer is clay and
ties such as septic tanks and sanitary landfills. silty clay. The sandy subsoil is at a depth of 40 inches or
more. These soils are very soft and compressible when
9. Dorovan-Pamlico wet. The surface layer has a moderate amount of organ-
Nearly level, very poorly drained, organic soils that are ic matter from decomposition of prominent plants. These
underlain by sandy material soils have a high content of sulfur.
Handsboro soils are also very poorly drained. They
This map unit (fig. 5) is mainly in the southern part of typically have a black muck surface layer matted with
Santa Rosa County. It consists of heavily vegetated roots; it is about 20 inches thick. The next 20 inches is
swamps in wet depressional areas adjacent to the allu- very dark gray stratified clay and muck. The next 24
vial flood plains. Dorovan soils are mainly toward the inches is very dark gray muck. Below this is dark olive
center of the areas, and Pamlico soils are mainly closer inches is very dark gray muck. Below this is dark olive
to the outer edges, gray silty clay to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The minor soils in this unit are similar to the Bohicket
This unit covers about 16,500 acres, or about 3 per- and Handsboro soils but have a silty clay loam or silty
cent of the county. This unit is about 50 percent Dorovan clay surface layer.
soils, 30 percent Pamlico soils, and 20 percent soils of This unit is entirely salt marshes that are saturated
minor extent. with tidal waters. Only salt-tolerant plants can survive.
Dorovan soils are muck at least 51 inches thick over The native vegetation is mainly cordgrasses and needle-
sandy material. rushes and a variety of other salt-tolerant plants, which
Pamlico soils are 16 to 51 inches of muck over sand, are the only plants that can survive on these soils.
which extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. The soils in this unit are poorly suited to crops or
The minor soils in this unit are poorly drained Bibb and pasture because of wetness and salt content.
Leon soils, somewhat poorly drained Pactolus soils, and These soils are not suited to woodland. They have no
very poorly drained Pickney and Rutlege soils. trees except a few cypress and bay along the edges of
All of the acreage of this unit is swampy and un- the marsh where wave action has built up a considerable
drained. Native vegetation is titi, scattered longleaf pine, amount of sand.
and mixed hardwoods. Wetness limits these soils for The potential for wetland wildlife habitat is low. The
farming and for most other uses. vegetation provides shelter for wildlife. This map unit is
The soils in this unit are not suited to cultivated crops better suited to wildlife habitat than to other uses.
or pasture because of flooding and a constantly high These soils have very low potential for urban develop-
water table. Also, clearing the land is not always feasi- ment and for sanitary facilities because of the frequent
ble. Drainage is difficult because no outlets are available, flooding. There are no practical and reasonable meas-
A well designed and well maintained water control ures to overcome the flooding.
system keeps the water at a proper depth for special
crops and reduces the hazard of subsidence resulting 11. Chewacla-Wahee-Riverview
from oxidation of organic matter if the soils are cleared.
The potential for woodland is very low. Seedling mor- Level, somewhat poorly drained and well drained, loamy
tality is very high because of the constantly high water soils
table. This map unit (fig. 6) consists of alluvial swamps. They







12 SOIL SURVEY
























































Figure 5.-Titi and bay on the Dorovan-Pamlico general soil map unit. These organic soils are usually left in their natural state because
draining and removing organic matter is very difficult.




are lower than the surrounding soils. This unit is along has a network of sloughs and old river beds that have
the western boundary of Santa Rosa County. This unit been cut off from the main channel. The numerous lakes







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 13



are almost always filled with water. Chewacla and silty clay loam and sandy clay loam to a depth of about
Wahee soils are at the lower elevations on the flood 30 inches. Below this is fine sandy loam and sand to a
plain, and the Riverview soils are at the higher eleva- depth of more than 65 inches. These soils may be
tions. flooded almost as frequently as the other soils in the
This unit covers about 25,160 acres, or about 4 per- unit, but they have a deeper permanent water table.
cent of the county. This unit is about 35 percent Chewa- The minor soils in this unit are poorly drained Bibb and
cla soils, 35 percent Wahee soils, 20 percent Riverview Kinston soils.
soils, and 10 percent soils of minor extent. The soils in this unit remain in the natural vegetation
Chewacla soils are somewhat poorly drained. The sur- of mixed hardwoods and a few scattered pine. None of
face layer is dark brown silt loam about 7 inches thick. the unit is used for crops.
The subsoil is mottled silty clay loam to a depth of 50 The soils in this unit are poorly suited to cultivated
inches. Below this is light gray sand to a depth of 63 crops and pasture. Flooding by stream overflow is the
inches. major limitation. Soils in the lower areas are also limited
Wahee soils are somewhat poorly drained. The sur- by poor drainage. However, with proper water control
face layer is brown clay loam about 3 inches thick. The and good management, a few of the better drained soils
subsoil is mottled clay and clay loam to a depth of 65 at higher elevations are moderately suited to special
inches or more. This soil has a high water table that crops and good quality pasture. The cost of clearing the
varies between depths of 12 and 30 inches. dense vegetation and providing adequate drainage and
Riverview soils are well drained. The surface layer is adequate flood control, including dikes and levees, usu-
typically silt loam about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is ally prohibits these uses.


































Figure 6.-River bottom hardwoods on the Chewacla-Wahee-Riverview association. These soils are flooded during heavy rains.







14 SOIL SURVEY


The soils in this unit have low potential for producing in the survey area, it was not considered practical or
pine. necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern and
The potential for sanitary facilities and dwellings is relative proportion of the soils are somewhat similar.
very low. There are no practical measures to overcome Bibb-Kinston is an example.
the wetness. An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
The potential for shallow excavations, playgrounds, soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
and local roads and streets is low because of the wet- as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
ness and flooding. Water control, mounding, filling, and for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
flood control help to overcome the limitations, the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
made up of all of them. Bohicket and Handsboro soils is
Soil maps for detailed planning an undifferentiated group in this survey area.
Not all of the map units in this county have been
The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of mapped with the same degree of detail. Broadly defined
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The units, indicated by a superscript on the soil map legend,
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil are apt to be larger and to vary more in composition
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and po- than the rest of the map units in the survey. Composition
tential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be used of these broadly defined units has been controlled well
to plan the management needed for those uses. More enough, however, to be interpreted for the expected use
information on each map unit, or soil, is given under of the soils.
"Use and management of the soils." Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils of these included soils have properties that differ sub-
for which the unit is named. stantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit differences could significantly affect use and manage-
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes ment of the soils in the map unit. The included soils are
general facts about the soil, a brief description of the soil identified in each map unit description. Some small areas
profile, and a listing of the principal hazards and limita- of strongly contrasting soils are identified by a special
tions to be considered in planning management. symbol on the soil maps.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the have little or no soil material and support little or no
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
a series have major horizons that are similar in composi- shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
tion, thickness, and arrangement. shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface maps.
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in Each map unit is rated for its potential for certain uses.
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, The potential of a soil is the ability of that soil to pro-
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the duce, yield, or support the given structure or activity at
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil some economic, social, or environmental cost. The crite-
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil ria used for rating soil potential include the relative diffi-
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil culty or cost of overcoming soil limitations, limitations
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or that remain after generally used practices are installed,
management. For example, Fuquay loamy sand, 0 to 5 and the suitability of the soil relative to other soils in the
percent slopes, is one of several phases in the Fuquay area.
series. A five-class system of soil potential is used. The
Some map units are made up of two or more major classes are defined as follows:
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil Very high potential. Soil limitations are minor or are
associations, or undifferentiated groups. relatively easy to overcome. Performance for the intend-
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such ed use is excellent. Soils having very high potential are
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they the best in the survey area for the particular use.
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The pat- High potential. Some soil limitations exist, but prac-
tern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in tices necessary to overcome the limitations can be in-
all areas. Troup-Orangeburg-Cowarts complex, 5 to 12 stalled at reasonable cost. Performance for the intended
percent slopes, is an example. use is good.
A soil association is made up of two or more geo- Medium potential. Soil limitations exist and can be
graphically associated soils that are shown as one unit overcome with recommended practices; limitations, how-
on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil uses ever, are mostly of a continuing nature and require prac-






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 15



tices that are more difficult or costly than average. Per- Most areas of this soil remain in woodland. A few
formance for the intended use ranges from fair to good. small areas have been cleared and used for crops.
Low potential. Serious soil limitations exist, and they If properly managed, this soil is moderately suited to
are difficult to overcome. Practices necessary to over- crops. Good water control is needed. Cultivated crops
come the limitations are relatively costly compared to should be planted on the contour in rotation with close-
those required for soils of higher potential. Necessary growing, soil-improving crops. All crop residue should be
practices can involve environmental values and consider- left in the field and -incorporated into the soil. This soil
nations. Performance for the intended use is poor or unre- responds well to fertilizer and lime.
liable. This soil is moderately suited to pasture grasses. Ba-
Very low potential. Very serious soil limitations exist, hiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are moderately
and they are most difficult to overcome. The initial cost suited for pasture and hay. They grow well when proper-
of practices and the cost of maintenance are very high ly managed. They require fertilizing, liming, and control of
compared to those of soils with high potential. Environ- grazing to maintain vigorous plants and good cover.
mental values are usually depreciated. Performance for This soil has medium potential for loblolly and slash
the intended use is inadequate or below acceptable pine under a high level of management. Equipment limi-
standards. stations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of moderate.
each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of tables") This soil has high potential for local roads and streets.
give properties of the soils and the limitations, capabili- It has medium potential for septic tank absorption fields,
ties, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary defines dwellings without basements, low commercial buildings,
many of the terms used in describing the soils. shallow, excavations, trench sanitary landfills, and play-

1-Albany loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This grounds. Water control, mounding, or filling may be
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping needed for these uses.
soil is on low upland ridges. Slopes are smooth to con-
cave. Areas of this soil range mostly from 10 to 50 acres 2-Angie Variant loam. This moderately well drained,
in size, but some areas are as small as 5 acres. nearly level soil is primarily on broad flats between
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy streams and along drainageways. Slopes are smooth to
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is loamy rea o ti ngei. se r 1 to
sand. The upper 12 inches of the subsurface layer is concave. Areas of this soil range in size from 10 to 60
brown; the next 8 inches is light olive brown with brown- acres.
ish gray, yellowish brown, and pale brown mottles; and Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loam
the lower 22 inches is yellowish brown with strong brown about 4 inches thick. The upper 3 inches of the subsoil
mottles. The upper 5 inches of the subsoil is yellowish is light olive brown loam; the next 4 inches is brownish
brown sandy loam with strong brown and light brownish yellow clay loam; the next 14 inches is brownish yellow
gray mottles; the next 15 inches is mottled light gray, clay; the next 14 inches is mottled brownish yellow, gray,
yellowish brown, brownish yellow, pale brown, strong pale brown, strong brown and red sandy clay loam; the
brown, light reddish brown, and red sandy loam; and the next 13 inches is gray clay with mottles of strong brown,
lower 13 inches is mottled yellowish brown, brownish red, and brownish yellow, and the lower 24 inches is
yellow, white, strong brown, red, and pale red sandy light gray clay with mottles of red, strong brown, and
loam. brownish yellow.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Bonifay, Fuquay, Lakeland, Pactolus, and Troup soils. Escambia, Johns, and Lynchburg soils. Also included are
Also included are a very few small areas where slopes areas where slopes are 2 to 5 percent, areas of poorly
are 5 to 8 percent and a few small areas of soils that are drained soils in and along narrow stream bottoms and
similar to Albany soils but that have a sand surface layer. drainageways, and areas of soils that are similar to
Inclusions make up less than 15 percent of any mapped Angie Variant soils but that have a loamy sand, loamy
area. fine sand, or fine sandy loam surface layer. Inclusions
In this Albany soil the water table is at a depth of 12 make up about 15 percent of any mapped area.
to 30 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. Availa- In this Angie Variant soil the water table is between
ble water capacity is moderately low to low, and natural depths of 30 to 50 inches for more than 6 months.
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers During dry periods, the water table will drop below a
and moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is slow, and the depth of 60 inches for as long as 1 month. Permeability
erosion hazard is slight. is moderate to moderately slow above a depth of 7
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash inches and slow or very slow below this depth. The slow
pine and various oaks. The understory is mainly gall- permeability causes water to stand on the surface during
berry, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn. periods of excessive rainfall. Available water capacity






16 SOIL SURVEY



and organic matter content are moderate. Natural fertility fine sand, and the lower 25 inches is light brownish gray
is low. Internal drainage uhder natural conditions is slow. fine sand that has light gray and light yellowish brown
The natural vegetation is second growth slash and mottles.
longleaf pine and various hardwoods and shrubs. The In the Bibb soil the water table is at a depth of less
understory consists of gallberry, waxmyrtle, and pineland than 10 inches for 6 months or more during most years.
threeawn. This soil is also subject to frequent flooding. Permeability
Most areas of this soil remain in natural vegetation, is moderate, and available water capacity is medium.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The Natural fertility is moderate.
choice of crops is somewhat limited by occasional wet- Typically, the Kinston soil has a surface layer of very
ness caused by the high water table and slow permeabil- dark gray silt loam about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is
ity. Crops such as corn, soybeans, and small grains are 41 inches thick; the upper 9 inches is dark gray silt loam
easily grown under proper management. Ditches are the that has very dark gray and gray mottles, the next 23
most effective way to remove excess water. Crop rota- inches is gray sandy clay loam that has dark gray and
tions should include cover crops at least half of the time. brownish yellow mottles, and the lower 9 inches is light
Crop residue and cover crops should be left on the brownish gray sandy clay loam that has gray mottles.
ground. Maximum yields require good seedbed prepara- The underlying material extends to a depth of 65 inches;
tion, fertilizing, and liming at the correct time. the upper 10 inches is dark gray sand with pockets of
This soil is well suited to adapted pasture grasses. sandy loam and loamy sand, and the lower 5 inches is
Bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for brown sand.
pasture and hay. They grow well when properly man- In the Kinston soil the water table is at a depth of less
aged. Fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing are re- than 10 inches for 6 months or more during most years.
quired to maintain vigorous plants for best production. This soil is subject to frequent flooding. Permeability is
This soil has high potential for slash pine and longleaf moderate, and available water capacity is medium to
pine. Equipment limitations are moderate. Planting and high. Natural fertility is moderate.
harvesting during dry periods overcomes the limitation. The most common minor soils are Escambia, Johns,
This soil has high potential for trench sanitary landfills, Pactolus, Pamlico, and Rutlege soils. Most of these soils
dwellings without basements, low commercial buildings, are poorly drained to very poorly drained and are in
and shallow excavations. It has medium potential for small areas through the association. In a few of the
septic tank absorption fields, local roads and streets, and higher areas on low knolls and along the edge of
playgrounds. Water control, mounding, and filling may mapped areas, the soils are moderately well drained to
overcome the limitations for these uses. The size of filter somewhat poorly drained; these are the least extensive
fields should be increased. Suitable fill is needed to of the minor soils mapped in this association. Also in-
increase soil strength for roads and streets. cluded in mapping are small areas of soils that are simi-
This soil is in capability subclass Ilw. lar to Bibb and Kinston soils but in which the subsoil is
not as gray.
3-Bibb-Kinston association. These poorly drained, The natural vegetation is gum, bay, cypress, juniper,
nearly level soils are in drainageways and on flood plains oak, and a few scattered longleaf pine. The dense un-
along streams. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The derstory consists of titi, waxmyrtle, ferns, and other
areas are interspersed with depressions, old stream water-tolerant shrubs.
channels, and meandering sloughs. Bibb and Kinston All areas of this association remain in natural vegeta-
soils occur in a regular and repeating pattern. The Bibb tion.
soil is near the stream edge, and the Kinston soil is in Under natural conditions these soils are not suited to
the wider areas generally back from the stream edge. cultivated crops and are poorly suited to improved pas-
The areas of each soil are large enough to map sepa- ture. Flooding and wetness are the major limiting factors.
rately, ranging from about 10 to 160 acres. Mapped The high cost of clearing the dense vegetation also limits
areas of this association are generally long and narrow use. However, with proper water control and good man-
and range from about 40 acres to more than 400 acres agement, these soils have high potential for good quality
in size. pasture.
This association is about 50 percent Bibb soil, 25 These soils have high potential for loblolly pine,
percent Kinston soil, and 25 percent minor soils. yellow-poplar, and sweetgum, but water control is neces-
Typically, the Bibb soil has a surface layer of very dark sary. Plant competition is severe. Equipment limitations
gray silt loam about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer and seedling mortality are severe because of flooding
is dark gray silt loam about 11 inches thick. The underly- and wetness.
ing material extends to a depth of 65 inches; the upper These soils have very low potential for septic tank
25 inches is gray silt loam that has yellowish brown absorption fields, dwellings without basements, low corn-
mottles, the next 18 inches is light brownish gray fine mercial buildings, and trench sanitary landfills. They have
sand that has a few thin streaks of silt loam and loamy low potential for shallow excavations, playgrounds, and







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 17



local roads and streets. Mounding, water control, filling, These soils have very low potential for urban develop-
and control of flooding may overcome the limitations for ment and for sanitary facilities because of the frequent
these uses. flooding. There are no practical and reasonable meas-
This association is in capability subclass Vw. ures to overcome the flooding.
These soils are in capability subclass Villw.
4-Bohicket and Handsboro soils. These very poorly
drained soils are in tidal marshes at the mouth of major 5-Bonifay loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
streams and rivers. They are flooded daily by tidal water. well drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is on
Slopes range from 0 to 0.5 percent. Mapped areas of broad and narrow ridgetops in the uplands. Slopes are
this group range from 25 to 2,000 acres in size. The smooth to concave. Areas of this soil range mostly from
smaller areas generally are small islands. 15 to more than 100 acres in size, but some areas are
The Bohicket soil makes up 70 to 100 percent of each as small as 5 acres.
mapped area. The Handsboro soil occurs in most areas. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
At the mouth of the Escambia River, it makes up as loamy sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
much as 30 percent of the group. loamy sand; the upper 2 inches is dark grayish brown,
Typically, the Bohicket soil has a surface layer of very the next 24 inches is yellowish brown, and the lower 17
dark grayish brown clay about 15 inches thick. The inches is brownish yellow with strong brown and very
upper part of the underlying material is dark olive gray pale brown mottles. The upper 4 inches of the subsoil is
silty clay to a depth of 45 inches, and the lower part is yellowish brown sandy loam with strong brown, yellowish
gray sand with lenses of sandy loam; it extends to a red, and brownish yellow mottles; and the lower 12
depth of more than 80 inches. inches is mottled yellowish brown, very pale brown,
In the Bohicket soil, permeability is very slow. Organic strong brown, yellowish red, and red sandy loam or
matter content is 15 to 20 percent, which makes the sandy clay loam. Common plinthite nodules make up 5
natural fertility very high. to 20 percent, by volume, of the subsoil.
Typically, the Handsboro soil has a surface layer of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
black muck matted with roots; it is 20 inches thick. Albany, Fuquay, Lakeland, Pactolus, and Troup soils.
Below this is a layer of stratified very dark gray clay and Also included are a few small areas of soils that are
muck; this layer is 20 inches thick. The next layer is very similar to Bonifay soils but that contain less than 5 per-
dark gray muck to a depth of about 64 inches. The cent plinthite nodules above a depth of 60 inches or that
underlying material is dark olive gray silty clay to a depth have a sand and loamy fine sand surface layer. Also
underlyf ing material is dark olive gray silty clay to a depth included are small areas where slope is 5 to 8 percent.
In the Handsboro soil the water table is near or above Inclusions make up less than 15 percent of any mapped
In the Handsboro soil the water table is near or above
the surface, depending on the tide. Permeability is im- In this Bonifay soil the water table is normally at a
peded by the water table. Organic matter content is depth of more than 6 feet. However, water is perched
about 16 to 35 percent. Natural fertility is very high. above the plinthite layer for 1 to 5 days after heavy
Included with these soils in mapping are areas of soils rainfall. Available water capacity is low in the upper 40
that are similar to Bohicket and Handsboro soils but that inches and moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid
have a silty clay loam or silty clay surface layer. in the surface layer and moderate in the plinthic subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists of salt-tolerant plants Natural fertility and organic matter content are low
such as black needlerush, big cordgrass, smooth cord- throughout. Runoff is slow, and the erosion hazard is
grass, marshhay cordgrass, sawgrass, seashore salt- slight.
grass, saltmarsh chloris, and seamyrtle. The lower-grow- The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
ing plants are bulltongue and arrow-arum. pine and a mixture of hardwoods including blackjack,
These soils are not suited to crops or pasture. They post, and turkey oaks. The understory is mainly native
have little or no agricultural value. Salt content and the grasses and low growing shrubs. Pineland threeawn is
water table severely restrict root development of plants the most common native grass.
that are not salt tolerant. The soils in this unit are also Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation. A
high in sulfur and after draining would be too acid for few small areas have been cleared and used for crops.
crops. This soil is moderately suited to crops. It is limited for
These soils are not suited to woodland. There are no row crops by droughtiness and susceptibility to leaching
trees except a few cypress and bay along the edges of of plant nutrients. Management should increase available
the marsh where wave action has built up a considerable water capacity in the root zone. Row crops should be
amount of sand. rotated with close-growing, soil-improving crops and
The potential for wetland wildlife habitat is low. The winter cover crops. All crops should be limed and fertil-
vegetation provides shelter for wildlife. These soils are ized. The soil-improving crops and residue of all other
better suited to wildlife habitat than to other uses. crops should be plowed under.






18 SOIL SURVEY


This soil is moderately suited to pasture grasses. Ba- The Wahee soil is somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
hiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for the surface layer is brown loam about 3 inches thick.
pasture and hay. They grow well and produce good The subsurface layer is brown loam about 5 inches thick.
ground cover if they are limed and fertilized. Yields are The upper 6 inches of the subsoil is pale brown clay with
occasionally greatly reduced by extended severe yellowish red, gray, and strong brown mottles; the next 9
droughts. Grazing should be controlled to maintain vigor- inches is light brownish gray clay loam with yellowish
ous plants and good cover, brown, brown, and yellowish red mottles; the next 17
This soil has medium potential for longleaf and slash inches is light brownish gray clay loam with yellowish
pine. Low available water capacity, low natural fertility, brown and brown mottles; and the lower 25 inches is
and rapid permeability limit the production of woodland. gray clay mottled with brown, yellowish brown, and
Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant com- strong brown.
petition are moderate. In the Wahee soil, the water table is at a depth of 12
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without to 30 inches. Internal drainage is slow to very slow, and
basements, low commercial buildings, and local roads permeability is slow. Natural fertility is low. Available
and streets. It has high potential for septic tank absorp- water capacity is medium to high. Runoff is slow.
tion fields, trench sanitary landfills, and playgrounds. The The Riverview soil is well drained. Typically, the sur-
potential for shallow excavations is medium. Shallow ex- face layer is dark brown silt loam about 4 inches thick.
cavations require removal of the sandy overburden or The upper 20 inches of the subsoil is dark yellowish
shoring, brown silty clay loam; the next 4 inches is dark yellowish
This soil is in capability subclass Ills. brown sandy clay loam with brown mottles; and the
lower 3 inches is yellowish brown fine sandy loam. The
6-Chewacla-Wahee-Riverview association. These upper 5 inches of the underlying material is yellowish
somewhat poorly drained and well drained, nearly level brown loamy sand, and the next 7 inches is yellowish
soils are on the flood plain of the Escambia River and brown sand, and the lower 21 inches is brownish yellow
are subject to periodic flooding. Slopes are 0 to 2 per- and light yellowish brown sand mottled with yellowish
cent. The areas contain few old river runs cut off from brown, dark yellowish brown, and very pale brown.
the main channel, lakes, and numerous old sloughs that In the Riverview soil, the water table is at a depth of
are filled with water. The Riverview soil is on the highest more than 64 inches. Many areas are subject to occa-
elevations of the flood plain. The Chewacla and Wahee sional flooding in winter or spring. Permeability is moder-
soils are on the lower elevations and extend downward ate in the upper part of the profile and rapid in the lower
to the old sloughs. The areas of each soil range from 5 part. Natural fertility is medium. Available water capacity
to 120 acres. The mapped areas of this association is medium in the upper part of the profile and low in the
range from long and narrow to long and broad; they are lower part. Runoff is slow.
larger than 1,000 acres. Included with these soils in mapping are areas of Bibb
This association is about 35 percent Chewacla soil, 35 soils and areas of poorly drained, clayey and loamy soils
percent Wahee soil, 20 percent Riverview soil, and 10 that are similar to Chewacla and Wahee soils. Also in-
percent minor soils. cluded are areas of poorly drained soils that are similar
The Chewacla soil is somewhat poorly drained. Typi- to Chewacla soils but that have a thinner surface layer
cally, the surface layer is dark brown silt loam about 7 and subsoil and a few small areas of soils that are
inches thick. The upper 4 inches of the subsoil is brown similar to Riverview soils but that have a surface layer
silty clay loam; the next 5 inches is brown silty clay loam more than 20 inches thick. Also included are areas of
that has common grayish brown mottles; the next 11 well drained to moderately well drained soils that have a
inches is mottled gray, grayish brown, yellowish brown, loamy layer less than 26 inches thick overlying sandy
brown, and strong brown silty clay loam; the next 16 material, a few areas of soils that have a high silt con-
inches is mottled gray, grayish brown, yellowish brown, tent and a very dark gray or black surface layer more
brown, and strong brown sandy clay loam; and the lower than 20 inches thick, and small narrow areas of moder-
4 inches is mottled gray, yellowish brown, and strong ately well drained to somewhat poorly drained sandy
brown sandy loam. The upper part of the underlying soils adjacent to streams.
material is mottled gray, yellowish brown, and strong The natural vegetation consists of water oak, bay,
brown loamy sand to a depth of 50 inches, and the sweetgum, cypress, loblolly pine, sycamore, and black-
lower part is light gray sand to a depth of 63 inches. gum. The understory consists of greenbrier, holly, mai-
In the Chewacla soil, the water table is above a depth dencane, and muscadine vines.
of 18 inches for 2 to 6 months most years. Most areas All areas of this association remain in native vegeta-
are subject to frequent flooding. Permeability is moder- tion, primarily a forest of mixed hardwoods. None of this
ate, and available water capacity is medium to high. association is used for cultivated crops or pasture
Natural fertility is medium. Runoff is slow. grasses.






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 19



The soils in this association are poorly suited to culti- high water table. Permeability is moderate. Organic
vated crops and pasture grasses. The hazard of flooding matter content and available water capacity are very
by streams is the main limitation. Soils in the lower areas high. Natural fertility is moderate.
are also limited by poor drainage. However, with proper Minor soils include very poorly drained Pickney and
water control and good management, a few of the better Rutlege soils around the edge of mapped areas and
drained areas at higher elevations are moderately suited sporadically throughout the areas. Also included are
to special crops and good quality pasture. The cost of small islands, 1 to 5 acres in size, of poorly drained Bibb
clearing the dense vegetation and providing adequate and Leon soils and somewhat poorly drained Pactolus
drainage and adequate flood control, including dikes and soils.
levees, usually prohibits use. The natural vegetation consists of baldcypress, black-
The soils in this association have low potential for gum, sweetbay, sweetgum, titi, and scattered slash pine
pine. The cost of adequate drainage, proper water con- and an understory of brackenfern, greenbrier, muscadine
trol, good management, land clearing and other prac- vine, and waxmyrtle.
tices is prohibitive. Most areas of this association remain in native vegeta-
The soils in this association have very low potential for tion.
septic tank absorption fields, trench sanitary landfills, These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or pas-
dwellings without basements, and low commercial build- ture. They are severely limited by the continuous high
ings. There are no practical measures to overcome the water table. However, with adequate water control they
limitations for these uses. These soils have low potential would be suited to most vegetables. Drainage is difficult
for shallow excavations, playgrounds, and local roads because of high cost and the unavailability of suitable
and streets. A combination of measures such as water outlets. A well designed and well maintained water con-
control, mounding, filling, and flood control are neces- trol system is needed to keep the water at a proper
sary for these uses. depth for special crops and to reduce the hazard of
The Chewacla soil is in capability subclass IVw. The subsidence resulting from oxidation of organic matter.
Wahee soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The Riverview The potential of these soils for woodland is very low.
soil is in capability subclass l1w. Seedling mortality is very high because of the almost
continuous high water table, which also very severely
7-Dorovan-Pamlico association. These nearly level, limits the use of equipment. Overcoming the excessive
very poorly drained soils are in large hardwood swamps wetness of these soils is extremely difficult.
and on flood plains of major drainageways. Slopes are These soils have very low potential for urban uses.
less than 1 percent. The Pamlico soil usually is on the The thick layer of organic material and the high water
outer part of the area, and the Dorovan soil is on the table are the main limitations. Water control, removal of
inner part. Areas of each soil range from 10 to 200 acres the organic material, and back-filling with suitable soil
in size. Mapped areas of the association range from 20 material overcome the limitations.
to more than 750 acres in size. The Dorovan soil is in capability subclass VIIw. The
This association is about 50 percent Dorovan soil, 30 Pamlico soil is in capability subclass Vllw.
percent Pamlico soil, and 20 percent minor soils.
Typically, the Dorovan soil is dark reddish brown or 8-Dothan fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
black muck to a depth of 63 inches or more. This well drained, nearly level soil is on broad and
In the Dorovan soil the water table is at or near the narrow ridgetops in the uplands. Slopes are smooth to
surface for most of the year. During drought periods the concave. Areas of this soil range mostly from 20 to more
water table may fluctuate between depths of 10 and 30 than 100 acres in size, but some areas are as small as 5
inches. Internal drainage is very slow because of the acres.
high water table. Permeability is moderate. Organic Typically, the surface layer is fine sandy loam about 9
matter content and available water capacity are very inches thick; the upper 5 inches is dark grayish brown,
high. Natural fertility is moderate. and the lower 4 inches is yellowish brown. The upper 4
Typically, the Pamlico soil has a surface layer of very inches of the subsoil is yellowish brown fine sandy loam;
dark brown muck 15 inches thick; it is approximately 30 the next 30 inches is yellowish brown sandy clay loam;
percent fiber unrubbed and 15 percent rubbed. Below and the lower 20 inches is yellowish brown sandy clay
this is black muck 22 inches thick; it is about 10 percent loam or sandy clay with strong brown, red, brownish
fiber unrubbed and less than 10 percent rubbed. The yellow, dark red, and very pale brown mottles. Common
underlying material is dark gray sand to a depth of more plinthite nodules make up more than 5 percent, by
than 60 inches. volume, of the lower part of the subsoil.
In the Pamlico soil the water table is at or near the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
surface for most of the year. During drought periods the Orangeburg and Fuquay soils. Also included are areas of
water table may fluctuate between depths of 10 and 30 soils that are similar to Dothan soils but that have a
inches. Internal drainage is very slow because of the surface layer of loamy sand or loamy fine sand, a few






20 SOIL SURVEY



areas where slope is 2 to 5 percent, and a few small wet tied yellow, brown, and red sandy clay loam or sandy
areas that are shown by a wet spot symbol. Also includ- clay. Common plinthite nodules make up more than 5
ed are some areas of soils that are similar to Dothan percent, by volume, of the lower part of subsoil.
soils but that contain less than 5 percent plinthite in the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
lower part of the subsoil. Inclusions make up less than Esto, Fuquay, and Orangeburg soils. Also included are
15 percent of any mapped area. small areas where slopes are 0 to 2 percent and 5 to 8
In this Dothan soil the water table is normally below a percent, a few small wet areas that are shown by a wet
depth of 6 feet. After heavy rainfall the water table is spot symbol, a few small areas of eroded soils, and
perched at a depth of 42 to 48 inches for 1 or 2 weeks. areas of soils that are similar to Dothan soils but that
Available water capacity is medium. Natural fertility and have a surface layer of loamy sand or loamy fine sand.
organic matter content are low. Permeability is moderate In some areas, primarily in the northeast part of the
in the upper part of the subsoil and moderately slow in county in the Blackwater State Forest, are areas of soils
the lower part. Surface runoff is slow and the erosion that are similar to Dothan soils but that contain less than
hazard is slight. 5 percent plinthite above a depth of 60 inches and that
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash are more than 20 percent silt in the upper 20 inches of
pine, various oaks, persimmon, and dogwood. The un- the subsoil. Also included are a few areas of poorly
derstory consists of native grasses and shrubs including drained soils in and along small stream bottom lands
huckleberry, blackberry, and gallberry. Pineland threeawn and drainageways. Inclusions make up less than 17 per-
is the most common native grass. cent of any mapped area.
Many areas of this soil have been cleared and are In this Dothan soil the water table is normally above a
used for crops. depth of 6 feet. After heavy rainfall the water table is
This soil is well suited to a variety of crops. It is highly perched at a depth of 42 to 48 inches for 1 to 2 weeks.
productive under good management. All crop residue Available water capacity is medium. Natural fertility and
should be plowed under. This soil responds well to fertil- organic matter content are low. Permeability is moderate
izer and lime. in the upper part of the subsoil and moderately slow in
This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass the lower part. Runoff is moderate on unprotected areas
and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture and the erosion hazard is moderate. This soil has a well
and hay. They grow well when properly managed. They aerated root zone and is loamy enough to have good
require fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing to main- tilth.
tain vigorous plants and good cover. The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
This soil has high potential for longleaf and slash pine pine, various oaks, persimmon, and dogwood. The un-
under a high level of management. It has no serious derstory consists of native grasses and shrubs including
management problems. huckleberry, blackberry, and gallberry. Pineland threeawn
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without is the most common native grass.
basements, shallow excavations, low commercial build- A large part of this soil is in forest. Much of the area of
ings, playgrounds, and local roads and streets. It has this soil has been cleared and is used for crops.
high potential for trench sanitary landfills. This soil has This soil is well suited to crops. It is highly productive
medium potential for septic tank absorption fields. The under a high level of management and good conserva-
absorption field area should be increased to compensate tion. This soil responds well to fertilizer and lime. Runoff is
for the moderately slow permeability, moderate and the major hazard to cultivation is erosion.
This soil is in capability class I. Runoff can be reduced and erosion controlled by con-
tour cultivation, terraces, and stabilized waterways. A
9-Dothan fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, cropping sequence that includes a close-growing crop
This well drained, gently sloping soil is on broad and and a winter cover crop helps protect the soil from
narrow ridgetops in the uplands. Slopes are smooth to erosion and maintain the organic matter content All crop
concave. Areas of this soil range mostly from 20 to more residue should be returned to the soil.
than 100 acres in size, but some areas are as small as 5 This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass
acres. and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine and hay. They grow well when properly managed. They
sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, require fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing to main-
where present, is brown or yellowish brown fine sandy tain vigorous plants and good cover.
loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is at a depth of This soil has high potential for longleaf and slash pine
less than 20 inches. The upper 8 inches of the subsoil is under a high level of management. It has no serious
yellowish brown fine sandy loam; the next 16 inches is management problems.
yellowish brown sandy clay loam; the next 13 inches is This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
brownish yellow sandy clay loam with common strong basements, low commercial buildings, shallow excava-
brown and red mottles; and the lower 17 inches is mot- tions, and local roads and streets. It has high potential






