• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Seminole County in...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Soil and water features
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Seminole County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025738/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Seminole County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 164 p., 32 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1990]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Seminole County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Seminole County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 95).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 90-440-P.
General Note: "Issued March 1990"--P. iii.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025738
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001550602
notis - AHG4187
oclc - 22161574
lccn - 90601586

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Seminole County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    How this survey was made
        Page 8
        Map unit composition
            Page 9
        Use of the ground-penetrating radar
            Page 9
        Confidence limits of soil survey information
            Page 9
            Page 10
    General soil map units
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
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        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 53
        Crops and pasture
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Rangeland and grazeable woodlands
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
        Town and country planning
            Page 61
            Page 62
        Recreation
            Page 63
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 63
        Engineering
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
    Soil properties
        Page 69
        Engineering index properties
            Page 69
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 69
            Page 70
    Soil and water features
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Classification of the soils
        Page 73
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
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        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Formation of the soils
        Page 93
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 1
        Processes of horizon differentiation
            Page 94
    Reference
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Glossary
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Tables
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
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        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
    General soil map
        Page 165
    Index to map
        Page 166
        Page 167
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
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        Page 8
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Full Text

SUnited States In cooperation with
A!' Dopartmont of University of Florida, S o l Sy
. Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, C u
Soil Agricultural Experiment Stations S em i o le C o unity ,
Conservation and Soil Science Department,
Service and Florida Department of Fri
Agriculture and F lo rida
Consumer Services
























Afi










-- _
.
















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas. -


Kok: mo
To find information about -
your area of interest, 1 J 4 2 1 (
locate that area on the V~ q
Index to Map Sheets, MAP SHEET
which precedes the soil
maps. Note the number of 1, 79 ..o .
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet. INDEX TO MAP SHEETS

WaF
Locate your area of Fa /
interest on the map BaC AsB
sheet. Note the map unit Bac
symbols that are in that
area. Turn to the Index -
to Map Units (see Con- s: AREA OF INTEREST
tents), which lists the map NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
units by symbol and survey may consist only of numbers or
y sym leiiers, or they may be a combination
name and shows the of numbers ana letters.
page where each map MAP SHEET
unit is described.

The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1963. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1986. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1987. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations and Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the
Seminole County Soil and Water Conservation District. The Seminole County
Board of Commissioners contributed financially to the acceleration of the
survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.
This survey supercedes the Seminole County, Florida, soil survey published
in 1966 (13).
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: High quality recreational developments, such as this golf course in an area of
Astatula-Apopka fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, serve a rapidly expanding urban and
suburban population in Seminole County.

















ii


















Contents


Index to map units........................................................ iv Recreation .................................................................... 63
Summary of tables..................................................... v Wildlife habitat ............................................................. 63
Forew ord .................................................................... vii Engineering .................................................................. 64
General nature of the county....................................... 1 Soil properties ............................................................. 69
How this survey was made............................................ 8 Engineering index properties.................................... 69
Map unit composition................................................ 9 Physical and chemical properties.............................. 69
Use of the ground-penetrating radar......................... 9 Soil and water features.......................................... 71
Confidence limits of soil survey information............ 9 Classification of the soils.......................................... 73
General soil map units............................................... 11 Soil series and their morphology................................. 73
Detailed soil map units.............................................. 19 Formation of the soils................................................ 93
Use and management of the soils.......................... 53 Factors of soil formation........................................... 93
Crops and pasture..................................................... 53 Processes of horizon differentiation......................... 94
Woodland management and productivity ............... 56 References ................................................................... 95
Rangeland and grazeable woodlands....................... 58 Glossary .............................. ................................ 97
Town and country planning ...................................... 61 Tables .......................................................................... 105


Soil Series

Adamsville series............................................................. 73 Nittaw series .................................................................... 83
Apopka series .................................................................. 74 Okeelanta series.............................................................. 84
Astatula series ............... .................................................. 74 Paola series ................................. 84
Basinger series ........................... ..................................... 75 Pineda series ............................................................. ......... 85
Brighton series..................................................... .......... 75 Pom ello series ................................................................. 85
Canova series.................................................................. 76 Pompano series ...........................86
Delray series. .......................................Sa a ........................ 86
EauG allied series............................................................... 77 ......... ..........
Felda series .............................................................. 78 S series .................................................................. 87
Floridana series ........................................ ... Seffnerse ............................................ 87
Holopaw series .......................................................... 79 Smyrna series .................................................................. 87
Hontoon series ........................ .............. 80 Sparr series.... .......... ............... ......................... 88
Immokalee series .......................................................... 80 St. Johns series ............................................................... 89
Malabar series .......................... ....................................... 81 St. Lucie series................................................................ 89
Manatee series .......................... ...................................... 81 Tavares series ................................................................. 89
Millhopper series ...................... ..................................... 82 Terra Ceia series ............................................................. 90
Myakka series ........................ ......................................... 82 Wabasso series ............................................................... 90

Issued March 1990












iii


















Index to Map Units


2-Adamsville-Sparr fine sands................................ 19 18-Malabar fine sand .............................................. 36
3-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes.............................. 20 19-Manatee, Floridana, and Holopaw soils,
4-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 21 frequently flooded............................................... 36
5-Astatula fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes........... 22 20-Myakka and EauGallie fine sands......................... 37
6-Astatula-Apopka fine sands, 0 to 5 percent 21-Nittaw mucky fine sand, depressional.................. 39
slopes................................................................... 22 22-Nittaw muck, occasionally flooded........................ 39
7-Astatula-Apopka fine sands, 5 to 8 percent 23-Nittaw, Okeelanta, and Basinger soils,
slopes................... ........................................... 24 frequently flooded.................................................... 40
8-Astatula-Apopka fine sands, 8 to 12 percent 24-Paola-St. Lucie sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes...... 42
slopes................................................................. 25 25- Pineda fine sand...................................................... 42
9-Basinger and Delray fine sands........................... 26 26-Udorthents, excavated........................ ............ 43
10-Basinger, Samsula, and Hontoon soils, 27-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 44
depressional........................................................... 27 28-Pompano fine sand, occasionally flooded .......... 44
11-Basinger and Smyrna fine sands, depressional.. 28 29-St. Johns and EauGallie fine sands...................... 45
12-Canova and Terra Ceia mucks............................ 29 30-Seffner fine sand .................................. .......... 46
13-EauGallie and Immokalee fine sands................. 31 31-Tavares-Millhopper fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
14-Felda mucky fine sand, saline, frequently slopes....................... ................................... 47
flooded.................................................................... 32 32-Tavares-Millhopper fine sands, 5 to 8 percent
15-Felda and Manatee mucky fine sands, slopes....................... .................................. 48
depressional........................................................ 32 33-Terra Ceia muck, frequently flooded .................... 49
16-Immokalee sand.................................................... 33 34-Urban land, 0 to 12 percent slopes...................... 50
17-Brighton, Samsula, and Sanibel mucks.............. 35 35-Wabasso fine sand ............................................... 50



























iv

















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)......................................................... 106
Average composition of selected map units (table 2).................................. 107
Transects. Soils. Composition. Confidence interval.
Confidence level. Dissimilar soils. Composition.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3) ................................ 110
Acres. Percent.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 4) ............................................ 111
Oranges. Grapefruit. Corn. Cabbage. Celery. Bahiagrass.
Improved bermudagrass.
Woodland management and productivity (table 5)........................................ 114
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Rangeland productivity (table 6) ....................................................................... 122
Range site. Potential annual production for kind of
growing season- Favorable, Average, Unfavorable.
Recreational development (table 7)................................................................ 124
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 8) ..................................................................................... 128
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 9) ................................................................ 131
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 10) ................................................................................ 136
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 11)...................................................................... 141
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
Water management (table 12)........................................................................... 145
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.





v





















Engineering index properties (table 13) ......................................................... 150
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 14) ............................. 157
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.
Soil and water features (table 15).................................. ............................ 161
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.
Classification of the soils (table 16)................................... 164
Family or higher taxonomic class.































vi

















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Seminole County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are saline. Some are too
unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils
are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table
makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service














vii







































Location of Seminole County in Florida.

















Location of Seminole County in Florida.













Soil Survey

Seminole County, Florida


By Gregg W. Schellentrager and G. Wade Hurt,
Soil Conservation Service


Soils surveyed by Albert L. Furman and Horace O. White,
Soil Conservation Service


Soils recorrelated by Gregg W. Schellentrager, G. Wade Hurt,
and DeWayne Williams, Soil Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department,
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
Seminole County Soil and Water Conservation District,
and Seminole County Board of Commissioners




SEMINOLE COUNTY is in the east-central part of the development; natural resources; farming; transportation;
peninsular Florida. It is bounded on the north by the St. and recreation.
Johns River, which separates the county from Volusia
County; on the west by the Wekiva River, which Climate
separates the county from Lake County; and on the
south by Orange County. Sanford, the county seat, is on The climate of Seminole County is characterized by
the southern shore of Lake Monroe in the north-central long, warm, somewhat humid summers and by mild, dry
part of the county. winters with short, occasional freezing periods. The
The total land area, including water bodies of less than average annual rainfall, according to U. S. Weather
40 acres, is 298 square miles or 190,739 acres. In Service records, is about 51 inches, and it is seasonally
addition, approximately 30,145 acres is covered by the distributed with about 60 percent falling from June
water of many lakes or bodies of water of more than 40 through September (table 1) and about 40 percent falling
acres in size. when cold fronts move across the State.
Air from the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and
the numerous lakes in the county has a moderating
General Nature of the County effect on the temperature in both winter and summer.
The average daily maximum temperature in summer is
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that between 91 and 92 degrees Fahrenheit with the average
affect the use and management of soils in Seminole daily minimum temperature between 71 and 72 degrees.
County are discussed. These factors are climate; Once or twice a year, the temperature may reach 100
physiography, geology, and ground water; history and degrees or higher. The average daily maximum







2 Soil Survey



temperature in the winter is about 72 degrees, and the County from marine processes. The northern tip of the
average minimum temperature is about 50 degrees. The Orlando Ridge extends a few miles into Seminole County
highest temperature on most days is between 65 and 80 in the area of Altamonte Springs.
degrees, and the lowest temperature is between 40 and The Eastern Valley is generally 20 to 25 feet in
60 degrees. elevation and is characterized by a broad, flat area
Some of the cold spells in winter bring freezing through which the St. Johns River flows. Most of the
temperatures and frost. The agricultural areas in the eastern part of Seminole County is composed of this
colder parts of the county can expect freezing valley.
temperature and frost at least once each winter. In an The Wekiva Plain is a flat area in western Seminole
average winter, freezing temperatures and frost occur on County dominated by the Wekiva River. In eastern
about 8 days, and the temperature drops to 28 degrees Seminole County, the Geneva Hill is a higher area in the
Fahrenheit or lower at least two or three times in most Eastern Valley in the vicinity of Geneva.
areas that are used for agriculture. Temperatures of 20
degrees or lower are rare; however, records indicate that Geology
temperatures lower than 20 degrees occur in the colder
areas on an average of about 1 year out of 10. Cold Seminole County is underlain by a thick sequence of
spells generally last for about 2 or 3 days (16). limestone and dolostones upon which a relatively thin
In this county, precipitation for any month varies section of clastics (sand, silt, shell material, and clay)
greatly from year to year. Generally, more than half the was deposited (3). This discussion will consider only
total annual precipitation that falls during the summer those geologic formations that are normally encountered
rainy season of June through September is associated in drilling water wells in the county. Fig. 2 shows the
with tropical storms or depressions. In some years, more west to northeast and south to north cross-sections
precipitation occurs in March and in early April than the based on well log information across Seminole County.
normal average rainfall records indicate. On the average, The deepest formation normally encountered is the
November through February is considered the dry Avon Park Limestone Formation of Middle Eocene age.
season. However, in some years, it is drought from the It consists mostly of hard, brown dolostone and some
middle of April to the middle of May. Nearly all tan, granular limestone. Generally, the lower half of the
precipitation in this county falls as rain. Hail falls formation is hard dolostone, which contains many
occasionally in the spring and early in the summer, caverns and fractures. The upper half consists of cream
almost always during a thunderstorm. Snowflakes have to tan, granular limestone interbedded with very fine-
been reported, but they usually melt as they fall. grained, hard to soft dolostone. The limestone is
Prevailing winds in this area are generally southerly in composed of a mixture of very small, cone-shaped
spring and summer and northerly in fall and winter. microfossils that are usually loose to poorly cemented or
Windspeed by day is usually 8 to 15 miles per hour and friable. In Seminole County, the Avon Park Limestone
drops below 8 miles per hour at night. Formation is approximately 300 to 350 feet thick.
The Avon Park Limestone Formation is the first
Physiography, Geology, and Ground Water limestone formation encountered in some wells in the
vicinity of Geneva in northeast Seminole County. Here,
R. A. Johnson, geologist, Department of Natural Resources, Florida the overlying Ocala Limestone Formation is missing.
Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology, prepared this section. The Ocala Limestone Formation of late Eocene age is
underlain by the Avon Park Limestone Formation. It
Physiography consists of a loose to moderately well cemented mass of
Seminole County is located in the central or very small to large microfossils with much less dolostone
midpeninsular zone of Florida (18). It consists of when compared to the Avon Park Limestone. Typically,
alternating ridges and valleys with abundant lakes the Ocala Limestone contains almost pure limestone
located on both landforms. Fig. 1 shows the principal with no dolostone, although the lower few feet can be
physiographic features of the county. partly dolomitized in some areas. The Ocala Limestone
The Osceola Plain is a broad, flat area of low, local is missing in some areas around Geneva. The thickness
relief and is generally between 60 and 70 feet in of the formation is between 0 and 130 feet.
elevation. Most of the western part of the county is Overlying the Ocala Limestone is the Hawthorn Group
made up of this plain. The Orlando Ridge is an area of of Miocene age, which consists of sand, silt, and clay
higher elevation that is generally parallel to the other and some limestone or dolostone beds. Black to amber
surrounding ridges outside of Seminole County, such as grains of phosphate are very common and are
the Mount Dora Ridge to the west. It is possible that the intermixed throughout the lithologies mentioned above.
Orlando Ridge once was a part of a relic, "Cape In addition, these lithologies are typically intermixed with
Orlando," which resulted from progressive progradation each other. Very few pure, one-lithology beds are in the
that formed Cape Canaveral and False Cape in Brevard Hawthorn Group.







Seminole County, Florida 3




1 -
S WELL AND NUMBER [- WEKIVA PLAIN

CROSS SECTION LOCATION ORLANDO RIDGE

W- OSCEOLA PLAIN

S, EASTERN VALLEY
&k O GENEVA HILL
0000

Lake Montoe





15

S0~1 1 00 0O







12 6


ORANGE ::


COUNTY
Figure 1.-Physiographic features and location of cross sections of the geologic formations of Seminole County, Florida, and the
surrounding areas.



The thickness of the Hawthorn Group is between 0 sandy or clayey shell material directly overlies the
and 130 feet. It is absent north of a line passing east- Hawthorn Group with clayey sand overlying that material
southeast to west-northwest across the county from a and relatively pure sand extending from there to the
point just south of where Florida State Highway 46 surface. In the north part of the county, the sandy or
intersects the Volusia County-Seminole County line clayey shell material directly overlies the Ocala and Avon
through Lake Jessup to the intersection of Florida State Park Limestones. In some areas, mainly to the west and
Highway 46 and the Wekiva River (fig. 3). North of this south in the county, the shelly material is absent. In the
line, the limestone and dolostone section is overlain by past, these deposits have been given different
the generally nonphosphatic clastic material, which is formational names. Not enough information is available
younger than the Hawthorn Group. and the deposits have not been studied adequately to
The clastic material overlying the Hawthorn Group formally name them. They are referred to in this report
consists of sand, clay, and shell material. Generally, as undifferentiated surficial plastics. Age probably ranges
w 2 ~~::;:Ii~i~i~ii oo P0 00 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0


,0 00 0 0
u 0 00
OR00.000-.0





















consists of sand, clay, and shell material. Generally, as undifferentiated surficial clastics. Age probably ranges










Soil Survey






WEST NORTHEAST
150 -- ISO
100too- 3 4 5 100
50 L Surface material S 9 1 10

0 wo Hawthorn Group mat rial
--a 50Hawthorn Group Ocala --100
s to Ocala Limestone Ocala Limestne Limestone
-150 -150
-10 Avon Avon Park _ISO
-200 Park Avon Park Limestone -200
-250. Ls. -250
-300-- 8 1 -300
-350- i -35
-400 -- 4 -5
-450)-- -4
-A00- Lake City Limestone
-550 -550
00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Miles







SOUTH NORTH
loo-- 12 5 13 15 oo
100 12 13 Land surface 1410

otf16 so
so-./ Surface material Surface material
0o- MSL -MSL-
-Gp. -50
Hawthorn I >1 : /,


-10- Ocala Ocala -100
Ls. Ocala Limestone ,
-ISO-- I-, -150
Avon
-200- Park --200

-250 Limestone --250

-300- 1 5 -, --300

-350-- 13 3"

-400- ? 1 --4--

-450-- Lake City --450
Limestone
-500- --00

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18


Miles








Seminole County, Florida 5








HAWTHORN GROUP
S LIMIT LINE
o o

+ fLake Monroe

01

Sanford




0 0

SLong | North Lake Jessup
l wood Orlando HAWTHORN GROUP
03 i (NORTH)
Slberry HAWTHORN GROUP
S I SOUTH)


ORANGE

COUNTY



Figure 3.-Location map of the Hawthorn Group in Seminole County, Florida.



between Miocene and Pleistocene. In the past and in Interpretations in this soil survey are made as to what
other areas of the State, the shell material has been effects these properties could have on use. Many
referred to as the Callosahatchee Formation or the geologic features are not expressed within the soil but
Nashua Formation, and the sand above has been may significantly affect the suitability of a site for a
referred to as the Citronelle Formation. The sand at the particular use. Individual sites should be evaluated by
surface has been termed Pleistocene terrace deposits. onsite examination and testing. In many cases, special
The thickness of these undifferentiated surficial planning, design, and construction techniques can be
clastics ranges from 30 to 150 feet. Generally, they are used to overcome geologic problems where they are
thinner toward the southwest in the county. identified and evaluated.
Structurally, Seminole County is located on the
Sanford High. On cross-section 1 to 11 (see fig. 2) the Ground Water
top of the limestone is relatively deep in wells 1 to 6 on Most large diameter wells in Seminole County obtain
the cross-section. In wells 7 to 11, to the northeast in water from the Avon Park Limestone Formation. The
the county, the limestone top is much closer to the lower part of the formation contains abundant caverns
surface and one or more of the formations overlying the and fractures, and this porosity is filled with copious
limestone to the south pinch out or become perceptibly quantities of water. Because of its granular nature and
thinner to the north. poor cementation, water can also be obtained from wells
Soil suitability for various uses is normally based on penetrating the upper part of the Avon Park Limestone.
evaluations of properties within the soil alone. The water occupies the intergranular spaces in the rock.







6 Soil Survey


Where the very fine-grained, soft dolostone is dominant Prosperity continued after the war, and many of those
in the upper zone of the Avon Park Limestone not much who had resided in the area during wartime returned to
water can be obtained. establish permanent homes and become part of the
The Ocala Limestone Formation, also because of its business community.
granular nature and relatively low cement content, is The area was starting to steadily grow, and in 1955,
tapped by many wells in the county and provides an the impact of the United States Missile Test Center at
adequate quantity of water. Because the Ocala the Cape was creating an economic boom comparable
Limestone is not present everywhere in Seminole County to that of the 1920's (7).
and is relatively thinner, the Avon Park Limestone In 1970, Seminole County got another economic boost
remains the most used source of ground water. with the Disney World development in South Orange
Generally adequate water supply is available if salt water County. This created pressures at all planning levels-
intrusion has not impacted the water supply. regional, metropolitan, county, and municipal. The major
The Hawthorn Group (clastics) acts as a barrier or objective was and is to provide a continuing effort to
seal on top of the limestone section and causes the help solve areawide problems of traffic congestion,
water in the limestone section, called the Floridan suburban sprawl, stream pollution, water supply, and
Aquifer, to be under pressure (artesian). In low-lying recreational needs. The major challenge of planning,
areas along the St. Johns River, this pressure causes now and in the years ahead, is to enhance the quality of
ground water to flow from wells. local communities and stimulate an efficient and orderly
The Hawthorn Group also contains limestone, sand, or pattern of development through the cooperation of all
dolostone beds in some areas that contain and will yield neighboring cities and counties.
water to wells. This source, called the Intermediate
Aquifer, is not used extensively in Seminole County. Natural Resources
Small diameter wells, which penetrate the
undifferentiated surficial material above the Hawthorn Seminole County is bounded on the north and east by
Group, can obtain small quantities of water from these the St. Johns River and on the west mainly by the
beds and are generally for private supply or other Wekiva River (fig. 4). The water in the St. Johns River is
noncommercial uses. This water source is called the brackish. The St. Johns River and connecting chain of
Surficial Aquifer. However, water from this source lakes are used for navigation, recreation, and sport and
frequently contains high concentrations of iron or even commercial fishing. Other streams of importance in the
salt. The salt water intrusion in these surficial beds county are the Econlockhatchee River, the Wekiva River,
generally is of the lateral type that originates from free- and the Little Wekiva River.
flowing, abandoned, deeper wells, from water from the Quantities of freshwater are among the county's most
St. Johns River or from salt springs, or from other more valuable assets. Numerous lakes are in Seminole
localized sources. Where the deeper aquifers are already County, and more than 120 of these are more than 5
salt contaminated, the Surficial Aquifer can contain water acres in size. Most occur in Karst areas on the sand
of better quality if no local sources of contamination can ridges. The water in the lakes is mostly of high quality.
degrade the water quality. Many of the lakes are used for boating and fishing.
Springs in the county are the Sanlando Springs, the
History and Development Miami Springs, and the Wekiva Springs. Wekiva Springs
y is shared by Orange County. Many other smaller springs
In 1913, the State legislature created Seminole County are along the Wekiva and Little Wekiva Rivers, and they
from the northeastern third of Orange County. On April are used for swimming.
25, 1913, Sanford became the county seat. The Floridan Aquifer underlies all of Seminole County.
According to the 1920 census, Seminole County had a This aquifer supplies at least 95 percent of the
population of 11,086. It was called "the biggest little freshwater used in the county. The cities use about 60
county in Florida." Sanford had a population of 5,588. percent, and the remainder is used to irrigate crops and
During the 1920 and 1930 prosperity years, Seminole for other uses. As water use increases, many wells in
County began to grow but not as fast as other parts of the eastern part of the county and those near the St.
Florida. Sanford got a new City Hall and library, and Johns River are becoming more contaminated because
other improvements, such as roads and streets, were of salt intrusion. Recharge to the Floridan Aquifer occurs
made. throughout the county but mainly is in the deep, sandy
In 1926, a hurricane struck and an already declining soils on the upland ridges in the western part of the
economy collapsed further. The rush to get out of Florida county.
increased as the economy of the county collapsed. Most of the soils are sandy and low in natural fertility,
Seminole County began to bustle again after 1940. but the products of these soils are valuable. The forests
During World War II, Sanford became a center of military are valuable not only for lumber and paper production
activity when the Sanford Naval Air Station opened. but also as habitat for many game animals and other







Seminole County, Florida 7






































Figure 4.-The Wekiva River forms the dominant part of the western boundary of Seminole County. The river is a major recreational
resource. Soils along the banks of the river Include Pompano fine sand, occasionally flooded.



wildlife. Many ornamental plants and other plant Gertrude, west of Sanford. Later, these groves were
products are produced here. The climate, scenery, and moved to Bel-Air, where drainage was better.
recreational advantages are valuable resources that In 1894, a severe freeze halted the growth of the
attract many visitors to the area. citrus industry, and early in 1895 another severe freeze
almost wiped out the groves except for a small area at
Farming Bel-Air. Many farmers left the area. The ones who
remained looked for other means of earning a livelihood.
Oranges were among the first crops grown by the Dairying was begun, and vegetable seed was brought
early settlers. The first orange groves were set out near into the area in an effort to find crops suitable for the
Sanford between 1840 and 1845. A packing plant had climate and soils. Among the vegetables introduced were
been built by 1869. Many different kinds of seeds and celery and cabbage, which were well suited to the soils
citrus trees and different species of tropical and and climate. In the spring of 1898, the first crop of celery
subtropical fruits and ornamentals were brought into the was shipped from Sanford, and this crop is still being
area for trial plantings by General Sanford. In 1879, grown extensively these many years.
General Sanford set out the first citrus groves at St.







8 Soil Survey


Vegetable growing has been successful, mainly, discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management
because of the underground irrigation systems that have of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed
been used to supply water to the crops. The first attempt the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general
to irrigate the soils consisted of using an inverted trough pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants
to transport excess water from a large artesian well growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug
located in the center of the town of Sanford. The trough many holes to study the soil profile, which is the
allowed part of the water to seep out so that the soil sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The
above the trough remained moist during dry periods, profile extends from the surface down into the
When the farmers learned that the soil above the trough unconsolidated material from which the soil formed. The
remained moist, they began to place other troughs 18 unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other
inches deep and 18 feet apart through the fields so that living organisms and has not been changed by other
more moisture would be supplied to vegetable crops. biological activity.
The original inverted wooden troughs eventually became The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern
obsolete and were replaced by round clay tile and then that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief,
by plastic pipe. climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each
Since this early start as a center for truck farming, the kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
growing of vegetables for winter market has been among landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
the leading agricultural enterprises in the county. observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
Agriculture continued to expand until sometime in the position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
1970's when a rapid conversion of arable land to urban scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
uses began. As the population increased, pressure for were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
additional housing also increased and the urban spiral the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy
was on. Truck farming is still an important and valuable the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
industry, but it's on the decline. In recent years, Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
watercress acreage has increased to the point of being into one another as their characteristics gradually
an important and valuable crop. change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil
Diary farming has declined to only one operation, scientists must determine the boundaries between the
Citrus groves have decreased rapidly in recent years soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
because of the freezing weather, disease, and pressures profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented
from urban expansion. by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in
Transportation an area and to determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
Seminole County is served by good transportation profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
facilities. Interstate Highway 4 runs through the county size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
and is within a short distance of the major cities. Most rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and
other parts of the county are easily reached by other other features that enable them to identify soils. After
county, State, and Federal highways. The Seaboard describing the soils in the survey area and determining
Coast Railway runs through the county. Municipal or their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
private airports are available for private or chartered taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
flights. concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
Recreation are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
Opportunities for fishing, boating, and swimming are used in the United States (14) is based mainly on the
plentiful. Marinas are located along the St. Johns River kind and character of soil properties and the



zoo. could confirm data and assemble additional data based
on experience and research.
How This Survey Was Made While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of
the soils in the area are generally collected for laboratory
This survey was made to provide information about the analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists
soils in the survey area. The information includes a interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as
description of the soils and their location and a well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil







Seminole County, Florida 9



properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils or require different management. These are contrasting
were field tested through observation of the soils in (dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas
different uses under different levels of management. and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
sources, such as research information, production observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
records, and field experience of specialists. For example, descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
data on crop yields under defined levels of management complex that it was impractical to make enough
were assembled from farm records and from field or plot observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
experiments on the same kinds of soil. landscape.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a landscape into segments that have similar use and
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have management requirements. The delineation of such
a high water table within certain depths in most years, landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
but they cannot assure that a high water table will information for the development of resource plans, but
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
date. in small areas.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they Use of the Ground-Penetrating Radar
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit. In Seminole County, a ground-penetrating radar (GPR)
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, system was used to document the type and variability of
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries soils that occur in the detailed map units (4, 5, 8, and
accurately. 10). The GPR system was successfully used on most
soils to detect the presence, determine the variability,
Map Unit Composition and measure depth to major soil horizons or other soil
features. In Seminole County 401 random transects
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an were made with the GPR. Information from notes and
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area ground-truth observations made in the field was used
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is along with radar data from this study to classify the soils
identified and named according to the taxonomic and to determine the composition of map units. The map
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a units, as described in the section entitled "Detailed Soil
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the Map Units," are based on this data and on data in the
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the previous survey.
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties Information
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if The statements about soil behavior in this survey can
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of be thought of in terms of probability: they are predictions
other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit of soil behavior. The behavior of a soil depends not only
is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and on its own properties but on responses to such variables
some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes. In as climate and biological activity. Soil conditions are
the detailed soil map units, these latter soils are called predictable for the long term, but predictable reliability is
inclusions or included soils. In the general soil map units, less for any given year. For example, while a soil
they are called soils of minor extent, scientist can state that a given soil has a high water
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral table in most years, he can not say with certainty that
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in the water table will be present next year.
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar) probability that the composition of a map unit or a
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values







Seminole County, Florida 9



properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils or require different management. These are contrasting
were field tested through observation of the soils in (dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas
different uses under different levels of management. and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
sources, such as research information, production observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
records, and field experience of specialists. For example, descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
data on crop yields under defined levels of management complex that it was impractical to make enough
were assembled from farm records and from field or plot observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
experiments on the same kinds of soil. landscape.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a landscape into segments that have similar use and
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have management requirements. The delineation of such
a high water table within certain depths in most years, landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
but they cannot assure that a high water table will information for the development of resource plans, but
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
date. in small areas.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they Use of the Ground-Penetrating Radar
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit. In Seminole County, a ground-penetrating radar (GPR)
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, system was used to document the type and variability of
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries soils that occur in the detailed map units (4, 5, 8, and
accurately. 10). The GPR system was successfully used on most
soils to detect the presence, determine the variability,
Map Unit Composition and measure depth to major soil horizons or other soil
features. In Seminole County 401 random transects
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an were made with the GPR. Information from notes and
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area ground-truth observations made in the field was used
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is along with radar data from this study to classify the soils
identified and named according to the taxonomic and to determine the composition of map units. The map
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a units, as described in the section entitled "Detailed Soil
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the Map Units," are based on this data and on data in the
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the previous survey.
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties Information
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if The statements about soil behavior in this survey can
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of be thought of in terms of probability: they are predictions
other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit of soil behavior. The behavior of a soil depends not only
is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and on its own properties but on responses to such variables
some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes. In as climate and biological activity. Soil conditions are
the detailed soil map units, these latter soils are called predictable for the long term, but predictable reliability is
inclusions or included soils. In the general soil map units, less for any given year. For example, while a soil
they are called soils of minor extent, scientist can state that a given soil has a high water
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral table in most years, he can not say with certainty that
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in the water table will be present next year.
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar) probability that the composition of a map unit or a
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values







Seminole County, Florida 9



properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils or require different management. These are contrasting
were field tested through observation of the soils in (dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas
different uses under different levels of management. and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions, because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
sources, such as research information, production observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
records, and field experience of specialists. For example, descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
data on crop yields under defined levels of management complex that it was impractical to make enough
were assembled from farm records and from field or plot observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
experiments on the same kinds of soil. landscape.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a landscape into segments that have similar use and
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have management requirements. The delineation of such
a high water table within certain depths in most years, landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
but they cannot assure that a high water table will information for the development of resource plans, but
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
date. in small areas.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they Use of the Ground-Penetrating Radar
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit. In Seminole County, a ground-penetrating radar (GPR)
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, system was used to document the type and variability of
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries soils that occur in the detailed map units (4, 5, 8, and
accurately. 10). The GPR system was successfully used on most
soils to detect the presence, determine the variability,
Map Unit Composition and measure depth to major soil horizons or other soil
features. In Seminole County 401 random transects
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an were made with the GPR. Information from notes and
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area ground-truth observations made in the field was used
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is along with radar data from this study to classify the soils
identified and named according to the taxonomic and to determine the composition of map units. The map
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a units, as described in the section entitled "Detailed Soil
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the Map Units," are based on this data and on data in the
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the previous survey.
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties Information
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if The statements about soil behavior in this survey can
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of be thought of in terms of probability: they are predictions
other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit of soil behavior. The behavior of a soil depends not only
is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and on its own properties but on responses to such variables
some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes. In as climate and biological activity. Soil conditions are
the detailed soil map units, these latter soils are called predictable for the long term, but predictable reliability is
inclusions or included soils. In the general soil map units, less for any given year. For example, while a soil
they are called soils of minor extent, scientist can state that a given soil has a high water
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral table in most years, he can not say with certainty that
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in the water table will be present next year.
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar) probability that the composition of a map unit or a
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values







10



based on a random sample. In the absence of specific transects and took enough samples to characterize each
data to determine confidence limits, the natural variability map unit on table 2 at a specific confidence level. For
of soils and the way soil surveys are made must be example, map unit 28 was characterized at a 90 percent
considered. The composition of map units and other confidence level based on the transect data. The
information are derived largely from extrapolations made resulting composition would read: in 90 percent of the
from a small sample. Also, information about the soils areas mapped as Pompano fine sand, occasionally
does not extend below a depth of about 6 feet. The flooded, Pompano soil and similar soils will comprise 82
information presented in the soil survey is not meant to to 99 percent of the delineation. In the other 10 percent
be used as a substitute for on-site investigations. Soil of the areas of this map unit, the percentage of
survey information can be used to select from alternative Pompano soil and similar soils may be higher than 99
practices or general designs that may be needed to percent or lower than 82 percent.
minimize the possibility of soil-related failures. It cannot The composition of miscellaneous areas, urban map
be used to interpret specific points on the landscape. units, and a few other map units were based on the
Specific confidence limits for the composition of most judgment of the soil scientist and was not determined by
map units in Seminole County were determined by a statistical procedure.
random transects made with the GPR across mapped Table 2 presents the average composition of the map
areas. When no dissimilar soils were encountered, only units and expresses the probability that the average
the statistical expressions of mean is used in the map composition will fall within the given range. The map unit
unit description. This condition occurs in map units 5, 12, is named for the taxon of the dominant soil or soils. The
14, 22, and 33. The data are presented in the description proportion of similar and dissimilar soils are also given.
of each soil under 'Detailed Soil Map Units' and Each soil listed by name in the table is described in the
summarized in table 2. Soil scientists made enough section "Soil Series and Their Morphology."

















