• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to soil mapping units
 Summary of tables
 Location of Palm Beach County Area...
 How this survey was made
 General soil map
 Descriptions of the soils
 Use and management of the...
 Formation and classification of...
 Laboratory data
 Environmental factors affecting...
 Literature cited
 Glossary
 Soil ratings, limitations, and...
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Palm Beach County area, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025737/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Palm Beach County area, Florida
Physical Description: iii, 96 p., 166 folded p. of plates : ill., maps, 2 maps in pocket ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McCollum, Samuel H
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Publisher: Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: [1978]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Palm Beach County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 93).
Statement of Responsibility: by Samuel H. McCollum ... et al..
General Note: Prepared in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, and Agricultural Experiment Station, Soil Science Dept.
General Note: Issued Dec. 1978.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025737
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001198223
notis - AFU8464
oclc - 04617666

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Unnumbered ( 2 )
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Index to soil mapping units
        Page ii
    Summary of tables
        Page iii
    Location of Palm Beach County Area in Florida
        Page iv
    How this survey was made
        Page 1
    General soil map
        Page 2
        Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained to somewhat poorly drained soils of the coastal ridges
            Page 2
            St Lucie-Urban land-Paola association
                Page 3
            Palm Beach-Urban land-Canaveral association
                Page 3
            Quartzipsamments-Urban land association
                Page 3
        Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained and moderately well drained soils of the flatwoods, generally not subject to flooding
            Page 3
            Pomello-Immokalee association
                Page 4
            Myakka-Immokalee-Basinger association
                Page 4
            Immokalee-Urban land-Pompano-Basinger association
                Page 4
            Wabasso-Riviera-Oldsmar association
                Page 5
            Boca-Hallandale association
                Page 6
        Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils generally in sloughs and depressions, subject to frequent flooding
            Page 6
            Riviera association
                Page 6
            Riviera-Boca association
                Page 7
            Basinger association
                Page 7
            Winder-Tequesta association
                Page 7
        Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils of the Everglads
            Page 8
            Terra Ceia association
                Page 8
            Pahokee association
                Page 8
            Torry association
                Page 8
    Descriptions of the soils
        Page 8
        Adamsville variant
            Page 9
        Anclote series
            Page 10
        Arents
            Page 11
        Basinger series
            Page 12
            Page 13
        Beaches
            Page 14
        Boca series
            Page 14
        Canaveral series
            Page 15
        Chobee series
            Page 16
        Cocoa series
            Page 16
        Dania series
            Page 17
        Floridana series
            Page 18
        Hallandale series
            Page 19
        Holopaw series
            Page 20
        Immokalee series
            Page 21
        Jupiter series
            Page 22
        Lauderhill series
            Page 23
        Myakka series
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Okeechobee series
            Page 25
        Okeelanta series
            Page 25
        Oldsmar series
            Page 26
        Pahokee series
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Palm Beach series
            Page 29
        Paola series
            Page 29
        Pineda series
            Page 30
        Pinellas series
            Page 31
        Pits
            Page 32
        Placid series
            Page 32
        Pomello series
            Page 33
        Pompano series
            Page 34
        Quartzipsamments, shaped
            Page 34
        Riviera series
            Page 35
            Page 36
        Sanibel series
            Page 37
        St. Lucie series
            Page 38
        Tequesta series
            Page 38
        Terra Ceia series
            Page 39
        Tidal swamp, mineral
            Page 40
        Tidal swamp, organic
            Page 40
        Torry series
            Page 40
        Udorthents
            Page 41
        Urban land
            Page 42
        Wabasso series
            Page 42
        Winder series
            Page 43
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 44
        Crops and pasture
            Page 44
            Capability grouping
                Page 45
            Estimated yields
                Page 46
        Wildlife
            Page 47
        Engineering
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Engineering classification systems
                Page 50
            Engineering test data
                Page 51
            Classifications and physical properties significant in engineering
                Page 51
            Physical and chemical properties of soils significant in engineering
                Page 51
                Page 52
                Page 53
                Page 54
            Water management
                Page 55
                Page 56
                Page 57
                Page 58
                Page 59
                Page 60
                Page 61
            Construction materials for engineering uses
                Page 62
                Page 63
                Page 64
                Page 65
                Page 66
                Page 67
            Soil and water features
                Page 68
                Page 69
        Recreation
            Page 70
        Town and country planning
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Building site development
                Page 73
            Sanitary facilities
                Page 73
                Page 74
                Page 75
                Page 76
                Page 77
                Page 78
                Page 79
    Formation and classification of soils
        Page 80
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 80
            Parent material
                Page 80
            Climate
                Page 80
            Plants and animals
                Page 81
            Relief
                Page 81
            Time
                Page 81
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 81
        Classification of the soils
            Page 81
    Laboratory data
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Environmental factors affecting soil use
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Transportation
            Page 90
        Farming
            Page 90
        Climate
            Page 91
        Water supply and natural resources
            Page 92
        Physiography and drainage
            Page 93
    Literature cited
        Page 93
    Glossary
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Soil ratings, limitations, and freatures affecting uses, by soil association
        Page 97
    General soil map
        Page 98
    Index to map sheets
        Page 99
        Page 100
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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Full Text




SOIL SURVEY OF


Palm Beach County Area, Florida

























United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Soil Science Department











This is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort of the United States
Department of Agriculture and agencies of the States, usually the Agricultural Experiment Stations. In
some surveys, other Federal and local agencies also contribute. The Soil Conservation Service has leader-
ship for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of Agriculture
policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, re-
ligion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in the period 1968-1974. Soil names and descrip-
tions were approved in 1974. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in the publication refer to conditions
in the county in 1974. This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the University
of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Sci-
ence Department; and Palm Beach County Board of County Commissioners. It is part of the technical
assistance furnished to the Palm Beach-Broward Soil and Water Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission, but any enlargement of these maps
could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping and result in erroneous interpretations. Enlarged
maps do not show small areas of contrasting soils that could have been shown at a larger mapping scale.



HOW TO USE THIS SOIL SURVEY

THIS SOIL SURVEY contains information soils that have the same limitation or suitability.
that can be applied in managing farms and For example, soils that have slight limitations
ranches; in selecting sites for roads, ponds, for a given use can be colored green, those that
buildings, and other structures; and in judging have moderate limitations can be colored yellow,
the suitability of tracts of land for farming, and those that have severe limitations can be
industry, and recreation. colored red.
Farmers and those who work with farmers
Locating Soils can learn about use and management of the
soils from the soil descriptions and from the
Soils of Palm Beach County Area are shown discussion of the capability grouping.
on the detailed map at the back of this publica- Wildlife managers and others can find infor-
tion. This map consists of many sheets made mation about soils and wildlife in the section
from aerial photographs. Each sheet is num- "Wildlife."
bered to correspond with a number on the Index Community planners and others can read
to Map Sheets. about soil properties that affect the choice of
On each sheet of the detailed map, soil areas sites for dwellings, industrial buildings, and
are outlined and are identified by a symbol. All recreation areas in the section "Town and
areas marked with the same symbol are the Country Planning."
same kind of soil. The soil symbol is inside the Engineers and builders can find, under "Engi-
area if there is enough room; otherwise, it is neering," tables that contain test data, esti-
outside and a pointer shows where the symbol mates of soil properties, and information about
belongs, soil features that affect engineering practices.
Scientists and others can read about the soils
Finding and Using Information in the section "Formation and Classification of
Finding and Using Information Soils."
Individual colored maps showing the relative Newcomers in Palm Beach County Area may
suitability or degree of limitation of soils for be especially interested in the section "General
many specific purposes can be developed by Soil Map," where broad patterns of soils are
using the soil map and the information in the described. They may also be interested in the
text. Translucent material can be used as an information about the county given at the end
overlay on the soil map and colored to show of the publication.


Cover: This golf course is on Quartzipsamments, shaped,
as are many of the golf courses in Palm Beach County Area.















Contents
Page Page
Index to soil mapping units ---------------------- ii Descriptions of the soils--Continued
Summary of tables ---------------- ___ _-- iii Pinellas series -------------------------- 31
How this survey was made ----------------------- 1 Pits ------------------------------ 32
Placid series --------------------32
General soil map -------------------- 2 Pla series---------------------- 3
Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained to Pompano series-------------- ----------- 3
somewhat poorly drained soils of the coastal Qssha 34
ridges ------------------------------------- 2 Quartzipsamments, shaped---------------------- 34
Riviera series ------------------------------- 35
1. St. Lucie-Urban land-Paola association 3 Sie series ------------ 3
2. Palm Beach-Urban land-Canaveral Sanbel series 37
association ------------------3 St. Lucie series --------------38
3. Quartzipsamments-Urban land associa- Te questa series---------------------------- 3
Terra Ceja series ----------------------------- 39
tion-------------------------------- 3swamp, mineral------------------------- 40
Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained and Tidal swamp, mineral ------------------------- 40
moderately well drained soils of the flatwoods, Tidal swamp, organic --- -------- ----- 40
generally not subject to flooding ----- 3 Torhents ------------- --------
4. Pomello-Immokalee association ------Ur 4n 4------
Urban land ------------------ 42
5. Myakka-Immokalee-Basinger association 4 Wabasso series ---------------42
6. Immokalee-Urban land-Pompano-Basin- Winder series ---------- 43
ger association ---------------------- 4
7. Wabasso-Riviera-Oldsmar association 5 Use and management of the soils ----------------- 44
8. Boca-Hallandale association ----------- 6 Crops and pasture --------------------------- 44
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly Capability grouping _------------------------ 45
drained soils generally in sloughs and depres- Estimated yields --------------------------- 46
sions, subject to frequent flooding ---------- 6 Wildlife -------------------47
9. Riviera association ------_---- 6 Engineering ----------- ------------------ 48
10. Riviera-Boca association ---------7 Engineering classification systems ----------- 50
11. Basinger association ------------ 7 Engineering test data ---------------------- 51
12. Winder-Tequesta association ---------- 7 Classifications and physical properties signifi-
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils of cant in engineering --_-------------- 51
the Everglades -----------------8 Physical and chemical properties of soils signifi-
13. Terra Ceia association --------- 8 cant in engineering ------------------ 51
14. Pahokee association ------------- 8 Water management ------------55
15. Torry association ---- ----------- 8 Construction materials for engineering uses -- 62
Descriptions of the soils ------------------------- 8 Soil and water features --------------------- 68
Adamsville variant ---------------------9 Recreation ------------70
Anclote series --- ----------- --------- 10 Town and country planning---------------- 70
Arents ------------- ------------ 11 Building site development --------- 73
Basinger series ------------------------------ 12 Sanitary facilities -------------------------- 73
Beaches ----------------------------------- 14 Formation and classification of soils -------------- 80
Boca series ------ -------------------- 14 Factors of soil formation -------------- 80
Canaveral series ------- ------------- 15 Parent material ----------------------- 80
Chobee series -------------------- 16 Climate ----------------------------------- 80
Cocoa series ------------------------------ 16 Plants and animals ------------------------- 81
Dania series -------------- -------------- 17 Relief ------------------------------------ 81
Floridana series --------------------------- 18 Time ------------------------------ 81
Hallandale series ---------------------------- 19 Processes of soil formation ------------------ 81
Holopaw series ------------------------------- 20 Classification of the soils ---------------------- 81
Immokalee series ----------------------------- 21oratory data -- --- 82
Jupiter series 22 Laboratory data -------------------------------- 82
Lauderhill series ------- ------- ---- -- 23 Environmental factors affecting soil use ----------- 85
Myakka series ------------------------------ 23 Transportation ---------------90
Okeechobee series ---------------------------- 25 Farming ----------------------------------- 90
Okeelanta series ---------------------------- 25 Climate -----------------91
Oldsmar series-------- ----------------- 26 Water supply and natural resources ------------ 92
Pahokee series ----------------------- 27 Physiography and drainage ---------------93
Palm Beach series ---------------------------- 29cited 93
Paola series --------------------------------- 29 Literature cited-------------------
Pineda series ------------------------------- 30 Glossary -------------------------------------- 93


Issued December 1978







i















Index to Soil Mapping Units
Page
AdB-Adamsville sand, organic subsoil variant --------------- ---------------- 10
An-Anclote fine sand ---------- -------------------------------- 10
ASF-Arents, very steep ------------------------11
AU-Arents-Urban land complex _------------------------------------------- 11
AX-Arents-Urban land complex, organic substratum ---- ------------------ 12
Ba-Basinger fine sand ---------------------------------------- -----13
Bc--Basinger-Urban land complex ------- ------------------------- 13
BM-Basinger and Myakka sands, depressional--------------------------- -- 14
Bn-Beaches -------------------------------------------------------14
Bo-Boca fine sand --------------__-------------------------------_ 15
Cc-Canaveral-Urban land complex ---------------------------------------15
Ch--Chobee fine sandy loam --------------- 16
CuB-Cocoa-Urban land complex ---_-------------------------------------- 17
Da-Dania muck -__-------___- ___-------- ____---___ -------------18
Fa-Floridana fine sand ---------------------__ ---------- ------ 18
Ha-Hallandale sand ---------------------------------------------------------- 19
Ho-Holopaw fine sand ------ -------------------- -------- 20
Im-Immokalee fine sand -----_-- ---------------------------___ 21
Ju-Jupiter fine sand ----_--__------- ---_---- __--- ---------------------- -22
La-Lauderhill muck ----- --------------------------------------------____-- 23
Mk-Myakka sand -------- __----------__ --------------___ ---------- 24
Mu-Myakka-Urban land complex ----------------------------------------- 24
Oc-Okeechobee muck ---____-------------____---------- ___-- __-- -- 25
On-Okeelanta muck _----------------_____------------ ------- 26
Os-Oldsmar sand ------____-___-- __-___-____________----------- 27
Pa-Pahokee muck -__------_________ -____----------___--------- ---- 28
PbB-Palm Beach-Urban land complex ---_---___---- ____----------------- 29
PcB-Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes ----------------- ------------------ 30
Pd-Pineda sand -------- ----------------------------------------31
Pe-Pinellas fine sand ---------------- _____--___----- __--------- 32
Pf-Pits -------_ ---------------------------------------- -------- 32
Pg-Placid fine sand ------------------ ____ __--------------- 33
PhB-Pomello fine sand ---------- ------------------------------ 34
Po-Pompano fine sand ----___ -___------------__- __------------------------- 34
QAB-Quartzipsamments, shaped _-------------------__----_------------- 34
Ra-Riviera sand ------ -----------____----____------------- 36
Rd-Riviera sand, depressional __ -__-------------------_.______-------------- 36
Ru-Riviera-Urban land complex ------------------------ --------- 36
Sa-Sanibel muck ___ _______------- -___-_____--______ __--_---_ ---------- 37
ScB-St. Lucie sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes ------------- ------------------- --- 38
SuB-St. Lucie-Urban land complex -------------- ---------- 38
Ta-Tequesta muck ------- -----------------------------------______----- 39
Tc-Terra Ceia muck ------__---- _____-____-------- ______--- 40
TM-Tidal swamp, mineral _-- -_ ___. _- _____ _____ ------------- 40
TO-Tidal swamp, organic _-------------------------_________---------_ 40
Tr-Torry muck -------- ---_-- __--------------------------- -- ---41
UD-Udorthents ------------------------------------------------------ 41
Ur-Urban land ---_--- -------__--------------- __------------- ------_ -- 42
Wa-Wabasso fine sand -_------------- -------------------------------- 42
Wn--Winder fine sand ---------------- --------------------------------- 43


















ii













Summary of Tables
Page
General Soil Map
Soil ratings and limitations and features affecting
selected uses by soil associations (Table 1) ------------Following 96
Descriptions of the Soils
Acreage and proportionate extent of soils (Table 2) ------------ 9
Use and management of the soils
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (Table 3) ----------------- 47
Wildlife
Wildlife habitat potentials (Table 4) ---------------_--_ 49
Engineering
Engineering test data (Table 5) -----_----_------- ---------- 52
Engineering properties and classifications (Table 6) -------------- 55
Physical and chemical properties of soils (Table 7) -------------- 60
Water management (Table 8) -------------------------------- 63
Construction materials (Table 9) ----------_---------------- 66
Soil and water features (Table 10) ---- ---------------- 69
Recreation
Recreational development (Table 11) --------_------_--------- 71
Town and Country Planning
Building site development (Table 12) -----_--_--------- ----- 74
Sanitary facilities (Table 13) ------ ----- -_----------- 77
Formation and Classification of Soils
Classification of the soils (Table 14)------------------------ 82
Laboratory Data
Particle-size distribution of selected soils (Table 15) --------------- 83
Chemical analyses of selected soils (Table 16)----------------- 86
Clay mineral composition of selected soils (Table 17) ----------- 89
Environmental Factors Affecting Soil Use
Freeze data (Table 18) ---------------- ----------- 91
Temperature and precipitation data (Table 19) ------------------- 92
Comparison of weather records in Palm Beach County Area (Table 20) 92






















iii


















































































WIE$ PALM BEACH












KEY WEST l, r,
*State Agricultural Experiment Station


Location of Palm Beach County Area in Florida.

















SOIL SURVEY OF PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA

By Samuel H. McCollum, Orlando E. Cruz, Leon T. Stem, William H. Wittstruck, Richard D. Ford, and Frank C. Watts, Soil
Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department



PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA is in the south- How This Survey Was Made
eastern part of Florida, bordering on the Atlantic
Ocean. West Palm Beach is the county seat. The survey Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds
area, which includes all of Palm Beach except the con- of soil are in Palm Beach County Area, where they are
servation areas, covers 1,093,480 acres, or 1,708 square located, and how they can be used. The soil scientists
miles. The conservation areas, however, are included went into the county knowing they likely would find
in the aerial photograph coverage of the detailed soil many soils they had already seen and perhaps some
maps. Palm Beach County Area is bordered by Broward they had not. They observed the steepness, length, and
County on the south, Hendry County on the west, and shape of slopes; the size and speed of streams; the
Martin County on the north. Lake Okeechobee, the sec- kinds of native plants or crops; the kinds of rock; and
ond largest freshwater lake in the United States, is in many facts about the soils. They dug many holes to
the northwest corner of the survey area. expose soil profiles. A profile is the sequence of natural
The survey area is mostly low, nearly level land. It layers, or horizons, in a soil; it extends from the sur-
is divided into two general areas: sand in the eastern face down into the material that has not been changed
part and muck in the Everglades, which is the largest much by leaching or by the action of plant roots.
single body of organic soils in the world. Elevation The soil scientists made comparisons among the pro-
ranges from 10 to 20 feet above sea level in the eastern files they studied, and they compared the profiles with
areas, and from 10 to 15 feet in the Everglades. The others in counties nearby and in places more distant.
highest point, 53 feet, is on the coastal ridge north of They classified and named the soils according to nation-
Juno Beach. wide, uniform procedures. The soil series and the soil
The average annual temperature is 750 F. The aver- phase are the categories of soil classification most used
age annual rainfall is 62 inches, occurring mostly be- in a local survey.
tween May and November. Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil
The Palm Beach County Area had a population of series. Except for different texture in the surface layer,
about 428,000 in July 1973. Most people live in the all the soils of one series have major horizons that are
coastal area. Rapid urban expansion in this part of similar in thickness, arrangement, and other important
the survey area is causing an equally rapid reduction characteristics. Each soil series is named for a town or
Production of sugarcane and beef cattle has been geographic feature near the place where a soil of that
increasing annually on the organic soils in the survey series was first observed and mapped. Riviera and Pa-
area. Also, production of winter vegetables, for which hokee, for example, are the names of two soil series. All
Palm Beach County Area is nationally known, contin- the soils in the United States having the same series
ues to be important. name are essentially alike in those characteristics that
Few areas in Palm Beach County Area are used for affect their behavior in the undisturbed landscape.
woodland or range. Pulpwood is occasionally shipped Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
from the survey area, usually when a large tract of layer and in slope, stoniness, or some other character-
pineland is cleared for new development. Stumps from istic that affects use of the soils by man. On the basis
former logging operations are shipped out occasionally. of such differences, a soil series is divided into phases.
Native range is used by cattlemen in only a few places, o h eee a s see die t hases
mostly in the northern part. The name of a soil phase indicates a feature that affects
The warm climate, ocean beaches, and recreation management. For example, Riviera sand, depressional,
facilities are attractive to retired people and tourists, is one of several phases within the Riviera series.
who are important to the Palm Beach County Area. After a guide for classifying and naming the soils
1







2 SOIL SURVEY

had been worked out, the soil scientists drew the boun- On the basis of yield and practice tables and other
daries of the individual soils on aerial photographs. data, the soil scientists set up trial groups. They test
These photographs show woodlands, buildings, field these groups by further study and by consultation with
borders, trees, and other details that help in drawing farmers, agronomists, engineers, and others. They then
boundaries accurately. The soil map in the back of this adjust the groups according to the results of their stud-
publication was prepared from the aerial photographs. ies and consultation. Thus, the groups that are finally
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping evolved reflect up-to-date knowledge of the soils and
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in their behavior under present methods of use and man-
planning the management of farms and fields, a map- agement.
ping unit is nearly equivalent to a soil phase. It is not
exactly equivalent, because it is not practical to show
on such a map all the small, scattered bits of soil of General Soil Map
some other kind that have been seen within an area
that is dominantly of a recognized soil phase. The general soil map at the back of this survey
Some mapping units are made up of soils of different shows, in color, the soil associations in Palm Beach
series or of different phases within one series. Two County Area. A soil association is a landscape that has
such kinds of mapping units are shown on the soil map a distinctive proportional pattern of soils. It normally
of Palm Beach County Area: soil complexes and un- consists of one or more major soils and at least one
differentiated groups, minor soil, and it is named for the major soils. The soils
in one association may occur in another but in a differ-
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils, ent pattern
so intermingled or so small in size that they cannot be ent pa
shown separately on the soil map. Each area of a com- A map showing soil associations is useful to people
plex contains some of each of the two or more dominant who want a general idea of the soils in Palm Beach
soils, and the pattern and relative proportions are about County Area, who want to compare different parts of
the same in all areas. Generally, the name of a soil the survey area, or who want to locate large tracts that
complex consists of the names of the dominant soils, are suitable for a certain kind of land use. Such a map
joined by a hyphen. An example is Canaveral-Urban is a useful general guide in managing a watershed, a
land complex. wooded tract, or a wildlife area or in planning engi-
neering works, recreation facilities, and community
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more developments. It is not a suitable map for planning the
soils that could be delineated individually but are shown management of a farm or field or for selecting the site
as one unit because, for the purpose of the soil survey, for a road, building, or other structure because the soils
there is little value in separating them. The pattern in any one association ordinarily differ in slope, depth,
and proportion of soils are not uniform. An area shown stoniness, drainage, and other characteristics that affect
on the map may be made up of only one of the domi- their management.
nant soils, or of two or more. The name of an undiffer- oi oiion i A
entiated group consists of the names of the dominant The soil associations in Palm Beach County Area
soils, joined by "and." Basinger and Myakka sands, have been grouped into four general kinds of land-
depressional, is an example. escapes for broad interpretative purposes. Each of the
depress l, broad groups and their included soil associations are
In most areas surveyed there are places where the described in the following pages.
soil material is so rocky, so shallow, or so severely Table 1 (at the back of this survey) shows the soil
eroded that it cannot be classified by soil series. These ratings and d features affecting selected
places are shown on the soil map and are described in uses, by soil association, for sanitary facilities, building
the survey, but they are called miscellaneous areas and uses, by soil association, for sanitary facilities, building
the survey, but they are called miscellaneous areas an site development, recreational development, construc-
are given descriptive names, such as Urban land," tion material, and water management. For a discussion
which is a miscellaneous area in Palm Beach County of the uses of the soils, and explanation of the rating
Area. system, and a definition of the key phrases used in
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils Table 1, see the section, "Engineering."
are taken, as needed, for laboratory measurements and
for engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same
kinds of soil in other places are assembled. Data on Nearly Level to Sloping, Excessively Drained to
yields of crops under defined practices are assembled
from farm records and from field or plot experiments Somewhat Poorly Drained Soils
on the same kinds of soil. Yields under defined manage- of the Coastal Ridges
ment are estimated for all the soils.
However, only part of a soil survey is done when the The three associations in this group consist mainly
soils have been named, described, and delineated on the of nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soils that
are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more, but there are
map, and the laboratory data and yield data have been also moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
assembled. The mass of detailed information then needs drained soils that are mixtures of sand and shell frag-
to be organized in such a way as to be readily useful to ments. Many areas have been modified and are in urban
different groups, such as farmers, managers of wood- use. These associations are mostly along the eastern
land and rangeland, and engineers, coast of Palm Beach County Area.







2 SOIL SURVEY

had been worked out, the soil scientists drew the boun- On the basis of yield and practice tables and other
daries of the individual soils on aerial photographs. data, the soil scientists set up trial groups. They test
These photographs show woodlands, buildings, field these groups by further study and by consultation with
borders, trees, and other details that help in drawing farmers, agronomists, engineers, and others. They then
boundaries accurately. The soil map in the back of this adjust the groups according to the results of their stud-
publication was prepared from the aerial photographs. ies and consultation. Thus, the groups that are finally
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping evolved reflect up-to-date knowledge of the soils and
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in their behavior under present methods of use and man-
planning the management of farms and fields, a map- agement.
ping unit is nearly equivalent to a soil phase. It is not
exactly equivalent, because it is not practical to show
on such a map all the small, scattered bits of soil of General Soil Map
some other kind that have been seen within an area
that is dominantly of a recognized soil phase. The general soil map at the back of this survey
Some mapping units are made up of soils of different shows, in color, the soil associations in Palm Beach
series or of different phases within one series. Two County Area. A soil association is a landscape that has
such kinds of mapping units are shown on the soil map a distinctive proportional pattern of soils. It normally
of Palm Beach County Area: soil complexes and un- consists of one or more major soils and at least one
differentiated groups, minor soil, and it is named for the major soils. The soils
in one association may occur in another but in a differ-
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils, ent pattern
so intermingled or so small in size that they cannot be ent pa
shown separately on the soil map. Each area of a com- A map showing soil associations is useful to people
plex contains some of each of the two or more dominant who want a general idea of the soils in Palm Beach
soils, and the pattern and relative proportions are about County Area, who want to compare different parts of
the same in all areas. Generally, the name of a soil the survey area, or who want to locate large tracts that
complex consists of the names of the dominant soils, are suitable for a certain kind of land use. Such a map
joined by a hyphen. An example is Canaveral-Urban is a useful general guide in managing a watershed, a
land complex. wooded tract, or a wildlife area or in planning engi-
neering works, recreation facilities, and community
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more developments. It is not a suitable map for planning the
soils that could be delineated individually but are shown management of a farm or field or for selecting the site
as one unit because, for the purpose of the soil survey, for a road, building, or other structure because the soils
there is little value in separating them. The pattern in any one association ordinarily differ in slope, depth,
and proportion of soils are not uniform. An area shown stoniness, drainage, and other characteristics that affect
on the map may be made up of only one of the domi- their management.
nant soils, or of two or more. The name of an undiffer- oi oiion i A
entiated group consists of the names of the dominant The soil associations in Palm Beach County Area
soils, joined by "and." Basinger and Myakka sands, have been grouped into four general kinds of land-
depressional, is an example. escapes for broad interpretative purposes. Each of the
depress l, broad groups and their included soil associations are
In most areas surveyed there are places where the described in the following pages.
soil material is so rocky, so shallow, or so severely Table 1 (at the back of this survey) shows the soil
eroded that it cannot be classified by soil series. These ratings and d features affecting selected
places are shown on the soil map and are described in uses, by soil association, for sanitary facilities, building
the survey, but they are called miscellaneous areas and uses, by soil association, for sanitary facilities, building
the survey, but they are called miscellaneous areas an site development, recreational development, construc-
are given descriptive names, such as Urban land," tion material, and water management. For a discussion
which is a miscellaneous area in Palm Beach County of the uses of the soils, and explanation of the rating
Area. system, and a definition of the key phrases used in
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils Table 1, see the section, "Engineering."
are taken, as needed, for laboratory measurements and
for engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same
kinds of soil in other places are assembled. Data on Nearly Level to Sloping, Excessively Drained to
yields of crops under defined practices are assembled
from farm records and from field or plot experiments Somewhat Poorly Drained Soils
on the same kinds of soil. Yields under defined manage- of the Coastal Ridges
ment are estimated for all the soils.
However, only part of a soil survey is done when the The three associations in this group consist mainly
soils have been named, described, and delineated on the of nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soils that
are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more, but there are
map, and the laboratory data and yield data have been also moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
assembled. The mass of detailed information then needs drained soils that are mixtures of sand and shell frag-
to be organized in such a way as to be readily useful to ments. Many areas have been modified and are in urban
different groups, such as farmers, managers of wood- use. These associations are mostly along the eastern
land and rangeland, and engineers, coast of Palm Beach County Area.