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 21



for trench sanitary landfills and playgrounds. This soil This soil is moderately suited to crops. Slope and the
has medium potential for septic tank absorption fields. erosion hazard are the main limitations. Erosion can be
The absorption field area should be increased to com- reduced by contour cultivation, terraces, and stabilized
pensate for the moderately slow permeability, waterways. A cropping sequence including close-growing
This soil is in capability subclass lie. crops and winter cover crops in rotation with row crops
helps reduce erosion, as does use of parallel strips of
10-Dothan fine sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes, perennial grass on the contour. All crop residue should
This well drained, sloping soil is on broad and narrow be returned to the soil. This soil responds well to fertiliz-
side slopes along drainageways and between streams in er and lime.
the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas of This soil is moderately suited to pasture grasses. Ba-
this soil range mostly from 10 to 40 acres in size, but hiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass grow well when
some areas are as small as 5 acres. properly managed. They require fertilizing, liming, and
Typically, the surface layer is fine sandy loam about 9 control of grazing to maintain vigorous plants and good
inches thick; the upper 5 inches is dark grayish brown cover.
and the lower 4 inches is yellowish brown. The subsoil is This soil has high potential for longleaf and slash pine
at a depth, of less than 20 inches. The upper 6 inches of under a high level of management. It has no serious
the subsoil is brownish yellow fine sandy loam; the next management problems.
20 inches is brownish yellow sandy clay loam; the next 8 This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
inches is brownish yellow sandy clay loam with yellowish basements, shallow excavations, and local roads and
red, yellowish brown, and strong brown mottles; and the streets. It has high potential for trench sanitary landfills,
lower 20 inches is mottled strong brown, yellowish red, low commercial buildings, and playgrounds. It has
yellowish brown, brownish yellow, red, very pale brown, medium potential for septic tank absorption fields. The
and light gray sandy clay loam or sandy clay. Common absorption field area should be increased to compensate
plinthite nodules make up more than 5 percent, by for the moderately slow permeability.
volume, of the lower part of the subsoil. This soil is in capability subclass Ille.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Esto, Fuquay, and Orangeburg soils. Also included are a 11-Escambia fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent
few areas where slopes are 2 to 5 percent or 8 to 12 slopes. This somewhat poorly drained, nearly level soil
percent, areas of soils that are similar to Dothan soils is along narrow drainageways, around depressions, and
but that have a surface layer of loamy fine sand or loamy on low flats. Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas of
sand, a few small areas of eroded soils, and a few areas this soil range mostly from 5 to 70 acres in size.
of poorly drained soils in and along small stream bottom Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy
lands and drainageways. In some areas, primarily in the loam in the upper 7 inches and brown fine sandy loam in
northeastern part of the county in the Blackwater State the lower 3 inches. The upper 4 inches of the subsoil is
Forest, are areas of soils that are similar to Dothan soils yellowish brown fine sandy loam with strong brown mot-
but that contain less than 5 percent plinthite above a ties; the next 5 inches is brownish yellow fine sandy
depth of 60 inches and are more than 20 percent silt in loam with strong brown, yellowish brown, and dark red
the upper 20 inches of the subsoil. Inclusions make up mottles; and the lower 40 inches is fine sandy loam
less than 17 percent of any mapped area. mottled in shades of red, brown, yellow, and gray. The
In this Dothan soil the water table is normally below a lower part of the subsoil contains from 5 to 15 percent,
depth of 6 feet. After periods of heavy rainfall the water by volume, of plinthite.
table is perched at a depth of 42 to 48 inches for 3 to 6 Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
days. Available water capacity is medium. Natural fertility Albany, Dothan, Lynchburg, and Rains soils. Also includ-
and organic matter content are low. Permeability is mod- ed are a few small areas of soils that are similar to
erate in the upper part of the subsoil and moderately Escambia soils but that contain less than 5 percent
slow in the lower part. Runoff is moderate to rapid, and plinthite in the lower part of the subsoil or that have a
the erosion hazard is moderate to severe. Some type of surface layer more than 20 inches thick, or that have
crop or vegetation should remain on this soil to avoid more than 18 percent clay in the upper 20 inches of the
serious erosion problems. This soil has a well aerated subsoil. Also included are a few small areas where
root zone and is loamy enough to have good tilth, slopes are 2 to 5 percent and a few areas of poorly
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash drained soils in and along narrow stream bottom lands
pine, various oaks, persimmon, and dogwood. The un- and drainageways. Inclusions make up less than 20 per-
derstory consists of native grasses and shrubs including cent of any mapped area.
huckleberry, blackberry, and gallberry. Pineland threeawn In this Escambia soil the water table is at a depth of
is the most common native grass. 15 to 20 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. Availa-
This soil is used mostly for timber. A few areas have ble water capacity is moderate. Natural fertility is low.
been cleared and are used for crops. Permeability is moderate above the plinthite layer and






22 SOIL SURVEY



moderately slow below a depth of about 19 inches. Inter- where slopes are 5 to 8 percent. Also included are a few
nal drainage is moderately slow to slow and response to small areas of soils that are similar to Esto soils but that
artificial drainage is moderately slow. Runoff is slow and have a loamy fine sand and sandy loam surface layer or
the erosion hazard is slight, a sandy clay loam subsoil. Inclusions make up less than
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash 18 percent of any mapped area.
pine and water-tolerant hardwoods including sweetgum In this Esto soil the water table is at a depth of more
and water oak. The understory is mainly native grasses than 6 feet. Permeability is moderate in the surface layer
and low growing shrubs consisting of gallberry and and slow in the subsoil. The available water capacity is
water-tolerant plants. Pineland threeawn is the most medium to low. Runoff is rapid and internal drainage is
common native grass. slow. The erosion hazard is severe. Natural fertility is
Most areas of this soil remain in woodland. A few low. The subsoil is dense and poorly aerated, and in
areas have been cleared and are used for crops and many places root growth is restricted.
pasture. The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
If properly managed, this soil is moderately suited to pine, various oaks, hickory, and dogwood. The under-
cultivated crops. Good water control is needed. Cultivat- story consists of native grasses and shrubs including
ed crops should be planted in rotation with close-growing blackberry, gallberry, and huckleberry. Pineland threeawn
cover crops. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer is the most common native grass.
are needed. All crop residue should be returned to the Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation. A
soil. few small areas have been cleared and are used for
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture grasses. crops.
Bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are moderately This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. Slow
well suited for pasture and hay when properly managed. permeability, the clayey subsoil, and the hazard of ero-
Simple drainage is generally adequate to remove excess sion are the limitations. Cultivation requires intensive ero-
water. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are sion control, including contour cultivation, terraces, and
needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain vigor- stabilized waterways. A cropping sequence that includes
ous plants and good cover, a close-growing crop and a winter cover crop helps pro-
This soil has high potential for loblolly, longleaf, and tect the soil from erosion and maintain the organic
slash pine under good water control and a high level of matter content. All crop residue should be returned to
management. The moderate equipment limitations and soil.
windthrow hazard are the primary management con- This soil is moderately suited to pasture grasses. Ba-
cerns. hiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are moderately
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base- suited for pasture and hay when properly managed. They
ments, low commercial buildings, and local roads and require fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing to main-
streets. Water control is necessary for these uses. This tain vigorous plants and good cover.
soil has medium potential for trench sanitary landfills, This soil has medium potential for longleaf and slash
septic tank absorption fields, shallow excavations, and pine. Plant competition is moderate.
playgrounds. Water control, mounding, and filling over- This soil has very high potential for trench sanitary
come the limitations for these uses. landfills. It has high potential for shallow excavations and
This soil is in capability subclass l1w. dwellings without basements. The potential for play-
grounds, low commercial buildings, septic tank absorp-
12-Esto loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This well tion fields and local roads and streets is medium. Spe-
drained, gently sloping soil is on knolls and ridge crests cially designed footings and foundations are necessary
in the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas of for buildings and dwellings. The area of filter fields
this soil range mostly from 5 to 30 acres in size. should be increased. Suitable fill is needed to increase
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown soil strength for roads and streets.
loam about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is yel- This soil is in capability subclass Ille.
lowish brown loam about 3 inches thick. The upper 5
inches of the subsoil is yellowish brown clay loam; the 13-Esto loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This well
next 4 inches is yellowish brown clay with strong brown drained, sloping soil is on side slopes in the uplands.
mottles; the next 8 inches is brownish yellow clay with Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas of this soil range
yellowish brown, yellowish red, and red mottles; and the mostly from 5 to 30 acres in size.
next 37 inches is clay mottled in shades of gray, red, Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown loam
yellow, and brown. Below this is light gray clay mottled about 4 inches thick. The upper 3 inches of the subsoil
with red, brown, and yellow. is yellowish brown sandy clay loam; the next 5 inches is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of strong brown clay loam with yellowish red and red mot-
Dothan, Fuquay, Orangeburg, and Tifton soils. Also in- ties; the next 12 inches is yellowish red clay with strong
cluded are small areas of eroded soils and a few areas brown, red, and light gray mottles; and the lower 36






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 23


inches is clay mottled in shades of brown, red, yellow, Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
and gray. loamy sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Dothan, brown loamy sand in the upper 3 inches and yellowish
Fuquay, Lucy, Orangeburg, and Tifton soils. Also includ- brown loamy sand in the lower 19 inches. The upper 17
ed are areas of eroded soils and a few areas where inches of the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy loam with
slopes are 2 to 5 percent or 8 to 12 percent. Also strong brown mottles in the lower part; the next 16
included with this soil are a few small areas of soils that inches is brownish yellow sandy clay loam with strong
are similar to Esto soils but that have a loamy fine sand brown mottles; and the lower 21 inches is sandy loam
and sandy loam surface layer. Inclusions make up less mottled in shades of brown, yellow, gray, and red. The
than 18 percent of any mapped area. lower part of the subsoil contains more than 5 percent
In this Esto soil the water table is at a depth of more plinthite nodules above a depth of 60 inches.
than 6 feet. Permeability is moderate in the surface layer Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and slow in the subsoil. Available water capacity is Albany, Bonifay, Dothan, Lakeland, Lucy, and Troup
medium to low. Runoff is very rapid and internal drainage soils. Also included are a few small areas of soils that
is slow. The erosion hazard is very severe. Natural fertil- are similar to Fuquay soils but that contain less than 5
ity is low. The subsoil is dense and poorly aerated, and percent plinthite nodules above a depth of 60 inches or
in many places root growth is restricted. that have a sand and loamy fine sand surface layer. Also
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash included are small areas where slopes are 5 to 8 per-
pine, various oaks, hickory, and dogwood. The under- cent. Inclusions make up less than 15 percent of any
story consists of native grasses and shrubs including mapped area.
blackberry, gallberry and pineland threeawn. In this Fuquay soil the water table is normally at a
Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation, depth of more than 6 feet. However, water is briefly
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. Slow perched above the plinthic layer during wet periods. Per-
permeability, slope, the clayey subsoil, and the hazard of meability is rapid in the surface layer, moderate in the
oion a tlismodat .ery s ited ps e ero ssi c upper part of the subsoil, and slow in the lower part of
erosion are the limitations. Very intensive erosion control the horizon that contains plinthite. Available water capac-
is needed. This soil is poorly suited to terracing and ity is low in the sandy layers and moderate in the sub-
erosion control that depends primarily on plant cover, soil. Runoff is slow, and the erosion hazard is slight.
Row crops should be grown in narrow strips on the Natural fertility and organic matter content are low.
contour alternating with wider strips of close-growing The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
crops. A cropping sequence that includes a close-grow- pine, various oaks, and dogwood. The understory is
ing crop and a winter cover crop helps protect the soil mainly native grasses and low growing shrubs. Pineland
from erosion and maintain the organic matter content. All threeawn is the most common native grass.
crop residue should be returned to the soil. A large part of the acreage remains in native vegeta-
This soil is moderately suited to pasture grasses. Ba- tion. Many areas have been cleared and are used for
hiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are moderately crops.
suited for pasture and hay when properly managed. They This soil is well suited to a variety of crops. It is highly
require fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing to main- productive under good management. Droughtiness is the
tain vigorous plants and good cover. major limitation, and moderate conservation is needed to
This soil has medium potential for longleaf and slash improve the soil for crops. The lack of moisture in the
pine. Plant competition is moderate. root zone during hot, dry summer months may cause
This soil has high potential for trench sanitary landfills crop damage. The cropping sequence should include
and dwellings without basements. It has medium poten- perennial grasses or cover crops that produce large
tial for shallow excavations, playgrounds, low commercial amounts of crop residue. This soil responds well to the
buildings, septic tank absorption fields, and local roads fertilizer and lime.
and streets. Specially designed footings and foundations This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass
are necessary for buildings and dwellings. The area of and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture
filter fields should be increased. Suitable fill is needed to and hay. This soil responds well to fertilizer and lime.
increase soil strength for roads and streets. Grazing should be controlled to maintain vigorous plants
This soil is in capability subclass IVe. and good cover.
This soil has medium potential for longleaf and slash
14-Fuquay loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, pine under a high level of management. Seedling mortal-
This well drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is ity and equipment limitations are moderate.
primarily on broad and narrow ridgetops in the uplands. This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas of this soil range basements, low commercial buildings, and local roads
mostly from 15 to more than 100 acres in size, but some and streets. It has high potential for trench sanitary land-
areas are as small as 5 acres. fills and shallow excavations. The potential for septic






24 SOIL SURVEY



tank absorption fields and playgrounds is medium. The This soil is moderately well suited to pasture grasses.
absorption field area should be increased to compensate Bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for
for the slow permeability. Sodding and filling are neces- pasture and hay. Steepness increases the erosion
sary. hazard. Good stands of grass can be produced by fertil-
This soil is in capability subclass IIs. izing and liming. Controlling grazing helps to maintain
vigorous plants and good cover.
15-Fuquay loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil has medium potential for longleaf and slash
This well drained, sloping soil is on side slopes in the pine. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas of this moderate.
soil range mostly from 5 to 80 acres in size. This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown basements and local roads and streets. It has high po-
loamy sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is tential for trench sanitary landfills, low commercial build-
olive brown loamy sand in the upper 4 inches and yel- ings, and shallow excavations. The potential for septic
lowish brown loamy sand in the lower 22 inches. The tank absorption fields and playgrounds is medium. The
upper 5 inches of the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy absorption field area should be increased to compensate
loam; the next 15 inches is brownish yellow sandy clay for the slow permeability. Landscaping and sodding are
loam with red mottles; and the lower 13 inches is sandy needed on playgrounds.
loam mottled in shades of brown, yellow, and red. The This soil is in capability subclass Ills.
lower part of the subsoil contains more than 5 percent
plinthite nodules above a depth of 60 inches. 16-Garcon loamy fine sand. This somewhat poorly
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of drained, nearly level soil is on broad low positions in the
Bonifay, Dothan, Lakeland, Lucy, and Troup soils. Also flatwoods. Slopes are less than 2 percent. Areas of this
included are a few areas of soils that are similar to soil range mostly from 10 to 100 acres in size.
Fuquay soils but that have a sand and loamy fine sand Typically, the surface layer is loamy fine sand about 8
surface layer or that contain less than 5 percent plinthite inches thick; the upper 4 inches is very dark gray, and
nodules above a depth of 60 inches. Also included are a the thlck; the uower 4 inches s s dark grayish brown. The subsurface
few areas where slopes are 0 to 5 percent or 8 to 12 he lower 4 lnches is dark grayish brown. The subsurface
percent, small areas of poorly drained soils in and along layer is loamy fine sand; the upper 12 inches is yellowish
narrow stream bottom lands and drainageways, and a brown, and the lower 11 inches is brownish yellow with
few shallow and deep gullies. Inclusions make up less light brownish gray and yellowish brown mottles. The
than 15 percent of any mapped area. upper 8 inches of the subsoil is yellowish brown fine
In this Fuquay soil the water table is normally at a sandy loam; the next 12 inches is gray fine sandy loam
depth of more than 6 feet. However, water is briefly with reddish brown and red mottles; and the lower 7
perched above the plinthic layer during wet periods. Per- inches is mottled gray, pale brown, strong brown, and
meability is rapid in the surface layer, moderate in the yellowish brown loamy fine sand. The underlying sandy
upper part of the subsoil, and slow in the lower part of material extends to a depth of 80 inches; the upper 11
the horizon that contains plinthite. Available water capac- inches is gray fine sand with yellowish brown, strong
ity is low in the sandy layers and medium in the subsoil. brown, and light reddish brown mottles, and the lower 11
Runoff is medium. The erosion hazard is moderate to inches is yellowish red fine sand with light brownish gray,
severe where the soil is not protected. Natural fertility yellowish brown, red, and strong brown mottles.
and organic matter content are low. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The natural vegetation is longleaf and slash pine, var- Albany, Mulat, and Pactolus soils. Also included are a
ious oaks, and dogwood. The understory is mainly native few small areas of soils that are similar to Garcon soils
grasses and low growing shrubs. Pineland threeawn is but that have a loamy sand and fine sand surface layer.
the most common native grass. Inclusions make up less than 15 percent of any mapped
Most areas of this soil remain in woodland. A few area.
areas have been cleared and are used for crops. In this Garcon soil the water table is at a depth of 20
This soil is suited to a variety of crops. Steepness to 40 inches for 4 to 6 months during most years. Availa-
makes cultivation more difficult and increases the hazard ble water capacity is medium above a depth of about 8
of erosion. Droughtiness is the main limitation. Good inches, low between depths of 8 and 31 inches, medium
management and moderate erosion control are needed. between depths of 31 and 51 inches, and low below a
Contour cultivation is usually sufficient, but alternate depth of 51 inches. Natural fertility is low. Permeability is
strips of perennial grasses are needed in some areas. rapid above a depth of about 31 inches, moderate be-
This soil responds well to fertilizer and lime. Row crops tween depths of 31 and 51 inches, and rapid below a
should be rotated in sequence with close-growing, soil- depth of 51 inches.
improving crops and winter cover crops. All crop residue The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
should be left on the soil or plowed under. pine and various oaks. The understory is mainly gall-






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 25



berry, grassleaf goldaster, running oak, palmetto, and The vegetation is sparse-only a few slash and long
pineland threeawn. leaf pine, various oaks, and dogwood. Some areas sup-
Most areas of this soil remain in woodland. port no vegetation. Any vegetation that grows helps to
This soil has moderate limitations for cultivated crops stabilize the areas.
because of wetness. Only crops that are tolerant of Gullied land is not suited to cultivated crops or to
periodic wetness can be grown. Tile drains or open pasture. It can be used for woodland if active erosion is
drainage ditches are needed for most crops. Crops are stopped. Gullied land has very low potential for urban
subject to occasional damage from excess water during uses. If these areas are to be used, suitabilities and
growing or harvesting seasons. Crop rotations should limitations should be evaluated after onsite investigation.
include close growing cover crops at least half the time. Gullied land is not placed in a capability class.
Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue should
be left on the ground or plowed under. Good manage- 18-Johns fine sandy loam. This somewhat poorly
ment also includes good seedbed preparation, fertilizing, drained to moderately well drained, nearly level soil is on
and liming, stream terraces primarily along the larger streams.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture grasses and Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Areas of this soil
legumes. Bahiagrass, tall fescue, Coastal bermudagrass, range mostly from 10 to 120 acres in size, but a few
and clovers are moderately well suited for pasture and areas are as small as 5 acres.
hay when properly managed. They respond moderately Typically, the surface layer is fine sandy loam about 9
well to fertilizer and lime. Grazing should be controlled to inches thick; the upper 5 inches is very dark grayish
maintain vigorous plants and good cover. brown, and the lower 4 inches is dark grayish brown.
This soil normally has moderate to moderately high The upper 10 inches of the subsoil is light yellowish
potential for longleaf and slash pine. It has high potential brown loam; the next 3 inches is yellowish brown sandy
for pine with good water control and a high level of clay loam with light brownish gray and strong brown
mottles; and the next 13 inches is mottled gray, yellow-
management. Seedling mortality is the main manage- ish brown, strong brown, and yellowish red sandy clay
mentroblemish brown, strong brown, and yellowish red sandy clay
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base- of 63 inches; the upper 8 inches is mottled light gray,
ments, low commercial buildings, and local roads and ga, er e bron, is ow ad str
streets. Water control is necessary for these uses. This brown stratified loamy sand and sand with pockets of
soil has medium potential for septic tank absorption sandy loam, and the lower 20 inches is mixed light gray
fields, shallow excavations, and playgrounds. Water con- and white sand with olive yellow mottles.
trol, mounding, and filling may overcome these limita- Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
tons. Shoring is also needed in shallow excavations. Albany, Escambia, Kalmia, Lynchburg, and Pactolus
This soil has low potential for trench sanitary landfills. soils. Also included are a few areas of soils that are
Suitable fill should be used as sealer and daily cover for similar to Johns soils but in which the subsoil extends to
landfills. a depth of more than 40 inches, in which the surface
This soil is in capability subclass llw. layer is more than 20 inches thick, or in which the sur-
face layer is loamy sand. Also included are small areas
17-Gullied land. Gullied land consists of areas where slopes are 2 to 5 percent, small areas of poorly
where the soil has been removed by water, resulting in drained soils that have a clayey subsoil, and small areas
an intricate network of V-shaped or U-shaped channels. of poorly drained soils in and along narrow stream
Only small patches or narrow strips of soil remain be- bottom lands and drainageways. Inclusions make up
tween the gullies. Most of the surface layer has been about 15 percent of any mapped area.
removed from most of these areas. Gullied land is mainly In this Johns soil the water table is at a depth of 18 to
in the northern part of the county. In most areas slopes 36 inches for 2 to 6 months most years. Available water
are steeper than 5 percent. Areas range from a few capacity is moderate. Natural fertility is low. Permeability
acres to about 75 acres in size. is moderately rapid above a depth of 19 inches, moder-
Included in mapping are a few areas between the ate between depths of 19 and 35 inches, and rapid
large gullies where the soils still have part of the original below a depth of 35 inches. Runoff is slow.
surface layer. The soils between the gullies are the same The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
as the surrounding soils. pine, water oak, and holly. The understory is mainly
The gullies have cut into soils that range from sandy native grasses and low growing shrubs including gall-
to clayey. The exposed materials are equally varied in berry, waxmyrtle, and greenbriar. Pineland threeawn is
texture. Most of the gullies are more than 5 feet deep the most common native grass.
and have steep sides. In many areas erosion is still Most areas of this soil remain in woodland. A few
active, but a few of these gullied areas are stabilized, areas have been cleared and are used for crops and
Runoff is rapid and the erosion hazard is severe, pasture.






26 SOIL SURVEY


If properly managed this soil is moderately suited to Also included are small areas where slopes are 0 to 2
cultivated crops. It is moderately limited by wetness. percent or 5 to 8 percent. Inclusions make up about 17
Good water control is needed. Crops are subject to oc- percent of any mapped area.
casional damage by excess water during growing or har- In this Kalmia soil the water table is at a depth of more
vesting seasons. Good seedbed preparation and regular than 6 feet. Available water capacity is low above a
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed. Cultivated depth of about 14 inches, moderate between depths of
crops should be planted in rotation with close-growing 14 and 39 inches, and low below a depth of 39 inches.
cover crops. All crop residue should be left on the soil or Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid above a
plowed under. depth of about 14 inches, moderate between depths of
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture grasses. 14 and 39 inches, and rapid below a depth of 39 inches.
Bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are moderately Runoff is medium, and the erosion hazard is moderate.
well suited for pasture and hay when properly managed. The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
Simple drainage is generally adequate to remove excess pine, various oaks, dogwood, and sweetgum. The under-
water. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are story consists of native grasses and low growing shrubs.
needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain vigor- Pineland threeawn is the most common native grass.
ous plants and good cover. Most areas of this soil remain in woodland.
This soil normally has medium potential for slash and This soil is well suited to a variety of cultivated crops.
loblolly pine. It has high potential for pine with good It is highly productive under good management. Runoff is
water control and a high level of management. Equip- moderate and the major hazard to cultivation is erosion.
meant limitations are moderate. Runoff can be reduced and erosion controlled by con-
This soil has a high potential for dwellings without tour cultivation, terraces, and stabilized waterways. A
basements, low commercial buildings, playgrounds, and cropping sequence that includes close-growing crops
local roads and streets. Water control is necessary for and winter cover crops helps protect the soil from ero-
these uses. This soil has medium potential for septic sion and maintain the organic matter content All crop
tank absorption fields and shallow excavations. Water residue should be returned to the soil. Liming and regular
control, mounding, and filling may overcome the limita- esdue should urned to the soil. Liming and regular
tions for these uses. Shoring is needed in shallow exca- fertilizing are needed
vations. The potential for trench sanitary landfills is low. This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass
Water control is needed and suitable fill should be used and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture
as sealer and daily cover for landfills. and hay. They grow well when properly managed. They
This soil is in capability subclass ilw. require fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing to main-
tain vigorous plants and good cover.
19-Kalmia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This soil has high potential for longleaf and slash pine.
This well drained, gently sloping soil is on stream ter- It has no serious management problems.
races, primarily along the larger streams in the county. This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas of this soil range basements, low commercial buildings, and local roads
mostly from 10 to 70 acres in size, but a few areas are and streets. It has high potential for septic tank absorp-
as small as 5 acres. tion fields and playgrounds. The potential for shallow
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown excavations and trench sanitary landfills is medium.
loamy fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface Shoring is needed in shallow excavations. Suitable fill
layer is light yellowish brown loamy fine sand about 4 should be used as sealer and daily cover for landfills.
inches thick. The upper 6 inches of the subsoil is light This soil is in capability subclass lie.
yellowish brown sandy loam; the next 10 inches is yel-
lowish brown sandy clay loam; the next 12 inches is 20-Kureb sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This exces-
brownish yellow sandy clay loam; and the lower 3 inches sively drained, nearly level to sloping soil is on broad
is brownish yellow sandy loam. The underlying sandy uplands on the coastal plain. The soil is mostly gently
material extends to a depth of 65 inches; the upper 13 sloping and nearly level. Slopes are smooth to concave.
inches is brownish yellow and pale yellow loamy sand Areas of this soil range mostly from 50 to 800 acres in
with yellow and gray mottles, and the lower 13 inches is size, but a few areas are as large as 1,000 acres and
yellow fine sand with brownish yellow and light gray some areas are as small as 15 acres.
mottles. Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 3 inches
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of thick that has a salt-and-pepper appearance. The under-
Johns, Maxton, and Angie Variant soils. Also included lying layers are sand to a depth of more than 80 inches.
are a few areas of soils that are similar to Kalmia soils The upper 13 inches is light gray; the next 8 inches is
but in which the subsoil extends to a depth of more than yellowish brown with tongues of light gray in the upper 5
40 inches, in which the surface layer is more than 20 inches from the horizon above and common strong
inches thick, or in which the surface layer is sandy loam. brown mottles; the next 15 inches is yellowish brown;







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 27



the next 16 inches is light yellowish brown; and the lower In this Lakeland soil the water table is at a depth of
25 inches is very pale brown. more than 72 inches. Available water capacity is low or
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of very low (fig. 7). Organic matter content and natural
Lakeland and Pactolus soils. Also included are small fertility are very low. Permeability is very rapid. Runoff is
areas of wetter soils that are shown on the soil map by a slow, and the erosion hazard is slight.
wet spot symbol. Inclusions make up less than 10 per- The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
cent of any mapped area. Some areas, especially along pine, turkey oak, blackjack oak, post oak, and a few
bays, contain abrupt dropoffs, which are designated by water oak. The understory is mainly native grasses and
an escarpment symbol. shrubs. Pineland threeawn is the most common native
In this Kureb soil the water table is at a depth of more grass.
than 72 inches. Available water capacity is very low. Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation.
Permeability is very rapid. Organic matter content and This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Droughti-
natural fertility are very low. ness is the major limitation. Very low or low available
The natural vegetation is sand pine, live oak, and water capacity makes this soil very drought in dry peri-
turkey oak. The understory is dominantly pineland ods. This soil is also susceptible to leaching of plant
threeawn, running oak, other annual forbs and grasses, nutrients. Using a cropping sequence that includes regu-
and sparse sawpalmetto. lar close-growing crops helps improve soil condition. All
A large part of the acreage of this soil is in natural crop residue should be returned to the soil. Placing row
vegetation. This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops crops on the contour helps retain water and retard ero-
and only fairly suited to improved pasture. Bahiagrass sion. Terracing is not practical on this soil. Liming and
makes only fair growth when fertilized. Droughtiness is frequent fertilizing are needed for the best production.
the major limitation. Liming and frequent fertilizing are This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay.
needed for the best production. Deep rooting plants such as bahiagrass and Coastal
This soil has medium potential for sand pine and low bermudagrass are well suited but periodic droughts
potential for slash pine. Equipment limitations are moder- reduce production. Regular fertilizing and liming are
ate, and seedling mortality is severe, needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain vigor-
This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp- ous plants.
tion fields, dwellings without basements, and local roads This soil has medium potential for sand pine and low
and streets. It has high potential for low commercial potential for longleaf and slash pine. Low available water
buildings. This soil has medium potential for trench sani- capacity and low inherent fertility limit use of these soils
tary landfills, shallow excavations, and playgrounds. Suit- for forest. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
able fill should be used as sealer and daily cover for are moderate.
sanitary landfills. Excavations need filling or shoring. This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp-
Paving, sodding, or filling is needed on playgrounds. tion fields, dwellings without basements, and local roads
This soil is in capability subclass VIs. and streets. It has high potential for low commercial
buildings. This soil has medium potential for trench sani-
21-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This ex- tary landfills, shallow excavations, and playgrounds. Suit-
cessively drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is able fill should be used as a sealer and daily cover for
primarily on broad ridgetops in the uplands. Slopes are sanitary landfills. Shallow excavations need filling or
smooth to concave. Areas of this soil range mostly from shoring. Paving, sodding, or filling is needed on play-
40 to more than 300 acres in size, but some areas are shoring. Paving, sodding, or flling s needed on play-
larger than 1,000 acres and some are as small as 5 grounds.
acres. This soil is in capability subclass lVs.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand 22-Lakeland sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This
about 4 inches thick. The underlying layers are sand to a excessively drained, sloping to strongly sloping soil is
depth of more than 83 inches. The upper 28 inches is primarily on upland hillsides leading to drainageways and
yellowish brown with dark grayish brown streaks in the around depressions. Slopes are smooth to concave.
upper 4 inches; the next 30 inches is yellowish brown Areas of this soil range mostly from 30 to more than 100
with very pale brown mottles; and the lower 21 inches is acres in size, but some areas are as small as 5 acres.
very pale brown with yellowish brown and brownish Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand
yellow mottles. about 3 inches thick. The underlying layers are sand to a
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of depth of more than 80 inches. The upper 31 inches is
Bonifay, Ortega, Pactolus, and Troup soils. Also included yellowish brown; the next 23 inches is brownish yellow
are small areas where slopes are 5 to 8 percent and with splotches of very pale brown; the next 19 inches is
small areas of wetter soils that are shown on the soil yellowish brown with splotches of very pale brown; and
map by a wet spot symbol. Inclusions make up about 15 the lower 4 inches is yellow with splotches of very pale
percent of any mapped area. brown.







28 SOIL SURVEY


































Figure 7.-Golf course on Lakeland sands. These drought soils must be watered daily for grass to survive.



Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of susceptibility to erosion are the main limitations.
Albany, Bonifay, Fuquay, Lucy, Pactolus, and Troup soils. This soil is poorly suited to pasture grasses. Deep
Also included are small areas of poorly drained soils in rooted plants such as bahiagrass and Coastal bermuda-
and along narrow stream bottoms and drainageways, a grass are well suited, but periodic droughts reduce pro-
few areas where slopes are 12 to 30 percent, and a few duction. Soil blowing and water erosion are hazards on
shallow and deep gullies. Inclusions make up less than newly seeded pastures. Grazing should be carefully con-
17 percent of any mapped area. trolled. Regular liming and fertilizing are needed.
In this Lakeland soil the water table is at a depth of This soil has medium potential for sand pine and low
more than 72 inches. Available water capacity is low or potential for longleaf and slash pine. Slope, low available
very low. Organic matter content and natural fertility are water capacity, and low inherent fertility are the main
very low. Permeability is very rapid. Runoff is slow to limitations. Equipment limitations and seeding mortality
medium. The erosion hazard is moderate where the soil are moderate.
is not protected.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp-
pine, turkey oak, blackjack oak, post oak, and a few tion fields. It has high potential for dwellings without
water oak. The understory is mainly native grasses and basements and local roads and streets. The major limita-
shrubs. Pineland threeawn is the most common native tion is steepness. This soil has medium potential for low
grass. commercial buildings. Landshaping may be needed on
Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation, sites for dwellings without basements and low commer-
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. Steepness, cial buildings. This soil has low potential for trench sani-
low available water capacity, low inherent fertility, and tary landfills, shallow excavations, and playgrounds. Suit-






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 29



able fill should be used as a sealer and daily cover for Paving, sodding, or filling in addition to landscaping are
sanitary landfills. Shallow excavations need filling or needed on playgrounds.
shoring. Paving, sodding, or filling in addition to lands- This soil is in capability subclass Vlls.
caping are needed on playgrounds.
This soil is in capability subclass VIs. 24-Leon sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This poorly
drained, nearly level soil is on broad low positions on the
23-Lakeland sand, 12 to 30 percent slopes. This Coastal Plain. Slopes are less than 2 percent. Areas of
excessively drained, steep soil is primarily on upland this soil range mostly from 5 to 90 acres in size.
hillsides leading to drainageways and depressions. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas of this soil range about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish
mostly from 20 to 80 acres in size, but some areas are brown sand about 14 inches thick. The subsoil is a dark
as small as 5 acres. reddish brown, dark brown, and brown sand that is
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand coated with organic matter and is about 16 inches thick.
about 3 inches thick. The underlying layers are sand to a The upper 12 inches of the substratum is very pale
depth of more than 80 inches. The upper 46 inches is brown sand with dark brown stains along root channels,
yellowish brown with mottles of very pale brown in the the next 12 inches is light brownish gray sand, and the
lower part; the next 27 inches is brownish yellow with lower 24 inches is white sand.
mottles of very pale brown; and the lower 4 inches is Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
yellow with mottles of very pale brown. Pactolus and Rutlege soils. Also included are a few
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of areas of soils that are similar to Leon soils but in which
Albany, Bonifay, Fuquay, Lucy, Pactolus, and Troup soils, the very dark gray surface layer is thicker or the organic-
normally along slope breaks and around stream heads. coated layer is more than 30 inches below the surface.
Also included are small areas of poorly drained soils in Also included are a few areas where slopes are 2 to 5
and along narrow stream bottoms and drainageways, a percent. Inclusions make up less than 15 percent of any
few areas where slopes are 8 to 12 percent, and a few mapped area.
areas of moderately eroded soils that have many shallow In this Leon soil the water table is at a depth of 15 to
gullies and, a few deep gullies. Inclusions make up less 30 inches for more than 9 months during most years. It
than 17 percent of any mapped area. is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months
In this Lakeland soil the water table is at a depth of during periods of heavy rainfall and recedes to a depth
more than 72 inches. Available water capacity is low or of more than 40 inches during some dry seasons. Availa-
very low. Organic matter content and natural fertility are ble water capacity is low in the root zone. Natural fertility
very low. Permeability is very rapid. Runoff is medium. is low. Runoff and internal drainage are slow. Permeabil-
The erosion hazard is severe where the soil is not pro- ity is rapid in the surface layer and moderate to moder-
tected. ately rapid in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
pine, turkey oak, blackjack oak, post oak, and a few pine and water oak. The understory is mainly native
water oak. The understory is mainly native grasses and grasses and low growing shrubs, primarily gallberry, run-
shrubs. Pineland threeawn is the most common native ning oak, and sawpalmetto. Pineland threeawn is the
grass. most common native grass.
Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation. Most of the acreage of this soil remains in natural
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops and is very vegetation.
poorly suited to pasture grasses. Steepness, low availa- This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. They are
ble water capacity, low inherent fertility, and susceptibility very severely limited by wetness and poor soil quality.
to erosion are the main limitations. The selection of crops is limited except under very inten-
This soil has medium potential for sand pine and low sive management and good water control. A complete
potential for longleaf and slash pine. Erosion hazard, water control system is needed. Row crops should be
equipment limitations, and seedling mortality are moder- rotated with soil improving crops. All crop residue should
ate. Steepness, low available water capacity, and low be returned to the soil. Lime and fertilizer are needed for
inherent fertility are the main limitations, the best production.
This soil has high potential for septic tank absorption This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass
fields, dwellings without basements, and local roads and and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture
streets. The major limitation is steepness. This soil has and hay. Water control is needed to remove excess
medium potential for low commercial buildings because water during heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer
of slope. This soil has low potential for trench sanitary and lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to
landfills, shallow excavations, and playgrounds. Suitable maintain vigorous plants.
fill should be used as sealer and daily cover for sanitary This soil normally has low potential for longleaf and
landfills. Shallow excavations need filling or shoring, slash pine. Plant competition, windthrow hazard, seedling






30 SOIL SURVEY



mortality, and equipment limitations are moderate. With Grazing should be controlled to maintain vigorous plants
good, high level management, potential is medium. and good cover.
This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp- This soil has medium potential for longleaf and slash
tion fields, low commercial buildings, buildings without pine. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are
basements, and local roads and streets. It has low po- moderate.
tential for shallow excavations and playgrounds. This soil This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
has a very low potential for trench sanitary landfills, basements, low commercial buildings, and local roads
Mounding, water control, or filling overcome the limita- and streets. It has high potential for septic tank absorp-
tions. tion fields, trench sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. and playgrounds.
This soil is in capability subclass IIs.
25-Lucy loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
well drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is primarily 26-Lucy loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
on broad ridgetops in the uplands. Slopes are smooth to well drained, sloping soil is on long, narrow hillsides in
concave. Areas of this soil range mostly from 15 to more the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas of
than 100 acres in size, but some areas are as small as 5 this soil range mostly from 5 to 80 acres in size.
acres. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
loamy sand about 10 inches thick. The subsurface layer strong brown loamy sand about 12 inches thick. Below
is brown loamy sand about 8 inches thick. Below this is this is a layer of yellowish red loamy sand about 11
a layer of yellowish red loamy sand about 8 inches thick. inches thick. The upper 7 inches of the subsoil is yellow-
The upper 8 inches of the subsoil is yellowish red sandy ish red sandy loam, and the lower 45 inches is red sandy
loam, the next 7 inches is red sandy loam, and the lower clay loam.
39 inches is red sandy clay loam. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Dothan, Fuquay, Orangeburg, and Troup soils. Also in-
Dothan, Fuquay, Orangeburg, Red Bay, and Troup soils. clouded are a few areas of soils that are similar to Lucy
Also included are a few areas of soils that are similar to soils but that have a sand and loamy fine sand surface
Lucy soils but that have a sand and loamy fine sand layer. Also included are small areas of poorly drained
surface layer or darker red colors in the lower part of the soils in and along narrow stream bottoms and drain-
subsoil. Also included are small areas where slopes are ageways, a few areas where slopes are more than 8
5 to 8 percent. Inclusions make up about 15 percent of percent, and a few shallow and deep gullies. Inclusions
5 to 8 percent. Inclusions make up about 15 percent of make up about 15 percent of any mapped area.
any mapped area. In this Lucy soil the water table is at a depth of more
In this Lucy soil the water table is at a depth of more than 6 feet. Natural fertility and organic matter content
than 6 feet. Natural fertility and organic matter content are low. Available water capacity is low in the sandy
are low. Available water capacity is low in the sandy layers and medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in
layers and medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is
the s andy layers and moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is medium, and the erosion hazard is moderate.
slow and the erosion hazard is slight. The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash pine, various oaks, and dogwood. The understory is
pine, various oaks, and dogwood. The understory is mainly native grasses and low growing shrubs. Pineland
mainly native grasses and low growing shrubs. Pineland threeawn is the most common native grass.
threeawn is the most common native grass. A few areas have been cleared, but most areas of this
Much of the acreage of this soil remains in native soil remain in woodland.
vegetation. Extensive areas have been cleared and are This soil is suited to a variety of crops. Steepness
used for crops. makes cultivation more difficult and increases the hazard
This soil is well suited to a variety of crops. It is highly of erosion. Droughtiness is the main limitation. Good
productive under good management. This soil responds management and moderate erosion control are needed.
well to fertilizer and lime. Droughtiness is the major limi- Contour cultivation is usually sufficient, but alternate
station and moderate conservation is needed to improve strips of perennial grasses are needed in some areas. All
the soil for crops. The lack of moisture in the root zone crop residue should be returned to the soil. This soil
during hot, dry summer months may cause crop damage. responds well to fertilizer and lime; however, fertilizer is
The cropping sequence should include perennial grasses leached rapidly.
or cover crops that produce large amounts of residue. This soil is moderately well suited to pasture grasses.
This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass Bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for
and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture pasture and hay. The steepness increases the erosion
and hay. This soil responds well to fertilizer and lime. hazard. Good stands of grass can be produced by fertil-







GANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 31



izing and liming. Grazing should be controlled to maintain If properly managed this soil is moderately suited to
vigorous plants and good cover, cultivated crops. This soil is moderately limited by wet-
This soil has medium potential for longleaf and slash ness. Good water control is needed. Crops are subject
pine. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are to occasional damage by excess water during growing or
moderate. harvesting seasons. Good management includes good
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without seedbed preparation and regular applications of lime and
basements and local roads and streets. It has high po- fertilizer. Cultivated crops should be rotated with close-
tential for septic tank absorption fields, trench sanitary growing cover crops. All crop residue should be left on
landfills, low commercial buildings, and shallow excava- the soil or plowed under.
tions. The potential for playgrounds is medium. Play- This soil is moderately well suited to pasture grasses.
grounds need landscaping and sodding. Bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are moderately
This soil is in capability subclass Ills. well suited for pasture and hay when properly managed.
Simple drainage is generally adequate to remove surface
27-Lynchburg fine sandy loam. This somewhat water. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are
poorly drained, nearly level soil is along narrow drain- needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain vigor-
ageways, around depressions, and on low flats between ous plants and good cover.
small streams. Slopes are less than 2 percent. Areas of This soil normally has medium to high potential for
this soil range mostly from 10 to more than 100 acres in longleaf, slash, and loblolly pine. It has high potential for
size, but a few areas are as small as 5 acres. pine with good water control and high level manage-
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy ment. Equipment limitations are moderate.
loam about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
yellowish brown loam about 5 inches thick. The upper 8 ments, low commercial buildings, and local roads and
inches of the subsoil is light yellowish brown loam with streets, but water control is necessary. This soil has
yellowish brown and gray mottles; the next 8 inches is medium potential for trench sanitary landfills, septic tank
light yellowish brown loam with gray, red, and strong absorption fields, shallow excavations, and playgrounds.
brown mottles; the next 35 inches is sandy clay loam Water control, mounding, and filling may overcome the
mottled in shades of gray, yellow, brown, and red; and limitations for these uses.
the lower 20 inches is clay loam mottled in shades of This soil is in capability subclass IIw.
gray, yellow, brown, and red.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 28-Maxton loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
Albany, Angie Variant, Dothan, Escambia, Kalmia, and slopes. This well drained, gently sloping soil is on
Rains soils. Also included are a few areas of soils that stream terraces primarily along the larger streams. Most
are similar to Lynchburg soils but that have a surface areas of this soil are at higher elevations adjacent to the
layer more than 20 inches thick, that are sandy clay or Escambia River. Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas
clay below a depth of 40 inches, or that have a very dark of this soil range mostly from 10 to 50 acres in size.
gray or black surface layer more than 8 inches thick. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
Also included are small areas of poorly drained soils in loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
and along narrow stream bottom lands and drain- layer is dark yellowish brown loamy fine sand about 4
ageways and a few small areas where slopes are 2 to 5 inches thick. The upper 9 inches of the subsoil is strong
percent. Inclusions make up less than 17 percent of any brown sandy loam, the next 13 inches is yellowish red
mapped area. sandy clay loam, and the lower 6 inches is yellowish red
In this Lynchburg soil the water table is at a depth of sandy loam. The underlying material, to a depth of 72
less than 12 inches for 1 to 3 months during spring and inches, is brownish yellow and white sand with yellow
winter in most years. Available water capacity is medium. and brown mottles.
Natural fertility is low. Permeability is moderate above a Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
depth of about 25 inches and moderately slow below a Kalmia and Angie Variant soils. Also included are a few
depth of about 25 inches. Internal drainage is moderately areas of soils that are similar to Maxton soils but on
slow to slow and response to artificial drainage is moder- which the subsoil extends to a depth of more than 40
ately slow. Runoff is slow. inches. Also included are small areas where slopes are 0
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash to 2 percent slopes and a few small areas of soils that
pine, sweetgum, blackgum, and various oaks. The under- are similar to Maxton soils but that have a surface layer
story is mainly native grasses and low growing shrubs more than 20 inches thick or a clayey subsoil. Inclusions
such as gallberry and water-tolerent plants. Pineland make up about 15 percent of any mapped area.
threeawn is the most common native grass. In this Maxton soil the water table is at a depth of
Most areas of this soil remain in woodland. A few more than 6 feet. Available water capacity is low in the
areas have been cleared and are used for crops and upper 14 inches, medium between depths of 14 and 38
pasture. inches, and low below a depth of 38 inches. Natural







32 SOIL SURVEY



fertility is low. Permeability is moderately rapid above a Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
depth of about 14 inches, moderate between depths of Garcon, Lynchburg, Pactolus, Rains, and Rutlege soils.
14 and 38 inches, and rapid below a depth of 38 inches. Also included are a few small areas of soils that are
Runoff is moderate. similar to Mulat soils but that have a loamy sand and fine
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash sand surface layer. Inclusions make up less than 15
pine, sweetgum, various oaks, and dogwood. The under- percent of any mapped area.
story consists of native grasses and low growing shrubs. In this Mulat soil the water table is above a depth of
Pineland threeawn is the most common native grass. 10 inches for 6 to 8 months during most years and
Most areas of this soil remain in woodland. varies between the depths of 10 and 30 inches during
This soil is well suited to a variety of cultivated crops. drought periods. The soils are ponded or have water
It is highly productive under good management. Runoff is above the soil surface for less than 1 month during the
moderate and the major hazard to cultivation is erosion. wettest season. Surface and internal drainage are slow
Runoff can be reduced and erosion controlled by con- under natural conditions. This soil has medium available
tour cultivation, terraces, and stabilized waterways. A water capacity above a depth of about 10 inches, low
cropping sequence that includes close-growing crops between depths of 10 and 27 inches, medium between
and winter cover crops helps protect the soil from ero- depths of 27 and 49 inches, and low below a depth of
sion and maintain the organic matter content. All crop 49 inches. Permeability is rapid above a depth of about
residue should be returned to the soil. Liming and regular 27 inches, moderately slow between depths of 27 and
fertilizing are needed. 49 inches, and rapid below a depth of 49 inches.
This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass The natural vegetation consists of baldcypress, pit-
and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture cherplant, gallberry, and pineland threeawn (fig. 8).
and hay. They grow well when properly managed. They
require fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing to main-
tain vigorous plants and good cover. i
This soil has high potential for longleaf and slash pine.
It has no serious management problems.
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
basements, low commercial buildings, and local roads
and streets. It has high potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields and playgrounds. The potential for shallow
excavations and trench sanitary landfills is medium.
Shoring is needed in shallow excavations. Suitable fill
should be used as sealer and daily cover for trench
sanitary landfills.
This soil is in capability subclass lie.

29-Mulat loamy fine sand. This poorly drained,
nearly level soil is in low-lying areas and in the flatwoods
of the lower Coastal Plain. Slopes are less than 1 per-
cent. Areas of this soil range mostly from 10 to more
than 100 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is black loamy fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The upper 6 inches of the subsur-
face layer is dark gray loamy fine sand with brown and
very dark gray mottles, the next 7 inches is grayish
brown fine sand with dark yellowish brown and brown
mottles, and the lower 10 inches is light brownish gray
sand with yellowish brown and brown mottles. The upper Figure 8.-Pitcherplant bog at Garcon Point. Soil is Mulat loamy
7 inches of the subsoil is gray fine sandy loam with fine sand.
yellowish brown and grayish brown mottles, and the
lower 15 inches is gray fine sandy loam with yellowish
brown and dark gray mottles. The underlying material Most areas of this soil remain in natural vegetation.
extends to a depth of 80 inches; the upper 8 inches is This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The shal-
pinkish gray sand with light brownish gray mottles, the low water table is the main limitation.
next 14 inches is light brownish gray sand with pinkish This soil is moderately suited to pasture but requires
gray mottles, and the lower 9 inches is gray fine sand intensive management. Bahiagrass, Coastal bermuda-
with dark gray mottles. grass and white clover are moderately suited for pasture






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 33



and hay. Drainage is needed to remove excess water. keep the soil in good condition. Cover crops should be
The pasture grasses grow well with adequate water con- alternated with row crops. All crop residue should be
trol, a high level of management, and good conservation, plowed under.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass
Grazing should be controlled to maintain vigorous plants and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture
and good cover, and hay. They grow well when properly managed. They
This soil has high potential for baldcypress. Equipment require fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing to main-
limitations and seedling mortality are the main manage- tain vigorous plants and good cover.
ment concerns. This soil has high potential for longleaf and slash pine.
This soil has medium potential for local roads and It has no serious management concerns.
streets and low potential for dwellings without base- This soil has high potential for trench sanitary landfills,
ments, low commercial buildings, shallow excavations, dwellings without basements, low commercial buildings,
and playgrounds. It has very low potential for septic tank shallow excavations, playgrounds and local roads and
absorption fields and trench sanitary landfills. Wetness streets. It has high potential for septic tank absorption
and the shallow water table are the limitations. Water fields.
control, mounding, and filling help overcome these limita- This soil is in capability class I.
tions. In addition, shoring is needed in shallow excava-
tions. Suitable fill should be used as a sealer and daily 31-Orangeburg sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent
cover for landfills. slopes. This well drained, gently sloping soil is on broad
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw. and narrow ridgetops in the uplands. Slopes are smooth
to concave. Areas of this soil range mostly from 15 to 80
30-Orangeburg sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent acres in size.
slopes. This well drained, nearly level soil is on broad Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
and narrow ridgetops in the uplands. Slopes are smooth sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
to concave. Areas of this soil range mostly from 15 to pale brown sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The upper
100 acres in size, but some areas are as small as 5 8 inches of the subsoil is yellowish red sandy loam, and
acres, the lower 55 inches is red sandy clay loam. In a few
Typically, the surface layer is brown sandy loam about places, the lower part of the subsoil has mottles of red,
8 inches thick. The upper 6 inches of the subsoil is yellow, or brown.
brown sandy loam, the next 11 inches is red sandy clay Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
loam, and the lower 48 inches is dark red sandy clay Dothan, Fuquay, Lucy, and Red Bay soils. Also included
loam with strong brown mottles in the lower part. are a few areas where slopes are 0 to 2 percent, a few
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of small wet spots, a few areas of eroded soils, and a few
Dothan, Fuquay, Lucy, and Red Bay soils. Also included shallow and deep gullies. Also included are a few areas
are a few areas where slopes are 2 to 5 percent and a of soils that are similar to Orangeburg soils but that have
few small wet spots that are shown by a drainage a loamy sand and loamy fine sand surface layer. Inclu-
symbol. Also included are a few areas of soils that are sions make up less than 15 percent of any mapped area.
similar to Orangeburg soils but that have a loamy sand In this Orangeburg soil the water table is at a depth of
and loamy fine sand surface layer. Inclusions make up more than 6 feet. Available water capacity is medium.
less than 15 percent of any mapped area. Natural fertility and organic matter content are low. Per-
In this Orangeburg soil the water table is at a depth of meability is moderately rapid in the surface and subsur-
more than 6 feet. Available water capacity is medium. face layers and moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is mod-
Natural fertility and organic matter content are low. Per- rate to rapid where the soil is not protected, and the
meability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and erosion hazard is moderate. This soil has a well aerated
moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is slow and the erosion root zone and is loamy enough to have good tilth.
hazard is slight. This soil has a well aerated root zone The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
and is loamy enough to have good tilth. pine, various oaks, dogwood, hickory, and persimmon.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash The understory is mainly native grasses and low growing
pine, various oaks, dogwood, hickory, and persimmon. shrubs. Pineland threeawn is the most common native
The understory is mainly native grasses and low growing grass.
shrubs. Pineland threeawn is the most common native Many areas of this soil have been cleared and are
grass. used for crops.
Many areas of this soil have been cleared and are This soil is well suited to a variety of crops. It is highly
used for crops. productive under good management. Runoff is moderate,
This soil is well suited to a variety of crops. It is highly and the major hazard to cultivation is erosion. Runoff
productive under good management. Good seedbed can be reduced and erosion controlled by contour culti-
preparation, fertilizing, liming, and crop rotation help vation, terraces, and stabilized waterways. A cropping






34 SOIL SURVEY



sequence that includes close-growing crops and winter terraces, and stabilized waterways. A cropping sequence
cover crops helps protect the soil from erosion and including close-growing crops and winter cover crops in
maintain the organic matter content. All crop residue rotation with row crops reduces erosion, as do parallel
should be returned to the soil. This soil responds well to strips of perennial grasses on the contour. All crop resi-
the fertilizer and lime. due should be returned to the soil. This soil responds
This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass well to fertilizer and lime.
and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass
and hay. They grow well when properly managed. They and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture
require fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing to main- and hay. They grow well when properly managed. They
tain vigorous plants and good cover, require fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing to main-
This soil has high potential for longleaf and slash pine. tain vigorous plants and good cover.
It has no serious management concerns. This soil has high potential for longleaf and slash pine.
This soil has very high potential for trench sanitary It has no serious management problems.
landfills, dwellings without basements, low commercial This soil has very high potential for trench sanitary
buildings, shallow excavations, and local roads and landfills, dwellings without basements, shallow excava-
streets. It has high potential for septic tank absorption tions, and local roads and streets. It has high potential
fields and playgrounds. for septic tank absorption fields, low commercial build-
This soil is in capability subclass lie. ings, and playgrounds.
This soil is in capability subclass Ille.
32-Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent
slopes. This well drained, sloping soil is on long, narrow 33-Ortega sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This mod-
hillsides in the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave. erately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is
Areas of this soil range mostly from 10 to 40 acres in primarily on broad areas that are slightly higher than the
size. adjacent flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to concave.
Typically, the surface and subsurface layers are brown Areas of this soil range mostly from 5 to 150 acres in
sandy loam about 11 inches thick. The subsoil is yellow- size, but some areas are as large as 300 acres.
ish red sandy loam in the upper 7 inches and red sandy Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
clay loam to a depth of more than 73 inches. In a few about 4 inches thick. The underlying material is sand to
places the lower part of the subsoil has mottles of red, a depth of more than 80 inches; the upper 41 inches is
yellow, or brown. brownish yellow, the next 7 inches is very pale brown
Included with this soil in mapping are small acres of with common to few light gray and brownish yellow mot-
Dothan, Fuquay, Lucy, and Red Bay soils. Also included ties, and the lower 28 inches is white with many pale
are a few areas where slopes are 2 to 5 percent or 8 to brown and few yellowish red and reddish yellow mottles.
12 percent, a few areas of eroded soils, and a few Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
shallow and deep gullies. Also included are a few areas Kureb, Lakeland, Leon, and Pactolus soils. Also included
of soil that are similar to Orangeburg soils but that have are small areas of soils that are similar to Ortega soils
a loamy sand and loamy fine sand surface layer and a but that have a white surface layer about 12 inches
few areas of poorly drained soils in and along narrow thick. Inclusions make up about 12 percent of any
bottom lands and drainageways. Inclusions make up less mapped area.
than 15 percent of any mapped area. In this Ortega soil, the water table is between depths
In this Orangeburg soil the water table is at a depth of of 40 and 60 inches during most of the year. During dry
more than 6 feet. Available water capacity is medium. periods the water table may drop below a depth of 60
Natural fertility and organic matter content are low. Per- inches for 2 weeks to 2 months. Heavy rainfall may
meability is moderately rapid in the surface and subsur- cause the water table to rise above a depth of 40 inches
face layers and moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is rapid for 1 to 10 days. Organic matter content, available water
where the soil is not protected, and the erosion hazard is capacity, and natural fertility are low. Permeability is very
severe. This soil has a well aerated root zone. rapid. The erosion hazard is slight.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash The natural vegetation is turkey oak and scattered
pine, various oaks, dogwood, hickory, and persimmon. longleaf and slash pine, live oak, laurel oak, bay, and a
The understory is mainly native grasses and low growing few sand pine. The understory is very sparse pineland
shrubs. Pineland threeawn is the most common native threeawn, sawpalmetto, chalky bluestem, lopsided in-
grass. diangrass, moss, and greenbriar.
A few areas of this soil have been cleared and are Many areas of this soil are on native vegetation. No
used for crops. cultivated crops are grown on these soils.
This soil is moderately suited to a variety of crops. It is This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Low avail-
severely limited for cultivated crops by the hazard of able water capacity makes these soils very drought.
erosion. Erosion can be reduced by contour cultivation, Supplemental irrigation is needed but is not practical.






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 35



The soil is also susceptible to leaching of plant nutrients, mainly gallberry, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, and pineland
so frequent application of lime and fertilizer are neces- threeawn.
sary. Most areas of this soil remain in woodland. A few
This soil is poorly suited to pasture. Deep-rooting areas have been cleared and are used for crops and
plants such as bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass pasture.
can be grown. Regular fertilizing and liming are needed. If properly managed this soil is moderately suited to
Irrigation is also needed but is impractical. Grazing cultivated crops, but good water control is needed. Culti-
should be controlled to maintain plant growth. vated crops should be planted on the contour in rotation
This soil is moderately suited to longleaf and slash with close-growing, soil-improving crops. All crops should
pine. Low available water capacity and low inherent fer- be limed and fertilized. Soil-improving cover crops and all
utility are the limitations. Equipment limitations, seedling crop residue should be left on the ground or plowed
mortality, and plant competition are moderate. under.
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without This soil is moderately well suited to pasture grasses.
basements and local roads and streets. It has high po- Bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are moderately
tential for low commercial buildings and septic tank ab- well suited for pasture and hay. They grow well when
sorption fields. This soil has medium potential for shallow properly managed. Grazing should be controlled to main-
excavations and playgrounds. The potential for trench tain vigorous plants and good cover. Regular applica-
sanitary landfills is low. Filling or shoring are needed in tions of lime and fertilizer are needed.
shallow excavations. Paving, sodding, or filling is needed This soil has medium potential for loblolly and slash
on playgrounds. Suitable fills should be used as sealer pine under high-level management. Equipment limita-
and daily cover for sanitary landfills. tions, seedling mortality, and plant competition are mod-
This soil is in capability subclass Ills. erate.
This soil has high potential for septic tank absorption
34-Pactolus loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, fields, dwellings without basements, low commercial
This moderately well drained to somewhat poorly buildings, and local roads and streets. It has medium
drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is on low potential for shallow excavations and playgrounds and
positions in the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave, low potential for trench sanitary landfills. If this soil is
Areas of this soil range mostly from 10 to more than 200 used for sanitary landfills, the sandy overburden should
acres in size, but some areas are as small as 5 acres. be removed and suitable fill should be used as sealer
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy and daily cover. All urban uses require water control,
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark mounding, or shoring.
grayish brown loamy sand about 3 inches thick with very This soil is in capability subclass Ills.
dark gray streaks along root channels. The underlying
material is sand to a depth of more than 80 inches. The 35-Pickney loamy sand. This very poorly drained,
upper 9 inches is light yellowish brown with dark grayish nearly level soil is in low-lying areas and hardwood
brown streaks along root channels; the next 13 inches is swamps. Slopes are less than 2 percent. Areas of this
brownish yellow with yellowish brown and light gray mot- soil range mostly from 10 to 200 acres in size, but a few
ties; the next 22 inches is coarsely mottled in shades of areas are as large as 650 acres.
yellow, brown, and gray; and the lower 28 inches is white Typically, the surface layer is black loamy sand in the
with yellow and very pale brown mottles. upper 35 inches and very dark gray sand in the lower 23
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of inches. The underlying material is grayish brown sand in
Albany, Bonifay, Lakeland, Leon, Rutlege, and Troup the upper 7 inches and mottled dark brown, very dark
soils. Also included are a few small areas of poorly grayish brown, and very dark gray sand to a depth of 70
drained soils that have a light colored surface layer and inches.
gray mottles above a depth of 20 inches and a few Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
areas of soils that are similar to Pactolus soils but that Dorovan, Pamlico, Leon, Pactolus, and Rutlege soils.
are 5 to 10 percent silt plus clay between depths of 10 Also included are a few small areas of very poorly
and 40 inches. Also included are a very few small areas drained soils that have a sandy clay loam subsoil and a
where slopes are 5 to 8 percent. Inclusions make up few small areas of poorly drained soils that have accu-
less than 15 percent of any mapped area. mulations of decomposed organic matter in the subsoil
In this Pactolus soil the high water table is at a depth below a depth of 50 inches. Inclusions make up less
of 18 to 30 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years. than 20 percent of any mapped area.
Available water capacity, natural fertility, and organic In this Pickney soil the water table is at or near the
matter content are low. Permeability is rapid. Runoff is surface during most of the year. Water ponds at times.
slow, and the erosion hazard is slight. During periods of low rainfall, the water table may fluctu-
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash ate between depths of 10 and 30 inches. Under natural
pine, dogwood, and various oaks. The understory is conditions internal drainage is slow, but response to arti-






36 SOIL SURVEY



ficial drainage is rapid. Natural fertility and available Plain. Slopes are less than 2 percent. Areas of this soil
water capacity are moderate. Permeability is rapid. range from 5 to 40 acres in size.
The natural vegetation consists of titi, blackgum, bay, Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy
and scattered slash pine. The understory consists of loam 5 inches thick. The subsoil is dark gray sandy loam
waxmyrtle, greenbriar, and pitcherplant. 4 inches thick. The underlying material is gray sandy clay
Most of the area is titi swamps. A few areas have loam to a depth of more than 63 inches and has
been cleared. common mottles in shades of brown, yellow, and red in
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The shal- the lower 15 inches.
low water table is the main limitation. With good water Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
control, high-level management, and good conservation, Angie Variant, Escambia, and Lynchburg soils. Also in-
this soil has moderate potential for cultivated crops. cluded are a few small areas of soils that are similar to
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture grasses. Rains soils but that have a thick black surface layer high
Tall fescue, bahiagrass, and white clover are moderately in organic matter, have a loamy fine sand or sandy loam
well suited for pasture and hay. Surface ditches are surface layer, or have a clay loam to clay subsoil. Inclu-
needed in most areas to remove excess water during sions make up less than 15 percent of any mapped area.
heavy rains. The pasture grasses grow well with ade- In this Rains soil the water table is at a depth of less
quate water control, high-level management, and good than 10 inches or is above the surface for 2 to 6 months
conservation. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime in most years. Available water capacity is moderate. Nat-
are needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain ural fertility is low. Permeability is moderately rapid above
vigorous plants. a depth of 5 inches and moderate below this depth.
This soil has high potential for loblolly pine and cy- Internal drainage is moderately slow to slow and re-
press. The severe equipment limitations and seedling sponse to artificial drainage is moderately slow. Runoff is
mortality are caused by excessive wetness. Adequate slow.
water control is necessary before trees can be planted. The natural vegetation consists of blackgum and scat-
This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption tered cypress and longleaf pine. The understory consists
fields and local roads and streets. It has very low poten- of gallberry, pineland threeawn, and water-tolerant
tial for shallow excavations, playgrounds, low commercial grasses and shrubs.
buildings, dwellings without basements, and trench sani- Most areas remain in natural vegetation. A few small
tary landfills. Wetness and the shallow water table are areas have been cleared and are used for pasture.
the limitations. Water control and filling are necessary. This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. It is limit-
Shoring is also needed in shallow excavations. ed by wetness. Good water control is needed because
This soil is in capability subclass VIw. crops are subject to damage by excess water during
growing or harvesting seasons. Good management in-
36-Pits. Pits are open excavations from which sandy cludes good seedbed preparation and regular application
and loamy material has been removed, primarily for use of lime and fertilizer. Cultivated crops should be planted
in the construction and repair of roads and as fill materi- in rotation with close-growing cover crops. All crop resi-
al for foundations. Areas of pits are throughout the due should be returned to the soil.
county. The excavations range from 4 feet to more than In most areas this soil is poorly suited to pasture
12 feet in depth. The total acreage is small. Mapped grasses. Bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are
areas generally range from 5 to 25 acres in size. Areas moderately well suited for pasture and hay when proper-
that are too small to map separately are shown by a ly managed. The moderately high water table during the
special symbol. early part of the growing season limits root growth and
In some areas, mixtures of sand, sandy loam, sandy development; however, with adequate drainage, proper
clay loam, and clayey material are piled or scattered water control, and good management this soil has high
around the edges of the pits. This material has been potential for good quality pasture. Regular applications of
mixed to the extent that identification of individual soils is lime and fertilizer increase plant growth.
not possible. This soil has medium potential for slash and loblolly
Most areas are almost barren. Some of the pits have pine. Adequate drainage, proper water control and good
been abandoned, but many are still being used. management are necessary. Seedling mortality and
Pits have little or no value for farming or forestry. equipment limitations are severe.
Therefore, no interpretations, limitations, or ratings of This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption
potential are given. Any use of these areas should be fields, trench sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, play-
evaluated after onsite investigation, grounds, dwellings without basements, low commercial
Pits are not assigned to a capability subclass, buildings, and local roads and streets. Water control is
needed for all these uses. Filling and special footings
37-Rains fine sandy loam. This poorly drained, and foundations are also needed for some uses.
nearly level soil is in low-lying positions on the Coastal This soil is in capability subclass IVw.