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication fine sand, and the lower part is brown fine sand. The
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of substratum is very pale brown fine sand.
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general Paola soils are excessively drained. They are on
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map ridges on the uplands. Typically, Paola soils have a
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor surface layer of dark gray sand. The subsurface layer is
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up light gray sand. The upper part of the subsoil is yellowish
one unit can occur in other units but in a different brown sand and has few tongues filled with material from
pattern, the overlying layer and few to common weakly cemented
The general soil map can be used to compare the very dark gray concretions. The substratum is light
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of yellowish brown sand.
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, The soils of minor extent are Apopka, Astatula,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. Tavares, Millhopper, and EauGallie soils. Apopka and
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for Astatula soils are on ridges and hillsides. Apopka soils
planning the management of a farm or field or for are well drained, and Astatula soils are excessively
selecting a site for a road or a building or other structure. drained. Tavares and Millhopper soils are on hillsides
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place and low ridges and knolls on the uplands. EauGallie soils
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that are on the plains. These soils are poorly drained.
affect management. Most areas of the soils in this map unit have been
developed for urban use or have been left in native
Mineral Soils on the Uplands vegetation. The native vegetation consists of turkey oak
The three general soil map units in this group are in and bluejack oak and scattered longleaf pine, slash pine,
the western part of Seminole County and around the and sand pine. The understory includes saw palmetto,
Geneva and Chuluota areas, creeping bluestem, pineland threeawn, panicum,
indiangrass, and chalky bluestem. A few areas are used
1. Urban Land-Pomello-Paola for citrus crops or as improved pasture.
The soils in this map unit are moderately well suited to
Nearly level to sloping areas of Urban land and urban and recreational uses. These soils are moderately
moderately well drained and excessively drained soils well suited to poorly suited to use as improved pasture.
that are sandy throughout; on the uplands They are poorly suited to use as commercial woodland.
The soils in this map unit are in the vicinity of Geneva. Droughtiness is the main limitation.
The landscape consists of broad, rolling ridges. The
ridges are in a north-south orientation. The slopes are 2. Urban Land-Astatula-Apopka
smooth and are dissected by a few drainageways, and
they range from 0 to 8 percent. Nearly level to strongly sloping areas of Urban land,
This map unit makes up about 4 percent of Seminole excessively drained soils that are sandy throughout, and
County. It is about 35 percent Urban land, 26 percent well drained sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil at a
Pomello soils and similar soils, 23 percent Paola soils depth of about 40 inches or more; on the uplands
and similar soils, and 16 percent soils of minor extent. The soils in this map unit are in the vicinity of Geneva
The Urban land part of this map unit is covered by and Chuluota and in the western part of the county. The
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces landscape consists of rolling hillsides and ridges.
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification Sinkholes are common and provide most drainage
is not feasible. outlets for the soils in this map unit. The slopes range
Pomello soils are moderately well drained. They are on from 0 to 12 percent.
low ridges bordering the plains. Typically, Pomello soils This map unit makes up about 22 percent of Seminole
have a surface layer of light gray fine sand. The County. It is about 55 percent Urban land, 25 percent
subsurface layer is white fine sand. The upper part of the Astatula soils and similar soils, 8 percent Apopka soils
subsoil is black fine sand, the middle part is dark brown and similar soils, and 12 percent soils of minor extent.






12 Soil Survey



The Urban land part of this map unit is covered by bluejack oak, live oak, and turkey oak. The understory
concrete, asphalt, buildings or other impervious surfaces includes chalky bluestem, indiangrass, panicum, pineland
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification threeawn, and annual forbs. Farming is of little
is not feasible. importance because of the extensive urban
Typically, Astatula soils have a surface layer of light development, but numerous nurseries produce plants for
gray fine sand 3 inches thick. The underlying material is landscaping.
very pale brown fine sand. The soils in this map unit are well suited to urban use
Typically, Apopka soils have a surface layer of gray (fig. 5) and moderately well suited to recreational use.
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the These soils are moderately well suited to use as
subsurface layer is yellow fine sand, and the lower part improved pasture. They are poorly suited to use as
is very pale brown fine sand that has a few fine sand commercial woodland. Droughtiness is the main
lamellae. The subsoil is reddish yellow sandy clay loam. limitation.
The soils of minor extent are Tavares, Pomello,
Millhopper, Basinger, and Smyrna soils. Tavares, 3. Urban Land-Tavares-Millhopper
Pomello, and Millhopper soils are on low ridges
bordering the plains. These soils are moderately well Nearly level to sloping areas of Urban land and
drained. Basinger and Smyrna soils are in flat areas, moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout
depressions, and sloughs. These soils are poorly drained or have a loamy subsoil at a depth of about 40 inches or
and very poorly drained, more; on the uplands
Most of the acreage in this map unit is used for The soils in this map unit are on low ridges adjacent to
houses, large buildings, shopping centers, golf courses, the flatwoods in the western and southern parts of the
and related urban uses. Only a few areas have been left county and near Chuluota in the eastern part. The slopes
in native vegetation. The native vegetation consists of range from 0 to 8 percent.































Figure 5.-The soils in this undeveloped area of the Urban land-Astatula-Apopka general soil map unit are well suited to urban use.







Seminole County, Florida 13



This map unit makes up about 23 percent of Seminole The soils in this map unit are throughout Seminole
County. It is about 57 percent Urban land, 16 percent County. The landscape consists of broad plains that
Pomello soils and similar soils, 13 percent Millhopper have depressions and sloughs. During wet periods, the
soils and similar soils, and 14 percent soils of minor depressions are ponded and the sloughs are covered
extent. with shallow, slow flowing water. The slopes range from
The Urban land part of this map unit is covered by 0 to 2 percent.
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces This map unit makes up about 24 percent of Seminole
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification County. It is about 37 percent Myakka soils, 20 percent
is not feasible. EauGallie soils, 18 percent Urban land, and 25 percent
Typically, Tavares soils have a surface layer of very soils of minor extent.
dark grayish brown fine sand. The upper part of the Typically, Myakka soils have a surface layer of black
substratum is yellowish brown fine sand, the middle part fine sand. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand.
is light yellowish brown and very pale brown fine sand, The upper part of the subsoil is black fine sand, and the
and the lower part is white fine sand. The middle part lower part is dark brown fine sand. The substratum is
and lower part of the subtratum have mottles. brown fine sand.
Typically, Millhopper soils have a surface layer of gray Typically, EauGallie soils have a surface layer of dark
fine sand. The upper part of the subsurface layer is very gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is light gray fine
pale brown fine sand, the middle part is pale brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil is black and dark
sand, and the lower part is very pale brown fine sand brown fine sand. The next layer is light brownish gray
and has mottles. The upper part of the subsoil is very fine sand. The lower part is very pale brown sandy clay
pale brown sandy loam, and the lower part is light gray loam. The substratum is light brownish gray loamy sand.
sandy clay loam and has common mottles. The Urban land part of this map unit is covered by
The soils of minor extent are Basinger, Samsula, concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces
Immokalee, Hontoon, and Pomello soils. Basinger and that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification
Immokalee soils are in flat areas and in sloughs. These is not feasible.
soils are poorly drained. Samsula and Holopaw soils are The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Basinger,
in depressions. These soils are very poorly drained. Immokalee, Samsula, Hontoon, Pompano, St. Johns, and
Pomello soils are moderately well drained, and they are Adamsville soils. Basinger soils are in sloughs. These
in similar positions on the landscape as Tavares and soils are poorly drained. Immokalee and St. Johns soils
Millhopper soils. are in the same position on the landscape as the soils in
Most of the acreage in this map unit is used for this map unit. Pompano soils are on the flood plains.
houses, large buildings, shopping centers, golf courses, Samsula soils are in swamps and depressions. Hontoon
and related urban uses. Only a few areas have been left soils are in swamps and marshes. These soils are very
in natural vegetation. The natural vegetation consists of poorly drained. Adamsville soils are on low knolls on the
bluejack oak, turkey oak, live oak, and longleaf pine. The flatwoods. They are somewhat poorly drained.
understory includes creeping bluestem, indiangrass, About 40 percent of the soils on the flatwoods in this
grassleaf goldaster, and pineland threeawn. Farming is map unit is in native vegetation of slash pine. The
of little importance because of the extensive urban understory includes saw palmetto, grasses, and forbs.
development, but numerous nurseries produce plants for Cypress and hardwoods are in the depressions and
landscaping, sloughs. The remaining acreage is used for residential
The soils in this map unit are well suited to urban and development or as improved pasture.
recreational uses and commercial woodland. These soils The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to urban
are poorly suited to use as improved pasture. Low and recreational uses. They are well suited to use as
natural fertility and droughtiness are the main limitations, improved pasture and commercial woodland. Wetness is
the main limitation.
Mineral Soils on the Flatwoods and in Sloughs and
Depressions 5. St. Johns-Malabar-Wabasso
The three general soil map units in this group are Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy
Nearly level poorly drained soils that are sandy
between the upland ridges and the flood plains, throughout or have a loamy subsoil at a depth of about
depressions, and swamps throughout Seminole County. 30 inches or more; on the flatwoods and in sloughs

4. Myakka-EauGallie-Urban Land The soils in this map unit are in the central part of
Seminole County. The landscape consists of broad
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy plains that have depressions and sloughs. During wet
throughout or have a loamy subsoil at a depth of about periods, the depressions are ponded and the sloughs
40 inches or more and areas of Urban land; on the are covered with shallow, slow flowing water. The slopes
flatwoods range from 0 to 2 percent.







14 Soil Survey



This map unit makes up about 8 percent of Seminole sand. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand. The
County. It is about 28 percent St. Johns soils, 28 percent subsoil is a mixture of light gray fine sand from the
Malabar soils, 23 percent Wabasso soils, and 21 percent subsurface layer and dark grayish brown fine sand. The
soils of minor extent. substratum is gray fine sand.
St. Johns soils are on the broad plains on the Smyrna soils are in the depressions. These soils are
flatwoods. These soils have a surface layer of black fine very poorly drained. They have a surface layer of black
sand. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand. The subsoil fine sand. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand.
is black and very dark gray fine sand. The substratum is The subsoil is very dark grayish brown and dark brown
grayish brown fine sand. fine sand. The substratum is light yellowish brown and
Malabar soils are in sloughs. These soils have a light gray fine sand.
surface layer of dark gray fine sand. The subsurface Delray soils are in similar positions on the landscape
layer is yellowish brown fine sand. The upper part of the as Basinger soils. These soils are very poorly drained.
subsoil is very pale brown and yellow fine sand. The next They have a surface layer of black fine sand. The
layer is light gray fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil subsurface layer is light gray fine sand. The subsoil is
is gray fine sandy loam. The substratum is greenish gray gray sandy loam.
loamy sand. The soils of minor extent in this map unit are
Wabasso soils are on the flatwoods. These soils have Immokalee, Myakka, St. Johns, Pompano, Nittaw, and
a surface layer of very dark gray fine sand. The Floridana soils. Immokalee, Myakka, and St. Johns soils
subsurface layer is grayish brown fine sand. The upper are on higher plains on the flatwoods than the soils in
part of the subsoil is dark reddish brown fine sand. The the map unit. Pompano, Nittaw, and Floridana soils are
next layer is light brownish gray fine sand. The lower part on the flood plains. The soils of minor extent are poorly
of the subsoil is gray sandy clay loam. The substratum is drained except Nittaw and Floridana soils, which are very
light gray loamy sand. poorly drained.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Basinger, About 80 percent of the soils in this map unit is in
Samsula, and Hontoon soils. Basinger soils are in similar native vegetation of slash pine, cabbage palm, oak,
positions on the landscape as Malabar soils. These soils cypress, elm, ash, hickory, red maple, and sweetgum
are poorly drained and very poorly drained. Samsula and and have an understory of water-tolerant plants. The
Hontoon soils are in swamps. These soils are very remaining acreage is used as improved pasture.
poorly drained. The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to urban
About 50 percent of the soils on the flatwoods in this and recreational uses. They are moderately well suited
map unit is in native vegetation of slash pine. The to use as improved pasture and commercial woodland.
understory includes saw palmetto, grasses, and forbs. Wetness is the main limitation.
Cypress and hardwoods are in the depressions and
sloughs. The remaining acreage is used for residential M a O S o t
development or improved pasture. Meral and Organic Soils on the Flood Plans and in
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to urban Depressions and Swamps
and recreational uses. They are moderately well suited The four general soil map units in this group are
to use as improved pasture and commercial woodland. adjacent to rivers and lakes throughout Seminole
Wetness is the main limitation. County.
6. Basinger-Smyrna-Delray 7. Nittaw-Felda-Floridana
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
that are sandy throughout or have a loamy subsoil at a Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained
depth of about 50 inches; in sloughs and depressions on mineral soils; some are mucky and have a clayey subsoil
the flatwoods at a depth of about 10 inches or more, and some are
The soils in this map unit are in the eastern and sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and have a loamy
northern parts of Seminole County. The landscape subsoil; on the flood plains and in depressions
consists of broad plains that have depressions and The soils in this map unit are adjacent to Lake Jessup
sloughs. During wet periods, the depressions are ponded and St. Johns River. The landscape consists of broad
and the sloughs are covered with shallow, slow flowing plains and depressions. The slopes range from 0 to 2
water. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. percent.
This map unit makes up about 7 percent of Seminole This map unit makes up about 4 percent of Seminole
County. It is about 55 percent Basinger soils, 16 percent County. It is about 52 percent Nittaw soils, 20 percent
Smyrna soils, 9 percent Delray soils, and 20 percent Felda soils, 10 percent Floridana soils, and 18 percent
soils of minor extent. soils of minor extent.
Basinger soils are in the sloughs and depressions. Nittaw soils are very poorly drained. These soils have
These soils have a surface layer of very dark gray fine a surface layer of black muck and black mucky fine






Seminole County, Florida 15



sand. The subsoil is very dark brown and dark gray the flood plains. Holopaw soils are poorly drained, and
sandy clay. The substratum is gray sandy loam. Okeelanta soils are very poorly drained. Basinger and
Felda soils are poorly drained. These soils have a Delray soils are in sloughs. Delray soils are very poorly
surface layer of black mucky fine sand. The subsurface drained. Wabasso soils are on the plains and are poorly
layer is fine sand in shades of gray. The subsoil is gray drained.
sandy clay loam and sandy loam. The substratum is gray Most areas of the soils in this map unit have been
loamy sand. cleared and are used for livestock production. Other
Floridana soils are very poorly drained. These soils areas are in native vegetation of water oak, cypress,
have a surface layer of black mucky fine sand and black elm, ash, hickory, red maple, and sweetgum and have an
fine sand. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand. The understory of water-tolerant plants.
subsoil is gray fine sandy loam and sandy loam. e s t p suedturban
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Manatee, The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to urban
Holopaw, Okeelanta, Basinger, Delray, and Wabasso and recreational uses. They are fairly well suited o use
soils. Manatee soils are in similar positions on the as commercial woodland and are moderately well suited
landscape as the soils in this map unit. These soils are to use as improved pasture and rangeland (fig. 6).
very poorly drained. Holopaw and Okeelanta soils are on





































Figure 6.-The soils in this NIttaw-Felda-Floridana general soil map unit have been utilized for livestock production. These soils are
moderately well suited to use as improved pasture and rangeland.







16 Soil Survey


8. Nittaw-Okeelanta-Terra Ceia Brighton soils are in the center of the depressions and
Nearly level, very poorly drained mineral and organic swamps. These soils have a layer of black muck and
soils; some are mucky and have a clayey subsoil at a very dark gray and dark reddish brown mucky peat more
depth of about 10 inches or more, some are mucky and than 80 inches thick.
have a sandy layer at a depth of about 40 inches or Samsula soils are between Brighton and Sanibel soils
more, and some are mucky throughout; on the flood in the depressions and swamps. Samsula soils have a
plains and in depressions surface layer of dark reddish brown and black muck and
The soils in this map unit are on the flood plains very dark gray mucky fine sand. The underlying material
adjacent to Lake Monroe and Lake Jessup. The is grayish brown fine sand.
landscape consists of flats that have many small Sanibel soils are in depressions adjacent to upland
drainageways. Most areas of these soils are subject to water. These soils have a surface layer of black muck
frequent flooding. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. and black mucky fine sand. The underlying material is
This map unit makes up 4 percent of Seminole dark grayish brown and light gray fine sand.
County. It is about 44 percent Nittaw soils, 21 percent The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Basinger
Okeelanta soils, 13 percent Terra Ceia soils, and 22 and Delray soils. These soils are in depressions and
percent soils of minor extent. swamps in similar positions on the landscape as Sanibel
Nittaw soils are on the flood plains and in depressions. soils, but Basinger soils are poorly drained.
These soils have a surface layer of black muck and Most areas of the soils in this map unit have been
black mucky fine sand. The subsoil is very brown and cleared and drained and are used to grow truck crops
dark gray sandy clay. The substratum is light gray fine and sod. A few areas of these soils are in native
sand. vegetation of hardwoods and cypress and have an
Okeelanta soils are on the flood plains. These soils understory of water-tolerant plants.
have a surface layer of black muck. The underlying The soils in this map unit are not suited to urban use
material is black and light gray fine sand. or to use as commercial woodland. They are poorly
Terra Ceia soils are on the flood plains and in suited to improved pasture and recreational use.
depressions. These soils have a surface layer of black Wetness is the major limitation. Pnding is a hazard.
and very dark brown muck that extends to a depth of 80
inches or more.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Basinger, 10. Pompano-Nittaw-Basiger
Felda, Manatee, and Hontoon soils. Basinger soils are in Nearly level, pooy drained and vey pooy drained
sloughs adjacent to the uplands. These soils are poorly Nearly level poorly drained and very poorly drained
sloughs adjacent to the uplands. These soils are poorly mineral soils; some are sandy throughout, and some are
drained. Felda and Manatee soils are in similar positions mucky and have a clayey subsoil at a depth of about 10
on the landscape as Nittaw soils, but Felda soils are inches or more; on the flood plains
poorly drained. Hontoon soils are in swamps.
Most areas of the soils in this map unit have been left The soils in this map unit are in areas adjacent to the
in native vegetation of hardwoods and cypress and have Wekiva, St. Johns, and Econlockhatchee Rivers and
an understory of water-tolerant plants. An area southeast Lake Jessup. The landscape consists of broad,
of Lake Jessup has been cleared and is used to grow freshwater plains, hardwood and cypress swamps, and
truck crops. depressions. These soils are ponded or flooded for most
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to urban of the year. The slopes are less than 1 percent.
and recreational uses and to use as improved pasture This map unit makes up about 3 percent of Seminole
and commercial woodland. Wetness is the main County. It is about 42 percent Pompano soils, 22 percent
limitation. Flooding is a hazard. Nittaw soils, 12 percent Basinger soils, and 24 percent
soils of minor extent.
9. Brighton-Samsula-Sanibel Pompano soils are poorly drained. These soils have a
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic and mineral surface layer of gray fine sand. The upper part of the
soils; some are mucky throughout, some are mucky and underlying material is pale brown fine sand, and the
have a sandy layer at a depth of about 30 inches or lower part is light gray fine sand.
more, and some are sandy throughout; in depressions Nittaw soils are very poorly drained. These soil have a
and swamps surface layer of black muck and black mucky fine sand.
The soils in this map unit are south of Lake Jessup. The subsoil is very dark brown and dark gray sandy clay.
These soils are ponded. The slopes are mostly less than The substratum is gray sandy loam.
1 percent. Basinger soils are mainly adjacent to the uplands and
This map unit makes up about 1 percent of Seminole are poorly drained and very poorly drained. These soils
County. It is about 47 percent Brighton soils, 35 percent have a surface layer of very dark gray fine sand. The
Samsula soils, 11 percent Sanibel soils, and 7 percent subsurface layer is light gray fine sand. The subsoil is a
soils of minor extent, mixture of light gray fine sand from the subsurface layer








Seminole County, Florida 17



and dark grayish brown fine sand. The substratum is sweetbay, hickory, water oak, willow oak, and laurel oak.
gray fine sand. A few areas are used as improved pasture.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Samsula, The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to urban
Hontoon, Smyrna, and Okeelanta soils. These soils are and recreational uses and to use as commercial
in slightly lower positions on the landscape than the soils woodland. They are moderately well suited to use as
in this map unit. They are very poorly drained, improved pasture. Wetness is the main limitation.
Most areas of the soils in this map unit have been left Flooding and ponding are hazards.
in native vegetation of magnolia, sweetgum, cypress,










19








Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. Table for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
2 gives the average composition of selected map units the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
as determined by the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
and other transect methods. The map units in this made up of all of them. Basinger, Samsula, and Hontoon
section are based on this data and on data in the soils, depressional, is an undifferentiated group in this
previous survey. The map unit descriptions in this survey area.
section, along with the soil maps, can be used to Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
determine the suitability and potential of a soil for other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
specific uses. They also can be used to plan the of these included soils have properties that differ
management needed for those uses. More information substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
on each map unit, or soil, is given under "Use and differences could significantly affect use and
Management of the Soils." management of the soils in the map unit. The included
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
for which the unit is named, a special symbol on the soil maps.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes have little or no soil material and support little or no
general facts about the soil and gives the principal vegetation. Urban land is an example. Miscellaneous
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
specific uses. small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up the soil maps.
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
a series have major horizons that are similar in give properties of the soils and the limitations,
composition, thickness, and arrangement. capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in A few of the boundaries on the soil maps of Seminole
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, County do not match those on the soil maps of adjacent
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the counties, and some of the soil names and descriptions
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil do not fully agree. The differences are the result of
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil improvements in the classification of soils, particularly
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil modification or refinements in soil series concepts. Also,
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or there may be differences in the intensity of mapping or in
management. For example, Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 the extent of the soils within the survey area.
percent slopes, is one of several phases in the Astatula
series. 2-Adamsville-Sparr fine sands. The soils in this
Some map units are made up of two or more major map unit are level to nearly level and somewhat poorly
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil drained. They are on the low ridges on the uplands and
associations, or undifferentiated groups. on low knolls on the flatwoods. The slopes are
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such dominantly less than 2 percent.
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit,
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The Adamsville-Sparr fine sands and soils that are similar
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar make up 80 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
in all areas. Adamsville-Sparr fine sands is an example. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 20 percent of the mapped
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of about 54
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped percent Adamsville soil and similar soils and 36 percent







20 Soil Survey,


Sparr soil. The individual areas of the soils in this map surface reduces runoff and helps to maintain soil tilth
unit are so intricately mixed that mapping them and the content of organic matter.
separately at the selected scale is not practical. If a water control system is established and
However, proportions and soil patterns are relatively maintained, the soils in this map unit are moderately
consistent in most delineations of the map unit. suited to use as pasture. Bahiagrass, pangolagrass, and
Typically, Adamsville soil has a surface layer of grayish bermudagrass grow well on this soil. Proper stocking,
brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during wet
the underlying material, to a depth of about 45 inches, is periods help keep the pasture and the soil in good
light grayish brown and very pale brown fine sand and condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum
has brownish yellow mottles. The lower part to a depth growth of grasses and legumes.
of about 80 inches is light gray fine sand. The soils in this map unit are moderately well suited to
Typically, Sparr soil has a surface layer of very dark use for homesites or for other urban or recreational
grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper development. The main limitations are wetness,
part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 15 instability of cutbanks, and contamination of ground
inches, is grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a water. Population growth has resulted in increased
depth of about 41 inches, is pale brown and light construction of houses. These soils are poorly suited to
yellowish brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, use as septic tank absorption fields. Septic tank
to a depth of about 43 inches, is very pale brown sandy absorption fields do not function properly during rainy
loam. The middle part, to a depth of about 72 inches, is periods because of wetness. If the density of housing is
light gray fine sandy loam. The lower part to a depth of moderate or high, a community sewage system is
about 80 inches is gray sandy loam. needed to prevent contamination of water supplies by
A seasonal high water table is within 12 to 36 inches seepage. When installing a septic tank absorption field
of the surface of Adasville and Sparr soils for up to 6 on this soil, the proximity to a stream, lake, or canal
months. The permeability of Adamsville soil is rapid. The should be considered to prevent lateral seepage and
permeability of Sparr soil is rapid in the surface and ground water pollution.
sesmeiliay r soi lo i r map in he s ae The soils in this map unit are moderately suited to use
subsoil. The available water capacity is low to very low in sit o habitat for openland and woodland wildlife. They are
Adamsville soil, and it is low in the surface and Common wildlife in the county includes the fox
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil of Sparr squi, deer, ui round doe tohee oh
soil. Natural fertility is low in Adamsville and Sparr soils. tortoise, pocket gopher, and fence lizard. So much of
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Immokalee this community has been converted to citrus groves or
soils in small areas. These soils are poorly drained. Also for urban development that this habitat for wildlife and
included are some dissimilar soils that are poorly drained several species that are dependent upon it are
and have a dark color subsoil within 20 inches of the considered endangered.
surface. The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass IIIw
The soils in this map unit are used mainly as and in the South Florida Flatwoods range site. The
rangeland and pasture. These soils are also used for woodland ordination symbol for these soils is 10W.
urban development or have been left in natural
vegetation. The natural vegetation consists mostly of 3-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil consists
longleaf pine and slash pine and of laurel, live, water, of material dug from several areas that have different
blackjack, and turkey oaks. The understory includes kinds of soil. This fill material is the result of earthmoving
scattered saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, gallberry, operations. This material is used to fill such areas as
and waxmyrtle. sloughs, marshes, shallow depressions, swamps, and
The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to other low-lying areas above their natural ground levels,
most cultivated crops and citrus crops because of for use in land leveling operations, or as a final cover for
periodic wetness, which restricts the root zone. The sanitary landfills.
number of crops that can be grown on these soils is very In many areas, Arents soil has a surface layer about
limited unless intensive measures are used to control 30 to 50 inches thick. It is very dark gray, dark gray, dark
excess surface and internal water. A drainage system is grayish brown, and yellowish brown fine sand or sand
needed for most cultivated crops. If suitable outlets are mixed with discontinuous strata of grayish brown and
available, lateral ditches and tile drains can be used to light brownish gray loamy material. Thin discontinuous
lower the high water table. If citrus crops are grown, areas of a dark color sandy subsoil are also scattered
proper arrangement and bedding of tree rows, lateral through the soil. Below these areas, to a depth of about
ditches or tiles, and well constructed outlets help to 52 inches, is undisturbed soil that is commonly black fine
remove excess surface water and to lower the high sand. The next layer, to a depth of about 72 inches, is
water table. Maintaining crop residue on or near the light gray or gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of







Seminole County, Florida 21



about 80 inches is black or very dark brown sandy clay positions on the landscape than Astatula soil and are
loam. moderately well drained.
Included in mapping are small areas of soils that are In most areas, this soil is used for homesites and
similar to Arents soil but have slopes of more than 5 other urban development. In a few areas, it is used for
percent, which is the result of stockpiling. Also included citrus crops or is left in natural vegetation. The natural
are areas that are used as sanitary landfills and contain vegetation consists mostly of sand pine, sand hickory
up to 50 percent of solid waste material stratified with and scrub hickory, and scattered turkey oak and bluejack
layers of soil material. These areas are named "Sanitary oak. The understory includes yucca, pricklypear,
landfill" on the soil maps. Fill material used in some indiangrass, panicum, and pineland threeawn.
areas contain fragments of shells, whole shells, and a This Astatula soil is suited to citrus crops in areas that
few rock fragments. The included soils make up less are relatively free of freezing temperatures. If this
than 10 percent of the map unit. Astatula soil is used for cultivated crops, the main
Most soil properties are variable. However, the limitations are droughtiness and the rapid leaching of
permeability of the soil in this map unit is moderately plant nutrients. Droughtiness, as a result of the very low
rapid or rapid. The high water table varies with the available water capacity, is a concern in management
amount of fill material and artificial drainage within any particularly during extended dry periods. Irrigation is
mapped area. In most years, the high water table is at a generally feasible if water is readily available. Soil
depth of 24 to 36 inches for 2 to 4 months. During blowing is a hazard in cultivated areas. A ground cover
extended dry periods, a high water table is not within 5 of close-growing plants can control soil blowing. Crop
feet of the surface. The reaction ranges from slightly residue left on or in the soil and a cropping system that
acid to mildly alkaline. includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture
This Arents soil is mainly used for urban development, help to conserve moisture, to maintain fertility, and to
The existing vegetation consists of slash pine and control erosion.
various scattered weeds. Scattered throughout the map This soil is moderately well suited to pasture. The very
unit are some small areas that have been left in natural low available water capacity limits the production of
vegetation. The natural vegetation includes cabbage plants during extended dry periods. Deep-rooted plants,
palm, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, Brazilian pepper, such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are more
greenbrier, and various weeds and grasses. The drought tolerant if properly fertilized and limed. Proper
suitability of this map unit varies according to the stocking, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of
individual site. grazing help keep the pasture in good condition.
Arents has not been assigned to a capability subclass, This soil is well suited to use for homesites and other
woodland group, or range site. urban development. It has few limitations. Population
growth has resulted in increased construction of houses.
4-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This If the density of housing is moderate or high, a
soil is level to gently sloping and excessively drained. It community sewage system may prevent contamination
is on hillsides and ridges on the uplands. The slopes are of water supplies by seepage. The proximity to a stream
smooth to convex, or canal should be considered in the placement of a
In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit, Astatula septic tank absorption field to prevent lateral seepage
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and soils that are and ground water pollution.
similar make up 76 to 98 percent of the mapped areas. This soil is poorly suited to sewage lagoons, sanitary
Dissimilar soils make up 2 to 24 percent of the mapped landfills, and shallow excavations. The main limitations
areas. are cutbanks caving, seepage, and sandy texture.
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying material Sealing or lining of lagoons or landfills with impervious
extends to a depth of about 80 inches. The upper part is material reduces excess seepage.
very pale brown fine sand, and the lower part is yellow If this soil is used for recreational development, the
fine sand. In the mapped areas are soils that are similar main limitation is droughtiness. During dry periods,
to Astatula fine sand but they have lamellae or spodic irrigation is needed to maintain lawns and landscaping.
bodies in the lower part of the underlying material. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized and an
This soil has a seasonal high water table at a depth of adequate plant cover should be maintained.
more than 80 inches. The permeability is very rapid. The This soil is poorly suited to use as habitat for openland
available water capacity is very low. Natural fertility is and woodland wildlife. It is not suited to use as habitat
very low. for wetland wildlife.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Apopka and Common wildlife in the county includes the fox
Pomello soils in small areas. Apopka soils have a loamy squirrel, deer, quail, ground dove, towhee, gopher
subsoil. Pomello soils are moderately well drained. Also tortoise, pocket gopher, and fence lizard. So much of
included are some dissimilar soils that are in lower this community has been converted to citrus groves or







22 Soil Survey



urban development that this habitat for wildlife and community sewage system may help to prevent
several species dependent upon it are considered contamination of water supplies by seepage. The
endangered. proximity to a stream or canal should be considered in
This Astatula soil is in capability subclass Vis. The placement of septic tank absorption fields to prevent
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 3S. This soil is lateral seepage and ground water pollution.
in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. This soil is poorly suited to sewage lagoons, sanitary
landfills, and shallow excavations. The main limitations
5-Astatula fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This are seepage, cutbanks caving, and sandy textures.
soil is sloping and excessively drained. It is on hillsides Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
on the uplands. The slopes are smooth to convex. Sealing or lining of lagoons or landfills with impervious
This map unit consists of about 97 percent Astatula material reduces excess seepage.
fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, and about 3 percent of If this soil is used for recreational development, the
soils that are similar to Astatula soil. main limitation is droughtiness. During dry periods,
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of light gray fine irrigation is needed to maintain lawns and landscaping.
sand about 3 inches thick. The underlying material The sandy surface layer should be stabilized, and an
extends to a depth of about 80 inches. It is very pale adequate plant cover should be maintained.
brown fine sand in the upper part and is yellow fine sand This soil is poorly suited to use as habitat for openland
in the lower part. In the mapped areas are soils that are and woodland wildlife. It is not suited to habitat for
similar to Astatula soil, but they have lamellae at a depth wetland wildlife.
of more than 60 inches. Common wildlife in this county includes the fox
This soil has a seasonal high water table at a depth of squirrel, deer, quail, ground dove, towhee, gopher
more than 80 inches. The permeability is very rapid. The tortoise, pocket gopher, and fence lizard. So much of
available water capacity is very low. Natural fertility is this community has been converted to citrus groves or
very low. urban development that this wildlife habitat and several
In most areas, this soil is used for homesites and species dependent upon it are considered endangered.
other urban development. In a few areas, it is used for This Astatula soil is in capability subclass Vis. The
citrus crops or has been left in natural vegetation. The woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 3S. This soil is
natural vegetation consists mostly of sand pine, sand in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site.
hickory, scrub hickory, and scattered turkey oak and
bluejack oak. The understory includes yucca, pricklypear, 6-Astatula-Apopka fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
indiangrass, panicum, and pineland threeawn. slopes. The soils in this map unit are nearly level to
This Astatula soil is suited to citrus crops in areas that gently sloping and excessively drained and well drained.
are relatively free of freezing temperatures. If this soil is These soils are on hillsides and ridges on the uplands.
used for cultivated crops, the main limitations are Astatula soil is excessively drained, and Apopka soil is
droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients, well drained. The slopes are smooth to convex.
Droughtiness, as a result of the very low available water In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Astatula-
capacity, is a concern in management particularly during Apopka fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and soils that
extended dry periods. It is generally feasible to irrigate are similar make up 84 to 99 percent of the mapped
crops if water is readily available. Soil blowing is a areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 16 percent of the
hazard in cultivated areas. A ground cover of close- mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of
growing plants can control soil blowing. Crop residue left about 65 percent Astatula and similar soils and 22
on or in the soil and a cropping system that includes percent Apopka and similar soils. The individual areas of
grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to the soils in this map unit are so intricately mixed that it is
conserve moisture, to maintain fertility, and to control not practical to map separately at the selected scale.
erosion. However, proportions and soil patterns are relatively
This soil is moderately well suited to use as pasture. consistent in most delineations of the map unit.
The very low available water capacity limits the Typically, Astatula soil has a surface layer of grayish
production of plants during extended dry periods. Deep- brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying
rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and material to a depth of about 80 inches is very pale brown
bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly fine sand. In the mapped areas are soils that are similar
fertilized and limed. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, to Astatula fine sand, but they have lamellae or spodic
and timely deferment of grazing help keep the pasture in bodies in the lower part of the underlying material.
good condition. Typically, Apopka soil has a surface layer of gray fine
This soil is well suited to use as homesites and other sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends
urban development. It has few limitations. Population to a depth of about 64 inches. It is pale brown fine sand
growth has resulted in increased construction of houses, in the upper part and is very pale brown fine sand in the
If the density of housing is moderate or high, a lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is






Seminole County, Florida 23



yellowish brown sandy clay loam. In the mapped areas crops. The natural vegetation consists of bluejack oak,
are soils that are similar to Apopka fine sand, but they Chapman oak, laurel oak, turkey oak, scattered live oak,
have a subsoil within 20 to 40 inches of the surface, slash pine, and longleaf pine. The understory includes
The soils in this map unit have a seasonal high water dogfennel, eastern bracken, grassleaf goldaster, lopsided
table at a depth of more than 80 inches. The indiangrass, dwarf huckleberry, creeping bluestem, and
permeability of Astatula soil is very rapid. The pineland threeawn.
permeability of Apopka soil is rapid to a depth of 64 The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to
inches and is moderate between depths of 64 and 80 most cultivated crops because of droughtiness and the
inches. The available water capacity is very low in rapid leaching of plant nutrients. These soils are well
Astatula soil. In Apopka soil, it is very low to a depth of suited to citrus crops in areas that are relatively free of
about 64 inches and is moderate in the subsoil. Natural freezing temperatures (fig. 7). A ground cover of close-
fertility and the content of organic matter are low in growing plants between tree rows reduces the hazard of
Astatula and Apopka soils.
Astatula and Apopka soils erosion. A specially designed and properly managed
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Tavares and
Pomello soils in small areas. Also included are soils that irrigation system helps to maintain optimum soil moisture
are more wet than Astatula and Apopka soils and have a and ensure maximum yields. Frequent applications of
dark stained subsoil at a depth of 50 inches or more. fertilizer and lime are generally needed to maintain
dark stained subsoil at a depth of 50 inches or more. yields.
The soils in this map unit are used mainly for yields.
homesites and other urban development. They are also The soils in this map unit are moderately well suited to
used as rangeland and pasture or have been left in use as pasture. The available water capacity limits the
natural vegetation. A small acreage is used for citrus production of plants during extended dry periods. Deep-























A: L.""