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 3

1. St. Lucie-Urban land-Paola association than 75 percent of the land and of residential areas,
Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soils that where streets, houses, or other structures cover 25 to
are sandy throughout; mostly in urban use 50 percent of the land.
Canaveral soils are nearly level and are moderately
This association is on the mainland along the coast. well drained to somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
It is made up of low ridges and knolls that are part of they have a surface layer of dark grayish brown sand
the coastal ridge. The natural vegetation is sand pine, and shell fragments over layers of pale brown and very
scrub oak, and undergrowth of saw-palmetto, rosemary, pale brown sand and shell fragments that extend below
cacti, and native grasses. a depth of 65 inches. Canaveral soils are developed for
This association makes up about 3 percent of the urban use.
survey area. It is about 58 percent St. Lucie soils and The minor soils in this association are Beaches,
Urban land, 7 percent Paola soils, and 35 percent minor Cocoa soils, and Quartzipsamments, shaped. Some of
soils. these have been filled, graded, and shaped for urban
St. Lucie soils are nearly level to sloping and are use.
excessively drained. Typically, they have a thin surface Much of this association is being used for homes,
layer of gray sand. Below that is white sand that ex- large condominiums, shopping centers, and other urban
tends to a depth of more than 80 inches, uses. Some large areas in the northern part are in
Urban land is made up of areas where streets, build- native vegetation.
ings, parking lots, and other structures cover more Farming is not important because of rapid urban
than 75 percent of the land. In residential areas, streets, expansion and because the major soils are poorly suited
houses, sidewalks, and other structures cover 25 to 50 to most crops. Limitations are slight for many urban
percent of the land. uses. The major soils have severe limitations for struc-
Paola soils are nearly level to sloping and are exces- tures designed for holding water, disposing of refuse,
sively drained. Typically, they have a thin surface layer and recreation development.
of dark gray sand and a subsurface layer of white sand.
The subsoil is strong brown sand in the upper part and 3. Quartzipsamments-Urban land association
light yellowish brown sand in the lower part. Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soils that
The minor soils in this association are Pomello, Im- are sandy throughout and areas developed for urban
mokalee, Basinger, and Placid soils. Some of these have use
been graded or filled in for urban use.
Much of this association is in urban use, but some This association is made up of soils that have been
large areas in the northern part are in native vegeta- filled, graded, shaped, or generally altered for urban
tion. Farming is not important because of the rapid development. It is in the eastern part of the survey
urban expansion and because the major soils are not area. There is no natural vegetation.
suited or poorly suited to most crops. Limitations are This association makes up about 1 percent of the
slight for many urban uses. The major soils have severe survey area. It is about 45 percent Quartzipsamments,
limitations for structures designed for holding water, shaped, 45 percent Urban land, and the rest is minor
disposing of refuse material, and recreation develop- soils and miscellaneous areas.
ment. Quartzipsamments, shaped, are nearly level to gently
sloping and are well drained. Typically, they are sandy
2. Palm Beach-Urban land-Canaveral association to a depth of 80 inches or more; soil layers vary widely
Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained, moderately in color and occur in no regular sequence.
well drained and somewhat poorly drained soils that Urban land consists of areas that are more than 70
are sandy throughout; mostly in urban use percent covered by houses, streets, parking lots, and
This association is on the offshore island that is along buildings.
most of the coastline. It is made up of long, narrow The minor areas in this association consist of Adams-
most of the coastline. It is made up of long, narrow ville, organic subsoil variant, Pits, and Udorthents cov-
ridges and lowlands. The natural vegetation is cabbage ville gani ilts a dortents cov
palm, seagrape, scrub live oak, cacti, sea oats, and other ering sanitarys sociion is being used for homes, air-landfills.
native grasses. Much of this association is being used for homes, air-
This association makes up about 1 percent of the ports, golf courses, shopping centers, business and in-
survey area. It is about 16 percent Palm Beach soils dustrial areas, and other urban uses; thus, the soils
d Urba 16peet Cneral s a 6 p have no importance for farming. The major soils have
ceand Urban land, 16 percent Canaveral sols and 68 per- slight limitations for many urban uses. They have se-
Palm Beach soils are nearly level to sloping and are vere limitations for structures designed to retain or
excessively drained. They are deep, sandy soils that hold water or to dispose of refuse materials and for
have a high content of fine shell fragments throughout, recreation developments.
Typically, they have a surface layer of dark grayish
brown. It overlies a thick pale brown layer. Below this Nearly Level to Gently Sloping, Poorly Drained
is a light yellowish brown layer that extends to a depth and Moderately Well Drained Soils of the
of more than 80 inches. In many places Palm Beach Flatwoods, Generally Not Subject to Flooding
soils have been modified for urban or other uses by
grading or shaping. The five associations in this group consist mainly of
Urban land is made up of areas where streets, build- nearly level, poorly drained soils and nearly level to
ings, parking lots, and other structures cover more gently sloping, moderately well drained soils on low








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 3

1. St. Lucie-Urban land-Paola association than 75 percent of the land and of residential areas,
Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soils that where streets, houses, or other structures cover 25 to
are sandy throughout; mostly in urban use 50 percent of the land.
Canaveral soils are nearly level and are moderately
This association is on the mainland along the coast. well drained to somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
It is made up of low ridges and knolls that are part of they have a surface layer of dark grayish brown sand
the coastal ridge. The natural vegetation is sand pine, and shell fragments over layers of pale brown and very
scrub oak, and undergrowth of saw-palmetto, rosemary, pale brown sand and shell fragments that extend below
cacti, and native grasses. a depth of 65 inches. Canaveral soils are developed for
This association makes up about 3 percent of the urban use.
survey area. It is about 58 percent St. Lucie soils and The minor soils in this association are Beaches,
Urban land, 7 percent Paola soils, and 35 percent minor Cocoa soils, and Quartzipsamments, shaped. Some of
soils. these have been filled, graded, and shaped for urban
St. Lucie soils are nearly level to sloping and are use.
excessively drained. Typically, they have a thin surface Much of this association is being used for homes,
layer of gray sand. Below that is white sand that ex- large condominiums, shopping centers, and other urban
tends to a depth of more than 80 inches, uses. Some large areas in the northern part are in
Urban land is made up of areas where streets, build- native vegetation.
ings, parking lots, and other structures cover more Farming is not important because of rapid urban
than 75 percent of the land. In residential areas, streets, expansion and because the major soils are poorly suited
houses, sidewalks, and other structures cover 25 to 50 to most crops. Limitations are slight for many urban
percent of the land. uses. The major soils have severe limitations for struc-
Paola soils are nearly level to sloping and are exces- tures designed for holding water, disposing of refuse,
sively drained. Typically, they have a thin surface layer and recreation development.
of dark gray sand and a subsurface layer of white sand.
The subsoil is strong brown sand in the upper part and 3. Quartzipsamments-Urban land association
light yellowish brown sand in the lower part. Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soils that
The minor soils in this association are Pomello, Im- are sandy throughout and areas developed for urban
mokalee, Basinger, and Placid soils. Some of these have use
been graded or filled in for urban use.
Much of this association is in urban use, but some This association is made up of soils that have been
large areas in the northern part are in native vegeta- filled, graded, shaped, or generally altered for urban
tion. Farming is not important because of the rapid development. It is in the eastern part of the survey
urban expansion and because the major soils are not area. There is no natural vegetation.
suited or poorly suited to most crops. Limitations are This association makes up about 1 percent of the
slight for many urban uses. The major soils have severe survey area. It is about 45 percent Quartzipsamments,
limitations for structures designed for holding water, shaped, 45 percent Urban land, and the rest is minor
disposing of refuse material, and recreation develop- soils and miscellaneous areas.
ment. Quartzipsamments, shaped, are nearly level to gently
sloping and are well drained. Typically, they are sandy
2. Palm Beach-Urban land-Canaveral association to a depth of 80 inches or more; soil layers vary widely
Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained, moderately in color and occur in no regular sequence.
well drained and somewhat poorly drained soils that Urban land consists of areas that are more than 70
are sandy throughout; mostly in urban use percent covered by houses, streets, parking lots, and
This association is on the offshore island that is along buildings.
most of the coastline. It is made up of long, narrow The minor areas in this association consist of Adams-
most of the coastline. It is made up of long, narrow ville, organic subsoil variant, Pits, and Udorthents cov-
ridges and lowlands. The natural vegetation is cabbage ville gani ilts a dortents cov
palm, seagrape, scrub live oak, cacti, sea oats, and other ering sanitarys sociion is being used for homes, air-landfills.
native grasses. Much of this association is being used for homes, air-
This association makes up about 1 percent of the ports, golf courses, shopping centers, business and in-
survey area. It is about 16 percent Palm Beach soils dustrial areas, and other urban uses; thus, the soils
d Urba 16peet Cneral s a 6 p have no importance for farming. The major soils have
ceand Urban land, 16 percent Canaveral sols and 68 per- slight limitations for many urban uses. They have se-
Palm Beach soils are nearly level to sloping and are vere limitations for structures designed to retain or
excessively drained. They are deep, sandy soils that hold water or to dispose of refuse materials and for
have a high content of fine shell fragments throughout, recreation developments.
Typically, they have a surface layer of dark grayish
brown. It overlies a thick pale brown layer. Below this Nearly Level to Gently Sloping, Poorly Drained
is a light yellowish brown layer that extends to a depth and Moderately Well Drained Soils of the
of more than 80 inches. In many places Palm Beach Flatwoods, Generally Not Subject to Flooding
soils have been modified for urban or other uses by
grading or shaping. The five associations in this group consist mainly of
Urban land is made up of areas where streets, build- nearly level, poorly drained soils and nearly level to
ings, parking lots, and other structures cover more gently sloping, moderately well drained soils on low








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 3

1. St. Lucie-Urban land-Paola association than 75 percent of the land and of residential areas,
Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soils that where streets, houses, or other structures cover 25 to
are sandy throughout; mostly in urban use 50 percent of the land.
Canaveral soils are nearly level and are moderately
This association is on the mainland along the coast. well drained to somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
It is made up of low ridges and knolls that are part of they have a surface layer of dark grayish brown sand
the coastal ridge. The natural vegetation is sand pine, and shell fragments over layers of pale brown and very
scrub oak, and undergrowth of saw-palmetto, rosemary, pale brown sand and shell fragments that extend below
cacti, and native grasses. a depth of 65 inches. Canaveral soils are developed for
This association makes up about 3 percent of the urban use.
survey area. It is about 58 percent St. Lucie soils and The minor soils in this association are Beaches,
Urban land, 7 percent Paola soils, and 35 percent minor Cocoa soils, and Quartzipsamments, shaped. Some of
soils. these have been filled, graded, and shaped for urban
St. Lucie soils are nearly level to sloping and are use.
excessively drained. Typically, they have a thin surface Much of this association is being used for homes,
layer of gray sand. Below that is white sand that ex- large condominiums, shopping centers, and other urban
tends to a depth of more than 80 inches, uses. Some large areas in the northern part are in
Urban land is made up of areas where streets, build- native vegetation.
ings, parking lots, and other structures cover more Farming is not important because of rapid urban
than 75 percent of the land. In residential areas, streets, expansion and because the major soils are poorly suited
houses, sidewalks, and other structures cover 25 to 50 to most crops. Limitations are slight for many urban
percent of the land. uses. The major soils have severe limitations for struc-
Paola soils are nearly level to sloping and are exces- tures designed for holding water, disposing of refuse,
sively drained. Typically, they have a thin surface layer and recreation development.
of dark gray sand and a subsurface layer of white sand.
The subsoil is strong brown sand in the upper part and 3. Quartzipsamments-Urban land association
light yellowish brown sand in the lower part. Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soils that
The minor soils in this association are Pomello, Im- are sandy throughout and areas developed for urban
mokalee, Basinger, and Placid soils. Some of these have use
been graded or filled in for urban use.
Much of this association is in urban use, but some This association is made up of soils that have been
large areas in the northern part are in native vegeta- filled, graded, shaped, or generally altered for urban
tion. Farming is not important because of the rapid development. It is in the eastern part of the survey
urban expansion and because the major soils are not area. There is no natural vegetation.
suited or poorly suited to most crops. Limitations are This association makes up about 1 percent of the
slight for many urban uses. The major soils have severe survey area. It is about 45 percent Quartzipsamments,
limitations for structures designed for holding water, shaped, 45 percent Urban land, and the rest is minor
disposing of refuse material, and recreation develop- soils and miscellaneous areas.
ment. Quartzipsamments, shaped, are nearly level to gently
sloping and are well drained. Typically, they are sandy
2. Palm Beach-Urban land-Canaveral association to a depth of 80 inches or more; soil layers vary widely
Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained, moderately in color and occur in no regular sequence.
well drained and somewhat poorly drained soils that Urban land consists of areas that are more than 70
are sandy throughout; mostly in urban use percent covered by houses, streets, parking lots, and
This association is on the offshore island that is along buildings.
most of the coastline. It is made up of long, narrow The minor areas in this association consist of Adams-
most of the coastline. It is made up of long, narrow ville, organic subsoil variant, Pits, and Udorthents cov-
ridges and lowlands. The natural vegetation is cabbage ville gani ilts a dortents cov
palm, seagrape, scrub live oak, cacti, sea oats, and other ering sanitarys sociion is being used for homes, air-landfills.
native grasses. Much of this association is being used for homes, air-
This association makes up about 1 percent of the ports, golf courses, shopping centers, business and in-
survey area. It is about 16 percent Palm Beach soils dustrial areas, and other urban uses; thus, the soils
d Urba 16peet Cneral s a 6 p have no importance for farming. The major soils have
ceand Urban land, 16 percent Canaveral sols and 68 per- slight limitations for many urban uses. They have se-
Palm Beach soils are nearly level to sloping and are vere limitations for structures designed to retain or
excessively drained. They are deep, sandy soils that hold water or to dispose of refuse materials and for
have a high content of fine shell fragments throughout, recreation developments.
Typically, they have a surface layer of dark grayish
brown. It overlies a thick pale brown layer. Below this Nearly Level to Gently Sloping, Poorly Drained
is a light yellowish brown layer that extends to a depth and Moderately Well Drained Soils of the
of more than 80 inches. In many places Palm Beach Flatwoods, Generally Not Subject to Flooding
soils have been modified for urban or other uses by
grading or shaping. The five associations in this group consist mainly of
Urban land is made up of areas where streets, build- nearly level, poorly drained soils and nearly level to
ings, parking lots, and other structures cover more gently sloping, moderately well drained soils on low








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 3

1. St. Lucie-Urban land-Paola association than 75 percent of the land and of residential areas,
Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soils that where streets, houses, or other structures cover 25 to
are sandy throughout; mostly in urban use 50 percent of the land.
Canaveral soils are nearly level and are moderately
This association is on the mainland along the coast. well drained to somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
It is made up of low ridges and knolls that are part of they have a surface layer of dark grayish brown sand
the coastal ridge. The natural vegetation is sand pine, and shell fragments over layers of pale brown and very
scrub oak, and undergrowth of saw-palmetto, rosemary, pale brown sand and shell fragments that extend below
cacti, and native grasses. a depth of 65 inches. Canaveral soils are developed for
This association makes up about 3 percent of the urban use.
survey area. It is about 58 percent St. Lucie soils and The minor soils in this association are Beaches,
Urban land, 7 percent Paola soils, and 35 percent minor Cocoa soils, and Quartzipsamments, shaped. Some of
soils. these have been filled, graded, and shaped for urban
St. Lucie soils are nearly level to sloping and are use.
excessively drained. Typically, they have a thin surface Much of this association is being used for homes,
layer of gray sand. Below that is white sand that ex- large condominiums, shopping centers, and other urban
tends to a depth of more than 80 inches, uses. Some large areas in the northern part are in
Urban land is made up of areas where streets, build- native vegetation.
ings, parking lots, and other structures cover more Farming is not important because of rapid urban
than 75 percent of the land. In residential areas, streets, expansion and because the major soils are poorly suited
houses, sidewalks, and other structures cover 25 to 50 to most crops. Limitations are slight for many urban
percent of the land. uses. The major soils have severe limitations for struc-
Paola soils are nearly level to sloping and are exces- tures designed for holding water, disposing of refuse,
sively drained. Typically, they have a thin surface layer and recreation development.
of dark gray sand and a subsurface layer of white sand.
The subsoil is strong brown sand in the upper part and 3. Quartzipsamments-Urban land association
light yellowish brown sand in the lower part. Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soils that
The minor soils in this association are Pomello, Im- are sandy throughout and areas developed for urban
mokalee, Basinger, and Placid soils. Some of these have use
been graded or filled in for urban use.
Much of this association is in urban use, but some This association is made up of soils that have been
large areas in the northern part are in native vegeta- filled, graded, shaped, or generally altered for urban
tion. Farming is not important because of the rapid development. It is in the eastern part of the survey
urban expansion and because the major soils are not area. There is no natural vegetation.
suited or poorly suited to most crops. Limitations are This association makes up about 1 percent of the
slight for many urban uses. The major soils have severe survey area. It is about 45 percent Quartzipsamments,
limitations for structures designed for holding water, shaped, 45 percent Urban land, and the rest is minor
disposing of refuse material, and recreation develop- soils and miscellaneous areas.
ment. Quartzipsamments, shaped, are nearly level to gently
sloping and are well drained. Typically, they are sandy
2. Palm Beach-Urban land-Canaveral association to a depth of 80 inches or more; soil layers vary widely
Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained, moderately in color and occur in no regular sequence.
well drained and somewhat poorly drained soils that Urban land consists of areas that are more than 70
are sandy throughout; mostly in urban use percent covered by houses, streets, parking lots, and
This association is on the offshore island that is along buildings.
most of the coastline. It is made up of long, narrow The minor areas in this association consist of Adams-
most of the coastline. It is made up of long, narrow ville, organic subsoil variant, Pits, and Udorthents cov-
ridges and lowlands. The natural vegetation is cabbage ville gani ilts a dortents cov
palm, seagrape, scrub live oak, cacti, sea oats, and other ering sanitarys sociion is being used for homes, air-landfills.
native grasses. Much of this association is being used for homes, air-
This association makes up about 1 percent of the ports, golf courses, shopping centers, business and in-
survey area. It is about 16 percent Palm Beach soils dustrial areas, and other urban uses; thus, the soils
d Urba 16peet Cneral s a 6 p have no importance for farming. The major soils have
ceand Urban land, 16 percent Canaveral sols and 68 per- slight limitations for many urban uses. They have se-
Palm Beach soils are nearly level to sloping and are vere limitations for structures designed to retain or
excessively drained. They are deep, sandy soils that hold water or to dispose of refuse materials and for
have a high content of fine shell fragments throughout, recreation developments.
Typically, they have a surface layer of dark grayish
brown. It overlies a thick pale brown layer. Below this Nearly Level to Gently Sloping, Poorly Drained
is a light yellowish brown layer that extends to a depth and Moderately Well Drained Soils of the
of more than 80 inches. In many places Palm Beach Flatwoods, Generally Not Subject to Flooding
soils have been modified for urban or other uses by
grading or shaping. The five associations in this group consist mainly of
Urban land is made up of areas where streets, build- nearly level, poorly drained soils and nearly level to
ings, parking lots, and other structures cover more gently sloping, moderately well drained soils on low







4 SOIL SURVEY

ridges, all of which have a weakly cemented layer in bush, southern bayberry, pineland three-awn, and other
the subsoil; and nearly level, poorly drained soils that native grasses. Water-tolerant grasses and water plants
have a loamy subsoil. Most areas of these soils are not grow in low, wet areas. Cypress trees are in some of
subject to flooding, but small scattered areas in sloughs these low, wet areas.
and depressions are frequently flooded. These associa- This association makes up about 8 percent of the
tions are mostly in the eastern third of the county, just survey area. It is about 45 percent Myakka soils, 25
west of the coastal ridge. percent Immokalee soils, 25 percent Basinger soils, in-
4. Pomello-Immokalee association cluding depressional phases, and 5 percent minor soils.
Myakka soils are nearly level and are poorly drained.
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained Typically, they have a surface layer of black sand over
and poorly drained soils that are sandy throughout and layers of gray sand. A layer of black sand is at a depth
have a weakly cemented layer below a depth of 30 of 26 inches, and a layer of dark reddish brown sand is
below that. These layers are weakly cemented with or-
This association is in areas just west of the coastal ganic matter. Next, a layer of dark brown sand overlies
ridge. It is made up of low knolls and ridges and broad a layer of pale brown sand. Myakka soils in depressions
flatwoods areas interspersed with sloughs and small de- are covered with water for long periods.
pressions or ponds. The natural vegetation is slash Immokalee soils are nearly level and poorly drained.
pine, sand pine, scrub oak, saw-palmetto, inkberry, Typically, they have a thin surface layer of black and
runner oak, pineland three-awn, and other native dark gray fine sand over thick layers of gray and light
grasses. gray fine sand. A layer of black and very dark gray fine
This association makes up about 1 percent of the sand is at a depth of 37 inches. It overlies thick layers
survey area. It is about 50 percent Pomello soils, 25 of black fine sand that are weakly cemented with or-
percent Immokalee soils, and 25 percent minor soils. ganic matter. Below that is dark reddish brown and
Pomello soils are nearly level to gently sloping and brown fine sand.
are moderately well drained. Typically, they have a thin Basinger soils are nearly level and poorly drained.
surface layer of gray fine sand and a thick subsurface Typically, they have a thin surface layer of light gray
layer of light gray to white fine sand. Black fine sand, fine sand and a thick subsurface layer of white fine
weakly cemented with organic matter is at a depth of sand. Below this are layers of dark grayish brown fine
44 inches. Next is a thin layer of dark reddish brown sand and dark reddish brown fine sand that are stained
fine sand and below that is light yellowish brown fine with organic matter. Below this is pale brown fine sand
sand that extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. to a depth of 72 inches or more. Basinger soils in de-
Some areas have been modified for urban use.
Some areas have been modified for urban use. pressions are covered with water for long periods.
Immokalee soils are nearly level and are poorly
drained. Typically, they have a thin surface layer of The minor soils in this association are Placid and
black and dark fine sand over layers of gray and Anclote soils and Myakka soils in areas of urban devel-
light gray fine sand. Below a depth of 37 inches is a opment.
layer of black and very dark gray fine sand over a thick Much of this association is used for improved pasture
layer of black fine sand, weakly cemented with organic and cultivated crops. Some large areas, especially in
matter. Below that is dark reddish brown and brown the northern part, are in natural vegetation. Urban
fine sand. development is rapidly expanding, and farming is di-
The minor soils are Myakka, Basinger, and Placid minishing in importance. Drainage and water control
soils and Urban land. have been. established over large areas. The major soils
Much of this association is in native vegetation. A are not suited or are poorly suited to cultivated crops,
few small areas are used for cultivated crops or im- but with adequate water control they are moderately
proved pasture, and other areas are used for golf well suited to a variety of truck crops. With simple
courses, subdivisions or other urban uses. Such urban drainage they are well suited to improved pasture. The
development is rapidly expanding, and farming is di- major soils have severe limitations for most urban uses.
minishing in importance. The major soils are not suited Water control is needed to overcome wetness, and fill
or are moderately well suited to cultivated crops, pri- material is needed to make some areas suitable for
marily because of either droughtiness or a high water building sites (fig. 1).
table. They are poorly suited to well suited to improved
pasture. They have severe limitations for most urban 6. Immokalee-Urban land-Pompano-Basinger
uses. Fill material is needed to make some areas suit- association
able for most urban uses. Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy
throughout; some have a weakly cemented layer below
5. Myakka-Immokalee-Basinger association a depth of 30 inches; mostly in urban use
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy This association is only in areas west of the coastal
throughout; some have a weakly cemented layer ridge. It is made up of broad, low flatwoods, inter-
This association is in the eastern quarter of the spersed with grassy flatlands and marshy sloughs. The
county and is moderately extensive. It is made up of natural vegetation is slash pine, saw-palmetto, ink-
broad, flatwood areas interspersed with grassy sloughs berry, pineland three-awn, and other grasses in the
and many shallow depressions or ponds. The natural flatwoods areas. The lower flatlands have southern bay-
vegetation is slash pine, saw-palmetto, inkberry, fetter- berry, scattered cabbage palm, and a wide variety of







4 SOIL SURVEY

ridges, all of which have a weakly cemented layer in bush, southern bayberry, pineland three-awn, and other
the subsoil; and nearly level, poorly drained soils that native grasses. Water-tolerant grasses and water plants
have a loamy subsoil. Most areas of these soils are not grow in low, wet areas. Cypress trees are in some of
subject to flooding, but small scattered areas in sloughs these low, wet areas.
and depressions are frequently flooded. These associa- This association makes up about 8 percent of the
tions are mostly in the eastern third of the county, just survey area. It is about 45 percent Myakka soils, 25
west of the coastal ridge. percent Immokalee soils, 25 percent Basinger soils, in-
4. Pomello-Immokalee association cluding depressional phases, and 5 percent minor soils.
Myakka soils are nearly level and are poorly drained.
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained Typically, they have a surface layer of black sand over
and poorly drained soils that are sandy throughout and layers of gray sand. A layer of black sand is at a depth
have a weakly cemented layer below a depth of 30 of 26 inches, and a layer of dark reddish brown sand is
below that. These layers are weakly cemented with or-
This association is in areas just west of the coastal ganic matter. Next, a layer of dark brown sand overlies
ridge. It is made up of low knolls and ridges and broad a layer of pale brown sand. Myakka soils in depressions
flatwoods areas interspersed with sloughs and small de- are covered with water for long periods.
pressions or ponds. The natural vegetation is slash Immokalee soils are nearly level and poorly drained.
pine, sand pine, scrub oak, saw-palmetto, inkberry, Typically, they have a thin surface layer of black and
runner oak, pineland three-awn, and other native dark gray fine sand over thick layers of gray and light
grasses. gray fine sand. A layer of black and very dark gray fine
This association makes up about 1 percent of the sand is at a depth of 37 inches. It overlies thick layers
survey area. It is about 50 percent Pomello soils, 25 of black fine sand that are weakly cemented with or-
percent Immokalee soils, and 25 percent minor soils. ganic matter. Below that is dark reddish brown and
Pomello soils are nearly level to gently sloping and brown fine sand.
are moderately well drained. Typically, they have a thin Basinger soils are nearly level and poorly drained.
surface layer of gray fine sand and a thick subsurface Typically, they have a thin surface layer of light gray
layer of light gray to white fine sand. Black fine sand, fine sand and a thick subsurface layer of white fine
weakly cemented with organic matter is at a depth of sand. Below this are layers of dark grayish brown fine
44 inches. Next is a thin layer of dark reddish brown sand and dark reddish brown fine sand that are stained
fine sand and below that is light yellowish brown fine with organic matter. Below this is pale brown fine sand
sand that extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. to a depth of 72 inches or more. Basinger soils in de-
Some areas have been modified for urban use.
Some areas have been modified for urban use. pressions are covered with water for long periods.
Immokalee soils are nearly level and are poorly
drained. Typically, they have a thin surface layer of The minor soils in this association are Placid and
black and dark fine sand over layers of gray and Anclote soils and Myakka soils in areas of urban devel-
light gray fine sand. Below a depth of 37 inches is a opment.
layer of black and very dark gray fine sand over a thick Much of this association is used for improved pasture
layer of black fine sand, weakly cemented with organic and cultivated crops. Some large areas, especially in
matter. Below that is dark reddish brown and brown the northern part, are in natural vegetation. Urban
fine sand. development is rapidly expanding, and farming is di-
The minor soils are Myakka, Basinger, and Placid minishing in importance. Drainage and water control
soils and Urban land. have been. established over large areas. The major soils
Much of this association is in native vegetation. A are not suited or are poorly suited to cultivated crops,
few small areas are used for cultivated crops or im- but with adequate water control they are moderately
proved pasture, and other areas are used for golf well suited to a variety of truck crops. With simple
courses, subdivisions or other urban uses. Such urban drainage they are well suited to improved pasture. The
development is rapidly expanding, and farming is di- major soils have severe limitations for most urban uses.
minishing in importance. The major soils are not suited Water control is needed to overcome wetness, and fill
or are moderately well suited to cultivated crops, pri- material is needed to make some areas suitable for
marily because of either droughtiness or a high water building sites (fig. 1).
table. They are poorly suited to well suited to improved
pasture. They have severe limitations for most urban 6. Immokalee-Urban land-Pompano-Basinger
uses. Fill material is needed to make some areas suit- association
able for most urban uses. Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy
throughout; some have a weakly cemented layer below
5. Myakka-Immokalee-Basinger association a depth of 30 inches; mostly in urban use
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy This association is only in areas west of the coastal
throughout; some have a weakly cemented layer ridge. It is made up of broad, low flatwoods, inter-
This association is in the eastern quarter of the spersed with grassy flatlands and marshy sloughs. The
county and is moderately extensive. It is made up of natural vegetation is slash pine, saw-palmetto, ink-
broad, flatwood areas interspersed with grassy sloughs berry, pineland three-awn, and other grasses in the
and many shallow depressions or ponds. The natural flatwoods areas. The lower flatlands have southern bay-
vegetation is slash pine, saw-palmetto, inkberry, fetter- berry, scattered cabbage palm, and a wide variety of