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 37


38-Red Bay sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes. Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown
This well drained, nearly level soil is in broad areas in sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is dark red
the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas of sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
this soil range mostly from 40 to more than 200 acres in Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
size. Dothan, Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. Also included are a
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown few areas where slopes are 0 to 2 percent or 5 to 8
sandy loam about 8 inches thick. The upper part of the percent, a few areas of eroded soils, and a few small
subsoil is dark reddish brown sandy clay loam about 6 wet areas that are shown by a wet spot symbol. Also
inches thick, and the lower part is dark red sandy clay included are a few areas of soils that are similar to Red
loam to a depth of more than 60 inches. Bay soils but that have a loamy sand surface layer or
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of that are sandy clay in the lower part of the subsoil.
Dothan, Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. Also included are a Inclusions make up less than 15 percent of any mapped
few areas where slopes are 2 to 5 percent and a few area.
small wet spots in drainageways. Also included are a few In this Red Bay soil the water table is at a depth of
areas of soils that are similar to Red Bay soils but that more than 6 feet. Available water capacity is medium.
have a loamy sand surface layer or that are sandy clay Natural fertility and organic matter content are moderate-
in the lower part of the subsoil. Inclusions make up less ly low. Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface
than 15 percent of any mapped area. layer and moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is moderate to
In this Red Bay soil the water table is at a depth of rapid where the soil is not protected, and the erosion
more than 6 feet. Available water capacity is medium. hazard is moderate. This soil has a well aerated root
Natural fertility and organic matter content are moderate- zone and is loamy enough to have good tilth.
ly low. Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
layer and moderate in the subsoil. Surface runoff is slow, pine, various oaks, hickory, dogwood, and persimmon.
and the erosion hazard is slight. This soil has a well The understory is mainly native grasses and low growing
aerated root zone and is loamy enough to have good shrubs. Pineland threeawn is the most common native
tilthrubs. Pineland threeawn is the most common native
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash grass.
pine, various oaks, hickory, dogwood, and persimmon. used for crops.
The understory is mainly native grasses and low growing used for crops.
shrubs. Pineland threeawn is the most common native This soil is well suited to a variety of crops. It is highly
grass. productive under good management. Runoff is moderate
Most areas of this soil have been cleared and are and the major hazard to cultivation is erosion. Runoff
used for crops. can be reduced and erosion controlled by contour culti-
This soil is well suited to a variety of crops. It is highly vation, terraces, and stabilized waterways. A cropping
productive under good management. Good seedbed sequence that includes close-growing crops and winter
preparation, fertilizing, liming and crop rotation keep the cover crops helps protect the soil from erosion and
soil in good condition. Cover crops should be alternated maintain the organic matter content. All crop residue
with row crops. All crop residue should be plowed under. should be returned to the soil. This soil responds well to
This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass fertilizer and lime.
and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass
and hay. They grow well when properly managed. They and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture
require fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing to main- and hay. They grow well when properly managed. They
tain vigorous plants and good cover, require fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing to main-
This soil has high potential for loblolly and slash pine. tain vigorous plants and good cover.
It has no serious management problems. This soil has high potential for loblolly and slash pine.
This soil has very high potential for trench sanitary It has no serious management problems.
landfills, dwellings without basements, low commercial This soil has very high potential for trench sanitary
buildings, shallow excavations, playgrounds, and local landfills, shallow excavations, low commercial buildings,
roads and streets. It has high potential for septic tank dwellings without basements, and local roads and
absorption fields. streets. It has high potential for septic tank absorption
This soil is in capability class I. fields and playgrounds.
This soil is in capability subclass lie.
39-Red Bay sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
This well drained, gently sloping soil is on broad ridge- 40-Rutlege loamy sand. This very poorly drained,
tops in the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave, nearly level soil is along small stream bottoms, in
Areas of this soil range mostly from 10 to 50 acres in ponded areas, and on low upland flats. Slopes are less
size. than 2 percent. Areas of this soil range mostly from 20






38 SOIL SURVEY



to 60 acres in size, but a few areas are larger than 100 Areas of this soil range mostly from 10 to 40 acres in
acres and some are as small as 5 acres. size, but some areas are as small as 5 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is black loamy sand about Typically, the surface layer is brown sandy loam about
12 inches thick. The subsurface layer is very dark gray 8 inches thick. The upper 22 inches of the subsoil is
loamy sand about 9 inches thick. Below this is gray sand yellowish brown sandy clay loam; the next 12 inches is
that extends to a depth of more than 60 inches. brownish yellow sandy clay loam with strong brown and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of red mottles; the next 16 inches is sandy clay loam mot-
Pactolus, Pickney, Leon, Dorovan, and Pamlico soils. tied in shades of red, brown, and yellow; and the lower
Also included are areas of somewhat poorly drained to 12 inches is sandy clay mottled in shades of red, brown,
poorly drained sandy soils that have a thin black or very yellow, and gray. Common iron concretions make up
dark gray surface layer less than 10 inches thick and a about 15 percent, by volume, of the upper 60 inches.
few small areas of soils that have a mixed or stratified Common plinthite nodules make up more than 5 percent,
sandy loam or sandy clay loam subsoil. Also included by volume, of the lower part of the subsoil.
are a few areas of soils that are similar to Rutlege soils Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
but that have a sand surface layer. Inclusions make up Dothan, Fuquay, and Orangeburg soils. Also included are
less than 18 percent of any mapped area. a few small areas where slope is 2 to 5 percent and a
In this Rutlege soil the water table is at or near the few areas of soils that are similar to Tifton soils but that
surface for long periods. Many areas are ponded in wet have a loamy sand surface layer. Inclusions make up
seasons. Available water capacity is moderate to high in less than 15 percent of any mapped area.
the root zone. Natural fertility is moderate. Permeability is In this Tifton soil the water table is at a depth of more
rapid throughout. Runoff is very slow or ponded. Internal than 6 feet. Available water capacity is medium. Perme-
drainage is slow but response to artificial drainage is ability is moderate. Natural fertility and organic matter
rapid. content are low. Runoff is slow and the erosion hazard is
The natural vegetation consists of titi, blackgum, scat- slight.
tered slash and longleaf pine, and silverleaf bay. The The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
understory is mainly native grasses and low growing pine, various oaks, persimmon, and dogwood. The un-
shrubs, primarily gallberry, waxmyrtle, and pitcherplant. derstory consists of native grasses and shwbs including
Most areas of this soil remain in natural vegetation. huckleberry, blackberry, and gallbery. Pinelasd threeawn
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The shal- huckleberry, blackberry, and gallberry. Pineland threeawn
low water table is the main limitation. With good water is the most common native grass.
control, high-level management, and good conservation, Many areas of ths soil have been cleared and are
this soil has moderate potential for cultivated crops. used for crops.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture grasses. This soil is well suited to a variety of crops. It is highly
Surface ditches are needed in most areas to remove productive under good management. Good seedbed
excess surface water during heavy rains. Improved pas- preparation, fertilizing, liming, and crop rotation help
ture grasses grow well with adequate water control, high- keep the soil in good condition. Cover crops should be
level management, and good conservation. Regular ap- alternated with row crops. All crop residue should be
plications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing plowed under.
should be controlled to maintain vigorous plants and This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass
good cover, and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture
This soil has high potential for loblolly pine and cy- and hay. They grow well when properly managed. They
press. The severe equipment limitations and seedling require fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing to main-
mortality are caused by excessive wetness. Adequate tain vigorous plants and good cover.
water control is necessary before trees can be planted. This soil has high potential for longleaf, slash, and
This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption loblolly pine. It has no serious management problems.
fields and local roads and streets. It has very low poten- This soil has very high potential for trench sanitary
tial for shallow excavations, playgrounds, low commercial landfills, dwellings without basements, low commercial
buildings, dwellings without basements, and trench sani- buildings, shallow excavations, playgrounds, and local
tary landfills. Wetness and the shallow water table are roads and streets. It has high potential for septic tank
the limitations. Water control and filling are needed for absorption fields.
all urban uses. Shoring is also needed in shallow exca- This soil is in capability class I.
vations.
This soil is in capability subclass VIw. 42-Tifton sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This
well drained, gently sloping soil is on broad and narrow
41-Tifton sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This ridgetops in the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave.
nearly level, well drained soil is on broad and narrow Areas of this soil range mostly from 10 to 90 acres in
ridgetops in the uplands. Slopes are less than 2 percent. size, but a few areas are as small as 5 acres.







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 39



Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown 43-Tifton sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
sandy loam about 9 inches thick. The upper 5 inches of well drained, sloping soil is on long, narrow hillsides in
the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy loam; the next 7 the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas of
inches is yellowish brown sandy clay loam; the next 12 this soil range mostly from 10 to 20 acres in size, but a
inches is yellowish brown sandy clay loam with few few areas are as small as 5 acres.
strong brown mottles; and the lower 37 inches is sandy Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
clay loam mottled in shades of yellow, brown, and red. sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The upper 5 inches of
Iron concretions are common in the upper 60 inches. the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy loam; the next 20
Common plinthite nodules make up about 10 percent, by inches is yellowish brown sandy clay loam; the next 13
volume, of the lower part of the subsoil. inches is brownish yellow sandy clay loam with few to
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of common strong brown and red mottles; and the lower 26
Dothan, Esto, Fuquay, and Orangeburg soils. Also includ- inches is sandy clay loam mottled in shades of red,
ed are a few small areas where slopes are 0 to 2 brown, and yellow. Iron concretions are common in the
percent, some areas of eroded soils, and a few small upper 60 inches. Common plinthite nodules make up
more than 5 percent, by volume, of the lower part of the
wet spots. Also included are a few areas of soils that are subsoilf
similar to Tifton soils but that have a loamy sand surface subsoIncluded with is soil in mapping are small areas of
layer or that have plinthite at a depth of less than 30 Dothan, Esto, Fuquay, and Orangeburg soils. Also includ-
inches. Inclusions make up less than 15 percent of any ed are a few small areas where slopes are 2 to 5
mapped area. percent and small areas of eroded soils. Also included
In this Tifton soil the water table is at a depth of more are a few areas of soils that are similar to Tifton soils but
than 6 feet. Available water capacity is medium. Perme- that have a loamy sand surface layer. Inclusions make
ability is moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility and up less than 15 percent of any mapped area.
organic matter content are low. Runoff is moderate to In this Tifton soil the water table is at a depth of more
rapid where the soil is not protected, and the erosion than 6 feet. Available water capacity is medium. Perme-
hazard is moderate. ability is moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility and
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash organic matter content are low. Runoff is rapid where the
pine, various oaks, persimmon, and dogwood. The un- soil is not protected, and the erosion hazard is severe.
derstory consists of native grasses and shrubs including The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
huckleberry, blackberry, and gallberry. Pineland threeawn pine, various oaks, persimmon, and dogwood. The un-
is the most common native grass. derstory consists of native grasses and shrubs including
Many areas of this soil have been cleared and are huckleberry and blackberry. Pineland threeawn is the
used for crops. most common native grass.
This soil is well suited to a variety of crops. It is highly Most areas of this soil remain in woodland. A few
productive under good management. Runoff is moderate areas have been cleared and are used for crops.
and the major hazard to cultivation is erosion. Runoff This soil is moderately suited to a variety of crops. It is
can be reduced and erosion controlled by contour culti- severely limited for crops by the hazard of erosion. Ero-
vation, terraces, and stabilized waterways. A cropping sion can be reduced by contour cultivation, terraces, and
sequence that includes close-growing crops and winter stabilized waterways. A cropping sequence including
cover crops helps protect the soil from erosion and close-growing crops and winter cover crops in rotation
maintain the organic matter content. All crop residue with row crops reduces erosion, as do parallel strips of
should be returned to soil. This soil responds well to perennial grasses on the contour. All crop residue should
fertilizer and lime. be returned to the soil. This soil responds well to fertiliz-
er and lime.
This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass This soil is well suited to pasture grasses. Bahiagrass
and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for pasture
and hay. They grow well when properly managed. They and hay. They grow well when properly managed. They
require fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing to main- require fertilizing, liming, and control of grazing to main-
tain vigorous plants and good cover, tain vigorous plants and good cover.
This soil has a high potential for longleaf, slash, and This soil has high potential for longleaf, slash, and
loblolly pine. It has no serious management problems. loblolly pine. It has no serious management problems.
This soil has very high potential for trench sanitary This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
landfills, dwellings without basements, low commercial basements, shallow excavations, and local roads and
buildings, shallow excavations, and local roads and streets. It has high potential for septic tank absorption
streets. It has high potential for septic tank absorption fields, low commercial buildings, playgrounds, and trench
fields and playgrounds. sanitary landfills.
This soil is in capability subclass lie. This soil is in capability subclass Ille.






40 SOIL SURVEY



44-Troup loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp-
well drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is primarily tion fields, local roads and streets, dwellings without
on broad ridgetops in the uplands. Slopes are smooth to basements, and low commercial buildings. It has high
concave. Areas of this soil range mostly from 40 acres potential for trench sanitary landfills, but the sandy over-
to more than 300 acres in size, but some areas are burden should be removed or suitable fill should be used
larger than 1,000 acres and some are as small as 5 as sealer and daily cover. The potential for shallow exca-
acres. vations and playgrounds is medium. Shallow excavations
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown require shoring. Playgrounds need sodding or filling.
loamy sand about 3 inches thick. The upper 18 inches of This soil is in capability subclass Ills.
the subsurface layer is dark yellowish brown loamy sand,
the next 18 inches is strong brown loamy sand, and the 45-Troup loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
lower 16 inches is yellowish red sand. The subsoil is well drained, sloping soil is on side slopes in the up-
yellowish red sandy loam in the upper 5 inches and red lands. Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas of this soil
sandy loam to a depth of more than 80 inches. range mostly from 30 acres to more than 100 acres in
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of size, but a few areas are as small as 5 acres.
Bonifay, Fuquay, Lakeland, Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
Also included are small areas where slopes are 5 to 8 loamy sand about 4 inches thick. The upper 50 inches of
percent and areas of soils that are similar to Troup soils the subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy sand, and
but that have a sand surface layer. Also included are a the lower 6 inches is strong brown loamy sand. The
few small areas of similar soils on Whiting Field, Naval subsoil is yellowish red sandy loam in the upper 6 inches
Air Station, which have been filled or smoothed or have and red sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or
been stripped to a depth of 1 to 3 feet. Inclusions make more.
up less than 15 percent of any mapped area. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
In this Troup soil the water table is at a depth of more Bonifay, Fuquay, Lakeland, Lucy, and Orangeburg soils.
than 6 feet. Available water capacity is low in the surface Also included are areas where slopes are less than 5
and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natu- percent or 8 to 12 percent, a few shallow and deep
ral fertility and organic matter content are low. Perme- gullies, and many areas of soils that are similar to Troup
ability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and soils but that have a sand surface layer. Also included
moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is slow and the erosion are areas of poorly drained soils in and along narrow
hazard is slight. stream bottom lands and drainageways that are too
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash small to delineate. Inclusions make up less than 15 per-
pine, turkey oak, blackjack oak, post oak, and a few cent of any mapped area.
water oak. The understory is mainly native grasses and In this Troup soil the water table is at a depth of more
low-growing shrubs. Pineland threeawn is the most than 6 feet. Available water capacity is low in the surface
common native grass. and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natu-
Most areas of this soil remain in woodland. Many small ral fertility and organic matter content are low. Perme-
and large areas have been cleared and are used for ability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
cultivated crops and improved pasture grasses, moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is slow and the erosion
This soil is moderately suited to crops. Row crop pro- hazard is slight.
duction is limited by droughtiness and susceptibility to The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash
leaching of plant nutrients. Management should increase pine, turkey oak, blackjack oak, post oak, and a few
the amount of water available in the root zone. Row water oak. The understory is mainly native grasses and
crops should be rotated with close-growing, soil-improv- low growing shrubs. Pineland threeawn is the most
ing crops and winter cover crops. All crops should be common native grass.
limed and fertilized. The soil-improving crops and residue Most areas of this soil remain in woodland. A few
of all other crops should be plowed under, areas have been cleared and are used for cultivated
This soil is moderately suited to pasture grasses. Ba- crops and improved pasture grasses.
hiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Droughti-
pasture and hay. They grow well and produce good ness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are the main
ground cover if they are limed and fertilized. Yields are limitations for crops. Management should increase the
occasionally greatly reduced by extended severe amount of water available in the root zone. Good man-
droughts. Grazing should be controlled to maintain vigor- agement includes planting row crops on the contour in
ous plants and a good cover, alternating strips with close-growing, soil-improving
This soil has medium potential for longleaf, loblolly, crops. Alternate contour strips of perennial grasses also
and slash pine. Equipment limitations and seedling mor- help control erosion. Liming and regular fertilizing are
tality are moderate. needed. All crop residue should be returned to the soil.






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 41



This soil is moderately suited to pasture grasses. Ba- This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. Steepness,
hiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are well suited for low available water capacity, low inherent fertility, and
pasture and hay. They grow well and produce good susceptibility to erosion are the main limitations.
ground cover if they are limed and fertilized. Production This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture grasses.
is occasionally greatly reduced by extended severe Deep rooted plants such as bahiagrass and Coastal ber-
droughts. Grazing should be controlled to maintain vigor- mudagrass are well suited for pasture, but periodic
ous plants and a good cover. droughts reduce production. Soil blowing and water ero-
This soil has medium potential for longleaf, loblolly, sion are hazards on newly seeded pastures. Grazing
and slash pine. Equipment limitations and seedling mor- should be carefully controlled. Regular liming and fertiliz-
tality are moderate. ing are needed.
This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp- This soil has medium potential for longleaf, loblolly,
tion fields, dwellings without basements, and local roads and slash pine. Equipment limitations and seedling mor-
and streets. It has high potential for trench sanitary land- tality are moderate.
fills and low commercial buildings. If this soil is used for This soil has very high potential for local roads and
trench sanitary landfills, the sandy overburden should be streets. It has high potential for septic tank absorption
removed or suitable fill should be used as sealer and fields, trench sanitary landfills, dwellings without base-
daily cover. Sites for low commercial buildings may need ments, and low commercial buildings. Septic absorption
landscaping. The potential for shallow excavations and lines should be laid across the slope. Sites for dwellings
playgrounds is medium. Shallow excavations require without basements and low commercial buildings may
shoring. Playgrounds need sodding or filling, need landscaping. This soil has low potential for shallow
This soil is in capability subclass IVs. excavations and playgrounds. Shoring is required for
shallow excavations. Playgrounds need filling, paving, or
46-Troup loamy sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. This sodding.
well drained, strongly sloping soil is on side slopes in the This soil is in capability subclass VIs.
uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave. Areas of this
soil range mostly from 20 acres to more than 100 acres 47-Troup-Orangeburg-Cowarts complex, 5 to 12
in size, but a few areas are as small as 5 acres. percent slopes. This complex consists of sloping to
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown strongly sloping, well drained soils on side slopes.
loamy sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is Slopes are smooth to concave. The areas of the individ-
loamy sand about 65 inches thick; it is yellowish brown ual soils are so intermixed that they could not be sepa-
in the upper 43 inches and strong brown in the lower 22 rated in mapping. The individual areas range from 1 to
inches. The subsoil is yellowish red sandy loam or sandy 15 acres in size. Mapped areas of this complex range
clay loam in the upper 5 inches and red sandy loam or from 5 to 200 acres.
sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. This complex is 30 to 45 percent Troup loamy sand,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 15 to 25 percent Orangeburg sandy loam, 10 to 20
Bonifay, Fuquay, Lakeland, Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. percent Cowarts loamy fine sand, and 10 to 45 percent
Also included are areas where slopes are 5 to 8 percent minor soils.
or more than 12 percent, many deep and shallow gullies, The Troup soil has slopes of 5 to 12 percent. Typical-
and many areas of soils that are similar to Troup soils ly, the surface layer is yellowish brown loamy sand about
but that have a sand surface layer. Also included are 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer is loamy sand 50
areas of poorly drained soils in and along narrow stream inches thick; the upper 19 inches is brownish yellow, the
bottom lands and drainageways that are too small to next 20 inches is yellowish red, and the lower 11 inches
delineate. Inclusions make up less than 17 percent of is red. The subsoil is red sandy loam and extends to a
any mapped area. depth of 80 inches or more.
In this Troup soil the water table is at a depth of more The Troup soil has slow runoff, and the erosion hazard
than 6 feet. Available water capacity is low in the surface is moderate in unprotected areas. Natural fertility and
and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natu- organic matter content are low. Permeability is rapid
ral fertility and organic matter content are low. Perme- above a depth of 52 inches and moderate below this
ability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and depth. Available water capacity is low in the surface and
moderate in the subsoil. The erosion hazard is moderate subsurface layer and medium in the subsoil. The water
where the soil is not protected. table is below a depth of 72 inches.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf and slash The Orangeburg soil has slopes of 5 to 12 percent.
pine, turkey oak, blackjack oak, and a few water oak. Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sandy loam
The understory is mainly native grasses and low growing about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay loam and
shrubs. Pineland threeawn is the most common native extends to a depth of more than 80 inches; the upper 49
grass. inches is red, and the lower 25 inches is mottled brown,
Most areas of this soil remain in woodland. red, yellow, and gray.






42 SOIL SURVEY



The Orangeburg soil has rapid to very rapid runoff in The potential of this complex for pine is medium. Se-
unprotected areas, and the erosion hazard is severe to lectively cutting and reestablishing a proper cover crop
very severe. Natural fertility and organic matter content protect the soil from erosion. The hardwoods found on
are low. Permeability is moderately rapid above a depth these soils have little economic value and therefore are
of 6 inches and moderate below this depth. Available not managed.
water capacity is medium. The water table is below a The soils in this complex have variable potential for
depth of 72 inches throughout the year. urban uses. The potential depends upon the slope and
The Cowarts soil is mainly where slopes are 8 to 12 on the kind of soil at a site. An investigation of each
percent. Typically, the surface layer is loamy fine sand area is needed to determine the potential for any use.
about 6 inches thick. The upper 3 inches is dark grayish Slope is the main limitation in some areas. Operation of
brown, and the lower 3 inches is dark brown. The upper sanitary facilities may be a problem in a few areas be-
3 inches of the subsoil is yellowish brown fine sandy cause of seepage downslope. Septic absorption lines
loam, and the lower 14 inches is strong brown sandy should be laid across the slope. Landshaping may be
clay loam. Below a depth of 23 inches is mottled sandy necessary in some areas for dwellings without base-
clay loam with pockets of coarser and finer textured ments, low commercial buildings, and playgrounds. Shor-
material. ing is needed in shallow excavations in the sandy soils.
The Cowarts soil has rapid to very rapid runoff in These soils are in capability subclass VIs.
unprotected areas, and the erosion hazard is severe to
very severe. Natural fertility and organic matter content 48-Urban land. Urban land consists of areas that are
are low. Permeability is moderately rapid above a depth more than 85 percent covered by streets, parking lots,
of 9 inches, moderate between depths of 9 and 23 airports, runways, pavement, and buildings and other
inches, and slow to moderately slow below a depth of 23 structures. This land is so altered or obscured by urban
inches. Available water capacity is medium. A water works and structures that identification of soils is not
table is perched for short periods at a depth of about 2 feasible. The original soil in some areas has been modi-
to 3 feet. fied by grading, filling, and shaping. Urban land is mainly
Dothan soils make up about 10 percent of the map nearly level to gently sloping. Slopes range from 0 to 5
unit; they are mainly where slopes are 5 to 8 percent. percent. Individual mapped areas range from about 40 to
Other minor soils are Albany, Esto, Fuquay, Lucy, and 150 acres in size.
Lakeland soils. Small, seepy wet spots also occur in a In uncovered areas where the soils are identifiable
few mapped areas of this complex. Small areas of poorly they are primarily Troup, Lakeland, Fuquay, and Lucy
drained soils in and along narrow stream bottoms and soils. These soils are included in mapping because their
drainageways are shown by drainage symbols. A few areas are too small to delineate separately.
areas of soils that have slopes of 12 to 25 percent are Urban land is most likely to remain in its present use.
included; these areas are relatively small and narrow and Therefore, no interpretations, limitations, or ratings of
occur mainly on the lower part of the mapped areas. potential are given for other uses. Any other use of
These areas are mostly Troup and Lakeland soils and these areas should be evaluated after onsite investiga-
soils similar to Esto and Orangeburg soils. These soils tion.
are associated with shallow or deep gullies in many Urban land is not placed in a capability class.
places.
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
pine, dogwood, red oak, water oak, laurel oak, blackjack Use and management of the soils
oak, turkey oak, hickory, magnolia, sweetgum, bay, and
holly. The understory consists mainly of shrubs, wire- This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
grass, grassleaf goldaster, ferns and other grasses, soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
Most areas of these soils remain in native vegetation, uses to the limitations and potentials of natural re-
This complex is poorly suited to cultivated crops. sources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
Steepness and susceptibility to erosion are the main soil-related failures in land uses.
limitations. If crops are grown, erosion can be reduced In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, conservation-
by constructing terraces and grassed waterways, strip- ists, engineers, and others collect extensive field data
cropping on the contour, and maintaining a close-grow- about the nature and behavior characteristics of the
ing cover crop when no cultivated crops are being soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, flood-
grown. ing, and other factors that affect various soil uses and
This complex is moderately suited to improved pas- management. Field experience and collected data on
ture. Bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are suitable, soil properties and performance are used as a basis in
but soil blowing and erosion are hazards on newly predicting soil behavior.
seeded pastures. Grazing should be controlled. Regular Information in this section can be used to plan the use
liming and fertilizing are needed. and management of soils for crops and pasture; as ran-






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 43



geland and woodland; as parks and other recreation Field crops suited to the soils and climate of the
facilities; for wildlife habitat; and as sites for buildings, survey area include many that are not now commonly
sanitary facilities, highways and other transportation sys- grown. Soybeans, cotton, corn, and peanuts are the
teams. It can be used to identify the potentials and limita- common row crops. Grain sorghum, sunflowers, pota-
tions of each soil for specific land uses and to help toes, and similar crops could also be grown.
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil Wheat and oats are the common close-growing crops.
properties. Rye could be grown and grass seed could be produced
Planners and others using soil survey information can from fescue, bermudagrass, and bahiagrass.
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity Special crops grown commercially in Santa Rosa
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. County are vegetables and pecans. A small acreage
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a throughout the county is used for melons, sweet corn,
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. tomatoes, greens, and other vegetables. In addition,
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of large areas could be used for other special crops such
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to as blueberries, strawberries, grapes, plums, and peach-
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil es.
layers can cause difficulty in excavation. Deep soils that have good natural drainage and that
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and warm up early in spring are especially well suited to
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can many vegetables and small fruits. In the survey area
help them plathehe safe disposal of wastes and locate these are Dothan, Orangeburg, Red Bay, and Tifton soils
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, play- that have slopes of less than 5 percent. These soils
grounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. cover about 60,000 acres. Also, if irrigated, the Bonifay,
Lakeland, and Troup soils that have slopes of less than
5 percent are very well suited to vegetables and small
Crops and pasture fruits. Crops can generally be planted and harvested
earlier on these soils than on the other soils in the
John D. Griffin, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped pre- county.
pare this section.
Most of the well drained soils in the survey area are
General management needed for crops and pasture is suitable for orchards and nurseries. Soils in low positions
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants where frost is frequent and air drainage is poor, howev-
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly er, generally are poorly suited to early vegetables, small
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of fruits, and orchards.
land capability classification used by the Soil Conserva- Latest information and suggestions for growing special
tion Service is explained; and the estimated yields of the crops is available from local offices of the Cooperative
main crops and hay and pasture plants are listed for Extension Service and the Soil Conservation Service.
each soil. In general, the soils that are well suited to crops are
Planners of management systems for individual fields also well suited to urban development. The acreage in
or farms should consider the detailed information given crops and pasture has remained constant, but forested
in the description of each soil under "Soil maps for land is being used for urban development. In 1975 about
detailed planning." Specific information can be obtained 9,200 acres of the county was urban and built-up land.
from the local office of the Soil Conservation Service or Each year approximately another 1,000 acres is devel-
the Cooperative Extension Service. oped for urban uses in Jay, Pace, Milton, and other
More than 90,000 acres in Santa Rosa County was towns in Santa Rosa County. Much of this land was well
used for crops and pasture in 1975. Of this, 17,577 suited to crops. Data about specific soils in this publica-
acres was used for permanent pasture; 69,702 acres for tion can be used in planning future land use.
row crops, mainly soybeans; 3,000 acres for close-grown
crops, mainly wheat and oats; and the rest for cotton, Management concerns
peanuts, corn, truck crops, and other crops. Soil erosion is the major soil problem on about one-
The potential of the soils in Santa Rosa County for fourth of the cropland and pasture in Santa Rosa
increased production of food is good. About 270,000 County. If slope is more than 2 percent, water erosion is
acres of potentially good cropland is currently used as a hazard. Dothan, Orangeburg, and Red Bay soils, for
woodland and about 17,000 acres as pasture. In addition example, have slopes of 2 to 5 percent. Dothan soils
to the reserve productive capacity represented by this have the additional problem of a perched water table.
land, food production could also be increased consider- Wind erosion is a hazard on soils such as Bonifay, Lake-
ably by extending the latest crop production technology land, Lucy, and Troup soils when they are dry, bare, and
to all cropland in the county. This soil survey can greatly not sheltered from strong winds. Wind erosion also dam-
facilitate the application of such technology, ages tender crops.






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 43



geland and woodland; as parks and other recreation Field crops suited to the soils and climate of the
facilities; for wildlife habitat; and as sites for buildings, survey area include many that are not now commonly
sanitary facilities, highways and other transportation sys- grown. Soybeans, cotton, corn, and peanuts are the
teams. It can be used to identify the potentials and limita- common row crops. Grain sorghum, sunflowers, pota-
tions of each soil for specific land uses and to help toes, and similar crops could also be grown.
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil Wheat and oats are the common close-growing crops.
properties. Rye could be grown and grass seed could be produced
Planners and others using soil survey information can from fescue, bermudagrass, and bahiagrass.
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity Special crops grown commercially in Santa Rosa
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. County are vegetables and pecans. A small acreage
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a throughout the county is used for melons, sweet corn,
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. tomatoes, greens, and other vegetables. In addition,
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of large areas could be used for other special crops such
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to as blueberries, strawberries, grapes, plums, and peach-
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil es.
layers can cause difficulty in excavation. Deep soils that have good natural drainage and that
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and warm up early in spring are especially well suited to
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can many vegetables and small fruits. In the survey area
help them plathehe safe disposal of wastes and locate these are Dothan, Orangeburg, Red Bay, and Tifton soils
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, play- that have slopes of less than 5 percent. These soils
grounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. cover about 60,000 acres. Also, if irrigated, the Bonifay,
Lakeland, and Troup soils that have slopes of less than
5 percent are very well suited to vegetables and small
Crops and pasture fruits. Crops can generally be planted and harvested
earlier on these soils than on the other soils in the
John D. Griffin, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped pre- county.
pare this section.
Most of the well drained soils in the survey area are
General management needed for crops and pasture is suitable for orchards and nurseries. Soils in low positions
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants where frost is frequent and air drainage is poor, howev-
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly er, generally are poorly suited to early vegetables, small
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of fruits, and orchards.
land capability classification used by the Soil Conserva- Latest information and suggestions for growing special
tion Service is explained; and the estimated yields of the crops is available from local offices of the Cooperative
main crops and hay and pasture plants are listed for Extension Service and the Soil Conservation Service.
each soil. In general, the soils that are well suited to crops are
Planners of management systems for individual fields also well suited to urban development. The acreage in
or farms should consider the detailed information given crops and pasture has remained constant, but forested
in the description of each soil under "Soil maps for land is being used for urban development. In 1975 about
detailed planning." Specific information can be obtained 9,200 acres of the county was urban and built-up land.
from the local office of the Soil Conservation Service or Each year approximately another 1,000 acres is devel-
the Cooperative Extension Service. oped for urban uses in Jay, Pace, Milton, and other
More than 90,000 acres in Santa Rosa County was towns in Santa Rosa County. Much of this land was well
used for crops and pasture in 1975. Of this, 17,577 suited to crops. Data about specific soils in this publica-
acres was used for permanent pasture; 69,702 acres for tion can be used in planning future land use.
row crops, mainly soybeans; 3,000 acres for close-grown
crops, mainly wheat and oats; and the rest for cotton, Management concerns
peanuts, corn, truck crops, and other crops. Soil erosion is the major soil problem on about one-
The potential of the soils in Santa Rosa County for fourth of the cropland and pasture in Santa Rosa
increased production of food is good. About 270,000 County. If slope is more than 2 percent, water erosion is
acres of potentially good cropland is currently used as a hazard. Dothan, Orangeburg, and Red Bay soils, for
woodland and about 17,000 acres as pasture. In addition example, have slopes of 2 to 5 percent. Dothan soils
to the reserve productive capacity represented by this have the additional problem of a perched water table.
land, food production could also be increased consider- Wind erosion is a hazard on soils such as Bonifay, Lake-
ably by extending the latest crop production technology land, Lucy, and Troup soils when they are dry, bare, and
to all cropland in the county. This soil survey can greatly not sheltered from strong winds. Wind erosion also dam-
facilitate the application of such technology, ages tender crops.