L





Figure 7.-A citrus grove on Astatula-Apopka fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes. In areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures,
these soils are well suited to citrus crops. The small trees In the left foreground are replacement trees that were planted following the
January 1985 freeze.







24 Soil Survey



rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and scale. However, proportions and soil patterns are
bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly relatively consistent in most delineations of the map unit.
fertilized and limed. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, Typically, Astatula soil has a surface layer of gray fine
and timely deferment of grazing help keep the pasture in sand about 3 inches thick. The next layer, to a depth of
good condition. about 6 inches, is light yellowish brown fine sand. The
The soils in this map unit are well suited to use as underlying material extends to a depth of about 80
homesites and other urban development. They have few inches. It is pale brown fine sand in the upper part and is
limitations. Population growth has resulted in increased very pale brown fine sand in the lower part. In the
construction of houses. If the density of housing is mapped areas are soils that are similar to Astatula fine
moderate or high, a community sewage system is sand, but they have lamellae in the lower part of the
needed to prevent contamination of water supplies by underlying material or have a thick, dark color surface
seepage. The proximity to a stream or canal should be layer.
considered in the placement of a septic tank absorption Typically, Apopka soil has a surface layer of gray fine
field to prevent lateral seepage and ground water sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
pollution. subsurface layer, to a depth of about 20 inches, is yellow
These soils are poorly suited to sewage lagoons, fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 65 inches, is
sanitary landfills, and shallow excavations. The main very pale brown fine sand with a few lamellae. The
limitations are seepage, cutbanks caving, and sandy subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is reddish yellow
texture. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons and landfills sandy clay loam. In the mapped areas are soils that are
with impervious material reduces excessive seepage. similar to Apopka fine sand, but they have a subsoil that
Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored. is within 20 to 40 inches of the surface.
If these soils are used for recreational development, The soils in this map unit have a seasonal high water
the main limitation is droughtiness. During dry periods, table at a depth of more than 80 inches. The
irrigation is needed to maintain lawns and landscaping. permeability of Astatula soil is very rapid. The
The sandy surface layer should be stabilized and an permeability of Apopka soil is rapid to a depth of 65
adequate plant cover should be maintained, inches and is moderate between depths of 65 and 80
These soils are poorly suited to use as habitat for inches. The available water capacity is very low in
openland and woodland wildlife. They are not suited to Astatula soil. In Apopka soil, it is very low to a depth of
habitat for wetland wildlife. about 65 inches and is moderate below that depth.
Common wildlife in the county includes the fox Natural fertility and the content of organic matter are low
squirrel, deer, quail, ground dove, towhee, gopher in Astatula and Apopka soils.
tortoise, pocket gopher, and fence lizard. So much of Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Millhopper and
this community has been converted to citrus groves or Tavares soils in small areas.
urban development that this habitat for wildlife and The soils in this map unit are used mainly for
several species dependent upon it are considered homesites and other urban development. They are also
endangered. used as rangeland and pasture or have been left in
Astatula soil is in capability subclass Vis. The natural vegetation. A small acreage is used for citrus
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 3S. Apopka crops. The natural vegetation consists mostly of bluejack
soil is in capability subclass Ills. The woodland ordination oak, Chapman oak, laurel oak, turkey oak, scattered live
symbol for this soil is 10S. The soils in this map unit are oak, slash pine, and longleaf pine. The understory
in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. includes dogfennel, eastern bracken, grassleaf goldaster,
lopsided indiangrass, dwarf huckleberry, creeping
7-Astatula-Apopka fine sands, 5 to 8 percent bluestem, and pineland threeawn.
slopes. The soils in this map unit are sloping, The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to
excessively drained and well drained. Astatula soil is most cultivated crops because of droughtiness and the
excessively drained, and Apopka soil is well drained, rapid leaching of plant nutrients. These soils are well
These soils are on hillsides on the uplands. The slopes suited to citrus crops in areas that are relatively free of
are smooth to convex. freezing temperatures. A ground cover of close-growing
In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit, Astatula- plants between tree rows reduces the hazard of erosion.
Apopka fine sands, 5 to 8 percent slopes, and soils that A specially designed and properly managed irrigation
are similar make up 77 to 99 percent of the mapped system helps to maintain optimum soil moisture and
area. Dissimilar soils make up about 1 to 23 percent of ensure maximum yields. Frequent applications of
the mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist fertilizer and lime are generally needed.
of about 63 percent Astatula soil and similar soils and 27 The soils in this map unit are moderately well suited to
percent Apopka soil and similar soils. The individual use as pasture. The available water capacity limits the
areas of the soils in this map unit are so intricately mixed production of plants during extended dry periods. Deep-
that it is not practical to map separately at the selected rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and







Seminole County, Florida 25



bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly and 25 percent Apopka soil and similar soils. The
fertilized and limed. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, individual areas of the soils in this map unit are so
and timely deferment of grazing help keep the pasture in intricately mixed that mapping them separately at the
good condition. selected scale is not practical. However, proportions and
The soils in this map unit are well suited to use as soil patterns are relatively consistent in most delineations
homesites. They have few limitations. If these soils are of the map unit.
used for commercial development, slope is the main Typically, Astatula soil has a surface layer of light gray
limitation. Land shaping may be necessary in the more fine sand about 3 inches thick. The underlying material
sloping areas. Population growth has resulted in to a depth of about 80 inches is very pale brown fine
increased construction of houses. If the density of sand. In the mapped areas are soils that are similar to
housing is moderate or high, a community sewage Astatula fine sand, but they have lamellae in the lower
system is needed to prevent contamination of water part of the underlying material.
supplies by seepage. The proximity to a stream or canal Typically, Apopka soil has a surface layer of dark gray
should be considered in the placement of a septic tank fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
absorption field to prevent lateral seepage and ground extends to a depth of about 65 inches. It is very pale
water pollution. brown fine sand in the upper part, and the lower part is
These soils are poorly suited to use for sewage very pale brown fine sand with a few thin lamellae. The
lagoons, sanitary landfills, and shallow excavations. The subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is brownish yellow
main limitations are seepage, cutbanks caving, and sandy clay loam. In the mapped areas are soils that are
sandy texture. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons and similar to Apopka fine sand, but they have a subsoil
landfills with impervious material reduces excessive within 20 to 40 inches of the surface.
seepage. Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be The soils in this map unit have a seasonal high water
shored. table at a depth of 80 inches. The permeability of
If these soils are used for recreational development, Astatula soil is very rapid. The permeability of Apopka
the main limitation is droughtiness. During dry periods, soil is rapid to a depth of 65 inches and moderate
irrigation is needed to maintain lawns and landscaping, between depths of 65 and 80 inches. The available
The sandy surface layer should be stabilized and an water capacity is very low in Astatula soil. In Apopka soil,
adequate plant cover should be maintained, it is very low to a depth of 65 inches and is moderate
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use as below that depth. Natural fertility and content of organic
habitat for openland and woodland wildlife. They are not matter are low in Astatula and Apopka soils.
suited to use as habitat for wetland wildlife. Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Millhopper
Common wildlife in the county includes the fox soils in small areas.
squirrel, deer, quail, ground dove, towhee, gopher The soils in this map unit are used mainly for
tortoise, pocket gopher, and fence lizard. So much of homesites and other urban development. They are also
this community has been converted to citrus groves or used as rangeland and pasture or have been left in
urban development that this habitat for wildlife and natural vegetation. The natural vegetation consists
several species dependent upon it are considered mostly of bluejack oak, Chapman oak, laurel oak, turkey
endangered. oak, scattered live oak, slash pine, and longleaf pine.
Astatula soil is in capability subclass Vis. The The understory includes dogfennel, eastern bracken,
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 3S. Apopka grassleaf goldaster, lopsided indiangrass, dwarf

soil is in capability subclass IVs. The woodland huckleberry, creeping bluestem, and pineland threeawn.
ordination symbol for this soil is 10S. The soils in this The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to
map unit are in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range most cultivated crops because of droughtiness and the
site. rapid leaching of plant nutrients. These soils are well
suited to citrus crops in areas that are relatively free of
8-Astatula-Apopka fine sands, 8 to 12 percent freezing temperatures. A ground cover of close-growing
slopes. The soils in this map unit are strongly sloping plants between tree rows reduces the hazard of erosion.
and excessively drained and well drained. Astatula soil is A specially designed and properly managed sprinkler
excessively drained, and Apopka soil is well drained, irrigation system helps to maintain optimum soil moisture
These soils are on hillsides on the uplands. The slopes and ensure maximum yields. Frequent applications of
are short and complex. fertilizer and lime are generally needed to maintain
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Astatula- yields.
Apopka fine sands, 8 to 12 percent slopes, and soils that The soils in this map unit are moderately well suited to
are similar make up 90 to 99 percent of the mapped use as pasture. The available water capacity limits the
areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 1 to 10 percent of production of plants during extended dry periods. Deep-
most mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
consist of about 72 percent Astatula soil and similar soils bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly








26 Soil Survey



fertilized and limed. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit, Basinger
and timely deferment of grazing help keep the pasture in and Delray fine sands and soils that are similar make up
good condition. 80 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils
The soils in this map unit are moderately well suited to make up about 1 to 20 percent of most mapped areas.
use for homesites and small commercial buildings. The Generally, the mapped areas consist of about 60 percent
main limitation is slope. Land shaping may be necessary Basinger soil and similar soils and 32 percent Delray soil
in the more sloping areas. Population growth has and similar soils. Some areas are made up of Basinger
resulted in increased construction of houses. If the soil and similar soils, some are made up of Delray soil
density of housing is moderate or high, a community and similar soils, and some areas are made up of both
sewage system is needed to prevent contamination of of these soils. They do not occur in a regular repeating
water supplies by seepage. The proximity to a stream or pattern. The relative proportion of combinations of the
canal should be considered in the placement of a septic soils vary. The individual areas of the soils in this map
tank absorption field to prevent lateral seepage and unit are large enough to map separately; however, in
ground water pollution. The steepness of slope is a considering the present and predicted use, they were
concern in installing septic tank absorption fields. Lateral mapped as one map unit.
lines should be constructed on the contour. Erosion is a Typically, Basinger soil has a surface layer of very
hazard in the steeper areas. Only the part of the site that dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
is used for construction should be disturbed. Preserving layer, to a depth of about 30 inches, is light gray fine
the existing plant cover during construction helps to sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 50 inches, is dark
control erosion. Establishing and maintaining plant cover grayish brown and light gray fine sand that has common
can be achieved by fertilizing, seeding, mulching, and weakly cemented bodies. The substratum to a depth of
shaping of the slopes, about 80 inches is gray fine sand. In the mapped areas
These soils are poorly suited to use for sewage are soils similar to Basinger soil, but they have a dark
lagoons, sanitary landfills, and shallow excavations. The color subsoil within 20 inches of the surface.
main limitations are seepage, cutbanks caving, sandy Typically, Delray soil has a surface layer of black fine
texture, and slope. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoons sand about 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
and landfills with impervious material reduces excessive depth of about 50 inches, is light gray fine sand. The
seepage. Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be subsoil to a depth of 80 inches is gray sandy loam. In
shored. the mapped areas are soils that are similar to Delray soil,
If these soils are used for recreational development, but they do not have a loamy subsoil, or they have a
the main limitation is droughtiness. During dry periods, subsoil that is within 20 to 40 inches of the surface.
irrigation is needed to maintain lawns and landscaping. In most years, the soils in this map unit have a
The sandy surface layer should be stabilized and an seasonal high water table within 12 inches of the surface
adequate plant cover should be maintained, for 6 months or more. The permeability of Basinger soil
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use as is rapid. The permeability of Delray soil is rapid in the
habitat for openland and woodland wildlife. These soils upper part and moderate in the lower part. The available
are not suited to use as habitat for wetland wildlife, water capacity is low in Basinger soil. In Delray soil, the
Common wildlife in the county includes the fox available water capacity is moderate in the surface layer
squirrel, deer, quail, ground dove, towhee, gopher and subsoil and low in the subsurface layer. Natural
tortoise, pocket gopher, and fence lizard. So much of fertility and the content of organic matter are low in
this community has been converted to citrus groves or Basinger soil, and they are moderate in Delray soil. The
urban development that this habitat for wildlife and surface layer of Basinger and Delray soils remains wet
several species dependent upon it are considered for long periods after heavy rains.
endangered. Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Wabasso and
Astatula soil is in capability subclass Vis. The Malabar soils in small areas.
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 3S. Apopka In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left
soil is in capability subclass IVs. The woodland in natural vegetation or have been cleared and used as
ordination symbol for this soil is 10S. The soils in this rangeland and pasture. Some areas have been drained
map unit are in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range and are used for cultivated crops. The natural vegetation
site. consists mostly of cabbage palm, scattered live and
laurel oaks, sweetgum, and slash and longleaf pines.
9-Basinger and Delray fine sands. The soils in this Some areas are dominated by maidencane, giant
map unit are nearly level and poorly drained and very cutgrass, sawgrass, and rushes.
poorly drained. Basinger soil is poorly drained and Delray The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to
soil is very poorly drained. These soils are in sloughs cultivated crops and citrus crops because of excessive
and poorly defined drainageways. The slopes are wetness. A water control system should be established
dominantly less than 2 percent, and maintained, such as dikes, ditches, and pumps.







Seminole County, Florida 27



These soils are fairly well suited to truck crops and other the mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist
speciality crops; however, an adequate drainage system of about 58 percent Basinger soil and similar soils, 15
is needed. Ditches and tile drains can be used to lower percent Samsula soil and similar soils, and 12 percent
the high water table. Frequent applications of fertilizer Hontoon soil and similar soils. Some areas are made up
and lime are generally needed to maintain yields, of Basinger soil and similar soils, some are made up of
If a water control system is established and Samsula soil and similar soils, some are made up of
maintained, the soils in this map unit are well suited to Hontoon soil and similar soils, and some areas are made
use as pasture. Wetness limits the choice of plants that up of all of these soils. They do not occur in a regular
can be grown on these soils and restricts grazing during repeating pattern. The relative proportion of
periods of excessive wetness. Grazing when the soil is combinations of the soils vary. The individual areas of
wet results in compaction of the surface layer and the soils in this map unit are large enough to map
damage to the plant community. Proper stocking, pasture separately; however, in considering the present and
rotation, and timely deferment of grazing help keep the predicted use, they were mapped as one map unit.
pasture in good condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed Typically, Basinger soil has a surface layer of very
for optimum growth of grasses and legumes. dark gray mucky fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use for subsurface layer, to a depth of about 18 inches, is light
homesites and other urban development. The main gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 35
limitation is wetness. To overcome wetness, a water inches, is dark grayish brown and light brownish gray fine
control system is needed to provide for subsurface sand. The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is
drainage and to remove excess surface water. Fill light gray fine sand. In the mapped areas are soils that
material should be added to make these soils suitable are similar to Basinger soil, but they have a thick dark
for most urban uses. Septic tank absorption fields do not surface layer, they do not have a brownish color
function properly during rainy periods because of subsurface layer, or they have a yellow or yellowish
wetness.
weness brown subsurface layer.
These soils are poorly suited to use for sewage Typically, Samsula soil has a surface layer of muck
lagoons or sanitary landfills. The main limitations are about 30 inches thick. It is dark reddish brown in the
seepage and wetness. These limitations are generally upper part and black in the lower part. Below that layer,
costly to overcome. upper pat and black in the lower part Below that aer
If these soils are used for recreational development, to a depth of about 45 inches, is dark gray fine sand.
the main limitation is wetness. Good drainage is needed The underlying material to a depth of about 80 inches is
on paths and trails. Erosion and sedimentation can be gray fine sand. In the mapped areas are soils that are
controlled and the area can be enhanced by maintaining similar to Samsula soil, but the organic material in these
adequate plant cover. soils is less decomposed than that in the Samsula soil,
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use as or it is less than 16 inches thick.
habitat for openland and woodland wildlife. These soils Typically, Hontoon soil has a surface layer of dark
are moderately suited to use as habitat for wetland reddish brown muck about 18 inches thick. The next
wildlife, layer, to a depth of about 48 inches, is very dark brown
Common wildlife in the county includes deer, turkeys, muck. The lower layer to a depth of about 80 inches is
armadillos, skunks, sparrows, quail, woodpeckers, black muck. In the mapped areas are soils that are
warblers, rattlesnakes, frogs, and bobcat. Rotational similar to Hontoon soil, but the organic material in these
grazing, controlled burning, and maintenance of natural soils is less decomposed than that in the Hontoon soil.
water levels can improve habitat for wildlife. In most years, the undrained areas of the soils in this
Basinger soil is in capability subclass IVw. The map unit are ponded for 6 to 9 months or more. If
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W. Delray drained, the organic material in Samsula and Hontoon
soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The woodland soils initially shrinks and then subsides further as a result
ordination symbol for this soil is 11W. The soils in this of compaction and oxidation. These losses are more
map unit are in the Slough range site. rapid during the first 2 years. If the soils in this map unit
are drained, organic material continues to subside at the
10-Basinger, Samsula, and Hontoon soils, rate of about 1 inch per year. The lower the water table,
depressional. The soils in this map unit are nearly level the more rapid the loss. The permeability is rapid in
and very poorly drained. These soils are in swamps and Basinger, Samsula, and Hontoon soils. The available
depressions. The slopes are dominantly less than 2 water capacity is low in Basinger soil. It is very high in
percent. the organic material of Samsula and Hontoon soils and
In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit, Basinger, is very low in the sandy part of Samsula soil.
Samsula, and Hontoon soils, depressional, and soils that Dissimilar soils included in mapping are EauGallie,
are similar make up 76 to 93 percent of the mapped Floridana, Smyrna, Myakka, St. Johns, Felda, and
areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 7 to 24 percent of Holopaw soils in small areas. EauGallie, Floridana,







28 Soil Survey



Felda, and Holopaw soils have a loamy subsoil. Smyrna, 11-Basinger and Smyrna fine sands,
Myakka, and St. Johns soils have a sandy subsoil. depressional. The soils in this map unit are are nearly
In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left level and very poorly drained. These soils are in
in natural vegetation. Some areas have been drained depressions. The slopes are dominantly less than 2
and are used as rangeland and pasture. Other areas percent.
have been filled and are used for homesites or other In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Basinger
urban development. The natural vegetation consists and Smyrna fine sands, depressional, and soils that are
mostly of mixed stands of cypress, red maple, similar make up 83 to 98 percent of the mapped areas.
sweetgum, cabbage palm, sweetbay, and blackgum. The Dissimilar soils make up about 2 to 17 percent of the
understory includes cutgrass, maidencane, Jamaica mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of
sawgrass, sedges, ferns, and other water-tolerant about 63 percent Basinger soil and similar soils and 28
grasses, percent Smyrna soil and similar soils. Some areas are
The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to made up of Basinger soil and similar soils, some are
most cultivated crops and citrus crops because of made up of Smyrna soil and similar soils, and some
ponding and excessive wetness. An adequate drainage areas are made up of both of these soils. They do not
system is needed in most areas to remove excess occur in a regular repeating pattern. The relative
surface water and to reduce soil wetness, but suitable proportion of combinations of the soils vary. The
outlets generally are not available. However, if intensive individual areas of the soils in this map unit are large
management practices and soil-improving measures are enough to map separately; however, in considering the
used and a water control system is installed to remove present and predicted use, they were mapped as one
excess water rapidly, these soils have fair suitability for map unit.
some vegetable crops. Management practices should Typically, Basinger soil has a surface layer of black
include seedbed preparation and crop rotation. Crop mucky fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
residue left on or in the soil and a cropping system that layer, to a depth of about 15 inches, is light gray fine
includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 25 inches, is dark
help to maintain fertility and tilth. Most crops and pasture grayish brown and light gray fine sand. The substratum
plants respond well to fertilization, to a depth of about 80 inches is grayish brown fine sand.
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use as In the mapped areas are soils that are similar to
pasture; however, if a water control system is installed to Basinger soil, but they do not have a mixed, dark grayish
remove excess surface water after a heavy rain, brown and light gray subsoil, or they have a subsoil that
suitability is fair. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and is yellow or brownish yellow.
white clover grow well on these soils. Maintaining the Typically, Smyrna soil has a surface layer of black fine
high water table close to the surface reduces excessive sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
oxidation of the organic layers. Proper grazing practices, depth of about 15 inches, is light gray fine sand. The
weed control, and fertilizer are needed to obtain high upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 17 inches,
quality forage. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and is very dark grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a
restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep the depth of about 25 inches, is dark brown fine sand that
pasture and the soil in good condition. has distinct black mottles. The upper part of the
In their natural state, the soils in this map unit are not substratum, to a depth of about 40 inches, is light
suited to use for homesites, commercial or recreational yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of
development, or sanitary facilities. The main limitations about 80 inches is light gray and gray fine sand. In the
are ponding, excess humus, low strength, and mapped areas are soils that are similar to Smyrna soil,
subsidence. but they have a thick, dark surface layer or have a
The soils in this map unit are not suited to use as subsoil that is at a depth of 30 to 50 inches of the
habitat for openland wildlife. They are poorly suited to surface.
use as habitat for woodland wildlife and are well suited In most years, undrained areas of the soils in this map
to use as habitat for wetland wildlife, unit are ponded for 6 to 9 months. The permeability of
Common wildlife in the county includes the otter, Basinger soil is rapid. The permeability of Smyrna soil is
raccoon, gray squirrel, wood duck, limpkin, and alligator, rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, moderate or
In addition, animals in surrounding habitats often use moderately rapid in the subsoil, and rapid in the
these areas for food and cover and as travel lanes substratum. The available water capacity is low in
between developed areas. Basinger soil. The available water capacity is low in the
The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass surface and subsurface layers, high in the subsoil, and
Vllw. The woodland ordination symbol for these soils is low in the substratum in Smyrna soil. Natural fertility and
2W. These soils are in the Freshwater Marshes and the content of organic matter are low in Basinger and
Ponds range site. Smyrna soils.







Seminole County, Florida 29



Dissimilar soils included in mapping are EauGallie and are made up mostly of Terra Ceia soil and similar soils,
Malabar soils in small areas. and other areas are made up of substantial amounts of
In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left both of these soils. They do not occur in a regular
in natural vegetation. Some areas have been drained repeating pattern. The relative proportion of
and are used as rangeland and pasture. The natural combinations of the soils vary. The individual areas of
vegetation consists of mixed stands of cypress, soils in this map unit are large enough to map
sweetgum, blackgum, and scattered pond pine. The separately; however, in considering the present and
understory includes chalky bluestem, blue maidencane, predicted use, they were mapped as one map unit.
and other water-tolerant grasses and sedges. Typically, Canova soil has a surface layer of black
The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to muck about 10 inches thick. Below that layer, to a depth
most cultivated crops and citrus crops because of of about 15 inches, is black fine sand. The subsurface
ponding and excessive wetness. An adequate drainage layer, to a depth of about 27 inches, is gray fine sand.
system is needed in most areas to remove excess The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 30
surface water and to reduce soil wetness, but suitable inches, is dark gray sandy loam that is mottled and has
outlets generally are not available. However, if intensive tongues of the overlying sandy material extending into it.
management practices and soil-improving measures are The middle part, to a depth of about 38 inches, is dark
used and a water control system is installed to remove greenish gray sandy clay loam. The lower part to a depth
excess water rapidly, these soils are fairly suited to some of about 80 inches is greenish gray sandy clay loam.
vegetable crops. Management practices, such as crop This part contains common lenses of sandy material and
rotation and seedbed preparation that include bedding of common light gray carbonatic material. In the mapped
rows, are needed. Crop residue left on or in the soil and areas are soils that are similar to Canova soil, but they
a cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or a do not have a muck surface.
grass-legume mixture help to maintain fertility and tilth. Typically, Terra Ceia soil has a surface layer of black
Most crops and pasture plants respond well to muck about 7 inches thick. The next layer to a depth of
fertilization, about 80 inches is very dark brown muck. In the mapped
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to pasture. areas are soils that are similar to Terra Ceia soil, but
The main limitations are ponding and excessive wetness. they have loamy material within 51 inches of the surface.
Wetness limits the choice of plants that can be grown on In most years, undrained areas of the soils in this map
these soils. It also restricts grazing during periods of unit are ponded for 6 to 9 months or more. Most areas
excessive wetness. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, are artificially drained through drainage tiles and surface
and restricted grazing during wet periods help keep the ditches. In drained areas, the water table is controlled at
pasture and the soil in good condition. a depth of 10 to 36 inches or is controlled according to
In their naturalstate, the soils in this map unit are not the needs of the crop. Terra Ceia and Canova soils have
suited to use for homesites, commercial and recreational high subsidence potential. If drained, the organic material
development, or sanitary facilities. The main limitations in these soils initially shrinks on drying and then subsides
are ponding and seepage. further as a result of compaction and oxidation. These
The soils in this map unit are not suited to use as losses are more rapid during the first 2 years. If the soils
habitat for openland wildlife. They are very poorly suited in this map unit are drained, the organic material
to use as habitat for woodland wildlife and are well continues to subside at the rate of about 1 inch per year.
suited to use as habitat for wetland wildlife. The lower the water table, the more rapid the loss.
Many animals that are native to Seminole County use The permeability is rapid in the upper part of Canova
these areas for at least part of their life cycle. Common soil and is moderate or moderately rapid in the lower
wildlife in the county includes wading birds, waterfowl, part. The permeability of Terra Ceia soil is rapid, but
fish, frogs, snakes, turtles, otters, and raccoons. internal drainage is impeded by the shallow water table.
The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass The available water capacity is high in the organic
Vllw. The woodland ordination symbol for these soils is surface layer in Canova soil, is very low in the sandy
2W. These soils are in the Freshwater Marshes and surface layer, and is moderate in the subsoil and
Ponds range site. substratum. The available water capacity is very high in
Terra Ceia soil. Natural fertility is medium in Canova soil
12-Canova and Terra Ceia mucks. The soils in this and high in Terra Ceia soil. The content of organic
map unit are level and very poorly drained. These soils matter is high in Canova soil and very high in Terra Ceia
are in depressions and freshwater marshes. The slopes soil.
are dominantly less than 1 percent. In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been
This map unit consists of about 75 percent Canova drained and are used for cultivation of truck crops, which
soil and soils that are similar and about 25 percent Terra include celery, cabbage, and watercress (fig. 8); and
Ceia soil and soils that are similar. Some areas are some areas are used for improved pasture. The natural
made up mostly of Canova soil and similar soils, some vegetation consists of Carolina willow, primrose willow,







30 Soil Survey



buttonbush, cattail, blue maidencane, Jamaica sawgrass, to remove the excess surface water. Tile drainage can
and other water-tolerant grasses. In a few areas, the be used to lower the water table if suitable outlets are
natural vegetation consists of cypress and swamp available. Soil-improving crops and crop residue left on
hardwoods, or in the soil reduce the hazard of erosion and maintain
Areas without water control are not suited to the content of organic matter. Fertilizer and lime should
cultivation. If a water control system is established and be applied according to the needs of the crop.
maintained that includes dikes, ditches, and pumps, the If a water control system is established and
soils in this map unit are well suited to many vegetable maintained, the soils in this map unit are moderately well
crops and also to growing watercress. A specially suited to pasture. Wetness limits the period of grazing.
designed water control system is needed to remove the Excess surface water can be removed from most areas
excess water when crops are on the soil and to maintain by field drains. The water control system should maintain
the water table near the surface to prevent subsidence the water table near the surface to prevent excess
during periods of nonuse. Proper row management, subsidence of the organic material. Proper stocking,
lateral ditches or tiles, and well constructed outlets help pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during wet

































Fure .-This field of watercress rowing on Canova and Terra Ca mucks.







Figure 8.-This field of watercress Is growing on Canova and Terra Ceia mucks.







Seminole County, Florida 31



periods help keep the pasture and the soil in good have a subsoil within 30 inches of the surface or at a
condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum depth of more than 50 inches.
growth of grasses and legumes. The soils in this map unit have a seasonal high water
In their natural state, the soils in this map unit are not table within 12 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months
suited to use for homesites, commercial and recreational during most years. The permeability of EauGallie soil is
development, or sanitary facilities. The main limitations rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, moderate or
are ponding, subsidence, excess humus, and seepage. moderately rapid in the sandy part of the subsoil, and
The soils in this map unit are moderately suited to use moderately slow in the loamy part. The permeability of
as habitat for openland wildlife. They are not suited to Immokalee soil is rapid in the surface and subsurface
use as habitat for woodland wildlife and are well suited layers and is moderate the subsoil. The available water
to use as habitat for wetland wildlife, capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers
Many animals that are native to Seminole County use of the EauGallie soil and moderate in the subsoil. The
these areas for at least part of their life cycle. Common available water capacity is very low in the surface and
wildlife in the county includes wading birds, waterfowl, subsurface layers of Immokalee soil and is moderate to
fish, frogs, snakes, turtles, otters, and raccoons. high in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low in EauGallie
The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass and Immokalee soils. The content of organic matter is
moderate to moderately low in EauGallie soil and low in
IIIw, if drained, and in VIIw, if undrained. The woodland modae o o o o o
ordination symbol for these soils is 2W. The soils in this mmokaee soi.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Malabar soils
map unit are in the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds in small areas.
range site. In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left
13-EauGallie and Immokalee fine sands. The soils in natural vegetation. In a few areas, these soils are
used for cultivated crops and as rangeland and pasture.
in this map unit are nearly level and poorly drains on the fatoods. The The natural vegetation consists mostly of longleaf and
These soils are on broad plains on the flatwoods. The slash pines and scattered live and laurel oaks. The
slopes are dominantly less than 2 percent. understory includes saw palmetto, running oak, inkberry,
In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, EauGallie fetterbush, creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, lopsided
and Immokalee fine sands and soils that are similar indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and waxmyrtle.
make up 78 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to
Dissimilar soils make up about 1 to 22 percent of most most cultivated crops because of wetness and the sandy
mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of texture in the root zone. If a water control system is
about 56 percent EauGallie soil and about 35 percent established and maintained and soil-improving measures
Immokalee soil and similar soils. Some areas are made are used, this soil is moderately suited to most cultivated
up of EauGallie soil, some are made up of Immokalee crops. A water control system is needed to remove
soil and similar soils, and some areas are made up of excess water in wet periods and to provide for
both of these soils. They do not occur in a regular subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Crop residue left on
repeating pattern. The relative proportion of or in the soil and a cropping system that includes
combinations of the soils vary. The individual areas of grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture help to
the soils in this map unit are large enough to map conserve moisture, to maintain fertility, and to control
separately; however, in considering the present and erosion. These soils are moderately well suited to citrus
predicted use, they were mapped as one map unit. crops in areas that are relatively free of freezing
Typically, EauGallie soil has a surface layer of very temperatures. The main limitation is wetness. A properly
dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface managed water control system is needed to maintain the
layer, to a depth of about 24 inches, is light gray fine water table at an effective depth. Proper arrangement
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about and bedding of rows, lateral ditches or tiles, and well
54 inches, is black, very dark grayish brown, and pale constructed outlets help to remove excess surface water
brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of about 80 and to lower the water table. Frequent applications of
inches is gray sandy loam. fertilizer and lime are generally needed to maintain
Typically, Immokalee soil has a surface layer of dark yields.
gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of The soils in this map unit are well suited to use as
the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 7 inches, is pasture. A water control system is needed to remove
gray fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 42 excessive surface water. Pangolagrass, improved
inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the bahiagrass, and white clover grow well on these soils.
subsoil, to a depth of about 62 inches, is black fine sand. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing
The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is dark during wet periods help keep the pasture and the soil in
yellowish brown fine sand. In the mapped areas are soils good condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for
that are similar to Immokalee fine sand, but these soils optimum growth of grasses and legumes.