4 SOIL SURVEY

ridges, all of which have a weakly cemented layer in bush, southern bayberry, pineland three-awn, and other
the subsoil; and nearly level, poorly drained soils that native grasses. Water-tolerant grasses and water plants
have a loamy subsoil. Most areas of these soils are not grow in low, wet areas. Cypress trees are in some of
subject to flooding, but small scattered areas in sloughs these low, wet areas.
and depressions are frequently flooded. These associa- This association makes up about 8 percent of the
tions are mostly in the eastern third of the county, just survey area. It is about 45 percent Myakka soils, 25
west of the coastal ridge. percent Immokalee soils, 25 percent Basinger soils, in-
4. Pomello-Immokalee association cluding depressional phases, and 5 percent minor soils.
Myakka soils are nearly level and are poorly drained.
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained Typically, they have a surface layer of black sand over
and poorly drained soils that are sandy throughout and layers of gray sand. A layer of black sand is at a depth
have a weakly cemented layer below a depth of 30 of 26 inches, and a layer of dark reddish brown sand is
below that. These layers are weakly cemented with or-
This association is in areas just west of the coastal ganic matter. Next, a layer of dark brown sand overlies
ridge. It is made up of low knolls and ridges and broad a layer of pale brown sand. Myakka soils in depressions
flatwoods areas interspersed with sloughs and small de- are covered with water for long periods.
pressions or ponds. The natural vegetation is slash Immokalee soils are nearly level and poorly drained.
pine, sand pine, scrub oak, saw-palmetto, inkberry, Typically, they have a thin surface layer of black and
runner oak, pineland three-awn, and other native dark gray fine sand over thick layers of gray and light
grasses. gray fine sand. A layer of black and very dark gray fine
This association makes up about 1 percent of the sand is at a depth of 37 inches. It overlies thick layers
survey area. It is about 50 percent Pomello soils, 25 of black fine sand that are weakly cemented with or-
percent Immokalee soils, and 25 percent minor soils. ganic matter. Below that is dark reddish brown and
Pomello soils are nearly level to gently sloping and brown fine sand.
are moderately well drained. Typically, they have a thin Basinger soils are nearly level and poorly drained.
surface layer of gray fine sand and a thick subsurface Typically, they have a thin surface layer of light gray
layer of light gray to white fine sand. Black fine sand, fine sand and a thick subsurface layer of white fine
weakly cemented with organic matter is at a depth of sand. Below this are layers of dark grayish brown fine
44 inches. Next is a thin layer of dark reddish brown sand and dark reddish brown fine sand that are stained
fine sand and below that is light yellowish brown fine with organic matter. Below this is pale brown fine sand
sand that extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. to a depth of 72 inches or more. Basinger soils in de-
Some areas have been modified for urban use.
Some areas have been modified for urban use. pressions are covered with water for long periods.
Immokalee soils are nearly level and are poorly
drained. Typically, they have a thin surface layer of The minor soils in this association are Placid and
black and dark fine sand over layers of gray and Anclote soils and Myakka soils in areas of urban devel-
light gray fine sand. Below a depth of 37 inches is a opment.
layer of black and very dark gray fine sand over a thick Much of this association is used for improved pasture
layer of black fine sand, weakly cemented with organic and cultivated crops. Some large areas, especially in
matter. Below that is dark reddish brown and brown the northern part, are in natural vegetation. Urban
fine sand. development is rapidly expanding, and farming is di-
The minor soils are Myakka, Basinger, and Placid minishing in importance. Drainage and water control
soils and Urban land. have been. established over large areas. The major soils
Much of this association is in native vegetation. A are not suited or are poorly suited to cultivated crops,
few small areas are used for cultivated crops or im- but with adequate water control they are moderately
proved pasture, and other areas are used for golf well suited to a variety of truck crops. With simple
courses, subdivisions or other urban uses. Such urban drainage they are well suited to improved pasture. The
development is rapidly expanding, and farming is di- major soils have severe limitations for most urban uses.
minishing in importance. The major soils are not suited Water control is needed to overcome wetness, and fill
or are moderately well suited to cultivated crops, pri- material is needed to make some areas suitable for
marily because of either droughtiness or a high water building sites (fig. 1).
table. They are poorly suited to well suited to improved
pasture. They have severe limitations for most urban 6. Immokalee-Urban land-Pompano-Basinger
uses. Fill material is needed to make some areas suit- association
able for most urban uses. Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy
throughout; some have a weakly cemented layer below
5. Myakka-Immokalee-Basinger association a depth of 30 inches; mostly in urban use
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy This association is only in areas west of the coastal
throughout; some have a weakly cemented layer ridge. It is made up of broad, low flatwoods, inter-
This association is in the eastern quarter of the spersed with grassy flatlands and marshy sloughs. The
county and is moderately extensive. It is made up of natural vegetation is slash pine, saw-palmetto, ink-
broad, flatwood areas interspersed with grassy sloughs berry, pineland three-awn, and other grasses in the
and many shallow depressions or ponds. The natural flatwoods areas. The lower flatlands have southern bay-
vegetation is slash pine, saw-palmetto, inkberry, fetter- berry, scattered cabbage palm, and a wide variety of







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 5





























Figure 1.-This subdivision is in an area of Myakka-Immokalee-Basinger association. Some areas of this association may be flooded
after heavy rainfall unless adequate drainage is provided.

grasses. Maidencane, sawgrass, and other water- dark reddish brown fine sand that is stained with or-
tolerant plants are in most slough areas. ganic matter are between depths of 25 and 36 inches.
This association makes up about 1 percent of the Below this is pale brown fine sand that extends to a
survey area. It is about 50 percent Immokalee soils and depth of 72 inches or more.
Urban land, 25 percent Pompano soils, 20 percent Ba- The minor soils are Myakka, Placid, and Sanibel
singer soils, and 5 percent minor soils. soils.
Immokalee soils are nearly level and are poorly Much of this association is developed for urban use.
drained. Typically, they have a thin surface layer of Much of the natural vegetation has been removed.
black and dark gray fine sand over thick layers of gray Farming is not important because of urban develop-
to light gray fine sand. A layer of black and very dark ment. Drainage and water control established in most
gray fine sand is at a depth of 37 inches, and below of this area helps to overcome wetness that affects
that is a thick layer of black fine sand, which is weakly urban uses. Wetness remains a problem in areas lack-
cemented with organic matter. Next is dark reddish ing water control.
brown and brown fine sand. Some large areas of Immo-
kalee soils have been modified for urban development 7. Wabasso-Riviera-Oldsmar association
by spreading about 12 inches of sandy fill material on Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils that have a
the surface. loamy subsoil; some have a weakly cemented sandy
Urban land is made up of areas where houses, shop- layer over the loamy subsoil
ping centers, parking lots, large buildings, streets, and This association is in areas east of the Everglades
sidewalks cover more than 70 percent of the land. Few and west of the coastal ridge. It is made up of broad
areas remain where the natural soil can be observed, flatwoods and grassy sloughs interspersed with many
Pompano soils are nearly level and are poorly small to large ponds and swampy areas. The natural
drained. Typically, their surface layer is dark vegetation is slash pine, scattered cabbage palm, and
grayish brown fine sand. It overlies layers of light undergrowth of saw-palmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry,
gray, pale brown, and very pale brown fine sand that pineland three-awn, and other native plants. In sloughs
extend to a depth of more than 80 inches. and swampy areas, the vegetation is cypress, melaleuca,
Basinger soils are also nearly level and are poorly corkweed, St. Johnswort, needlegrass, sand cordgrass,
drained. Typically, they have a thin surface layer of and other water-tolerant plants.
light gray fine sand and a thick subsurface layer of This association makes up about 3 percent of the
fine sand. Layers of dark grayish brown fine sand and survey area. It is about 35 percent Wabasso soils, 35







6 SOIL SURVEY

percent Riviera soils, including depressional phases, 25 Hallandale soils are nearly level and are poorly
percent Oldsmar soils, and about 5 percent minor soils, drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of dark
Wabasso soils are nearly level and are poorly drained, gray sand over very pale brown sand. Hard limestone
Typically, they have a surface layer of black fine sand that has numerous fractures and solution holes is at a
and a subsurface layer of gray and light gray fine depth of 15 inches.
sand. A black fine sand layer is at a depth of about 22 The minor soils in this association are Riviera, Jupi-
inches. This layer is weakly cemented with organic ter, and Pompano soils.
matter. Below this the subsoil is brown and very dark Much of this association is in native vegetation.
grayish brown fine sandy loam. The underlying mate- Some areas are used for truck crops and improved pas-
rial is light gray sand and shell fragments. ture. Drainage and water control have been established
Riviera soils are nearly level and are poorly drained, in most areas and help to overcome the wetness limita-
Typically, they have a thin surface layer of dark gray- tion for most uses. Shallowness to rock is a severe
ish brown sand and a thick subsurface layer of white limitation to most cultivated crops. With good manage-
sand that tongues into the underlying subsoil. The sub- ment these soils are well suited to selected truck crops
soil is grayish brown sandy loam, and it overlies layers and improved pasture. The major soils have severe
of gray sand mixed with shell fragments. Riviera soils limitations for most urban uses.
in depressions are similar but are covered with water
for long periods.
Oldsmar soils are nearly level and are poorly drained. Nearly Level, Poorly Drained and Very Poorly
Typically, they have a thin surface layer of very dark Drained Soils Generally in Sloughs and
gray sand and a thick subsurface layer of grayish Depressions, Subject to Frequent Flooding
brown and white sand. A layer of black sand, cemented
with organic matter, is at a depth of 34 inches. Below The four associations in this group consist mainly
this the subsoil is a thin layer of dark grayish brown of nearly level, poorly and very poorly drained soils
sandy loam over a thin layer of brown loamy sand. that have a loamy subsoil, some of which have a thin
Below this is mixed sand and shell fragments, organic surface layer; poorly drained sandy soils; and
The minor soils in this association are Pineda, Pinel- poorly drained soils that rest on limestone. These soils
las, Boca, Oldsmar, and Holopaw soils. are mostly in low sloughs and depressions that are
Much of this association, especially in the northern covered with water for long periods. These associations
part, is in native vegetation. Some large areas are used are mostly in the east central part of Palm Beach
for cultivated crops and improved pasture. A few small County Area.
areas are used for citrus. A high water table severely 9. Riviera association
limits the major soils for most farm uses. With ade- poorly drained sandy soils that have a
quate water control, these soils are well or moderately Nearly level
well suited to citrus, truck crops, and improved pas- loamy subsoil
ture. The major soils have severe limitations for most This association is in the central and northern parts
urban uses. Drainage is needed to overcome wetness, of the survey area east of the Everglades and is exten-
and fill material is needed to make some areas suitable sive in these areas. It is made up of broad, low flat-
for building sites. woods and grassy sloughs interspersed with numerous
grassed ponds and swampy areas. The natural vegeta-
8. Boca-Hallandale association tion is slash pine, cabbage palm, saw-palmetto, south-
Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils that are moder- ern bayberry, inkberry, pineland three-awn, and other
ately deep to shallow over limestone; some have a native grasses. Cypress, pickerelweed, St. Johnswort,
loamy subsoil corkweed, sand cordgrass, and other wetland grasses
This association is only in the southeastern part of grow in wet areas.
the survey area along the county line. It is made up This association makes up about 16 percent of the
of broad, low flatwoods interspersed with grassy flats. survey area. It is about 70 percent Riviera soils and
The natural vegetation is slash pine, cabbage palm, 30 percent minor soils.
saw-palmetto, southern bayberry, inkberry, pineland Riviera soils are nearly level and are poorly drained.
three-awn, and other grasses. Cypress trees grow in the Typically, they have a thin surface layer of dark gray-
wetter areas. ish brown sand. A thick subsurface layer of white sand
This association makes up only about 1 percent of tongues into a subsoil of grayish brown sandy loam to
the survey area. It has a higher percentage of rock out- a depth of about 36 inches. Gray sand mixed with shell
crops and soils shallow to rock than any other associa- fragments is below a depth of about 42 inches. Riviera
tion. It is about 60 percent Boca soils, 35 percent Hal- soils in depressions are covered with water for long
landale soils, and 5 percent minor soils. periods.
Boca soils are nearly level and are poorly drained. The minor soils in this association are Holopaw,
Typically, they have a surface layer of very dark gray Oldsmar, Pineda, Pinellas, Boca, and Hallandale soils.
fine sand over thick layers of light brownish gray and Much of this association is in natural vegetation.
light gray fine sand. A dark grayish brown sandy clay Other areas are used for citrus, cultivated crops, and
loam subsoil is at a depth of 29 inches. Hard limestone improved pasture. The major soils are severely limited
that has numerous solution holes is at a depth of 36 for most farm uses by a high water table. With ade-
inches. quate water control, these soils are well suited to citrus,







6 SOIL SURVEY

percent Riviera soils, including depressional phases, 25 Hallandale soils are nearly level and are poorly
percent Oldsmar soils, and about 5 percent minor soils, drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of dark
Wabasso soils are nearly level and are poorly drained, gray sand over very pale brown sand. Hard limestone
Typically, they have a surface layer of black fine sand that has numerous fractures and solution holes is at a
and a subsurface layer of gray and light gray fine depth of 15 inches.
sand. A black fine sand layer is at a depth of about 22 The minor soils in this association are Riviera, Jupi-
inches. This layer is weakly cemented with organic ter, and Pompano soils.
matter. Below this the subsoil is brown and very dark Much of this association is in native vegetation.
grayish brown fine sandy loam. The underlying mate- Some areas are used for truck crops and improved pas-
rial is light gray sand and shell fragments. ture. Drainage and water control have been established
Riviera soils are nearly level and are poorly drained, in most areas and help to overcome the wetness limita-
Typically, they have a thin surface layer of dark gray- tion for most uses. Shallowness to rock is a severe
ish brown sand and a thick subsurface layer of white limitation to most cultivated crops. With good manage-
sand that tongues into the underlying subsoil. The sub- ment these soils are well suited to selected truck crops
soil is grayish brown sandy loam, and it overlies layers and improved pasture. The major soils have severe
of gray sand mixed with shell fragments. Riviera soils limitations for most urban uses.
in depressions are similar but are covered with water
for long periods.
Oldsmar soils are nearly level and are poorly drained. Nearly Level, Poorly Drained and Very Poorly
Typically, they have a thin surface layer of very dark Drained Soils Generally in Sloughs and
gray sand and a thick subsurface layer of grayish Depressions, Subject to Frequent Flooding
brown and white sand. A layer of black sand, cemented
with organic matter, is at a depth of 34 inches. Below The four associations in this group consist mainly
this the subsoil is a thin layer of dark grayish brown of nearly level, poorly and very poorly drained soils
sandy loam over a thin layer of brown loamy sand. that have a loamy subsoil, some of which have a thin
Below this is mixed sand and shell fragments, organic surface layer; poorly drained sandy soils; and
The minor soils in this association are Pineda, Pinel- poorly drained soils that rest on limestone. These soils
las, Boca, Oldsmar, and Holopaw soils. are mostly in low sloughs and depressions that are
Much of this association, especially in the northern covered with water for long periods. These associations
part, is in native vegetation. Some large areas are used are mostly in the east central part of Palm Beach
for cultivated crops and improved pasture. A few small County Area.
areas are used for citrus. A high water table severely 9. Riviera association
limits the major soils for most farm uses. With ade- poorly drained sandy soils that have a
quate water control, these soils are well or moderately Nearly level
well suited to citrus, truck crops, and improved pas- loamy subsoil
ture. The major soils have severe limitations for most This association is in the central and northern parts
urban uses. Drainage is needed to overcome wetness, of the survey area east of the Everglades and is exten-
and fill material is needed to make some areas suitable sive in these areas. It is made up of broad, low flat-
for building sites. woods and grassy sloughs interspersed with numerous
grassed ponds and swampy areas. The natural vegeta-
8. Boca-Hallandale association tion is slash pine, cabbage palm, saw-palmetto, south-
Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils that are moder- ern bayberry, inkberry, pineland three-awn, and other
ately deep to shallow over limestone; some have a native grasses. Cypress, pickerelweed, St. Johnswort,
loamy subsoil corkweed, sand cordgrass, and other wetland grasses
This association is only in the southeastern part of grow in wet areas.
the survey area along the county line. It is made up This association makes up about 16 percent of the
of broad, low flatwoods interspersed with grassy flats. survey area. It is about 70 percent Riviera soils and
The natural vegetation is slash pine, cabbage palm, 30 percent minor soils.
saw-palmetto, southern bayberry, inkberry, pineland Riviera soils are nearly level and are poorly drained.
three-awn, and other grasses. Cypress trees grow in the Typically, they have a thin surface layer of dark gray-
wetter areas. ish brown sand. A thick subsurface layer of white sand
This association makes up only about 1 percent of tongues into a subsoil of grayish brown sandy loam to
the survey area. It has a higher percentage of rock out- a depth of about 36 inches. Gray sand mixed with shell
crops and soils shallow to rock than any other associa- fragments is below a depth of about 42 inches. Riviera
tion. It is about 60 percent Boca soils, 35 percent Hal- soils in depressions are covered with water for long
landale soils, and 5 percent minor soils. periods.
Boca soils are nearly level and are poorly drained. The minor soils in this association are Holopaw,
Typically, they have a surface layer of very dark gray Oldsmar, Pineda, Pinellas, Boca, and Hallandale soils.
fine sand over thick layers of light brownish gray and Much of this association is in natural vegetation.
light gray fine sand. A dark grayish brown sandy clay Other areas are used for citrus, cultivated crops, and
loam subsoil is at a depth of 29 inches. Hard limestone improved pasture. The major soils are severely limited
that has numerous solution holes is at a depth of 36 for most farm uses by a high water table. With ade-
inches. quate water control, these soils are well suited to citrus,







6 SOIL SURVEY

percent Riviera soils, including depressional phases, 25 Hallandale soils are nearly level and are poorly
percent Oldsmar soils, and about 5 percent minor soils, drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of dark
Wabasso soils are nearly level and are poorly drained, gray sand over very pale brown sand. Hard limestone
Typically, they have a surface layer of black fine sand that has numerous fractures and solution holes is at a
and a subsurface layer of gray and light gray fine depth of 15 inches.
sand. A black fine sand layer is at a depth of about 22 The minor soils in this association are Riviera, Jupi-
inches. This layer is weakly cemented with organic ter, and Pompano soils.
matter. Below this the subsoil is brown and very dark Much of this association is in native vegetation.
grayish brown fine sandy loam. The underlying mate- Some areas are used for truck crops and improved pas-
rial is light gray sand and shell fragments. ture. Drainage and water control have been established
Riviera soils are nearly level and are poorly drained, in most areas and help to overcome the wetness limita-
Typically, they have a thin surface layer of dark gray- tion for most uses. Shallowness to rock is a severe
ish brown sand and a thick subsurface layer of white limitation to most cultivated crops. With good manage-
sand that tongues into the underlying subsoil. The sub- ment these soils are well suited to selected truck crops
soil is grayish brown sandy loam, and it overlies layers and improved pasture. The major soils have severe
of gray sand mixed with shell fragments. Riviera soils limitations for most urban uses.
in depressions are similar but are covered with water
for long periods.
Oldsmar soils are nearly level and are poorly drained. Nearly Level, Poorly Drained and Very Poorly
Typically, they have a thin surface layer of very dark Drained Soils Generally in Sloughs and
gray sand and a thick subsurface layer of grayish Depressions, Subject to Frequent Flooding
brown and white sand. A layer of black sand, cemented
with organic matter, is at a depth of 34 inches. Below The four associations in this group consist mainly
this the subsoil is a thin layer of dark grayish brown of nearly level, poorly and very poorly drained soils
sandy loam over a thin layer of brown loamy sand. that have a loamy subsoil, some of which have a thin
Below this is mixed sand and shell fragments, organic surface layer; poorly drained sandy soils; and
The minor soils in this association are Pineda, Pinel- poorly drained soils that rest on limestone. These soils
las, Boca, Oldsmar, and Holopaw soils. are mostly in low sloughs and depressions that are
Much of this association, especially in the northern covered with water for long periods. These associations
part, is in native vegetation. Some large areas are used are mostly in the east central part of Palm Beach
for cultivated crops and improved pasture. A few small County Area.
areas are used for citrus. A high water table severely 9. Riviera association
limits the major soils for most farm uses. With ade- poorly drained sandy soils that have a
quate water control, these soils are well or moderately Nearly level
well suited to citrus, truck crops, and improved pas- loamy subsoil
ture. The major soils have severe limitations for most This association is in the central and northern parts
urban uses. Drainage is needed to overcome wetness, of the survey area east of the Everglades and is exten-
and fill material is needed to make some areas suitable sive in these areas. It is made up of broad, low flat-
for building sites. woods and grassy sloughs interspersed with numerous
grassed ponds and swampy areas. The natural vegeta-
8. Boca-Hallandale association tion is slash pine, cabbage palm, saw-palmetto, south-
Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils that are moder- ern bayberry, inkberry, pineland three-awn, and other
ately deep to shallow over limestone; some have a native grasses. Cypress, pickerelweed, St. Johnswort,
loamy subsoil corkweed, sand cordgrass, and other wetland grasses
This association is only in the southeastern part of grow in wet areas.
the survey area along the county line. It is made up This association makes up about 16 percent of the
of broad, low flatwoods interspersed with grassy flats. survey area. It is about 70 percent Riviera soils and
The natural vegetation is slash pine, cabbage palm, 30 percent minor soils.
saw-palmetto, southern bayberry, inkberry, pineland Riviera soils are nearly level and are poorly drained.
three-awn, and other grasses. Cypress trees grow in the Typically, they have a thin surface layer of dark gray-
wetter areas. ish brown sand. A thick subsurface layer of white sand
This association makes up only about 1 percent of tongues into a subsoil of grayish brown sandy loam to
the survey area. It has a higher percentage of rock out- a depth of about 36 inches. Gray sand mixed with shell
crops and soils shallow to rock than any other associa- fragments is below a depth of about 42 inches. Riviera
tion. It is about 60 percent Boca soils, 35 percent Hal- soils in depressions are covered with water for long
landale soils, and 5 percent minor soils. periods.
Boca soils are nearly level and are poorly drained. The minor soils in this association are Holopaw,
Typically, they have a surface layer of very dark gray Oldsmar, Pineda, Pinellas, Boca, and Hallandale soils.
fine sand over thick layers of light brownish gray and Much of this association is in natural vegetation.
light gray fine sand. A dark grayish brown sandy clay Other areas are used for citrus, cultivated crops, and
loam subsoil is at a depth of 29 inches. Hard limestone improved pasture. The major soils are severely limited
that has numerous solution holes is at a depth of 36 for most farm uses by a high water table. With ade-
inches. quate water control, these soils are well suited to citrus,







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 7

truck crops, and improved pasture. The major soils fine sand and a thick subsurface layer of white fine
have severe limitations for most urban uses. Water con- sand. Layers of dark grayish brown and dark reddish
trol is necessary for most uses, and fill material is brown fine sand stained with organic matter are below
needed to make some areas suitable for building sites. a depth of 25 inches. Below these, pale brown fine sand
extends to a depth of 72 inches or more. Basinger soils
10. Riviera-Boca association in depressions are covered with water for long periods.
Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils that have a The minor soils in this association are Myakka, Im-
loamy subsoil; some are moderately deep over limestone mokalee, Pompano, Anclote, Sanibel, and Okeelanta
This association is in the eastern part of the survey soils and Basinger soils in areas of urban development.
area between the coastal ridge and the Everglades. It Much of this association is in natural vegetation.
is made up of broad, low flatwoods interspersed with Some areas are in improved pasture and cultivated
grassy sloughs, ponds, and swampy areas. The natural crops. Urban development is rapidly expanding, and
vegetation is slash pine, cabbage palm, saw-palmetto, farming is diminishing in importance. Drainage and
southern bayberry, inkberry, pineland three-awn, and water control have been established over large areas.
other native grasses. Cypress, pickerelweed, St. Johns- The major soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops.
wort, and needlegrass grow in most wet areas. Adequate water control is needed for this use. With
This association makes up about 4 percent of the simple drainage, the major soils are suited to improved
survey area. It is about 45 percent Riviera soils, 40 pasture. The soils in depressions are not suited to such
percent Boca soils, and 15 percent minor soils. uses. The major soils have severe limitations for most
Riviera soils soils are nearly level and are poorly urban uses. Water control and fill material are needed
drained. Typically, they have a thin surface layer of to make them suitable for building sites.
dark grayish brown sand. A thick subsurface layer of 12. Winder-Tequesta association
white sand tongues into a subsoil of grayish brown
sandy loam. Below that, gray sand is mixed with shell Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
fragments. Riviera soils in depressions are covered sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil; some have a
with water for long periods. thin layer of muck at the surface
Boca soils are nearly level and are poorly drained. This association is in the Loxahatchee Slough area
Typically, they have a thin surface layer of very dark in the northeastern part of the survey area. It is made
gray fine sand over thick layers of light brownish gray up of broad, low flats, depressions, and drainageways.
and light gray fine sand. A thin subsoil of brown sandy The natural vegetation is cypress, needlegrass, maiden-
clay loam is at a depth of 29 inches. Below this, a thin cane, Southern bayberry, pickerelweed, and other
layer of soft marl rests on limestone at a depth of 36 water-tolerant plants.
inches. This association makes up about 1 percent of the
The minor soils in this association are Pineda, Holo- survey area. It is about 40 percent Winder soils, 40
paw, Pinellas, and Hallandale soils. percent Tequesta soils, and 20 percent minor soils.
Much of this association is in native vegetation. Winder soils are nearly level and are poorly drained.
Some of it is used for cultivated crops, citrus, and Typically, they have a thin surface layer of black fine
improved pasture. The major soils are severely limited sand and a subsurface layer of light gray and light
for most farm uses by a high water table. With ade- brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil is gray fine sandy
quate water control, these soils are well suited to truck loam that has sandy tongues from the subsurface layer.
crops, citrus, and improved pasture. These soils have Below this, a thin layer of gray loamy fine sand rests
severe limitations for most urban uses. Drainage is on gray fine sand mixed with white shell fragments.
needed to overcome wetness, and fill material is needed Tequesta soils are nearly level and are very poorly
to make some areas suitable for building sites. drained. Typically, they have a 12-inch layer of black
11. B r a n muck (sapric material) at the surface. The surface
11. Basinger association layer is dark gray fine sand, and below that there is a
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy thick layer of dark grayish brown fine sand. Next, the
throughout subsoil is grayish brown fine sandy loam that has
This association is in the eastern part of the survey tongues of fine sand from the layer above. It overlies
area near the coastal ridge. It is made up of broad, mixed sand and shell fragments.
low wetlands that have scattered areas of slightly The minor soils in this association are Riviera, Hal-
higher flatwoods and lower swampy and marshy areas. landale, Chobee, Pinellas, Holopaw, and Okeelanta soils.
The natural vegetation is southern bayberry, St. Johns- Most of this association is in native vegetation. A
wort, broomsedge, bluestem, sand cordgrass, pineland large area is used as a water catchment for the city of
three-awn, maidencane, and other grasses. Slash pine, West Palm Beach. A few areas are used for improved
cabbage palm, and saw-palmetto grow in higher areas. pasture. This association is in a broad, natural drain-
Cypress, melaleuca, sawgrass, and other grasses and ageway, and the soils are subject to flooding for long
sedges grow in lower areas, periods. This hazard severely limits their use for farm-
This association makes up about 3 percent of the ing. With adequate water control, the major soils are
survey area. It is about 60 percent Basinger soils and well suited to truck crops and improved pasture. The
40 percent minor soils. hazards of flooding and wetness also severely limit these
Basinger soils are nearly level and are poorly drained, soils for most urban uses. Drainage and fill material on
Typically, they have a thin surface layer of light gray the surface of the soils are needed to overcome these







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 7

truck crops, and improved pasture. The major soils fine sand and a thick subsurface layer of white fine
have severe limitations for most urban uses. Water con- sand. Layers of dark grayish brown and dark reddish
trol is necessary for most uses, and fill material is brown fine sand stained with organic matter are below
needed to make some areas suitable for building sites. a depth of 25 inches. Below these, pale brown fine sand
extends to a depth of 72 inches or more. Basinger soils
10. Riviera-Boca association in depressions are covered with water for long periods.
Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils that have a The minor soils in this association are Myakka, Im-
loamy subsoil; some are moderately deep over limestone mokalee, Pompano, Anclote, Sanibel, and Okeelanta
This association is in the eastern part of the survey soils and Basinger soils in areas of urban development.
area between the coastal ridge and the Everglades. It Much of this association is in natural vegetation.
is made up of broad, low flatwoods interspersed with Some areas are in improved pasture and cultivated
grassy sloughs, ponds, and swampy areas. The natural crops. Urban development is rapidly expanding, and
vegetation is slash pine, cabbage palm, saw-palmetto, farming is diminishing in importance. Drainage and
southern bayberry, inkberry, pineland three-awn, and water control have been established over large areas.
other native grasses. Cypress, pickerelweed, St. Johns- The major soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops.
wort, and needlegrass grow in most wet areas. Adequate water control is needed for this use. With
This association makes up about 4 percent of the simple drainage, the major soils are suited to improved
survey area. It is about 45 percent Riviera soils, 40 pasture. The soils in depressions are not suited to such
percent Boca soils, and 15 percent minor soils. uses. The major soils have severe limitations for most
Riviera soils soils are nearly level and are poorly urban uses. Water control and fill material are needed
drained. Typically, they have a thin surface layer of to make them suitable for building sites.
dark grayish brown sand. A thick subsurface layer of 12. Winder-Tequesta association
white sand tongues into a subsoil of grayish brown
sandy loam. Below that, gray sand is mixed with shell Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
fragments. Riviera soils in depressions are covered sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil; some have a
with water for long periods. thin layer of muck at the surface
Boca soils are nearly level and are poorly drained. This association is in the Loxahatchee Slough area
Typically, they have a thin surface layer of very dark in the northeastern part of the survey area. It is made
gray fine sand over thick layers of light brownish gray up of broad, low flats, depressions, and drainageways.
and light gray fine sand. A thin subsoil of brown sandy The natural vegetation is cypress, needlegrass, maiden-
clay loam is at a depth of 29 inches. Below this, a thin cane, Southern bayberry, pickerelweed, and other
layer of soft marl rests on limestone at a depth of 36 water-tolerant plants.
inches. This association makes up about 1 percent of the
The minor soils in this association are Pineda, Holo- survey area. It is about 40 percent Winder soils, 40
paw, Pinellas, and Hallandale soils. percent Tequesta soils, and 20 percent minor soils.
Much of this association is in native vegetation. Winder soils are nearly level and are poorly drained.
Some of it is used for cultivated crops, citrus, and Typically, they have a thin surface layer of black fine
improved pasture. The major soils are severely limited sand and a subsurface layer of light gray and light
for most farm uses by a high water table. With ade- brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil is gray fine sandy
quate water control, these soils are well suited to truck loam that has sandy tongues from the subsurface layer.
crops, citrus, and improved pasture. These soils have Below this, a thin layer of gray loamy fine sand rests
severe limitations for most urban uses. Drainage is on gray fine sand mixed with white shell fragments.
needed to overcome wetness, and fill material is needed Tequesta soils are nearly level and are very poorly
to make some areas suitable for building sites. drained. Typically, they have a 12-inch layer of black
11. B r a n muck (sapric material) at the surface. The surface
11. Basinger association layer is dark gray fine sand, and below that there is a
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy thick layer of dark grayish brown fine sand. Next, the
throughout subsoil is grayish brown fine sandy loam that has
This association is in the eastern part of the survey tongues of fine sand from the layer above. It overlies
area near the coastal ridge. It is made up of broad, mixed sand and shell fragments.
low wetlands that have scattered areas of slightly The minor soils in this association are Riviera, Hal-
higher flatwoods and lower swampy and marshy areas. landale, Chobee, Pinellas, Holopaw, and Okeelanta soils.
The natural vegetation is southern bayberry, St. Johns- Most of this association is in native vegetation. A
wort, broomsedge, bluestem, sand cordgrass, pineland large area is used as a water catchment for the city of
three-awn, maidencane, and other grasses. Slash pine, West Palm Beach. A few areas are used for improved
cabbage palm, and saw-palmetto grow in higher areas. pasture. This association is in a broad, natural drain-
Cypress, melaleuca, sawgrass, and other grasses and ageway, and the soils are subject to flooding for long
sedges grow in lower areas, periods. This hazard severely limits their use for farm-
This association makes up about 3 percent of the ing. With adequate water control, the major soils are
survey area. It is about 60 percent Basinger soils and well suited to truck crops and improved pasture. The
40 percent minor soils. hazards of flooding and wetness also severely limit these
Basinger soils are nearly level and are poorly drained, soils for most urban uses. Drainage and fill material on
Typically, they have a thin surface layer of light gray the surface of the soils are needed to overcome these