44 SOIL SURVEY



Loss of the surface layer through erosion is damaging moderately well drained soils, especially those that have
for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced as the slopes of 2 to 5 percent. Artificial drainage is needed in
surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is incorporat- some of these wetter areas.
ed into the plow layer. Second, soil erosion on farmland The design of surface drainage systems varies with
results in sediment entering streams. Control of erosion the kind of soil. Surface drainage is needed in most
minimizes the pollution of streams by sediment and im- areas of the poorly drained and somewhat poorly
proves the quality of water for municipal use, for recrea- drained soils that are used intensively for row crops.
tion, and for fish and wildlife. Drains have to be more closely spaced in soils with slow
Erosion control practices provide protective surface permeability than in the more permeable soils.
cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. A cropping Soil fertility is naturally low in most soils of the uplands
system that keeps a plant cover on the soil for extended in Santa Rosa County. All upland soils are naturally acid.
periods can hold erosion losses to amounts that will not The soils on the flood plains, such as Bibb, Chewacla,
reduce the productive capacity of the soil. On livestock Lenoir, and Riverview soils, range from very strongly acid
farms, which require pasture and hay, the legumes and to mildly alkaline and are naturally higher in plant nutri-
grass forage crops in the cropping system reduce ero- ents than most upland soils.
sion and also provide nitrogen and improve tilth for the Many upland soils are naturally very strongly acid. If
following crop. they have never been limed, these soils require applica-
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the sur- tions of ground limestone to raise the pH sufficiently for
face increase infiltration and reduce runoff and erosion. good growth of crops that grow only on nearly neutral
These practices can be adapted to most soils in the soils. Available phosphorous and potassium levels are
survey area but are more difficult to use successfully on naturally low in most of these soils. On all soils, addi-
eroded soils. No-tillage for corn and soybeans also re- tions of lime and fertilizer should be based on the results
duces erosion on sloping land. of soil tests, on the needs of the crop, and on the
Terraces and diversions reduce the length of slope expected level of yields. The Cooperative Extension
and reduce runoff and erosion. They are most practical Service can help in determining the kinds and amounts
on deep, well drained soils that have regular slopes, of fertilizer and lime to apply.
Dothan, Orangeburg, Red Bay, and Tifton soils are suit- Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
able for terraces. seeds and in the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils
Contouring is a widespread erosion control practice in with good tilth are granular and porous.
Santa Rosa County. It is most suitable on soils that have Most of the soils used for crops in Santa Rosa County
smooth, uniform slopes, including most areas of the have a loamy fine sand or sandy loam surface layer that
sloping Dothan, Fuquay, Lucy, Orangeburg, Red Bay, is light in color and low in content of organic matter.
and Tifton soils. Generally such soils have poor tilth. Regular additions of
Wind erosion is a hazard on the sandy Bonifay, Lake- crop residue, manure, and other organic material can
land, and Troup soils. Strong winds can damage these help improve tilth.
soils in a few hours if the soils are dry and bare of
vegetation or surface mulch. Maintaining plant cover and Yields per acre
surface mulch minimizes wind erosion on these soils.
Windbreaks of adapted shrubs and trees, such as laurel- The average yields per acre that can be expected of
cherry and slash pine, are also effective in reducing wind the principal crops under a high level of management
erosion, as are strips of small grain, are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be
Information on the design of erosion control practices higher or lower than those indicated in the table because
for each kind of soil is available from local offices of the of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
Soil Conservation Service. The yields are based mainly on the experience and
Soil drainage is the major management need on some records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
of the acreage used for crops and pasture in the survey agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
area. Some soils are naturally so wet that the production results of field trials and demonstrations are also consid-
of common crops is generally not possible. These are ered.
the poorly drained and very poorly drained soils. The management needed to obtain the indicated
Unless artificially drained, the somewhat poorly yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
drained soils are so wet that crops are damaged during and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion
most years. Albany, Escambia, and Lynchburg soils are control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
somewhat poorly drained. and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
Albany and Pactolus soils have good natural drainage appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
most of the year, but they tend to dry out slowly after diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction
rains. Small areas of wetter soils along drainageways and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
and in swales are commonly included in areas of the and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 45


residue, barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; and Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have limita-
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss. tions that nearly preclude their use for commercial crop
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of production.
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
to increase as new production technology is developed. They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e
other soils, however, is not likely to change. shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed be- water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
cause the acreage of such crops is small. The local cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly cor-
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the Cooper- rected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
active Extension Service can provide information about limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
the management and productivity of the soils and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold
Land capability classification or very dry.
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
Land capability classification shows, in a general way, this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in
that require special management are excluded. The soils class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have
are grouped according to their limitations for field crops, other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, range-
the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the land, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
way they respond to management. The grouping does The acreage of soils in each capability class and sub-
not take into account major and generally expensive class is shown in table 5. The capability classification of
landforming that would change slope, depth, or other each map unit is given in the section "Soil maps for
characteristics of the soils, nor does it consider possible detailed planning."
but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability classi-
fication is not a substitute for interpretations designed to Woodland management and productivity
show suitability and limitations of groups of soils for
rangeland, for woodland, and for engineering purposes. Carl D. Defazio, forester, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only Santa Rosa County has approximately 493,000 acres
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels of woodland, which is about 76 percent of the county.
are defined in the following paragraphs. Most of the woodland is owned by corporations, the
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are designat- State of Florida, and the United States. The soils and
ed by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals climate of Santa Rosa County are good for growing
indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower timber. Most of the forest is on Bonifay, Dothan, Fuquay,
choices for practical use. The classes are defined as Lakeland, Lucy, Orangeburg, and Troup soils. The wood-
follows: land is concentrated in the eastern, southern, and ex-
Class I soils have slight limitations that restrict their treme western parts of the county.
use. Slash and longleaf pine are the main species. There
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the are also appreciable amounts of loblolly, sand, and
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation shortleaf pine. The pines grow mostly on the uplands.
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
practices. Many hardwood species, such as sweetgum, blackgum,
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the yellow-poplar, hickory, maple, and baldcypress, grow
Class 11 soils have severe limitations that reduce the inly along the Yellow, Blackwater, and Escambia
choice of plants or that require special conservation Rivers. Turkey, post, blackjack, and bluejack oak grow
practices, or both. on the southeast sandhills; these species are of little
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce economic value, although they are valuable for wildlife
the choice of plants or that require very careful manage- food.
ment, or both. Most of the woodland is owned by large corporations,
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other which manage it intensively. Even-aged management-
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use. consisting of thinning, clearcutting, site preparation, and
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them planting-is extensively practiced. Public lands in the
generally unsuitable for cultivation. State forest are managed by using more selective cutting
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make techniques and by depending on natural seeding to re-
them unsuitable for cultivation. generate the area with native pine species. Prescribed







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 45


residue, barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; and Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have limita-
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss. tions that nearly preclude their use for commercial crop
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of production.
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
to increase as new production technology is developed. They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e
other soils, however, is not likely to change. shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed be- water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
cause the acreage of such crops is small. The local cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly cor-
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the Cooper- rected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
active Extension Service can provide information about limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
the management and productivity of the soils and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold
Land capability classification or very dry.
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
Land capability classification shows, in a general way, this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in
that require special management are excluded. The soils class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have
are grouped according to their limitations for field crops, other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, range-
the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the land, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
way they respond to management. The grouping does The acreage of soils in each capability class and sub-
not take into account major and generally expensive class is shown in table 5. The capability classification of
landforming that would change slope, depth, or other each map unit is given in the section "Soil maps for
characteristics of the soils, nor does it consider possible detailed planning."
but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability classi-
fication is not a substitute for interpretations designed to Woodland management and productivity
show suitability and limitations of groups of soils for
rangeland, for woodland, and for engineering purposes. Carl D. Defazio, forester, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only Santa Rosa County has approximately 493,000 acres
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels of woodland, which is about 76 percent of the county.
are defined in the following paragraphs. Most of the woodland is owned by corporations, the
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are designat- State of Florida, and the United States. The soils and
ed by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals climate of Santa Rosa County are good for growing
indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower timber. Most of the forest is on Bonifay, Dothan, Fuquay,
choices for practical use. The classes are defined as Lakeland, Lucy, Orangeburg, and Troup soils. The wood-
follows: land is concentrated in the eastern, southern, and ex-
Class I soils have slight limitations that restrict their treme western parts of the county.
use. Slash and longleaf pine are the main species. There
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the are also appreciable amounts of loblolly, sand, and
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation shortleaf pine. The pines grow mostly on the uplands.
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
practices. Many hardwood species, such as sweetgum, blackgum,
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the yellow-poplar, hickory, maple, and baldcypress, grow
Class 11 soils have severe limitations that reduce the inly along the Yellow, Blackwater, and Escambia
choice of plants or that require special conservation Rivers. Turkey, post, blackjack, and bluejack oak grow
practices, or both. on the southeast sandhills; these species are of little
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce economic value, although they are valuable for wildlife
the choice of plants or that require very careful manage- food.
ment, or both. Most of the woodland is owned by large corporations,
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other which manage it intensively. Even-aged management-
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use. consisting of thinning, clearcutting, site preparation, and
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them planting-is extensively practiced. Public lands in the
generally unsuitable for cultivation. State forest are managed by using more selective cutting
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make techniques and by depending on natural seeding to re-
them unsuitable for cultivation. generate the area with native pine species. Prescribed






46 SOIL SURVEY



burning reduces the understory and exposes mineral soil apply to seedlings from good stock that are property
as a seedbed. It also reduces incidence of destructive planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of
wildfire and encourages grasses and forbs that help sup- slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than
port wildlife such as deer, turkey, and quail. 25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe,
Markets for the wood of Santa Rosa County are plenti- more than 50 percent.
ful. Pulpwood mills are the major outlets. Other markets Ratings of windthrow hazard are based on soil charac-
for lumber, veneer, posts, and poles are available. The teristics that affect the development of tree roots and
value of the wood products is substantial, but it could be the ability of the soil to hold trees firmly. A rating of sight
higher if all woodlands were managed for the greatest the abilityof that a few trees may be blown down by normal
production. Other values of woodland include grazing, indicates that a few trees ma be blown down b normal
wildlife, recreation, natural beauty, and conservation of winds; moderate, that some trees will be blown down
soil and water. during periods of excessive soil wetness and strong
More detailed information on woodland and woodland winds; and severe, that many trees are blow down during
management can be obtained from the local offices of periods of excessive soil wetness and moderate or
the Soil Conservation Service, the Florida Division of strong winds.
Forestry, and the Cooperative Extension Service. The potential productivity of merchantable or common
Table 6 can be used by woodland owners or forest trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops. the average height, in feet, that dominant and codonmin-
Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The ant trees of a given species attain in a specified number
table lists the ordination (woodland suitability) symbol for of years. Site index was calculated at age 30 for eastern
each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol cottonwood, at age 35 for American sycamore, and at
require the same general management and have about cottonwood, at age 35 for American sycamore, and at
the same potential productivity. age 50 for all other species. The site index applies to
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indi- fully stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly
cates the potential productivity of the soils for important grown trees are those that woodland managers generally
trees. The number 1 indicates very high productivity; 2, favor in intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are
high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; and 5, low. The selected on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and
second part of the symbol, a letter, indicates the major marketability.
kind of soil limitation. The letter w indicates excessive Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils
water in or on the soil; c, clay in the upper part of the and to commercial wood production.
soil; s, sandy texture; and r, steep slopes. The letter o
indicates that limitations or restrictions are insignificant. If Windbreaks and environmental plantings
a soil has more than one limitation, the priority is as Windbreaks and environmental plantings
follows: w, c, s, and r. Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
In table 6, slght, moderate, and severe indicate the from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and
degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in from wnd andsnow They also protect f e and
management. gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and coniferous
of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the trees and shrubs provide the most protection.
expected soil loss is small, moderate if measures are Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
needed to control erosion during logging and road con- angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
struction, and severe if intensive management or special across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
equipment and methods are needed to prevent exces- of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
sive loss of soil. from wind, hold snow on the fields, and provide food and
Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the characteris- cover for wildlife.
tics and conditions of the soil that restrict use of the Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
equipment generally needed in woodland management houses and other buildings and to abate noise The
or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates that use of plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
equipment is not limited to a particular kind of equipment spaced. To i nsure plant survival, a healthy planting stock
or time of year; moderate indicates a short seasonal spaced To ensure plant survival a healthy planting stock
limitation or a need for some modification in manage- of suitable species should be planted properly on a well
ment or in equipment; and severe indicates a seasonal prepared site and maintained in good condition.
limitation, a need for special equipment or management, Additional information on planning windbreaks and
or a hazard in the use of equipment. screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which can be obtained from local offices of the Soil Conserva-
the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant tion Service or the Cooperative Extension Service or
competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings from a nursery.







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 47



Recreation the ratings, but important in evaluating a site, are the
location and accessibility of the area, the size and shape
Recreational opportunities in Santa Rosa County are of the area and its scenic quality, vegetation, access to
excellent. The many rivers and streams and the Gulf of water, potential water impoundment sites, and access to
Mexico provide good swimming, boating, and fishing, in
either fresh or salt water. Part of Blackwater River State public sewerlines. The capacity of the soil to absorb
Forest, consisting of approximately 120,000 acres, is in septic tank effluent and the ability of the soil to support
the northeastern part of the county (fig. 9). Besides vegetation are also important. Soils subject to flooding
swimming and fishing, the forest has hunting, nature lore, are limited for recreation use by the duration and intensi-
hiking trails, picnic areas, camping, horseback riding ty of flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
trails and stables, a State park, a fish hatchery, and planning recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the
canoeing. A canoeist on Coldwater Creek, Blackwater height, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
River, or Sweetwater-Juniper Creeks can wander through essential.
some of the finest natural beauty in the panhandle. Eglin In table 7, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
Air Force Base, along with the State Forest, provides slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil prop-
hunting on approximately 170,000 acres. erties are generally favorable and that limitations are
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 7 ac- minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that limita-
cording to limitations that affect their suitability for recre- tions can be overcome or alleviated by planning, design,
ation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil features, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil proper-
such as wetness, slope, and texture of the surface layer. ties are unfavorable and that limitations can be offset
Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not considered in only by costly soil reclamation, special design, intensive


































Figure 9.-Camping facility in Blackwater River State Forest. Soil is Troup loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.






48 SOIL SURVEY



maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of these abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
measures. distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
The information in table 7 can be supplemented by be created or improved by planting appropriate vegeta-
other information in this survey, for example, interpreta- tion, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by pro-
tions for septic tank absorption fields in table 10 and moting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
interpretations for dwellings without basements and for In table 8, the soils in the survey area are rated ac-
local roads and streets in table 9. cording to their potential for providing habitat for various
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in planning
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and other
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary facili- developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are suit-
ties and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to heavy able for establishing, improving, or maintaining specific
foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best soils elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining the inten-
have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to flooding sity of management needed for each element of the
during the period of use. The surface has few or no habitat.
stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but remains The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes and very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of con- kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or main-
structing campsites. tained. Few or no limitations affect management, and
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, established, improved, or maintained in most places.
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding Moderately intensive management is required for satis-
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or factory results. A rating of poor indicates that limitations
stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping are severe for the designated element or kind of habitat.
sites or of building access roads and parking areas. Habitat can be created, improved, or maintained in most
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive places, but management is difficult and must be inten-
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not sive. A rating of very poor indicates that restrictions for
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The the element or kind of habitat are very severe and that
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains, unsatisfactory results can be expected. Creating, improv-
and is not dusty when dry. Grading is needed in some ing, or maintaining habitat is impractical or impossible.
areas. The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
Paths and trails for hiking, horseback riding, and bicy- following paragraphs.
cling should require little or no cutting and filling. The Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
best soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and fea-
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than tures that affect the growth of grain and seed crops are
once a year during the period of use. They have moder- depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
ate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on the available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface stoni-
surface. ness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil mois-
ture are also considerations. Examples of grain and seed
Wildlife habitat crops are corn, soybeans, millet, peanuts, and small
grains.
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped pre- Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
pare this section. and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
Santa Rosa County has a variety of soils that provide that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
various wildlife habitats. Many species of birds, mam- of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
mals, reptiles, and fish live throughout the county. Wild- water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard,
life include whitetailed deer, bobwhite quail, gray and fox and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
squirrel, mourning dove, and wild turkey, as well as many considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
different wading birds, woodpeckers, raptors, songbirds, bahiagrass, lespedezas, and hairy indigo.
and small mammals. The most extensive areas for wild- Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally estab-
life are on Eglin Air Force Base and in the Blackwater lished grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil proper-
River State Forest. Urban and built-up areas have re- ties and features that affect the growth of these plants
duced wildlife habitat in many parts of the county. are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is available water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, and
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and considerations. Examples of wild herbaceous plants are






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 49


wild grape, honeysuckle, beggarweed, saw briers, black- agement. Soils are rated for various uses, and the most
berry, and ragweed. limiting features are identified. The ratings are given in
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts the following tables: Building site development, Sanitary
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil facilities, Construction materials, and Water manage-
properties and features that affect the growth of hard- ment. The ratings are based on observed performance
wood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, the of the soils and on the estimated data and test data in
available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of the "Soil properties" section.
these plants are oak, wild cherry, dogwood, hickory, and Information in this section is intended for land use
blueberry. planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
Coniferous plants furnish browse, seeds, and cones. planning site investigations prior to design and construc-
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of tion. The information, however, has limitations. For ex-
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of ample, estimates and other data generally apply only to
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness. that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Be-
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cedar, and cy- cause of the map scale, small areas of different soils
press. may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild herba- soil.
ceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites. Submerged The information is not site specific and does not elimi-
or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil properties nate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or for
and features affecting wetland plants are texture of the testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity, slope, and sur- design and construction of engineering works.
face stoniness. Examples of wetland plants are maiden- Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
cane, titi, pickerelweed, sedges, and bay. certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less not considered in preparing the information in this sec-
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are tion. Local ordinances and regulations need to be con-
created by dams, levees, or other water-control struc- sidered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
tures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow Soil properties, site features, and observed perform-
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface ance were considered in determining the ratings in this
stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, determi-
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and nations were made about grain-size distribution, liquid
ponds. limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock,
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the surface,
the following paragraphs. soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table,
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland, pas- slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure aggre-
ture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with nation, and soil density. Data were collected about kinds
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt frac-
grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild tions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates were
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas potential, available water capacity, and other behavioral
include bobwhite quail, pheasant, meadowlark, field spar- charatentia, availabe water capacity, and other behavioral
row, cottontail, and red fox. characteristics affecting engineering uses.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of de- This information can be used to (1) evaluate the po-
ciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and associat- tential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and
ied grasses, legumes, and wis herbaceous plants. Wilda- recreation uses; (2) make preliminary estimates of con-
ed grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. Wild- struction conditions; (3) evaluate alternative routes for
life attracted to these areas include wild turkey, wood- roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox, rac- cables; (4) evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
coon, deer, and bear. septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; (5)
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or plan detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife at- (6) locate potential sourestigations of soils and geology,
tracted to such areas are ducks, geese, herons, shore (6) locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
birds, muskrat, minkto such areas are ducks, geese, herons, shore topsoil; (7) plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
birds, muskrat, mink, and beaver. ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and (8) predict performance of proposed
Engineering small structures and pavements by comparing the per-
formance of existing similar structures on the same or
Jesse T. Wilson, civil engineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped similar soils.
If vegetation is removed from a site during construc-
This section provides information for planning land tion, the soils have a hazard of erosion. Water erosion is
uses related to urban development and to water man- a hazard during periods of heavy rainfall, and wind ero-







50 SOIL SURVEY



sion is often a hazard during extended dry periods. Only features, and observed performance of the soils. A high
as much vegetation as is necessary for construction water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
should be removed. Storm drains and utility lines should layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water
be installed before the site is cleared. Such temporary table, depth to a cemented pan, large stones, and flood-
measures as diversions, sediment basins, and temporary ing affect the ease of excavation and construction.
seeding of adapted plants and mulching are needed to Landscaping and grading that require cuts and fills of
control erosion during construction. After final site grad- more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
ing, vegetation should be established as soon as possi- Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
ble. Latest information and suggestions for vegetative and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
treatment of urban sites is available from local offices of have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
the Soil Conservation Service and the Cooperative Ex- gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
tension Service and from local nurserymen. flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally limit-
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps, ed to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this properties, site features, and observed performance of
survey can be used to make additional interpretations, the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as in-
Glossary. ferred from the engineering classification of the soil),
shrink-swell potential, frost action potential, and depth to
Building site development a high water table affect the traffic supporting capacity.
Table 9 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations .
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and with- Sanitary facilities
out basements, small commercial buildings, local roads Table 10 shows the degree and the kind of soil limita-
and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The limitations tions that affect septic tank absorption fields, sewage
are considered slight if soil properties and site features lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations are consid-
are generally favorable for the indicated use and limita- ered slight if soil properties and site features are gener-
tions are minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil ally favorable for the indicated use and limitations are
properties or site features are not favorable for the indi- minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or
cated use and special planning, design, or maintenance site features are not favorable for the indicated use and
is needed to overcome or minimize the limitations; and special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
severe if soil properties or site features are so unfavor- overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
able or so difficult to overcome that special design, sig- properties or site features are so unfavorable or so diffi-
nificant increases in construction costs, and possibly in- cult to overcome that special design, significant in-
creased maintenance are required. Special feasibility creases in construction costs, and possibly increased
studies may be required where the soil limitations are maintenance are required.
severe. Table 10 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves, soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The rat- and good performance and low maintenance can be
ings are based on soil properties, site features, and ob- expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site fea-
served performance of the soils. The ease of digging, tures are moderately favorable for the use and one or
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to bed- more soil properties or site features make the soil less
rock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer; stone desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the year that that one or more soil properties or site features are
excavations can be made is affected by the depth to a unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
seasonal high water table and the susceptibility of the properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
soil to flooding. The resistance of the excavation walls or costly alteration.
banks to sloughing or caving is affected by soil texture Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which efflu-
and the depth to the water table. ent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil through
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are struc- subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that part of the
tures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed soil. soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is evaluated.
The load limit is the same as that for single-family dwell- The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
ings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made for and observed performance of the soils. Permeability, a
small commercial buildings without basements, for dwell- high water table, depth to a cemented pan, and flooding
ings with basements, and for dwellings without base- affect absorption of the effluent. Large stones and ce-
ments. The ratings are based on soil properties, site mented pan interfere with installation.







50 SOIL SURVEY



sion is often a hazard during extended dry periods. Only features, and observed performance of the soils. A high
as much vegetation as is necessary for construction water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
should be removed. Storm drains and utility lines should layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water
be installed before the site is cleared. Such temporary table, depth to a cemented pan, large stones, and flood-
measures as diversions, sediment basins, and temporary ing affect the ease of excavation and construction.
seeding of adapted plants and mulching are needed to Landscaping and grading that require cuts and fills of
control erosion during construction. After final site grad- more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
ing, vegetation should be established as soon as possi- Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
ble. Latest information and suggestions for vegetative and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
treatment of urban sites is available from local offices of have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
the Soil Conservation Service and the Cooperative Ex- gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
tension Service and from local nurserymen. flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally limit-
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps, ed to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this properties, site features, and observed performance of
survey can be used to make additional interpretations, the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as in-
Glossary. ferred from the engineering classification of the soil),
shrink-swell potential, frost action potential, and depth to
Building site development a high water table affect the traffic supporting capacity.
Table 9 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations .
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and with- Sanitary facilities
out basements, small commercial buildings, local roads Table 10 shows the degree and the kind of soil limita-
and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The limitations tions that affect septic tank absorption fields, sewage
are considered slight if soil properties and site features lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations are consid-
are generally favorable for the indicated use and limita- ered slight if soil properties and site features are gener-
tions are minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil ally favorable for the indicated use and limitations are
properties or site features are not favorable for the indi- minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or
cated use and special planning, design, or maintenance site features are not favorable for the indicated use and
is needed to overcome or minimize the limitations; and special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
severe if soil properties or site features are so unfavor- overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
able or so difficult to overcome that special design, sig- properties or site features are so unfavorable or so diffi-
nificant increases in construction costs, and possibly in- cult to overcome that special design, significant in-
creased maintenance are required. Special feasibility creases in construction costs, and possibly increased
studies may be required where the soil limitations are maintenance are required.
severe. Table 10 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves, soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The rat- and good performance and low maintenance can be
ings are based on soil properties, site features, and ob- expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site fea-
served performance of the soils. The ease of digging, tures are moderately favorable for the use and one or
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to bed- more soil properties or site features make the soil less
rock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer; stone desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the year that that one or more soil properties or site features are
excavations can be made is affected by the depth to a unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
seasonal high water table and the susceptibility of the properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
soil to flooding. The resistance of the excavation walls or costly alteration.
banks to sloughing or caving is affected by soil texture Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which efflu-
and the depth to the water table. ent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil through
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are struc- subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that part of the
tures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed soil. soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is evaluated.
The load limit is the same as that for single-family dwell- The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
ings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made for and observed performance of the soils. Permeability, a
small commercial buildings without basements, for dwell- high water table, depth to a cemented pan, and flooding
ings with basements, and for dwellings without base- affect absorption of the effluent. Large stones and ce-
ments. The ratings are based on soil properties, site mented pan interfere with installation.






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 51


Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent, slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect is needed.
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
permeable sand and gravel is less than 4 feet below the to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
base of the absorption field, if slope is excessive, or if landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
the water table is near the surface. There must be un- to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
saturated soil material beneath the absorption field to Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
effectively filter the effluent. Many local ordinances re- affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
quire that this material be of a certain thickness. during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing.
floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of com- After soil material has been removed, the soil material
pacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold the remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over
sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly impervious bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit
soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is required to revelation. The soil material used as final cover for a
minimize seepage and contamination of ground water. landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
Table 10 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes lnllsh best orlts e rac aer
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 generally has the best workability more organic matter,
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are and the best potential for plants. Material from the sur-
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The face layer should be stockpiled for use as the final
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and cover.
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth Construction materials
to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones, Table 11 gives information about the soils as a source
and content of organic matter. of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil proper-
unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive ties and site features that affect the removal of the soil
or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of and its use as construction material. Normal compaction,
organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the minor processing, and other standard construction prac-
lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope and tices are assumed. Each soil is evaluated to a depth of 5
cemented pans can cause construction problems, and or 6 feet.
large stones can hinder compaction of the lagoon floor. Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is dis- and used in road embankments in another place. In this
posed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of table, the soils are rated as a sour ce of roadfill for low
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is table, tmbankmhe sols are rated as than source of roadfill for low
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an exacting in design than higher embankments.
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted, layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
away from the site. Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy their profile. The table showing engineering properties
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground provides detailed information about each soil layer. This
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation information can help determine the suitability of each
needs to be considered. layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil after it
The ratings in table 10 are based on soil properties, is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered in the
site features, and observed performance of the soils. ratings.
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
high water table, slope, and flooding affect both types of and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly organic suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of
layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and sodium excavation is affected by large stones, a high water
affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place
ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth after it has been compacted and drained is determined






52 SOIL SURVEY



by its strength (as inferred from the engineering classifi- Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
cation of the soil) and shrink-swell potential. relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an appre-
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable ciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or soils
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are not so
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the wet that excavation is difficult.
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet. near the surface.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10, The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of
the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers moisture and nutrients for plant growth.
of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
thick. Water management
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for Table 12 gives information on the soil properties and
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and site features that affect water management. The degree
gravel are used in many kinds of construction. Specifica- and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
tions for each use vary widely. In table 11, only the areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
probability of finding material in suitable quantity is evalu- ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil prop-
ated. The suitability of the material for specific purposes erties and site features are generally favorable for the
is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect excavation of indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily
the material. overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of not favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or mini-
by the engineering classification of the soil), the thick- mize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or site
ness of suitable material, and the content of rock frag- features are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome
ments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are given that special design, significant increase in construction
in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain sizes is costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
given in the table on engineering properties. This table also gives for each soil the restrictive fea-
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean tures that affect drainage, irrigation, terraces and diver-
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to sions, and grassed waterways.
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3 Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or em-
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large bankment. Soils best suited to this use have low seep-
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable age potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage po-
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale tential is determined by the permeability of the soil and
and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel, the depth to permeable material. Excessive slope can
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation affect the storage capacity of the reservoir area.
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, con-
the reclamation potential of the borrow area. structed to impound water or to protect land against
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation and compacted during construction.
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material, soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a depth depth even greater than the height of the embankment
of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and cob- can affect performance and safety of the embankment.
bles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to de-
than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts, termine these properties.
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
not so wet that excavation is difficult. seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable com-






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 53



action characteristics. Unfavorable features include less the growth and maintenance of the grass after construc-
than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content of tion.
stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium. A
high water table affects the amount of usable material. It
also affects trafficability. Soil properties
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a Data relating to soil properties are collected during the
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that im- soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on
pound water 3 feet or more above the original surface, the following pages.
Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent Soil properties are determined by field examination of
water table, permeability of the aquifer, and quality of the the soils and by laboratory index testing of some bench-
water as inferred from the salinity of the soil. Depth to mark soils. Established standard procedures are fol-
bedrock and the content of large stones affect the ease lowed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
of excavation. made and examined to identify and classify the soils and
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and subsur- to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken
face water from the soil. How easily and effectively the from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to
soil is drained depends on the depth to a cemented pan determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and compac-
or to other layers that affect the rate of water movement; tion characteristics. These results are reported in table
permeability: depth to a high water table or depth of 18.
standing water if the soil is subject to ponding; slope; Estimates of soil properties are based on field exami-
susceptibility to flooding; subsidence of organic layers; nations, on laboratory tests of samples from the survey
and potential frost action. Excavating and grading and area, and on laboratory tests of samples of similar soils
the stability of ditchbanks are affected by depth to bed- in nearby areas. Tests verify field observations, verify
rock or to a cemented pan, large stones, slope, and the properties that cannot be estimated accurately by field
hazard of cutbanks caving. The productivity of the soil observation, and help characterize key soils.
after drainage is adversely affected by extreme acidity or The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
by toxic substances in the root zone, such as salts, include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is not limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
considered in the ratingstrolled application of water to sup- and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to sup- Pertinent soil and water features also are given.
plement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
and management of an irrigation system are affected by
depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding, Engineering properties
available water capacity, intake rate, permeability, ero-
sion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system is Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering classifica-
affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a tion and of the range of index properties for the major
cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils have
by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 or 6
sodium, and soil reaction. feet,
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a combi- Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer
nation of channels and ridges constructed across a is indicated. The range in depth and information on other
slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by inter- properties of each layer are given for each soil series
cepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and depth under "Soil series and morphology."
to a cemented pan affect the construction of terraces Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
and diversions. A restricted rooting depth, a severe U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined
hazard of wind or water erosion, an excessively coarse according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the
texture, and restricted permeability adversely affect fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in
maintenance. diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
Grassed waterways are natural or constructed chan- percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
nels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct surface percent sand. If a soil contains particles coarser than
water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large stones, sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for example,
wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a cemented "gravelly." Textural terms are defined in the Glossary.
pan affect the construction of grassed waterways. A Classification of the soils is determined according to
hazard of wind erosion, low available water capacity, the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such as salts adopted by the American Association of State Highway
or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely affect and Transportation Officials (1).