32 Soil Survey



The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use for salt in the lower part of the subsoil restricts root
sanitary facilities, building sites, or recreational development and limits the amount of water available to
development. The main limitations are seepage and plants. Natural fertility is low, and the content of organic
wetness. Water control, including drainage outlets, is matter is moderate.
needed to overcome wetness. Fill material should be In most areas, this soil has been left in natural
added to make these soils suitable for most urban use. vegetation and is used as rangeland. The natural
Septic tank absorption fields may not function properly vegetation consists of seashore dropseed, seashore
during rainy periods because of wetness. Septic tank paspalum, switchgrass, and seashore saltgrass. Other
absorption fields are mounded in most areas because of native plants include sand cordgrass, glasswort, and sea
the high water table. If the density of housing is purslane.
moderate or high, a community sewage system may be This Felda soil generally is not suited to most
needed to prevent contamination of water supplies by cultivated crops, tame pasture grasses, and citrus crops
seepage. Sealing or lining of sanitary landfills with because of wetness, content of salt, and flooding.
impervious soil material reduces excess seepage. Under natural conditions, this soil is moderately well
Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored. The suited to rangeland. Applying heavy stock density when
sandy surface layer should be stabilized for recreational the soil is wet results in compaction of the surface layer
use. and damage to the plant community. High concentration
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use as of salt in the subsoil on microsites within this map unit
habitat for openland, woodland, and wetland wildlife, limits the production of plants that are suitable for the
Common wildlife in the county includes deer, turkeys, range. Proper stocking, rotational grazing, and restricted
armadillos, skunks, sparrows, quail, woodpeckers, grazing during wet periods help keep the range site and
warblers, rattlesnakes, frogs, and bobcats. Rotational the soil in good condition.
grazing, controlled burning, and maintenance of natural This soil is not suited to use as habitat for openland
water levels can improve habitat for wildlife, and woodland wildlife. It is well suited to use as habitat
The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass for wetland wildlife.
IVw. The woodland ordination symbol for EauGallie soil This soil is not suited to use for homesites,
is 10W and is 8W for Immokalee soil. These soils are in commercial and recreational development, or sanitary
the South Florida Flatwoods range site. facilities. The main limitations are wetness and seepage.
Flooding is a hazard.
14-Felda mucky fine sand, saline, frequently This Felda soil is in capability subclass Vw. This soil
flooded. This soil is nearly level and is poorly drained. It has not been assigned a woodland ordination symbol. It
is on the flood plains and is frequently flooded for very is in the Salt Marsh range site.
long periods following prolonged, high intensity rains.
The slopes are dominantly less than 2 percent. 15-Felda and Manatee mucky fine sands,
This map unit consists of about 90 percent Felda soil depressional. The soils in this map unit are nearly level
and about 10 percent of soils that are similar to Felda and very poorly drained. These soils are in depressions.
soil. Undrained areas are ponded. The slopes are dominantly
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black mucky less than 2 percent.
fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Felda and
a depth of about 25 inches, is gray and light gray fine Manatee mucky fine sands, depressional, and soils that
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about are similar make up 87 to 99 percent of the mapped
39 inches, is gray sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 1 to 13 percent of
depth of about 49 inches, is gray sandy loam that has the mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist
common lenses and pockets of fine sand and loamy fine of about 56 percent Felda soil and similar soils and 38
sand. The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is percent Manatee soil and similar soils. Some areas are
gray loamy sand. In the mapped areas are soils that are made up of Felda soil and similar soils, some are made
similar to Felda soil, but these soils have a surface layer up of Manatee soil and similar soils, and some areas are
that is 7 to 10 inches thick. made up of both of these soils. They do not occur in a
In most years, this soil has a seasonal high water regular repeating pattern. The relative proportion of
table within 12 inches of the surface for 3 to 6 months or combinations of the soils vary. The individual areas of
more. This soil is subject to frequent flooding for 1 the soils in this map unit are large enough to map
month to 4 months or more during rainy periods. The separately; however, in considering the present and
permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface predicted use, they were mapped as one map unit.
layers, moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil, and Typically, Felda soil has a surface layer of very dark
rapid in the substratum. The available water capacity is grayish brown mucky fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
very low in the surface and subsurface layer and in the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 28 inches, is light
substratum and low in the subsoil. The concentration of brownish gray and gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a







Seminole County, Florida 33



depth of about 46 inches, is grayish brown sandy clay The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use as
loam and gray loam fine sand. The substratum to a pasture; however, they are fairly well suited to this use if
depth of about 80 inches is light gray fine sand. In the a water control system is installed to remove excess
mapped areas are soils that are similar to Felda mucky surface water after heavy rains. Pangolagrass, improved
fine sands, but these soils have a yellowish brown bahiagrass, and white clover grow well on these soils.
subsoil or have a surface layer that is 7 to 10 inches Proper grazing practices, weed control, and fertilizer are
thick. needed to obtain high quality forage. Proper stocking,
Typically, Manatee soil has a surface layer that is 19 pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during wet
inches thick. It is black mucky fine sand in the upper part periods help keep the pasture and the soil in good
and very dark gray loamy sand in the lower part. The condition.
subsoil extends to a depth of about 50 inches. It is dark In their natural state, the soils in this map unit are not
gray sandy loam in the upper part and dark gray fine suited to use for homesites, commercial or recreational
sandy loam in the lower part. The substratum to a depth development, or sanitary facilities. The main limitations
of about 80 inches is gray loamy fine sand. In the are ponding and seepage.
mapped areas are soils that are similar to Manatee The soils in this map unit are not suited to use as
mucky fine sand, but these soils have a surface layer habitat for openland wildlife. They are very poorly suited
that is 7 to 10 inches thick, or they have a clayey to use as habitat for woodland wildlife and are well
subsoil. suited to use as habitat for wetland wildlife.
In most years, undrained areas of the soils in this map Common wildlife in the county includes the otter,
unit are ponded for 6 to 9 months or more each year. raccoon, gray squirrel, wood duck, limpkin, and alligator.
The permeability of Felda soil is rapid in the surface and In addition, animals in surrounding habitats often use
subsurface layers and in the subtratum and is moderate these areas for food and cover and as travel lanes
or moderately rapid in the subsoil. The permeability of between developed areas.
Manatee soil is moderately rapid in the surface layer ande so n tnit are in capability subclass
is moderate in the subsoil. The available water capacity. The solstmap unit ar in csmbol fr souclass
of Felda soil is low in all other layers except the subsoil Vlw. The woodland ordination symbol for these soils is
where it is moderate. The available water capacity of 2W. They are in the Freshwater Mashes and Ponds
Manatee soil is high in the surface layer and moderate in range site.
the subsoil. Natural fertility is low in Felda and Manateee s is sil is
soils. The content of organic matter is moderate in Felda 16-lmmokalee sand. This soil is nearly level and
soil and high in Manatee soil. poorly drained. It is on broad plains on the flatwoods.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Delray and The slope are dominantly less than 2 percent.
Wabasso soils in small areas. In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Immokalee
In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left sand and soils that are similar make up 81 to 99 percent
in natural vegetation and are used as rangeland. In other of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 1 to
areas, fill material has been added, and these areas are 19 percent of the mapped areas.
used for homesites or other urban development. The Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray
natural vegetation consists of mixed stands of cypress, sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer extends
red maple, sweetgum, blackgum, sweetbay, and cabbage to a depth of about 36 inches. It is light gray fine sand in
palms. The understory includes cutgrass, maidencane, the upper part and white fine sand in the lower part. The
Jamaica sawgrass, sedges, ferns, and other water- subsoil extends to a depth of about 56 inches. It is black
tolerant grasses. fine sand in the upper part and dark brown fine sand in
The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to the lower part. The substratum to a depth of about 80
most cultivated crops and citrus crops because of inches is brown fine sand. In the mapped areas are soils
ponding and excessive wetness. An adequate drainage that are are similar to Immokalee sand but have a
system is needed in most areas to remove excess subsoil within 10 to 20 inches of the surface, or they do
surface water and to reduce soil wetness, but suitable not have a subsoil.
outlets generally are not available. However, if intensive During most years, this soil has a seasonal high water
management practices and soil-improving measures are table within 12 inches and the surface for 1 month to 4
used and a water control system is installed to remove months. The permeability is rapid in the surface and
excess water rapidly, this map unit is fairly well suited to subsurface layers and in the substratum and is moderate
some vegetable crops. Management practices should in the subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the
include seedbed preparation and crop rotation. Crop surface layer, very low in the subsurface layer and
residue left on or in the soil and a cropping system that substratum, and high in the subsoil. Natural fertility and
includes grasses, legumes, or a grass-legume mixture the content of organic matter are low.
help to maintain fertility and tilth. Most crops and pasture Dissimilar soils included in mapping are EauGallie soils
plants respond well to fertilization, in small areas. Also included are soils that are slightly






34 Soil Survey



better drained than Immokalee soil and have a subsoil at water table. Crop residue left on or near the surface
a depth of more than 50 inches. reduces runoff and helps to maintain soil tilth and the
In most areas, this soil has been left in natural content of organic matter. This soil is well suited to citrus
vegetation. A few areas are used for cultivated crops crops in areas that are relatively free of freezing
and citrus crops, as rangeland and pasture, or for temperatures. An adequate drainage system is needed.
homesites and other urban development. The natural Proper arrangement and bedding of rows, lateral ditches
vegetation consists mostly of longleaf pine and slash or tiles, and well constructed outlets help to remove
pine and live oak and water oak. The understory excess surface water and to lower the water table. A
includes saw palmetto, running oak, inkberry, fetterbush, ground cover of close-growing plants between tree rows
creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland reduces the hazard of erosion. Frequent applications of
threeawn, chalky bluestem, and waxmyrtle. fertilizer and lime are generally needed.
Under natural conditions, this Immokalee soil is poorly This soil is well suited to pasture. If a water control
suited to cultivated crops because of wetness and the system is established and maintained, the excessive
sandy texture in the root zone. However, if a water water on the surface can be removed. Pangolagrass,
control system is installed and soil-improving measures improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well on this
are used, this soil is fairly suited to many vegetable soil. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and restricted
crops (fig. 9). If suitable drainage outlets are available, grazing during wet periods help keep the pasture and the
lateral ditches and tile drains can be used to lower the




































Figure 9.-This well managed field of cabbage is on Immokalee sand. This soil Is well suited to this use If a water control system is
Installed and properly managed.







Seminole County, Florida 35



soil in good condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for Typically, Samsula soil has a surface layer of dark
optimum growth of grasses and legumes. reddish brown and black muck about 26 inches thick.
This soil is poorly suited to sanitary facilities, building Below that layer, to a depth of about 30 inches, is very
sites, or recreational development. The main limitations dark gray mucky fine sand. The underlying material to a
are wetness, seepage, and sandy texture. Water control, depth of about 80 inches is grayish brown fine sand. In
including drainage outlets, is needed to overcome the mapped areas are soils that are similar to Samsula
wetness. Fill material should be added to make this soil soil, but the organic matter in these soils is not as
suitable for most urban uses. Septic tank absorption decomposed as in the Samsula soil.
fields are mounded in most areas because of the high Typically, Sanibel soil has a surface layer of black
water table. If the density of housing is moderate or high, muck about 6 inches thick. Below that layer, to a depth
a community sewage system is needed to prevent of about 8 inches, is black mucky fine sand. The upper
contamination of water supplies by seepage. Sealing or part of the underlying material, to a depth of about 28
lining of sanitary landfills with impervious soil material inches, is dark grayish brown fine sand. The lower part
reduces excess seepage. Sidewalls of shallow to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray fine sand.
excavations should be shored. The sandy surface layer Undrained areas of the soils in this map unit are
should be stabilized for recreational use. ponded for 6 to 9 months or more except during
This soil is poorly suited to use as habitat for extended dry periods. If drained, the organic material in
openland, woodland, and wetland wildlife, these soils initially shrinks and then subsides further as a
Common wildlife in the county includes deer, turkeys, result of compaction and oxidation. These losses are
armadillos, skunks, sparrows, quail, woodpeckers, more rapid during the first 2 years. If the soils are
warblers, rattlesnakes, frogs, and bobcats. Rotational drained, the organic material continues to subside at the
grazing, controlled burning, and maintenance of natural rate of about 1 inch per year. The lower the high water
water levels can improve habitat for wildlife, table, the more rapid the loss. The permeability of
This Immokalee soil is in capability subclass IVw. The Brighton, Samsula, and Sanibel soils is rapid. The
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W. This soil available water capacity is very high in the organic
is in the South Florida Flatwoods range site. materials of these soils and is moderate to low in the
sandy underlying material. The natural fertility and
17-Brighton, Samsula, and Sanibel mucks. The content of organic matter in these soils are very high.
soils in this map unit are nearly level and very poorly Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Basinger and
drained. These soils are in depressions and freshwater Delray soils in small areas.
marshes and swamps. Undrained areas are ponded. The In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been
slopes are dominantly less than 1 percent. drained and are used for growing sod and vegetable
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Brighton, crops. In other areas, they have been left in natural
Samsula, and Sanibel mucks and soils that are similar vegetation. The natural vegetation consists of mixed
make up 93 to 99 percent of the mapped areas, stands of cypress, red maple, sweetgum, and blackgum.
Dissimilar soils make up about 1 to 7 percent of the The understory includes cutgrass, maidencane, Jamaica
mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of sawgrass, sedges, ferns, and other water-tolerant
about 47 percent Brighton soil and similar soils, 35 grasses.
percent Samsula soil and similar soils, and 11 percent The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to
Sanibel soil. Some areas are made up of Brighton soil most cultivated crops and citrus crops because of
and similar soils, some are made up of Samsula soil and ponding and excessive wetness. If intensive
similar soils, some are made up of Sanibel soil, and management practices and soil-improving measures are
some areas are made up of all of these soils. They do used and a water control system is installed to remove
not occur in a regular repeating pattern. The relative excess water rapidly, these soils are well suited to some
proportion of combinations of the soils vary. The vegetable crops. The high water table should be
individual areas of the soils in this map unit are large maintained as near the surface as possible to help
enough to map separately; however, in considering the prevent subsidence of organic material. Most crops and
present and predicted use, they were mapped as one pasture plants respond well to fertilization.
map unit. The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use as
Typically, Brighton soil has a surface layer of black pasture; however, they are fairly well suited to this use if
muck about 8 inches thick. The underlying material a water control system is installed to remove excess
extends to a depth of about 80 inches. It is very dark surface water after heavy rains. Pangolagrass, improved
gray mucky peat in the upper part and dark reddish bahiagrass, and white clover grow well on these soils.
brown mucky peat in the lower part. In the mapped Maintaining the high water table close to the surface
areas are soils that are similar to Brighton muck, but the reduces excessive oxidation of the organic layers. Proper
organic material in these soils is more decomposed than grazing practices, weed control, and fertilizer are needed
in the Brighton soil. to obtain high quality forage. Proper stocking, pasture







36 Soil Survey



rotation, and restricted grazing during wet periods help The natural vegetation consists mostly of slash pine,
keep the pasture and the soil in good condition. longleaf pine, live oak, water oak, and cabbage palm.
In their natural state, the soils in this map unit are not The understory includes scattered saw palmetto,
suited to use for homesites, commercial or recreational waxmyrtle, inkberry, pineland threeawn, panicum,
development, or sanitary facilities. The main limitations maidencane, and other sedges and grasses.
are seepage, ponding, excess humus, low strength, and Under natural conditions, this Malabar soil is poorly
subsidence. suited to cultivated crops and citrus crops. However, it is
The soils in this map unit are well suited to use as moderately well suited to vegetable crops if a water
habitat for openland and wetland wildlife. They are not control system is installed to remove excess surface
suited to use as habitat for woodland wildlife in most water rapidly and provide for subsurface irrigation. Crop
areas. residue left on or in the soil and a cropping system that
Common wildlife in the county includes the otter, wood includes grasses, legumes, or grass-legume mixtures
duck, limpkin, and alligator. In addition, animals in help to conserve moisture, to maintain fertility, and to
surrounding habitats often use these areas for food and control erosion. Most crops and pasture plants respond
cover and as travel lanes between developed areas. well to fertilization.
The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass This soil is well suited to pasture. If a water control
Vllw, if undrained. If drained, Brighton and Sanibel soils system is established and maintained, excessive water
are in capability subclass IIIw, and Samsula soil is in IVw. can be removed. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and
The woodland ordination symbol for these soils is 2W. restricted grazing during wet periods help keep the
The soils in this map unit are in the Freshwater Marshes pasture and the soil in good condition. Pangolagrass,
and Ponds range site. improved bahiagrass, and clover grow well on this soil.
Fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
18-Malabar fine sand. This soil is nearly level and grasses and legumes.
poorly drained. It is in sloughs and along poorly defined This soil is poorly suited to use for building sites,
drainageways. The slopes are dominantly less than 2 sanitary facilities, or recreational development. The main
percent, limitations are wetness and seepage. A water control
In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, Malabar system, including drainage outlets, is needed to
fine sand makes up 76 to 96 percent of the mapped overcome wetness. Fill material should be added to
areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 4 to 24 percent of make this soil suitable for most urban uses. Sealing or
the mapped areas. lining of sewage lagoons and landfills with impervious
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine soil material reduces excess seepage. Septic tank
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a absorption fields are mounded in most areas because of
depth of about 10 inches, is yellowish brown fine sand. the high water table. The proximity to a stream or aquifer
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 35 recharge area should be considered in the placement of
inches, is very pale brown and yellow fine sand. The sanitary facilities to prevent contamination of water
next layer, to a depth of about 48 inches, is light gray supplies. Cutbanks are not stable and are subject to
fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 70 inches, slumping. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized
is gray fine sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of for recreational use.
about 80 inches is greenish gray loamy sand that has a This soil is poorly suited to use as habitat for openland
few pockets of sandy clay loam. and woodland wildlife. It is moderately suited to use as
In most years, this soil has a seasonal high water habitat for wetland wildlife.
table within 12 inches and the surface for 2 to 6 months. Common wildlife in the county includes deer, turkeys,
The water table can be above the surface for a short armadillos, skunks, sparrows, quail, woodpeckers,
time after heavy rainfall. The permeability is rapid in the warblers, rattlesnakes, frogs, and bobcats. Rotational
surface and subsurface layers and in the upper part of grazing, controlled burning, and maintenance of natural
the subsoil, slow in the loamy part of the subsoil, and water levels can improve habitat for wildlife.
rapid in the substratum. The available water capacity is This Malabar soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
low to very low in the surface and subsurface layers and woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. It is in
in the upper part of the subsoil, moderate in the lower the Slough range site.
part of subsoil, and low in the substratum. Natural fertility
and the content of organic matter are low. 19-Manatee, Floridana, and Holopaw soils,
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are EauGallie, frequently flooded. The soils in this map unit are nearly
Basinger, and Felda soils in small areas. level and are very poorly drained and poorly drained.
In most areas, this soil has been left in natural These soils are on flood plains and are frequently
vegetation. Some areas of this soil have been drained flooded for long periods following prolonged, high
and are used for cultivated crops, as rangeland and intensity rains. Manatee and Floridana soils are very
pasture, or for homesites and other urban development, poorly drained, and Holopaw soil is poorly drained. Many







Seminole County, Florida 37



areas are isolated by meandering stream channels. The the subsurface layer, subsoil, and substratum. Natural
slopes are dominantly less than 2 percent, fertility is medium. The content of organic matter is high
In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, Manatee, in Manatee and Floridana soils and is moderate in
Floridana, and Holopaw soils, frequently flooded, and Holopaw soil.
soils that are similar make up 81 to 99 percent of the Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Basinger soils
mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 19 percent in small areas. Also included are dissimilar soils that are
of the mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas slightly better drained than the soils in this map unit, and
consist of about 61 percent Manatee soil and similar they have a dark brown subsoil that is underlain by a
soils, 21 percent Floridana soil and similar soils, and 10 loamy material at a depth of 40 inches or more.
percent Holopaw soil and similar soils. Some areas are In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left
made up of Manatee soil and similar soils, some are in natural vegetation or have been cleared and are used
made up of Floridana soil and similar soils, some are as rangeland. The natural vegetation consists mostly of
made up of Holopaw soil and similar soils, and some baldcypress, coastal plain willow, red maple, cabbage
areas are made up of all of these soils. They do not palm, and sweetgum. The understory includes
occur in a regular repeating pattern. The relative buttonbush, maidencane, sawgrass, smartweed, sedges,
proportion of combinations of the soils vary. The and other water-tolerant grasses.
individual areas of the soils in this map unit are large The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to
enough to map separately; however, in considering the most cultivated crops and citrus crops because of
present and predicted use, they were mapped as one wetness and frequent flooding. The hazard of flooding
map unit. can be reduced by constructing dikes and water
Typically, Manatee soil has a surface layer of black retention structures, but excessive wetness remains a
fine sand about 10 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a continuing limitation.
depth of about 52 inches. It is very dark gray sandy loam If a water control system is established and
in the upper part and is dark gray fine sandy clay loam in maintained, the soils in this map unit are moderately
the lower part. The substratum to a depth of about 80 suited to use as pasture. Proper stocking, pasture
inches is gray loamy fine sand. In the mapped areas are rotation, and restricted grazing during wet periods help
soils that are similar to Manatee fine sand, but these keep the range and the soil in good condition. Fertilizer
soils have a surface layer that is 7 to 10 inches thick, or and lime are needed for optimum growth of grasses and
they have a clayey subsoil. legumes.
Typically, Floridana soil has a surface layer that is The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use for
about 18 inches thick. It is black mucky fine sand in the sanitary facilities, building sites, or recreational
upper part and black fine sand in the lower part. The development. The main limitation is wetness. Flooding is
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 29 inches, is gray a hazard. Wetness may be overcome by drainage, but
fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of flooding is a continuous hazard. Unless flood control
about 42 inches, is gray fine sandy loam. The lower part structures are installed, these soils should not be
to a depth of about 80 inches is gray sandy loam. In the considered for building sites or for sanitary facilities.
mapped areas are soils that are similar to Floridana soil, The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use as
but these soils have a surface layer that is 7 to 10 habitat for openland and woodland wildlife. They are well
inches thick. suited to use as habitat for wetland wildlife.
Typically, Holopaw soil has a surface layer of black Common wildlife in the county includes the otter,
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to raccoon, gray squirrel, wood duck, limpkin, and alligator.
a depth of 50 inches, is grayish brown and gray fine In addition, animals in surrounding habitats often use
sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is gray these areas for food and cover and as travel lanes
fine sandy loam. In the mapped areas are soils that are between developed areas.
similar to Holopaw soil, but these soils have a brownish Manatee and Floridana soils are in capability subclass
yellow subsoil underlain by loamy material. Vw. The woodland ordination symbol for these soils is
In most years, the soils in this map unit have a 6W. Holopaw soil is in capability subclass Vlw. The
seasonal high water table within 12 inches of the surface woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. The
for 6 to 9 months. These soils are subject to frequent soils in this map unit are in the Freshwater Marshes and
flooding during rainy periods. The duration and extent of Ponds range site.
flooding are variable and are related directly to the
frequency and intensity of rainfall. The permeability of 20-Myakka and EauGallie fine sands. The soils in
Manatee, Floridana, and Holopaw soils is rapid or this map unit are nearly level and poorly drained. These
moderately rapid in the surface and subsurface layers soils are on broad plains on the flatwoods. The slopes
and very slow to moderate in the subsoil and are dominantly less than 2 percent.
substratum. The available water capacity is low to high in In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Myakka
the surface layer of these soils and moderate to low in and EauGallie fine sands and soils that are similar make







38 Soil Survey



up 78 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar slash pines and live and laurel oaks. The understory
soils make up 1 to 22 percent of the mapped areas, includes lopsided indiangrass, inkberry, saw palmetto,
Generally, the mapped areas consist of about 58 percent pineland threeawn, waxmyrtle, bluestem, panicum, and
Myakka soil and similar soils and 32 percent EauGallie other grasses.
soil and similar soils. Some areas are made up of The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to
Myakka soil and similar soils, some are made up of most cultivated crops because of wetness; however, if a
EauGallie soil and similar soils, and some areas are water control system is installed and soil-improving
made up of both of these soils. They do not occur in a measures are used, these soils are moderately well
regular repeating pattern. The relative proportion of suited to most cultivated crops. Proper row management,
combinations of the soils vary. The individual areas of lateral ditches or tiles, and well constructed outlets help
the soils in this map unit are large enough to map to remove the excess surface water. Crop residue left on
separately; however, in considering the present and or near the surface helps to conserve moisture, to
predicted use, they were mapped as one map unit. maintain tilth, and to control erosion. These soils are
Typically, Myakka soil has a surface layer of black fine moderately well suited to citrus crops in areas that are
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a relatively free of freezing temperatures. Wetness is the
depth of about 28 inches, is light gray fine sand. The main limitation. A properly managed water control
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 30 inches, system is needed to maintain the water table at an
is black fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 45 effective depth. Proper arrangement and bedding of tree
inches, is dark brown fine sand. The substratum to a rows, lateral ditches or tiles, and well constructed outlets
depth of about 80 inches is brown fine sand. In the help to remove excess surface water and to lower the
mapped areas are soils that are similar to Myakka fine high water table. Frequent applications of fertilizer and
sand, but these soils have a subsoil within 20 inches of lime are generally needed.
the surface or between depths of 30 and 50 inches. The soils in this map unit are well suited to use as
Typically, EauGallie soil has a surface layer of dark pasture. If a water control system is properly established
gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface and maintained, excessive water can be removed.
layer, to a depth of about 18 inches, is light gray fine Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about grow well on this soil. Proper stocking, pasture rotation,
37 inches, is black and dark brown fine sand. The next and restricted grazing during wet periods help keep the
layer, to a depth of about 41 inches, is light brownish pasture and the soil in good condition. Fertilizer and lime
gray fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 60 are needed for optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
inches, is very pale brown sandy clay loam. The The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use for
substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is light sanitary facilities, building sites, and recreational
brownish gray loamy sand that has pockets of fine sand development. The main limitations are seepage and
and sandy loam. In the mapped areas are soils that are wetness. Water control, including drainage outlets, are
similar to EauGallie fine sand, but these soils have a needed to overcome wetness. Fill material should be
loamy subsoil within 40 inches of the surface. added to make these soils suitable for most urban uses.
During most years, the soils in this map unit have a Septic tank absorption fields do not function properly
seasonal high water table within 12 inches of the surface during rainy periods because of wetness and the
for 1 month to 4 months. The permeability of Myakka moderate or moderately slow permeability of the soils.
soil is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and Septic tank absorption fields are mounded in most areas
substratum and moderate or moderately rapid in the because of the high water table. If the density of housing
subsoil. The permeability of EauGallie soil is rapid in the is moderate or high, a community sewage system is
surface and subsurface layers, moderate or moderately needed to prevent contamination of water supplies by
rapid in the sandy part of the subsoil, and moderately seepage. Sealing or lining of sanitary landfills with
slow in the loamy part of the subsoil. The available water impervious soil material reduces excess seepage.
capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored. The
and substratum and moderate to high in the subsoil of sandy surface layer should be stabilized for recreational
Myakka and EauGallie soils. Natural fertility is low in the uses.
soils in this map unit, and the content of organic matter The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use as
is moderate to moderately low. habitat for openland, woodland, and wetland wildlife.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Basinger and Common wildlife in the county includes deer, turkeys,
Pompano soils in small areas, armadillos, skunks, sparrows, quail, woodpeckers,
In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left warblers, rattlesnakes, frogs, and bobcats. Rotational
in natural vegetation. In a few areas, these soils are grazing, controlled burning, and maintenance of natural
used for cultivated crops and citrus crops, as improved water levels can improve habitat for wildlife.
pasture, or for homesites and other urban development. The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass
The natural vegetation consists mostly of longleaf and IVw. The woodland ordination symbol for Myakka soil is







Seminole County, Florida 39



8w, and it is 10W for EauGallie soil. These soils are in pasture and the soil in good condition. Fertilizer and lime
the South Florida Flatwoods range site. are needed for optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
This soil is poorly suited to use for sanitary facilities,
21-Nittaw mucky fine sand, depressional. This soil building sites, and recreational development. The main
is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in limitations are wetness, ponding, and shrink-swell
depressions, freshwater marshes, and swamps. potential. Large amounts of fill material should be added,
Undrained areas are ponded. The slopes are dominantly and water control, including surface and subsurface
less than 2 percent, drainage, is needed to make areas of this soil suitable
In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, Nittaw for most urban uses. The effects of the shrinking and
mucky fine sand, depressional, and soils that are similar swelling of this soil is a continuous hazard. Soils that are
makes up 83 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. better suited to these uses generally are in nearby,
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 17 percent of the mapped higher areas.
areas. This soil is not suited to use as habitat for openland
Typically, this soil has a surface layer that is about 10 wildlife. It is poorly suited to use as habitat for woodland
inches thick. It is black mucky fine sand in the upper part wildlife and is well suited to use as habitat for wetland
and black fine sand in the lower part. The subsoil wildlife.
extends to a depth of about 50 inches. It is very dark Common wildlife in the county includes the otter,
gray sandy clay in the upper part and is dark gray sandy raccoon, gray squirrel, wood duck, limpkin, and alligator.
clay in the lower part. The substratum to a depth of In addition, animals in surrounding habitats often use
about 80 inches is light gray fine sand. In the mapped these areas for food and cover and as travel lanes
areas are soils that are similar to Nittaw mucky fine between developed areas.
sand, but these soils have an organic surface layer that This Nittaw soil is in capability subclass VIIw. The
is 7 to 10 inches thick. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2W. It is in the
In most years, undrained areas of this soil are ponded Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.
for 6 to 9 months or more except during extended dry 22Nittaw muck, occasionally flooded. This soil is
periods. The permeability is rapid in the surface layer nearly level and very poorly drained. It is on the flood
Ind mobstareas, this slowi thasbeen le. in natual nearly level and very poorly drained. It is on the flood
and substratum and is slow in the subsoil. The available plains and is occasionally flooded for long periods
d as plains and is occasionally flooded for long periods
water capacity is moderate to high. This soil has a high following prolonged, high intensity rains. The slopes are
shrink-swell potential, but it seldom dries enough to dominantly less than 2 percent.
shrink and crack. The content of organic matter in this h p of about 60 percent Nittaw soil
This map unit consists of about 60 percent Nittaw soil
soil is moderate, and natural fertility is moderate. and about 40 percent soils that are similar to the Nittaw
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are soils in small soil.
areas that do not have a loamy subsoil. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black muck
In most areas, this soil has been left in natural about 2 inches thick. It is underlain by black mucky fine
vegetation. In some areas, it has been drained and is sand to a depth of about 10 inches. The upper part of
used as pasture and rangeland. The natural vegetation the subsoil, to a depth of about 20 inches, is very dark
consists of pondcypress, red maple, sweetbay, and brown sandy clay. The lower part, to a depth of about 60
blackgum. The understory includes waxmyrtle, inches, is dark gray sandy clay. The substratum to a
greenbrier, wild grape, and other water-tolerant forbs and depth of about 80 inches is gray sandy loam. In the
grasses. mapped areas are soils that are similar to Nittaw soil, but
This Nittaw soil is generally not suited to most these soils have a loamy subsoil.
cultivated crops and citrus crops because of ponding During most years, this soil has a seasonal high water
and wetness. An adequate drainage system is needed in table within 12 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months or
most areas to remove excess surface water and to more. This soil is subject to occasional flooding during
reduce soil wetness, but suitable outlets generally are periods of heavy rainfall. Flooding is directly related to
not available. If suitable outlets are available, this soil is the frequency and intensity of rainfall. The permeability is
well suited to a number of vegetable crops and for rapid in the surface layer and substratum and slow in the
growing watercress. Seedbed preparation that includes subsoil. The available water capacity is moderate to
bedding of the rows help to lower the high water table. high. This soil has a high shrink-swell potential, but it
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are generally seldom dries enough to shrink and crack. The content of
needed. organic matter is high, and natural fertility is moderate.
If a water control system is established and In most areas, this soil has been left in natural
maintained, this soil is well suited to use as pasture. A vegetation or cleared and used as rangeland. The
water control system is needed to remove excess natural vegetation consists mostly of baldcypress, red
surface water. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and maple, sweetgum, hickory, and cabbage palm. The
restricted grazing during wet periods help keep the understory includes waxmyrtle, greenbrier, wildgrape,








40 Soil Survey


cabbage palm, and other water-tolerant forbs and Okeelanta soil and similar soils, some are made up of
grasses. Basinger soil, and some areas are made up of all of
This Nittaw soil is generally not suited to most these soils. They do not occur in a regular repeating
cultivated crops and citrus crops because of wetness pattern. The relative proportion of combinations of the
and flooding. An adequate drainage system is needed in soils vary. The individual areas of the soils in this map
most areas to remove excess surface water and to unit are large enough to map separately; however, in
reduce soil wetness, but suitable outlets generally are considering the present and predicted use, they were
not available. If suitable outlets are available and if mapped as one map unit.
flooding can be controlled, this soil is well suited to a Typically, Nittaw soil has a surface layer of black muck
number of vegetable crops and also to growing about 4 inches thick. This layer, to a depth of 9 inches,
watercress. Seedbed preparation that includes bedding is underlain by black mucky fine sand. The subsoil to a
of rows helps lower the high water table. Frequent depth of about 80 inches is very dark gray, dark gray,
applications of fertilizer and lime are generally needed. and gray clay. In the mapped areas are soils that are
If a water control system is established and similar to Nittaw muck, but these soils have a loamy
maintained, this soil is well suited to use as pasture. A subsoil.
water control system is needed to remove excess Typically, Okeelanta soil has a surface layer of black
surface water. Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and muck about 42 inches thick. The underlying material to a
restricted grazing during wet periods help keep the depth of about 80 inches is black and light gray fine
pasture and the soil in good condition. Fertilizer and lime sand. In the mapped areas are soils that are similar to
are needed for optimum growth of grasses and legumes. Okeelanta muck, but the underlying material in these
This soil is poorly suited to use for sanitary facilities, soils is loamy or they have a surface layer of muck that
building sites, and recreational development. The main is more than 51 inches thick.
limitations are wetness, seepage, and shrink-swell i
Typically, Basinger soil has a surface layer of very
potential. Flooding is a hazard. While wetness may be dark gray sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
overcome by drainage, flooding is a continuous hazard. about
Unless flood control structures are installed, this soil layer, to a depth of about 22 inches, is light brownish
should not be considered for building sites, sanitary gray fine sand that has mottles. The subsoil, to a depth
facilities, or recreational development. of about 38 inches, is light brownish gray and very dark
facilities, or recreational development. brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of about 80
This soil is poorly suited to use as habitat for openland brown fe sand The stratum to a depth of about 80
and woodland wildlife. It is well suited to use as habitat inches is gray fine sand.
for wetland wildlife. The soils in this map unit have a seasonal high water
Common wildlife in the county includes the otter, table within 12 inches of the surface. In most years,
raccoon, gray squirrel, wood duck, limpkin, and alligator. these soils are subject to frequent flooding during
In addition, animals in surrounding habitats often use periods of heavy rains. The duration and extent of
these areas for food and cover and as travel lanes flooding are variable and are directly related to the
between developed areas. frequency and intensity of rainfall. The permeability of
This Nittaw soil is in capability subclass Vw. The Nittaw soil is rapid in the surface layer and slow in the
woodland ordination symbol for this soil 6W. This soil is subsoil. The permeability of Okeelanta and Basinger
in the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site. soils is rapid. The available water capacity is moderate
to high in Nittaw soil. The available water capacity is very
23-Nittaw, Okeelanta, and Basinger soils, low to moderate in Basinger soil. It is very low to
frequently flooded. The soils in this map unit are nearly moderate in the sandy part of Okeelanta soil and very
level and poorly drained and very poorly drained. These high in the organic part. Nittaw soil has a high shrink-
soils are on the flood plains and are frequently flooded swell potential, and Okeelanta and Basinger soils have a
following prolonged high intensity rains. Nittaw and low shrink-well potential. Okeelanta soil has high
Okeelanta soils are very poorly drained, and Basinger subsidence potential. If the soils in this map unit are
soils are poorly drained and very poorly drained. The drained, the organic material initially shrinks on drying
slopes are dominantly less than 2 percent. and then subsides further as a result of compaction and
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Nittaw, oxidation. These losses are more rapid during the first 2
Okeelanta, and Basinger soils, frequently flooded, and years. If the soil is drained, the organic material
soils that are similar make up 94 to 99 percent of the continues to subside at the rate of about 1 inch per year.
mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 1 to 6 The lower the water table, the more rapid the loss. The
percent of the mapped areas. Generally, the mapped content of organic matter and natural fertility is high in
areas consist of about 45 percent Nittaw soil and similar Nittaw and Okeelanta soils and low in Basinger soil.
soils, 34 percent Okeelanta soil and similar soils, and 19 Dissimilar soils included in mapping are soils in small
percent Basinger soil. Some areas are made up of areas that are in slightly higher positions on the flood
Nittaw soil and similar soils, some are made up of plain than Nittaw, Okeelanta, and Basinger soils.






Seminole County, Florida 41



In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left keep the pasture and the soil in good condition. Fertilizer
in natural vegetation. In some areas, these soils have and lime are needed for optimum growth of grasses and
been cleared and are used as pasture or rangeland (fig. legumes.
10). The natural vegetation consists mostly of The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to
baldcypress, red maple, sweetgum, cabbage palm, water use for sanitary facilities, building sites, or recreational
oak, and hickory. The understory includes waxmyrtle, development. The main limitations are wetness, excess
Carolina willow, primrose willow, cattail, and other water- humus, and shrink-swell potential. Flooding is a hazard.
tolerant grasses. Large amounts of fill material should be added and
The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to extensive drainage outlets and major flood control
most cultivated crops and citrus crops because of structures are needed to make areas of this soil suitable
flooding and wetness. An adequate drainage system is for most urban uses. The effects of the shrinking and
needed in most areas to remove excess surface water
and to reduce soil wetness, but suitable drainage outlets swelling of Nittaw soil is a continuous hazard. Soils that
generally are not available. If suitable outlets are are better suited to these uses generally are in nearby,
available and if flooding can be controlled, these soils higher areas.
are well suited to a number of vegetable crops. Seedbed These soils are poorly suited to use as habitat for
preparation that includes bedding of the rows helps openland and woodland wildlife. They are well suited to
lower the high water table. Frequent applications of use as habitat for wetland wildlife.
fertilizer and lime are generally needed. Common wildlife in the county includes the otter,
If a water control system is established and raccoon, gray squirrel, wood duck, limpkin, and alligator.
maintained, the soils in this map unit are well suited to In addition, animals in surrounding habitats often use
use as pasture. A water control system is needed to these areas for food and cover and as travel lanes
remove excess surface water. Proper stocking, pasture between developed areas.
rotation, and restricted grazing during wet periods help






























Figure 10.-In this area, Nlttaw, Okeelanta, and Baslnger soils, frequently flooded, are in the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds range site.