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 7

truck crops, and improved pasture. The major soils fine sand and a thick subsurface layer of white fine
have severe limitations for most urban uses. Water con- sand. Layers of dark grayish brown and dark reddish
trol is necessary for most uses, and fill material is brown fine sand stained with organic matter are below
needed to make some areas suitable for building sites. a depth of 25 inches. Below these, pale brown fine sand
extends to a depth of 72 inches or more. Basinger soils
10. Riviera-Boca association in depressions are covered with water for long periods.
Nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils that have a The minor soils in this association are Myakka, Im-
loamy subsoil; some are moderately deep over limestone mokalee, Pompano, Anclote, Sanibel, and Okeelanta
This association is in the eastern part of the survey soils and Basinger soils in areas of urban development.
area between the coastal ridge and the Everglades. It Much of this association is in natural vegetation.
is made up of broad, low flatwoods interspersed with Some areas are in improved pasture and cultivated
grassy sloughs, ponds, and swampy areas. The natural crops. Urban development is rapidly expanding, and
vegetation is slash pine, cabbage palm, saw-palmetto, farming is diminishing in importance. Drainage and
southern bayberry, inkberry, pineland three-awn, and water control have been established over large areas.
other native grasses. Cypress, pickerelweed, St. Johns- The major soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops.
wort, and needlegrass grow in most wet areas. Adequate water control is needed for this use. With
This association makes up about 4 percent of the simple drainage, the major soils are suited to improved
survey area. It is about 45 percent Riviera soils, 40 pasture. The soils in depressions are not suited to such
percent Boca soils, and 15 percent minor soils. uses. The major soils have severe limitations for most
Riviera soils soils are nearly level and are poorly urban uses. Water control and fill material are needed
drained. Typically, they have a thin surface layer of to make them suitable for building sites.
dark grayish brown sand. A thick subsurface layer of 12. Winder-Tequesta association
white sand tongues into a subsoil of grayish brown
sandy loam. Below that, gray sand is mixed with shell Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
fragments. Riviera soils in depressions are covered sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil; some have a
with water for long periods. thin layer of muck at the surface
Boca soils are nearly level and are poorly drained. This association is in the Loxahatchee Slough area
Typically, they have a thin surface layer of very dark in the northeastern part of the survey area. It is made
gray fine sand over thick layers of light brownish gray up of broad, low flats, depressions, and drainageways.
and light gray fine sand. A thin subsoil of brown sandy The natural vegetation is cypress, needlegrass, maiden-
clay loam is at a depth of 29 inches. Below this, a thin cane, Southern bayberry, pickerelweed, and other
layer of soft marl rests on limestone at a depth of 36 water-tolerant plants.
inches. This association makes up about 1 percent of the
The minor soils in this association are Pineda, Holo- survey area. It is about 40 percent Winder soils, 40
paw, Pinellas, and Hallandale soils. percent Tequesta soils, and 20 percent minor soils.
Much of this association is in native vegetation. Winder soils are nearly level and are poorly drained.
Some of it is used for cultivated crops, citrus, and Typically, they have a thin surface layer of black fine
improved pasture. The major soils are severely limited sand and a subsurface layer of light gray and light
for most farm uses by a high water table. With ade- brownish gray fine sand. The subsoil is gray fine sandy
quate water control, these soils are well suited to truck loam that has sandy tongues from the subsurface layer.
crops, citrus, and improved pasture. These soils have Below this, a thin layer of gray loamy fine sand rests
severe limitations for most urban uses. Drainage is on gray fine sand mixed with white shell fragments.
needed to overcome wetness, and fill material is needed Tequesta soils are nearly level and are very poorly
to make some areas suitable for building sites. drained. Typically, they have a 12-inch layer of black
11. B r a n muck (sapric material) at the surface. The surface
11. Basinger association layer is dark gray fine sand, and below that there is a
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy thick layer of dark grayish brown fine sand. Next, the
throughout subsoil is grayish brown fine sandy loam that has
This association is in the eastern part of the survey tongues of fine sand from the layer above. It overlies
area near the coastal ridge. It is made up of broad, mixed sand and shell fragments.
low wetlands that have scattered areas of slightly The minor soils in this association are Riviera, Hal-
higher flatwoods and lower swampy and marshy areas. landale, Chobee, Pinellas, Holopaw, and Okeelanta soils.
The natural vegetation is southern bayberry, St. Johns- Most of this association is in native vegetation. A
wort, broomsedge, bluestem, sand cordgrass, pineland large area is used as a water catchment for the city of
three-awn, maidencane, and other grasses. Slash pine, West Palm Beach. A few areas are used for improved
cabbage palm, and saw-palmetto grow in higher areas. pasture. This association is in a broad, natural drain-
Cypress, melaleuca, sawgrass, and other grasses and ageway, and the soils are subject to flooding for long
sedges grow in lower areas, periods. This hazard severely limits their use for farm-
This association makes up about 3 percent of the ing. With adequate water control, the major soils are
survey area. It is about 60 percent Basinger soils and well suited to truck crops and improved pasture. The
40 percent minor soils. hazards of flooding and wetness also severely limit these
Basinger soils are nearly level and are poorly drained, soils for most urban uses. Drainage and fill material on
Typically, they have a thin surface layer of light gray the surface of the soils are needed to overcome these







8 SOIL SURVEY

limitations. Organic layers on the surface should be muck (sapric material). Below this is black and dark
removed and replaced with fill material to make the reddish brown muck that rests on hard limestone at
soils suitable for building sites, a depth of 42 inches.
The minor soils in this association are Lauderhill,
Terra Ceia, and Okeelanta soils.
Nearly Level, Very Poorly Drained Organic Soils e t tia, association is used for growing sugar-
of the Everglades cane. Some areas are in truck crops, sod production,
The three associations in this group consist mainly and improved pasture. A large area in the southwestern
of nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils, some part of the county is in native vegetation. With drain-
of which rest on limestone. These associations are in age and water control these soils are well suited to
the western part of Palm Beach County Area. vegetables, sugarcane, and improved pasture. The lime-
stone bedrock must be removed by blasting for drain-
13. Terra Ceia association age and water control, which are necessary for most
Nearly level, very poorly drained, well decomposed farm uses. The soils have severe limitations for urban
organic soils that are more than 51 inches thick uses because of wetness, flooding, and organic material.
The organic material has low strength and is subject to
This association is in the Everglades area which oc- oxidation and subsidence when it is not saturated with
cupies the western two-thirds of the survey area. It is water. The organic material should be removed and re-
made up of broad, freshwater marshes. The natural placed with fill material if the soils are to be used for
vegetation is dominantly sawgrass. Willow, sweetbay, houses and other urban developments.
and cypress grow in scattered areas. Low-growing
plants are pickerelweed, ferns, sedges, and native 15. Torry association
grasses. Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils that are
This association makes up about 26 percent of the more than 51 inches thick over limestone
survey area. It is about 75 percent Terra Ceia soils, and
25 percent minor soils. This association is only in the vicinity of Lake Okee-
Terra Ceia soils are nearly level and are very poorly chobee near the southern and eastern shores. It is made
drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black up of broad, freshwater marshes. No native vegetation
muck (sapric material). Below that is dark reddish is in this association.
brown muck that extends to a depth of 65 inches or This association makes up about 4 percent of the
more. survey area. It is about 85 percent Torry soils and 15
The minor soils in this association are Pahokee, percent minor soils.
Okeelanta, Okeechobee, and Torry soils. Torry soils are nearly level and are very poorly
Most of this association is used for growing sugar- drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black
cane. Other areas are used for cultivated crops, sod muck (sapric material). Below this is a layer of sticky
production, and improved pasture. A large area west of black muck. These layers have a high mineral content.
Conservation Area 2A and scattered areas in the south- Below this is a thick layer of black muck that rests on
western corner of the survey area are in native vegeta- limestone at a depth of about 65 inches.
tion. With drainage and adequate water control, the The minor soils in this association are Terra Ceia
soils are well suited to vegetable crops, sugarcane, and and Pahokee soils.
improved pasture. The soils have severe limitations for Most of this association is used for growing sugar-
urban uses because of wetness, flooding, and organic cane. Other areas are used for truck crops and im-
material. The organic material has low strength and is proved pasture. A few areas are used for urban pur-
subject to oxidation and subsidence when it is not satu- poses. With drainage and adequate water control, these
rated with water. For houses and other urban develop- soils are well suited to vegetables, sugarcane, and im-
ments, the organic material should be removed and proved pasture. The soils have severe limitations for
replaced with fill material. urban uses because of wetness and organic material
14. P e a n The organic material has low strength and is subject to
14. Pahokee association oxidation and subsidence when it is not saturated with
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils that are water. The organic material should be removed and
36 to 51 inches thick over limestone replaced with suitable fill material if the soils are to be
This association is primarily in the central and south- used for houses and other urban developments.
ern parts of the Everglades. It occupies the western
two-thirds of the survey area. It is made up of broad,
freshwater marsh areas. The natural vegetation is Descriptions of the Soils
dominantly sawgrass. Willow, sweetbay, and cypress In this section the soils of Palm Beach County Area
grow in scattered areas. Low-growing plants are ferns, are described in detail, and their use and management
pickerelweed, sedges, and native grasses. are discussed. Each soil series and the mapping units
This association makes up about 27 percent of the in that series are described. Unless specifically men-
survey area. It is about 85 percent Pahokee soils and 15 tioned otherwise, it is to be assumed that what is stated
percent minor soils. about the soil series holds true for the mapping units
Pahokee soils are nearly level and are very poorly in that series. Thus, to get full information about any
drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black one mapping unit, it is necessary to read both the de-







8 SOIL SURVEY

limitations. Organic layers on the surface should be muck (sapric material). Below this is black and dark
removed and replaced with fill material to make the reddish brown muck that rests on hard limestone at
soils suitable for building sites, a depth of 42 inches.
The minor soils in this association are Lauderhill,
Terra Ceia, and Okeelanta soils.
Nearly Level, Very Poorly Drained Organic Soils e t tia, association is used for growing sugar-
of the Everglades cane. Some areas are in truck crops, sod production,
The three associations in this group consist mainly and improved pasture. A large area in the southwestern
of nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils, some part of the county is in native vegetation. With drain-
of which rest on limestone. These associations are in age and water control these soils are well suited to
the western part of Palm Beach County Area. vegetables, sugarcane, and improved pasture. The lime-
stone bedrock must be removed by blasting for drain-
13. Terra Ceia association age and water control, which are necessary for most
Nearly level, very poorly drained, well decomposed farm uses. The soils have severe limitations for urban
organic soils that are more than 51 inches thick uses because of wetness, flooding, and organic material.
The organic material has low strength and is subject to
This association is in the Everglades area which oc- oxidation and subsidence when it is not saturated with
cupies the western two-thirds of the survey area. It is water. The organic material should be removed and re-
made up of broad, freshwater marshes. The natural placed with fill material if the soils are to be used for
vegetation is dominantly sawgrass. Willow, sweetbay, houses and other urban developments.
and cypress grow in scattered areas. Low-growing
plants are pickerelweed, ferns, sedges, and native 15. Torry association
grasses. Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils that are
This association makes up about 26 percent of the more than 51 inches thick over limestone
survey area. It is about 75 percent Terra Ceia soils, and
25 percent minor soils. This association is only in the vicinity of Lake Okee-
Terra Ceia soils are nearly level and are very poorly chobee near the southern and eastern shores. It is made
drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black up of broad, freshwater marshes. No native vegetation
muck (sapric material). Below that is dark reddish is in this association.
brown muck that extends to a depth of 65 inches or This association makes up about 4 percent of the
more. survey area. It is about 85 percent Torry soils and 15
The minor soils in this association are Pahokee, percent minor soils.
Okeelanta, Okeechobee, and Torry soils. Torry soils are nearly level and are very poorly
Most of this association is used for growing sugar- drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black
cane. Other areas are used for cultivated crops, sod muck (sapric material). Below this is a layer of sticky
production, and improved pasture. A large area west of black muck. These layers have a high mineral content.
Conservation Area 2A and scattered areas in the south- Below this is a thick layer of black muck that rests on
western corner of the survey area are in native vegeta- limestone at a depth of about 65 inches.
tion. With drainage and adequate water control, the The minor soils in this association are Terra Ceia
soils are well suited to vegetable crops, sugarcane, and and Pahokee soils.
improved pasture. The soils have severe limitations for Most of this association is used for growing sugar-
urban uses because of wetness, flooding, and organic cane. Other areas are used for truck crops and im-
material. The organic material has low strength and is proved pasture. A few areas are used for urban pur-
subject to oxidation and subsidence when it is not satu- poses. With drainage and adequate water control, these
rated with water. For houses and other urban develop- soils are well suited to vegetables, sugarcane, and im-
ments, the organic material should be removed and proved pasture. The soils have severe limitations for
replaced with fill material. urban uses because of wetness and organic material
14. P e a n The organic material has low strength and is subject to
14. Pahokee association oxidation and subsidence when it is not saturated with
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils that are water. The organic material should be removed and
36 to 51 inches thick over limestone replaced with suitable fill material if the soils are to be
This association is primarily in the central and south- used for houses and other urban developments.
ern parts of the Everglades. It occupies the western
two-thirds of the survey area. It is made up of broad,
freshwater marsh areas. The natural vegetation is Descriptions of the Soils
dominantly sawgrass. Willow, sweetbay, and cypress In this section the soils of Palm Beach County Area
grow in scattered areas. Low-growing plants are ferns, are described in detail, and their use and management
pickerelweed, sedges, and native grasses. are discussed. Each soil series and the mapping units
This association makes up about 27 percent of the in that series are described. Unless specifically men-
survey area. It is about 85 percent Pahokee soils and 15 tioned otherwise, it is to be assumed that what is stated
percent minor soils. about the soil series holds true for the mapping units
Pahokee soils are nearly level and are very poorly in that series. Thus, to get full information about any
drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black one mapping unit, it is necessary to read both the de-







8 SOIL SURVEY

limitations. Organic layers on the surface should be muck (sapric material). Below this is black and dark
removed and replaced with fill material to make the reddish brown muck that rests on hard limestone at
soils suitable for building sites, a depth of 42 inches.
The minor soils in this association are Lauderhill,
Terra Ceia, and Okeelanta soils.
Nearly Level, Very Poorly Drained Organic Soils e t tia, association is used for growing sugar-
of the Everglades cane. Some areas are in truck crops, sod production,
The three associations in this group consist mainly and improved pasture. A large area in the southwestern
of nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils, some part of the county is in native vegetation. With drain-
of which rest on limestone. These associations are in age and water control these soils are well suited to
the western part of Palm Beach County Area. vegetables, sugarcane, and improved pasture. The lime-
stone bedrock must be removed by blasting for drain-
13. Terra Ceia association age and water control, which are necessary for most
Nearly level, very poorly drained, well decomposed farm uses. The soils have severe limitations for urban
organic soils that are more than 51 inches thick uses because of wetness, flooding, and organic material.
The organic material has low strength and is subject to
This association is in the Everglades area which oc- oxidation and subsidence when it is not saturated with
cupies the western two-thirds of the survey area. It is water. The organic material should be removed and re-
made up of broad, freshwater marshes. The natural placed with fill material if the soils are to be used for
vegetation is dominantly sawgrass. Willow, sweetbay, houses and other urban developments.
and cypress grow in scattered areas. Low-growing
plants are pickerelweed, ferns, sedges, and native 15. Torry association
grasses. Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils that are
This association makes up about 26 percent of the more than 51 inches thick over limestone
survey area. It is about 75 percent Terra Ceia soils, and
25 percent minor soils. This association is only in the vicinity of Lake Okee-
Terra Ceia soils are nearly level and are very poorly chobee near the southern and eastern shores. It is made
drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black up of broad, freshwater marshes. No native vegetation
muck (sapric material). Below that is dark reddish is in this association.
brown muck that extends to a depth of 65 inches or This association makes up about 4 percent of the
more. survey area. It is about 85 percent Torry soils and 15
The minor soils in this association are Pahokee, percent minor soils.
Okeelanta, Okeechobee, and Torry soils. Torry soils are nearly level and are very poorly
Most of this association is used for growing sugar- drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black
cane. Other areas are used for cultivated crops, sod muck (sapric material). Below this is a layer of sticky
production, and improved pasture. A large area west of black muck. These layers have a high mineral content.
Conservation Area 2A and scattered areas in the south- Below this is a thick layer of black muck that rests on
western corner of the survey area are in native vegeta- limestone at a depth of about 65 inches.
tion. With drainage and adequate water control, the The minor soils in this association are Terra Ceia
soils are well suited to vegetable crops, sugarcane, and and Pahokee soils.
improved pasture. The soils have severe limitations for Most of this association is used for growing sugar-
urban uses because of wetness, flooding, and organic cane. Other areas are used for truck crops and im-
material. The organic material has low strength and is proved pasture. A few areas are used for urban pur-
subject to oxidation and subsidence when it is not satu- poses. With drainage and adequate water control, these
rated with water. For houses and other urban develop- soils are well suited to vegetables, sugarcane, and im-
ments, the organic material should be removed and proved pasture. The soils have severe limitations for
replaced with fill material. urban uses because of wetness and organic material
14. P e a n The organic material has low strength and is subject to
14. Pahokee association oxidation and subsidence when it is not saturated with
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils that are water. The organic material should be removed and
36 to 51 inches thick over limestone replaced with suitable fill material if the soils are to be
This association is primarily in the central and south- used for houses and other urban developments.
ern parts of the Everglades. It occupies the western
two-thirds of the survey area. It is made up of broad,
freshwater marsh areas. The natural vegetation is Descriptions of the Soils
dominantly sawgrass. Willow, sweetbay, and cypress In this section the soils of Palm Beach County Area
grow in scattered areas. Low-growing plants are ferns, are described in detail, and their use and management
pickerelweed, sedges, and native grasses. are discussed. Each soil series and the mapping units
This association makes up about 27 percent of the in that series are described. Unless specifically men-
survey area. It is about 85 percent Pahokee soils and 15 tioned otherwise, it is to be assumed that what is stated
percent minor soils. about the soil series holds true for the mapping units
Pahokee soils are nearly level and are very poorly in that series. Thus, to get full information about any
drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black one mapping unit, it is necessary to read both the de-







8 SOIL SURVEY

limitations. Organic layers on the surface should be muck (sapric material). Below this is black and dark
removed and replaced with fill material to make the reddish brown muck that rests on hard limestone at
soils suitable for building sites, a depth of 42 inches.
The minor soils in this association are Lauderhill,
Terra Ceia, and Okeelanta soils.
Nearly Level, Very Poorly Drained Organic Soils e t tia, association is used for growing sugar-
of the Everglades cane. Some areas are in truck crops, sod production,
The three associations in this group consist mainly and improved pasture. A large area in the southwestern
of nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils, some part of the county is in native vegetation. With drain-
of which rest on limestone. These associations are in age and water control these soils are well suited to
the western part of Palm Beach County Area. vegetables, sugarcane, and improved pasture. The lime-
stone bedrock must be removed by blasting for drain-
13. Terra Ceia association age and water control, which are necessary for most
Nearly level, very poorly drained, well decomposed farm uses. The soils have severe limitations for urban
organic soils that are more than 51 inches thick uses because of wetness, flooding, and organic material.
The organic material has low strength and is subject to
This association is in the Everglades area which oc- oxidation and subsidence when it is not saturated with
cupies the western two-thirds of the survey area. It is water. The organic material should be removed and re-
made up of broad, freshwater marshes. The natural placed with fill material if the soils are to be used for
vegetation is dominantly sawgrass. Willow, sweetbay, houses and other urban developments.
and cypress grow in scattered areas. Low-growing
plants are pickerelweed, ferns, sedges, and native 15. Torry association
grasses. Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils that are
This association makes up about 26 percent of the more than 51 inches thick over limestone
survey area. It is about 75 percent Terra Ceia soils, and
25 percent minor soils. This association is only in the vicinity of Lake Okee-
Terra Ceia soils are nearly level and are very poorly chobee near the southern and eastern shores. It is made
drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black up of broad, freshwater marshes. No native vegetation
muck (sapric material). Below that is dark reddish is in this association.
brown muck that extends to a depth of 65 inches or This association makes up about 4 percent of the
more. survey area. It is about 85 percent Torry soils and 15
The minor soils in this association are Pahokee, percent minor soils.
Okeelanta, Okeechobee, and Torry soils. Torry soils are nearly level and are very poorly
Most of this association is used for growing sugar- drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black
cane. Other areas are used for cultivated crops, sod muck (sapric material). Below this is a layer of sticky
production, and improved pasture. A large area west of black muck. These layers have a high mineral content.
Conservation Area 2A and scattered areas in the south- Below this is a thick layer of black muck that rests on
western corner of the survey area are in native vegeta- limestone at a depth of about 65 inches.
tion. With drainage and adequate water control, the The minor soils in this association are Terra Ceia
soils are well suited to vegetable crops, sugarcane, and and Pahokee soils.
improved pasture. The soils have severe limitations for Most of this association is used for growing sugar-
urban uses because of wetness, flooding, and organic cane. Other areas are used for truck crops and im-
material. The organic material has low strength and is proved pasture. A few areas are used for urban pur-
subject to oxidation and subsidence when it is not satu- poses. With drainage and adequate water control, these
rated with water. For houses and other urban develop- soils are well suited to vegetables, sugarcane, and im-
ments, the organic material should be removed and proved pasture. The soils have severe limitations for
replaced with fill material. urban uses because of wetness and organic material
14. P e a n The organic material has low strength and is subject to
14. Pahokee association oxidation and subsidence when it is not saturated with
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils that are water. The organic material should be removed and
36 to 51 inches thick over limestone replaced with suitable fill material if the soils are to be
This association is primarily in the central and south- used for houses and other urban developments.
ern parts of the Everglades. It occupies the western
two-thirds of the survey area. It is made up of broad,
freshwater marsh areas. The natural vegetation is Descriptions of the Soils
dominantly sawgrass. Willow, sweetbay, and cypress In this section the soils of Palm Beach County Area
grow in scattered areas. Low-growing plants are ferns, are described in detail, and their use and management
pickerelweed, sedges, and native grasses. are discussed. Each soil series and the mapping units
This association makes up about 27 percent of the in that series are described. Unless specifically men-
survey area. It is about 85 percent Pahokee soils and 15 tioned otherwise, it is to be assumed that what is stated
percent minor soils. about the soil series holds true for the mapping units
Pahokee soils are nearly level and are very poorly in that series. Thus, to get full information about any
drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black one mapping unit, it is necessary to read both the de-







8 SOIL SURVEY

limitations. Organic layers on the surface should be muck (sapric material). Below this is black and dark
removed and replaced with fill material to make the reddish brown muck that rests on hard limestone at
soils suitable for building sites, a depth of 42 inches.
The minor soils in this association are Lauderhill,
Terra Ceia, and Okeelanta soils.
Nearly Level, Very Poorly Drained Organic Soils e t tia, association is used for growing sugar-
of the Everglades cane. Some areas are in truck crops, sod production,
The three associations in this group consist mainly and improved pasture. A large area in the southwestern
of nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils, some part of the county is in native vegetation. With drain-
of which rest on limestone. These associations are in age and water control these soils are well suited to
the western part of Palm Beach County Area. vegetables, sugarcane, and improved pasture. The lime-
stone bedrock must be removed by blasting for drain-
13. Terra Ceia association age and water control, which are necessary for most
Nearly level, very poorly drained, well decomposed farm uses. The soils have severe limitations for urban
organic soils that are more than 51 inches thick uses because of wetness, flooding, and organic material.
The organic material has low strength and is subject to
This association is in the Everglades area which oc- oxidation and subsidence when it is not saturated with
cupies the western two-thirds of the survey area. It is water. The organic material should be removed and re-
made up of broad, freshwater marshes. The natural placed with fill material if the soils are to be used for
vegetation is dominantly sawgrass. Willow, sweetbay, houses and other urban developments.
and cypress grow in scattered areas. Low-growing
plants are pickerelweed, ferns, sedges, and native 15. Torry association
grasses. Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils that are
This association makes up about 26 percent of the more than 51 inches thick over limestone
survey area. It is about 75 percent Terra Ceia soils, and
25 percent minor soils. This association is only in the vicinity of Lake Okee-
Terra Ceia soils are nearly level and are very poorly chobee near the southern and eastern shores. It is made
drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black up of broad, freshwater marshes. No native vegetation
muck (sapric material). Below that is dark reddish is in this association.
brown muck that extends to a depth of 65 inches or This association makes up about 4 percent of the
more. survey area. It is about 85 percent Torry soils and 15
The minor soils in this association are Pahokee, percent minor soils.
Okeelanta, Okeechobee, and Torry soils. Torry soils are nearly level and are very poorly
Most of this association is used for growing sugar- drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black
cane. Other areas are used for cultivated crops, sod muck (sapric material). Below this is a layer of sticky
production, and improved pasture. A large area west of black muck. These layers have a high mineral content.
Conservation Area 2A and scattered areas in the south- Below this is a thick layer of black muck that rests on
western corner of the survey area are in native vegeta- limestone at a depth of about 65 inches.
tion. With drainage and adequate water control, the The minor soils in this association are Terra Ceia
soils are well suited to vegetable crops, sugarcane, and and Pahokee soils.
improved pasture. The soils have severe limitations for Most of this association is used for growing sugar-
urban uses because of wetness, flooding, and organic cane. Other areas are used for truck crops and im-
material. The organic material has low strength and is proved pasture. A few areas are used for urban pur-
subject to oxidation and subsidence when it is not satu- poses. With drainage and adequate water control, these
rated with water. For houses and other urban develop- soils are well suited to vegetables, sugarcane, and im-
ments, the organic material should be removed and proved pasture. The soils have severe limitations for
replaced with fill material. urban uses because of wetness and organic material
14. P e a n The organic material has low strength and is subject to
14. Pahokee association oxidation and subsidence when it is not saturated with
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils that are water. The organic material should be removed and
36 to 51 inches thick over limestone replaced with suitable fill material if the soils are to be
This association is primarily in the central and south- used for houses and other urban developments.
ern parts of the Everglades. It occupies the western
two-thirds of the survey area. It is made up of broad,
freshwater marsh areas. The natural vegetation is Descriptions of the Soils
dominantly sawgrass. Willow, sweetbay, and cypress In this section the soils of Palm Beach County Area
grow in scattered areas. Low-growing plants are ferns, are described in detail, and their use and management
pickerelweed, sedges, and native grasses. are discussed. Each soil series and the mapping units
This association makes up about 27 percent of the in that series are described. Unless specifically men-
survey area. It is about 85 percent Pahokee soils and 15 tioned otherwise, it is to be assumed that what is stated
percent minor soils. about the soil series holds true for the mapping units
Pahokee soils are nearly level and are very poorly in that series. Thus, to get full information about any
drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of black one mapping unit, it is necessary to read both the de-








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 9

scription of the mapping unit and the description of the TABLE 2.-Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils
soil series to which it belongs.
An important part of the description of each soil Map Soil name Acres Percent
series is the soil profile, that is, the sequence of layers symbol
from the surface downward to rock or other underlying
material. Each series contains two descriptions of this AdB Adamsville sand, organic subsoil
profile. The first is brief and in terms familiar to the variant_--- --------- 422 ()
layman. The second is detailed and is for those who An Anclote fine sand------------ 2,000 0.2
need to make thorough and precise studies of soils. ASF Arents, very steep ------ -- 180 (1)
AU Arents-Urban land complex ----- 10,183 0.9
Color terms are for moist soil unless otherwise stated. AX Arents-Urban land complex, or-
The profile described in the soil series is representative ganic substratum .-------- 3,176 0.3
of mapping units in that series. If a mapping unit has a Ba Basinger fine sand --------- 31,485 2.9
profile different from the one described in the series, Bc Basinger-Urban land complex 3,382 0.3
B M Basinger and Myakka sands, de-
the differences are stated in the description of the map- pressional ------------ --- 12,297 1.1
ping unit, or they are apparent in the name of the Bn Beaches--__---------- ----- 928 0.1
mapping unit. Bo Boca fine sand -------------- 30,131 2.8
Cc Canaveral-Urban land complex_ 1,997 0.2
As mentioned in the section "How This Survey Was Ch Chobee fine sandy loam-------- 1,609 0.1
Made," not all mapping units are members of a soil CuB Cocoa-Urban land complex----- 683 0.1
series. Quartzipsamments, shaped, for example, do not Da Dania muck ----------- 1,356 0.1
belong to a soil series. The pedons described for these Fa Flodana ilne sand-------- 629 0.6
soils are referred to as "reference pedons." They have Ho Holopaw fine sand ----------- 16,405 1.5
the essential characteristics of the majority of pedons Im Immokalee fine sand ---------- 30,530 2.8
in the mapping unit but the arrangement and prop- Jupiter fine sand ------- 730 0.2
eLa Lauderhill muck --------------- 28,641 2.6
erties of the layers may vary considerably. Mk Myakka sand ---------------- 44,673 4.1
Preceding the name of each mapping unit is a symbol Mu Myakka-Urban land complex -- 3,211 0.3
that identifies, the mapping unit on the detailed soil Oc Okeechobee muck-_------_- 15,983 1. 2
On Okeelanta muck----------------22,120 2.0
map. Listed at the end of each description of a mapping Os Oldsmar sand ----------------- 16,135 1.5
unit is the capability unit. No capability unit is given Pa Pahokee muck -------------- 266,708 24.4
for those soils for which present land use precludes use PbB Palm Beach-Urban land com-
for agriclplex ---------------------- 1,825 0.2
for agriculture. PcB Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes_ 2,360 0.2
The acreage and proportionate extent of each map- Pd Pineda sand ------------------ 15,361 1.4
ping unit are shown in table 2. Many of the terms used Pe Pinellas fine sand ------------- 6,817 0.6
in describing soils can be found in the Glossary, and PF Piacidfinesand --------------- 708 0.1
more detailed information about the terminology and PhB Pomello fine sand-------------- 5,792 0.5
methods of soil mapping can be obtained from the Soil Po Pompano fine sand ------------ 3,227 0.3
Survey Manual (7) 1 QAB Quartzipsamments, shaped----- 6,996 0.6
Ra Riviera sand ----------------- 68,579 6.3
Rd Riviera sand, depressional------ 86,089 7.9
Ru Riviera-Urban land complex. -- 271 (1)
Adamsville Variant Sa Sanibel muck ---------------- 5,054 0.5
ScB St. Lucie sand, 0 to 8 percent
The Adamsville variant is a nearly level to gently slopes ---------------------- 4,466 0.4
sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil that has sandy SuB St. Lucie-Urban land complex 14,649 1.3
layers overlying muck. This soil formed in sandy mate- Ta Tequesta muck -------------- 7,345 0.
Tc Terra Ceia muck -------------- 230,224 21.0
rial that was deposited by wave action in Lake Okee- TM Tidal swamp, mineral-------- 602 0.1
chobee on an organic soil that has a high clay content. TO Tidal swamp, organic---------- 211 (0)
It occurs as long, low, narrow, natural dikes or ridges Tr Torry muck ------------------ 42,660 3.9
bordering the eastern shore of Lake Okeechobee. The UD Urthbant --------------- ,454 0.3
water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 4 to 6 Wa Wabasso fine sand -------- 12,474 1.1
months in most years. Wn Winder fine sand -------------- 6,682 0.6
Water areas less than 40 acres
In a representative pedon the surface layer is very in size 2 less than 40 r 3,156 0.3
dark gray sand about 2 inches thick. Layers of light
gray and white sand are between depths of 2 and 36 Total ----------------- 1,093,480 100.0
inches. Below this, black muck with a high clay content
extends to a depth of 65 inches. 'Less than 0.05 percent.
Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and moder- Indicated on soil map by appropriate symbol for pond or lake.
ate in the muck. The available water capacity is very
low in the sandy layers and very high in the muck. The and 100 feet east of U.S. Highway 441 in Pahokee,
organic-matter content and natural fertility are low in Florida, SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 8, T. 42 S., R. 37 E.
the sandy layers. A-0 to 2 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; weak
Representative pedon of Adamsville sand, organic fine granular structure; very friable; many un-
subsoil variant, about 0.2 mile east of Lake Okeechobee coated sand grains; many fine roots; neutral; clear
smooth boundary.
C1-2 to 10 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single grained;
1Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited, page 93. loose; neutral; clear smooth boundary.