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 53



action characteristics. Unfavorable features include less the growth and maintenance of the grass after construc-
than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content of tion.
stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium. A
high water table affects the amount of usable material. It
also affects trafficability. Soil properties
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a Data relating to soil properties are collected during the
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that im- soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on
pound water 3 feet or more above the original surface, the following pages.
Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent Soil properties are determined by field examination of
water table, permeability of the aquifer, and quality of the the soils and by laboratory index testing of some bench-
water as inferred from the salinity of the soil. Depth to mark soils. Established standard procedures are fol-
bedrock and the content of large stones affect the ease lowed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
of excavation. made and examined to identify and classify the soils and
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and subsur- to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken
face water from the soil. How easily and effectively the from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to
soil is drained depends on the depth to a cemented pan determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and compac-
or to other layers that affect the rate of water movement; tion characteristics. These results are reported in table
permeability: depth to a high water table or depth of 18.
standing water if the soil is subject to ponding; slope; Estimates of soil properties are based on field exami-
susceptibility to flooding; subsidence of organic layers; nations, on laboratory tests of samples from the survey
and potential frost action. Excavating and grading and area, and on laboratory tests of samples of similar soils
the stability of ditchbanks are affected by depth to bed- in nearby areas. Tests verify field observations, verify
rock or to a cemented pan, large stones, slope, and the properties that cannot be estimated accurately by field
hazard of cutbanks caving. The productivity of the soil observation, and help characterize key soils.
after drainage is adversely affected by extreme acidity or The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
by toxic substances in the root zone, such as salts, include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is not limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
considered in the ratingstrolled application of water to sup- and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to sup- Pertinent soil and water features also are given.
plement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
and management of an irrigation system are affected by
depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding, Engineering properties
available water capacity, intake rate, permeability, ero-
sion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system is Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering classifica-
affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a tion and of the range of index properties for the major
cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils have
by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 or 6
sodium, and soil reaction. feet,
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a combi- Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer
nation of channels and ridges constructed across a is indicated. The range in depth and information on other
slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by inter- properties of each layer are given for each soil series
cepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and depth under "Soil series and morphology."
to a cemented pan affect the construction of terraces Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
and diversions. A restricted rooting depth, a severe U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined
hazard of wind or water erosion, an excessively coarse according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the
texture, and restricted permeability adversely affect fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in
maintenance. diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
Grassed waterways are natural or constructed chan- percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
nels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct surface percent sand. If a soil contains particles coarser than
water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large stones, sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for example,
wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a cemented "gravelly." Textural terms are defined in the Glossary.
pan affect the construction of grassed waterways. A Classification of the soils is determined according to
hazard of wind erosion, low available water capacity, the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such as salts adopted by the American Association of State Highway
or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely affect and Transportation Officials (1).






54 SOIL SURVEY


The Unified system classifies soils according to prop- based on soil characteristics observed in the field, par-
erties that affect their use as construction material. Soils ticularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability is
are classified according to grain-size distribution of the considered in the design of soil drainage systems, septic
fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according to tank absorption fields, and construction where the rate of
plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter content. water movement under saturated conditions affects be-
Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW, GP, GM, havior.
GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils as ML, Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water
CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic soils as Pt. that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The
Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two groups can capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per
have a dual classification, for example, SP-SM. inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies,
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to depending on soil properties that affect the retention of
those properties that affect roadway construction and water and the depth of the root zone. The most impor-
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil tant properties are the content of organic matter, soil
that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available water
of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of capacity is an important factor in the choice of plants or
grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index, crops to be grown and in the design and management of
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content irrigation systems. Available water capacity is not an
of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in estimate of the quantity of water actually available to
group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are clas- plants at any given time.
sified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection. Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7 expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2- each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional refine- many soils, values have been verified by laboratory anal-
ment, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material can be yses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops and
indicated by a group index number. Group index num- other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for fertility
bers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to 20 and stabilization, and in determining the risk of corrosion.
or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification for Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
soils tested, with group index numbers in parentheses, is saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
given in table 18. of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and labora-
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry- tory measurements at representative sites of nonirrigated
weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is affected by the
mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to quality of the irrigation water and by the frequency of
weight percentage. water application. Hence, the salinity of soils in individual
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated fields can differ greatly from the value given in the table.
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3 Salinity affects the suitability of a soil for crop production,
inches in diameter based on an oven-dry weight. The the stability of soil if used as construction material, and
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard the potential of the soil to corrode metal and concrete.
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074 Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on labora- change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
tory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and in change occurs mainly because of the interaction of day
nearby areas and on estimates made in the field. minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) indi- of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
cate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The estimates soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
are based on test data from the survey area or from content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
nearby areas and on field examination, place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of undis-
turbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
Physical and chemical properties swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
amount of clay minerals in the soil and on measure-
Table 14 shows estimates of some characteristics and ments of similar soils.
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to build-
The estimates are based on field observations and on ings, roads, and other structures. Special design is often
test data for these and similar soils. needed.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture con-
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are tent is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 55


change is based on the soil fraction less than 2 millime- These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily
ters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of less be grown.
than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high, more 8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject
than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent, is to wind erosion.
sometimes used.
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to Soil and water features
sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) Table 15 gives estimates of various soil and water
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet features. The estimates are used in land use planning
and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates that involves engineering considerations.
are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69. assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped ac-
The higher the value the more susceptible the soil is to cording to the intake of water when the soils are thor-
sheet and rill erosion by water. roughly wet and receive precipitation from long-duration
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum aver- storms.
age annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that can The four hydrologic soil groups are:
occur without affecting crop productivity over a sustained Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
period. The rate is in tons per acre per year. potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have deep, well drained to excessively drained sands. These
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind ero- soils have a high rate of water transmission.
sion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the suscep- Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
tibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of soil lost. thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
Soils are grouped according to the following distinctions: or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water trans-
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to mission.
establish. Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
fine sands. These soils amy hine erodile. Cry layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind ero- soils have a slow rate of water transmission. These
sion are used. Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that
control wind erosion are used. have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 per- soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
cent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided calcium These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can be grown Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
if intensive measures to control wind erosion are used. caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are rainfall or snowmelt and water in depressions, swamps,
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to and marshes is not considered flooding.
control wind erosion are used. Table 15 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, rare,
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are common, occasional, and frequent. None means that
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but possi-
control wind erosion are used. ble under unusual weather conditions; common that it is
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and likely under normal conditions; occasional that it occurs
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, on an average of once or less in 2 years; and frequent
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly that it occurs on an average of more than once in 2
erodible. Crops can easily be grown. years. Duration is expressed as very brief if less than 2
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay days, brief if 2 to 7 days, and long if more than 7 days.
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate. Probable dates are expressed in months; November-






56 SOIL SURVEY



May, for example, means that flooding can occur during weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of corro-
the period November through May. sion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as soil
The information is based on evidence in the soil pro- moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and electrical
file, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay depos- conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of concrete
ited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic matter is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium content, tex-
content with increasing depth; and absence of distinctive ture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil. Special
horizons that form in soils that are not subject to flood- site examination and design may be needed if the com-
ing. bination of factors creates a severe corrosion environ-
Also considered is local information about the extent ment. The steel in installations that intersect soil bound-
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on aries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion than
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the steel in installations that are entirely within one kind of
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than soil or within one soil layer.
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that delin- For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
eate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency levels, low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a saturat- as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
ed zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the soil. acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.
Indicated in table 15 are the depth to the seasonal high
water table; the kind of water table-that is, perched or Engineering test data
apparent; and the months of the year that the water Engineering test data
table commonly is high. A water table that is seasonally Table 18 shows laboratory test data for several
high for less than 1 month is not indicated in table 15. pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey
Water table studies were made from 1974 to 1977 on area. The pedons are typical of the series and are de-
selected soils in Santa Rosa County. Perforated pipes scribed in the section "Soil series and morphology." The
were placed in the soils and depth to water in the pipes soil samples were tested by the Soils Laboratory, Florida
was recorded at the first and the middle of each month. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Materials and
The average of the two readings is recorded in table 16. Research.
Rainfall was also measured at the sites and is shown in The testing methods generally are those of the Ameri-
table 17. can Association of State Highway and Transportation
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water Officials (AASHTO) or the American Society for Testing
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water and Materials (ASTM).
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is The tests and methods are: AASHTO classification-M
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. An arte- 145 (AASHTO), D 3282 (ASTM); Unified classification-
sian water table is under hydrostatic head, generally be- D 2487 (ASTM); Mechanical analysis-T 88 (AASHTO),
neath an impermeable layer. When this layer is penetrat- D2217 (ASTM); Liquid limit-T 89 (AASHTO), D 423
ed, the water level rises in an uncased borehole. A (ASTM); Plasticity index-T 90 (AASHTO), D 424
perched water table is water standing above an unsatu- (ASTM); Moisture density, Method A-T 99 (AASHTO), D
rated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water table 698 (ASTM).
is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet
are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth Physical, chemical, and mineralogical
indicates that the water table is above the surface of the analyses of selected soils
soil. The first numeral in the range indicates how high
the water rises above the surface. The second numeral By C. T. Hallmark, V. W. Carlisle, and R. E. Caidwel, Soil Science
indicates the depth below the surface. Department, University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Depth to bedrock is more than 5 feet in all soils in Physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of
Santa Rosa County. The depth is based on many soil representative pedons sampled in Santa Rosa County
borings and on observations during soil mapping. The are presented in tables 19, 20, and 21. Analyses were
rock is specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft conducted and coordinated by the Soil Characterization
or fractured, excavations can be made with trenching Laboratory, Soil Science Department, University of Flor-
machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard ida. Most analytical methods used are outlined in Soil
or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is Survey Investigations Report No. 1 (8). Detailed profile
needed for excavation. descriptions of the soils analyzed are given in the sec-
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced tion "Soil series and morphology." Laboratory data and
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or profile information for other soils in Santa Rosa County






56 SOIL SURVEY



May, for example, means that flooding can occur during weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of corro-
the period November through May. sion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as soil
The information is based on evidence in the soil pro- moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and electrical
file, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay depos- conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of concrete
ited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic matter is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium content, tex-
content with increasing depth; and absence of distinctive ture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil. Special
horizons that form in soils that are not subject to flood- site examination and design may be needed if the com-
ing. bination of factors creates a severe corrosion environ-
Also considered is local information about the extent ment. The steel in installations that intersect soil bound-
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on aries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion than
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the steel in installations that are entirely within one kind of
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than soil or within one soil layer.
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that delin- For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
eate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency levels, low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a saturat- as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
ed zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the soil. acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.
Indicated in table 15 are the depth to the seasonal high
water table; the kind of water table-that is, perched or Engineering test data
apparent; and the months of the year that the water Engineering test data
table commonly is high. A water table that is seasonally Table 18 shows laboratory test data for several
high for less than 1 month is not indicated in table 15. pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey
Water table studies were made from 1974 to 1977 on area. The pedons are typical of the series and are de-
selected soils in Santa Rosa County. Perforated pipes scribed in the section "Soil series and morphology." The
were placed in the soils and depth to water in the pipes soil samples were tested by the Soils Laboratory, Florida
was recorded at the first and the middle of each month. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Materials and
The average of the two readings is recorded in table 16. Research.
Rainfall was also measured at the sites and is shown in The testing methods generally are those of the Ameri-
table 17. can Association of State Highway and Transportation
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water Officials (AASHTO) or the American Society for Testing
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water and Materials (ASTM).
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is The tests and methods are: AASHTO classification-M
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. An arte- 145 (AASHTO), D 3282 (ASTM); Unified classification-
sian water table is under hydrostatic head, generally be- D 2487 (ASTM); Mechanical analysis-T 88 (AASHTO),
neath an impermeable layer. When this layer is penetrat- D2217 (ASTM); Liquid limit-T 89 (AASHTO), D 423
ed, the water level rises in an uncased borehole. A (ASTM); Plasticity index-T 90 (AASHTO), D 424
perched water table is water standing above an unsatu- (ASTM); Moisture density, Method A-T 99 (AASHTO), D
rated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water table 698 (ASTM).
is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet
are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth Physical, chemical, and mineralogical
indicates that the water table is above the surface of the analyses of selected soils
soil. The first numeral in the range indicates how high
the water rises above the surface. The second numeral By C. T. Hallmark, V. W. Carlisle, and R. E. Caidwel, Soil Science
indicates the depth below the surface. Department, University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Depth to bedrock is more than 5 feet in all soils in Physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of
Santa Rosa County. The depth is based on many soil representative pedons sampled in Santa Rosa County
borings and on observations during soil mapping. The are presented in tables 19, 20, and 21. Analyses were
rock is specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft conducted and coordinated by the Soil Characterization
or fractured, excavations can be made with trenching Laboratory, Soil Science Department, University of Flor-
machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard ida. Most analytical methods used are outlined in Soil
or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is Survey Investigations Report No. 1 (8). Detailed profile
needed for excavation. descriptions of the soils analyzed are given in the sec-
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced tion "Soil series and morphology." Laboratory data and
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or profile information for other soils in Santa Rosa County







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 57



as well as for soils in other counties in Florida are on file percent sand in the A horizon. The Kureb and Leon
at the Soil Science Department, University of Florida. pedons are more than 90 percent sand in this horizon.
Soils were sampled by horizon from pits at carefully Four soils-Angie Variant, Escambia, Esto, and Lynch-
selected locations that represent typifying pedons. Sam- burg-have relatively high quantities of silt. No soil
pies were air-dried, crushed, and sieved through a 2- tested is more than 20 percent very coarse plus coarse
millimeter screen. sand, which indicates that the sand is relatively fine.
Particle size distribution was determined by using a Hydraulic conductivity data (table 19) measure the
modification of the Bouyoucos hydrometer procedure (3) movement of water through the soil when the soil is
with sodium hexametaphosphate as the dispersant. Hy- saturated. Generally, hydraulic conductivity decreases
draulic conductivity, bulk density, and water content tests with increasing clay and silt content and increasing bulk
were performed on undisturbed core samples. Organic density and increases with increasing organic matter
carbon was determined by a modification of the Walkley- content and better developed structure. In the tested
Black wet combustion method. Extractable bases were soils, clay, clay loam, and sandy clay textures show
obtained by equilibrating and leaching soils with ammoni- hydraulic conductivity of less than 1.0 centimeter per
um acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium and potassium in hour and in many cases of less than 0.1 centimeter per
the extract were determined by flame photometry, and hour. Sand and loamy sand show hydraulic conductivity
calcium and magnesium by atomic absorption spectros- between 1.8 and 292 centimeters per hour; the average
copy. Extractable acidity was determined by the barium is about 20 centimeters per hour. Intermediate textures
chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. Sum of ca- show intermediate hydraulic conductivity.
tions, which may be considered a measure of the cation Available water holding capacity of soils can be esti-
exchange capacity, was obtained by summation of ex- mated from bulk density and water content (table 19).
tractable bases and extractable acidity. Base saturation Generally, sand and loamy sand horizons retain less
is the ratio of extractable bases to sum of cations ex- available water than do horizons of sandy loam, sandy
pressed as a percentage. Reaction was measured with a clay loam, sandy clay, and clay texture. In the upper 1
glass electrode using water in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio; meter, the amount of water available to plants ranges
using 0.01M calcium chloride solution in a 1:2 soil-solu- from about 2 centimeters in the Kureb and Leon soils,
tion ratio; and using 1N potassium chloride solution in a which are the coarsest soils for which water data are
1:1 soil-solution ratio. Electrical conductivity determina- available, to more than 7 centimeters in the Angie Vari-
tions were made with a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil- ant, Garcon, Kalmia, Lynchburg, and Rutlege soils, which
water mixtures. Iron and aluminum extractable in sodium contain significant amounts of silt and clay in the upper 1
dithionite-citrate were determined by atomic absorption. meter. Other pedons on which data are available are
Aluminum, carbon, and iron were extracted from sus- intermediate.
pected spodic horizons with 0.1M sodium pyrophos- Low values for extractable bases, sum of cations, and
phate; determinations of aluminum and iron were by base saturation (table 20) indicate low inherent soil fertil-
atomic absorption, and determinations of extracted ity. Calcium and magnesium are the predominant bases;
carbon were by the Walkley-Black wet combustion the largest amounts of these elements occur in Bohicket
method. and Dorovan soils. Sodium content is low in almost all
Peak heights at positions of 18, 14, 7.2, 4.83, and 4.31 soils except the Bohicket soil. Trace amounts of potas-
angstroms represent montmorillonite and interstratified sium coupled with low base saturation indicate the ab-
expandibles, vermiculite and a 14-angstrom intergrade sence of appreciable quantities of weatherable minerals
mineral, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz. These peak in these soils. The sum of cations reflects the amount of
heights were measured, summed, and normalized to give organic matter and clay and the type of clay present.
percentages of the soil minerals identified in X-ray dif- The sum of cations increases with an increase of organic
fractograms. These values are not absolute quantities, matter and clay. Therefore, the sum of cations generally
but show the relative distribution of minerals in the clay is relative high in the surface horizon and decreases with
fraction. Determining the absolute quantity of a mineral depth to the top of the argillic horizon, where it again
requires additional knowledge of particle size, crystallin- increases.
ity, unit structure substitution, and matrix effects. Organic carbon content (table 20) is greatest in the
Generally, the soils have more clay in the B horizon upper horizon of all soils, except the Dorovan soil, and
than in the overlying A horizon (table 19), which indi- decreases with depth. The increase of organic carbon
cates the presence of an argillic horizon in the subsoil. below a depth of 1 meter in the Kureb and Leon soils
Exceptions are the Bohicket, Dorovan, Kureb, Lakeland, indicates illuviated humus. Since organic carbon directly
Leon, Pactolus, and Rutlege soils. If clay content in- influences nutrient- and water-retention capacities, man-
creases with depth, silt content and especially sand con- agement that conserves and maintains organic carbon is
tent correspondingly decrease. All of the pedons except desirable and is especially important on the soils with
those of the Angie Variant, Bohicket, Escambia, Esto, little organic carbon and clay, such as the Kureb, Lake-
Lynchburg, Red Bay, and Tifton soils are more than 70 land, and Leon soils.







58 SOIL SURVEY


Electrical conductivity (table 20) reflects the amount of ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The differ-
free salts in the soil. If high, it indicates conditions that ences among orders reflect the dominant soil-forming
may adversely affect plant growth; only the Bohicket soil processes and the degree of soil formation. Each order
exhibited conductivity sufficiently high to indicate a is identified by a word ending in sol. An example is
hazard. Further, the Bohicket soil contains more than 2 Entisol.
percent sulfur throughout the pedon, indicating potential SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders pri-
problems if drainage is improved. marily on the basis of properties that influence soil gen-
The pH determinations (table 20) reflect the active esis and are important to plant growth or properties that
acidity of the soils. In general, nutrient availability is reflect the most important variables within the orders.
greatest in soil when reaction in water is between pH 6 The last syllable in the name of a suborder indicates the
and 7. Lime is commonly added to the soil to raise the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning water, plus
pH of the plow layer. No pedon sampled had reaction in ent, from Entisol).
water higher than pH 6.0. Soil reaction in calcium chlo- GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
ride and in potassium chloride is generally 0.5 to 1.5 pH groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, arrange-
units lower than in water. ment, and degree of development of pedogenic hori-
The amount of extractable iron and aluminum (by dith- zons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and base
ionite-citrate) are associated with the ability of a soil to status. Each great group is identified by the name of a
absorb phosphorus and in time render it unavailable to suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the
plants (table 20). Notably, the Angie Variant, Dothan, soil. An example is Psammaquepts (Psamm, meaning
Escambia, Esto, Orangeburg, Pactolus, Tifton, and Red sandy, plus aquent, the suborder of the Entisols that
Bay soils have large amounts of extractable iron or alu- have an aquic moisture regime).
minum near the surface. SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Mineralogy of the crystalline components of the clay Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
fraction is reported in table 21 for selected horizons of typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
the sampled pedons. In general, the clay mineralogical necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are transi-
suite is composed of montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom in- tions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Extra-
tergrade mineral, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz. Vermicu- grades have some properties that are not representative
lite was not found, and mica (illite) was found only in the of the great group but do not indicate transitions to any
Esto, Lynchburg, Maxton, Mulat, and Tifton soils. Mont- other known kind of soil. Each subgroup is identified by
Esto Lynchburg, Maxton Mudid not occur Tiftogether in any soil. one or more adjectives preceding the name of the great
montmorillonite and gibbsite did not occur together in any soil. group. The adjective Typic identifies the subgroup that
Montmoent; llonite shrinks and swells with changes in water typifies the great group. An example is Typic Psamma-
content; if present in large quantities in a soil, it dictates quents.
that care be exercised in using the soil for any engineer- FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
ing purpose. the basis of physical and chemical properties and other
Kaolinite, quartz, and the 14-angstrom intergrade min- characteristics that affect management. Mostly the prop-
eral are present in all pedons. Generally, the quantities erties are those of horizons below plow depth where
of quartz and of the 14-angstrom intergrade mineral de- there is much biological activity. Among the properties
crease with depth, and the quantity of kaolinite in- and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
creases. This tendency suggests that the 14-angstrom mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
intergrade mineral is more stable than kaolinite in the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and per-
acidic weathering environment near the surface and that manent cracks. A family name consists of the name of a
quartz in the clay fraction is the result of decrement of subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil properties.
silt-sized quartz. An example is siliceous, thermic Typic Psammaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
Classification of the soils texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
The system of soil classification used by the National The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (9). Beginning differ within a series.
with the broadest, these categories are the order, su-
border, great group, subgroup, family, and series. Classi-
fication is based on soil properties observed in the field Soil series and morphology
or inferred from those observations or from laboratory
measurements. In table 22, the soils of the survey area In this section, each soil series recognized in the
are classified according to the system. The categories survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
are defined in the following paragraphs. in alphabetic order.







58 SOIL SURVEY


Electrical conductivity (table 20) reflects the amount of ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The differ-
free salts in the soil. If high, it indicates conditions that ences among orders reflect the dominant soil-forming
may adversely affect plant growth; only the Bohicket soil processes and the degree of soil formation. Each order
exhibited conductivity sufficiently high to indicate a is identified by a word ending in sol. An example is
hazard. Further, the Bohicket soil contains more than 2 Entisol.
percent sulfur throughout the pedon, indicating potential SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders pri-
problems if drainage is improved. marily on the basis of properties that influence soil gen-
The pH determinations (table 20) reflect the active esis and are important to plant growth or properties that
acidity of the soils. In general, nutrient availability is reflect the most important variables within the orders.
greatest in soil when reaction in water is between pH 6 The last syllable in the name of a suborder indicates the
and 7. Lime is commonly added to the soil to raise the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning water, plus
pH of the plow layer. No pedon sampled had reaction in ent, from Entisol).
water higher than pH 6.0. Soil reaction in calcium chlo- GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
ride and in potassium chloride is generally 0.5 to 1.5 pH groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, arrange-
units lower than in water. ment, and degree of development of pedogenic hori-
The amount of extractable iron and aluminum (by dith- zons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and base
ionite-citrate) are associated with the ability of a soil to status. Each great group is identified by the name of a
absorb phosphorus and in time render it unavailable to suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the
plants (table 20). Notably, the Angie Variant, Dothan, soil. An example is Psammaquepts (Psamm, meaning
Escambia, Esto, Orangeburg, Pactolus, Tifton, and Red sandy, plus aquent, the suborder of the Entisols that
Bay soils have large amounts of extractable iron or alu- have an aquic moisture regime).
minum near the surface. SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Mineralogy of the crystalline components of the clay Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
fraction is reported in table 21 for selected horizons of typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
the sampled pedons. In general, the clay mineralogical necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are transi-
suite is composed of montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom in- tions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Extra-
tergrade mineral, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz. Vermicu- grades have some properties that are not representative
lite was not found, and mica (illite) was found only in the of the great group but do not indicate transitions to any
Esto, Lynchburg, Maxton, Mulat, and Tifton soils. Mont- other known kind of soil. Each subgroup is identified by
Esto Lynchburg, Maxton Mudid not occur Tiftogether in any soil. one or more adjectives preceding the name of the great
montmorillonite and gibbsite did not occur together in any soil. group. The adjective Typic identifies the subgroup that
Montmoent; llonite shrinks and swells with changes in water typifies the great group. An example is Typic Psamma-
content; if present in large quantities in a soil, it dictates quents.
that care be exercised in using the soil for any engineer- FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
ing purpose. the basis of physical and chemical properties and other
Kaolinite, quartz, and the 14-angstrom intergrade min- characteristics that affect management. Mostly the prop-
eral are present in all pedons. Generally, the quantities erties are those of horizons below plow depth where
of quartz and of the 14-angstrom intergrade mineral de- there is much biological activity. Among the properties
crease with depth, and the quantity of kaolinite in- and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
creases. This tendency suggests that the 14-angstrom mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
intergrade mineral is more stable than kaolinite in the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and per-
acidic weathering environment near the surface and that manent cracks. A family name consists of the name of a
quartz in the clay fraction is the result of decrement of subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil properties.
silt-sized quartz. An example is siliceous, thermic Typic Psammaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
Classification of the soils texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
The system of soil classification used by the National The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (9). Beginning differ within a series.
with the broadest, these categories are the order, su-
border, great group, subgroup, family, and series. Classi-
fication is based on soil properties observed in the field Soil series and morphology
or inferred from those observations or from laboratory
measurements. In table 22, the soils of the survey area In this section, each soil series recognized in the
are classified according to the system. The categories survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
are defined in the following paragraphs. in alphabetic order.






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 59



Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; weak medium subangular
formed are identified for each series. The soil is com- blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual
pared with similar soils and with nearby soils of other smooth boundary.
series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil, B21t-52 to 67 inches; mottled light gray (10YR 7/2),
that is typical of the series in the survey area is de- yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), brownish yellow (10YR
scribed. The detailed description of each soil horizon 6/8), pale brown (10YR 6/3), strong brown (7.5YR
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (7). Many of 5/8) light reddish brown (5YR 6/4), and red (2.5YR
the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined 4/8) sandy loam; moderate medium subangular
in Soil Taxonomy (9). Unless otherwise stated, colors in blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual
the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon smooth boundary.
description is the range of important characteristics of B22t-67 to 80 inches; mottled yellowish brown (10YR
the soils in the series. 5/8), brownish yellow (10YR 6/8), white (10YR 8/2),
The map units of each soil series are described in the strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), red (10R 4/8), and pale
section "Soil maps for detailed planning." red (10R 6/4) sandy loam; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable to firm; strongly acid.
Albany series The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction is
Soils of the Albany series are loamy, siliceous, thermic strongly acid or very strongly acid in all horizons except
grossarenic Paleudults. They are nearly level to gently the A horizon where the soil has been limed.
sloping and are somewhat poorly drained. They formed The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments. 5, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 3 to 5,
These soils are in small areas on low uplands. Slopes and chroma of 2; or is neutral and has value of 3 to 5
range from 0 to 5 percent. and chroma of 0. It ranges from 4 to 9 inches in thick-
Albany soils are near Bonifay, Lakeland, Lynchburg, ness. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of
Pactolus, and Troup soils. Bonifay soils are well drained 5 to 8, and chroma of 2 to 8. The A2 horizon has few to
and have horizons containing more than 5 percent plinth- common, faint to distinct mottles of gray, yellow, and
ite above a depth of 60 inches. Lakeland soils do not brown. The A2 horizon ranges from 36 to 54 inches in
have a Bt horizon and are excessively drained. Lynch- thickness. Texture ranges from sand to loamy sand.
burg soils have a Bt horizon above a depth of 20 inches. The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 or
Pactolus soils do not have a Bt horizon. Troup soils are 6, and chroma of 4 to 6. It ranges from 4 to 9 inches in
better drained and have a red to strong brown Bt horizon thickness. This horizon has few to common mottles in
below a depth of 40 inches. shades of gray, yellow, brown, and red.
Typical pedon of Albany loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5
slopes, in a wooded area approximately 20 yards west of to 7, and chroma of 2 to 8. This horizon has common to
paved road, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 7, T. 2 N., R. 28 W.: many distinct mottles of gray, yellow, brown, and red. In
some areas the B2t horizon lacks a dominant color and
A1-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, brown, and red.
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; Texture of the B2t horizon ranges from sandy loam to
many fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; sandy clay loam.
clear smooth boundary.
A21-5 to 17 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loamy sand; Angie Variant
common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
root stains; single grain; loose; common fine and Soils of the Angie Variant are clayey, mixed, thermic
medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual smooth Aquic Paleudults. They are nearly level, moderately well
boundary. drained, sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil. They
A22-17 to 25 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) loamy formed in loamy marine sediments. These soils are on
sand; few medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR broad flats between streams and along drainageways.
6/2) and common medium distinct yellowish brown Slopes are less than 2 percent.
(10YR 5/6) and pale brown (10YR 6/3) mottles; Angie Variant soils are near Escambia, Fuquay, Johns,
single grain; loose; few fine and medium roots; very Kalmia, and Lynchburg soils. All of those soils have less
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary, than 35 percent clay in the argillic horizon. Fuquay and
A23-25 to 47 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) Kalmia soils do not have mottles above a depth of 30
loamy sand; few fine faint strong brown mottles; inches. Escambia and Lynchburg soils are somewhat
single grain; loose; few medium roots; very strongly poorly drained.
acid; gradual wavy boundary. Typical pedon of Angie Variant loam, approximately
B1-47 to 52 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy 0.25 mile east of Delaney Creek and 30 yards south of
loam; few fine faint strong brown and light brownish trail road, SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 20, T. 3 N., R. 30 W.:






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 59



Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; weak medium subangular
formed are identified for each series. The soil is com- blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual
pared with similar soils and with nearby soils of other smooth boundary.
series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil, B21t-52 to 67 inches; mottled light gray (10YR 7/2),
that is typical of the series in the survey area is de- yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), brownish yellow (10YR
scribed. The detailed description of each soil horizon 6/8), pale brown (10YR 6/3), strong brown (7.5YR
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (7). Many of 5/8) light reddish brown (5YR 6/4), and red (2.5YR
the technical terms used in the descriptions are defined 4/8) sandy loam; moderate medium subangular
in Soil Taxonomy (9). Unless otherwise stated, colors in blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; gradual
the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the pedon smooth boundary.
description is the range of important characteristics of B22t-67 to 80 inches; mottled yellowish brown (10YR
the soils in the series. 5/8), brownish yellow (10YR 6/8), white (10YR 8/2),
The map units of each soil series are described in the strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), red (10R 4/8), and pale
section "Soil maps for detailed planning." red (10R 6/4) sandy loam; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable to firm; strongly acid.
Albany series The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction is
Soils of the Albany series are loamy, siliceous, thermic strongly acid or very strongly acid in all horizons except
grossarenic Paleudults. They are nearly level to gently the A horizon where the soil has been limed.
sloping and are somewhat poorly drained. They formed The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
in thick beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments. 5, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 3 to 5,
These soils are in small areas on low uplands. Slopes and chroma of 2; or is neutral and has value of 3 to 5
range from 0 to 5 percent. and chroma of 0. It ranges from 4 to 9 inches in thick-
Albany soils are near Bonifay, Lakeland, Lynchburg, ness. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of
Pactolus, and Troup soils. Bonifay soils are well drained 5 to 8, and chroma of 2 to 8. The A2 horizon has few to
and have horizons containing more than 5 percent plinth- common, faint to distinct mottles of gray, yellow, and
ite above a depth of 60 inches. Lakeland soils do not brown. The A2 horizon ranges from 36 to 54 inches in
have a Bt horizon and are excessively drained. Lynch- thickness. Texture ranges from sand to loamy sand.
burg soils have a Bt horizon above a depth of 20 inches. The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 or
Pactolus soils do not have a Bt horizon. Troup soils are 6, and chroma of 4 to 6. It ranges from 4 to 9 inches in
better drained and have a red to strong brown Bt horizon thickness. This horizon has few to common mottles in
below a depth of 40 inches. shades of gray, yellow, brown, and red.
Typical pedon of Albany loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5
slopes, in a wooded area approximately 20 yards west of to 7, and chroma of 2 to 8. This horizon has common to
paved road, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 7, T. 2 N., R. 28 W.: many distinct mottles of gray, yellow, brown, and red. In
some areas the B2t horizon lacks a dominant color and
A1-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, brown, and red.
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; Texture of the B2t horizon ranges from sandy loam to
many fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; sandy clay loam.
clear smooth boundary.
A21-5 to 17 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loamy sand; Angie Variant
common fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
root stains; single grain; loose; common fine and Soils of the Angie Variant are clayey, mixed, thermic
medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual smooth Aquic Paleudults. They are nearly level, moderately well
boundary. drained, sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil. They
A22-17 to 25 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) loamy formed in loamy marine sediments. These soils are on
sand; few medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR broad flats between streams and along drainageways.
6/2) and common medium distinct yellowish brown Slopes are less than 2 percent.
(10YR 5/6) and pale brown (10YR 6/3) mottles; Angie Variant soils are near Escambia, Fuquay, Johns,
single grain; loose; few fine and medium roots; very Kalmia, and Lynchburg soils. All of those soils have less
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary, than 35 percent clay in the argillic horizon. Fuquay and
A23-25 to 47 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) Kalmia soils do not have mottles above a depth of 30
loamy sand; few fine faint strong brown mottles; inches. Escambia and Lynchburg soils are somewhat
single grain; loose; few medium roots; very strongly poorly drained.
acid; gradual wavy boundary. Typical pedon of Angie Variant loam, approximately
B1-47 to 52 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy 0.25 mile east of Delaney Creek and 30 yards south of
loam; few fine faint strong brown and light brownish trail road, SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 20, T. 3 N., R. 30 W.:






60 SOIL SURVEY



A1-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loam; or 7, and chroma of 1. These horizons have mottles in
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine shades of yellow, brown, and red. Texture is clay or clay
and few medium roots; extremely acid; clear smooth loam. Weighted average clay content of the Bt horizon
boundary. ranges from 35 to 55 percent. Silt content ranges from
B1-4 to 7 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) loam; 15 to 30 percent.
weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
many fine and few medium roots; very strongly acid; Bibb series
gradual smooth boundary.
B21t-7 to 11 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) clay Soils of the Bibb series are coarse-loamy, siliceous,
loam; few fine faint strong brown mottles; weak acid, thermic Typic Fluvaquents. These soils are nearly
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; level and poorly drained. They formed in loamy and
common fine and few medium roots; very strongly sandy fluvial sediments. These soils are on flood plains
acid; gradual smooth boundary. along streams and are subject to frequent flooding.
B22t-11 to 25 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) clay; Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
common medium distinct red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles; Bibb soils are near Dorovan, Escambia, Johns, Kalmia,
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; fri- Kinston, Pactolus, Pamlico, and Rutlege soils. Dorovan
able; few fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; and Pamlico soils are on flood plains and in depressions,
gradual smooth boundary. are very poorly drained, and are organic. Escambia soils
B23t-25 to 39 inches; mottled brownish yellow (10YR are along drainageways, around depressions, and on low
6/6), gray (10YR 6/1), pale brown (10YR 6/3), flats between streams; they are somewhat poorly
strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), and red (2.5YR 4/8) drained and have more than 5 percent plinthite above a
sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular depth of 60 inches. Johns soils are on stream terraces,
blocky structure; friable; few fine and medium roots; primarily along the larger streams; they are somewhat
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. poorly drained to moderately well drained and have a Bt
B24tg-39 to 52 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) clay; common horizon that is more than 18 percent clay in the upper 20
medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) and inches. Kalmia soils are on stream terraces, primarily
red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles and few fine distinct brown- along the mia sois are on stream terraces primary well
ish yellow mottles; moderate medium subangular along the larger streams in the county is more they are well
blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; very strongly drained and have a Bt horizon that is more than 18
acid; gradual smooth boundary. percent clay in the upper 20 inches. Kinston soils are on
B25tg-52 to 76 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) clay; few flood plains and have more than 18 percent clay in the
medium prominent red (2.5YR 4/8), common 20- to 40-inch control section. Nearly level to gently slop-
medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), and ing Pactolus soils are in low positions in the uplands;
common fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) they are moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky struc- drained. Nearly level Rutlege soils are in low, flat depres-
ture; friable; very strongly acid. sions and in ponded areas; they have an umbric epipe-
don and are sandy throughout.
The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction is Bibb soils are mapped only in association with Kinston
extremely acid to strongly acid throughout the profile soils.
except in the A horizon where the soil has been limed. Typical pedon of Bibb silt loam from a wooded area of
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or Bibb-Kinston association, approximately 5.25 miles west
4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 4 to 8 inches thick. The A2 of Munson, approximately 160 yards north of State High-
horizon, where present, has hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, way 4, and 75 yards west of Coldwater Creek,
and chroma of 4; or hue of 10YR, value of 5, and SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 5, T. 4 N., R. 27 W.:
chroma of 3 or 4. The A horizon ranges from 4 to 16
inches in thickness. A11-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam;
The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6, and moderate medium granular structure; friable; many
chroma of 6 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual
of 4. Texture is sandy loam or loam. Thickness ranges wavy boundary.
from 3 to 5 inches. A12-6 to 17 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) silt loam;
The B21t and B22t horizons have hue of 10YR, value common medium distinct gray (10YR 6/1) mottles;
of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8 with mottles in shades weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine and
of yellow, brown, gray, and red. The B23t horizon is medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
mottled in shades of gray, yellow, brown, and red; gray boundary.
increases with depth. The B21t, B22t and B23t horizons Clg-17 to 42 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) silt loam;
are sandy clay loam, clay, sandy clay, or clay loam. The common medium faint gray (10YR 6/1) and few
B24tg and B25tg horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 6 medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles;







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 61


few thin strata of fine sand in lower part; massive; Alg-0 to 15 inches; very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2)
friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary, clay; massive; slightly sticky; when squeezed in
C2g-42 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) hand, soil flows easily between fingers (estimated n
fine sand; few thin streaks of silt loam and loamy value more than 1); apparent sulphide odor; matted
fine sand; few medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) with live and dead grass roots; about 24 percent
mottles; massive; very friable; very strongly acid; organic matter (estimated); moderately alkaline;
gradual wavy boundary. gradual smooth boundary.
C3g-60 to 65 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) Clg-15 to 45 inches; dark olive gray (5Y 3/2) silty clay;
fine sand; few fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) and massive; slightly sticky; when squeezed in hand, soil
light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) mottles; single flows easily between fingers (estimated n value
grain; loose; very strongly acid. more than 1); sulphide odor present; common live
and dead grass roots; about 12 percent organic
Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid in all matter (estimated); moderately alkaline; clear
horizons. The weighted average clay content of the 10- smooth boundary.
to-40-inch control section is less than 18 percent. The IIC2g-45 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sand and lenses
content of small quartz pebbles ranges from 0 to 5 of sandy loam; single grain; nonstick; about 1 per-
percent by volume in the lower part of a few pedons. cent organic matter (estimated); mildly alkaline.
The Al l horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, Reaction before drying ranges from neutral to moder-
and chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 3 to 6 inches in ately alkaline; after air drying for 30 days or more it
thickness. The A12 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 becomes extremely acid. Sulfur content ranges from
to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. It ranges from 5 to 14 about 1.5 to 4.5 percent throughout the soil.
inches in thickness. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, 5Y, or 2.5Y, value of
The C horizon has hue of 10YR and 2.5Y, value of 4 2 to 4, and chroma of 2 or less. Organic matter content
to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. It has few to many mottles ranges from about 20 to 30 percent. The n value is
in shades of gray, brown, and yellow. In a few pedons greater than 1. Total thickness of the A horizon ranges
the C horizon is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and from 10 to 24 inches.
brown. The C horizon is silt loam, loam, sandy loam, The C1g horizon has hue of 10YR, 5Y, or 2.5Y, value
loamy fine sand, loamy sand, or sand, or it is stratified. of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is clay, silty
clay, sandy clay, or sandy clay loam. Thickness is 20 to
Bohicket series 50 inches.
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
Soils of the Bohicket series are fine, mixed, nonacid, chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 5Y, value of 4 or 5, and
thermic Typic Sulfaquents. These soils are level and very chroma of 1. Texture is loamy sand, sand, or sandy
poorly drained. They formed in silty and clayey marine loam. Organic matter content is less than 2 percent.
and stream sediments under conditions favorable for the Some pedons lack a IIC horizon and have a C2g
accumulation of organic matter. These soils are in the horizon or C2g and C3g horizons with color and texture
tidal marshes of the Gulf Coastal flatwoods. Slopes are of the Cig horizon to a depth of 80 inches or more.
generally less than 1 percent.
Bohicket soils are near Bibb, Chewacla, Dorovan, Bonifay series
Handsboro, Kinston, Wahee, and Pamlico soils. Bibb .
soire oinsfood plais and havmle o t 1 Soils of the Bonifay series are loamy, siliceous, ther-
soils are on flood plains and have less than 18 percent mic Grossarenic Plinthic Paleudults. These soils are
clay in the 10- to 40-inch control section. Chewacla and nearly level to gently sloping and well drained. They
Wahee soils are on higher elevations and on flood plains formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy material. These
along streams; they are somewhat poorly drained and soils are on broad or narrow ridgetops in the uplands.
contain less than 35 percent clay. Dorovan and Pamlico Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent.
soils are organic and are low in content of salt and Bonifay soils are near Albany, Dothan, Fuquay, Lake-
sulfur. Handsboro soils are organic. Kinston soils are on land, Lucy, Orangeburg, Pactolus, Tifton, and Troup
flood plains; they are poorly drained and are 18 to 35 soils. Albany soils are in low upland positions; they are
percent clay in the 20- to 40-inch control section. somewhat poorly drained, and they do not have a hori-
Bohicket soils are mapped only with Handsboro soils. zon containing more than 5 percent plinthite in the upper
Typical pedon of Bohicket clay in an area of Bohicket 60 inches. Dothan soils are on broad and narrow ridge-
and Handsboro soils in tidal marsh, approximately 100 tops and hillsides and have an A horizon less than 20
yards east of U.S. Highway 90 and 125 yards west of the inches thick. Fuquay soils are on broad and narrow rid-
junction of Escambia and East Rivers, sec. 32, T. 1 N., getops and hillsides and have a sandy A horizon 20 to
R. 29 W.: 40 inches thick. Nearly level to gently sloping Lakeland







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 61


few thin strata of fine sand in lower part; massive; Alg-0 to 15 inches; very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2)
friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary, clay; massive; slightly sticky; when squeezed in
C2g-42 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) hand, soil flows easily between fingers (estimated n
fine sand; few thin streaks of silt loam and loamy value more than 1); apparent sulphide odor; matted
fine sand; few medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) with live and dead grass roots; about 24 percent
mottles; massive; very friable; very strongly acid; organic matter (estimated); moderately alkaline;
gradual wavy boundary. gradual smooth boundary.
C3g-60 to 65 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) Clg-15 to 45 inches; dark olive gray (5Y 3/2) silty clay;
fine sand; few fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) and massive; slightly sticky; when squeezed in hand, soil
light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) mottles; single flows easily between fingers (estimated n value
grain; loose; very strongly acid. more than 1); sulphide odor present; common live
and dead grass roots; about 12 percent organic
Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid in all matter (estimated); moderately alkaline; clear
horizons. The weighted average clay content of the 10- smooth boundary.
to-40-inch control section is less than 18 percent. The IIC2g-45 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sand and lenses
content of small quartz pebbles ranges from 0 to 5 of sandy loam; single grain; nonstick; about 1 per-
percent by volume in the lower part of a few pedons. cent organic matter (estimated); mildly alkaline.
The Al l horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, Reaction before drying ranges from neutral to moder-
and chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 3 to 6 inches in ately alkaline; after air drying for 30 days or more it
thickness. The A12 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 becomes extremely acid. Sulfur content ranges from
to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. It ranges from 5 to 14 about 1.5 to 4.5 percent throughout the soil.
inches in thickness. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, 5Y, or 2.5Y, value of
The C horizon has hue of 10YR and 2.5Y, value of 4 2 to 4, and chroma of 2 or less. Organic matter content
to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. It has few to many mottles ranges from about 20 to 30 percent. The n value is
in shades of gray, brown, and yellow. In a few pedons greater than 1. Total thickness of the A horizon ranges
the C horizon is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and from 10 to 24 inches.
brown. The C horizon is silt loam, loam, sandy loam, The C1g horizon has hue of 10YR, 5Y, or 2.5Y, value
loamy fine sand, loamy sand, or sand, or it is stratified. of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is clay, silty
clay, sandy clay, or sandy clay loam. Thickness is 20 to
Bohicket series 50 inches.
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
Soils of the Bohicket series are fine, mixed, nonacid, chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 5Y, value of 4 or 5, and
thermic Typic Sulfaquents. These soils are level and very chroma of 1. Texture is loamy sand, sand, or sandy
poorly drained. They formed in silty and clayey marine loam. Organic matter content is less than 2 percent.
and stream sediments under conditions favorable for the Some pedons lack a IIC horizon and have a C2g
accumulation of organic matter. These soils are in the horizon or C2g and C3g horizons with color and texture
tidal marshes of the Gulf Coastal flatwoods. Slopes are of the Cig horizon to a depth of 80 inches or more.
generally less than 1 percent.
Bohicket soils are near Bibb, Chewacla, Dorovan, Bonifay series
Handsboro, Kinston, Wahee, and Pamlico soils. Bibb .
soire oinsfood plais and havmle o t 1 Soils of the Bonifay series are loamy, siliceous, ther-
soils are on flood plains and have less than 18 percent mic Grossarenic Plinthic Paleudults. These soils are
clay in the 10- to 40-inch control section. Chewacla and nearly level to gently sloping and well drained. They
Wahee soils are on higher elevations and on flood plains formed in thick beds of sandy and loamy material. These
along streams; they are somewhat poorly drained and soils are on broad or narrow ridgetops in the uplands.
contain less than 35 percent clay. Dorovan and Pamlico Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent.
soils are organic and are low in content of salt and Bonifay soils are near Albany, Dothan, Fuquay, Lake-
sulfur. Handsboro soils are organic. Kinston soils are on land, Lucy, Orangeburg, Pactolus, Tifton, and Troup
flood plains; they are poorly drained and are 18 to 35 soils. Albany soils are in low upland positions; they are
percent clay in the 20- to 40-inch control section. somewhat poorly drained, and they do not have a hori-
Bohicket soils are mapped only with Handsboro soils. zon containing more than 5 percent plinthite in the upper
Typical pedon of Bohicket clay in an area of Bohicket 60 inches. Dothan soils are on broad and narrow ridge-
and Handsboro soils in tidal marsh, approximately 100 tops and hillsides and have an A horizon less than 20
yards east of U.S. Highway 90 and 125 yards west of the inches thick. Fuquay soils are on broad and narrow rid-
junction of Escambia and East Rivers, sec. 32, T. 1 N., getops and hillsides and have a sandy A horizon 20 to
R. 29 W.: 40 inches thick. Nearly level to gently sloping Lakeland






62 SOIL SURVEY



soils are on broad ridges and on hillsides; they do not The solum ranges from 60 inches to more than 80
have a Bt horizon above a depth of 80 inches. Lucy soils inches in thickness. Reaction is strongly acid or very
are on broad and narrow ridgetops and hillsides; they strongly acid in all horizons except in the Al or Ap
have a sandy A horizon 20 to 40 inches thick and do not horizon where the soil has been limed. Depth to a hori-
have plinthite in the Bt horizon. Orangeburg soils are on zon containing more than 5 percent plinthite generally
broad and narrow ridgetops and hillsides; they have an A ranges from 43 to 60 inches. Content of strongly ce-
horizon less than 20 inches thick and do not have plinth- mented iron oxide concretions ranges from 0 to 5 per-
ite in the Bt horizon. Pactolus soils are in low upland cent, by volume, throughout the soil.
positions; they are moderately well drained to somewhat The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
poorly drained, and they do not have a Bt horizon above 5, and chroma of 2 or 3 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5,
a depth of 80 inches. Tifton soils are on broad and and chroma of 2. It ranges from 5 to 8 inches in thick-
narrow ridgetops and hillsides; they have an A horizon ness. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7,
less than 20 inches thick and contain more than 5 per- and chroma of,3 to 8. It has mottles in shades of red,
cent strongly cemented iron concretions. Nearly level to brown, and yellow in the lower part. The A2 horizon
gently sloping Troup soils are in broad areas and on ranges from 36 to 49 inches in thickness. Uncoated
hillsides; they do not have more than 5 percent plinthite sand grains are common in this horizon and range from
above hillsides; they do not have more than 5 percent plinthite light gray to white.
above a depth of 60 inches. The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
Typical pedon of Bonifay loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent chroma of 6 to 8 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and
slopes, in a wooded area approximately 4 miles east of chroma of 6. It has mottles in shades of red, brown, and
State Highway 197 and 8 yards west of trail road, yellow. The Blt horizon ranges from 3 to 12 inches in
SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 27, T. 3 N., R. 29 W.: thickness.
A. The B2t horizon, where it has a dominant color, has
A11-0 to 4 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It
loamy sand; weak fine granular structure; very fri- has mottles in shades of brown, yellow, red, and gray. In
able; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; many pedons the B2t horizon is reticulately mottled in
clear wavy boundary. various shades of gray, brown, yellow, and red. Texture
A12-4 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) of the B2t horizon is sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
loamy sand; weak fine granular structure; very fri-
able; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid;a series
clear wavy boundary. Chewacia series
A21-6 to 30 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loamy Soils of the Chewacla series are fine-loamy, mixed,
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; thermic Fluvaquentic Dystrochrepts. These soils are
common fine and medium roots; strongly acid; grad- nearly level and somewhat poorly drained. They formed
ual wavy boundary. in loamy stream alluvium. These soils are on flood plains
A22-30 to 47 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) along stream terraces. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent
loamy sand; few medium distinct strong brown Chewacla soils are near Wahee, Riverview, Kalmia,
(7.5YR 5/6) and common medium distinct very pale and Maxton soils. Wahee soils have a finer textured
brown (10YR 7/3) mottles; common clean sand subsoil. Riverview soils are on the highest elevations of
grains; weak fine granular structure; very friable; the flood plain and are well drained. Kalmia and Maxton
common fine and few medium roots; strongly acid. soils are on low terraces of larger streams, are better
B1-47 to 51 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy drained, and have a coarser textured subsoil.
loam; common medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR Chewacla soils are mapped only in association with
5/6), few medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), Riverview and Wahee soils.
few medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 4/6), and Typical pedon of Chewacla silt loam in a wooded area
few medium faint brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mot- of Chewacla-Wahee-Riverview association, approximate-
ties; weak medium subangular blocky structure; fri- ly 0.5 mile east of Escambia River and 0.2 mile south of
able; few fine roots; estimated 4 percent firm brittle tate W.:Highway 4 SW/4SE/4 sec. 10, T. 5 N., R. 30
plinthite; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B2t-51 to 63 inches; mottled yellowish brown (10YR Al-0 to 7 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) silt loam;
5/6) strong brown (7.5YR 5.6), yellowish red (5YR weak medium granular structure; friable; many fine
4/6), red (2.5YR 4/6), and very pale brown (10YR roots; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
7/3) sandy loam; moderate medium subangular B1-7 to 11 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silty clay loam;
blocky structure; friable; few thin clay films on peds; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
estimated 15 percent firm brittle plinthite; strongly common fine and few medium roots; strongly acid;
acid. gradual smooth boundary.






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 63



B21-11 to 16 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) silty clay loam; Cowarts series
common fine faint grayish brown and few fine faint
brown mottles; weak fine subangular blocky struc- Soils of the Cowarts series are fine-loamy, siliceous,
ture; friable; common fine and few medium roots; thermic Typic Hapludults. These soils are sloping to
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. strongly sloping and well drained. They formed in loamy
B22-16 to 27 inches; mottled gray (10YR 5/1), grayish marine sediment. These soils are on uplands. Slopes
brown (10YR 5/2), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), range from 5 to 12 percent.
brown (10YR 5/3), and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) Cowarts soils are near Dothan, Fuquay, Orangeburg,
silty clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky Tifton, and Troup soils. Dothan and Tifton soils contain
structure; friable; few fine roots; strongly acid; gradu- more than 5 percent plinthite. Fuquay soils contain more
al smooth boundary. than 5 percent plinthite and have a sandy A horizon 20
B31-27 to 43 inches; mottled gray (10YR 5/1), grayish to 40 inches thick. Orangeburg soils have a thicker Bt
brown (10YR 5/2), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), horizon. Troup soils have a sandy A horizon 40 to 80
brown (10YR 5/3), and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) inches thick.
sandy clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky struc- Typical pedon of Cowarts loamy fine sand, in a
ture; firm; few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy wooded area of Troup-Orangeburg-Cowarts complex, 5
boundary. to 12 percent slopes, approximately 0.1 mile east of
B32-43 to 47 inches; mottled gray (10YR 6/1), yellow- Highway 89 and 0.4 mile north of trail road,
ish brown (10YR 5/4), and strong brown (7.5YR NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 25, T. 6 N., R. 29 W.:
5/6) sandy loam; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable; strongly acid; gradual wavy bound- All11-0 to 3 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
ary. loamy fine sand; weak medium granular structure;
C1-47 to 50 inches; mottled gray (10YR 6/1), yellowish very friable; many fine roots; strongly acid; gradual
brown (10YR 5/4), and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) smooth boundary.
loamy sand; single grain; loose; strongly acid; gradu- A12-3 to 6 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) loamy fine
al wavy boundary. sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable;
C2-50 to 63 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single many fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
grain; loose; strongly acid. B1-6 to 9 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
sandy loam; weak medium granular structure; friable;
The solum ranges from 36 to 72 inches in thickness. many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear
Reaction is medium acid to strongly acid in all horizons, wavy boundary.
Content of mica flakes ranges from none to few. B21t-9 to 18 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky struc-
chroma of 2 to 4 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3 to 5, and ture; friable; common fine and medium roots; sand
chroma of 2 to 4. It ranges from 4 to 8 inches in thick- grains coated and bridged with clay; strongly acid;
ness. clear wavy boundary.
The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and B22t-18 to 23 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy
chroma of 3 or 4. It ranges from 4 to 7 inches in thick- clay loam; common medium distinct red (2.5YR 4/8)
ness. The texture is silt loam, loam, or silty clay loam. and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; moderate
The B2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine
chroma of 2 to 6. It has few to common mottles in roots; thin patchy clay films on peds; sand grains
shades of gray, yellow, red, and brown. The lower part of coated and bridged with clay; strongly acid; clear
the B2 horizon is generally mottled in shades of brown, wavy boundary.
yellow, gray, and red. Texture is loam, silt loam, sandy C-23 to 60 inches; mottled red (2.5YR 4/6), yellowish
clay loam, silty clay loam, and clay loam. Depth to gray brown (10YR 5/6), brownish yellow (10YR 6/6),
mottles is less than 24 inches. Weighted average clay strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8), and light brownish
content of the B horizon is 18 to 35 percent. gray (10YR 6/2) sandy clay loam; pockets of
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and coarser and finer textured material; massive; firm;
chroma of 2 to 6. It has few to common mottles in strongly acid.
shades of gray, yellow, red, and brown. This horizon is
generally mottled in shades of brown, yellow, gray, and The solum ranges from 20 to 40 inches in thickness.
red. Texture of the B3 horizon is sandy loam, loam, The soil is strongly acid or very strongly acid.
sandy clay loam, or silt loam. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
The C horizon commonly is mottled in various shades chroma of 2 or 3. Thickness ranges from 4 to 6 inches.
of gray, yellow, and brown, or it has hue of 10YR, value The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 2.5Y,
of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2 or 3. Texture is sandy loam, value of 5, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is sandy loam, fine
loamy sand, or sand. sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.






64 SOIL SURVEY



The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5Y, value of 5 or The organic material is more than 51 inches thick. In
6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It has mottles in shades of many areas sand is at a depth of 51 to 80 inches.
yellow, red, and brown in the lower part. Texture of the Reaction is less than 4.5 in calcium chloride.
Bt horizon is commonly sandy clay loam but ranges to The Oa layer has hue of 10YR or 5YR or is neutral;
sandy clay in the lower part. Content of nodules of and it has value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 2 or less. Fiber
plinthite ranges from 0 to 5 percent. Thickness ranges content in the organic horizons is usually less than 30
from 12 to 25 inches. percent unrubbed and less than 5 percent rubbed.
The C horizon is mottled. The mottles have hue of The IIC horizon, where present, is sand of various
10YR, 7.5YR, 5YR, and 2.5YR, values of 4 to 7, and shades of gray and brown.
chroma of 2 through 8. Texture ranges from loamy sand
to sandy clay. Pockets of coarser or finer material are Dothan series
commonly present.
Soils of the Dothan series are fine-loamy, siliceous,
Dooan seies thermic Plinthic Paleudults. These soils are nearly level
Dorovan series to sloping and well drained. They formed in thick beds of
Soils of the Dorovan series are dysic, thermic Typic unconsolidated loamy marine deposits. These soils are
Medisaprists. These soils are very poorly drained and on broad and narrow ridgetops and side slopes in the
organic. They formed by the decomposition of woody uplands. Slopes range from 0 to 12 percent.
and herbaceous plant remains. These soils are on flood Dothan soils are near the Escambia, Esto, Fuquay,
plains of major streams and in large hardwood swamps Orangeburg, and Tifton soils. Escambia soils are in lower
of the Coastal Plain. Water is at or near the surface lying areas and are somewhat poorly drained. Esto soils
throughout the year. Slopes are less than 2 percent. are on small knolls and ridges and are more than 35
Dorovan soils are near Bibb, Chewacla, Handsboro, percent clay in the Bt horizon. Fuquay soils are on broad
Wahee, Pactolus, Pamlico, Pickney, Riverview, and Rut- and narrow ridges and hillsides and have a thicker A
lege soils. Bibb, Chewacla, Wahee, Pactolus, Pickney, horizon. Orangeburg soils are on broad and narrow
Riverview, and Rutlege soils are mineral soils. Pamlico ridges and hillsides; they have a red subsoil and do not
soils have thinner organic material. Handsboro soils have have a horizon that is more than 5 percent plinthite
high sulfur content above a depth of 40 inches. above a depth of 60 inches. Tifton soils have more than
Typical pedon of Dorovan muck in a wooded area of 5 percent ironstone pebbles in the A horizon and the
Dorovan-Pamlico association, approximately 30 yards upper part of the B horizon.
Typical pedon of Dothan fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 per-
north of U. S. Highway 90 and near center of low swamp cent slopes, in a forested area approximately 85 yards
along highway, SE1/4E1/4 sec. 8, T. 1 N., R. 28 W.: east of State Highway 191 and 25 yards south of trail
Oal-0 to 1 inch; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) muck; road, SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 34, T. 4 N., R. 27 W.:
about 10 percent fiber, less than 4 percent rubbed; Al1-0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
moderate coarse granular structure; nonsticky; many sandy loam; weak medium granular structure; very
fine and common medium roots; sodium pyrophos- friable; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid;
phate extract is dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4); clear smooth boundary.
very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. B1-6 to 14 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) fine
Oa2-1 to 15 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; about 4 sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky struc-
percent fiber, less than 2 percent rubbed; weak ture; friable; many fine and few medium roots;
coarse granular structure; nonsticky; common fine strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
and medium roots; sodium pyrophosphate extract is B21t-14 to 30 inches; yellowish brown (IOYR 5/8)
reddish brown (5YR 4/3); very strongly acid; clear sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
smooth boundary. structure; friable; many fine roots; thin clay films on
Oa3-15 to 55 inches; black (N 2/) muck; about 8 per- peds; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
cent fiber, less than 3 percent rubbed; massive; B22t-30 to 43 inches; brownish yellow (O10YR 6/8)
slightly sticky; common fine and medium roots; sandy clay loam; common medium distinct red
sodium pyrophosphate extract is brown (10YR 4/3); (2.5YR 4/8) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles;
very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
Oa4-55 to 63 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) few fine roots; thin clay films on peds; about 6
muck; about 5 percent fiber, less than 2 percent percent plinthite; strongly acid; gradual smooth
rubbed; massive; slightly sticky; about 48 percent boundary.
mineral content; few fine and medium roots; sodium B23t-43 to 60 inches; mottled brownish yellow (O10YR
pyrophosphate extract is brown (10YR 4/3); very 6/6), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), very pale brown
strongly acid. (10YR 7/4), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), and red






64 SOIL SURVEY



The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5Y, value of 5 or The organic material is more than 51 inches thick. In
6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It has mottles in shades of many areas sand is at a depth of 51 to 80 inches.
yellow, red, and brown in the lower part. Texture of the Reaction is less than 4.5 in calcium chloride.
Bt horizon is commonly sandy clay loam but ranges to The Oa layer has hue of 10YR or 5YR or is neutral;
sandy clay in the lower part. Content of nodules of and it has value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 2 or less. Fiber
plinthite ranges from 0 to 5 percent. Thickness ranges content in the organic horizons is usually less than 30
from 12 to 25 inches. percent unrubbed and less than 5 percent rubbed.
The C horizon is mottled. The mottles have hue of The IIC horizon, where present, is sand of various
10YR, 7.5YR, 5YR, and 2.5YR, values of 4 to 7, and shades of gray and brown.
chroma of 2 through 8. Texture ranges from loamy sand
to sandy clay. Pockets of coarser or finer material are Dothan series
commonly present.
Soils of the Dothan series are fine-loamy, siliceous,
Dooan seies thermic Plinthic Paleudults. These soils are nearly level
Dorovan series to sloping and well drained. They formed in thick beds of
Soils of the Dorovan series are dysic, thermic Typic unconsolidated loamy marine deposits. These soils are
Medisaprists. These soils are very poorly drained and on broad and narrow ridgetops and side slopes in the
organic. They formed by the decomposition of woody uplands. Slopes range from 0 to 12 percent.
and herbaceous plant remains. These soils are on flood Dothan soils are near the Escambia, Esto, Fuquay,
plains of major streams and in large hardwood swamps Orangeburg, and Tifton soils. Escambia soils are in lower
of the Coastal Plain. Water is at or near the surface lying areas and are somewhat poorly drained. Esto soils
throughout the year. Slopes are less than 2 percent. are on small knolls and ridges and are more than 35
Dorovan soils are near Bibb, Chewacla, Handsboro, percent clay in the Bt horizon. Fuquay soils are on broad
Wahee, Pactolus, Pamlico, Pickney, Riverview, and Rut- and narrow ridges and hillsides and have a thicker A
lege soils. Bibb, Chewacla, Wahee, Pactolus, Pickney, horizon. Orangeburg soils are on broad and narrow
Riverview, and Rutlege soils are mineral soils. Pamlico ridges and hillsides; they have a red subsoil and do not
soils have thinner organic material. Handsboro soils have have a horizon that is more than 5 percent plinthite
high sulfur content above a depth of 40 inches. above a depth of 60 inches. Tifton soils have more than
Typical pedon of Dorovan muck in a wooded area of 5 percent ironstone pebbles in the A horizon and the
Dorovan-Pamlico association, approximately 30 yards upper part of the B horizon.
Typical pedon of Dothan fine sandy loam, 2 to 5 per-
north of U. S. Highway 90 and near center of low swamp cent slopes, in a forested area approximately 85 yards
along highway, SE1/4E1/4 sec. 8, T. 1 N., R. 28 W.: east of State Highway 191 and 25 yards south of trail
Oal-0 to 1 inch; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) muck; road, SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 34, T. 4 N., R. 27 W.:
about 10 percent fiber, less than 4 percent rubbed; Al1-0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
moderate coarse granular structure; nonsticky; many sandy loam; weak medium granular structure; very
fine and common medium roots; sodium pyrophos- friable; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid;
phate extract is dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4); clear smooth boundary.
very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. B1-6 to 14 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) fine
Oa2-1 to 15 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; about 4 sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky struc-
percent fiber, less than 2 percent rubbed; weak ture; friable; many fine and few medium roots;
coarse granular structure; nonsticky; common fine strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
and medium roots; sodium pyrophosphate extract is B21t-14 to 30 inches; yellowish brown (IOYR 5/8)
reddish brown (5YR 4/3); very strongly acid; clear sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
smooth boundary. structure; friable; many fine roots; thin clay films on
Oa3-15 to 55 inches; black (N 2/) muck; about 8 per- peds; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
cent fiber, less than 3 percent rubbed; massive; B22t-30 to 43 inches; brownish yellow (O10YR 6/8)
slightly sticky; common fine and medium roots; sandy clay loam; common medium distinct red
sodium pyrophosphate extract is brown (10YR 4/3); (2.5YR 4/8) and strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles;
very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
Oa4-55 to 63 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) few fine roots; thin clay films on peds; about 6
muck; about 5 percent fiber, less than 2 percent percent plinthite; strongly acid; gradual smooth
rubbed; massive; slightly sticky; about 48 percent boundary.
mineral content; few fine and medium roots; sodium B23t-43 to 60 inches; mottled brownish yellow (O10YR
pyrophosphate extract is brown (10YR 4/3); very 6/6), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), very pale brown
strongly acid. (10YR 7/4), strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), and red







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 65



(2.5YR 4/8) sandy clay; weak medium subangular miles north of State Highway 191 and 100 yards west of
blocky structure; friable; slightly sticky; thin clay films paved road, NW1/4NW1/4 sec. 13, T. 2 N., R. 29 W.:
on peds; approximately 10 percent brittle plinthite;
strongly acid. A1-0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sandy
loam; moderate medium granular structure; very fri-
The solum ranges from 60 to more than 80 inches in able; many fine and common medium roots; strongly
thickness. Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid acid; clear smooth boundary.
throughout the profile except in the A horizon where the A3-7 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sandy loam;
soil has been limed. Depth to a horizon that contains common medium distinct splotches of very dark gray
more than 5 percent plinthite ranges from 24 to 60 (10YR 3/1) along root channels; weak medium
inches. Content of strongly cemented iron oxide concre- granular structure; very friable; common fine and few
tion ranges from 0 to 5 percent, by volume, throughout medium roots; strongly acid; gradual smooth bound-
the soil. ary.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value Bl-10 to 14 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
of 3 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 4. It ranges from 3 to 9 sandy loam; few fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR
inches in thickness. Some pedons have an A2 horizon 5/6) mottles; weak medium granular structure; very
with hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of friable; common fine and few medium roots; sand
2 to 6. The A2 horizon, where present, ranges from 3 to grains coated and bridged with clay; strongly acid;
10 inches in thickness. The A horizon is 5 to 19 inches gradual smooth boundary.
thick. B21t-14 to 19 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 or sandy loam; common medium distinct strong brown
6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It generally ranges from 3 to 11 (7.5YR 5/6), few fine faint yellowish brown, and
inches in thickness. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy common medium distinct dark red (2.5YR 3/6) mot-
loam, or sandy clay loam. tles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; fri-
The B21t and B22t horizons have hue of 10YR, able; common fine and few medium roots; sand
7.5YR, or 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 6 or 8. grains coated and bridged with clay; estimated 3
The B22t horizon has mottles in shades of yellow, percent, by volume, firm brittle nonindurated plinth-
brown, or red. Texture is sandy clay loam. The B23t ite; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
horizon has mottles with hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, and B22t-19 to 37 inches; mottled light brownish gray
2.5YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 4 to 8. The lower (10YR 6/2) pale brown (10YR 6/3), brownish yellow
part of the B2t horizon has 5 to 10 percent, by volume, (10YR 6/6), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), strong
firm or brittle plinthite. The texture of the B23t horizon brown (7.5YR 5/6), dark red (2.5YR 3/6), and red
ranes from sand cla loam to sand cla (2.5YR 4/6) fine sandy loam; moderate medium su-
ranges from sandy clay loam to sandy clay. bangular blocky structure; friable; common fine
roots; few clay films on peds; estimated 15 percent,
Escambia series by volume, firm brittle nonindurated plinthite; strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Soils of the Escambia series are coarse-loamy, sili- B23t-37 to 65 inches; mottled light gray (10YR 6/1)
ceous, thermic, Plinthaquic Paleudults. These soils are and (10YR 7/1) brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), strong
nearly level and somewhat poorly drained. They formed brown (7.5YR 5/6), and red (2.5YR 4/6) fine sandy
in loamy marine deposits. These soils are along narrow loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; fri-
drainageways, around depressions, and on low flats be- able; few clay films on peds; estimated 5 percent, by
tween small streams in the uplands. Slopes range from 0 volume, firm brittle nonindurated plinthite; strongly
to 2 percent. firm brittle i rte acid
Escambia soils are near Dothan, Fuquay, Lynchburg,
and Rains soils. Dothan soils are on broad and narrow The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction
ridgetops and hillsides and are better drained. Fuquay ranges from strongly acid to very strongly acid in all
soils are on broad and narrow ridgetops and hillsides, horizons except where the soil has been limed. Depth to
have an A horizon more than 20 inches thick, and are a horizon with more than 5 percent plinthite ranges from
better drained. Lynchburg soils have more than 18 per- 20 to 42 inches.
cent clay in the upper 20 inches of the B horizon and do The Ap or Al horizon has hue of 10YR, values of 3 or
not have more than 5 percent plinthite in the Bt horizon. 4, and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral and has value of 2.
Rains soils are in ponded or low lying positions on up- It ranges from 3 to 8 inches in thickness. The A3 hori-
lands, are more poorly drained, and do not have more zon, where present, has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4
than 5 percent plinthite on the Bt horizon, or 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. It ranges from 3 to 9 inches
Typical pedon of Escambia fine sandy loam, 0 to 2 in thickness. The A3 horizon is sandy loam, fine sandy
percent slopes, in a wooded area, approximately 0.75 loam, or loam.