42 Soil Survey



Nittaw soil is in capability subclass Vw, Okeelanta soil areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures. A
is in Vllw, and Basinger soil is in Vlw. The woodland specially designed and properly managed sprinkler
ordination symbol for these soils is 6W. The soils in this irrigation system helps to maintain optimum soil moisture
map unit are in the Freshwater Marshes and Ponds and ensure maximum yields. A cover crop between rows
range site. helps to conserve moisture, controls erosion, and
improves the content of organic matter. Frequent
24-Paola-St. Lucie sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, applications of fertilizer and lime are generally needed to
The soils in this map unit are nearly level to gently maintain yields.
sloping and excessively drained. These soils are on The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use as
upland ridges. The slopes are 0 to 5 percent. pasture. The very low available water capacity limits the
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Paola-St. production of plants during extended dry periods. Deep-
Lucie sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and soils that are rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
similar make up 81 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant if properly
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 19 percent of the mapped fertilized and limed. Proper stocking, pasture rotation,
areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of about 52 and timely deferment of grazing help keep the pasture in
percent Paola soil and similar soils and 43 percent St. good condition.
Lucie soils. The individual areas of the soils in this map The soils in this map unit are well suited to homesites
unit are so intricately mixed that mapping them and other urban development. The main limitation is the
separately at the selected scale is not practical. The instability of cutbanks. Sidewalls of shallow excavations
proportions and soil patterns are relatively consistent in should be shored. Population growth has resulted in
most delineations of the map unit. increased construction of houses. If the density of
Typically, Paola soil has a surface layer of dark gray housing is moderate or high, a community sewage
sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a system may be needed to prevent contamination of
depth of about 25 inches, is light gray sand. The subsoil, water supplies by seepage. The proximity to a stream or
to a depth of about 47 inches, is yellowish brown sand. canal should be considered in the placement of a septic
The subsoil has a few tongues filled with material from tank absorption field to prevent lateral seepage and
the subsurface layer and few to common weakly ground water contamination.
cemented very dark gray concretions. The substratum to These soils are poorly suited to use for recreational
a depth of about 80 inches is light yellowish brown sand. development and sanitary landfills. The sandy surface
In the mapped areas are soils that are similar to Paola layer should be stabilized for recreational uses.
soil, but these soils have a brown subsoil at a depth of Droughtiness is a problem during extended dry periods.
50 inches or more. Plants that tolerate droughtiness should be selected if
Typically, St. Lucie soil has a surface layer of dark irrigation is not provided. Sealing or lining of sanitary
gray sand about 2 inches thick. The underlying material landfills or sewage lagoons with impervious soil material
to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray and white is necessary to reduce excessive seepage.
sand. The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use as
The soils in this map unit have a seasonal high water habitat for openland and woodland wildlife. They are not
table at a depth of 80 inches or more. The permeability suited to use as habitat for wetland wildlife.
of these soils is very rapid. The available water capacity Common wildlife in the county includes the deer,
is very low. Natural fertility and the content of organic towhee, flycatcher, scrub jay, black racer, gopher
matter are very low. tortoise, scrub lizard, and sand skink. The threatened
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are soils in small Florida scrub jay is dependent for its survival on this fast
areas that have a seasonal high water table within 60 to disappearing habitat.
80 inches of the surface. The underlying material in Paola soil is in capability subclass Vis. The woodland
these dissimilar soils is mottled. ordination symbol for this soil is 2S. St. Lucie soil is in
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are used for capability subclass Vlls. The woodland ordination symbol
homesites and other urban development. In a few areas, for this soil is 3S. The soils in this map unit are in the
these soils are used for citrus crops or recreational use Sand Pine Scrub range site.
or are left in natural vegetation. The natural vegetation
consists mostly of sand pine, Chapman oak, and myrtle 25-Pineda fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
oak. The understory includes saw palmetto, pricklypear poorly drained. It is on low hammocks, in broad, poorly
cactus, goldleaf aster, deermoss, bluestem, and pineland defined drainageways, and in sloughs. The slopes are
threeawn. dominantly less than 2 percent.
The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Pineda fine
most cultivated crops and citrus crops because of the sand and soils that are similar make up 79 to 99 percent
droughtiness and very low natural fertility. If irrigation is of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 21
provided, these soils are well suited to citrus crops in percent of the mapped areas.







Seminole County, Florida 43



Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine grow well on this soil if properly managed. A water
sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a control system is needed to remove excess surface
depth of about 18 inches, is light gray fine sand. The water after heavy rains. Management practices should
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 26 inches, include regular applications of fertilizer and lime and
is pale brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of controlled grazing.
about 68 inches, is dark gray sandy loam. This part of This soil is poorly suited to use for building sites,
the subsoil has about 20 percent tongues of light gray sanitary facilities, or recreational development. Water
fine sand. The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches control, including surface and subsurface drainage, is
is greenish gray loamy sand mixed with shell fragments. needed to overcome excessive wetness. Sealing or
In the mapped areas are soils that are similar to Pineda lining of sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills
fine sand; but in these similar soils, the upper part of the with impervious soil material reduces excessive seepage.
subsoil is at a depth of more than 40 inches, or the Mounding may be needed for septic tank absorption
subsoil is gray and grayish brown sandy material fields because of the high water table. If the density of
underlain by a loamy layer. housing is moderate to high, a community sewage
In most years, this soil has a seasonal high water system may be needed to prevent contamination of
table within 12 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months. water supplies. The sandy surface layer should be
The high water table may be above the surface for a stabilized for recreational uses. Sidewalls of shallow
short period after heavy rainfall. The permeability is rapid excavations should be shored.
in the surface and subsurface layers and in the upper This soil is moderately suited to use as habitat for
part of the subsoil. It is slow or very slow in the lower openland and wetland wildlife. It is poorly suited to use
part of the subsoil. The available water capacity is very as habitat for woodland wildlife.
low to low in the surface and subsurface layers and in Common wildlife in the county includes deer, turkeys,
the upper part of the subsoil. It is moderate in the lower armadillos, skunks, sparrows, quail, woodpeckers,
part of the subsoil and in the substratum. Natural fertility warblers, rattlesnakes, frogs, and bobcats. Rotational
and the content of organic matter are low. grazing, controlled burning, and maintenance of natural
Dissimilar soils included in this map unit are EauGallie water regimes can improve wildlife habitat.
soils in small areas. Also included are some soils that do This Pineda soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
not have a loamy subsoil. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. This soil
In most areas, this soil has been left in natural is in the Slough range site.
vegetation. In a few areas, it is used as pasture,
rangeland, or for homesites and other urban 26-Udorthents, excavated. This map unit consists
development. The natural vegetation consists mostly of of excavated areas of unconsolidated or heterogeneous
cabbage palm, scattered longleaf pine, and slash pine. soil and geologic materials, which have been removed
The understory includes waxmyrtle, blue maidencane, mainly for use in road construction or as fill material in
chalky bluestem, bluejoint panicum, scattered saw low areas and for building foundations. Areas of this map
palmetto, pineland threeawn, and various weeds and unit consist of a pit or depressed area, which is
grasses. surrounded by sidewalls of variable steepness.
Under natural conditions, this Pineda soil is poorly Included in mapping are small areas of spoil or
suited to cultivated crops. However, if a water control stockpiles of variable soil and geologic material around
system is installed to remove excess water rapidly and the edges of the pits. Most areas of Udorthents,
provide for subsurface irrigation, this soil is fairly well excavated, locally called borrow pits, are from 5 to 40
suited to many vegetable crops. Soil-improving crops feet deep. Some of the pit bottoms are seasonally
should be included in the rotation system and crop ponded. Other areas are filled with water year round and
residue should be left on or in the soil to help control are shown as water on the detailed soil maps at the
erosion and maintain the content of organic matter. back of this publication.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of rows. Most pit areas have been left idle. These areas must
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the be smoothed, shaped, and filled if they are to be used
needs of the crop. This soil is well suited to citrus crops for agriculture or for urban development. The potential of
in areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures these soils for use as habitat for wildlife is high if the
and if a water control system is installed to maintain the areas are reshaped and revegetated to conform with
water table at an effective depth. Planting trees on beds existing landscapes. Areas that are filled with water have
lowers the depth of the high water table. A close-growing a high potential for fish if they are stocked and managed
cover crop between rows is needed to protect the soil properly. Onsite investigation is necessary to determine
from blowing. Regular applications of fertilizers are the potential for any use.
needed. This map unit has not been assigned to a capability
This soil is well suited to use as pasture, subclass or range site or has not been assigned a
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover woodland ordination symbol.


i







44 Soil Survey



27-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This This soil is moderately well suited to use as pasture.
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
drained. It is on low ridges and knolls on the flatwoods. bahiagrass, are better suited to this soil than other
The slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. grasses. Droughtiness is the major limitation except
In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, Pomello during wet periods. Regular applications of lime and
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and soils that are fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should be prevented.
similar make up 78 to 98 percent of the mapped areas. This soil is poorly suited to use for sanitary facilities,
Dissimilar soils make up 2 to 22 percent of the mapped building sites, or recreational development. It has
areas, moderate limitations for dwellings without basements
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of light gray fine and small commercial buildings. Water control, including
sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a surface and subsurface drainage, is needed to overcome
depth of about 31 inches, is white fine sand. The subsoil, excessive wetness. Septic tank absorption fields may
to a depth of about 50 inches, is black, dark brown, and need to be enlarged because of wetness. The rapid
brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches permeability of this soil can cause contamination of
is pale brown fine sand. In the mapped areas are soils ground water in areas of septic tank absorption fields. If
that are similar to Pomello fine sand, but the upper part the density of housing is moderate to high, a community
of the subsoil is within 30 inches of the surface, is at a sewage system may be needed to prevent contamination
depth of more than 50 inches, or the similar soils do not of water supplies by seepage. Sealing or lining sewage
have a subsoil. lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil
In most years, this soil has a seasonal high water material reduces excessive seepage. For recreational
table at a depth of 36 to 60 inches for 1 month to 4 development, the sandy surface layer should be
months. The permeability is very rapid in the surface and stabilized. Water control is needed, and sidewalls of
subsurface layers, moderately rapid in the subsoil, and shallow excavations should be shored.
rapid in the substratum. The available water capacity is This soil is poorly suited to use as habitat for openland
very low in the surface and subsurface layers and in the and woodland wildlife. It is not suited to use as habitat
substratum, and it is high in the subsoil. Natural fertility for wetland wildlife.
and the content of organic matter are very low. Common wildlife in the county includes the deer,
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Millhopper and towhee, flycatcher, scrub jay, black racer, gopher
EauGallie soils in small areas. Also included are some tortoise, scrub lizard, and sand skink.
soils that have a loamy subsoil at a depth of more than This Pomello soil is in capability subclass Vis. The
40 inches, woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S. This soil is
In most areas, this soil is used as rangeland or it has in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
been left in natural vegetation. In a few areas, it is used
for citrus crops, cultivated crops, as pasture, or for 28-Pompano fine sand, occasionally flooded. This
homesites and other urban development. The natural soil is nearly level and poorly drained. It is on the flood
vegetation consists mostly of longleaf pine, sand pine, plains and is occasionally flooded following prolonged
and slash pine. The understory includes creeping high intensity rains. The slopes are dominantly less than
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, running oak, saw 2 percent.
palmetto, and pineland threeawn. In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit, Pompano
This Pomello soil is poorly suited to citrus crops. Only fine sand, occasionally flooded, and soils that are similar
fair yields can be obtained if the level of management is make up 82 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
high. A water control system is necessary to maintain Dissimilar soils make up about 1 to 18 percent of the
the water table at an effective depth during wet periods mapped areas.
and to provide water for irrigation during periods of low Typically, this soil has a surface layer of gray sand
rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are about 4 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth
needed to obtain maximum yields. A suitable cover crop of about 80 inches is pale brown and light gray fine
should be maintained between tree rows to prevent the sand. In the mapped areas are soils that are similar to
soil from blowing. This soil is poorly suited to cultivated Pompano fine sand, but these soils have a subsurface
crops, but if intensive management practices are used, a layer that has a brownish color, and they are slightly
few special crops can be grown. The adapted crops are better drained than Pompano soil.
limited unless intensive management practices are In most years, this soil has a seasonal high water
followed. For maximum yields, irrigation should be table within 12 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months.
provided and fertilizer and lime should be applied This soil is subject to occasionally periods of flooding,
according to the needs of the crop. Soil-improving crops which normally occurs during rainy periods. The duration
and crop residue should be used to control erosion and and extent of flooding are variable and are directly
maintain the content of organic matter in the soil. related to the frequency and intensity of rainfall.







Seminole County, Florida 45



Dissimilar soils included in this map unit are Nittaw Common wildlife in the county includes the otter,
soils in small areas. The permeability of this soil is rapid. raccoon, gray squirrel, wood duck, limpkin, and alligator.
The available water capacity is very low. Natural fertility In addition, animals in surrounding habitats often use
and the content of organic matter are low. these areas for food and cover and as travel lanes
In most areas, this soil has been left in natural between developed areas.
vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for cultivated crops This Pompano soil is in capability subclass VIw. The
and citrus crops, as pasture and rangeland, or for woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 6W. This soil
homesites and other urban development. The natural is in the Slough range site.
vegetation consists mostly of cypress, longleaf pine,
slash pine, cabbage palm, and laurel oak. The 29-St. Johns and EauGallie fine sands. The soils in
understory includes waxmyrtle, inkberry, scattered saw this map unit are nearly level and poorly drained. These
palmetto, blue maidencane, pineland threeawn, sand soils are on low broad plains on the flatwoods. The
cordgrass, low panicum, and various weeds and grasses. slopes are dominantly less than 2 percent.
Under natural conditions, this Pompano soil is poorly In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, St. Johns
suited to cultivated crops and citrus crops because of and EauGallie fine sand and soils that are similar make
wetness, droughtiness, and flooding. The number of up 81 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar
adapted crops that can be grown is limited if very soils make up 1 to 19 percent of the mapped areas.
intensive management practices, including flood control, Generally, the mapped areas consist of about 57 percent
are not followed. If good management practices are St. Johns soil and similar soils and 36 percent EauGallie
used, this soil has fair suitability for cropland. A water soil and similar soils. Some areas are made up of St.
control system to remove excess water rapidly and Johns soil and similar soils, some are made up of
provide for subsurface irrigation is necessary. Soil- EauGallie soil and similar soils, and some areas are
improving cover crops should be included in the cropping made up of both of these soils. These soils do not occur
system and crop residue should be left on or in the soil in a regular repeating pattern. The relative proportion of
to control erosion and maintain the content of organic combinations of the soils vary. The individual areas of
matter. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the soils in this map unit are large enough to map
rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to separately; however, in considering the present and
the needs of the crop. predicted use, they were mapped as one map unit.
This soil is moderately well suited to use as pasture Typically, St. Johns soil has a surface layer of black
and rangeland. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and fine sand about 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
white clover grow well on this soil if properly managed. a depth of about 22 inches, is gray fine sand. The
Management practices should include a water control subsoil, to a depth of about 54 inches, is black and very
system to remove excess surface water after heavy dark gray fine sand. The substratum to a depth of about
rains, regular applications of fertilizer and lime, and 80 inches is grayish brown fine sand. In the mapped
controlled grazing during periods of flooding, areas are soils that are similar to St. Johns fine sand,
This soil is poorly suited to use for sanitary facilities, but these soils have a surface layer that is 7 to 10
building sites, and recreational development. Water inches thick, have a subsoil at a depth of more than 30
control, including surface and subsurface drainage, is inches, or have a yellow or brownish yellow subsoil.
needed to overcome excessive wetness; however, Typically, EauGallie soil has a surface layer of black
flooding is a continuous hazard. Septic tank absorption fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
fields may need to be enlarged because of wetness. The a depth of about 17 inches, is light gray fine sand. The
rapid permeability of this soil may cause pollution of subsoil extends to a depth of about 73 inches. It is very
ground water in areas with septic tank absorption fields. dark gray and pale brown fine sand in the upper part and
If the density housing is moderate to high, a community is grayish brown sandy loam in the lower part. The
sewage system may be needed to prevent contamination substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is gray loamy
of water supplies by seepage. Drainage systems and sand. In the mapped areas are soils that are similar to
flood control structures may be needed to control EauGallie fine sand, but these soils have a subsoil that is
excessive wetness and flooding. Sealing or lining of at a depth of more than 30 inches, or the loamy part of
sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with the subsoil is within 40 inches of the surface.
impervious soil material reduces excessive seepage. The During most years, the soils in this map unit have a
sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored. The seasonal high water table within 12 inches of the surface
sandy surface layer should be stabilized for recreational for 1 month to 4 months. The permeability of St. Johns
uses. soil is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and in
This soil is not suited to use as habitat for openland the substratum and is moderate or moderately slow in
wildlife. It is poorly suited to use as habitat for woodland the subsoil. The permeability of EauGallie soil is rapid in
wildlife and is moderately suited to use as habitat for the surface and subsurface layers. It is moderate or
wetland wildlife, moderately slow in the sandy part of the subsoil and







46 Soil Survey



slow or very slow in the loamy part of the subsoil. The a community sewage system may be needed to prevent
available water capacity is very low to low in the surface contamination of water supplies by seepage. Sealing or
and subsurface layers and in the substratum of St. Johns lining sanitary landfills with impervious soil material
and EauGallie soils and is moderate to high in the reduces excess seepage. Sidewalls of shallow
subsoil. Natural fertility is low and the content of organic excavations should be shored. The sandy surface layer
matter is moderate. should be stabilized for recreational use.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Felda soils in The soils in this map unit are moderately suited to use
small areas. as habitat for openland, woodland, and wetland wildlife.
In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left Common wildlife in the county includes deer, turkeys,
in natural vegetation. In a few areas, these soils are armadillos, skunks, sparrows, quail, woodpeckers,
used for cultivated crops and citrus crops, as pasture warblers, rattlesnakes, frogs, and bobcats. Rotational
and rangeland, or for homesites and other urban grazing, controlled burning, and maintenance of natural
development. The natural vegetation consists mostly of water levels can improve wildlife habitat.
longleaf pine and slash pine. The understory includes St. Johns soil is in capability subclass Illw and
lopsided indiangrass, inkberry, saw palmetto, pineland EauGallie soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
threeawn, waxmyrtle, bluestem, panicum, and other woodland ordination symbol for these soils is 10W. The
grasses. soils in this map unit are in the South Florida Flatwoods
The soils in this map unit are moderately well suited to range site.
citrus crops in areas that are relatively free of freezing
temperatures. A properly managed water control system 30-Seffner fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
is needed to maintain the water table at an effective somewhat poorly drained. It is on broad, low ridges and
depth. Proper arrangement and bedding of rows, lateral knolls on the flatwoods. The slopes are dominantly less
ditches or tiles, and well constructed outlets help to than 2 percent.
remove excess surface water and to lower the high In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Seffner
water table. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime fine sand and soils that are similar make up 82 to 99
are generally needed to maintain yields. These soils are percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1
generally not suited to most cultivated crops because of to 18 percent of the mapped areas.
wetness. However, if a water control system is installed Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
and soil-improving measures are used, these soils are fine sand about 15 inches thick. The underlying material
moderately well suited to most cultivated crops. Proper to a depth of about 80 inches is very pale brown, light
row management, lateral ditches or tiles, and well gray, and white fine sand. In the mapped areas are soils
constructed drainage outlets help to remove the excess that are similar to Seffner fine sand, but these soils have
surface water. Crop residue left on or near the surface a surface layer that is 7 to 10 inches thick.
helps to conserve moisture, to maintain tilth, and to In most years, this soil has a seasonal high water at a
control erosion. Most crops and pasture plants respond depth of 12 to 36 inches for 2 to 4 months. It recedes to
well to fertilization. a depth of less than 60 inches during extended dry
The soils in this map unit are well suited to use as periods. The permeability is rapid. The available water
pasture. A water control system is needed to remove capacity is moderate in the surface and low to very low
excess surface water. Pangolagrass, improved in the underlying material. Natural fertility is moderate.
bahiagrass, and white clover grow well on these soils. The content of organic matter is moderate to moderately
Proper stocking, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing low.
during wet periods help keep the pasture and the soil in Included in mapping are some dissimilar soils in small
good condition. Fertilizer and lime are needed for areas that have a dark brown subsoil at a depth of more
optimum growth of grasses and legumes, than 50 inches.
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to use for In most areas, this soil is used for citrus crops, as
sanitary facilities, building sites, and recreational pasture and rangeland, or for homesites and urban
development. The main limitations are seepage and development. In a few areas, it is used for cultivated
wetness. Population growth has resulted in increased crops. Some areas have been left in natural vegetation,
construction of houses. Water control, including surface which consists mostly of longleaf pine, slash pine, live
and subsurface drainage, is needed to overcome oak, and laurel oak. The understory includes waxmyrtle,
wetness. Fill material should be added to make these fetterbush lyonia, creeping bluestem, broomsedge .
soils suitable for most urban uses. Septic tank bluestem, grassleaf goldaster, lopsided indiangrass, saw
absorption fields do not function properly during rainy palmetto, panicum, and pineland threeawn.
periods because of wetness and the moderate to very Under natural conditions, this Seffner soil is poorly
slow permeability of the soils. Septic tank absorption suited to most cultivated crops. The number of adapted
fields are mounded in most areas because of the high crops is limited unless intensive management practices
water table. If the density of housing is moderate or high, are used. A water control system is needed to remove







Seminole County, Florida 47



excess water in wet periods and to provide for 31-Tavares-Millhopper fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Soil-improving crops slopes. The soils in this map unit are nearly level to
should be included in the cropping system and crop gently sloping and moderately well drained. These soils
residue should be left on or in the soil to control erosion are on low ridges and knolls on the uplands. The slopes
and maintain the content of organic matter. Applications are nearly smooth to slightly convex.
of fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, Tavares-
needs of the crop. The suitability of this soil for citrus Millhopper fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes and soils
crops is fair in areas that are relatively free of freezing that are similar make up 77 to 94 percent of the mapped
temperatures and if good management practices are areas. Dissimilar soils make up 6 to 23 percent of the
used. A close-growing cover crop between the trees is mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of
needed to prevent the soil from blowing. A water control about 45 percent Tavares soil and similar soils, and
system is necessary to maintain the high water table at about 41 percent Millhopper soil and similar soils. The
an effective depth during the wet periods. A specially individual areas of this map unit are so intricately mixed
designed and properly managed irrigation system helps that mapping them separately at the selected scale is
to maintain optimum soil moisture and insure maximum not practical. The proportions and soil patterns are
yields. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are relatively consistent in most delineations of the map unit.
needed. Typically, Tavares soil has a surface layer of very dark
This soil is moderately well suited to use as pasture. grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
Pangolagrass and improved bahiagrass grow well on this underlying material to a depth of about 80 inches is
soil if properly managed. Regular applications of lime yellowish brown, light yellowish brown, very pale brown,
and fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should be and white fine sand. In the mapped areas are soils that
prevented. are similar to Tavares fine sand, but these soils are in
This soil is poorly suited to use for sanitary facilities, slightly lower positions on the landscape, and they are
shallow excavations, or recreational development. It is somewhat poorly drained.
moderately suited to dwellings without basements and Typically, Millhopper soil has a surface layer of gray
small commercial buildings. Water control, including fie a aly t 7 ilhopnper soi has a surface layer o rt
surface and subsurface drainage, is needed to overcome fine sand about 7 inches thick The subsurface layer, to
excessive wetness. Septic tank absorption fields may a depth of about 45 inches, is very pale brown and pale
need to be enlarged because of wetness. The rapid brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
permeability of this soil may cause pollution of ground depth of about 54 inches, is very pale brown sandy
water in areas of septic tank absorption fields. If the loam. The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is
density of housing is moderate to high, a community light gray sandy clay loam. In the mapped areas are soils
sewage system may be needed to prevent contamination that are similar to Millhopper fine sand, but in these soils
of water supplies by seepage. The proximity to a stream the upper part of the subsoil is within 40 inches of the
or aquifer recharge area should be considered in the surface.
placement of sanitary facilities to prevent contamination The soils in this map unit have a seasonal high water
of ground water, table at a depth of 36 to 60 inches for 2 to 6 months.
Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored. The permeability of Tavares soil is rapid or very rapid.
Sealing or lining sewage lagoons or trench sanitary The permeability of Millhopper soil is rapid in the surface
landfills with impervious soil material reduces excessive and subsurface layers and moderately slow in the
seepage. subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in
The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for Tavares soils. The available water capacity of Millhopper
recreational use. Droughtiness is a problem during soil is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
extended dry periods. Regular applications of fertilizer moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is very low in
are needed to maintain lawns and landscape vegetation. Tavares soil and low in Millhopper soil. The content of
This soil is moderately suited to use as habitat for organic matter is very low in Tavares soil and low to
openland wildlife. It is well suited to use as habitat for moderately low in Millhopper soil.
woodland wildlife and is not suited to use as habitat for Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Astatula,
wetland wildlife. Felda, and Pomello soils in small areas. Also included
Common wildlife in the county includes the deer, are dissimilar soils that have a brown subsoil at a depth
towhee, flycatcher, scrub jay, black racer, gopher of more than 50 inches.
tortoise, scrub lizard, and sand skink. The threatened In most areas, the soils in this map unit are used for
Florida scrub jay is dependent for its survival on this fast citrus crops, as pasture and rangeland, or for homesites
disappearing habitat. and other urban development. In a few areas, these soils
This Seffner soil is in capability subclass Illw. The are used for cultivated crops. Some areas have been left
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. This soil in natural vegetation, which consists mostly of laurel oak,
is in the South Florida Flatwoods range site. turkey oak, live oak, slash pine, and longleaf pine. The







48 Soil Survey



understory includes creeping bluestem, lopsided sloping and are moderately well drained. These soils are
indiangrass, panicum, and pineland threeawn. on hillsides on the uplands. The slopes are smooth to
The soils in this map unit are well suited to citrus convex.
crops in areas that are relatively free of freezing In 95 percent of this map unit, Tavares-Millhopper fine
temperatures and if good management practices, which sands, 5 to 8 percent slopes and soils that are similar
include irrigation and regular applications of fertilizer and make up 93 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
lime, are used. A close-growing cover crop between the Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 7 percent of the mapped
trees is needed to prevent the soil from blowing. Under areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of about 58
natural conditions, these soils are poorly suited to most percent Tavares soil and about 40 percent Millhopper
cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of soil and soils that are similar. The individual areas of the
plant nutrients are the main limitations. Management soils in this map unit are so intricately mixed that
practices should include irrigation and regular mapping them separately at the selected scale is not
applications of fertilizer and lime. Soil-improving crops practical. The proportions and soil patterns are relatively
should be included in the cropping system and crop consistent in most delineations of the map unit.
residue should be left on or in the soil to control erosion Typically, Tavares soil has a surface layer of dark gray
and to maintain the content of organic matter. fine sand about 9 inches thick. The underlying material
Under natural conditions, the soils in this map unit are extends to a depth of about 80 inches. It is gray fine
poorly suited to use as pasture. Droughtiness and low sand in the upper part, light gray fine sand in the middle
natural fertility are the main limitations. Intensive part, and very pale brown fine sand in the lower part.
management practices are needed to overcome these Typically, Millhopper soil has a surface layer of dark
limitations. Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface
bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are more layer extends to a depth of about 50 inches. It is very
drought tolerant. Regular applications of fertilizer and pale brown fine sand in the upper part and is white fine
lime are needed. Overgrazing should be prevented, sand in the lower part. The subsoil extends to a depth of
The soils in this map unit are well suited to use for about 80 inches or more. It is pale brown sandy loam in
homesites, other urban use, or recreational development, the upper part and gray sandy loam in the lower part. In
The proximity to a stream or canal should be considered the mapped areas are soils that are similar to Millhopper
in the placement of a septic tank absorption field to fine sand, but in these soils the upper part of the subsoil
prevent lateral seepage and ground water contamination, is within 40 inches of the surface.
If the density of housing is moderate to high, a The soils in this map unit have a seasonal high water
community sewage system may be needed to prevent table at a depth of 36 to 60 inches for up to 6 months.
contamination of water supplies by seepage. These soils The permeability of Tavares soil is rapid or very rapid.
are poorly suited to sewage lagoons, trench sanitary The permeability of Millhopper soil is rapid in the surface
landfills, and shallow excavations. Sealing or lining of and subsurface layers and moderately slow in the
sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills with subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in
impervious soil material reduces excessive seepage. Tavares soil, and it is low in the surface and subsurface
Water control is needed for trench sanitary landfills. layers and moderate in the subsoil in Millhopper soil.
Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored. The Natural fertility is very low in Tavares soil and is low in
sandy surface layer should be stabilized for recreational Millhopper soil. The content of organic matter is very low
uses. in Tavares soil and low to moderately low in Millhopper
The soils in this map unit are moderately suited to use soil.
as habitat for openland and woodland wildlife. They are Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Astatula soils
are not suited to use as habitat for wetland wildlife, in small areas. These soils are in higher positions on the
Common wildlife in the county includes the fox landscape and are excessively drained.
squirrel, deer, quail, ground dove, towhee, gopher In most areas, the soils in this map unit are used for
tortoise, pocket gopher, and fence lizard. So much of citrus crops, improved pasture, or homesites and other
this community has been converted to citrus groves or urban development. In a few areas, these soils are used
urban development that this habitat for wildlife and for cultivated crops. The natural vegetation consists of
several wildlife species dependent upon it are laurel oak, turkey oak, live oak, slash pine, and longleaf
considered endangered. pine. The understory includes creeping bluestem,
The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass Ills. lopsided indiangrass, panicum, and pineland threeawn.
The woodland ordination symbol for these soils is 10S. The soils in this map unit are well suited to citrus
They are in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range crops in areas that are relatively free of freezing
site. temperatures and if good management practices, which
include irrigation and regular applications of fertilizer and
32-Tavares-Millhopper fine sands, 5 to 8 percent lime, are used. A close-growing cover crop between the
slopes. The soils in this map unit are nearly level to trees is needed to prevent the soil from blowing. Under







Seminole County, Florida 49



natural conditions, the soils in this map unit are poorly Typically, this soil is very dark gray muck to a depth of
suited to most cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid 80 inches or more. In the mapped areas are soils that
leaching of plant nutrients are the main limitations, are similar to Terra Ceia muck, but these soils have an
Management practices should include irrigation and organic layer that contains fibers from woody plants at a
regular applications of fertilizer and lime. Soil-improving depth of 30 to 50 inches.
crops should be included in the cropping system and Under natural conditions, this soil has a high water
crop residue should be left on or in the soil to help table at or above the surface for most of the year except
control erosion and maintain the content of organic during extended dry periods. This soil is subject to
matter. frequent flooding during rainy periods. Flooding is directly
Under natural conditions, the soils in this map unit are related to the frequency and intensity of rainfall. If
poorly suited to pasture. Droughtiness and low natural drained, the organic material in Terra Ceia soil initially
fertility are the main limitations. Intensive management shrinks on drying and then subsides further as a result of
practices are needed to overcome these limitations, compaction and oxidation. These losses are more rapid
Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and during the first 2 years. If the soil is intensively farmed,
improved bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant. Regular the organic material continues to subside at the rate of
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. about 1 inch per year. The lower the water table, the
Overgrazing should be prevented, more rapid the loss. The permeability is rapid, but
The soils in this map unit are well suited to use for internal drainage is impeded by the shallow water table.
homesites and other urban development. Land shaping The available water capacity is very high. Natural fertility
may be needed in the more sloping areas. The proximity is high. The content of organic matter is very high.
to a stream or canal should be considered in the
to a stream or canal should be considered in the In most areas, this soil has been left in natural
placement of a septic tank absorption field to prevent vegetation. In a few areas, it is used as improved
lateral seepage and ground water pollution. If the density pasture. The natural vegetation consists of Carolina
pasture. The natural vegetation consists of Carolina
of housing is moderate to high, a community sewage willow, primrose willow, waxmyrtle, pickerelweed,
system may be needed to prevent contamination of saascat
sawgrass, cattail, buttonbush, arrowhead, ferns and
water supplies by seepage.
water supplies by seepage maidencane and other water-tolerant grasses.
These soils are poorly suited to sewage lagoons,
trench sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
recreational uses. Sealing or lining sewage lagoons and cultivated crops. However, if intensive management
trench sanitary landfills with impervious soil material practices and soil-improving measures are used and a
reduces excessive seepage. Water control is needed for water control system is installed to remove excess water
trench sanitary landfills. Sidewalls of shallow excavations rapidly and protect these areas from flooding, this soil
should be shored. The sandy surface layer should be has good suitability for many vegetable crops. A properly
stabilized for recreational use. designed water control system should be installed and
The soils in this map unit are moderately suited to use maintained to remove the excess water when crops are
as habitat for openland and woodland wildlife. They are on the land and to keep the soil saturated at all other
not suited to use as habitat for wetland wildlife, times. Good management practices include seedbed
Common wildlife in the county includes the fox preparation and crop rotation. Soil-improving crops
squirrel, deer, quail, ground dove, towhee, gopher should be included in the cropping system and crop
tortoises, pocket gophers, and fence lizard. So much of residue should be left on or in the soil to help control
this community has been converted to citrus groves or erosion and maintain the content of organic matter.
urban development that this habitat for wildlife and Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to citrus
several species dependent upon it are considered crops. It is poorly suited to this use even if intensive
endangered, management practices, such as bedding of rows, are
The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass used and the water control system is adequate.
IVs. The woodland ordination symbol for these soils is Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to use
10S. They are in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills as pasture; however, if an adequate water control
range site. system is installed to remove excess surface water after
heavy rains, suitability is good. The water control system
33-Terra Ceia muck, frequently flooded. This soil should maintain the high water table near the surface to
is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is on the flood prevent excess subsidence of the organic material.
plains and is frequently flooded for long periods following Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant vigor.
prolonged, high intensity rains. The slopes are less than This soil is not suited to use for building site, sanitary
2 percent, facilities, or recreational development because of
This map unit consists of about 73 percent Terra Ceia flooding, wetness, excess humus, and subsidence.
muck, frequently flooded, and 27 percent of soils that Flooding is a continuous hazard. Unless major flood
are similar to Terra Ceia soil. control structures are installed, this soil should not be







50 Soil Survey



considered for building sites, sanitary facilities, or a depth of about 18 inches, is grayish brown fine sand.
recreational development. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 25
This soil is poorly suited to use as habitat for openland inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The next layer,
and woodland wildlife. It is well suited to use as habitat to a depth of about 27 inches, is light brownish gray fine
for wetland wildlife, sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 70 inches, is
Common wildlife in the county includes the otter, gray sandy clay loam. The substratum to a depth of
raccoon, gray squirrel, wood duck, limpkin, and alligator, about 80 inches or more is light gray loamy sand. In the
In addition, animals in surrounding habitats often use this mapped areas are soils that are similar to Wabasso fine
area for food and cover and as travel lanes between sand, but in these soils, the loamy part of the subsoil is
developed areas. at a depth of more than 40 inches.
This Terra Ceia soil is in capability subclass 7w. This In most years, this soil has a seasonal high water
soil has not been assigned a woodland ordination table within 12 inches and the surface for 2 to 6 months.
symbol. This soil is in the Freshwater Marshes and The permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
Ponds range site. layers, moderate in the sandy part of the subsoil and
slow or very slow in the loamy part, and rapid in the
34-Urban land, 0 to 12 percent slopes. This substratum. The available water capacity is very low in
miscellaneous area is covered by urban facilities, such the surface and subsurface layers, moderate in the
as shopping centers, parking lots, industrial buildings, subsoil, and low in the substratum. Natural fertility is low
houses, streets, sidewalks, airports, and related and the content of organic matter is moderate to
structures. The natural soil can not be observed. The moderately low.
slopes are dominantly less than 2 percent but range to Dissimilar soils included in this map unit are Pineda
12 percent. soils in small areas.
In areas mapped as Urban land, 85 percent or more of In most areas, this soil has been left in natural
the soil surface is covered by asphalt, concrete, vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for cultivated crops
buildings, or other impervious surfaces that obscure or and citrus crops, as pasture and rangeland, or for
alter the soils so that their identification is not feasible. homesites or other urban development. The natural
Included in mapping are moderately urbanized areas vegetation consists mostly of longleaf pine, slash pine,
that have structures covering 50 to 85 percent of the soil live oak, and water oak. The understory includes
surface. Soils in the unoccupied areas of this map unit lopsided indiangrass, inkberry, saw palmetto, pineland
that are used as lawns, vacant lots, playgrounds, and threeawn, waxmyrtle, bluestem, panicum, and other
parks, mostly consist of Astatula, Apopka, Millhopper, grasses.
Myakka, Pomello, St. Lucie, Paola, Smyrna, Tavares, and This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because of
EauGallie soils. Generally, these soils have been altered wetness and the sandy texture in the root zone;
by grading and shaping, or fill material has been used to however, if a water control system is installed and
cover these soils to a depth of about 12 inches. The fill maintained and soil-improving measures are used, this
material consists of sandy and loamy materials. In soil has fair suitability for many vegetable crops. A water
places, this material contains fragments of limestone and control system is needed to remove excess water in wet
shell. The individual areas of soils in this map unit are so periods and to provide for subsurface irrigation in dry
small that mapping them separately at the selected scale periods. Soil-improving crops included in the rotation
is not practical. system and crop residue left on or in the soil help
Drainage systems have been established in most control erosion and help maintain the content of organic
areas of Urban land. Depth to the seasonal high water matter in this soil. Seedbed preparation should include
table is dependent upon the functioning of the drainage bedding of rows.
system. The suitability of this soil for citrus crops is good in
Urban land has not been assigned to a capability areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures
subclass or range site or has not been assigned a and if a water control system is installed to maintain the
woodland ordination symbol, high water table at an effective depth. Planting trees on
beds helps lower the depth of the water table. A close-
35-Wabasso fine sand. This soil is nearly level and growing cover crop is needed between tree rows to
poorly drained. It is on broad plains on the flatwoods. protect the soil from blowing. Regular applications of
The slopes are dominantly less than 2 percent. lime and fertilizer are needed.
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Wabasso This soil is well suited to use as pasture.
fine sand and soils that are similar make up 82 to 99 Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 grow well on this soil if properly managed. A water
to 18 percent of the mapped areas. control system is needed to remove excess surface
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray water after heavy rains. Proper stocking, pasture
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to rotation, and restricted grazing during wet periods help







Seminole County, Florida 51



keep the pasture and the soil in good condition. Regular This soil is poorly suited to use as habitat for openland
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. and wetland wildlife. It is moderately suited to use as
This soil is poorly suited to use for homesites, other habitat for woodland wildlife.
urban development, recreational development, or Common wildlife in the county includes deer, turkeys,
sanitary facilities. Water control is needed to overcome armadillos, skunks, sparrows, quail, woodpeckers,
excessive wetness. Septic tank absorption fields may warblers, rattlesnakes, frogs, and bobcats. Rotational
need to be enlarged because of the slow permeability of grazing, controlled burning, and maintenance of natural
this soil. Sealing or lining of trench sanitary landfills or water levels can improve habitat for wildlife.
sewage lagoons with impervious soil material reduces This Wabasso soil is in capability subclass Illw. The
excessive seepage. Sidewalls of shallow excavations woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. This soil
should be shored. The sandy surface layer should be is in the South Florida Flatwoods range site.
stabilized for recreational use.