10 SOIL SURVEY

C2-10 to 23 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single grained; lar use of fertilizer is necessary and some areas require
loose; neutral; clear smooth boundary. lime. Careful control of grazing is needed to maintain
C3-23 to 36 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single
grained; loose; common coarse pockets of calcare- healthy plant growth. Capability unit IIIw-1.
ous shell fragments; neutral; abrupt wavy bound-
ary.
Oab-36 to 65 inches; black (N 2/0) sapric material Anclote Series
(muck); massive; sticky, slightly plastic; less than The Anclote series consists of nearly level, very
5 percent fiber, unrubbed; estimated 60 percentAnlote series consists of nearly level, very
mineral material; mildly alkaline, weakly calcare- poorly drained sandy soils in small depressions and
ous. poorly defined drainageways. These soils formed in
The combined thickness of the A and C horizons ranges thick beds of sandy marine sediments. The water table
from 20 to 40 inches but varies according to position on the is within 10 inches of the surface for 6 months or more
low dike or ridge. The thicker areas occur on the ridge in most years and recedes to below a depth of 20 inches
crests. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately in the driest seasons. Depressions are covered with
alkaline in these horizons.
The A horizon is very dark gray (10YR 3/1), dark gray water for 2 to 4 months in most years.
(10YR 4/1), or gray (10YR 5/1) and is 2 to 8 inches thick. In a representative pedon, the surface layer in the
The C horizon is gray (10YR 6/1), light gray (10YR upper 8 inches is black fine sand and in the lower 9
7/1, 7/2), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), very pale brown inches it is black and ray fine sand. The underlying
(10YR 7/3) or white (10YR 8/1, 8/2). It consists of layers inches it is black and gray fine sand. The underlying
of variable thickness; the thickness changes within short material extends to a depth of 62 inches or more and
distances. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately is gray fine sand.
alkaline. In some places, pockets of thin lenses of shell Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available
occur in the lower part of this horizon. water capacity is medium in the surface layer and low
The Oab horizon is black (N 2/0) or dark reddish brown water paucity is medium in the surface layer and low
(5YR 5/2) sapric material (muck) and is 10 to 36 inches in the underlying material. Natural fertility is moder-
thick. Mineral content ranges from 40 to 70 percent, of ate.
which 50 to 80 percent is clay. Reaction is neutral to moder- Representative pedon of Anclote fine sand, 0.5 mile
atedamsvillely sand, organic subsoil variant, is associated south of Donald Ross Road, 0.25 mile west of Prosperity
Adamsville sand, organic subsoil variant, is associated Farms RoadN 1SW1/s
primarily with Torry soils and to a lesser extent with Terra Farms Road, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 29, T. 41 S., R. 43 E.
Ceia soils. It differs from both of these soils in that it has a All-0 to 8 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; moderate fine
sandy horizon that overlies organic material, and medium granular structure; very friable;
AdB-Adamsville sand, organic subsoil variant. This slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
is a nearly level to gently sloping, somewA12--8 to 17 inches; black (N 2/0) and light gray (10YR
is a nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly 6/1) fine sand, black (10YR 2/1) rubbed; weak fine
drained soil that occurs as a long, low, narrow natural granular structure; very friable; slightly acid;
dike or ridge bordering the eastern shore of Lake gradual smooth boundary.
Okeechobee. This soil has the pedon described as repre- C-17 to 62 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; common
sentative of the series. The water table is within 20 to moeum isin up fewb chek R 2ng strain lond
40 inches of the surface for 4 to 6 months in most years. slightly acid.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas where Reaction throughout the pedon ranges from medium acid
the sandy layer above the muck is less than 20 inches to mildly alkaline. The All horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR
thick. These areas are generally transitional to adjacent 2/1) or very dark gray (N 3/0; 10YR 3/1). It is 4 to 12
organic soils. inches thick. The organic matter content ranges from 2 to
15 percent. The A12 horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1),
The natural vegetation is cabbage palms, cypress, very dark gray (N 3/0; 10YR 3/1), or very dark grayish
and various hardwoods, shrubs, and grasses. Many brown (10YR 3/2) with few to many streaks and mottles
areas are in natural vegetation, but in the vicinity of of gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1), and light gray (N
Pahokee and Canal Point, this soil has been developed 7/0; 10YR 7/1, 7/2). Thickness is 6 to 12 inches. The
for urban use. organic-matter content ranges from 1 to 5 percent.
for urban use. The C horizon is gray (10YR 6/1), light brownish gray
The number of crops adapted to this soil is very (10YR 6/2), grayish brown (10YR 5/2), or dark grayish
limited, unless the soil is drained of periodic wetness. brown (10YR 4/2) with few to common mottles of gray
If drained and intensively managed, this soil is well Anacote soils are associated with Sanibel, Pompano,
suited to vegetable crops. Providing a well designed, Basinger, Immokalee, Pomello, and Okeelanta soils. Unlike
constructed, and maintained water control system that the Sanibel soils, they lack the Oa horizon. They have a
removes excess water in wet periods and subsurface thick, black Al horizon, which Pompano, Basinger, Immo-
irrigation in dry periods is a major management need. kalee, and Pomello soils lack. Anclote soils lack the Bh hori-
irrigation zon that Immokalee and Pomello soils have. They are
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to crop mineral and Okeelanta soils are organic.
needs. An-Anclote fine sand. This is a nearly level, very
Unless drained, this soil is not suited to citrus. With poorly drained, deep, sandy soil in small depressions
a well designed drainage system that removes excess and poorly defined drainageways. This soil has the
water to a depth of about 4 feet, however, it is moder- pedon described as representative of the series. The
ately well suited. Trees should be planted on beds. water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 6
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, months or more in most years and recedes to below a
If rainfall is low, irrigation is necessary to attain the depth of 20 inches in the driest seasons.
best yields. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
This soil is moderately well suited to improved pas- that have a black surface layer thicker than 24 inches
tures of grass. It requires simple drainage to remove and small areas of Pompano, Basinger, Placid, Sanibel,
excess surface water in periods of heavy rainfall. Regu- and Okeelanta soils.







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 11

The natural vegetation is cypress, sweetbay, swamp C3-36 to 50 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; single
maple, ferns, maidencane, pickerelweed, sawgrass, and grained; loose; few shell and limestone fragments;
moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
other water-tolerant grasses. Most areas of this soil 4--50 to 80 inches; mixture of pale brown (10YR 6/3)
are in natural vegetation or improved grass pasture. sand; white shell and limestone fragments; single
Unless drained, this soil is not suited to cultivated grained; loose; moderately alkaline.
crops. If a water control system is installed, this soil Texture is dominantly sand or fine sand to a depth of 80
is well suited to a variety of vegetables. If outlets are inches. Pockets or lenses of gray to brown loamy sand, sandy
i simpe w r c l s s f tion wl loam, or sandy clay loam are in areas where this soil
available, simple water control systems function well traverses soils that have a Bt horizon. Pockets or lenses of
to remove excess water in wet seasons and to provide black muck or fragments from spodic horizons are in areas
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Drainage is not where this soil traverses organic soils or soils that have
feasible in most isolated small areas that have no na- a Bh horizon. Shell fragments vary from place to place,
tural outlet In some areas, dikes arebut most areas in the eastern part of the survey area are
tural outlet. In some areas, dikes are needed to keep underlain by shell material. Soil color is predominantly light,
out water from adjacent wet areas. In addition to but dark layers or pockets of sand from the natural surface
drainage and irrigation, fertilizer and lime should be horizon are common. In places, layers of brownish yellow,
applied according to crop needs. iron-stained sand are discontinuous and have no common
sequence or thickness. The spoil material is 10 to 30 feet
This soil is poorly suited to citrus. If drainage and high. It is slightly acid to moderately alkaline.
water control are adequate, this soil is well suited to This soil is not suited to most plants. The sandy material
high quality pasture of improved grass and clover, is dry and infertile. Spanish needle, natalgrass, and a few
Adequate application of fertilizer and lime according their native grasses produce a sparse cover in most areas.
todelantne a nicaont of geerazing e nerdThough cattle graze some areas, this soil has no important
to plant needs and control of grazing are needed to farming use. Not placed in a capability unit.
maintain healthy plant growth. Capability unit IIIw-7. AU-Arents-Urban land complex. This complex con-
sists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained, sandy
Arents soils and Urban land. The soils formed in thick layers
of sandy fill material that were placed over low, wet
ASF-Arents, very steep. This is a sloping to very mineral soils to make the areas suitable for urban use.
steep, excessively drained, sandy soil that formed in This complex is in the eastern part of the survey area
dominantly sandy material excavated from canals and and takes in golf courses, subdivisions, condominium
deposited along the banks. This soil is in the long, nar- developments, roadways, business or industrial areas,
row ridges mostly along the Hillsborough, Boynton, and reclaimed borrow pits, and other areas filled over but
West Palm Beach canals. The water table is below a not yet developed.
depth of 60 inches. No one pedon represents this mapping unit, but the
No one pedon represents this mapping unit, but the surface layer of one of the more common ones is dark
surface layer of one of the more common ones is gray- gray and dark grayish brown sand, mixed with other
ish brown sand about 5 inches thick. The layer below shades of gray and brown, about 4 inches thick. Below
that is light brownish gray sand about 23 inches thick, this there is a layer of mottled brown sand about 20
It has many shell fragments. Below that there is a layer inches thick. It has common weakly cemented frag-
of very dark gray sand about 8 inches thick. This layer ments of strong brown, black, or dark reddish brown
has some shell fragments and common, dark reddish sand. Between depths of 24 and 60 inches are layers of
brown, weakly cemented fragments. Layers of pale light gray and dark gray sand that have a few thin
brown sand mixed with shell and limestone fragments lenses and mottles in shades of gray and brown.
are at a depth below 36 inches. This complex is about 60 to 75 percent Arents and 25
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available to 40 percent Urban land. Arents consist of lawns,
water capacity, the organic-matter content, and natural vacant lots, golf courses, undeveloped areas, and other
fertility are very low. This soil is highly erodible, espe- open land. Urban land consists of areas covered by
cially on steeper slopes. Areas are discontinuous and streets, sidewalks, parking lots, buildings, and other
are on either side of a canal; they are not used as structures. The percentage of Arents and Urban land
levees. Most areas have been shaped to reduce erosion, varies.
but few areas are vegetated. Included with this complex in mapping are areas of
Reference pedon of Arents, very steep, about 1 mile better drained soils, soils that have a higher content of
west of the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad on the north shells in some layers, and a few soils that have lime-
bank of the Hillsborough Canal. stone at a depth of less than 50 inches. Also included
are small areas of soils, near the Intracoastal Waterway
A-0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; single and Lake Worth, that have a layer of marl or organic
grained; loose; estimated 10 percent shell frag- material below a depth of 0 inches.
ments; few small limestone fragments; few fine material below a depth inches.
roots; mildly alkaline; clear wavy boundary. The soil material is generally rapidly permeable in
C1-5 to 28 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand; all layers. The available water capacity is low or very
single grained; loose; estimated 40 percent shell low. The organic-matter content and natural fertility
fragments; few small and medium limestone frag- i mot a
ments; moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary. are low in most places.
C2-28 to 36 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; Reference pedon of Arents, in an area of Arents-
weak fine granular structure; very friable; common Urban land complex, about 900 feet north of State Road
dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) fragments of a 710 and 45 feet west of Australian Avenue in the
weakly cemented Bh horizon; estimated less than Riviera Beach Industril Park, SE1/4NW1/4 sec 32
10 percent shell fragments; moderately alkaline; 4 .vera eac ndtria ar, /4 /4 se.
gradual wavy boundary. T. 42 S., R. 43 E.








12 SOIL SURVEY

A-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) and dark gray- layer and the organic substratum. In a few small areas
ish brown (10YR 4/2) sand; common coarse the organic material begins at a depth of 50 inches.
pockets of very dark gray (10YR 3/1), very dark
grayish brown (10YR 3/2), light brownish gray Permeability is rapid. The available water capacity
(10YR 6/2), and light gray (10YR 7/1); weak is low or very low in the sand layers and very high in
fine granular structure; very friable; many fine the organic layers. The organic-matter content and
roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
-4 to 24 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/4) sand; few fine dis- natural fertility are low. The underlying organic mate-
tinct yellowish red (5YR 4/6) mottles; weak fine rial has a low bearing strength, and onsite investigation
granular structure; very friable; common pockets of the depth and thickness of this layer should be made
of strong brown (7.5YR 5/6); few black (N 2/0) prior to any construction.
and dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) firm fragments
14 to 1 inch in diameter from a Bh horizon; many Reference pedon of Arents, organic substratum,
fine and medium roots; medium acid; clear wavy about 0.7 mile west of Australian Avenue and 0.25
boundary. mile north of North Shore High School, SW1/4SW1/4
02-24 to 30 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single mile T. 4of N h S 4h S
grained; loose; coarse mottles of grayish brown se. 5 43 ., .
(10YR 5/2) and few pockets of strong brown 1-0 to 29 inches; variable layers of light gray (10YR 7/2),
(7.5YR 5/6) sand; common fine and medium roots; white (10YR 8/2), pale brown (10YR 6/3), and
medium acid; clear wavy boundary. light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) sand; single
C3-30 to 37 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak fine grained; loose; irregular and discontinuous layers
granular structure; very friable; many uncoated 1 to 8 inches thick; few firm black (10YR 2/1),
sand grains; few fine and coarse roots; strongly dark brown (10YR 3/3), and dark reddish brown
acid; clear wavy boundary. (5YR 3/2) iron concretions % to 1% inches thick;
C4-37 to 60 inches; light gray (N 7/0) sand; single few fine and medium roots; neutral; abrupt wavy
grained; loose; common dark gray (10YR 4/1) and boundary.
very dark gray (10YR 3/1) vertical streaks in old 2-29 to 39 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) and pale
root channels; medium acid. brown (10YR 6/3) stratified discontinuous layers
Texture is dominantly sand or fine sand. There are pockets of sand with black splotches; few thin lenses of
or thin layers of loamy sand, loamy fine sand, or sandy loam light gray (10YR 7/2) and white (10YR 8/2);
in places. A Bh horizon in fill areas is below a depth of 40 single grained; loose; few to common dark colored
inches. A Bt horizon in fill areas is usually at a depth of iron concretions; medium acid; abrupt wavy
more than 50 inches. Many pedons have fragments of a boundary.
Bh horizon. Some pedons have less than 5 percent shell frag- Oa-39 to 72 inches; black (5YR 2/1) and dark reddish
ments in some or all layers. Soil color is highly variable, brown (5YR 2/2) muck in thin stratified layers;
but it is dominantly shades of gray. Highly contrasting black lenses estimated 35 percent fiber unrubbed,
colors can occur in any layer. Most pedons do not have rock less than 10 percent rubbed; lenses 1 to 4 inches
fragments, but some do. Some pedons have layers of calcare- thick; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
ous materials. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to moder- IIC-72 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grained;
ately alkaline, loose; neutral.
Present land use generally precludes use of this complex Texture of the mineral layers is sand or fine sand. The
for farming. Not placed in a capability unit. surface layer is sandy and usually light colored, but color
AX-Arents-Urban land complex, organic sub- and stratification vary widely because of material reworking.
Much of this material was dredged from adjacent water
stratum. This complex consists of nearly level, some- areas. Thickness of the mineral material over organic
what poorly drained, sandy soils and Urban land over- material, ranges from 24 to 40 inches. Reaction ranges from
lying organic soils. The areas were formerly organic strongly acid to neutral. Some pedons have shell fragments,
marshes and swamps that were filled for urban use. and most pedons have fragments of a Bh horizon that are
This complex is primarily in the vicinity of Lake Man- to 2 inches in dimeter.ually sapric, but in some pedons it
The Oa horizon is usually sapric, but in some pedons it
gonia and Clear Lake in the Palm Springs area, but it contains hemic lenses or pockets. It is black (N 2/0; 10YR
is also in a few places along the Intracoastal Waterway. 2/1; 5YR 2/1), dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3),
No one pedon represents this mapping unit, but one dark brown (7.5YR 3/2), or very dark brown (10YR 2/2).
of the more common ones has variable layers of light It is 10 to 36 inches thick and is strongly acid to neutral
of the more common ones has variable layers of light The IIC horizon is sand or fine sand. In some places it
gray, white, pale brown, and light yellowish brown has shell fragments. It is very dark gray (10YR 3/1; N 3/0),
sand in the upper 29 inches. Below that there is a 10- dark gray (10YR 4/1; N 4/0), gray (10YR 5/1; N 5/0), or
inch discontinuous layer of very pale brown and pale light gray (10YR 6/1, 7/1, 7/2; N 6/0, 7/0) and is medium
brown sand that has thin lenses of light gray and white acid to eutral.f this complex have been developed for urban
Most areas of this complex have been developed for urban
sand, pockets of black sand, and fragments of dark use. Not placed in a capability unit.
colored, weakly cemented sand. Between depths of 39
and 72 inches are stratified layers of black and dark Basinger Series
reddish brown muck. Gray sand extends to a depth of
80 inches. The Basinger series consists of nearly level, poorly
This complex is about 50 to 75 percent Arents and drained, sandy soils in broad, low sloughs and depres-
25 to 50 percent Urban land. Arents consist of lawns, sions in the eastern part of the survey area. These soils
vacant lots, undeveloped areas, and other open land. formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediments. Under
Urban land consists of areas covered by streets, side- natural conditions, the water table is within 10 inches
walks, driveways, houses, and other structures. The of the surface for 2 to 6 months in most years and
percentage of Arents and Urban land varies, within 10 to 30 inches for the rest of the year. Depres-
Included with this complex in mapping are areas of sions are covered with water for 3 to 9 months or more
soils that do not have an organic substratum and small each year.
areas, of soils along the Intracoastal Waterway that In a representative pedon the surface layer is gray
have a layer of soft marl between the sandy surface fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer in








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 13

the upper 21 inches is white fine sand, and in the lower eastern part of the county. This soil has the pedon de-
4 inches it is dark grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil scribed as representative of the series. The water table
is dark reddish brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months in
The substratum extends to a depth of 72 inches or most years and within 10 to 30 inches for the rest of
more and is pale brown fine sand. the year.
Permeability is very rapid in all layers. The available Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
water capacity is very low or low. The organic-matter Myakka, Immokalee, Pompano, Anclote, and Placid
content is very low, and natural fertility is low. soils. Also included are some areas where the soil has
Representative pedon of Basinger fine sand, about a thin layer of organic material on the surface and a
300 feet east of Australian Avenue and 0.3 mile north few places where a loamy substratum is deep in the soil.
of Belvedere Road, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 29, T. 43 S., R. The natural vegetation is St. Johnswort; slash pine,
43 E. southern bayberry, and scattered cypress; pineland
Ap-O to 4 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; weak fine three-awn, blue maidencane, broomsedge bluestem, and
granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; low panicum grasses. Most areas of this soil are in
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary, native vegetation or improved pasture. A few areas are
A2-4 to 25 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; common used for vegetables. Some large areas that were once
very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks and few fine
black mottles in root channels, mostly in upper cropped have been idle for years.
part; single grained; loose; few fine and medium Unless drained, this soil is not suited to cultivated
roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. crops. If drained and intensively managed, it is moder-
A3-25 to 29 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine lately well suited to vegetables. Providing a well-
sand; many fine faint light gray mottles; singled to vegetables Providing a well
grained; loose; many uncoated sand grains; few designed, constructed, and maintained water control
black streaks in old root channels; very strongly system that maintains the level of the water table and
acid; clear wavy boundary. provides subsurface irrigation is a major concern of
Bh-29 to 36 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) fine provides subsurface irrigation is a major concern of
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; management. Frequent applications of fertilizer and
few fine and medium grayish brown (10YR 5/2), lime are needed.
light gray (10YR 6/1), and black (10YR 2/1) This soil is poorly suited to citrus. Because it is in
streaks; few medium dark reddish brown (5YR low-lying positions and normally has a high water
2/2) weakly cemented fragments; many uncoated low-lying positions and normally as a ig water
sand grains; very strongly acid; gradual wavy table, water control is difficult. A well-designed water
boundary. control system and bedding are needed if citrus is
C-36 to 72 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; planted, and frequent applications of fertilizer are
single grained; loose; common black streaks with needed. Maintaining fertility is difficult because the soil
thin yellowish red outer rings in old root channels;
very strongly acid. is sandy and low in natural fertility. During dry peri-
Reaction throughout the pedon ranges from very strongly ods, irrigation is needed to insure good yields.
acid to mildly alkaline. The A horizon is 14 to 40 inches If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to im-
thick. The Al horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1), very proved pasture of grass or grass and clover. Providing
dark gray (10YR 3/1), dark gray (10YR 4/1), gray (10YR a water control system that is less intensive but is
5/1, 6/1), or light gray (10YR 7/1). The A2 horizon is a water control system that is less intensive but is
gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2), light otherwise similar to that required for cultivated crops,
brownish gray (10YR 6/2), or white (10YR 8/1, 8/2). This applying fertilizer and lime as needed, and carefully
horizon in places has mottles in shades of brown and yellow, controlling grazing are major management concerns.
The A3 horizon is dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), grayish Capability unit IVw-1.
brown (10YR 5/2), brown (10YR 5/3), pale brown (10YR
6/3), or pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2). It has many uncoated Bc-Basinger-Urban land complex. This complex
sand grains. The A3 horizon is 4 to 20 inches thick. Some consists of Basinger fine sand and Urban land. About
pedons do not have an A3 horizon. 50 to 70 percent of this complex is open land, such as
The Bh horizon is dark brown (10YR 3/3, 4/3; 7.5YR
4/4), brown (10YR 5/3), pale brown (10YR 6/3), or dark lawns and vacant lots. These areas are made up of
reddish brown (5YR 3/4). It has few to common weakly nearly level, poorly drained Basinger soils that have
cemented, small to medium Bh horizon fragments of black been modified in most places by spreading about 15
(10YR 2/1; 5YR 2/1), very dark brown (10YR 2/2), very inches of fill material on the original surface. The origi-
dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), dark brown (7.5YR 3/2),
ordark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/3, 3/4). This horizon nal soil below the fill material is Basinger fine sand.
has common to many uncoated grains, and in places it has About 20 to 40 percent of the acreage is covered by
few to common mottles. It is 6 to 20 inches thick. sidewalks, streets, driveways, buildings, and other
The C horizon is brown (10YR 4/3, 5/3), pale brown structures.
(10YR 6/3), grayish brown (10YR 5/2), light brownish
gray (10YR 6/2; 2.5Y 6/2), gray (10YR 6/1), or light gray The rest of the complex is Pompano, Myakka, and
(10YR 7/1, 7/2). Immokalee soils, which have about 15 inches of fill
Basinger soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka, material on the surface, and Basinger, Placid, and
Pomello, Pompano, Anclote, Placid, and Sanibel soils. Unlike
the Myakka, Immokalee, and Pomello soils, they lack a Bh Anclote soils in depressions, which have up to 20 inches
horizon that is weakly cemented and well coated with or- of fill material spread on the surface.
ganic matter. They have a poorly developed Bh horizon, The percentage of urban areas and open land varies.
which Pompano soils lack. Basinger soils lack the thick, dark Where draage hs bn improved, the water table
colored A horizon that Anclote and Placid soils have. They Where drainage has been improved, the water table
have a mineral surface layer, and Sanibel soils have an is at a greater depth than in undrained areas, except
organic surface layer, for brief periods after heavy rains.
Ba-Basinger fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly Present land use precludes the use of this complex
drained, deep, sandy soil in broad grassy sloughs in the for farming. Not placed in a capability unit.