66 SOIL SURVEY



The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 or able; common fine and few medium roots; strongly
6, and chroma of 4 to 6. It has few to common mottles acid; gradual smooth boundary.
in shades of gray, brown, and yellow. The texture is fine B21t-12 to 16 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) clay;
sandy loam or sandy loam. It ranges from 4 to 12 inches few fine faint strong brown mottles; moderate
in thickness. medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
The B21t horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 common fine and few medium roots; few thin clay
or 6, and chroma of 4 to 6. It has few to common films on peds; strongly acid; gradual smooth bound-
mottles in shades of red, brown, yellow, and gray. It ary.
ranges from 5 to 15 inches in thickness. The B22t hori- B22t-16 to 24 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) clay;
zon and B23t horizon are recticulately mottled in various common fine faint yellowish brown and few fine dis-
shades of red, brown, yellow, and gray. Texture of the Bt tinct yellowish red (5YR 5/8) and red (2.5YR 4/6)
horizon is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The upper mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky struc-
10 inches of the Bt horizon has gray mottles with ture; firm, slightly sticky and slightly plastic; few fine
chroma of 2 or less. The mottles increase in size and and medium roots; patchy clay films on peds;
intensity with depth. The upper 20 inches of the B hori- strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
zon has less than 18 percent clay and more than 20 B23t-24 to 34 inches; mottled brownish yellow (10YR
percent silt. 6/6), yellowish brown (10YR 5/8), light gray (10YR
7/1), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), yellowish red (5YR
Esto series 5/8), and red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; weak medium su-
Soils of the Esto series are clayey, kaolinitic, thermic bangular blocky structure; firm, slightly sticky and
Typic Paleudults. These soils are gently sloping to slop- slightly plastic; few fine and medium roots; patchy
ing and well drained. They formed in clay and sandy clay clay films on peds; strongly acid; gradual smooth
material common to the Coastal Plain. These soils are boundary.
on knolls, short choppy side slopes, and ridge crests in B24t-34 to 61 inches; mottled brownish yellow (10YR
the uplands. Slopes range from 2 to 8 percent. 6/8), light gray (10YR 7/1), strong brown (7.5YR
Esto soils are near Dothan, Fuquay, Lucy, Orangeburg, 5/8), and red (2.5YR 4/6) clay; weak medium su-
and Tifton soils. Dothan soils are on broad and narrow bangular blocky structure; firm; patchy clay films on
ridgetops and hillsides and have a Bt horizon that is less peds; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
than 35 percent clay and more than 5 percent plinthite Cg-61 to 78 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) day;
above a depth of 60 inches. Fuquay soils are on broad common medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR
and narrow ridgetops and hillsides and have a thicker A 6/8), common fine distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
horizon, contain more than 5 percent plinthite, and have and yellowish red (5YR 5/8), and few medium dis-
less than 35 percent clay in the Bt horizon. Lucy soils tinct red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles; massive; firm; strongly
are on broad and narrow ridgetops and hillsides and acid.
have a thicker A horizon and less clay in the Bt horizon.
Orangeburg soils are on broad and narrow ridgetops and The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction is
hillsides and have a Bt horizon that is less than 35 strongly acid or very strongly acid in all horizons.
percent clay. Tifton soils are on broad and narrow ridge- The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
tops and hillsides and have a Bt horizon that is less than 5, and chroma of 2. It ranges from 3 to 5 inches in
35 percent clay and more than 5 percent plinthite above thickness. The A2 horizon, where present, has hue of
a depth of 60 inches. 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. It ranges
Typical pedon of Esto loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, in from 3 to 6 inches in thickness.
a wooded area approximately 1.6 miles south of State The B1 horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR and
Highway 4 and 10 yards north of trail road, SW1/4SE1/4 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It ranges
sec. 22, T. 4 N., R. 26 W.: from 3 to 6 inches in thickness. The texture is clay loam
A1-0 to 4 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) or sandy clay loam.
loam; moderate medium granular structure; friable; The B21t and B22t horizons have hue of 10YR, 5YR,
many fine and common medium roots; strongly acid; and 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It has
gradual smooth boundary. mottles in shades of brown, yellow, and red. In some
A2-4 to 7 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loam; pedons the B21t and B22t horizons lack a matrix color
weak medium granular structure; friable; many fine and are mottled in shades of gray, brown, yellow, and
and common medium roots; strongly acid; gradual red. The B23t and B24t horizons are highly mottled in
smooth boundary. various shades of gray, brown, yellow, and red. The Bt
B1-7 to 12 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) clay horizon is dominantly clay but in place is clay loam and
loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; fri- sandy clay. It extends to a depth of more than 60 inches.







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 67



The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7, and B22t-43 to 59 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
chroma of 1. It has mottles in shades of brown, yellow, sandy clay loam; common medium distinct strong
and red. brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium su-
bangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; es-
timated 10 percent, by volume, hard brittle nonindur-
uquay series ated plinthite; few small iron concretions; thin patchy
Soils of the Fuquay series are loamy, siliceous, thermic clay films on peds; strongly acid; gradual smooth
Arenic Plinthic Paleudults. These soils are nearly level to boundary.
sloping, and well drained. They formed in sandy and B3-59 to 80 inches; mottled brownish yellow (10YR
loamy marine sediments of the Coastal Plain. These 6/6), light gray (10YR 7/1), strong brown (7.5YR
soils are on broad and narrow ridgetops and on hillsides 5/6), light reddish brown (5YR 6/4), red (2.5YR
in the uplands. Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent. 4/8), and light red (2.5YR 6/8) sandy loam; weak
Fuquay soils are near Bonifay, Dothan, Lucy, Orange- medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few
burg, Tifton, and Troup soils. Bonifay soils are on broad medium iron concretions; strongly acid.
and narrow ridgetops and have a sandy A horizon more
than 40 inches thick. Dothan soils are on broad and The solum is more than 80 inches thick. Reaction is
narrow ridgetops and hillsides and have an A horizon medium acid to very strongly acid in all horizons except
less than 20 inches thick. Lucy soils are on broad and in the A horizon where the soil has been limed. Depth to
narrow ridgetops and hillsides and do not have a Bt a horizon containing more than 5 percent plinthite gener-
horizon that is more than 5 percent plinthite. Orangeburg ally ranges from 38 to 60 inches. Strongly cemented iron
soils are on broad and narrow ridgetops and hillsides, oxide concretions range from 0 to 5 percent, by volume,
have an A horizon less than 20 inches thick, and do not throughout the soil.
have plinthite in the Bt horizon. Tifton soils are on broad The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value
and narrow ridgetops and hillsides, have an A horizon of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 to 3. It ranges from 4 to 9
less than 20 inches thick, and contain more than 5 inches in thickness. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR or
percent strongly cemented iron concretions. Troup soils 2.5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 6. The A
are in broad, nearly level to gently sloping areas and on horizon ranges from 20 to 40 inches in thickness.
hillsides, have a sandy A horizon more than 40 inches The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 5
thick, and do not have plinthite in the Bt horizon. or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Texture is sandy loam or
Typical pedon of Fuquay loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent sandy clay loam. Thickness ranges from 4 to 11 inches.
slopes, in a wooded area approximately 0.5 mile west of The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 5
State Highway 87A, NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 13, T. 2 N., R. 28 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Most pedons have few to
W.: common mottles in shades of brown, yellow, and red.
Texture is dominantly sandy clay loam but in places
A11-0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) ranges to sandy loam in the upper part.
loamy sand; weak medium granular structure; very The B3 horizon, where present, has mottles with hue
friable; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8;
gradual smooth boundary. hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6 through 8; or
A12-4 to 7 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) loamy sand; hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 to 8.
weak medium granular structure; very friable; many Texture ranges from sandy loam to sandy clay loam.
fine and medium roots; strongly acid; gradual
smooth boundary. Garcon series
A2-7 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loamy
sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable; Soils of the Garcon series are loamy, siliceous, ther-
common fine and medium roots; strongly acid; grad- mic Arenic Hapludults. These soils are nearly level and
ual smooth boundary. somewhat poorly drained. They formed in loamy acid
B1-26 to 37 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine marine sediment. These soils are at low positions in the
sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky struc- flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
ture; friable; few fine and medium roots; strongly Garcon soils are near Albany, Mulat, Pactolus, and
acid; gradual smooth boundary. Rains soils. Albany soils have a solum more than 60
B21t-37 to 43 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine inches thick. Mulat soils are poorly drained. Pactolus
sandy loam; few medium distinct strong brown soils do not have a Bt horizon and have sandy horizons
(7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak medium subangular 80 inches or more thick. Rains soils have an argillic
blocky structure; friable; few fine and medium roots; horizon that extends from a depth between 10 and 20
estimated 2 percent, by volume, hard brittle nonin- inches to a depth of more than 60 inches.
durated plinthite; thin patchy clay films on peds; Typical pedon of Garcon loamy fine sand, approxi-
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. mately 2 miles south of the intersection of Interstate 10







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 67



The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7, and B22t-43 to 59 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
chroma of 1. It has mottles in shades of brown, yellow, sandy clay loam; common medium distinct strong
and red. brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium su-
bangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; es-
timated 10 percent, by volume, hard brittle nonindur-
uquay series ated plinthite; few small iron concretions; thin patchy
Soils of the Fuquay series are loamy, siliceous, thermic clay films on peds; strongly acid; gradual smooth
Arenic Plinthic Paleudults. These soils are nearly level to boundary.
sloping, and well drained. They formed in sandy and B3-59 to 80 inches; mottled brownish yellow (10YR
loamy marine sediments of the Coastal Plain. These 6/6), light gray (10YR 7/1), strong brown (7.5YR
soils are on broad and narrow ridgetops and on hillsides 5/6), light reddish brown (5YR 6/4), red (2.5YR
in the uplands. Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent. 4/8), and light red (2.5YR 6/8) sandy loam; weak
Fuquay soils are near Bonifay, Dothan, Lucy, Orange- medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few
burg, Tifton, and Troup soils. Bonifay soils are on broad medium iron concretions; strongly acid.
and narrow ridgetops and have a sandy A horizon more
than 40 inches thick. Dothan soils are on broad and The solum is more than 80 inches thick. Reaction is
narrow ridgetops and hillsides and have an A horizon medium acid to very strongly acid in all horizons except
less than 20 inches thick. Lucy soils are on broad and in the A horizon where the soil has been limed. Depth to
narrow ridgetops and hillsides and do not have a Bt a horizon containing more than 5 percent plinthite gener-
horizon that is more than 5 percent plinthite. Orangeburg ally ranges from 38 to 60 inches. Strongly cemented iron
soils are on broad and narrow ridgetops and hillsides, oxide concretions range from 0 to 5 percent, by volume,
have an A horizon less than 20 inches thick, and do not throughout the soil.
have plinthite in the Bt horizon. Tifton soils are on broad The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value
and narrow ridgetops and hillsides, have an A horizon of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 to 3. It ranges from 4 to 9
less than 20 inches thick, and contain more than 5 inches in thickness. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR or
percent strongly cemented iron concretions. Troup soils 2.5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 6. The A
are in broad, nearly level to gently sloping areas and on horizon ranges from 20 to 40 inches in thickness.
hillsides, have a sandy A horizon more than 40 inches The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 5
thick, and do not have plinthite in the Bt horizon. or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Texture is sandy loam or
Typical pedon of Fuquay loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent sandy clay loam. Thickness ranges from 4 to 11 inches.
slopes, in a wooded area approximately 0.5 mile west of The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 5
State Highway 87A, NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 13, T. 2 N., R. 28 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Most pedons have few to
W.: common mottles in shades of brown, yellow, and red.
Texture is dominantly sandy clay loam but in places
A11-0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) ranges to sandy loam in the upper part.
loamy sand; weak medium granular structure; very The B3 horizon, where present, has mottles with hue
friable; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8;
gradual smooth boundary. hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma of 6 through 8; or
A12-4 to 7 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) loamy sand; hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1 to 8.
weak medium granular structure; very friable; many Texture ranges from sandy loam to sandy clay loam.
fine and medium roots; strongly acid; gradual
smooth boundary. Garcon series
A2-7 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loamy
sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable; Soils of the Garcon series are loamy, siliceous, ther-
common fine and medium roots; strongly acid; grad- mic Arenic Hapludults. These soils are nearly level and
ual smooth boundary. somewhat poorly drained. They formed in loamy acid
B1-26 to 37 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine marine sediment. These soils are at low positions in the
sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky struc- flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
ture; friable; few fine and medium roots; strongly Garcon soils are near Albany, Mulat, Pactolus, and
acid; gradual smooth boundary. Rains soils. Albany soils have a solum more than 60
B21t-37 to 43 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine inches thick. Mulat soils are poorly drained. Pactolus
sandy loam; few medium distinct strong brown soils do not have a Bt horizon and have sandy horizons
(7.5YR 5/8) mottles; weak medium subangular 80 inches or more thick. Rains soils have an argillic
blocky structure; friable; few fine and medium roots; horizon that extends from a depth between 10 and 20
estimated 2 percent, by volume, hard brittle nonin- inches to a depth of more than 60 inches.
durated plinthite; thin patchy clay films on peds; Typical pedon of Garcon loamy fine sand, approxi-
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. mately 2 miles south of the intersection of Interstate 10







68 SOIL SURVEY



and State Highway 281 and 0.5 mile east of Highway The All horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4 and
281, SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 14, T. 1 S., R. 28 W.: chroma of 1 or 2. The A12 horizon has hue of 10YR,
value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. The A2 horizon
A11-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 6
fine sand; weak medium granular structure; very fri- or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and chroma of 4. Mottles in
able; many fine and common medium roots; strongly shades of brown, yellow, and gray are in the lower part
acid; gradual wavy boundary. of the A2 horizon. Texture is loamy fine sand, loamy
A12-4 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand, fine sand, or sand.
loamy fine sand; weak medium granular structure; The B21t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
very friable; many fine and common medium roots; and chroma of 4 to 6 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6,
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. and chroma of 6 to 8 mostly on ped surfaces. It has
A21-8 to 20 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loamy medium to coarse mottles of light brownish gray, brown-
fine sand; single grain; loose; common fine roots; ish yellow, gray, light gray, yellowish brown, pale brown,
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. or brown. This horizon is sandy loam or fine sandy loam.
A22-20 to 31 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) The B22t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
loamy fine sand; few fine distinct light brownish gray and chroma of 1. It has fine to coarse mottles of light
(10YR 6/2) and few fine faint yellowish brown gray, strong brown, yellowish brown, reddish brown,
(10YR 5/6) mottles; single grain; loose; strongly brownish yellow, yellowish red, or red. The silt content is
acid; gradual wavy boundary. less than 20 percent. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy
B21t-31 to 39 inches; fine sandy loam, yellowish brown loam, or sandy clay loam. Weighted average clay con-
(10YR 5/4), mostly on ped surfaces; common tent in the upper 20 inches of the argillic horizon is less
medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) and than 18 percent. In some pedons, the lower part of the
light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and few medium B2t horizon is as much as 21 percent clay.
distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3) and brown (7.5YR The B3 horizon has the same color range as the B22t
4/4) mottles, mostly within peds; weak medium su- horizon. Texture is loamy sand or loamy fine sand.
bangular blocky structure; friable; sand grains The C1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and
bridged and coated with clay; strongly acid; gradual chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral and has value of 6 and
smooth boundary. chroma of 1. It has mottles in shades of red, brown,
B22t-39 to 51 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sandy loam; yellow, and gray. In most pedons, these mottles are fine
common medium distinct reddish brown (5YR 5/4) to medium in size. Texture is sand or fine sand.
and common medium prominent red (2.5YR 4/6) The IIC2 horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 5, and
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; chroma of 8; hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma
slightly sticky; sand grains bridged and coated with of 1 or 2; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma
clay; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. of 2. Common and few mottles of red, strong brown,
B3-51 to 58 inches; loamy fine sand; common medium brownih gray, and yellowish brown are fine and medum
distinct gray (10YR 6/1), pale brown (10YR 6/3), in size. Texture is sand or fine sand.
yellowish brown, (10YR 5/6), and strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6) and few medium distinct yellowish red Handsboro series
(5YR 5/6) mottles; single grain; nonsticky; few mica Soils of the Handsboro series are euic, thermic Typic
flakes; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Sulfihemists. These soils are level and very poorly
C1-58 to 69 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; few fine drained. They formed in organic and clayey deposits.
distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), strong brown These soils are in tidal marshes. Slopes are less than 1
(7.5YR 5/6), and light reddish brown (5YR 6/4) mot- percent.
ties, common medium faint light brownish gray Handsboro soils are near Bohicket soils. Bohicket soils
(10YR 6/2) mottles; single grain; nonsticky; few are more clayey in the upper part.
mica flakes; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Typical pedon of Handsboro muck in an area of Bo-
C2-69 to 80 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) fine sand; hicket and Handsboro soils in tidal marsh, approximately
few fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), yel- 1,400 feet west of U.S. Highway 90 and 700 feet south
lowish brown (10YR 5/6), and red (2.5YR 5/8) and of Saultsman Bayou, SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 33, T. 1 N., R. 29
few medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mot- W.:
ties; single grain; nonsticky; few mica flakes; strong-
ly acid. Oal-0 to 20 inches; black (10YR 2/1) (rubbed and
unrubbed) muck; about 60 percent fiber, about 9
The solum ranges from 40 to 60 inches in thickness. percent rubbed; massive; slightly sticky; matted with
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to strongly acid many fine live roots; alkaline; gradual smooth bound-
throughout. ary.







SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 69



IIC1&Oa2-20 to 40 inches; stratified very dark gray ture; very friable; many fine roots; strongly acid;
(10YR 3/1) clay and muck; individual strata are gradual wavy boundary.
about 2 to 6 inches thick; massive; many fine roots; A12-5 to 9 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) fine
slightly sticky; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth sandy loam; few fine distinct root channels filled with
boundary. very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) material; weak
Oa3-40 to 64 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) (rub- medium subangular blocky structure; friable; many
bed and unrubbed) muck; about 50 percent fiber, fine and few medium roots; strongly acid; gradual
less than 5 percent rubbed; massive; slightly sticky; wavy boundary.
many fine roots; moderately alkaline; clear smooth A2-9 to 19 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4)
boundary. loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; fri-
IIC2-64 to 86 inches; dark olive gray (5Y 3/2) silty clay; able; common fine and few medium roots; strongly
common thin lenses of coarser textured material acid; gradual wavy boundary.
and clay; massive; sticky; moderately alkaline. B21t-19 to 22 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
sandy clay loam; few fine faint yellowish brown and
Sulfur content ranges from 2 to 4.5 percent. The or- few fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and
ganic material is dominantly sapric in all tiers, but some strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium
pedons contain layers of hemic material. There are thin subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine
mineral strata between depths of 12 and 51 inches, and medium roots; few clay films on peds; strongly
Combined thickness of the mineral layers is less than 16 acid; gradual wavy boundary.
inches above a depth of 32 inches. The Oa and IIC B22t-22 to 35 inches; mottled gray (10YR 6/1), yellow-
horizons are stratified and thickness of individual layers ish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6), strong brown (7.5YR
is variable. Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately 5/6), and yellowish red (5YR 5/6) sandy clay loam;
alkaline in water throughout the profile in the natural weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
state; after air drying, pH in calcium chloride is less than few clay films on peds; strongly acid; clear wavy
4.5. boundary.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and IIC1-35 to 43 inches; mottled light gray (10YR 7/1),
chroma of 1. gray (10YR 6/1), very pale brown (10YR 7/4), yel-
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, 5Y, or 2.5Y, value of lowish brown (10YR 5/6), and strong brown (7.5YR
2 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is dominantly clay or silty 5/6) stratified loamy sand and sand; pockets of
clay but commonly has thin strata of coarser material, sandy loam; massive; very friable; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
IIC2g-43 to 63 inches; mixed light gray (10YR 7/1) and
Johns series white (10YR 8/1) sand; common medium distinct
Soils of the Johns series are fine-loamy over sandy or olive yellow (2.5Y 6/6) mottles; single grain; loose;
sandy-skeletal, siliceous, thermic Aquic Hapludults. strongly acid.
These soils are nearly level and somewhat poorly The solum ranges from 20 to 40 inches in thickness.
drained to moderately well drained. They formed in Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid in all
loamy marine and fluvial deposits. These soils are on horizons except in the A horizon where the soil has been
stream terraces, primarily along the larger streams. limed. Content of mica flakes is none to few.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
Johns soils are near Kalmia, Lynchburg, and Maxton chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 3 to 5, and
soils. Kalmia soils are better drained. Lynchburg soils are chroma of 2. It ranges from 5 to 11 inches in thickness.
along drainageways, around depressions, and on low The A2 horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR, value
flats between streams; they are somewhat poorly of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 or 4 or hue of 2.5Y, value of
drained and have a solum more than 60 inches thick. 5 or 6, and chroma of 4. It ranges from 5 to 10 inches in
Maxton soils are on stream terraces along the larger thickness. The A2 horizon is loamy fine sand, fine sandy
streams; they are redder in the subsoil and are better loam, or loam.
drained. The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR and 2.5Y, value of
Typical pedon of Johns fine sandy loam in a wooded 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 6. It has few to common
area of Johns sandy loam, approximately 1.6 miles west mottles in shades of gray, brown, and yellow in a few
of State Highway 87, approximately 250 yards east of pedons. The texture is fine sandy loam or loam. This
Coldwater River, and 15 yards south of trail road, horizon ranges from 0 to 10 inches in thickness.
SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 11, T. 3 N., R. 28 W.: The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR and 2.5Y, value of 5
or 6, and chroma of 4 to 6. It has few to common
Al11-0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) mottles in shades of gray, brown, and yellow. In some
fine sandy loam; moderate medium granular struc- pedons the lower part of the B2t horizon is mottled in







70 SOIL SURVEY



various shades of gray, yellow, red, and brown. The B2t B22t-24 to 36 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
horizon ranges from 10 to 24 inches in thickness. The sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The upper structure; friable; few fine and medium roots; sand
20 inches of the B horizon is 18 to 35 percent clay. grains coated and bridged with clay; strongly acid;
The B3 horizon, where present, is similar in color to gradual smooth boundary.
the B2t horizon. It ranges from 2 to 13 inches in thick- B3-36 to 39 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) sandy
ness. Texture is fine sandy loam and contains consider- loam; few fine faint brownish yellow mottles; weak
ably less clay than the B2t horizon, fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine and
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and medium roots; strongly acid; gradual smooth bound-
chroma of 1 to 4; hue of 7.5YR, value of 6, and chroma ary.
of 8; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1. It IIC1-39 to 45 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
has few to common mottles in shades of gray, yellow, loamy sand; common medium faint brownish yellow
and brown. In some pedons the IIC horizon is mottled (10YR 6/8) mottles; weak fine granular structure;
white, brown, yellow, and gray. The texture is sand or very friable; few medium roots; strongly acid; gradual
loamy sand, and in some pedons the upper part of the smooth boundary.
IIC has pockets of sandy loam. IIC2-45 to 52 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) loamy
sand; few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
Kalmia series and common medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/1)
mottles; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
Soils of the Kalmia series are fine-loamy over sandy or strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
sandy-skeletal, siliceous, thermic Typic Hapludults. IIC3-52 to 65 inches; yellow (2.5Y 7/6) fine sand; few
These soils are gently sloping and well drained. They fine faint brownish yellow and common medium dis-
formed in loamy marine and fluvial deposits. These soils tinct light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles; single grained;
are on stream terraces, primarily along the larger loose; strongly acid.
streams in the county. Slopes range from 2 to 5 percent.
Kalmia soils are near Dothan, Johns, Lynchburg, and The solum ranges from 30 to 40 inches in thickness.
Maxton soils. Dothan soils are on broad and narrow Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid in all
ridgetops and side slopes; they have a thicker solum. horizons except in the A horizon where the soil has been
Johns soils are on stream terraces and are somewhat limed. Content of mica flakes is none to few.
poorly drained to moderately well drained. Lynchburg The Al horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 3 to
soils are along drainageways, around depressions, and 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. It ranges from 4 to 11 inches in
on low flats between streams; they are somewhat poorly thickness. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y,
drained and have a solum more than 60 inches thick. value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 6. It ranges from 4 to
Maxton soils are on stream terraces along the larger 10 inches in thickness. The texture of the A2 horizon is
streams and are redder in the subsoil. dominantly loamy fine sand but in places is loamy sand
Typical pedon of Kalmia loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 per- and fine sandy loam.
cent slopes, in a wooded area, approximately 0.25 mile The B1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
east of Coldwater Creek and 50 yards west of trail road, chroma of 4 to 8 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and chroma
SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 9, T. 2 N., R. 27 W.: of 4. It ranges from 2 to 6 inches in thickness. Texture is
fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
A1-0 to 4 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) loamy The B2t horizon commonly has hue of 10YR, value of
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 6 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5,
many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear and chroma of 6 or 8. Mottles in various shades of red,
smooth boundary. brown, and yellow are in the lower part of the Bt horizon
A2-4 to 8 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) in some pedons. The B2t horizon ranges from 11 to 22
loamy fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very inches in thickness. Texture ranges from fine sandy loam
friable; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; to sandy clay loam.
gradual smooth boundary. The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
B1-8 to 14 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) fine chroma of 4 to 8 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and
sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; chroma of 6 or 8. In some pedons this horizon has few
friable; few fine and medium roots; strongly acid; to common mottles in various shades of red, brown, and
gradual smooth boundary. yellow. The B3 horizon ranges from 3 to 11 inches in
821t-14 to 24 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) thickness. The texture ranges from fine sandy loam to
sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky sandy clay loam.
structure; friable; few fine and medium roots; sand The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
grains coated and bridged with clay; strongly acid; chroma of 2 to 8; hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma
gradual smooth boundary. of 6; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 7, and chroma of 4 to 6. In






SANTA ROSA COUNTY, FLORIDA 71



some pedons this horizon has mottles in various shades ture; firm; slightly sticky; very strongly acid; clear
of gray, brown, and yellow. Texture is sand, fine sand, or wavy boundary.
loamy sand. Clg-50 to 60 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; pock-
ets of sandy loam and loamy sand; single grain; very
Kinston series friable; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Kmnston series C2g-60 to 65 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
Soils of the Kinston series are fine-loamy, siliceous, grain; loose; very strongly acid.
acid, thermic Typic Fluvaquents. These soils are nearly The solum ranges from 40 inches to more than 60
level and poorly drained. They formed in stratified loamy inches in thickness. Reaction is strongly acid or very
fluvial deposits. These soils are on flood plains along thcknsss strongly acd or very
streams and are subject to frequent flooding. Slopes stherongly acid izon all hue orizof ns.YR, value of 2 to 4, and
range from 0 to 2 percent. chroma of 2 or less. It ranges from 3 to 9 inches in
Kinston soils are near Bibb, Dorovan, Escambia, thickness.
Johns, Kalmia, Pactolus, Pamlico, and Rutlege soils. The B horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
Bibb soils are on flood plains and have less than 18 chroma of 2 or less. The B horizon has few to common
percent clay in the 10- to 40-inch control section. Doro- mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and brown. The tex-
van and Pamlico soils are on flood plains and depres- ture is silt loam, loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, or
sions, are very poorly drained, and are organic. Escam- silty clay loam. The upper 20 inches of the B horizon is
bia soils are along drainageways, around depressions, 18 to 35 percent clay.
and on low flats between streams; they are somewhat The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
poorly drained and have more than 5 percent plinthite chroma of 1 to 3. In some pedons the C horizon has few
above a depth of 60 inches. Johns soils are on stream to common mottles in shades of gray, brown, and yellow.
terraces, primarily along the larger streams, and are The texture of the C horizon is commonly coarse sand,
somewhat poorly drained to moderately well drained, sand, fine sand, or loamy sand, but in some pedons the
Kalmia soils are also on stream terraces and are well C horizon has thin lenses or pockets of sandy loam.
drained. Nearly level to gently sloping Pactolus soils are
in low positions in the uplands; they are moderately well
drained to somewhat poorly drained. Nearly level Rut- Kureb series
lege soils are in low, flat depressions and ponded areas; Soils of the Kureb series are thermic, uncoated spodic
they have an umbric epipedon and are sandy throughout. Quartzipsamments. These soils are nearly level to slop-
Kinston soils are mapped only in association with Bibb ing, excessively drained, and sandy. They formed in
soils. marine or eolian deposits of sand more than seven feet
Typical pedon of Kinston silt loam from a wooded area thick. These soils are on gently sloping to sloping up-
of Bibb-Kinston association, approximately 5.50 miles lands of the lower Coastal Plain. Slopes range from 0 to
west of Munson, approximately 55 yards north of State 8 percent, but are mostly 0 to 5 percent; the more
Highway 4, and 330 yards west of Coldwater Creek, sloping areas are along edges of bays.
SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 5, T. 4 N., R. 27 W.: Kureb soils are near Ortega, Pactolus, Lakeland, and
SLeon soils. Ortega soils are nearly level to gently sloping,
A1-0 to 9 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) silt loam; do not have a light gray A2 horizon, and are moderately
moderate medium granular structure; friable; many well drained. Pactolus soils are nearly level to gently
fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual sloping, have chroma of 2 or less between depths of 20
wavy boundary. and 40 inches, and are seasonally wet. Nearly level to
B1g-9 to 18 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) silt loam; gently sloping Lakeland soils are on ridges and hillsides
common fine faint very dark gray (10YR 3/1) and and do not have a B horizon. Leon soils are in the lower
gray (10YR 5/1) mottles; weak medium granular lying areas, have a spodic horizon, and are poorly
structure; friable; common fine and few medium drained.
roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Typical pedon of Kureb sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes,
B21g-18 to 41 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay approximately 100 yards north of U.S. Highway 98 and
loam; few fine faint dark gray (10YR 4/1) and few 20 yards east of paved road, SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 23, T. 2
fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; S., R. 28 W.:
weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm;
slightly sticky; few fine roots; very strongly acid; A1-0 to 3 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain;
gradual wavy boundary. loose; many fine and common medium and large
B22g-41 to 50 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) roots; many uncoated sand grains give surface salt-
sandy clay loam; common medium faint gray (10YR and-pepper appearance unrubbed; strongly acid;
5/1) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky struc- gradual smooth boundary.




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