53








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural The soils in Seminole County do not meet the
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid requirements for prime farmland.
soil-related failures in land uses. Planners of management systems for individual fields
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, or farms should consider the detailed information given
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses Cooperative Extension Service.
and management. Field experience and collected data Seminole County is experiencing rapid urbanization.
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis Acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has gradually
for predicting soil behavior. been decreasing as more and more land is used for
Information in this section can be used to plan the use urban development. However, large areas of productive
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as land remain in agricultural use. It is expected that the
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary urbanization pressures will continue for some time, and
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and the amount of land devoted to agriculture will continue to
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife decline. Natural disasters, such as the severe Christmas
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and decline. Natural disasters, suchasthesevere hristmas
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help freeze in 1983, will also contribute to the decline of land
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil use for agriculture.
properties. Some of the agricultural lands in Seminole County are
Planners and others using soil survey information can classified as unique and special. The soils on agricultural
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity land that have severe limitations for urban use, such as
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. Samsula, Okeelanta, and Terra Ceia soils, will be
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a protected by the nature of their limitations. It is the
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature, citrus-growing areas, pasture, and rangeland that will
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of come under the most severe urbanization pressure. The
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to use of this soil survey to help make land use decisions
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil that will influence the future role of farming in the county
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, is discussed in the section "Town and Country
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and Planning."
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can All forms of water and wind erosion occur in Seminole
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate County to some extent. Soils on which erosion is a
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, problem are scattered throughout the county. A recent
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. It can also be increase in the practice of planting grasses between
a very useful guide when selecting sites for houses, citrus rows has helped to decrease both wind and water
buildings, and pond reservoirs, erosion in the citrus groves. Vegetables are grown
predominantly on the nearly level areas that are not
Crops and Pasture subject to intensive water erosion, but the fields are left
without vegetation cover at certain times of the year and
General management needed for crops and pasture is this contributes to wind erosion. The most serious
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants erosion problems in Seminole County is on unprotected
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly soils on construction sites. When preparing building
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of sites, the soil is generally stripped of all vegetation and
land capability classification used by the Soil is subjected to the unrelenting forces of wind and water
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated for 3 or more months.







53








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural The soils in Seminole County do not meet the
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid requirements for prime farmland.
soil-related failures in land uses. Planners of management systems for individual fields
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, or farms should consider the detailed information given
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses Cooperative Extension Service.
and management. Field experience and collected data Seminole County is experiencing rapid urbanization.
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis Acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has gradually
for predicting soil behavior. been decreasing as more and more land is used for
Information in this section can be used to plan the use urban development. However, large areas of productive
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as land remain in agricultural use. It is expected that the
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary urbanization pressures will continue for some time, and
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and the amount of land devoted to agriculture will continue to
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife decline. Natural disasters, such as the severe Christmas
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and decline. Natural disasters, suchasthesevere hristmas
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help freeze in 1983, will also contribute to the decline of land
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil use for agriculture.
properties. Some of the agricultural lands in Seminole County are
Planners and others using soil survey information can classified as unique and special. The soils on agricultural
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity land that have severe limitations for urban use, such as
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. Samsula, Okeelanta, and Terra Ceia soils, will be
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a protected by the nature of their limitations. It is the
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature, citrus-growing areas, pasture, and rangeland that will
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of come under the most severe urbanization pressure. The
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to use of this soil survey to help make land use decisions
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil that will influence the future role of farming in the county
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, is discussed in the section "Town and Country
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and Planning."
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can All forms of water and wind erosion occur in Seminole
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate County to some extent. Soils on which erosion is a
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, problem are scattered throughout the county. A recent
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. It can also be increase in the practice of planting grasses between
a very useful guide when selecting sites for houses, citrus rows has helped to decrease both wind and water
buildings, and pond reservoirs, erosion in the citrus groves. Vegetables are grown
predominantly on the nearly level areas that are not
Crops and Pasture subject to intensive water erosion, but the fields are left
without vegetation cover at certain times of the year and
General management needed for crops and pasture is this contributes to wind erosion. The most serious
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants erosion problems in Seminole County is on unprotected
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly soils on construction sites. When preparing building
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of sites, the soil is generally stripped of all vegetation and
land capability classification used by the Soil is subjected to the unrelenting forces of wind and water
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated for 3 or more months.








54 Soil Survey



Loss of the soil by erosion reduces crop production Seminole County. Some soils, such as Felda soils that
and increases pollution. Productivity is reduced as the are poorly drained and Basinger, Floridana, Hontoon,
surface is lost, and organic matter is reduced as part of Nittaw, and Samsula soils that are very poorly drained,
the subsoil is incorporated into the plow layer. If erosion are naturally wet and restrict production of crops
is controlled, the pollution of streams by sediment can common to the area.
be reduced and the quality of water for municipal use, During rainy periods in most years, excessive wetness
for recreation, and for fish and wildlife can be improved, causes damage in the root zone in some of the
Water erosion is not a major problem in Seminole somewhat poorly drained soils unless the soils are
County. The soils are sandy and are mostly nearly level, artificially drained. Examples are Seffner and Adamsville
Erosion from rapid runoff takes place only during heavy soils. Also, excessive wetness causes some damage to
rains on unprotected soils that have short, steep slopes, pasture plants during rainy periods in most of the poorly
Examples are Astatula and Paola soils that are drained soils if these soils are not artificially drained.
excessively drained and Tavares soils that are Examples are mainly Immokalee, Malabar, St. Johns,
moderately well drained and have slopes of more than 2 Myakka, and Wabasso soils. These poorly drained soils
percent. also have a low available water capacity and are
Conservation practices, such as maintaining a drought during dry periods. It is generally necessary to
vegetation cover on the surface layer, reducing runoff, irrigate these soils to ensure quality pasture plants and
and increasing infiltration, will help control erosion. A to obtain maximum yields.
management system that maintains a grassed vegetation The very poorly drained soils, such as Canova,
cover between the citrus rows can hold soil erosion Brighton, Okeelanta, and Terra Ceia soils, are very wet
losses to amounts that do not reduce the productive during rainy periods. Water stands on the surface in
capacity of the soils. On livestock farms, legume and most areas, and the production of specialty crops or
grass forage crops should be included in the cropping good quality pasture plants is not possible unless the
system to reduce erosion on sloping land, provide soils are artificially drained.
nitrogen, and improve tilth for the next crop. The kind of surface drainage system and subsurface
Conservation tillage leaves crop residue on the irrigation system needed varies with the kind of soil and
surface, increases infiltration, and reduces runoff and the pasture plants to be grown on the soil. A
subsequent erosion. This practice can be adapted to combination of surface drains and subsurface irrigation
most soils in the county. systems is needed for intensive pasture production.
Wind erosion is a major hazard on the sandy and Information on the drainage and irrigation systems
organic soils. Wind can damage soils and tender crops needed for each soil in the county is available in the
in a few hours in open, unprotected areas if it is strong local offices of the Soil Conservation Service.
and the soil is dry and bare of vegetation or surface Soil fertility is naturally low in most of the sandy soils
mulch. Keeping a vegetation cover and surface mulch on in the county. Most of the soils are strongly acid if they
this soil reduces wind erosion. have not been limed. Soils, such as Nittaw and Floridana
Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It soils, have a thick surface layer that has a high content
reduces soil fertility by removing the finer soil particles of organic matter, have a higher soil reaction, and are
and the organic matter; damages or destroys crops by higher in natural fertility than most soils in the county.
sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and weed Available phosphorus and potash levels are naturally low
seeds; and creates health hazards and cleaning in most soils in Seminole County. On all soils, kinds and
problems. Control of wind erosion reduces duststorm amounts of lime and fertilizer added to the soils should
damage and improves the quality of the air for healthier be based on the result of soil tests, on the needs of the
living conditions. crop, and on the expected yields. The Cooperative
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such as Extension Service can help in determining the proper
cherry laurel, slash pine, southern redcedar, and application of fertilizer and lime needed.
Japanese privet and strips of small grained crops, are Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
effective in reducing wind erosion and crop damage. seeds, root development, and infiltration of water into the
Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow plantings soil. Soils that have good tilth are porous and have a
made at right angles to the prevailing wind and at granular structure.
specific intervals across the field. The intervals depend Most soils in Seminole County have a sandy surface
on the erodibility of the soil and the susceptibility of the layer that has good tilth. Generally the structure of the
crop to damage from sandblasting. surface layer of most soils in the county is weak. The
Information about conservation practices to control content of organic matter is low to moderate in most
erosion on each kind of soil in the county is available in areas. In dry soils that are low in organic matter content,
the local offices of the Soil Conservation Service. a slight crust can form on the surface layer after heavy
Soil drainage is a major concern in management on rain. Returning crop residue to the soil and regular
most of the acreage used for crops and pasture in additions of organic matter from other sources will








Seminole County, Florida 55



improve soil tilth, increase soil fertility, and reduce crust are grown on Immokalee and Myakka soils and on other
formation, soils on the flatwoods.

Citrus Pastureland
Citrus crops are grown in a few parts of the county, Pastures in the county are used to produce forage for
which mostly are in high recharge areas for the Floridan beef and dairy cattle. The sale of beef cattle in cow-calf
aquifer. In 1960, approximately 21,000 acres of citrus operations is the major livestock enterprise. Bahiagrass
was grown in Seminole County. The overall citrus and Coastal bermudagrass are the main pasture plants
acreage declined to 1,500 acres in 1986 (6) as a result grown in the county. Excess grass is harvested as hay
of the severe damage many groves sustained in the for winter feed or is sold at the farm. Pastures in many
December freeze of 1983 and the January freeze of parts of the county are depleted because of overgrazing
1985, as well as from the pressure of urbanization. and undermanagement. Pasture yields are closely
Citrus is grown on a wide variety of soils in Seminole related to the kind of soil. Proper pasture management
County. The soils on which citrus is grown range from depends on soil properties, kinds of pasture plants, lime
the excessively drained Astatula and Paola soils to the and fertilizer inputs, available moisture, and animal
poorly drained Immokalee and Wabasso soils. density. Yields can be increased by applying lime and
Supplemental irrigation improves production on the fertilizer as needed and using grass-legume mixtures.
drought soils. Water must be controlled on most poorly If artificially drained, the poorly drained soils on the
drained soils. flatwoods are well suited to improved pasture grasses.
Some soils that are used for citrus crops are in low During wet periods, excessive wetness of some of the
areas that have poor air drainage and frequent frost poorly drained soils causes damage to pasture grasses
pockets. These areas are generally poorly suited to unless the soils are artificially drained.
citrus crops. Grasses or legumes planted between the
citrus rows help minimize the damage caused by wind Yields Per Acre
erosion in young groves and in groves that have been T x
severely pruned back because of freeze damage. The average yields per acre that can be expected of
Most soils on which citrus is grown are low in natural the principal crops under a high level of management
fertility and must be supplemented with fertilizer and lime are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be
to ensure optimum yields. higher or lower than those indicated in the table because
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
Vetable The yields are based mainly on the experience and
s records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
Vegetables are grown extensively on the soils on the agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
south shore of Lake Monroe. With an adequate water results of field trials and demonstrations are also
control system, Wabasso, Malabar, and St. Johns soils considered.
are well suited to high-value vegetable crops. Some The management needed to obtain the indicated
vegetables are also grown on the organic soils on the yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
south shore of Lake Jessup. When these soils are and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion
drained, the organic material oxidizes and subsides at a control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
rate of about 1 inch per year. Keeping the soil saturated and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
during periods when crops are not being grown reduces appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
the rate of subsidence. diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction
These organic soils are highly susceptible to wind and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
erosion. Crop residue is generally left on the surface and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop
when no crops or water are on the soils to minimize the residue, barnyard manure, and green manure crops; and
soil blowing hazard. harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss.
Most soils used to produce vegetables are irrigated. For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
Irrigation systems include subirrigation, drip, and irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
sprinkler. If an adequate water control system is grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
maintained, most of the soils on the flatwoods can be applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum.
used for vegetable crops. The poorly drained Immokalee, The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of
Myakka, St. Johns, and Wabasso soils are sandy soils each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely
that have good internal drainage and are suited to sweet to increase as new production technology is developed.
corn, cabbage, and cucumbers. Smaller acreages of The productivity of a given soil compared with that of
many other truck crops are grown on a wide variety of other soils, however, is not likely to change.
soils. Many vegetables including beans, cabbage, Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in
cauliflower, cucumbers, onions, peppers, and squash, the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed








56 Soil Survey



because the acreage of such crops is small. The local Woodland Management and Productivity
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information This section contains information about the
about the management and productivity of the soils for relationship between soils and trees. It informs
those crops. landowners and operators of the capability of soils to
produce trees and suggests suitable conservation
Land Capability Classification practices to achieve maximum potential of the soil for
woodland use.
Land capability classification shows, in a general way, About 64,000 acres of commercial woodlands is in
the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops that Seminole County (17).
require special management are excluded. The soils are A well managed stand of trees prevents soil
grouped according to their limitations for field crops, the deterioration and helps to conserve soil and water
risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the way resources. One of the natural functions of trees is to
they respond to management. The criteria used in protect the soil. Trees slow the fall of raindrops and
grouping the soils do not include major, and generally allow the soil to absorb the moisture. Erosion is not a
expensive, landforming that would change slope, depth, problem on most forest land in the county, but the ability
or other characteristics of the soils, nor do they include of tree cover to allow more moisture to enter the soil is
possible but unlikely major reclamation projects, important to maintaining ground water supplies. Properly
Capability classification is not a substitute for managed forests are an important part of the direct and
interpretations designed to show suitability and indirect economy. Practices to be considered in
limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for woodland, achieving proper management are discussed briefly in
and for engineering purposes, the following paragraphs.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at Trees and ground cover are destroyed by uncontrolled
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only wildfires; or if the trees are not killed, their growth is
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels slowed, or they may be scarred, which allows the entry
are defined in the following paragraphs. of insects and diseases. This is particularly true in stands
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are predominantly of hardwoods. Fire lessens the ability of
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The the soil to absorb water, and it consumes litter that
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and contributes organic matter to the soil.
narrower choices for practical use. The capability classes Countywide fire protection is furnished by the Florida
that are in this survey are defined as follows: Division of Forestry. Individual landowners should
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the observe all the rules of fire protection. Firebreaks should
choice of plants or that require special conservation be constructed and maintained around and through all
practices, or both. woodlands. These firebreaks can slow or stop a fire
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce under normal conditions. Prescribed burning should be
the choice of plants or that require very careful practiced with the advice and assistance of the Florida
management, or both. Division of Forestry or qualified consultant foresters.
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have Most of the woodland of the county is understocked
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their and in need of stand improvement. Many areas of
use. woodland are also used for livestock production (fig. 11).
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them Tree farming is a good land use in many areas. Idle land
generally unsuitable for cultivation, can be profitably used to grow desirable trees. Pine can
grow on a variety of soils, and they require a minimum of
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make care once established.
them unsuitable for cultivation.
To profit most from tree farming, a forest owner should
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class. use proper cutting practices. Proper practices vary with
They are designated by adding a small letter, w or s, to the condition of the woodland.
the class numeral, for example, Illw. The letter w shows Detailed information and assistance in woodland
that water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or management can be obtained through the local offices
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly of the Soil Conservation Service or the Florida Division
corrected by artificial drainage); and s shows that the soil of Forestry.
is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony. Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth,
The soils in class V are subject to little or no erosion, fertility, texture, and the available water capacity
but they have other limitations that restrict their use to influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate
pasture, rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site.
recreation. Class V contains only the subclasses Available water capacity and depth of the root zone are
indicated by w or s. major influences of tree growth.






Seminole County, Florida 57



































Figure 11.-This area of grazed woodland is in the Adamsville-Sparr fine sands map unit.


This soil survey can be used by woodland managers species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the
planning ways to increase the productivity of forest land. number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential
Some soils respond better to fertilization than others, productivity is based on the site index and the point
and some are more susceptible to landslides and where mean annual increment is the greatest.
erosion after roads are built and timber is harvested. The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
Some soils require special efforts to reforest. The indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and
common forest understory plants are also listed. Table 5 management. The letter W indicates a soil in which
summarizes this forestry information and rates the soils excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes a
for a number of factors to be considered in significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry, sandy
management. Slight, moderate, and severe are used to soil.
indicate the degree of the major soil limitations to beatings of the erosion indicate the probability
considered in forest management. Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability
The first tree listed for each soil under the column that damage may occur if site preparation activities or
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil. An harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is slight if
indicator species is a tree that is common in the area no particular preventive measures are needed under
and that is generally the most productive on a given soil. ordinary conditions.
Table 5 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates use of forest management equipment, year-round or
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope,







58 Soil Survey



wetness, stoniness, or susceptibility of the surface layer does not necessitate intensive site preparation and
to compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On undesirable plants reduces natural or artificial
the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be used. reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation
The rating is moderate if slopes are steep enough that and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if
wheeled equipment cannot be operated safely across competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate
the slope, if soil wetness restricts equipment use from 2 natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is
to 6 months per year, or if special equipment is needed intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or
to avoid or reduce soil compaction. The rating is severe severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to
if soil wetness restricts equipment use for more than 6 ensure the development of an adequately stocked stand.
months per year, or if special equipment is needed to Managers must plan site preparation measures to ensure
avoid or reduce soil compaction. Ratings of moderate or reforestation without delays.
severe indicate a need to choose the most suitable The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is
equipment and to carefully plan the timing of harvesting expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in
and other management operations, the order of their observed general occurrence.
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of Generally, only two or three tree species dominate.
death of naturally occurring or properly planted seedlings The site index is determined by taking height
of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as influenced measurements and determining the age of selected
by kinds of soil or topographic features. Seedling trees within stands of a given species. This index is the
mortality is caused primarily by too much water or too average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a specified
little water. The factors used in rating a soil for seedling number of years. This index applies to fully stocked,
mortality are texture of the surface layer, depth and even-aged, unmanaged stands. Site index values given
duration of the water table, rock fragments in the surface in table 5 are based on standard procedures and
layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of the slope, techniques (9, 11, and 15).
Mortality generally is greatest on soils that have a sandy The productivity class represents an expected volume
or clayey surface layer. The risk is moderate if expected produced by the most important trees, expressed in
mortality is between 25 and 50 percent and severe if cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per
expected mortality exceeds 50 percent. Ratings of hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by
moderate or severe indicate that it may be necessary to multiplying by 14.3. It can be converted to board feet by
use containerized or larger than usual planting stock or multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, a
to make special site preparations, such as bedding, productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected to
furrowing, installing surface drainage, or providing produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at the point
artificial shade for seedlings. Reinforcement planting is where mean annual increment culminates, or about 568
often needed if the risk is moderate or severe, board feet per acre per year.
Ratings of windthrow hazard consider the likelihood of Trees to plant are those that are used for reforestation
trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting or, if suitable conditions exist, natural regeneration. They
depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth are suited to the soils and will produce a commercial
can be restricted by a high water table, fragipan, or wood crop. Desired product, topographic position (such
bedrock, or by a combination of such factors as soil as a low, wet area), and personal preference are three
wetness, texture, structure, and depth. The risk is slight if factors of many that can influence the choice of trees to
strong winds cause trees to break but do not uproot use for reforestation.
them; moderate if strong winds cause an occasional tree
to be blown over and many trees to break; and severe if Rangeland and Grazeable Woodlands
moderate or strong winds commonly blow trees over.
Ratings of moderate or severe indicate the need for care R. Gregory Hendricks, range conservationist, Soil Conservation
in thinning or possibly not thinning. Specialized Service, helped to prepare this section.
equipment may be needed to avoid damage to shallow Native forages can provide an economical alternative
root systems in partial cutting operations. A plan for to high maintenance tame pasture forages for livestock
periodic salvage of windthrown trees and the producers. Native forages are on a variety of sites from
maintenance of a road and trail system may be needed. extremely drought sandhills to marshlands. Typically,
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of native forages are most productive in areas that are
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant considered too wet for other uses without implementing
competition becomes more severe on the more water control and drainage practices. A native forage
productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils resource can be obtained on about 96,000 acres in
having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The Seminole County. About 32,000 acres is used strictly for
risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants rangeland purposes while 64,000 acres is used primarily
reduces adequate natural or artificial reforestation but for woodland products (17).







Seminole County, Florida 59



Rangeland site are about the same in kind and amount as the
The dominant native forage plants that naturally grow potential native composition for that site. Such
on a soil are generally the most productive and the most management generally results in the optimum production
suitable for livestock. These dominant native forage of vegetation, the conservation of water, and the control
plants will maintain themselves as long as the of erosion. The length of time that the sites are grazed,
environment does not change. These plants are grouped the time of year that they are grazed, the length of time
into three categories according to their response to and the season that the sites are rested, the grazing
grazing-decreasers, increases, and invaders. pattern of livestock within a pasture that contains more
Decreasers generally are the most abundant and most than one range site, and the palatability of the dominant
palatable plants on a given range site in good and plants within the site are basic management
excellent condition. They decrease in abundance if the considerations if the rangeland is to be improved or
rangeland is under continuous heavy grazing, maintained.
Increasers are less palatable to livestock. They Rangeland improvement practices, such as
increase for a short time under continuous heavy mechanical brush control, controlled burning, and
grazing, but they too eventually decrease. especially controlled livestock grazing, benefit Florida's
Invaders are native to rangelands in small amounts. rangeland. Predicting the effects of these practices is of
They have very little forage value, so they tend to utmost importance. Proper management results in
increase and become the new dominant plants as the maximum sustained production, conservation of the soil
decreaser and increase plants have been grazed out. and water resources, and improvement of the habitat for
Range condition is determined by comparing the many wildlife species.
present plant community with the potential native The soils in Seminole County are assigned to one of
composition of a particular range site. The more closely six range sites. The range sites are Freshwater Marshes
the existing community resembles its potential, the better and Ponds, Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills, Sand Pine
the range condition. Range condition is an ecological Scrub, Salt Marsh, Slough, and South Florida Flatwoods.
rating only. It does not have a specific meaning that A brief description of these sites follows.
pertains to the present plant community in a given use. Freshwater Marshes and Ponds-Some Basinger,
Four condition classes are used to measure range Brighton, Canova, Felda, Floridana, Holopaw, Hontoon,
condition. These are- Manatee, Nittaw, Okeelanta, Samsula, Sanibel, and
Excellent condition-producing 76 to 100 percent Terra Ceia soils (map units 10, 11, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22,
of the potential 23, and 33) are included in this range site. These soils
Good condition-producing 51 to 75 percent of have a potential for producing significant amounts of
the potential maidencane. Chalky bluestem and blue maidencane
Fair condition-producing 26 to 50 percent of the dominate some of the drier edges of this site. The water
potential level fluctuates throughout the year; thus, grazing is
Poor condition-producing 0 to 25 percent of the naturally deferred when the water level is high. Forage
potential production increases during the rest period. This range
Approximately 90 percent of rangeland in Florida is in site is preferred by cattle because of the high quantity
less than satisfactory condition or in poor and fair and quality of the forage.
condition. Table 6 shows for each soil the range site Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills-Apopka Astatula,
name and the potential annual production in favorable, Millhopper, and Tavares soils (map units 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 31,
average, and unfavorable growing seasons. Annual and 32) are in this range site. These soils have
forage production refers to the amount of forage, in moderately low potential for producing high quality
pounds per acre, that can be expected to grow on a well forage. Natural fertility is low because of the rapid
managed rangeland in good to excellent condition, movement of plant nutrients and water through the soil.
The productivity of range sites is closely related to the Because the quantity and quality of forage are poor,
natural drainage of the soil. The wettest soils, such as cattle do not readily graze this range site if other sites
those in freshwater and saltwater marshes, produce the are available.
most vegetation (fig. 12). The deep drought soils of the Sand Pine Scrub-Paola and St. Lucie soils (map unit
sandhills normally produce the least amount of forage 24) are in this range site. These soils have limited
annually, potential for producing native forage. The plant
Management of the range sites should be planned community consists of a fairly dense stand of sand pines
with the potential productivity in mind. Sites with the and a dense woody understory. Cattle do not graze this
highest production potential should be given highest range site if other sites are available.
priority if economic considerations are important. Salt Marsh-Felda soil (map unit 14) is in this range
Major management considerations revolve around site. This soil has the potential for producing significant
livestock grazing. The objective in range management is amounts of smooth cordgrass, marshhay cordgrass,
to control grazing so that the native plants growing on a seashore saltgrass, and numerous other grasses and







60 Soil Survey





































Figure 12.-A great amount of native vegetation is produced on Basinger and Smyrna fine sands, depressional, in this freshwater marsh.



forbs for forage. This range site can provide good site is allowed to deteriorate, saw palmetto and pineland
grazing for cattle. threeawn become dominant.
Slough-Some Basinger, Delray, Malabar, Pineda, and
Pompano soils (map units 9, 18, 25, and 28) are in this Grazeable Woodlands
range site. These soils have the potential for producing Grazeable woodlands are forests that have an
significant amounts of blue maidencane, chalky
esi n amounts of be maidencane, cal understory of native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The
bluestem, and various panicums. Carpetgrass, an
S understory is an integral part of the forest plant
introduced species, tends to become dominant if the site community. The native plants can be grazed without
is overgrazed. This range site is a preferred grazing area. ni
significantly impairing other forest values. On such forest
South Florida Flatwoods-Most Adamsvlle, land, grazing is compatible with timber management if it
EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, Pomello, Seffner, Sparr, is controlled or managed so that timber and forage
S' is controlled or managed so that timber and forage
St. Johns, and Wabasso soils (map units 2, 13, 16, 20, resources are maintained or enhanced
27, 29, 30, and 35) are in this range site. These soils
have the potential for producing significant amounts of
shrubs, and other plants within the reach of livestock or
creeping bluestem, indiangrass, chalky bluestem, various of grazing or browsing wildlife. A well managed wooded
panicums, and numerous legumes and forbs. If the range area can produce enough understory vegetation to
area can produce enough understory vegetation to







Seminole County, Florida 61



support optimum numbers of livestock or wildlife, or to nonfarm uses. The decisions on urban uses, however,
both. are not necessarily determined on the basis of suitability.
Forage production varies according to the different Instead, the physical characteristics and qualities of the
kinds of grazeable woodland; the amount of shade cast soil become paramount, and interpretations are more
by the canopy; the accumulation of fallen needles; the directly concerned with the limitations, restrictions, or
influence of time and intensity of grazing on the hazards and suggests corrective practices needed to
presence or absence of grass species and forage prevent serious mistakes-only some of which can be
production; and the number, size, and spacing and the adequately corrected later.
method of site preparation of tree plantings. This section presents some of the basic facts about
the soils in Seminole County and their relationship to
Town and Country Planning sound planning that should logically follow three
fundamental steps:
Albert Furman, soil scientist, Seminole County Soil and Water An overall study of general soil conditions within a
Conservation District, helped to prepare this section. large area;
The population of Seminole County has greatly A careful study of the individual soils as classified and
increased in the past few years. In 1970, the population mapped in a detailed soil survey;
was 83,700; and in 1984, it was 214,900 (17). This Specific onsite investigations are necessary after
increase to a large extent is the result of the proximity of planning has progressed to the point of applying specific
Disney World, Sea World, and other entertainment and uses to an area. Even detailed soil surveys have
recreation centers. Projections tell us that the population inclusions of other soils within a mapped area. These
will double in the next few years. As population inclusions may have soil characteristics that would
increases, greater demands are made for schools, adversely affect foundations, septic tank absorption
churches, shopping centers, and associated facilities. As fields, roadbeds, and other uses.
cities enlarge, serious land use and pollution problems Interpretations of soil information made in this survey
frequently develop, may be used in the overall study of soil conditions and in
From early settlement until now, the locations of the careful study of the individual soils. The overall study
towns, rural houses, citrus groves, cattle ranches, and can be accomplished by applying information in the
roads and highways normally followed soil patterns that section describing the general soil map units to the
imposed the least restrictions. The rapid expansion of general soil map in the back of this publication. The
population in Seminole County is forcing these land uses careful study requires application of information in the
onto less desirable sites. As this happens, more effort is tables to the detailed soil maps in the back of this
needed to overcome the greater limitations. Land use publication.
planning provides a logical base for the rapid change In Seminole County, soils are rated in terms of
that was a function of natural selection when land was limitations, restrictions, or hazards for many uses by
plentiful and people were few. Sound land use planning considering properties of the soils significant to the
considers the physical limitations and hazards of an area rating. These properties can be observed in the field or
and makes adequate provisions to overcome them. It measured in the laboratory. Some are basic soil
considers the onsite problems of the specific soil and characteristics, such as slope and available water
the interrelationship between soils of entire land areas. capacity. Others are soil qualities that are the
While many factors other than soils are important in manifestation of interactions between basic soil
planning for orderly development, soil quality is a basic characteristics. Permeability, for example, is a soil quality
and continuing factor. It demands full consideration, not that is the manifestation of soil texture, structure, and
only as a guide in determining use but also as a density.
measure of the kind and magnitude of problems that Some soil properties, such as slope and wetness,
must be overcome for specific uses. While it may not be affect practically all uses to an important degree. Others,
practicable to put all soils to their best possible use, full such as corrosion potential, are of considerable
knowledge of the problems that must be solved permits importance to only one of the specified uses-and then
deliberate adjustment in use (fig. 13). only under certain conditions. Some have an abstract
Farmers have long recognized the importance of value that may be altered when considered in
selecting crops suited to the soils. They also know that relationship to other characteristics. The relative
management practices are strongly affected by soil importance of any particular soil quality varies from one
conditions. Similar interpretations can be applied to soils use to another. For example, the slope of the land has a
information for use in town and country planning. Soil very important bearing on septic tank absorption fields
qualities are equally important in planning for industrial, but is of limited importance to wildlife uses.
recreational, residential, and related urban uses. The Space requirements of a growing population create
same soil characteristics and qualities that affect the competition for the use of the land. Many factors
kinds of crops and farming practices are also significant influence decisions on the best use. Without






62 Soil Survey






























-I, .... MA




Figure 13.-This planned development is within the Myakka-EauGallie-Urban land soil map unit and is adjacent to the St. Johns River.


consideration of the underlying causes, development extreme limitations that they would have to be greatly
may follow reasonably well defined intensity patterns that altered before they could be used for a desired purpose.
involve change from low intensity use to higher intensity Under the pressures of urban expansion, changes in
use. Generally, intensity in use ascends from forest to land use have been progressively toward the more
improved pasture, to cultivation, to suburban residential, intensive uses. Although economics, relative location,
and then to urban residential and industrial. Some soils and other factors are involved, soil quality has a basic
can easily support this entire sequence of uses. Others, influence that cannot be ignored without creating difficult
however, have limitations that seriously restrict them for problems. Changes in land use made without considering
one or more of these uses. soils and their capability endanger irreplaceable
Some map units, such as Paola-St. Lucie sands, 0 to 5 cropland. Not only is the highest or best practicable use
percent slopes, may have very low capability for involved but also the number or choice of alternatives.
woodland, range, or cultivated crops and yet have only Enlightened decisions regarding proper use can be made
minor limitations for urban development. Otherwise, map only by considering basic information about the soils.
units such as Canova and Terra Ceia mucks, if drained, Limitations, restrictions, and hazards to a number of
have high potential for some cultivated crops and yet are important uses of the soils in town and country planning
poorly suited to woodland or have very severe are considered in the following sections. Tables 10 and
restrictions for residential uses. A few soils have such 9 show the soil limitations in building site development







Seminole County, Florida 63



and the construction of sanitary facilities. They also Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
indicate the chief limiting properties of the soils. The foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
degree of limitations shown in these tables, based on all wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
soil characteristics, is stated. More detailed explanations surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry.
of specific uses are included in the following sections. Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
Recreation not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and
are not subject to flooding more than once a year during
In table 7, the soils of the survey area are rated the period of use. They have moderate slopes.
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the moderate slopes. The suitability of the soil for tees or
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, greens is not considered in rating the soils.
vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The Wildlife Habitat
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped to
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for prepare this section.
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding Wildlife habitat has been severely impacted by the
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning intense urbanization of Seminole County. Quality habitat
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height, remains in only a few isolated pockets, mainly, in the
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential. wetlands along the St. Johns River and the Wekiva
In table 7, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as River. Deer, raccoon, opposum, squirrels, rabbits,
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil woodpeckers, owls, alligators, otters, and a variety of
properties are generally favorable and that limitations, if songbirds, wading birds, reptiles, and amphibians are in
any, are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means these areas. Suitable habitat becomes more scarce each
that limitations can be overcome or alleviated by year, and only species that can adapt to suburban
planning, design, or special maintenance. Severe means development can maintain populations.
that soil properties are unfavorable and that limitations Fishery habitat is in a much better condition although
can be offset only by soil reclamation, special design, the water quality problems associated with urban
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination development have impacted here. In Seminole County
of these measures. are 184 named lakes. Seventeen of these lakes cover
The information in table 7 can be supplemented by more than 100 acres. Lake Jessup, which covers more
other information in this survey, for example, than 10,000 acres, is the largest. The St. Johns River
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table forms the eastern and northern boundaries of the county
10 and interpretations for dwellings without basements and provides excellent fishing. Important fish species
and for local roads and streets in table 9. include largemouth bass, bluegill, redear and red breast
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping sunfish, black crappie, chain pickerel, and several
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads species of catfish.
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary Several endangered or threatened species are in
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to Seminole County. These species range from the rare
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best indigo snake to more commonly known species, such as
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to the wood stork and bald eagle. A more detailed list of
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs these species with information on range and habitat
rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when needs is available from the local office of the Soil
dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of Conservation Service.
constructing campsites. Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
during the period of use, and do not have slopes that be created or improved by planting appropriate
increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
roads and parking areas. promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.