14 SOIL SURVEY

BM-Basinger and Myakka sands, depressional. These beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments that rest on
are nearly level, very poorly drained, sandy soils in limestone. Under natural conditions, the water table is
shallow depressions. The depressions are small to large within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months and is
isolated ponds or poorly defined narrow drainageways in the limestone during the driest periods.
that have many branches. Generally, Basinger soils In a representative pedon the surface layer is very
make up about 45 percent of this complex. Both dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsur-
soils can occur separately or together. The water table face layer is fine sand. In the upper 7 inches it is light
is above the surface for 3 to 9 months or more in most brownish gray and in the lower 17 inches it is light
years. gray. The subsoil is dark grayish brown sandy clay
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas loam about 5 inches thick. It has gray and brown mot-
of Pompano, Placid, Anclote, and Sanibel soils. tles. At a depth of about 34 inches a 2-inch layer of soft
The natural vegetation is St. Johnswort; cypress and marl rests directly on limestone that contains numerous
melaleuca trees; maidencane, needlegrass, sand cord- solution holes.
grass, and other water-tolerant grasses and sedges. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
Most areas of these soils are in native vegetation. These layers and moderate in the subsoil. The available water
soils are not suited to cultivated crops or improved capacity is low or very low in the surface and sub-
pasture. Capability unit VIIw-1. surface layers and medium in the subsoil. The organic-
matter content and natural fertility are low.
Beaches Representative pedon of Boca fine sand, about 0.1
aces mile north of Hillsboro Canal and 2.25 miles west of
Bn-Beaches consist of narrow strips of tide- U.S. Highway 441, NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 27, T. 47 S., R.
washed sand along the Atlantic coast line. They range 41 E.
from less than 100 feet to more than 500 feet in width, Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
but most are less than 200 feet wide. As much as half weak fine granular structure; very friable; many
of the beach may be covered by water during daily high uncoated sand grains; many fine roots; strongly
e during storm acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
tides, and all of the beach may be covered during storm A21-5 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
periods. The shape and slope of the beaches may change sand; few fine faint pale brown mottles; single
with every storm. Most beaches have a uniform, gentle grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
slope up to the edge of the water. Others have wave- strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
built ridges that have short, stronger slopes, ranging A22-12 to 29 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; few
dark brown (10YR 4/3) streaks in old root chan-
to 8 percent or more. There are a few shallow inland nels; single grained; loose; medium acid; abrupt
swales. Most areas have no vegetation, but the inland irregular boundary.
edge may be sparsely covered with moonvine, railroad Btg-29 to 34 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
vine, sea oats, and seashore bermudagrass. Depth to the sandy clay loam; many fine and medium distinct
very dark gray (10YR 3/1) and very dark grayish
water table is highly variable, depending on the dis- brown (10YR 3/2) mottles; weak medium sub-
tance from the water, the height of the beach, the effect angular blocky structure; slightly sticky, plastic;
of storms, or the time of year. The depth to the water few fine roots; sand grains coated and bridged
table ranges from 0 to 6 feet or more, depending on othndary; moderately alkaline; abrupt irregular
time and place. IIC-34 to 36 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) soft marl
Beaches are frequently mixed and reworked by intricately intermixed; medium and coarse pockets
waves. They are firm or compact near the edge of the of very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) sandy
loam; common very dark gray streaks in old root
water, but the drier sands further back are loose, channels; few fine roots; moderately alkaline, cal-
Beaches consist of pale brown to light gray sand grains careous; abrupt irregular boundary.
of uncoated quartz and are mixed with multicolored, IIIR-36 inches; fractured hard limestone containing solu-
sand-sized to 1/2-inch shell fragments. Few to many tion holes.
coarser shell fragments occur in all parts of the soil. Thickness of the solum and depth to limestone range from
Some areas have pockets or lenses of coquina shell; 24 to 40 inches, but solution holes in the limestone extend
to a depth of 50 inches or more. Depth to the Btg horizon
other areas consist of large shell fragments and little ranges from 20 to 40 inches, and more than 40 inches in
or no sand. Rock outcrops are scattered throughout. solution holes that occur within each square meter. The
Some are at the edge of the water and act as a barrier Btg horizon is cyclic and rests directly on the limestone.
to each incoming wave, for example, at the north sur- The A horizon is 20 to 36 inches thick and is strongly acid
to neutral. The Ap or Al horizon is black (10YR 2/1; N
vey area line and at the Singer Island area. Others are 2/0), very dark gray (N 3/0; 10YR 3/1), very dark grayish
submerged and exposed only at low tides, for example, brown (10YR 3/2), dark gray (10YR 4/1), dark grayish
at Lake Worth and Boca Raton beaches, brown (10YR 4/2), or gray (10YR 5/1). Thickness ranges
from 3 to 9 inches. Al or Ap horizons that are black (N 2/0;
Beaches are not suited to crops or pasture. They are 10YR 2/1), very dark gray (N 3/0; 10YR 2/1) or very
suited mainly to recreation use and wildlife habitat and dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) are less than 6 inches
have great esthetic value. Capability unit VIIIw-1. thick. The A2 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish
brown (10YR 5/2), brown (10YR 5/3), light gray (10YR
7/1, 7/2), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), pale brown
Boca Series (10YR 6/3), or very pale brown (10YR 7/3).
Some pedons have a B1 horizon, which is brown (10YR
The Boca series consists of nearly level, poorly 5/3), dark brown (10YR 4/3), yellowish brown (10YR 5/4,
d 5/6), or pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand with at least
drained soils in low broad flats and poorly defined 3 percent increase in clay content. It is 0 to 3 inches thick.
drainageways. These soils formed in moderately thick The B2tg horizon is grayish brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2),








14 SOIL SURVEY

BM-Basinger and Myakka sands, depressional. These beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments that rest on
are nearly level, very poorly drained, sandy soils in limestone. Under natural conditions, the water table is
shallow depressions. The depressions are small to large within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months and is
isolated ponds or poorly defined narrow drainageways in the limestone during the driest periods.
that have many branches. Generally, Basinger soils In a representative pedon the surface layer is very
make up about 45 percent of this complex. Both dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsur-
soils can occur separately or together. The water table face layer is fine sand. In the upper 7 inches it is light
is above the surface for 3 to 9 months or more in most brownish gray and in the lower 17 inches it is light
years. gray. The subsoil is dark grayish brown sandy clay
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas loam about 5 inches thick. It has gray and brown mot-
of Pompano, Placid, Anclote, and Sanibel soils. tles. At a depth of about 34 inches a 2-inch layer of soft
The natural vegetation is St. Johnswort; cypress and marl rests directly on limestone that contains numerous
melaleuca trees; maidencane, needlegrass, sand cord- solution holes.
grass, and other water-tolerant grasses and sedges. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
Most areas of these soils are in native vegetation. These layers and moderate in the subsoil. The available water
soils are not suited to cultivated crops or improved capacity is low or very low in the surface and sub-
pasture. Capability unit VIIw-1. surface layers and medium in the subsoil. The organic-
matter content and natural fertility are low.
Beaches Representative pedon of Boca fine sand, about 0.1
aces mile north of Hillsboro Canal and 2.25 miles west of
Bn-Beaches consist of narrow strips of tide- U.S. Highway 441, NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 27, T. 47 S., R.
washed sand along the Atlantic coast line. They range 41 E.
from less than 100 feet to more than 500 feet in width, Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
but most are less than 200 feet wide. As much as half weak fine granular structure; very friable; many
of the beach may be covered by water during daily high uncoated sand grains; many fine roots; strongly
e during storm acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
tides, and all of the beach may be covered during storm A21-5 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
periods. The shape and slope of the beaches may change sand; few fine faint pale brown mottles; single
with every storm. Most beaches have a uniform, gentle grained; loose; many fine and medium roots;
slope up to the edge of the water. Others have wave- strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
built ridges that have short, stronger slopes, ranging A22-12 to 29 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; few
dark brown (10YR 4/3) streaks in old root chan-
to 8 percent or more. There are a few shallow inland nels; single grained; loose; medium acid; abrupt
swales. Most areas have no vegetation, but the inland irregular boundary.
edge may be sparsely covered with moonvine, railroad Btg-29 to 34 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
vine, sea oats, and seashore bermudagrass. Depth to the sandy clay loam; many fine and medium distinct
very dark gray (10YR 3/1) and very dark grayish
water table is highly variable, depending on the dis- brown (10YR 3/2) mottles; weak medium sub-
tance from the water, the height of the beach, the effect angular blocky structure; slightly sticky, plastic;
of storms, or the time of year. The depth to the water few fine roots; sand grains coated and bridged
table ranges from 0 to 6 feet or more, depending on othndary; moderately alkaline; abrupt irregular
time and place. IIC-34 to 36 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) soft marl
Beaches are frequently mixed and reworked by intricately intermixed; medium and coarse pockets
waves. They are firm or compact near the edge of the of very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) sandy
loam; common very dark gray streaks in old root
water, but the drier sands further back are loose, channels; few fine roots; moderately alkaline, cal-
Beaches consist of pale brown to light gray sand grains careous; abrupt irregular boundary.
of uncoated quartz and are mixed with multicolored, IIIR-36 inches; fractured hard limestone containing solu-
sand-sized to 1/2-inch shell fragments. Few to many tion holes.
coarser shell fragments occur in all parts of the soil. Thickness of the solum and depth to limestone range from
Some areas have pockets or lenses of coquina shell; 24 to 40 inches, but solution holes in the limestone extend
to a depth of 50 inches or more. Depth to the Btg horizon
other areas consist of large shell fragments and little ranges from 20 to 40 inches, and more than 40 inches in
or no sand. Rock outcrops are scattered throughout. solution holes that occur within each square meter. The
Some are at the edge of the water and act as a barrier Btg horizon is cyclic and rests directly on the limestone.
to each incoming wave, for example, at the north sur- The A horizon is 20 to 36 inches thick and is strongly acid
to neutral. The Ap or Al horizon is black (10YR 2/1; N
vey area line and at the Singer Island area. Others are 2/0), very dark gray (N 3/0; 10YR 3/1), very dark grayish
submerged and exposed only at low tides, for example, brown (10YR 3/2), dark gray (10YR 4/1), dark grayish
at Lake Worth and Boca Raton beaches, brown (10YR 4/2), or gray (10YR 5/1). Thickness ranges
from 3 to 9 inches. Al or Ap horizons that are black (N 2/0;
Beaches are not suited to crops or pasture. They are 10YR 2/1), very dark gray (N 3/0; 10YR 2/1) or very
suited mainly to recreation use and wildlife habitat and dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) are less than 6 inches
have great esthetic value. Capability unit VIIIw-1. thick. The A2 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish
brown (10YR 5/2), brown (10YR 5/3), light gray (10YR
7/1, 7/2), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), pale brown
Boca Series (10YR 6/3), or very pale brown (10YR 7/3).
Some pedons have a B1 horizon, which is brown (10YR
The Boca series consists of nearly level, poorly 5/3), dark brown (10YR 4/3), yellowish brown (10YR 5/4,
d 5/6), or pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand with at least
drained soils in low broad flats and poorly defined 3 percent increase in clay content. It is 0 to 3 inches thick.
drainageways. These soils formed in moderately thick The B2tg horizon is grayish brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2),







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 15

light brownish gray (10YR 6/2; 2.5Y 6/2), gray (10YR or more in most years, and may recede to a depth of 50
5/1, 6/1; 2.5Y 5/1), or dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) inches or more during dry periods.
with common to many mottles of gray, yellow, or brown.
This horizon is sandy loam or sandy clay loam and has In a representative pedon the surface layer is dark
pockets of loamy sand or sand. It ranges from 4 to 20 inches grayish brown sand mixed with shell fragments. It is
thick and is neutral to moderately alkaline, about 8 inches thick. Below this is pale brown and very
The IIC horizon is 1 to 3 inches thick. It is made up of pale brown mixed sand and shell fragments that extend
mixed fragments of rock, marl, sandy loam, or sandy clay
loam. Some pedons have no IIC horizon. The IIIR horizon to a depth of 65 inches or more.
is fractured limestone containing solution holes. Permeability is very rapid. The available water capa-
Boca soils are associated with Riviera, Pineda, Jupiter, city is very low. The organic-matter content and na-
Pinellas, and Hallandale soils. Unlike these soils, Boca soils tural fertility are very low.
have limestone at a depth of 24 to 40 inches, except in solu-
tion holes. They lack the Bir horizon that Pineda soils have, Representative pedon of Canaveral sand, about 0.75
the A2ca horizon that Pinellas soils have, and the thick mile north of Royal Poinciana Way on North County
Al horizon that Jupiter soils have. Road, SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 15, T. 43 S., R. 43 E.
Bo-Boca fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly A-0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
drained soil that has a loamy subsoil that is underlain single grained; loose; estimated 15 percent sand-
by fractured limestone at a depth of 24 to 40 inches. size and a few coarse shell fragments; moderately
T s i broad, low flats and in poorly defined alkaline, calcareous; clear wavy boundary.
This soil is on broad, low flats and in poorly defined 1-8 to 24 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; single
drainageways between the Everglades and coastal grained; loose; estimated 25 to 40 percent multi-
ridge. It has the pedon described as representative of colored sand-size shell fragments; moderately alka-
the series. Under natural conditions, the water table is line, calcareous; diffuse wavy boundary.
within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months and C2-24 to 65 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand;
win es o te surface or to 4 single grained; loose; estimated 40 to 60 percent
is in the limestone during the driest periods, sand-size shell fragments; few small nearly white
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas fragments weakly cemented with lime; moderately
of similar soils. Some of these soils have a loamy sub- alkaline, calcareous.
soil above the limestone and others have a brownish Reaction is neutral to moderately alkaline in all horizons.
to yellowish sandy layer above the loamy subsoil. Also Shell fragments are calcareous. Texture is dominantly sand
include are s ll are f Hallandin but ranges to coarse sand to a depth of 65 inches or more.
included are small areas of Hallandale, Riviera, Pineda, The A horizon is very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2),
and Pinellas soils. dark gray (10YR 4/1), or dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2).
The natural vegetation is slash pine, cabbage palm, It is 4 to 9 inches thick and has a shell content that ranges
southern bayberry, inkberry, and a wide from 5 to 15 percent.
saw-palmetto, southern bayberry, inkberry, and a wide The C horizon is pale brown (10YR 6/3), very pale brown
variety of native grasses. Most areas of this soil are in (10YR 7/3), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2), gray (10YR 6/1),
natural vegetation or improved pasture. A few areas or grayish brown (10YR 5/2) and in places has mottles in
are being used for cultivated crops and some areas are shades of brown and yellow. Shell content ranges from 10
being developed for urban use. to 60 percent. Shell content commonly increases with depth,

and in some pedons sand and shell fragments are stratified.
Unless drained, this soil is not suited to cultivated Canaveral soils are associated with Cocoa and Palm
crops. The root zone is limited by a high water table Beach soils and soils in tidal swamps. Unlike Cocoa soils,
and by limestone that is above a depth of 40 inches. they lack a Bt horizon that rests on limestone. They are
f drained ad wl n his sil is w sit t more poorly drained than either Cocoa or Palm Beach soils.
If drained and well managed, this soil is well suited to Canaveral soils are not subject to tidal flooding as are soils
some crops. The water control system should provide in tidal swamps.
rapid removal of excess water during rainy periods; Cc-Canaveral-Urban land complex. This complex
Because of the moderate depth to limestone, effective consists of Canaveral sand and Urban land. About 25 to
water control is difficult. Regular application of fertil- 40 percent of this complex is covered by sidewalks,
izer is needed. streets, parking areas, buildings, and other structures.
This soil is moderately suited to citrus if intensive About 40 to 60 percent of the complex consists of lawns,
water control is used. Because of the moderate depth to vacant lots, and undeveloped areas. These open areas
limestone however, adequate water control is difficult, are made up of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained
Regular application of fertilizer is needed for good to moderately well drained Canaveral soils that have
yields. been modified in places by spreading about 12 inches
If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to im- of mixed shell and sand fill material over the original
proved pasture grass. Providing a water control system surface layer. The original soil below the fill material
similar to, but less intensive than that required for is Canaveral sand and has a pedon similar to that de-
frequent applications of fertilizer, and careful control scribed as representative of the series.
of grazing are major management concerns. Capability The rest of the complex consists of similar soils that
unit IIIw-2. have a thin organic subsoil or a thin subsoil of dark
gray silty clay loam. Included are similar soils that
Canaveral Series have a brown subsoil, and soils that are more poorly
drained.
The Canaveral series consists of nearly level, some- About 80 percent of the fill material is a mixture of
what poorly drained to moderately well drained, sandy sand, limestone and shell fragments that range from
soils in low dunelike areas near the coast. These soils sand size to about 3 inches in diameter. The remaining
formed in thick beds of marine sand and shell frag- 20 percent is sand.
ments. Under natural conditions, the water table is The depth to the water table depends mainly on the
within 10 to 40 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months established drainage in the area. The water table is








16 SOIL SURVEY

generally below a depth of 30 inches as a result of The A horizon is a few inches thicker and more acid than
artificial drainage, the defined range for the series, but this difference does not
alter its use and behavior. The A horizon is 20 to 40 inches
The percentage of open land and urban areas varies, thick. It ranges from extremely acid to neutral; the upper
Present and future land use precludes the use of this few inches is the most acid. The Al horizon is black (10YR
complex for farming. Not placed in a capability unit. 2/1; N 2/0) or very dark gray (10YR 3/1; N 3/0), and is
10 to 24 inches thick. The A3 horizon is dark gray (10YR
4/1; N 4/0) or gray (10YR 5/1; N 5/0), and in places it
Chobee Series has mottles. Some pedons do not have an A3 horizon.
The B2tg horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1) to light
The Chobee series consists of nearly level, very brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and in places it has mottles.
soils in depressions in low nearly It is sandy clay loam or sandy loam. In some places it is
poorly drained, loamy soils in depressions in low, nearly sandy loam that has numerous pockets of sand or loamy
level areas between the Everglades and the coastal sand. Some pedons have a B3g horizon, which is dark gray
ridge. These soils formed in beds of loamy marine sedi- (10YR 4/1), gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), or grayish brown
ments. Under natural conditions, the water table is (10YR 5/2), and in places it has mottles. It is sandy loam,
within 10 inches of the surface for more than 6 months loamy sand, or loamy fine sand and is mildly alkaline.
in most years. Soils in depressions are covered by water The II horizon is a mixture of loamy sand material and
in most years. Soils in depressions are covered by water shell fragments. In some places a sandy C horizon is over
most of each year. layers of shell fragments.
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black Chobee soils are associated with Tequesta, Floridana,
fine sandy loam about 16 inches thick. The subsurface Riviera, and Winder soils. Unlike Tequesta soils, they lack
fine sandy loam about1 16inches thick.n ho Thesubsrface Thy have a thicker, dark colored A horizon
layer is dark gray fine sandy loam about 10 inches than Riviera soils. They have a finer textured A horizon
thick. The subsoil in the upper 6 inches is gray sandy than Floridana soils. Chobee soils have a thicker, darker Al
clay loam, and in the lower 5 inches it is grayish brown horizon than Winder soils and lack tongues of surface
sandy clay loam. The underlying material is a mixture material that extend into the Btg horizon.
of light gray loamy sand and shell fragments. Ch-Chobee fine sandy loam. This is a nearly level,
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface very poorly drained soil that has a surface layer of dark
layer, moerrate in the subsoil, and rapid in the under- colored fine sandy loam and a subsoil of sandy clay
lying material. The available water capacity is medium loam. This soil is in depressions and low, nearly level
in the surface layer and medium to high in the subsoil. areas between the Everglades and the coastal ridge.
Organic-matter content is high, and natural fertility is It has the pedon described as representative of the
medium. series. Under natural conditions, the water table is
Representative pedon of Chobee fine sandy loam within 10 inches of the surface for more than 6 months
about 4.0 miles north of State Road 80 and about 0.5 in most years. Depressions are covered by water most
mile east of Royal Palm Beach Blvd., SW1/4SE1/4 of each year.
sec. 11, T. 43 S., R. 41 E. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
A110 to 4 inho bk f Riviera, Winder, Floridana, and Tequesta soils. Also
All--0 to 4 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sandy loam; moder- included are soils that have a dark surface layer
ate medium granular structure; very friable; many clue ea surface layer
uncoated sand grains; many fine roots; estimated slightly less than 10 inches thick and other soils that
15 percent organic-matter content; extremely acid; have coarser textures in all layers.
clear wavy boundary. The natural vegetation is pickerelweed, needlegrass,
A12-4 to 16 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sandy loam; com- sawgrass, maidencane, ferns, sedges, and scattered
mon fine and medium distinct very dark grayish grass, dencane, ferns, sedges, and scattered
brown (10YR 3/2) mottles; weak coarse subangular areas of cypress, sweetbay, sweetgum, and southern
blocky structure; friable; many fine roots; many bayberry. Most areas of this soil are in natural vegeta-
uncoated sand grains; few gray vertical sand tion or improved pasture.
streaks in old crayfish burrows; few to common
thin vertical streaks of black sticky clay; strongly If a water control system is installed, this soil is well
acid; gradual wavy boundary, suited to a variety of vegetables. Such a system should
A3-16 to 26 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy maintain the level of the water table and provide for
loam; few fine faint brown mottles; weak coarse subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Drainage is gener-
subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky, ally not feasible in small isolated areas that do not have
slightly plastic; sand grains thinly coated and ally not feasible small isolated areas that do not have
bridged with clay; many fine roots; medium acid; a natural outlet. In some areas dikes are needed to keep
clear wavy boundary. out water from adjacent wet areas. Fertilizer and lime
B21tg-26 to 32 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam; should be applied according to crop needs.
weak coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly
sticky, slightly plastic; common fine and medium This soil is poorly suited to citrus. If drainage and
roots; few to common fine shell fragments and water control are adequate, it is well suited to high
small whole shells; moderately alkaline, calcareous; quality pasture of grasses and clover. Applications of
B22tg-2 to 37 inches; gryish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy fertilizer and lime according to plant needs and control
B22tg-32 to 37 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy of grazing are needed. Capability unit 111w-6.
clay loam with shell fragments; weak fine sub- grazing are needed. Capability unit IIIw-6.
angular blocky structure; slightly sticky, slightly
plastic; common fine roots; few medium size, firm
to friable yellowish brown iron concretions; esti- Cocoa Series
mated 10 percent shell fragments; common small to
large limestone fragments; moderately alkaline, The Cocoa series consists of nearly level to sloping,
calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
IIC-37 to 40 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) loamy sand well drained, sandy soils on narrow ridges near the
and shell fragments; few small to large shells and Atlantic coast. They formed in moderately thick sandy
shell fragments; moderately alkaline, calcareous. marine sediments over porous, coquina limestone.








16 SOIL SURVEY

generally below a depth of 30 inches as a result of The A horizon is a few inches thicker and more acid than
artificial drainage, the defined range for the series, but this difference does not
alter its use and behavior. The A horizon is 20 to 40 inches
The percentage of open land and urban areas varies, thick. It ranges from extremely acid to neutral; the upper
Present and future land use precludes the use of this few inches is the most acid. The Al horizon is black (10YR
complex for farming. Not placed in a capability unit. 2/1; N 2/0) or very dark gray (10YR 3/1; N 3/0), and is
10 to 24 inches thick. The A3 horizon is dark gray (10YR
4/1; N 4/0) or gray (10YR 5/1; N 5/0), and in places it
Chobee Series has mottles. Some pedons do not have an A3 horizon.
The B2tg horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1) to light
The Chobee series consists of nearly level, very brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and in places it has mottles.
soils in depressions in low nearly It is sandy clay loam or sandy loam. In some places it is
poorly drained, loamy soils in depressions in low, nearly sandy loam that has numerous pockets of sand or loamy
level areas between the Everglades and the coastal sand. Some pedons have a B3g horizon, which is dark gray
ridge. These soils formed in beds of loamy marine sedi- (10YR 4/1), gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), or grayish brown
ments. Under natural conditions, the water table is (10YR 5/2), and in places it has mottles. It is sandy loam,
within 10 inches of the surface for more than 6 months loamy sand, or loamy fine sand and is mildly alkaline.
in most years. Soils in depressions are covered by water The II horizon is a mixture of loamy sand material and
in most years. Soils in depressions are covered by water shell fragments. In some places a sandy C horizon is over
most of each year. layers of shell fragments.
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black Chobee soils are associated with Tequesta, Floridana,
fine sandy loam about 16 inches thick. The subsurface Riviera, and Winder soils. Unlike Tequesta soils, they lack
fine sandy loam about1 16inches thick.n ho Thesubsrface Thy have a thicker, dark colored A horizon
layer is dark gray fine sandy loam about 10 inches than Riviera soils. They have a finer textured A horizon
thick. The subsoil in the upper 6 inches is gray sandy than Floridana soils. Chobee soils have a thicker, darker Al
clay loam, and in the lower 5 inches it is grayish brown horizon than Winder soils and lack tongues of surface
sandy clay loam. The underlying material is a mixture material that extend into the Btg horizon.
of light gray loamy sand and shell fragments. Ch-Chobee fine sandy loam. This is a nearly level,
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface very poorly drained soil that has a surface layer of dark
layer, moerrate in the subsoil, and rapid in the under- colored fine sandy loam and a subsoil of sandy clay
lying material. The available water capacity is medium loam. This soil is in depressions and low, nearly level
in the surface layer and medium to high in the subsoil. areas between the Everglades and the coastal ridge.
Organic-matter content is high, and natural fertility is It has the pedon described as representative of the
medium. series. Under natural conditions, the water table is
Representative pedon of Chobee fine sandy loam within 10 inches of the surface for more than 6 months
about 4.0 miles north of State Road 80 and about 0.5 in most years. Depressions are covered by water most
mile east of Royal Palm Beach Blvd., SW1/4SE1/4 of each year.
sec. 11, T. 43 S., R. 41 E. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
A110 to 4 inho bk f Riviera, Winder, Floridana, and Tequesta soils. Also
All--0 to 4 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sandy loam; moder- included are soils that have a dark surface layer
ate medium granular structure; very friable; many clue ea surface layer
uncoated sand grains; many fine roots; estimated slightly less than 10 inches thick and other soils that
15 percent organic-matter content; extremely acid; have coarser textures in all layers.
clear wavy boundary. The natural vegetation is pickerelweed, needlegrass,
A12-4 to 16 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sandy loam; com- sawgrass, maidencane, ferns, sedges, and scattered
mon fine and medium distinct very dark grayish grass, dencane, ferns, sedges, and scattered
brown (10YR 3/2) mottles; weak coarse subangular areas of cypress, sweetbay, sweetgum, and southern
blocky structure; friable; many fine roots; many bayberry. Most areas of this soil are in natural vegeta-
uncoated sand grains; few gray vertical sand tion or improved pasture.
streaks in old crayfish burrows; few to common
thin vertical streaks of black sticky clay; strongly If a water control system is installed, this soil is well
acid; gradual wavy boundary, suited to a variety of vegetables. Such a system should
A3-16 to 26 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy maintain the level of the water table and provide for
loam; few fine faint brown mottles; weak coarse subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Drainage is gener-
subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky, ally not feasible in small isolated areas that do not have
slightly plastic; sand grains thinly coated and ally not feasible small isolated areas that do not have
bridged with clay; many fine roots; medium acid; a natural outlet. In some areas dikes are needed to keep
clear wavy boundary. out water from adjacent wet areas. Fertilizer and lime
B21tg-26 to 32 inches; gray (N 5/0) sandy clay loam; should be applied according to crop needs.
weak coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly
sticky, slightly plastic; common fine and medium This soil is poorly suited to citrus. If drainage and
roots; few to common fine shell fragments and water control are adequate, it is well suited to high
small whole shells; moderately alkaline, calcareous; quality pasture of grasses and clover. Applications of
B22tg-2 to 37 inches; gryish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy fertilizer and lime according to plant needs and control
B22tg-32 to 37 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy of grazing are needed. Capability unit 111w-6.
clay loam with shell fragments; weak fine sub- grazing are needed. Capability unit IIIw-6.
angular blocky structure; slightly sticky, slightly
plastic; common fine roots; few medium size, firm
to friable yellowish brown iron concretions; esti- Cocoa Series
mated 10 percent shell fragments; common small to
large limestone fragments; moderately alkaline, The Cocoa series consists of nearly level to sloping,
calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
IIC-37 to 40 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) loamy sand well drained, sandy soils on narrow ridges near the
and shell fragments; few small to large shells and Atlantic coast. They formed in moderately thick sandy
shell fragments; moderately alkaline, calcareous. marine sediments over porous, coquina limestone.








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 17

In a representative pedon the surface layer in the In a few places road beds'have been cut several feet
upper 3 inches is very dark grayish brown sand and in into the coquina limestone that underlies the soil. About
the lower 5 inches it is dark brown sand. The next layer 25 to 40 percent of the complex is covered by sidewalks,
is loose yellowish red sand about 14 inches thick. The streets, parking areas, buildings, and other structures.
subsoil is very friable, yellowish red sand about 8 The rest of the complex consists of similar soils that
inches thick. Hard, coquina limestone is below the sub- have a depth of less than 20 inches or more than 40
soil at a depth of 30 inches. inches to limestone and small areas of Canaveral sand.
Permeability is rapid in all layers above the lime- The similar soils have in many places been modified by
stone. The available water capacity is very low in the cutting or grading, and many of the Canaveral soil
upper sandy layers and low in the subsoil. The organic- areas have been modified by spreading fill material on
matter content and natural fertility are low. the original surface.
Representative pedon of Cocoa sand, in an area of The percentage of open land and urban areas varies.
Cocoa-Urban land complex, about 0.1 mile west of Present land use precludes the use of this complex for
Highway A1A and 100 feet north of State Road 806A, farming. Not placed in a capability unit.
northeastern Delray beach on the island, NW1/4SE1/4
sec. 9, T. 46 S., R. 43 E. Dania Series
All-0 to 3 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; The Dania series consists of nearly level, very poorly
many uncoated sand grains; few to common fine drained, shallow, organic soils in broad marshes on the
black organic matter nodules; many fine and fringes of the Everglades. These soils formed in thin
medium roots; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
A12-3 to 8 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand; weak deposits of hydrophytic plant remains overlying lime-
fine granular structure; very friable; many fine stone. Under natural conditions, the water table is
and medium roots; mixture of dark gray, brown, within 10 inches of the surface for 6 to 12 months,
and uncoated sand grains; few fine black organic- except during extended dry seasons. During wet
matter granules; slightly acid; gradual wavy seasons these soils are covered by water.
boundary. seasons these soils are covered by water.
B1-8 to 22 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) sand; single In a representative pedon the surface layer is black
grained; loose; few fine roots; most sand grains well-decomposed muck about 4 inches thick. The next
thinly coated with iron oxides; slightly acid; abrupt layer is dark reddish brown muck about 12 inches thick.
irregular boundary.
B2t-22 to 30 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/8) sand; weak Below this is a very thin layer of light gray sand that
fine granular structure; very friable; slightly rests on hard limestone at a depth of about 18 inches.
sticky; few fine roots; sand grains well coated with Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available
iron oxides; slight increase in clay content from
horizon above; clay bridging between sand grains; water capacity is very high in the muck layers and very
neutral; abrupt wavy boundary. low or low in the thin sandy layer above the limestone.
IIR-30 inches; hard, pale brown to white coquina limestone The natural fertility is moderate.
containing numerous solution holes.
Depth to coquina limestone ranges from 20 to 40 inches Representative pedon of Dania muck about 200 feet
within short distances. Reaction ranges from medium acid south of State Road 827 and 0.5 mile east of Conserva-
to mildly alkaline in all horizons above the limestone. Slopes tion Area 2A, NW1/4SE1/4, sec. 19, T. 47 S., R. 41 E.
generally range from 0 to 5 percent, and a few short slopes
generallyrangerom 0 to percent, and a few short slopes Oal-0 to 4 inches; black (5YR 2/1) well-decomposed muck
The Al horizon is very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), (saDric material); less than 10 percent fiber;
dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), or dark brown (10YR moderate fine and medium granular structure;
3/3; 7.5YR 3/2). This horizon is 4 to 8 inches thick. Some friable; many fine and medium roots; estimated
pedons have an A2 horizon which is strong brown (7.5YR mineral content less than 5 percent; slightly acid;
5/8), or yellowish brown (10YR 5/6, 5/8), and ranges to clear wavy boundary.
12 inches in thickness. Oa2-4 to 16 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) sapric
The B1 horizon is strong brown (7.5YR 5/8), or yellow- material; estimated 30 percent fiber, 10 percent
ish red (5YR 4/6, 5/6), and is 10 to 16 inches thick. Sand rubbed; massive; friable, many fine and medium
grains in the A2 and B1 horizons are coated with iron roots; estimated mineral content less than 5 per-
oxides cent; few black streaks along old root channels;
The B2t horizon is strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8), yellow- few small sand pockets in lower part; slightly acid;
ish red (5YR 4/6, 5/8), or red (2.5YR 4/6,, 4/8), and is 6 to abrupt smooth boundary.
16 inches thick. Texture of the B2t horizon is sand, loamy IIC-16 to 18 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
sand, or loamy fine sand that has more than 3 percent in- grained; loose; common fine roots; thin root mat
crease in clay content over the above horizon. Sand grains at contact with rock; moderately alkaline; abrupt
are coated and bridged with clay. The limestone consists wavy boundary.
primarily of cemented coquina shell and shell fragments IIIR-18 inches; hard continuous limestone that has solu-
mixed with sand. tion holes 2 to 11 inches in depth and 4 to 15 in
Cocoa soils are associated with Palm Beach and Canaveral width.
soils. They have a weakly expressed B2t horizon that over- Thickness of the solum and depth to limestone range from
lies coquina limestone, and Canaveral and Palm Beach soils 8 to 20 inches. Reaction ranges from medium acid to neutral
do not. Cocoa soils are better drained than Canaveral soils, in the Oa horizon and from neutral to moderately alkaline
CuB-Cocoa-Urban land complex. This complex con- in the IIC horizon.
The Oa horizon is black (5YR 2/1, N 2/0) or dark reddish
sists of Cocoa sand that has 0 to 8 percent slopes and brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2), and is 8 to 18 inches thick. Fiber
Urban land. About 40 to 65 percent of this complex is content in this horizon ranges to about 33 percent, but after
open land, such as lawns, vacant lots, and playgrounds, rubbing it is less than 16 percent. Mineral content ranges
These areas are made up of nearly level to sloping, from 5 to 20 percent and is highest near the boundary with
well drained Cocoa soils that have been modified in he IIC horizon isvr dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2),
many places by grading to create level building sites, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), grayish brown (10YR