Seminole County, Florida 63



and the construction of sanitary facilities. They also Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
indicate the chief limiting properties of the soils. The foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
degree of limitations shown in these tables, based on all wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
soil characteristics, is stated. More detailed explanations surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry.
of specific uses are included in the following sections. Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
Recreation not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and
are not subject to flooding more than once a year during
In table 7, the soils of the survey area are rated the period of use. They have moderate slopes.
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the moderate slopes. The suitability of the soil for tees or
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, greens is not considered in rating the soils.
vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The Wildlife Habitat
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped to
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for prepare this section.
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding Wildlife habitat has been severely impacted by the
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning intense urbanization of Seminole County. Quality habitat
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height, remains in only a few isolated pockets, mainly, in the
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential. wetlands along the St. Johns River and the Wekiva
In table 7, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as River. Deer, raccoon, opposum, squirrels, rabbits,
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil woodpeckers, owls, alligators, otters, and a variety of
properties are generally favorable and that limitations, if songbirds, wading birds, reptiles, and amphibians are in
any, are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means these areas. Suitable habitat becomes more scarce each
that limitations can be overcome or alleviated by year, and only species that can adapt to suburban
planning, design, or special maintenance. Severe means development can maintain populations.
that soil properties are unfavorable and that limitations Fishery habitat is in a much better condition although
can be offset only by soil reclamation, special design, the water quality problems associated with urban
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination development have impacted here. In Seminole County
of these measures. are 184 named lakes. Seventeen of these lakes cover
The information in table 7 can be supplemented by more than 100 acres. Lake Jessup, which covers more
other information in this survey, for example, than 10,000 acres, is the largest. The St. Johns River
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table forms the eastern and northern boundaries of the county
10 and interpretations for dwellings without basements and provides excellent fishing. Important fish species
and for local roads and streets in table 9. include largemouth bass, bluegill, redear and red breast
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping sunfish, black crappie, chain pickerel, and several
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads species of catfish.
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary Several endangered or threatened species are in
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to Seminole County. These species range from the rare
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best indigo snake to more commonly known species, such as
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to the wood stork and bald eagle. A more detailed list of
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs these species with information on range and habitat
rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when needs is available from the local office of the Soil
dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of Conservation Service.
constructing campsites. Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
during the period of use, and do not have slopes that be created or improved by planting appropriate
increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
roads and parking areas. promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.







64 Soil Survey



In table 8, the soils in the survey area are rated properties and features that affect the growth of
according to their potential for providing habitat for hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and these plants are oak, saw palmetto, wild grape,
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are sweetgum, cabbage palm, apple, hawthorn, dogwood,
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining hickory, blackberry, and blueberry. Examples of fruit-
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining producing shrubs that are suitable for planting on soils
the intensity of management needed for each element of rated good are wild plum, firethorn, and waxmyrtle.
the habitat. Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or properties and features that affect the growth of
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair and juniper.
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be Wetland plants are annual and perennial, wild
established, improved, or maintained in most places. herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Moderately intensive management is required for Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that properties and features affecting wetland plants are
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or and slope. Examples of wetland plants are smartweed,
maintained in most places, but management is difficult pickerelweed, cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
and must be intensive. A rating of verypoor indicates Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be created by dams, levees, or other water-control
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
impractical or impossible. water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, slope, and
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the permeability. Examples of shallow water areas are
following paragraphs. marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and the following paragraphs.
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas
seed crops are corn, wheat, oats, millet, and grain include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow,
sorghum. cottontail, and red fox.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard, turkey, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also raccoon, deer, and bear.
considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy,
bahiagrass, lovegrass, Florida beggarweed, clover, and or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
sesbania. attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally birds, alligator, mink, and beaver.
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these Engineering
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface This section provides information for planning land
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil uses related to urban development and to water
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod, Florida most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
beggarweed, partridge pea, and bristlegrass. given in the following tables: Building site development,
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil management. The ratings are based on observed







Seminole County, Florida 65


performance of the soils and on the estimated data and without basements, small commercial buildings, local
test data in the "Soil Properties" section, roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
Information in this section is intended for land use limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for features are generally favorable for the indicated use
planning site investigations prior to design and and limitations, if any, are minor and easily overcome;
construction. The information, however, has limitations. moderate if soil properties or site features are
For example, estimates and other data generally apply moderately favorable for the indicated use and special
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet, planning, design, or maintenance is needed to overcome
and because of the map scale, small areas of different or minimize the limitations; and severe if one or more of
soils may be included within the mapped areas of a the soil properties or site features are unfavorable for the
specific soil. use, and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires
The information is not site specific and does not special design, extra maintenance, or alteration.
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
design and construction of engineering works. utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
not considered in preparing the information in this filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to
section. Local ordinances and regulations must be bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer,
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design, stone content, soil texture, and slope. The time of the
Soil properties, site features, and observed year that excavations can be made is affected by the
performance were considered in determining the ratings depth to a seasonal high water table and the
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of the
determinations were made about grain-size distribution, excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, soil wetness, affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table.
depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, likelihood of Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, and soil structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
density. Data were collected about kinds of clay soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made
the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for for small commercial buildings without basements, for
erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without
available water capacity, and other behavioral basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
characteristics affecting engineering uses. features, and observed performance of the soils. A high
This information can be used to: evaluate the potential water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and layers can cause the movement of footings. Depth to a
recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of high water table and flooding affect the ease of
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for excavation and construction. Landscaping and grading
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground that require cuts and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills, considered.
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
potential sources of sand, earthfill, and topsoil; plan have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds, terraces, gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
and other structures for soil and water conservation; and flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
predict performance of proposed small structures and limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
pavements by comparing the performance of existing properties, site features, and observed performance of
similar structures on the same or similar soils. the soils. Depth to a high water table, flooding, large
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps, stones, and slope affect the ease of excavating and
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this grading. Soil strength (as inferred from the engineering
survey can be used to make additional interpretations, classification of the soil), shrink-swell potential, and
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a depth to a high water table affect the traffic-supporting
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the capacity.
Glossary. Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and
Building Site Development maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
Table 9 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and reaction, depth to a high water table, the available water








66 Soil Survey



capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the content of salts observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, and the ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high water
amount of sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface table, flooding, and content of organic matter.
layer affect trafficability after vegetation is established. Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level
Sanitary Facilities of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function
Table 10 shows the degree and the kind of soil unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields, or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the
are considered slight if soil properties and site features lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope can
are generally favorable for the indicated use and cause construction problems.
limitations, if any, are minor and easily overcome; Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
moderate if soil properties or site features are disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
moderately favorable for the indicated use and special landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is
planning, design, or maintenance is needed to overcome placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered
or minimize the limitations; and severe if one or more of daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
the soil properties or site features are unfavorable for the area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on
use, and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted,
special design, extra maintenance, or alteration. and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
Table 10 also shows the suitability of the soils for use away from the site.
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of poor indicates that Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
one or more soil properties or site features are vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or needs to be considered.
alteration. The ratings in table 10 are based on soil properties,
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which site features, and observed performance of the soils.
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil Permeability, depth to a water table, slope, and flooding
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that affect both types of landfill. Texture, highly organic
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is layers, soil reaction, and content of salts affect trench
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the ratings apply
features, and observed performance of the soils. only to that part of the soil within a depth of about 6
Permeability, depth to a high water table, and flooding feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated slight or
affect absorption'of the effluent. moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation is
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption needed.
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent, Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
permeable sand is less than 4 feet below the base of to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
the absorption field, if slope is excessive, or if the water Soil texture, wetness, and slope affect the ease of
table is near the surface. There must be unsaturated soil removing and spreading the material during wet and dry
material beneath the absorption field to filter the effluent periods. Loamy soils are the best cover for a landfill.
effectively. Many local and State ordinances require that Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are difficult to
this material be of a certain thickness. spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to After soil material has been removed, the soil material
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over
and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level the water table to permit revegetation. The soil material
floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of used as final cover for a landfill should be suitable for
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold plants. The surface layer generally has the best
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly workability, more organic matter, and the best potential
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is for plants. Material from the surface layer should be
required to minimize seepage and contamination of stockpiled for use as the final cover.
ground water.
Table 10 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes Construction Materials
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are Table 11 gives information about the soils as a source
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.







Seminole County, Florida 67



They are rated as a probable or improbable source of A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean
sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is less
properties and site features that affect the removal of than 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least
the soil and its use as construction material. Normal 3 feet thick. All other soils are rated as an improbable
compaction, minor processing, and other standard source.
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is
and used in road embankments in another place. In this the reclamation potential of the borrow area.
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
exacting in design than higher embankments. fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface is affected by slope, a water table, soil texture, and
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil thickness of suitable material. Reclamation of the borrow
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading. area is affected by slope, a water table, and toxic
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within material.
their profile. The table showing engineering index Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a
properties provides detailed information about each soil depth of at least 40 inches. They have slopes of less
layer. This information can help determine the suitability than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered not so wet that excavation is difficult.
in the ratings. Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of appreciable amount of soluble salts, or soils that have
excavation is affected by a high water table and slope. slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are not so wet that
How well the soil performs in place after it has been excavation is difficult.
compacted and drained is determined by its strength (as Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil) than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
and shrink-swell potential. of soluble salts, or have a seasonal water table at or
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand near the surface.
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
material, low shrink-swell potential, and slopes of 15 for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
percent or less. Depth to the water table is more than 3 matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of
feet. Soils rated fair are more than 35 percent silt- and moisture and releases a variety of plant-available
clay-sized particles and have a plasticity index of less nutrients as it decomposes.
than 10. They have moderate shrink-swell potential.
Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet. Soils rated poor Water Management
have a plasticity index of more than 10 or a high shrink- Table 12 gives information on the soil properties and
swell potential. They are wet, and the depth to the water site features that affect water management. The degree
table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers of and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
thick. ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for properties and site features are generally favorable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and the indicated use and limitations, if any, are minor and
gravel are used in many kinds of construction. are easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 11, only features are moderately favorable for the indicated use
the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is and special planning, design, or maintenance is needed
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific to overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect one or more of the soil properties or site features are
excavation of the material. unfavorable for the use. Special design, possibly
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of increased maintenance, or alteration are required.
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated This table also gives the restrictive features that affect
by the engineering classification of the soil) and the each soil for drainage, irrigation, and grassed waterways.
thickness of suitable material. Gradation of grain sizes is Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
given in the table on engineering index properties, embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low







68



seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil layers that affect the rate of water movement;
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable permeability; depth to a high water table or depth of
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity standing water if the soil is subject to ponding; slope;
of the reservoir area. susceptibility to flooding; and subsidence of organic
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures layers. Excavating and grading and the stability of
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, ditchbanks are affected by slope and the hazard of
constructed to impound water or to protect land against cutbanks caving. The productivity of the soil after
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of drainage is adversely affected by extreme acidity or by
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil toxic substances in the root zone, such as salts.
material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5 Availability of drainage outlets is not considered in the
feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed ratings.
and compacted during construction. Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a and management of an irrigation system are affected by
depth greater than the height of the embankment can depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
affect performance and safety of the embankment, available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to erosion hazard, and slope. The performance of a system
determine these properties. is affected by the depth of the root zone, the amount of
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to salts, and soil reaction.
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include combination of channels and ridges constructed across
less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts. A high intercepting runoff. Slope and wetness affect the
water table affects the amount of usable material. It also construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
affects trafficability. rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or water erosion,
Aquifer-fed excavatedponds are pits or dugouts that an excessively coarse texture, and restricted permeability
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a adversely affect maintenance.
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface. surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity.
Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent Wetness and slope affect the construction of grassed
water table, permeability of the aquifer, and the salinity waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
of the soil. capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and as salts, and restricted permeability adversely affect the
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and growth and maintenance of the grass after construction.







69








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the The Unified system classifies soils according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of properties that affect their use as construction material.
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the following pages. the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
Soil properties are determined by field examination of to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
to delineate them on the soil maps. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
similar soils in neary area Tests very field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
accurately by field observation, and help characterize that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
key soils of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
Engineering Index Properties indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
classification and of the range of index properties for the weight percentage.
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
or 6 feet. inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Series, have openings of 4.76, 200, 0.420, and 0.074
properties of each layer are given for each soil series pe.
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 estimates are based on test data from the survey area,
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 or from nearby areas, and on field examination.
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier Physical and Chemical Properties
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary. Table 14 shows estimates of some characteristics and
Classification of the soils is determined according to features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area.
adopted by the American Association of State Highway The estimates are based on field observations and on
and Transportation Officials (1). test data for these and similar soils.







69








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the The Unified system classifies soils according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of properties that affect their use as construction material.
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the following pages. the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
Soil properties are determined by field examination of to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
to delineate them on the soil maps. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
similar soils in neary area Tests very field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
accurately by field observation, and help characterize that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
key soils of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
Engineering Index Properties indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
classification and of the range of index properties for the weight percentage.
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
or 6 feet. inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Series, have openings of 4.76, 200, 0.420, and 0.074
properties of each layer are given for each soil series pe.
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 estimates are based on test data from the survey area,
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 or from nearby areas, and on field examination.
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier Physical and Chemical Properties
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary. Table 14 shows estimates of some characteristics and
Classification of the soils is determined according to features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area.
adopted by the American Association of State Highway The estimates are based on field observations and on
and Transportation Officials (1). test data for these and similar soils.







69








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the The Unified system classifies soils according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of properties that affect their use as construction material.
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the following pages. the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
Soil properties are determined by field examination of to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
to delineate them on the soil maps. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
similar soils in neary area Tests very field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
accurately by field observation, and help characterize that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
key soils of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
Engineering Index Properties indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
classification and of the range of index properties for the weight percentage.
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
or 6 feet. inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Series, have openings of 4.76, 200, 0.420, and 0.074
properties of each layer are given for each soil series pe.
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 estimates are based on test data from the survey area,
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 or from nearby areas, and on field examination.
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier Physical and Chemical Properties
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary. Table 14 shows estimates of some characteristics and
Classification of the soils is determined according to features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area.
adopted by the American Association of State Highway The estimates are based on field observations and on
and Transportation Officials (1). test data for these and similar soils.







70 Soil Survey


Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter corrosion.
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
in diameter. 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility laboratory measurements at representative sites of
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink- affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
operations. for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per construction material, and the potential of the soil to
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field corrode metal and concrete.
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
a soil indicates the undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
pore space e for water and roots. A bulk density swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density oc in e so and on
amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root measurements of similar soils.
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of often needed.
movement of water through the soil when the soil is Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
construction where the rate of water movement under less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
saturated conditions affects behavior, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water is sometimes used.
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
capacity for water storage in each major soil layer is sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
varies, depending on soil properties that affect the to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
retention of water and the depth of the root zone. The and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre
most important properties are the content of organic per year. These estimates are based primarily on
matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4
Available water capacity is an important factor in the percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values of
choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the design K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the
and management of irrigation systems. Available water more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by
capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water water.
actually available to plants at any given time. Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of can occur over a sustained period without affecting crop
each major horizon is based on many field tests. For productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre per
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory year.
analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for similar properties affecting their resistance to wind







Seminole County, Florida 71



erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
distinctions: gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine transmission.
sands. These soils are generally poorly suited to crops. Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
reestablish after cultivation. or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind transmission.
erosion are used. Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
control wind erosion are used. soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosionclays that have a permanent high shrink-swell potential, soils
are used. that have a permanent high water table, soils that have a
4. Clays, silty clays, clay oams, and silty clay oams claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and soils
.Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams that are shallow over nearly impervious material. These
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are that are shallow over nearly i s mteal. These
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
control wind erosion are used. In table 15, some soils are assigned two hydrologic
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and soil groups. Soils that have a seasonal high water table
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and but can be drained are assigned first to a hydrologic soil
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 group that denotes the drained condition of the soil and
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are then to a hydrologic group that denotes the undrained
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to condition, for example, B/D. Because there are different
control wind erosion are used. degrees of drainage and water table control, onsite
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and investigation is needed to determine the hydrologic
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, group of the soil in a particular location.
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface by
erodible. Crops can easily be grown. flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high tides.
soil at various stages of decomposition. Shallow water standing or flowing for short periods after
In table 14, the estimated content of organic matter is rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding. Standing
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil water in swamps and marshes or in a closed depression
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. is considered ponding.
The content of organic matter of a soil can be Table 15 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the and the time of year when flooding is most likely to
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity, occur.
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
other nutrients for crops. are estimated. Frequency generally is expressed as
none, occasional, or frequent. None means that flooding
Soil and Water Features is not probable. Occasional means that flooding occurs
infrequently under normal weather conditions (there is a
Table 15 gives estimates of various soil and water 5 to 50 percent chance of flooding in any year).
features. The estimates are used in land use planning Frequent means that flooding occurs often under normal
that involves engineering considerations. weather conditions (there is more than a 50 percent
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff chance of flooding in any year). Duration is expressed as
from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four brief (2 to 7 days), long (7 days to 1 month), and very
groups. They are grouped according to the intake of long (more than 1 month). The time of year that floods
water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive are most likely to occur is expressed in months. June-
precipitation from long-duration storms. November, for example, means that flooding can occur
The four hydrologic soil groups are: during the period June through November. About two-







72



thirds to three-fourths of all flooding occurs during the water table is above the surface of the soil. "More than
stated period. 6.0" indicates that the water table is below a depth of 6
The information on flooding is based on evidence in feet or that the water table exists for less than a month.
the soil profile, namely, thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
organic matter content with increasing depth; and results from either desiccation and shrinkage or oxidation
absence of distinctive horizons, which are characteristic of organic material, or both, following drainage.
of soils that are not subject to flooding. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period
Also considered are local information about the extent of several years. Table 15 shows the expected initial
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage, and
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the total subsidence, which results from a combination of
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than factors.
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
levels. water throughout an extensive area as a result of
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a lowering the water table.
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
soil. Indicated in table 15 are the depth to the seasonal soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
high water table; the kind of water table, that is, perched electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
or apparent; and the months of the year that the water concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
table commonly is highest. A water table that is content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil.
seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated in Special site examination and design may be needed if
table 15. the combination of factors creates a severely corrosive
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A perched of soil or within one soil layer.
water table is water standing above an unsaturated For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
zone. In places an upper, or perched, water table is low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
separated from a lower one by a dry zone. total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
The two numbers in the "High water table-Depth" electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
column indicate the normal range in depth to a saturated For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot. The first as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
numeral in the range indicates the highest water level. A acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation
plus sign preceding the range in depth indicates that the extract.







73








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (14). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic,
or on laboratory measurements. Table 16 shows the Typic Haplaquods.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs, horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/ An layer or of the substratum within a series.
example is Spodosol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil Soil Series and Their Morphology
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties In this section, each soil series recognized in the
that reflect the most important variables within the survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder in alphabetic order.
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, meaning Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
water, plus od, from Spodosol). formed are identified for each series. The soil is
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
base status. Each great group is identified by the name follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (12). Many
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hapl, meaning defined in Soil Taxonomy (14). Unless otherwise stated,
minimal horizonation, plus aquod, the suborder of the colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
Spodosols that has an aquic moisture regime), pedon description is the range of important
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. characteristics of the soils in the series.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The The map units of each soil series are described in the
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Adamsville Series
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate The Adamsville series consists of soils that are
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each somewhat poorly drained. These soils formed in sandy
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives marine sediment. They are on the lower slopes on the
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective uplands and on low knolls on the flatwoods. The slopes
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great are less than 2 percent. Adamsville soils are
group. An example is Typic Haplaquents. hyperthermic, uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on Adamsville soils are closely associated with
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other Immokalee, Pomello, Pompano, Seffner, Sparr, and
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the Tavares soils. Immokalee and Pomello soils have a
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where spodic horizon. Pompano soils are poorly drained and
there is much biological activity. Among the properties are in lower positions on the landscape than Adamsville







73








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (14). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic,
or on laboratory measurements. Table 16 shows the Typic Haplaquods.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs, horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/ An layer or of the substratum within a series.
example is Spodosol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil Soil Series and Their Morphology
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties In this section, each soil series recognized in the
that reflect the most important variables within the survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder in alphabetic order.
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, meaning Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
water, plus od, from Spodosol). formed are identified for each series. The soil is
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
base status. Each great group is identified by the name follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (12). Many
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hapl, meaning defined in Soil Taxonomy (14). Unless otherwise stated,
minimal horizonation, plus aquod, the suborder of the colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
Spodosols that has an aquic moisture regime), pedon description is the range of important
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. characteristics of the soils in the series.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The The map units of each soil series are described in the
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Adamsville Series
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate The Adamsville series consists of soils that are
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each somewhat poorly drained. These soils formed in sandy
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives marine sediment. They are on the lower slopes on the
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective uplands and on low knolls on the flatwoods. The slopes
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great are less than 2 percent. Adamsville soils are
group. An example is Typic Haplaquents. hyperthermic, uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on Adamsville soils are closely associated with
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other Immokalee, Pomello, Pompano, Seffner, Sparr, and
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the Tavares soils. Immokalee and Pomello soils have a
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where spodic horizon. Pompano soils are poorly drained and
there is much biological activity. Among the properties are in lower positions on the landscape than Adamsville







74 Soil Survey



soils. Seffner soils have an umbric epipedon. Sparr soils feet south of the northwest corner of sec. 24, T. 20 S.,
have an argillic horizon. Tavares soils are moderately 29 E.
well drained and are in higher positions on the
landscape than Adamsville soils. Ap-0 to 6 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak fine
Typical pedon of Adamsville fine sand, in an area of granular structure; friable; few fine roots; slightly
Adamsville-Sparr fine sands; 1 mile east of Chuluota, acid; clear wavy boundary.
1,900 feet north and 600 feet west of the southeast E1-6 to 20 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; single
corner of sec. 21, T. 21 S., R. 32 E. grained; loose; few fine roots; many uncoated sand
grains; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A-0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; E2-20 to 65 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
dark organic matter mixed with light gray sand sand; single grained; loose; few fine distinct yellow
grains; weak fine granular structure; friable; many (10YR 7/6) fine sand lamellae; many fine roots;
fine, medium, and coarse roots; medium acid; clear many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; abrupt
smooth boundary, wavy boundary.
C1-4 to 28 inches; light grayish brown (10YR 6/2) fine Bt-65 to 80 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) sandy
sand; few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
mottles; single grained; loose; common fine roots; firm; few fine roots; few fine pores; thin patchy clay
many uncoated sand grains; slightly acid; gradual films on faces of peds and on walls of pores; sand
wavy boundary. grains coated and bridged with clay; strongly acid.
C2-28 to 45 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
sand; common fine and medium distinct brownish The thickness of the solum is more than 60 inches.
yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; single grained; loose; The reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium
well coated sand grains in mottled parts, uncoated acid except where the Ap horizon has been limed.
sand grains in matrix; slightly acid; gradual wavy The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5,
boundary. and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand.
C3-45 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; The thickness of this horizon is 4 to 8 inches.
single grained; loose; mildly alkaline. The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 3 to 8. Some pedons have gray or white
The reaction ranges from very strongly acid to mildly mottles because of uncoated sand grains. Other pedons
alkaline. The texture is sand or fine sand to a depth of have mottles and lamellae in shades of brown, red, or
80 inches or more. The content of silt plus clay is less yellow. The texture of the E horizon is sand or fine sand.
than 5 percent in the control section. The combined thickness of the A and E horizons is more
The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, than 40 inches.
and chroma of'1 or 2. The thickness of this horizon is 3 The Bt horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 4
to 7 inches. to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. The texture is loamy fine
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and sand, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. The Bt horizon
chroma of 1 to 4. Mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and extends to a depth of 60 to 80 inches or more.
brown range from few to many. Mottles or matrix chroma
indicative of wetness are within 36 inches of the surface. Astatula Series

Apopka Series The Astatula series consists of soils that are nearly
level to strongly sloping and excessively drained. These
The Apopka series consists of soils that are nearly soils formed in thick deposits of marine sand. They are
level to strongly sloping and well drained. These soils on ridges and hillsides on the uplands. The water table is
formed in sandy and loamy marine sediment. They are at a depth of more than 60 inches. The slopes range
on ridges and hillsides on the uplands. The slopes range from 0 to 12 percent. Astatula soils are hyperthermic,
from 0 to 12 percent. Apopka soils are loamy, siliceous, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments.
hyperthermic Grossarenic Paleudults. Astatula soils are closely associated with Apopka,
Apopka soils are closely associated with Astatula, Millhopper, Paola, St. Lucie, and Tavares soils. Apopka
Millhopper, Paola, St. Lucie, and Tavares soils. The and Millhopper soils have an argillic horizon. Paola soils
associated soils do not have an argillic horizon except have an albic horizon underlain by a horizon that has
for Millhopper soils. In addition, Millhopper soils have a value that is at least one unit darker. St. Lucie soils have
seasonal high water table at a depth of 40 to 60 inches value of 7 or 8 and chroma of 2 or less in the C horizon.
in most years. Tavares soils are moderately well drained.
Typical pedon of Apopka fine sand, in an area of Typical pedon of Astatula fine sand, in an area of
Astatula-Apopka fine sands, 5 to 8 percent slopes; about Astatula-Apopka fine sands, 8 to 12 percent slopes; 2
4 miles southeast of Lake Mary, 700 feet east and 100 miles west of Lake Mary, 700 feet east and 200 feet







Seminole County, Florida 75



south of the northwest corner of sec. 18, T. 20 S., R. 30 grains; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
E. strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
E-5 to 30 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
Ap-0 to 3 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
many uncoated sand grains; mixture of gray sand Bh/E-30 to 50 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
and organic matter in upper 1 inch; strongly acid; fine sand and light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
clear wavy boundary. common medium distinct black (10YR 2/1) weakly
C1-3 to 40 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine cemented bodies; single grained; loose; strongly
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots in upper acid; gradual wavy boundary.
part; few fine streaks of light gray sand grains; many C-50 to 80 inches; gray (N 6/0) fine sand; single
uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains; strongly
boundary. acid.
C2-40 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few uncoated white The thickness of sand or fine sand is more than 80
(10YR 8/1) sand grains; strongly acid. inches. The reaction ranges from extremely acid to
neutral.
Sand or fine sand extends to a depth of 80 inches or The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 6, and
more. The content of silt plus clay between depths of 10 chroma of 1. The texture is dominantly fine sand or
and 40 inches is less than 5 percent. The reaction sand; however, in depressional areas, the surface
ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid. texture is mucky fine sand. The thickness of this horizon
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 7, is 4 to 9 inches.
and chroma of 1 or 2. The thickness of this horizon is 2R, 5
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
to 6 nches chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons, a thin transitional EB
Some pedons have a transitional AC horizon that is 2 horizon is between the E and Bh/E horizons. The
to 5 inches thick. This horizon has hue of 10YR, value of ns the E horizon i 0 3 ihe
6or7, and ra thickness of the E horizon is 10 to 30 inches.
6 or 7, and chroma of 3 or 4.
The B part of the Bh/E horizon has hue of 10YR,
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and The B part of the Bh/E horizon has hue of YR,
chroma of 3 to 8. In some pedons, the C horizon has value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2. The E part of the Bh/E
chroma of 3 to 8. In some pedons, the C horizon has
S are in saes o ay to white hee horizon has color similar to that of the E horizon. Few to
mottles that are in shades of gray to white. These
mottles are not indicative of wetness but are the colors many mottles or weakly cemented bodies that have hue
of the sand grains. of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2 are in the
of the sand grains.
Bh part of this horizon. Some pedons have a thin
discontinuous Bh horizon that has colors similar to those
Basinger Series in the Bh part of the Bh/E horizon. The Bh/E horizon is
less than 30 inches thick.
The Basinger series consists of soils that are poorly The C horizon has hue of 1YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 8,
drained and very poorly drained. These soils formed inral a al o
sandy marine sediment. They are in sloughs, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of 5
depresin or oo deed draaeay. The ses to 8. The C horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or
depressions, or poorly defined drainageways. The slopes
are less than 2 percent. Basinger soils are siliceous, more.
hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents.
Basinger soils are closely associated with Delray, Brighton Series
EauGallie, Hontoon, Immokalee, Myakka, Nittaw,
Okeelanta, Pompano, Samsula, and Smyrna soils. The Brighton series consists of organic soils that are
Delray, EauGallie, and Nittaw soils have an argillic deep and very poorly drained. These soils formed mainly
horizon; in addition, EauGallie soils also have a spodic in the remains of woody plants. They are in depressions
horizon. Immokalee, Myakka, and Smyrna soils have a and freshwater marshes and swamps. The slopes are
spodic horizon. Hontoon, Okeelanta, and Samsula soils less than 2 percent. Brighton soils are dysic,
are organic soils. Pompano soils do not have spodic hyperthermic Typic Medihemists.
properties. Brighton soils are closely associated with Basinger,
Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand, in an area of Samsula, Sanibel, Smyrna, and St. Johns soils. Basinger,
Basinger and Delray fine sands; about 6 miles east of Sanibel, Smyrna, and St. Johns soils are mineral soils.
Chuluota, 2,200 feet east and 800 feet north of the Samsula soils have sandy mineral material that is within
southeast corner of sec. 28, T. 21 S., R. 33 E. 50 inches of the surface.
Typical pedon of Brighton muck, in an area of
A-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; Brighton, Samsula, and Sanibel mucks; about 1.5 miles
dark organic matter mixed with light gray sand southwest of Oviedo, 1,800 feet south and 2,200 feet







76 Soil Survey



west of the northeast corner of sec. 21, T. 21 S., R. 31 Typical pedon of Canova muck, in an area of Canova
E. and Terra Ceia mucks; about 2 miles northeast of
Oveido, 600 feet west and 1,000 feet north of the
Oap-0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 40 southeast corner of sec. 35, T. 20 S., R. 31 E.
percent fiber, unrubbed, and 5 percent fiber, rubbed;
weak fine granular structure; loose to friable; Oa-0 to 10 inches; black (N 2/0) muck; about 40
extremely acid; diffuse wavy boundary. percent fiber, unrubbed, 5 percent fiber, rubbed;
Oe-8 to 40 inches; very dark gray (5YR 3/1) mucky massive; many fine roots; slightly acid; abrupt
peat; about 25 percent fiber, rubbed, and 60 percent smooth boundary.
fiber, unrubbed; massive; friable; many identifiable A-10 to 15 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; single
remains of herbaceous and woody material; grained; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid; gradual
extremely acid; diffuse wavy boundary. wavy boundary.
Oe2-40 to 80 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) E-15 to 27 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
mucky peat; about 25 percent fiber, rubbed, and 60 grained; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid; abrupt
percent fiber, unrubbed; massive; many identifiable irregular boundary.
remains of herbaceous and woody material; Btg/E-27 to 30 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy
extremely acid. loam; common medium distinct brownish yellow
S. (10YR 6/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
The organic material is more than 51 inches thick. The (10YR 6/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid. The structure; friable; few coarse distinct tongues of dark
pH is less than 4.5 in 0.01 molar calcium cloride. The gray (10YR 4/1) sand; sand grains coated and
sodium pyrophosphate extract colors have value of 3 or bridged with clay; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
4 and chroma of 1 to 3 in the Oa horizon and have value Btg-30 to 38 inches; dark greenish gray (5GY 4/1)
of 5 or 6 and chroma of 1 in the Oe horizon. sandy clay loam; common medium distinct dark
The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2 or yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; weak coarse
3, and chroma of 1 or 2. This horizon has significant subangular blocky structure; friable; sand grains
amounts of undecomposed herbaceous and woody coated and bridged with clay; neutral; gradual wavy
materials; but after rubbing, the fiber content is less than boundary.
16 percent. The thickness of this horizon is 6 to 12 BCg-38 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 6/1) sandy
inches. clay loam; common fine faint light gray (10YR 7/1)
The Oe horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value 2 to 5, carbonatic materials; massive; friable; lenses of
and chroma of 1 to 6. This horizon contains significant sandy loam and loamy sand; calcareous; moderately
amounts of identifiable undecomposed herbaceous and alkaline.
woody materials. It is dominated by hemic material that
is between 35 and 75 percent fiber content, unrubbed, The reaction ranges from extremely acid to slightly
and 16 to 40 percent fiber content, rubbed. This horizon acid in the Oa horizon, from medium acid to moderately
extends to a depth of more than 51 inches, alkaline in the A and E horizons, and from neutral to
Some pedons are underlain by a C horizon within 80 moderately alkaline in the Btg/E, Btg, and Cg horizons.
inches of the surface. This horizon has hue of 10YR, The Oa horizon has hue 5YR to 10YR, value of 2 or 3,
value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of 2.
ranges from fine sand to sandy loam. This horizon contains significant amounts of
undecomposed herbaceous and woody materials; but
Canova Series after rubbing, the fiber content is less than 16 percent.
anova series The thickness of the organic material ranges from 5 to
The Canova series consists of soils that are very 15 inches.
poorly drained. These soil formed in loamy marine The A horizon has hue of 10YR; or it is neutral and
material below organic material. They are in depressions has value of 2 to 5. The texture is sand or fine sand. The
and freshwater swamps. The slopes are less than 2 thickness of the A horizon ranges from 3 to 10 inches.
percent. Canova soils are fine-loamy, siliceous, The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
hyperthermic Typic Glossaqualfs. chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand. The
Canova soils are closely associated with Felda, combined thickness of the A and E horizons is less than
Floridana, Manatee, and Terra Ceia soils. Felda soils do 20 inches.
not have an organic surface layer, and the combined The Btg horizon and the Btg part of the Btg/E horizon
thickness of the A and E horizons is 20 to 40 inches. have hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 4 to 6, and chroma
Floridana and Manatee soils have a mollic epipedon. of 1 or 2. Some horizons have mottles in shades of
Terra Ceia soils formed in organic deposits that are more yellow and brown. The E part of the Btg/E horizon has
than 51 inches thick. the same texture, hue, value, and chroma as the E







Seminole County, Florida 77



horizon. The texture of the Btg horizon is sandy loam or sandy loam. The Btg horizon extends to a depth of 60
sandy clay loam. The Btg horizon is 5 to 20 inches thick. inches or more.
The BCg horizon has about the same colors as the Some pedons have a BCg horizon within 80 inches of
Btg horizon. The texture is sandy loam or sandy clay the surface. In pedons that have a BCg horizon, the
loam and has lenses of sand, loamy sand, and sandy color and texture are similar to that of the Btg horizon.
loam. Few and common, fine and medium, soft and hard,
light gray and white fragments of carbonatic material are EauGallie Series
in the BCg horizon.
The EauGallie series consists of soils that are poorly
Delray Series drained. These soils formed in sandy and loamy marine
sediment. They are on broad plains on the flatwoods.
The Delray series consists of soils that are very poorly The slopes are less than 2 percent. EauGallie soils are
drained. These soils formed in sandy and loamy marine sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Alfic Haplaquods.
sediment. They are in sloughs and on broad, low plains EauGallie soils are closely associated with Basinger,
on the flatwoods. The slopes are less than 2 percent. Felda, Immokalee, Malabar, Myakka, Smyrna, and St.
Delray soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Johns soils. Basinger, Immokalee, Myakka, Smyrna, and
Grossarenic Argiaquolls. St. Johns soils do not have an argillic horizon. Felda and
Delray soils are closely associated with Basinger, Malabar soils do not have a spodic horizon.
EauGallie, Holopaw, Felda, Malabar, and Smyrna soils. Typical pedon of EauGallie fine sand, in an area of
Basinger and Smyrna soils do not have an argillic Myakka and EauGallie fine sands; about 5 miles
horizon. EauGallie soils have a spodic horizon. Felda, southeast of Sanford, 1,500 feet north and 1,000 feet
Holopaw, and Malabar soils do not have a mollic west of the southeast corner of sec. 7, T. 20 S., R. 31 E.
epipedon. In addition, Felda soils have an argillic horizon
that is within 40 inches of the surface. A-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; light
Typical pedon of Delray fine sand, in an area of gray sand grains mixed with black organic matter;
Basinger and Delray fine sands; about 1.5 miles north of weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
Loch Arbor, 1,800 feet east and 2,000 feet north of the and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth
southwest corner of sec. 30, T. 19 S., R. 30 E. boundary.
E1-5 to 10 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
A-0 to 12 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
fine granular structure; friable; many fine roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
about 5 to 10 percent organic matter; slightly acid; E2-10 to 18 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
clear smooth boundary. few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) mottles;
Eg-12 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; sine grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
loose; common fine dark gray stains along root stngly acid; abrupt wavy bndar
channels; many fine roots; common fine pores;-8 to 20 inches; black YR 2) f
neutral; abrupt wavy boundary. Bhl-18 to 20 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
neutral; abrupt wavy boundary, moderate medium granular structure; firm; common
Btg-50 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy loam; moderate medium granular structure; firm; common
weak fine granular structure; friable; most sand fine roots; sand grains coated with organic matter;
grains coated and bridged with clay, some sand medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
grains uncoated; mildly alkaline. Bh2-20 to 25 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine
sand; moderate medium granular structure; firm; few
The thickness of the solum is more than 60 inches. fine and medium roots; sand grains coated with
The reaction is medium acid to neutral in the A horizon, organic matter; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
slightly acid or neutral in the E horizon, and neutral to Bh3-25 to 30 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand;
mildly alkaline in the B horizon, moderate medium granular structure; friable; sand
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and grains coated with organic matter; medium acid;
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is fine sand or mucky fine gradual wavy boundary.
sand that has an organic matter content of 2 to 18 BE-30 to 37 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sand;
percent. The thickness of the A horizon is 10 to 16 weak fine granular structure; friable; few fine black
inches. (10YR 2/1) fragments; many uncoated sand grains;
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
chroma of 2 or less. The texture is sand or fine sand. E'-37 to 41 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
The combined thickness of the A and E horizons is more sand; single grained; loose; slightly acid; abrupt
than 40 inches. wavy boundary.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and Btg-41 to 60 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sandy
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sandy loam or fine clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky







78 Soil Survey



structure; friable; sand grains coated and bridged Typical pedon of Felda mucky fine sand, in an area of
with clay; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. Felda mucky fine sand, saline, frequently flooded; about
Cg-60 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) 8 miles east of Chuluota, 2,000 feet east and 750 feet
loamy sand that has pockets of fine sand and sandy south of the northwest corner of sec. 34, T. 21 S., R. 33
loam; massive; loose to firm; slightly acid. E.
The thickness of the solum ranges from 46 to more A-0 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand;
than 80 inches. The depth to the Bt horizon is more than weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine and
40 inches. The reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
medium acid in the A and E horizons, from very strongly Egl-7 to 20 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; many
acid to slightly acid in the Bh horizon, and from very fine faint light brownish gray streaks and mottles;
strongly acid to mildly alkaline in all other horizons below single grained; loose; many fine roots; many clean
the Bh horizon. sand grains; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and Eg2-20 to 25 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
chroma of 1. The texture is sand or fine sand. The single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
thickness of the A horizon is 4 to 9 inches, slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and Btg-25 to 39 inches; gray (N 6/0) sandy clay loam;
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand or fine sand. The common medium distinct brownish yellow (1 YR
combined thickness of the A and E horizons is less than 6/6) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
30 inches. structure; friable; slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2 or fine roots; few medium pores; clay bridging between
3, and chroma of 1 to 3. The texture is sand or fine some sand grains; thin patchy clay films on faces of
sand. Sand grains are well coated with organic matter. peds; neutral; clear irregular boundary.
The thickness of the Bh horizon is 10 to 22 inches. BC 39 to 49 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy loam; weak
In pedons that have a BE horizon, it has hue of 7.5YR BCg-o- subangular blocky structure; friable; pockets
coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; pockets
or 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 3 or 4. The and lenses of fine sand and loamy fine sand; mildly
texture of this horizon is sand or fine sand. The alkalineclear wa boundary
thickness of the BE horizon is 4 to 9 inches. In most alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
pedons, this horizon has few or common, weakly Cg-49 to 80 inches; gray (N 6/0) loamy sand; single
cemented fragments s of Bh materials grained; loose; narrow lenses and small pockets of
cemented fragments of Bh material.
In pedons that have an E' horizon, it has hue of 10YR, gray fine sandy loam; mildly alkaline.
value of 4 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 3. The texture is The thickness of the solum ranges from 30 to 80
sand or fine sand. The thickness of the E' horizon is 3 to inches. The reaction ranges from slightly acid to
7 inches. moderately alkaline.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
7, and chroma of 3 or less. The texture is sandy loam, chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is fine sand or mucky fine
fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. The content of clay sand. The A horizon is 4 to 7 inches thick.
averages 16 to 23 percent but is up to 35 percent in The r s of t 7 and
some subhorizons. The Btg horizon is 5 to 30 inches The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
Stick chroma of 1 or 2. Mottles of yellow or brown range from
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to none to common. The texture is sand or fine sand. The
7, and chroma of 1 to 3. The texture ranges from fine combined thickness of the A and E horizons ranges from

sand to loamy fine san. 20 to 40 inches.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to
Felda Series 7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of
4 to 7. Some pedons have mottles in shades of yellow
The Felda series consists of soils that are poorly or brown. The texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or
drained and very poorly drained. These soils formed in sandy clay loam. The thickness of the Btg horizon is 12
sandy and loamy marine sediment. They are in to 30 inches.
depressions and on the flood plains. The slopes are less In some pedons, the BCg horizon has colors similar to
than 2 percent. Felda soils are loamy, siliceous, those of the Btg horizon. The texture is loamy sand,
hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs. loamy fine sand, or sandy loam. The thickness of the
Felda soils are closely associated with Floridana, BCg horizon is 7 to 12 inches.
Holopaw, Manatee, Nittaw, and Pineda soils. Floridana, In some pedons, the Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to
Manatee, and Nittaw soils have a mollic epipedon. 5G, value of 4 to 8, and chroma of 2 or less; or it is
Holopaw soils have sandy A and E horizons that neutral and has value of 4 to 8. Some pedons have
combined are more than 40 inches thick. Pineda soils mottles of higher or lower chroma. The texture is sand,
have a Bw horizon. fine sand, or loamy sand. The percent, by volume, of 2







Seminole County, Florida 79



to 10 millimeter shell fragments ranges from 0 to 10 pedons, these horizons have mottles of gray, yellow, and
percent, brown. The Btg and BCg horizons extend to a depth of
60 inches or more. The texture is sandy loam, fine sandy
Floridana Series loam, or sandy clay loam.
The Floridana series consists of soils that are very
poorly drained. These soils formed in sandy and loamy Holopaw Series
marine sediment. They are on the flood plains. The The Holopaw series consists of soils that are poorly
slopes are less than 2 percent. Floridana soils are
loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Argiaquolls. drained. These soils formed in sandy marine sediment.
loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Argiaquolls.
Floridana soils are closely associated with Felda, They are on the flood plains. The slopes are less than 2
Holopaw, Manatee, and Nittaw soils. Felda and Holopaw percent. Holopaw soils are loamy, siliceous,
soils do not have a mollic epipedon. Manatee and Nittaw hyperthermic Grossarenic Ochraqualfs.
soils have an argillic horizon that is within 20 inches of Holopaw soils are closely associated with Felda,
the surface. Floridana, Malabar, Manatee, and Nittaw soils. Felda,
Typical pedon of Floridana mucky fine sand, in an area Floridana, Manatee, and Nittaw soils have an argillic
of Manatee, Floridana, and Holopaw soils, frequently horizon that is within 40 inches of the surface. Malabar
flooded; about 7 miles east of Chuluota, 2,000 feet west soils have a Bw horizon.
and 2,600 feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 21, Typical pedon of Holopaw fine sand, in an area of
T. 21 S., R. 33 E. Manatee, Floridana, and Holopaw soils, frequently
flooded; about 9 miles east of Oviedo, 1,300 feet south
A1-0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand; and 2,000 feet west of the northeast corner of sec. 18,
weak medium granular structure; friable; common T. 21 S., R. 33 E.
fine and few medium roots; sand grains coated with
organic matter; slightly acid; gradual smooth A-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine
boundary. granular structure; very friable; many fine and
A2-8 to 18 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak medium roots; slightly acid; gradual smooth
fine granular structure; friable; common fine roots; boundary.
many fine faint gray sand pockets and streaks; Egl-6 to 19 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
Eg-18 to 29 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; few many fine roots; slightly acid; gradual smooth
medium prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) boundary.
mottles and common medium faint gray (10YR 5/1) Eg2-19 to 43 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
mottles; single grained; loose; common medium common medium distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3)
groots swagty bounda; cear wavy boudary
roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. mottles; single grained; loose; common fine roots;
Btg-29 to 42 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sandy loam; slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
weak coarse subangular blocky structure; common
fine and medium roots; few medium pores; sand Eg3-43 to 50 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grains coated and bridged with clay; mildly alkaline; grained; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid; gradual
gradual wavy boundary. smooth boundary.
BCg-42 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy loam; Btg-50 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1)fine sandy loam;
weak coarse subangular blocky structure; common common medium distinct brown (10YR 4/3) mottles;
fine and medium roots; few fine and medium pores; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
many uncoated sand grains; mildly alkaline. few fine roots; clay bridging between sand grains;
mildly alkaline.
The thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to more
than 80 inches. The reaction ranges from very strongly The thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to more
acid to moderately alkaline. than 80 inches. The reaction ranges from strongly acid
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and to neutral in the surface and subsurface layers and from
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is fine sand or mucky fine strongly acid to moderately alkaline in the subsoil.
sand. The thickness of the A horizon is 10 to 20 inches. The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 to
The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and 5, and chroma of 2 or less. The thickness of the A
chroma of 1 or 2. This horizon has few to common horizon is 4 to 10 inches; but if the value is 3 or less, the
mottles in shades of brown or yellow. The texture is horizon is less than 7 inches thick. The texture of the A
sand or fine sand. The combined thickness of the A and horizon is fine sand.
Eg horizons ranges from 20 to 40 inches. The Eg horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to
The Btg and BCg horizons have hue of 10YR to 5Y, 7, and chroma of 3 or less. The combined thickness of
value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. In some the A and E horizons ranges from 40 to 70 inches.







80 Soil Survey



The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to Immokalee Series
7, and chroma of 2 or less. The texture is sandy loam,
fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. In many pedons, The Immokalee series consists of soils that are poorly
this horizon has pockets and lenses of sand. drained. These soils formed in sandy marine sediment.
They are on broad plains on the flatwoods. The slopes
Hontoon Series are less than 2 percent. Immokalee soils are sandy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Haplaquods.
The Hontoon series consists of organic soils that are Immokalee soils are closely associated with Basinger,
deep and very poorly drained. These soils formed in EauGallie, Myakka, Pomello, Smyrna, and St. Johns
hydrophytic, nonwoody plant remains. They are in soils. Basinger soils do not have a spodic horizon.
freshwater swamps and marshes. The slopes are less EauGallie soils have an argillic horizon below the spodic
than 2 percent. Hontoon soils are dysic, hyperthermic horizon. Myakka, Smyrna, and St. Johns soils have a
Typic Medisaprists. spodic horizon within 30 inches of the surface. Pomello
Hontoon soils are closely associated with Basinger, soils are moderately well drained.
Brighton, Floridana, Manatee, Okeelanta, Samsula, and Typical pedon of Immokalee fine sand, in an area of
Terra Ceia soils. Basinger, Floridana, and Manatee soils EauGallie and Immokalee fine sands; about 2.5 miles
formed in mineral materials. Brighton soils mainly have southeast of Chuluota, 750 feet west and 1,300 feet
hemic material in the control section. Okeelanta and south of the northeast corner of sec. 35, T. 21 S., R. 32
Samsula soils have sandy mineral material in the control E.
section. Terra Ceia soils are in the euic family. A-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (N 4/0) fine sand; dark
Typical pedon of Hontoon muck, in an area of organic matter mixed with light gray sand grains;
Basinger, Samsula, and Hontoon soils, depressional; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
about 1.5 miles east of Buda, 1,200 feet east and 40 and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth
feet south of the northwest corner of sec. 35, T. 20 S., boundary.
R. 32 E. E1-4 to 7 inches; gray (N 6/0) fine sand; single
Oal-0 to 18 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) grained; loose; common fine and medium roots; very
Oal-0 to 18 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
muck; about 20 percent fiber, unrubbed, 3 percent strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
fiber, rubbed; weak medium subangular blocky E2-7 to 42 inches; light gray (O10YR 7/1) fine sand;
fiber, rubbed; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; extremely acid; gradual wavy single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
structure; friable; extremely acid; gradual wavy
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
boundary. t Bh-42 to 62 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
0a2- 18 to 48 inches; very dark brown (1 R 2/2) fine granular structure; friable; common fine and
muck; about 22 percent fiber, unrubbed, 2 percent medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
fiber, rubbed; weak coarse subangular blocky boundary.
structure; friable; extremely acid; clear wavy BC-62 to 80 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
boundary. fine sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid.
Oa3-48 to 80 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 2 a y
percent fiber, unrubbed; massive; friable; very Sand or fine sand extends to a depth of 80 inches or
strongly acid. more. The reaction ranges from extremely acid to
medium acid.
The reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 to
acid. The pH is less than 4.5 in 0.01 molar calcium 4, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of
chloride and ranges from 4.5 to 5.5 by field methods that 2 to 4. The thickness of the A horizon is 3 to 12 inches;
approximate pH in 1:1 water. The mineral content within and if the value is less than 3, the thickness is less than
16 to 51 inches of the surface ranges from about 5 to 25 10 inches.
percent and up to 75 percent below a depth of 51 The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
inches. chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of 5 to 8.
The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2 or Some pedons have mottles in shades of gray, yellow,
3, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of brown, or red. The combined thickness of the A and E
2 or less. The fiber content is less than 33 percent, horizons ranges from 30 to 50 inches.
unrubbed. The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 2 or
Some pedons have a Cg horizon within 80 inches of 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons, vertical or
the surface, and this horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, horizontal intrusions or masses of dark gray to light gray
value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 or less. The texture is sand are in this horizon. The thickness of the Bh horizon
sand or fine sand. ranges from 12 to 28 inches.







Seminole County, Florida 81



A second sequa of E' and Bh' is in some pedons and The thickness of the solum ranges from 46 to 80
the range in hue, value, and chroma is the same as inches. The reaction ranges from strongly acid to
those in the E and Bh horizons, moderately alkaline.
The BC horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 3 The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 to
to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. 4, and chroma of 2 or less. The texture is fine sand. The
thickness of the A horizon is 2 to 8 inches.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to
Malabar Series 8, and chroma of 2 to 4. The texture is sand or fine
The Malabar series consists of soils that are poorly sand. The thickness of the E horizon is 3 to 22 inches.
drained. These soils formed in sandy and loamy marine The Bw horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
sediment. They are in sloughs or along poorly defined chroma of 4 to 8. The texture is sand or fine sand. The
drainageways. The slopes are less than 2 percent, thickness of the Bw horizon is 10 to 28 inches.
Malabar soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic The E' horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
Grossarenic Ochraqualfs. chroma of 1 to 3. The combined thickness of the A, E,
Malabar soils are closely associated with Basinger, Bw, and E' horizons is more than 40 inches.
Delray, EauGallie, Pineda, Smyrna, St. Johns, and The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to
Wabasso soils. Basinger, Smyrna, and St. Johns soils do 7, and chroma of 2 or less. The texture is sandy loam,
not have an argillic horizon. Delray soils have a mollic fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. A transitional BCg
epipedon. EauGallie and Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon is in some pedons. The BCg horizon has the
horizon. Pineda soils have an argillic horizon between same range in texture, hue, value, and chroma as the
depths of 20 and 40 inches. Btg horizon.
Typical pedon of Malabar fine sand; about 3 miles east The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5GY, value of 5 to
of Chuluota, 2,000 feet east and 1,000 feet north of the 7, and chroma of 2 or less. It is sand, fine sand, loamy
southwest corner of sec. 13, T. 21 S., R. 32 E. fine sand, or loamy sand that has pockets or lenses of a
loamy material.
A-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak
fine granular structure; friable; many fine and few Manatee Series
medium roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
E-6 to 10 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine The Manatee series consists of soils that are very
sand; common medium faint strong brown (7.5YR poorly drained. These soils formed in sandy and loamy
5/6) streaks along old root channels; single grained; marine sediment. They are on the flood plains and in
loose; few fine and medium roots; brownish iron depressions. The slopes are less than 2 percent.
coatings on sand grains; slightly acid; gradual wavy Manatee soils are coarse-loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic
boundary. Typic Argiaquolls.
Bwl-10 to 20 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine Manatee soils are closely associated with Felda,
sand; common coarse distinct strong brown (7.5YR Floridana, Holopaw, and Nittaw soils. Felda and Holopaw
5/8) mottles; weak fine granular structure; friable; soils do not have a mollic epipedon. Floridana soils have
few fine roots; many uncoated sand grains; iron an argillic horizon that is more than 40 inches deep.
coatings on sand grains; medium acid; clear wavy Nittaw soils have a clayey argillic horizon.
boundary. Typical pedon of Manatee mucky fine sand, in an area
Bw2-20 to 35 inches; yellow (1OYR 7/6) fine sand; of Felda and Manatee mucky fine sands, depressional;
common medium faint brownish yellow (ROYR 6/6) about 1 mile north of Midway, 2,100 feet west and 1,000
mottles; weak medium granular structure; friable; feet north of the southeast corner of sec. 29, T. 19 S., R.
iron coatings on sand grains; medium acid; clear
wavy boundary. Ap-0 to 14 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand;
E'-35 to 48 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; moderate fine and medium granular structure;
single grained; loose; uncoated sand grains; slightly friable; many fine and medium roots; common light
acid; abrupt wavy boundary, gray sand grains; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg-48 to 70 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam; few A-14 to 19 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy
medium distinct dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine
mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; and medium roots; many light gray sand grains;
friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
neutral; gradual wavy boundary. Btg1--19 to 33 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy
Cg-70 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 5/1) loamy loam; few medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/1)
sand; massive; friable; few coarse pockets of gray mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
(5YR 5/1) sandy clay loam; neutral. friable; many fine and few medium roots; many sand








82 Soil Survey



grains coated and bridged with clay; mildly alkaline; E1-7 to 28 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine
clear wavy boundary. sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; few
Btg2-33 to 50 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy fine roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
loam; few fine distinct olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) E2-28 to 35 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; single grained; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid;
friable; common fine and medium roots; many sand clear wavy boundary.
grains coated and bridged with clay; moderately E3-35 to 45 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. sand; few fine faint pale brown mottles; single
Cg-50 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) loamy fine sand; grained; loose; few fine roots; medium acid; clear
common coarse distinct greenish gray (5G 5/1) wavy boundary.
mottles and bluish gray (5B 6/1) mottles; massive; Bt-45 to 54 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sandy
slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common semihard loam; common medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1)
calcium carbonate nodules; calcareous; moderately mottles; weak fine subangular blocky structure; very
alkaline. friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
Stck of o r ro o medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
The thickness of the solum ranges from 30 to 60 Btg-54 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay
inches. The reaction ranges from medium acid to mildly loam; common medium distinct very pale brown
alkaline in the A horizon and from neutral to moderately (10YR 7/4) mottles; weak medium subangular
alkaline in the B and C horizons. blocky structure; friable; thin discontinuous clay films
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 or on faces of peds; strongly acid.
3, and chroma of 2 or less. The texture is fine sand,
loamy sand, or mucky fine sand. The thickness of the A The thickness of the solum is 80 or more inches. The
horizon ranges from 10 to 20 inches. reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid in
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 3 to the A and E horizons and from very strongly acid to
7, and chroma of 1 or less. The texture is fine sandy medium acid in the B horizon.
loam, sandy loam, or loamy fine sand. In some pedons, The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
a transitional BCkg horizon may occur. chroma of 1 or 2. The thickness of the A horizon is 3 to
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 9 inches; and if the value is 3, the thickness is less than
7, and chroma of 2 or less. In some pedons, this horizon 6 inches. The texture is sand or fine sand.
has soft calcium carbonate accumulations or calcium The upper part of the E horizon has hue of 10YR,
carbonate nodules. The content of 2 to 20 millimeter value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 8. The lower part has
shell fragments ranges from 0 to 25 percent. The texture hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 2 to 4. The
ranges from fine sand to sandy loam or the gravelly combined thickness of the A and E horizons is more
analogs of those textures. than 40 inches. The texture of the E horizon is sand or
fine sand.
Millhopper Series The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
The Millhopper series consists of soils that are chroma of 3 to 7. The texture is sandy loam or loamy
moderately well drained. These soils formed in sandy sand. The Bt horizon extends to a depth of 50 to 72
and loamy marine sediment. They are on ridges and inches.
hillsides on the uplands. The slopes range from 0 to 8 The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to
percent. Millhopper soils are loamy, siliceous, 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Mottles are in shades of gray,
hyperthermic Grossarenic Paleudults. yellow, and brown. The texture is sandy loam or sandy
Millhopper soils are closely associated with clay loam. In some pedons, the Btg horizon is underlain
Adamsville, Apopka, Astatula, Sparr, and Tavares soils. by a BCg horizon.
Adamsville, Astatula, and Tavares soils do not have an
argillic horizon. Apopka soils are well drained, and Sparr Myakka Series
soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typical pedon of Millhopper fine sand, in an area of The Myakka series consists of soils that are poorly
Tavares-Millhopper fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes; drained. These soils formed in sandy marine sediment.
about 3 miles east of Casselberry, 1,000 feet south and They are on broad plains on the flatwoods. The slopes
1,000 feet east of the northwest corner of sec. 13, T. 21 are less than 2 percent. Myakka soils are sandy,
S., R. 30 E. siliceous, hyperthermic Aeric Haplaquods.
Myakka soils are closely associated with Basinger,
A-0 to 7 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak Delray, EauGallie, Immokalee, Pomello, Smyrna, St.
medium granular structure; very friable; many fine Johns, and Wabasso soils. Basinger soils do not have a
and medium roots; medium acid; clear wavy spodic horizon. Delray soils have a mollic epipedon.
boundary. EauGallie and Wabasso soils have an argillic horizon








Seminole County, Florida



below the spodic horizon. Immokalee and Pomello soils slopes are less than 2 percent. Nittaw soils are fine,
have a spodic horizon at a depth of 30 to 50 inches. In montmorillonitic, hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls.
addition, Pomello soils are moderately well drained. Nittaw soils are closely associated with Basinger,
Smyrna soils have a spodic horizon that is within 20 Felda, Floridana, Holopaw, Manatee, and Okeelanta
inches of the surface. St. Johns soils have an umbric soils. Basinger soils do not have an argillic horizon.
epipedon. Felda and Holopaw soils do not have a mollic epipedon.
Typical pedon of Myakka fine sand, in an area of In addition, Holopaw soils have an argillic horizon that is
Myakka and EauGallie fine sands; in the city of Sanford, at a depth of more than 40 inches. Floridana soils have
500 feet west and 500 feet south of the northeast corner an argillic horizon that is at a depth of more than 20 to
of sec. 36, T. 19 S., R. 30 E. 40 inches. Manatee soils are in a coarse-loamy family
and have siliceous mineralogy. Okeelanta soils formed in
A-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine organic materials.
granular structure; very friable; many fine and Typical pedon of Nittaw muck, in an area of Nittaw
medium roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. muck, occasionally flooded; about 2 miles southeast of
E-5 to 28 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; Midway, 1,800 feet west and 1,600 feet south of the
single grained; loose; common fine and medium northeast corner of sec. 10, T. 20 S., R. 31 E.
roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Bhl-28 to 30 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak Oa-0 to 2 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; 50 percent
coarse subangular blocky structure; many fine and fiber, unrubbed, 7 percent fiber, rubbed; weak
medium roots; sand grains coated with organic medium granular structure; friable; many fine and
matter; few uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid; medium roots; few uncoated white (10YR 8/1) sand
clear wavy boundary, grains; about 10 percent mineral content; extremely
Bh2-30 to 45 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) fine sand; acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
weak coarse subangular blocky structure; many fine A-2 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine sand;
and medium roots; sand grains coated with organic weak medium granular structure; friable; many fine
matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary, and medium roots; medium acid; clear smooth
C-45 to 80 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; single boundary.
grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid. Btgl-10 to 20 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
sandy clay; moderate medium blocky structure; few
The thickness of the solum is more than 40 inches. fine roots; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
The reaction ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid. medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
The texture is sand or fine sand. Btg2-20 to 60 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay;
The Ap horizon and the crushed color of the A horizon few fine faint olive gray mottles; moderate medium
have hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. blocky structure; very sticky, very plastic; sand
Uncrushed colors have a salt-and-pepper appearance, grains coated and bridged with clay; neutral; clear
The thickness of the A or Ap horizon is 3 to 7 inches. smooth boundary.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 8, and Cg-60 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam;
chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons, this horizon has massive; friable; neutral.
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and brown. The
combined thickness of the A and E horizons ranges from The thickness of the solum is 30 inches or more.
20 to 30 inches. The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
The Bh horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 2 chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of 2 or 3.
or 3, and chroma of 1 to 3. In some pedons, this horizon The thickness of the Oa horizon is 1 to 7 inches. The
has medium to coarse, vertical to horizontal tongues or reaction is extremely acid. Some pedons do not have an
pockets of gray, light brownish gray, or light gray sand; Oa horizon.
and in some pedons, a transitional Bh/BC horizon may The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 or
occur. This horizon has the same range in color as the 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is sand, fine sand,
Bh horizon, mucky fine sand, fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or sandy
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and clay loam. The thickness of the A horizon is 4 to 12
chroma of 1 to 4. Mottles in shades of brown, yellow, or inches. The reaction is medium acid to neutral.
gray are in some pedons. The upper part of the Btg horizon has hue of 10YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The lower part
Nittaw Series has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1
or 2. Few or common, fine to coarse mottles of gray,
The Nittaw series consists of soils that are very poorly brown, olive, and yellow are in this horizon. Some
drained. These soils formed in clayey marine sediment, pedons have few, medium or coarse pockets of gray fine
They are on the flood plains and in depressions. The sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand in the lower part of








84 Soil Survey



the Btg horizon. Few to many, fine to coarse mottles and Paola Series
pockets of light gray to white carbonate materials may
also occur in this horizon. The upper 20 inches of the The Paola series consists of soils that are excessively
Btg horizon contains between 35 and 58 percent clay, by drained. These soils formed in sandy marine sediment.
weight. The reaction of the Btg horizon ranges from They are on ridges on the uplands. The slopes range
medium acid to moderately alkaline. from 0 to 5 percent. Paola soils are hyperthermic,
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to uncoated Spodic Quartzipsamments.
9, and chroma of 1 or 2. The texture ranges from sand Paola soils are closely associated with Astatula, St.
to fine sandy loam. The reaction ranges from neutral to Lucie, and Tavares soils. The associated soils do not
moderately alkaline. have a B/E horizon. In addition, Tavares soils are
moderately well drained.
Typical pedon of Paola sand, in an area of Paola-St.
Okeelanta Series Lucie sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes; about 1 mile
northwest of Oviedo, 2,500 feet east and 2,500 feet
The Okeelanta series consists of organic soils that are northwest of Oviedo, 2,500 feet east and 2,500 feet
moderately deep and very poorly drained. These soils south of the northwest corner of sec. 4, T. 21 S., R. 31
moderately deep and very poorly drained. These soils E.
formed in the remains of hydrophytic, nonwoody plants
mixed with a small amount of mineral material. They are A-0 to 3 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single
in large freshwater marshes and on the flood plains. The grained; loose; many small and large roots; very
slopes are less than 2 percent. Okeelanta soils are strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
sandy or sandy-skeletal, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic E-3 to 25 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single
Terric Medisaprists. grained; loose; common fine and medium roots; very
Okeelanta soils are closely associated with Basinger, strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Felda, Floridana, Holopaw, Manatee, and Nittaw soils. B/E-25 to 47 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sand;
The associated soils formed in mineral material, single grained; loose; few tongues filled with a light
Typical pedon of Okeelanta muck, in an area of color sand from the E horizon; outer edges of the
Nittaw, Okeelanta, and Basinger soils, frequently flooded; tongues stained with grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
about 4 miles west of Longwood, 100 feet east and 100 organic material, weakly cemented in places; few
feet north of the southwest corner of sec. 27, T. 20 S., and common, coarse and fine soft spheroidal very
R. 29 E. dark gray (10YR 3/2) concretions; thin
discontinuous layers of reddish brown (5YR 4/3)
Oa-0 to 42 inches; black (N 2/0) muck; 65 percent weakly cemented sand at irregular intervals at
fiber, unrubbed, 10 percent fiber, rubbed; weak fine contact between the E and B horizons; few fine
and medium granular structure; very friable; many roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
fine roots; about 10 percent mineral content; mildly C-47 to 80 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
alkaline; clear smooth boundary. sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid.
C1-42 to 60 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; mildly alkaline; clear wavy boundary. Depth of sand or fine sand is more than 80 inches.
C2-60 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; The reaction ranges from extremely acid to neutral. The
single grained; loose; moderately alkaline. content of silt plus clay in the control section s less than
5 percent.
The thickness of the organic material ranges from 16 The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
to 50 inches. The reaction ranges from neutral to chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of 4 to 6.
moderately alkaline. Mineral material texture is sand or The thickness of the A horizon is 2 to 5 inches.
fine sand. The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to
The Oa horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 2 8, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value of
to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it is neutral and has value 6 to 8. The combined thickness of the A and E horizons
of 2. The content of fiber is commonly 5 to 33 percent, e B prt of thes B h
unrubbed, but the range of fiber content is up to 50 he par B/E hoon ha hu of R to
percent, unrubbed, and from 3 to 16 percent, rubbed. 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 4 to 8. Some
pedons do not have tongues filled with E material and,
The content of mineral in this horizon ranges from about therefore, have only a B horizon. The E part of the B/E
0 to 40 perct horizon has the same color range as the E horizon. In
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 7, and most pedons, the B/E horizon is weakly cemented Bh
chroma of 1 or 2. Shell fragments range from none to fragments that are a half inch to 2 inches thick. In some
many. The percent, by volume, of shell fragments ranges pedons, the E horizon is underlain by a thin
from 0 to 15 percent. discontinuous layer that has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value




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