18 SOIL SURVEY

5/2), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), gray (10YR 6/1), small pockets of light gray fine sand; slightly acid;
or light gray (10YR 7/2), and in places has mottles. It is clear wavy boundary.
sand, fine sand, or loamy sand and thickness ranges from A2-18 to 32 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; few fine
0 to 44 inches. faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2) mottles and few
Dania soils are associated with Lauderhill, Pahokee, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) and dark brown (10YR
Jupiter, Hallandale, and Boca soils. Unlike Lauderhill and 4/3) streaks along old root channels; single
Pahokee soils, they have limestone at a depth of less than 20 grained; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid; clear
inches. They are of organic origin, and Jupiter, Hallandale, wavy boundary.
and Boca soils are of mineral origin. Btg-32 to 44 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine sandy
loam; common medium faint dark grayish brown
Da-Dania muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly lo2Y 2 common mles; massive in place, breaks to
drained, shallow, organic soil that rests on limestone, weak coarse subangular structure; slightly sticky,
This soil is in broad marsh areas on the fringes of the slightly plastic; few small pockets of light gray
Everglades. It formed in thin deposits of hydrophytic fine sand; few fine faint dark brown streaks in
plant remains. It has the pedon described as represen- C-44 to o 65 channels neutrow; gradual wa(0YR 6) fin
tative of the series. Under natural conditions, the water sand; few medium faint grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2)
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 6 to 12 mottles and few very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
months in most years, except during extended dry streaks or pockets; single grained; nonstick; few
seasons. Water covers the surface in wet seasons. small pockets of grayish brown sandy loam; moder-
seasons. Water covers the- surface in wet seasons. ately alkaline.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of a
Lauderhill, Pahokee. Jupiter, Hallandale, and Boca Reaction ranges from slightly acid to neutral. The A
Lauderhill, Pahokehorizon is 20 to 40 inches thick. The Al horizon is black
soils. In some areas the organic material is peaty muck. (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1) or very dark gray (N 3/0; 10YR 3/1).
The natural vegetation is sawgrass, willow, elder- It is 10 to 22 inches thick. The A2 horizon is dark gray
berry, and a few native grasses. Most areas of this (10YR 4/1), dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), gray (10YR
soil are cleared and used for improved pasture or sod. 5/1, 6/1), gr yish broay (10YR 5/21, 7ligt Ib somwnish g
(10YR 6/2), or light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2). In some pedons
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or citrus there is a thin discontinuous horizon at the base of the A
because of wetness and shallowness to limestone. In horizon that is very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), very
its native state this soil is too wet for most improved dark gray (10YR 3/1), or dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
pasture grasses, but with a simple drainage system that sand and is 1 to 2 inches thick.
pasture grasses, but with a simple drainage system thatThe Btg horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish brown
removes excess surface water after rains, it is suitable (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2), or light brownish gray (10YR 6/2;
for several improved pasture grasses. Capability unit 2.5Y 6/2) and has mottles in shades of gray, brown, and
Vw-1. yellow. Most pedons have pockets of sand or loamy sand.
The Btg horizon is sandy loam or sandy clay loam, and it
ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline. Some
Floridana Series pedons have a grayish brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2) loamy
sand or sandy loam B3 horizon below the Btg horizon. The
The Floridana series consists of nearly level, very C horizon is brown to gray fine sand, sand or loamy sand,
poorly drained soils that have a thick, black sandy or a mixture of sand and shell fragments.
poorly drained soils that have a thick, black sFloridana soils are associated with Riviera, Tequesta,
surface layer and a loamy subsoil. These soils are on Pineda, Boca, and Holopaw soils. They have a thicker, dark
broad, low flats and in depressions and formed in thick colored Al horizon than that of Riviera, Pineda, Boca, and
beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments. Under Holopaw soils. They lack the tonguing of the A horizon into
natural conditions, the water table is within 10 inches the Bt horizon that characterizes the Riviera soils Floridana
athsurfalceior 6 ths r mle d hing ms yeas. soils lack a Bir horizon, which Pineda soils have, and unlike
of the surface for 6 months or more during most years. Boca soils they do not have limestone within 40 inches of
Depressions are covered by water most of each year. the surface. Floridana soils have a shallower Btg horizon
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black than Holopaw soils. They are similar to Tequesta soils but
ine representative pedon thi e subrrace layer is back lack a muck, or organic, surface layer.
fine sand about 18 inches thick. The subsurface layer is Fa-Floridana fine said. This is a nearly level, very
gray fine sand about 14 inches thick. The subsoil is poorly drained soil that has a thick, black sandy sur-
grayish brown fine sandy loam between a depth of 32 face layer and a loamy subsoil. This soil is on broad,
and 44 inches. Below this is light brownish gray fine low flats and in depressions. It has the pedon described
sand that has a few pockets of grayish brown sandy as representative of the series. Under natural condi-
loam. This layer extends to a depth of 65 inches or tions, the water table is within 10 inches of the surface
more. for 6 months or more during most years. Depressions
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface are covered by water most of the year.
layers, moderate in the subsoil, and rapid below this. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The available water capacity is medium in the surface Anclote, Riviera, Holopaw, and Tequesta soils. In some
layer, low in the subsurface layer, and medium in the places limestone is directly below the loamy subsoil.
subsoil. Organic-matter content is high in the surface Also included are soils that have a dark surface layer
layer, and natural fertility is low. more than 24 inches thick, soils that have a darker
Representative pedon of Floridana fine sand, about colored subsoil, and soils that have a subsoil at a depth
1.0 mile north of State Road 80, and about 100 feet east of slightly less than 20 inches or slightly more than 40
of Seminole Road, NE1/4SW1/4 sec. 25, T. 43 S., R. inches.
40 E. The natural vegetation is cypress, willow, bay,
Al-0 to 18 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine southern bayberry, St. Johnswort, maidencane, ferns,
granular structure; friable; many fine, medium, scattered sawgrass, pickerelweed, sedges, and water-
and coarse roots; estimated 15 percent organic- tolerant grasses. Most of this land is in native vegeta-
matter content; sand grains well coated with or-
ganic matter, many uncoated sand grains; common tion or improved pasture.








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 19

In its natural condition this soil is not suited to (10YR 4/2), gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1). grayish brown (10YR
cultivation. If drained and intensively managed, it is 5/2), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), light gray (10YR
well suited to a variety of vegetables. A water control 7/1 7/2), brown (10YR 5/3), pale brown (10YR 6/3), or
very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4). It is medium acid to
system that maintains the level of the water table and mildly alkaline.
provides for subsurface irrigation in dry periods is a Limestone beneath this soil is not continuous but appears
concern of management. Drainage is generally not to be a highly fractured remnant of once continuous bedrock.
feasible in small isolated areas that do not have a It consists mostly of large flat boulders with fractures be-
f n isolated areas that do not have a tween boulders ranging from less than 1 inch to 3 or 4 or
natural outlet. In some areas dikes are needed to keep more inches in width. Solution holes in and between the
out water from adjacent wet areas. Fertilizer and lime boulders range from about 4 inches to 3 feet in diameter and
should be applied according to crop needs. are at 1- to 6-foot intervals. A Bt horizon of light yellowish
brown (10YR 6/4), yellowish brown (10YR 5/4, 5/6), dark
This soil is poorly suited to citrus. If drainage and yellowish brown (10YR 4/4), or brown (10YR 5/3) thin dis-
water control are adequate, it is well suited to high continuous sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam
quality pasture of grass and clover. Applications of is in the solution pits. This horizon is thicker and has a
fertilizer and lime according to plant needs and con- higher content of clay in the deeper solution pits.
etil a lime g to p n a Hallandale soils are associated with Boca, Riviera, Pineda,
trol of grazing are needed to maintain healthy plant Pinellas, Dania, and Jupiter soils. Unlike Boca, Riviera,
growth. Capability unit IIIw-8. Pineda, and Pinellas soils, they have limestone at a depth
of less than 20 inches. Hallandale soils lack the Oa surface
Horizon of Dania soils and the thick, dark Al horizon of
Hallandale Series Jupiter soils.
The Hallandale series consists of nearly level, poorly Ha-Hallandale sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained, shallow, sandy soils that rest on limestone. drained, sandy soil that rests on limestone at a depth
These soils are in low, broad flats between the Ever- of 7 to 20 inches within short distances. This soil is on
glades and the coastal ridge. They formed in thin beds broad, low flats between the Everglades and the coastal
of sandy marine sediment over large limestone ridge. It has the pedon described as representative of
boulders. Under natural conditions, the water table is the series. Under natural conditions, the water table is
within 10 inches of the surface for 4 to 6 months dur- within 10 inches of the surface for 4 to 6 months dur-
ing most years and at a depth of 10 to 30 inches the ing most years and within 10 to 30 inches the rest of
rest of the time, except during extremely dry periods. the time, except during extremely dry periods. Water
Water may cover the surface for 1 to 2 months. may cover the surface for 1 to 2 months.
In a representative pedon the surface layer is dark Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
gray sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying mate- of Boca, Riviera, Pineda, Pinellas, and Jupiter soils.
rial is very pale brown sand that rests on hard, frac- Also included are small areas of soils that have lime-
tured limestone boulders at a depth of about 15 inches. stone at a depth of less than 7 inches or slightly more
The depth to the limestone is greater than 20 inches than 20 inches, and soils that have a yellowish brown
in solution holes and in fractures between boulders. or brownish yellow sandy layer above the limestone.
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available The natural vegetation is slash pine, saw-palmetto,
water capacity is medium in the surface layer and low cabbage palm, inkberry, scattered cypress, southern
in the underlying material. Organic-matter content and bayberry, pineland three-awn, and a wide variety of
natural fertility are low. other grasses. Most areas of this soil are in native
Representative pedon of Hallandale sand, about 1.3 vegetation, but some areas are used for truck crops
miles west of U.S. Highway 441 and about 0.1 mile and improved pasture.
north of Hillsboro Canal, SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 26, T. 47 Unless drained, this soil is not suited to cultivated
S., R. 41 E. crops. The root zone is limited by a high water table
Ap-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (YR 4/1) sand; few medium and limestone that is close to the surface. If drained,
faint dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) mottles; weaki this soil is suitable for a number of vegetables. A well
fine granular structure; very friable; many un- designed and constructed water control system helps
coated sand grains, many fine and medium, few maintain the water table at an acceptable level and
coarse roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary, provides subsurface irrigation. Limestone near the sur-
C-6 to 15 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand; com- face, however, makes construction of such a system
mon medium distinct light yellowish brown (10YRkes construction of such a system
6/4) and few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR difficult. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime
5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine and are needed.
medium roots; medium acid; abrupt avy boundary. Unless very intensively managed, this soil is poorly
R-15 inches; hard fractured limestone boulders. suitedto citrus, bu ifthewater table is maintained
suited to citrus, but if the water table is maintained
This soil is commonly 7 to 20 inches thick, but fractures below a depth of about 4 feet the soil is suitable for
between limestone boulders and solution holes 50 inches or
more deep contain a thin discontinuous Bt horizon, citrus. Trees should be planted on beds. Regular appli-
The A horizon ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid. cations of fertilizer are needed,
The Ap horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1), very dark gray If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to
(N 3/0; 10YR 3/1), dark gray (N 4/0; 10YR 4/1), or gray
(N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1, 6/1). It is 2 to 7 inches thick. Some improved pasture of grass. Providing a water control
pedons have an A2 horizon, which is dark gray (N 4/0; system that is less intensive but is otherwise similar to
10YR 4/1), gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), light gray the system required for cultivated crops, frequently
roN 7/i; 1YR 7/1), g6raish brown (10YR 5/2), or light applying fertilizer and lime as required, and carefully
brownish gray (10YR 6/2). It ranges to 8 inches thick.
In most areas the C horizon is between the A horizon and controlling grazing are major concerns of management.
limestone. It is dark gray (10YR 4/1), dark grayish brown Capability unit IVw-4.








20 SOIL SURVEY

Holopaw Series 2.5Y 5/2), or light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and has
mottles in shades of brown, red, yellow, and olive. It is sandy
The Holopaw series consists of nearly level, poorly loam or sandy clay loam in texture, and in places there are
drained soils that have thick sandy surface and sub- pockets or lenses of sand or loamy sand. It is slightly acid
raine sls tat hav andy surface and sb- to moderately alkaline. Some pedons have white marl in old
surface layers and a loamy subsoil. These soils are on root channels.
broad, low-lying flats and in depressions throughout The C horizon is grayish brown (10YR 5/2), light brown-
the eastern part of the survey area. They formed in ish gray (10YR 6/2; 2.5Y 6/2) gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR
thick beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments. 5/1, 6/1), or light gray (N 7/0; 10YR 7/1, 7/2) fine sand,
Under natural conditions, the water table is within loamy fine sand, or a mixture of sand and shell fragments.
Under natural conditions, the water table is within It is neutral to moderately alkaline.
10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months during most Holopaw soils are associated with Basinger, Boca, Old-
years. Depressions are covered by water for 6 months smar, Pineda, Pompano, Riviera, Tequesta, and Wabassosoils
or more in most years. Unlike Basinger and Pompano soils, they have a loamy Btg
horizon within a depth of 72 inches. Holopaw soils do not
In a representative pedon the surface layer is dark have limestone within a depth of 75 inches as do Boca soils.
gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface Holopaw soils lack the weakly cemented Bh horizon of
layer is about 38 inches thick. In the upper 10 inches Oldsmar and Wabasso soils, the Bir horizon of Pineda soils,
it is light brownish gray fine sand; in the next 10 and the thin organic surface Oa horizon of Tequesta soils.
inch is light gray fins e sand tha t has a few yellow, The Btg horizon in Holopaw soils is at a greater depth than
inches it is light gray fine sand that has a few yellow, that in Riviera soils.
brown, and gray mottles; and in the lower 18 inches it
is gray fine sand. The subsoil is grayish brown sandy Ho-Holopaw fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
loam about 7 inches thick. Below this the substratum drained soil that has a thick sandy surface layer and a
is grayish brown sand to a depth of 60 inches or more. loamy subsoil at a depth of 40 to 72 inches. This soil
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface is on broad, low-lying flats and in depressions through-
layers and in the substratum and moderately rapid in out the eastern part of the survey area. It has the pedon
the subsoil The available water capacity is low t very described as representative of the series. Under natural
the subsoil. Thrface available water capacity is and mediumto very conditions, the water table is within 10 inches of the
in the subsoil. Organic-matter content and natural surface for 2 to 6 months during most years. Depres-
fertility are low. sions are covered by water for 6 months or more in
most years.
Representative pedon of Holopaw fine sand, about most ye i i i i
1.0 mile northeast of L-8 levee and canal and about 1.8 Included with this soi in mapping are small areas
miles south of Corbett Wildlife Management Area of Pompano, Basinger, Oldsmar, Riviera, Boca, Pineda,
boundary, SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 25, T. 42 S., R. 39 E. and Wabasso soils. Small areas of similar soils that
Ao 4 have a thin organic surface layer are included in areas
A1-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak near the organic soils of the Everglades. Also included
fine granular structure; very friable; many fine are similar soils that have thin, brownstained layers
roots; medium acid; clear wavy boundary are silar soils that have thin, brownstaned layers
A21-4 to 14 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine and soils that have a subsurface layer of brown and
sand; common coarse faint grayish brown (10YR yellow.
5/2) and light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; single The natural vegetation is saw-palmetto, slash pine,
gained; loose; common fine roots; slightly acid; cypress, cabbage palm, inkberry, southern bayberry,
clear wavy boundary. sand cordgrass, broomsedge bluestem, blue maidencane,
A22-14 to 24 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; sand cordgrass, broomsedge bluestem, blue maidencane,
few fine and medium distinct yellowish brown pineland three-awn, and other grasses. Most areas of
(10YR 5/8) and brownishyellow (10YR 6/6) mot- this soil are in native vegetation or improved pasture.
ties; single grained; loose; few light brownish gray Unless drained, this soil is not suited to cultivated
and dark grayish brown streaks along old root
channels; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. crops. If drained and intensively managed, it is moder-
A23-24 to 42 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; ately well suited to vegetables. A well designed and
single grained; loose; few brown and many gray- constructed water control system helps maintain the
ish brown streaks along old root channels; slightly water table at an adequate level and provides sub-
acid; abrupt wavy boundary surface irrigation. Frequent applications of fertilizer
Btg-42 to 49 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy and lime as needed are concerns of management.
loam; few fine distinct yellowish red and few fine
faint brown mottles; weak medium granular struc- This soil is poorly suited to citrus. Because it is in
ture; slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many old low positions and generally has a high water table,
fe w pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; water control is difficult. A well designed water control
few pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. system and bedding are needed if citrus is planted.
C-49 to 60 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; single Maintaining fertility is difficult because the soil is
grained; nonsticky; common dark brown streaks in sandy and low in fertility. Frequent applications of
old root channels; neutral, fertilizer are needed. During dry periods, irrigation is
The A horizon is 40 to 72 inches thick, but is generally 40 needed to insure good yields.
to 60 inches. It is strongly acid to neutral. The Al horizon
is black (10YR 2/1), very dark gray (10YR 3/1), very If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to im-
dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), dark gray (10YR 4/1), proved pasture of grass or grass and clover. Major
or dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2). It is 4 to 8 inches concerns of management are providing a water control
thick. The A2 horizon is grayish brown (10YR 5/2) light system that is less intensive but is otherwise similar
g(10YR 7/1, 6 7/2).or light gray to the system required for cultivated crops, frequently
The Btg horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), applying fertilizer and lime as needed, and carefully
light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2), grayish brown (10YR 5/2; controlling grazing. Capability unit IVw-2.







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 21

Immokalee Series receives dust from limestone pits or marl roads, it ranges to
neutral. The All horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1), very
dark gray (N 3/0; 10YR 3/1), or dark gray (N 4/0; 10YR
The Immokalee series consists of nearly level, poorly 4/1) and is 2 to 8 inches thick. The A12 horizon is dark gray
drained, sandy soils in broad, flatwood areas in the (N 4/0; 10YR 4/1), or gray (10YR 5/1) and is 0 to 8
eastern part of the survey area. These soils formed in inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray (N 5/0, 6/0; 10YR 5/1,
deep sandy marine sediment. Under natural conditions, 6/1), light gray (N 7/0; 10YR 7/1, 7/2), or white (10YR
the water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 8/1, 8/2).ck (YR2/1),verydarkgray (YR
The B1 horizon is black (10YR 2/1), very dark gray (10YR
2 to 4 months during wet periods, within 10 to 40 3/1), or dark gray (10YR 4/1) and has many uncoated sand
inches for 8 months or more in most years, but is below grains. It is 0 to 8 inches thick. The B21h and B22h horizons
40 inches in dry periods, are black (N 2/0; 5YR 2/1; 10YR 2/1), dark brown (7.5YR
n a represenaie pedo3/2), or dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2. 3/3). They are
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black weakly cemented sand grains well coated with organic mat-
fine sand in the upper 4 inches and dark gray fine sand ter. They are 8 to 26 inches thick. The B23h horizon is fri-
in the lower 7 inches. The subsurface layer is about 26 able to loose, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4), dark brown
inches thick. In the upper 7 inches it is gray fine sand, (7.5YR 4/4; 10YR 3/3, 4/3), or dark yellowish brown
(10YR 3/4) coated fine sand. It is 0 to 24 inches thick.
and in the lower 19 inches it is light gray fine sand. Reaction of the Bh horizon ranges from extremely acid
A layer of black and very dark gray fine sand is at a to medium acid.
depth of 37 to 45 inches. Below this is black fine sand, The C horizon is very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4), brown
weakly cemented with organic matter to a depth of (10YR 5/3), dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), or light
about 58 inches. Next is loose dark reddish brown fine brownish gray (10YR 6/2). Reaction of the C horizon ranges
about 58 iches. Next is loose dark reddish brown fine from very strongly acid to medium acid.
sand to a depth of 79 inches. Below this is loose brown Immokalee soils are associated with Myakka, Basinger,
fine sand. Pomello, Wabasso, Oldsmar, Pompano, and St. Lucie soils.
Permeability is rapid to a depth of 37 inches, moder- Unlike Myakka soils, they have a Bh horizon at a depth of
more than 30 inches. They have a well developed Bh horizon
ate or moderately rapid to about 79 inches, and rapid rather than the weakly developed Bh horizon of the Basinger
below that. The available water capacity is medium in soils. Immokalee soils are more poorly drained than Pomello
the weakly cemented layer and low or very low in all soils. Unlike Wabasso soils, they have a Bh horizon below
other layers. Natural fertility is low. 30 inches. They lack the loamy B'tg horizon of Wabasso and
Representative pedo of Immokal fin sand, about Oldsmar soils. They have a Bh horizon that Pompano and
Representative pedon of Immokalee fine sand, about St. Lucie soils do not have, and they are more poorly drained
75 feet north of paved access road to airport and about than St. Lucie soils.
0.25 mile northeast of Boca Raton Airport office, Im-Immokalee fine sand. This is a nearly level,
NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 7, T. 47 S., R. 43 E. poorly drained, deep, sandy soil that has a dark colored
All-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine layer below a depth of 30 inches that is weakly ce-
granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; mented with organic matter. This soil is in broad flat-
many uncoated sand grains; clear wavy boundary. wood areas in the eastern part of the survey area. It
A12--4 to 11 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak has te pedon ecri rpresnttiv of the series
fine granular structure; very friable; common fine has the pedon described as representative of the series.
and medium roots; many uncoated sand grains; Under natural conditions, the water table is within 10
many 1/8 inch black organic-matter pellets in lower inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months during wet
part; medium acid; clear wavy boundary. periods, within 10 to 40 inches for 8 months or more
A21-11 to 18 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single periods, within 10 to 40 inches for 8 months or more
grained; ew fine roots; loose; few lenses and in most years, but it is below 40 inches in dry periods.
pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1); common very Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks along root channels; Myakka, Basinger, Wabasso, and Oldsmar soils.
medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. The natural vegetation is slash pine, saw-palmetto,
A22--18 to 37 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; inkberry, fetterbush, pineland three-awn, and many
single grained; loose; few fine roots; few to com- inkberry, fetterbush, pineand three-awn, and many
mon very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks along other grasses. Most areas of this soil are in native vege-
root channels; slightly acid; abrupt smooth bound- station, but there are some areas in improved grass pas-
ary. ture and cultivated crops.
B1--37 to 45 inches; black (10YR 2/1) and very dark gray s is aty well suited to vegetables if
(10YR 3/1) fine sand; many fine mottles of light This soil is moderately well suited to vegetables i
gray (10YR 7/1) give a dappled appearance; single irrigation water is available. Intensive management
grained; loose; many roots matted at base of hori- and a very careful control of the water table level are
zon; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. necessary. A drainage system and a subsurface irriga-
B21h-45 to 52 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; common tion system tha ovl of exces water
dark reddish brown (2.5Y 2/4) mottles in lower tion system that provides rapid removal of excess water
few inches; massive, crushes easily to weak fine in rainy periods and a means of irrigation in dry peri-
granular structure; weakly cemented, few fine ods should be carefully designed, installed, and main-
roots; sand grains well coated with organic matter; tainted. Application of fertilizer and lime is needed.
extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
B22h-52 to 58 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; massive, This soil is poorly suited to citrus because of poor
crushes easily to weak fine granular structure; drainage, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and
weakly cemented; few fine roots; sand grains well droughtiness in dry periods. If the groves are well man-
coated with organic matter; extremely acid; gra- aged and there is a properly designed water control
dual wavy boundary.
B23h-58 to 79 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) fine system, citrus trees can be grown successfully.
sand; single grained; loose; very strongly acid; A drainage system that removes excess water during
gradual wavy boundary.Adrigsye th reosxcsw edu
C-79 to 80 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single wet periods allows for a high-quality pasture of im-
grained; loose; very strongly acid. proved grasses. Large applications of fertilizer and
The A horizon is more than 30 inches thick. It is very lime are required. If irrigated, clover can be grown
strongly acid to medium acid, but if the soil is limed or with grasses. Capability unit IVw-3.







22 SOIL SURVEY

Jupiter Series ameter; single grained; loose; few fine and medium
roots; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
The Jupiter series consists of nearly level, poorly C-11 to 14 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine roots; few fine dis-
drained, shallow, sandy soils that rest on fractured tinct black (10YR 2/1) mottles or streaks in thin
limestone boulders containing solution holes (fig. 2). root mat at contact with rock; mildly alkaline;
These soils are on broad, low flats, low hammocks, and abrupt irregular boundary.
in poorly defined drainageways east of the Everglades. R-14 inches; hard limestone boulders containing solution
They formed in a thin bed of sandy marine sediment holes.
that was deposited over limestone. Under natural condi- Depth to fractured limestone boulders commonly ranges
from 10 to 20 inches, but in places where the A horizon
tions, the water table is within 10 inches of the surface rests directly on the limestone, depth may be as shallow as
for periods of 4 to 6 months during most years. These 8 inches. Reaction throughout the soil ranges from slightly
soils are covered by shallow water 2 to 4 months each acid to moderately alkaline.
year. The A horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1), very dark
Sa rere a p n t s i gray (N 2/0; 10YR 3/1), or very dark grayish brown
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black (10YR 3/2) and in places has dark grayish brown (10YR
fine sand about 11 inches thick. Below this is a thin 4/2), grayish brown (10YR 5/2), or light brownish gray
layer of light gray fine sand that has many streaks and (10YR 6/2) mottles in the lower few inches. The A horizon
mottles of black in old root channels. Large flat lime- is generally 10 to 14 inches thick, but may be as shallow
as 8 inches in places where it rests directly on limestone.
stone boulders containing solution holes are at a depth Some pedons have no C horizon as described. The C hori-
of about 14 inches. zon can be as thick as 6 inches. It is grayish brown (10YR
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available 5/2), gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light brownish gray (10YR
water capability is medium to high in the surface layer 6/2) or light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2), and in places it has
mottles.
and low or very low below that. Natural fertility is The underlying limestone is large flat boulders containing
medium, solution holes and fractures between boulders. It appears to
Representative pedon of Jupiter fine sand, about 3.5 be the remnant of an original limestone bedrock. In most
miles west of U.S. Highway 441 and about 1,500 feet pedons fractures are several inches wide. Solution holes are
south of State Road 827, NW1/4E1/4 sec. 28, T. 47 S., about '/2 to 2 feet in diameter and 2 to 8 feet apart. These
south of State Road 827, NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 28, T. 47 S., holes are filled primarily with gray or brown sandy material
R. 41 E. that extends to a depth of more than 50 inches or to the base
Ap-0 to 9 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak fine of the solution hole within this depth. Many solution holes
granular structure; very friable; many clean sand and fractures between boulders are partly filled with white,
granular structure; very friable; many clean sand soft marl in the upper part, and at the bottom of some
wavy boundaryum solution holes there is a thin layer of sandy loam that has
A12-9 to 11 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; many fine marl fragments or shells.
and medium distinct dark grayish brown (10YR Jupiter a aaaesoils are associated with Dania, Boca, Riviera,
4/2) mottles and streaks, few pockets of light Tequesta, and Hallandale soils. They lack the Oa horizon
brownish gray (10YR 6/2) about 1 inch in di- of Dania and Tequesta soils. Unlike Boca, Riviera, and
Tequesta soils, they have limestone at a depth of less than
20 inches. Jupiter soils have a thick Al horizon, and Hallan-
"ILI .dale soils do not.
S' Ju-Jupiter fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained, shallow, sandy soil that rests on fractured
.-r limestone boulders. This soil is on broad, low flats, low
"-3 hammocks, and in poorly defined drainageways. It has
.. the pedon described as representative of the series.
Under natural conditions, the water table is within 10
S. inches of the surface for periods of 4 to 6 months
A-F during most years. Shallow water covers the surface
for 2 to 4 months each year.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
4 of Dania, Tequesta, Boca, Hallandale, and Riviera soils;
e Sl soils that have a dark surface layer slightly less than
Sh o. 10 inches thick; and soils that have limestone at a depth
of slightly more than 20 inches. In some areas there is
a thin layer of organic material on the surface.
The natural vegetation is cabbage palm, scattered
cypress, maidencane, ferns, southern bayberry, and a
wide variety of grasses. Some areas of this soil have
been used for cultivated crops or sod. Most areas are
Sin improved pasture, and few are in native vegetation.
-.. Unless drained, this soil is not suited to cultivated
crops. The root zone is limited by a high water table
S. and limestone that is close to the surface. If drained
r and intensively managed, it can be made suitable for a
number of vegetables. A well-designed and constructed
Figure 2.--Solution holes are common in Jupiter fine sand. This water control system helps maintain the water table
shallow sandy soil overlies hard limestone, at an acceptable level and provides subsurface irriga-







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 23

tion. Limestone near the surface, however, makes con- drops the fiber content to 2 to 16 percent. Estimated mineral
structing such a system difficult. Frequent application content in the organic material in the Oap and Oa2 horizons
of fertilizer and lime is needed. is about 15 to 30 percent. Some pedons have no Oa3 horizon
and have a IIC horizon between the organic material and
Unless very intensively managed, this soil is poorly the limestone. The IIC horizon is black (10YR 2/1), very
suited to citrus; but if the water table is maintained dark gray (10YR 3/1), dark gray (10YR 4/1), or gray
below a depth of about 4 feet, the soil is suitable for (10YR 5/1) sand, loamy sand, sandy loam with or without
citrus. Trees should be planted on beds. Regular appli- carbonatic material. It ranges to about 6 inches in
cation of fertilizer n gu api thickness, except where it fills solution holes and extends
cation of fertilizer is needed, downward in the limestone. Some pedons do not have a
If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to IIC horizon.
improved pasture of grass. Major management con- Lauderhill soils are associated with Pahokee, Dania, Terra
cerns are providing a water control system that is less Ceia, and Okeelanta soils. Unlike Pahokee soils, they have
intensive prbt oth erwise siiar conto that uis less organic material less than 36 inches thick. They have lime-
intensive but otherwise similar to that required for stone below a depth of 20 inches, and Dania soils have it
cultivated crops, frequently applying fertilizer and lime above 20 inches. They rest on limestone rather than on
as required, and carefully controlling grazing. Capa- mineral material, as do Okeelanta soils. Lauderhill soils are
ability unit IVw-4. not organic to below a depth of 52 inches as are Terra Ceia
soils.
Lauderhill Series La-Lauderhill muck. This is a nearly level, very
Lauder eres poorly drained, organic soil that rests on limestone at a
The Lauderhill series consists of nearly level, very depth of 20 to 36 inches. This soil is in broad, fresh
poorly drained, organic soils in broad freshwater water marshes and formed in moderately thick deposits
marshes. These soils formed in moderately thick de- of well-decomposed remains of hydrophytic plants
posits of hydrophytic plant remains overlying lime- overlying limestone.
stone. Under natural conditions, the soil is covered by Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
water, or the water table is within 10 inches of the Pahokee, Terra Ceia, Okeelanta, and Dania soils. Also
surface for 6 to 12 months, except during extended dry included are similar soils that have more fibrous, less
periods. decomposed organic material; a few spots where the
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black soils have a thick layer of sand between the organic
granular muck about 8 inches thick. Below this is a material and the limestone; and areas that have a high
layer about 10 inches thick of black muck that is content of fine textured mineral and carbonatic mate-
slightly more fibrous. The next layer is dark reddish rial in the lower few inches of the Oa3 horizon.
brown fibrous muck that extends from a depth of 18 The natural vegetation is sawgrass, willow, elder-
to 26 inches. Hard limestone containing numerous solu- berry, bay, scattered cypress trees, and undergrowth
tion holes is a depth of about 26 inches, of ferns, pickerelweed, maidencane, and other water-
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available tolerant plants. Large areas of this soil have been
water capacity is very high, and natural fertility is cleared and are used for sugarcane, truck crops, pas-
moderate. ture, and sod.
Representative pedon of Lauderhill muck, about 0.5 This soil is not suited to cultivation in its native
mile west of U.S. Highway 27 and about 900 feet south state. If good water control is maintained through a
of the access road to the Talisman Sugar Company mill, system of dikes, ditches, and pumps, however, this soil
NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 10, T. 46 S., R. 37 E. is well suited to a wide variety of vegetables and sugar-
Oa-0 to 8 inches; black (N 2/0) muck (sapric material); cane. In addition to maintaining the water control sys-
estimated less than 5 percent fiber; moderate tem, saturating the soil when crops are not growing
medium and coarse granular structure; very fri- minimizes oxidation of the organic material. Fertilizer
able; sodium pyrophosphate extract is brown and lime should be applied as needed.
(10YR 4/3); slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Oa2-8 to 18 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck (sapric mate- This soil is not suited to citrus. It has many proper-
rial); estimated less than 10 percent rubbed fiber; ties unfavorable for citrus, and the drainage needed for
moderate coarse subangular blocky structure, this crop would cause rapid deterioration of the soil.
crushes to medium and coarse granular structure;
friable; sodium pyrophosphate extract is yellowish If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to
brown (10YR 5/4); common coarse distinct pockets high-quality pasture of improved grasses and clover
and lenses of dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) sapric mixtures. Major management concerns are providing
material; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. a water control system to remove excess surface water
Oa3-18 to 26 inches; dark reddish brown (YR 2/2) muckremove excess surface water
(sapric material); estimated 50 percent fiber un- and to maintain the level of the water table, applying
rubbed, 10 percent rubbed; estimated 25 percent fertilizer and lime as required, and carefully controlling
mineral material; massive; sodium pyrophosphate grazing. Capability unit IIIw-12.
extract is yellowish brown (10YR 5/4); neutral;
abrupt wavy boundary.
R-26 inches; hard limestone containing numerous solution Myakka Series
holes.
Thickness of sapric material and depth to limestone The Myakka series consists of nearly level, poorly
ranges from 20 to 36 inches. Reaction ranges from medium drained, sandy soils in broad, flatwoods areas in the
acid to mildly alkaline in 0.01M CaC12. The Oa horizon is eastern part of the survey area. They formed in deep
black (N 2/; 1 2/1; 5YR 2/1), dark reddish brownYR sandy marine sediment. Under natural conditions, the
(5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3), very dark brown (10YR 2/2), or dark
brown (10YR 3/3; 7.5YR 3/2). Fiber content is usually water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
5 to 33 percent but ranges to about 65 percent; rubbing months in most years. It is within a depth of 10 to 40







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 23

tion. Limestone near the surface, however, makes con- drops the fiber content to 2 to 16 percent. Estimated mineral
structing such a system difficult. Frequent application content in the organic material in the Oap and Oa2 horizons
of fertilizer and lime is needed. is about 15 to 30 percent. Some pedons have no Oa3 horizon
and have a IIC horizon between the organic material and
Unless very intensively managed, this soil is poorly the limestone. The IIC horizon is black (10YR 2/1), very
suited to citrus; but if the water table is maintained dark gray (10YR 3/1), dark gray (10YR 4/1), or gray
below a depth of about 4 feet, the soil is suitable for (10YR 5/1) sand, loamy sand, sandy loam with or without
citrus. Trees should be planted on beds. Regular appli- carbonatic material. It ranges to about 6 inches in
cation of fertilizer n gu api thickness, except where it fills solution holes and extends
cation of fertilizer is needed, downward in the limestone. Some pedons do not have a
If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to IIC horizon.
improved pasture of grass. Major management con- Lauderhill soils are associated with Pahokee, Dania, Terra
cerns are providing a water control system that is less Ceia, and Okeelanta soils. Unlike Pahokee soils, they have
intensive prbt oth erwise siiar conto that uis less organic material less than 36 inches thick. They have lime-
intensive but otherwise similar to that required for stone below a depth of 20 inches, and Dania soils have it
cultivated crops, frequently applying fertilizer and lime above 20 inches. They rest on limestone rather than on
as required, and carefully controlling grazing. Capa- mineral material, as do Okeelanta soils. Lauderhill soils are
ability unit IVw-4. not organic to below a depth of 52 inches as are Terra Ceia
soils.
Lauderhill Series La-Lauderhill muck. This is a nearly level, very
Lauder eres poorly drained, organic soil that rests on limestone at a
The Lauderhill series consists of nearly level, very depth of 20 to 36 inches. This soil is in broad, fresh
poorly drained, organic soils in broad freshwater water marshes and formed in moderately thick deposits
marshes. These soils formed in moderately thick de- of well-decomposed remains of hydrophytic plants
posits of hydrophytic plant remains overlying lime- overlying limestone.
stone. Under natural conditions, the soil is covered by Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
water, or the water table is within 10 inches of the Pahokee, Terra Ceia, Okeelanta, and Dania soils. Also
surface for 6 to 12 months, except during extended dry included are similar soils that have more fibrous, less
periods. decomposed organic material; a few spots where the
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black soils have a thick layer of sand between the organic
granular muck about 8 inches thick. Below this is a material and the limestone; and areas that have a high
layer about 10 inches thick of black muck that is content of fine textured mineral and carbonatic mate-
slightly more fibrous. The next layer is dark reddish rial in the lower few inches of the Oa3 horizon.
brown fibrous muck that extends from a depth of 18 The natural vegetation is sawgrass, willow, elder-
to 26 inches. Hard limestone containing numerous solu- berry, bay, scattered cypress trees, and undergrowth
tion holes is a depth of about 26 inches, of ferns, pickerelweed, maidencane, and other water-
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available tolerant plants. Large areas of this soil have been
water capacity is very high, and natural fertility is cleared and are used for sugarcane, truck crops, pas-
moderate. ture, and sod.
Representative pedon of Lauderhill muck, about 0.5 This soil is not suited to cultivation in its native
mile west of U.S. Highway 27 and about 900 feet south state. If good water control is maintained through a
of the access road to the Talisman Sugar Company mill, system of dikes, ditches, and pumps, however, this soil
NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 10, T. 46 S., R. 37 E. is well suited to a wide variety of vegetables and sugar-
Oa-0 to 8 inches; black (N 2/0) muck (sapric material); cane. In addition to maintaining the water control sys-
estimated less than 5 percent fiber; moderate tem, saturating the soil when crops are not growing
medium and coarse granular structure; very fri- minimizes oxidation of the organic material. Fertilizer
able; sodium pyrophosphate extract is brown and lime should be applied as needed.
(10YR 4/3); slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Oa2-8 to 18 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck (sapric mate- This soil is not suited to citrus. It has many proper-
rial); estimated less than 10 percent rubbed fiber; ties unfavorable for citrus, and the drainage needed for
moderate coarse subangular blocky structure, this crop would cause rapid deterioration of the soil.
crushes to medium and coarse granular structure;
friable; sodium pyrophosphate extract is yellowish If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to
brown (10YR 5/4); common coarse distinct pockets high-quality pasture of improved grasses and clover
and lenses of dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) sapric mixtures. Major management concerns are providing
material; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary. a water control system to remove excess surface water
Oa3-18 to 26 inches; dark reddish brown (YR 2/2) muckremove excess surface water
(sapric material); estimated 50 percent fiber un- and to maintain the level of the water table, applying
rubbed, 10 percent rubbed; estimated 25 percent fertilizer and lime as required, and carefully controlling
mineral material; massive; sodium pyrophosphate grazing. Capability unit IIIw-12.
extract is yellowish brown (10YR 5/4); neutral;
abrupt wavy boundary.
R-26 inches; hard limestone containing numerous solution Myakka Series
holes.
Thickness of sapric material and depth to limestone The Myakka series consists of nearly level, poorly
ranges from 20 to 36 inches. Reaction ranges from medium drained, sandy soils in broad, flatwoods areas in the
acid to mildly alkaline in 0.01M CaC12. The Oa horizon is eastern part of the survey area. They formed in deep
black (N 2/; 1 2/1; 5YR 2/1), dark reddish brownYR sandy marine sediment. Under natural conditions, the
(5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3), very dark brown (10YR 2/2), or dark
brown (10YR 3/3; 7.5YR 3/2). Fiber content is usually water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
5 to 33 percent but ranges to about 65 percent; rubbing months in most years. It is within a depth of 10 to 40








24 SOIL SURVEY

inches for 6 months or more in most years and recedes The Bh horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1; 5YR 2/1),
to below 40 inches during extended dry periods, very dark brown (10YR 2/2), or dark reddish brown (5YR
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black 2/2, 3/2, 3/3, 3/4). Sand grains are well coated and weakly
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black cemented with organic matter. Thickness ranges from 8 to
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray 24 inches. Many pedons have a B3 horizon that is 4 to 12 inches
sand and extends to a depth of about 26 inches. Black thick. Where present, this horizon is dark brown (10YR
and dark reddish brown sand, weakly cemented with 3/, 4/3; 7.5YR 4/4), or brown (1YR 5/3). The C horizon
gani mateish bowen san dep o to 3 inhe is brown (10YR 5/3) or very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4).
organic matter, is between a depth of 26 to 36 inches. Myakka soils are associated with Immokalee, Basinger,
Below this, friable dark reddish brown sand extends Pomello, Wabasso, and Oldsmar soils. Unlike Immokalee,
to a depth of 47 inches. Next is dark brown sand to a Pomello, and Oldsmar soils, they have a Bh horizon within
depth of 55 inches. Below this is pale brown sand that a depth of 30 inches. They are more poorly drained than
extends to a depth of 72 inches or more. Pomello soils. They lack the Bt horizon that is beneath the
extends to a depth of 72 inches or more. Bh horizon in Wabasso and Oldsmar soils. Myakka soils
Permeability is rapid to a depth of 26 inches, moder- have a well developed, weakly cemented Bh horizon, and
ate to moderately rapid to about 47 inches, and rapid Basinger soils do not.
below this depth. The available water capacity is Mk-Myakka sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
medium in the dark colored, weakly cemented layer and drained, deep, sandy soil that has a dark colored layer,
very low in all other layers. The organic-matter content weakly cemented with organic matter, above a depth
and natural fertility are low. of 30 inches. It is in broad, flatwoods areas in the
Representative pedon of Myakka sand, about 100 eastern part of the survey area. This soil has the pedon
feet north of Tenth Avenue North, and about 0.25 mile described as representative of the series. Under natural
east of Jog Road, NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 22, T. 44 S., R. conditions, the water table is within 10 inches of the
42 E. surface for 2 to 4 months in most years. It is within a
All-0 to 3 inches; black (N 2/0) crushed sand; mixture depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more in most
of black (10YR 2/1) organic matter and light years and recedes to below 40 inches during extended
gray (10YR 7/1) uncoated sand grains; weak fine dry periods.
granular structure; very friable; many fine and
medium roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
boundary. soils that have a thick, dark colored surface layer,
A12-3 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) crushed sand; dark and small areas of Immokalee, Pomello, Basinger,
gray (10YR 4/1) uncrushed with light gray (10YR Wabasso, and Oldsmar soils.
7/1) uncoated sand grains; weak fine granular
structure; very friable; common fine and medium The natural vegetation is slash pine, saw-palmetto,
roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. inkberry, fetterbush, pineland three-awn, and many
A2-7 to 26 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single grained; other grasses. Most areas of this soil are in native vege-
few very dark gray (10YR 3/1) and very dark station, but some large areas are in improved pasture
grayish brown (10YR 3/2) streaks in old root and cultivated cro
channels; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; and cultivated crops.
abrupt wavy boundary. If irrigation water is available this soil is moderately
B21h-26 to 31 inches; black (SYR 2/1) sand mixed with well suited to vegetables. Intensive management is
dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) sand; massive, necessary and a very careful control of the water table
parts to moderate fine and medium granular struc- is essential. A drainage system or a subsurface irriga-
ture; weakly cemented; few fine roots; few fine is es
pockets of light gray sand; most sand grains well tion system that removes excess water rapidly in rainy
coated with organic matter, few thinly coated, few seasons and provides irrigation in dry seasons should
uncoated; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. be carefully designed, installed, and maintained. Fertil-
B22h-31 to 36 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) sand izer and lime should be applied as needed.
mixed with dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) and
black (5YR 2/1) sand; massive, parts to moderate This soil is poorly suited to citrus. Poor drainage,
fine and medium granular structure; weakly ce- rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and droughtiness ad-
mented; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. versely affect the growth of citrus. If the groves are
B23h-36 to 47 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) well
sand; weak fine and medium granular structure well managed and there is a properly designed water
common dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) and dark control system, citrus trees can be grown successfully.
brown (7.5YR 3/2) streaks in old root channels; If a drainage system is established to remove excess
very friable; few black decomposed medium and water during wet seasons, a high quality pasture of
coarse roots; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. improved grasses can be maintained on this soil. If
B3-47 to 55 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) sand; com- improved grasses can be maintained on this soil. If
mon coarse distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) irrigated, clover can be grown with grasses. Large
mottles; single grained; loose; slightly acid; applications of fertilizer and lime are required. Capa-
gradual wavy boundary. bilit unit IVw-3
C-55 to 72 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single grained; bly unit
loose; slightly acid. Mu-Myakka-Urban land complex. This complex
Reaction throughout ranges from very strongly acid to consists of Myakka sand and Urban land. About 25 to
slightly acid. Crushed color of the Al horizon is black (N 50 percent of the complex is covered by streets, side-
2/0; 10YR 2/1), very dark gray (N 3/0; 10YR 3/1), or dark walks, driveways, houses, and other structures. About
gray (N 4/0; 10YR 4/1). This horizon is 4 to 8 inches thick. 40 to 65 percent of the complex consists of open land,
Uncrushed colors have a salt-and-pepper appearance. The
A2 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light gray (10YR such as lawns, vacant lots, and playgrounds. These
7/1), or white (10YR 8/1) and is 12 to 24 inches thick. areas are made up mainly of nearly level, poorly
Thickness of the A horizon ranges from 20 to 30 inches. drained Myakka sand, which has been modified in most
Some pedons have a transitional layer that is 1 to 2 inches places by spreading about 12 inches of sandy fill mate-
thick. This layer is very dark gray (10YR 3/1) and hassurface. Myakka sand has a pedon
many uncoated light gray (10YR 7/1) sand grains and rial on the original surface. Myakka sand has a pedon
vertical streaks, similar to that described as representative of the series.








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 25

Included in mapping are Immokalee, Basinger, and The Oa horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1; 5YR 2/1),
Pompano soils, all of which have sandy fill material dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3), or very dark
ovr t original srfce brown (10YR 2/2) muck (sapric material). Fiber content
over the original surface. is commonly less than 33 percent but ranges to about 50 per-
The percentage of urban area and open land varies, cent unrubbed and less than 16 percent rubbed. The Oe
Most areas have been drained to some degree by a horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1; 5YR 2/1), dark reddish
system of canals and ditches, and the water table gener- brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3, 3/4), very dark brown (10YR
ally is at a greater depth than is typical for M kk 2/2), or dark brown (7.5YR 3/2; 10YR 4/3). Fiber content
ally is at a greater depth than is typical for Myakka ranges from 33 to 70 percent unrubbed and 16 to 40 percent
soils. Following heavy rains, the water table may rise rubbed. The Oe horizon commonly is beneath the Oa horizon
to within 10 inches of the surface for periods of up to at a. depth of 24 to 40 inches. In some pedons it is inter-
1 month. layered with an Oa horizon at a depth of 20 to 51 inches,
and the Oa horizon is dominant. Composite thickness is 10
Present land use precludes use for farming. Not inches or more. Fibers are typically those of nonwoody
placed in a capability unit. plants, but in some pedons fiber from woody plants ranges
from about 5 to 30 percent. Some pedons lack the Oa3
horizon as described, and the Oe horizon extends to a depth
Okeechobee Series of below 51 inches.
Okeechobee soils are associated with Okeelanta, Terra
The Okeechobee series consists of nearly level, very Ceia, and Pahokee soils. Unlike Okeelanta soils, they lack
poorly drained, organic soils in large fresh water a mineral IIC horizon within a depth of 40 inches. They
marshes in the central part of the survey area. These have an Oe horizon more than 10 inches thick within a depth
marshes f in the central part of the survey area. rese of 51 inches, and Terra Ceia soils do not. Okeechobee soils
soils formed in thick deposits of hydrophytic plant re- lack the limestone that is within a depth of 51 inches in
mains. Under natural conditions, the soil is covered by Pahokee soils.
water, or the water table is within 10 inches of the Oc-Okeechobee muck. This is a nearly level, very
surface at all times, except during extended dry poorly drained, deep, organic soil in large fresh water
periods. marshes in the central part of the survey area. It
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black formed in the remains of hydrophytic plants. It has the
granular muck (sapric material) about 8 inches thick. pedon described as representative of the series. Under
Below this is a layer of black muck about 20 inches natural conditions, it is covered by water, or the water
thick that has faint bands of dark reddish brown muck. table is within 10 inches of the surface at all times,
The next layer is dark reddish brown fibrous mucky except during extended dry periods.
peat (hemic material) about 22 inches thick. Below this Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
is dark reddish brown muck that extends to a depth of of Terra Ceia, Okeelanta, and Pahokee soils; and soils
66 inches or more. that have a slightly higher fiber content and are well-
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available decomposed.
water capacity is very high throughout. Natural fer- The natural vegetation is sawgrass, sedges, aquatic
utility is moderate. grasses, and scattered clumps of cypress, myrtle, and
Representative pedon of Okeechobee muck, about 2.5 bay trees. Most areas are used for sugarcane. Some
miles south of State Road 80 and about 0.1 mile west areas are used for cultivated crops, sod, or improved
of Levee L-7, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 13, T. 44 S., R. 39 E. pasture. A few areas are in native vegetation.
Oap-0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck (sapric ma- This soil is not suited to cultivation in its native
triall; less than 5 percent fiber rubbed; moderate state. If good water control is established and main-
fine and medium granular structure; friable; sodi-
um pyrophosphate extract color is brown (10YR taied through a system of ditches, dikes, and pumps,
5/3); estimated about 90 percent organic matter; it is well suited to a wide variety of vegetables and
medium acid; clear wavy boundary, sugarcane. In addition to maintaining the water control
Oa2-8 to 28 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck (sapric ma- system, saturating the soil when crops are not growing
triall; about 25 percent fiber, less than 10 percent
rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophosphate extract minimizes oxidation of the organic material. Fertilizer
color is pale brown (10YR 6/3); estimated about and lime should be applied according to crop needs.
90 percent organic matter, few thin bands of less This soil is not suited to citrus. It has many soil prop-
decomposed ark reddish brown (YR 2/2) muck; erties unfavorable to citrus, and the drainage needed
slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Oe-28 to 50 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) mucky for this crop would cause rapid deterioration of the soil.
peat (hemic material); about 60 percent fiber, 25 If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to
percent rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophosphate high-quality pasture of improved grasses and clover
tract reaolr s idagt eddi bryon (5YR 2/2)ocke mixtures. Providing a water control system to remove
reddish brown (5YR 4/4); estimated about 90 excess surface water and to maintain the level of the
percent organic matter; slightly acid; clear wavy water table, adequately applying fertilizer and lime as
a50 to 66 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) muck required, and carefully controlling grazing are major
Oa8-50 to 66 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) muk management concerns. Capability unit IIIw-13.
(sapric material); about 30 percent fiber, 10 per- management concerns. Capability unt IIIw-13.
cent rubbed; massive; estimated about 80 percent
organic matter; many small black (5YR 2/1) Okeelanta Series
granules; slightly acid.
The organic material is more than 51 inches thick. Re- The Okeelanta series consists of nearly level, very
action ranges from medium acid to moderately alkaline poorly drained, organic soils in large freshwater
when measured with a field test kit. The pH is more than marshes and in small isolated depressions. These soils
4.5 when measured in 0.01M CaC12. Mineral content ranges
from about 5 to 40 percent between a depth of 16 and 51 formed in moderately thick deposits of hydrophytic
inches. plant remains over sandy mineral material. Under na-








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 25

Included in mapping are Immokalee, Basinger, and The Oa horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1; 5YR 2/1),
Pompano soils, all of which have sandy fill material dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3), or very dark
ovr t original srfce brown (10YR 2/2) muck (sapric material). Fiber content
over the original surface. is commonly less than 33 percent but ranges to about 50 per-
The percentage of urban area and open land varies, cent unrubbed and less than 16 percent rubbed. The Oe
Most areas have been drained to some degree by a horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1; 5YR 2/1), dark reddish
system of canals and ditches, and the water table gener- brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3, 3/4), very dark brown (10YR
ally is at a greater depth than is typical for M kk 2/2), or dark brown (7.5YR 3/2; 10YR 4/3). Fiber content
ally is at a greater depth than is typical for Myakka ranges from 33 to 70 percent unrubbed and 16 to 40 percent
soils. Following heavy rains, the water table may rise rubbed. The Oe horizon commonly is beneath the Oa horizon
to within 10 inches of the surface for periods of up to at a. depth of 24 to 40 inches. In some pedons it is inter-
1 month. layered with an Oa horizon at a depth of 20 to 51 inches,
and the Oa horizon is dominant. Composite thickness is 10
Present land use precludes use for farming. Not inches or more. Fibers are typically those of nonwoody
placed in a capability unit. plants, but in some pedons fiber from woody plants ranges
from about 5 to 30 percent. Some pedons lack the Oa3
horizon as described, and the Oe horizon extends to a depth
Okeechobee Series of below 51 inches.
Okeechobee soils are associated with Okeelanta, Terra
The Okeechobee series consists of nearly level, very Ceia, and Pahokee soils. Unlike Okeelanta soils, they lack
poorly drained, organic soils in large fresh water a mineral IIC horizon within a depth of 40 inches. They
marshes in the central part of the survey area. These have an Oe horizon more than 10 inches thick within a depth
marshes f in the central part of the survey area. rese of 51 inches, and Terra Ceia soils do not. Okeechobee soils
soils formed in thick deposits of hydrophytic plant re- lack the limestone that is within a depth of 51 inches in
mains. Under natural conditions, the soil is covered by Pahokee soils.
water, or the water table is within 10 inches of the Oc-Okeechobee muck. This is a nearly level, very
surface at all times, except during extended dry poorly drained, deep, organic soil in large fresh water
periods. marshes in the central part of the survey area. It
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black formed in the remains of hydrophytic plants. It has the
granular muck (sapric material) about 8 inches thick. pedon described as representative of the series. Under
Below this is a layer of black muck about 20 inches natural conditions, it is covered by water, or the water
thick that has faint bands of dark reddish brown muck. table is within 10 inches of the surface at all times,
The next layer is dark reddish brown fibrous mucky except during extended dry periods.
peat (hemic material) about 22 inches thick. Below this Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
is dark reddish brown muck that extends to a depth of of Terra Ceia, Okeelanta, and Pahokee soils; and soils
66 inches or more. that have a slightly higher fiber content and are well-
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available decomposed.
water capacity is very high throughout. Natural fer- The natural vegetation is sawgrass, sedges, aquatic
utility is moderate. grasses, and scattered clumps of cypress, myrtle, and
Representative pedon of Okeechobee muck, about 2.5 bay trees. Most areas are used for sugarcane. Some
miles south of State Road 80 and about 0.1 mile west areas are used for cultivated crops, sod, or improved
of Levee L-7, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 13, T. 44 S., R. 39 E. pasture. A few areas are in native vegetation.
Oap-0 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck (sapric ma- This soil is not suited to cultivation in its native
triall; less than 5 percent fiber rubbed; moderate state. If good water control is established and main-
fine and medium granular structure; friable; sodi-
um pyrophosphate extract color is brown (10YR taied through a system of ditches, dikes, and pumps,
5/3); estimated about 90 percent organic matter; it is well suited to a wide variety of vegetables and
medium acid; clear wavy boundary, sugarcane. In addition to maintaining the water control
Oa2-8 to 28 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck (sapric ma- system, saturating the soil when crops are not growing
triall; about 25 percent fiber, less than 10 percent
rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophosphate extract minimizes oxidation of the organic material. Fertilizer
color is pale brown (10YR 6/3); estimated about and lime should be applied according to crop needs.
90 percent organic matter, few thin bands of less This soil is not suited to citrus. It has many soil prop-
decomposed ark reddish brown (YR 2/2) muck; erties unfavorable to citrus, and the drainage needed
slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Oe-28 to 50 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) mucky for this crop would cause rapid deterioration of the soil.
peat (hemic material); about 60 percent fiber, 25 If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to
percent rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophosphate high-quality pasture of improved grasses and clover
tract reaolr s idagt eddi bryon (5YR 2/2)ocke mixtures. Providing a water control system to remove
reddish brown (5YR 4/4); estimated about 90 excess surface water and to maintain the level of the
percent organic matter; slightly acid; clear wavy water table, adequately applying fertilizer and lime as
a50 to 66 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) muck required, and carefully controlling grazing are major
Oa8-50 to 66 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) muk management concerns. Capability unit IIIw-13.
(sapric material); about 30 percent fiber, 10 per- management concerns. Capability unt IIIw-13.
cent rubbed; massive; estimated about 80 percent
organic matter; many small black (5YR 2/1) Okeelanta Series
granules; slightly acid.
The organic material is more than 51 inches thick. Re- The Okeelanta series consists of nearly level, very
action ranges from medium acid to moderately alkaline poorly drained, organic soils in large freshwater
when measured with a field test kit. The pH is more than marshes and in small isolated depressions. These soils
4.5 when measured in 0.01M CaC12. Mineral content ranges
from about 5 to 40 percent between a depth of 16 and 51 formed in moderately thick deposits of hydrophytic
inches. plant remains over sandy mineral material. Under na-







26 SOIL SURVEY

tural conditions, the soil is covered by water or the The natural vegetation is sawgrass, ferns, fireflag,
water table is within 10 inches of the surface 6 to 12 maidencane, pickerelweed, and scattered areas of wil-
months in most years, except during extended dry low, elderberry, southern bayberry, cypress, and
periods, custard apple. Large areas are in native vegetation.
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black Other areas are used for sugarcane, sod, and improved
muck (sapric material) about 8 inches thick. Below pasture.
this is a layer of dark reddish brown muck that extends This soil is not suited to cultivation in its native
to a depth of 31 inches. Next is a thick layer of very state. If good water control is established and main-
dark gray fine sand that changes to light gray fine sand trained through a system of dikes, ditches, and pumps,
at a depth of about 55 inches. it is well suited to a wide variety of vegetables and
Permeability is rapid in the organic and mineral sugarcane. In addition to maintaining the water control
layers. The available water capacity is very high in the system, saturating the soil when crops are not growing
organic layers and low in the underlying sandy layers. minimizes oxidation of the organic material. Fertilizer
Natural fertility is moderate. and lime should be applied according to crop needs.
Representative pedon of Okeelanta muck, 2.75 miles This soil is not suited to citrus. It has many soil
east of U.S. Highway 441 and about 4.75 miles north of properties unfavorable to citrus, and the drainage
U.S. Highway 98, SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 19, T. 41 S., R. needed for this crop would cause rapid deterioration
38 E. of the soil.
Oap-0 to 8 inches; black (N 2/0) muck (sapric material); If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to high-
less than 10 percent fiber; weak fine and medium quality pasture of improved grasses and clover mix-
granular structure; very friable; estimated mineral tures. Major management concerns are providing a
content 10 percent; mildly alkaline; clear smooth water control system to remove excess surface water
a2-8 to 31 inches; dark reddish brown (YR 2/2) muck and to maintain the level of the water table, adequately
(sapric material); about 35 percent fiber, 10 per- applying fertilizer and lime as required, and carefully
cent rubbed; massive; friable; estimated mineral controlling grazing. Capability unit IIIw-11.
content 10 percent; mildly alkaline; clear smooth
boundary.
IIC1-31 to 55 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; Oldsmar Series
single grained; loose; mildly alkaline; clear wavy
boundary. The Oldsmar series consists of nearly level, poorly
IIC2-55 to 65 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; drained, sandy soils that have a dark layer. weakly
single grained; loose; many fine shell fragments; cemented by organic matter over loamy material. These
moderately alkaline, calcareous.
The O horizon is 16 to 40 inches thick. It is medium acid soils are on broad, flatwoods areas. They formed in
to moderately alkaline when measured with a field test kit. thck beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments. Under
The pH is more than 4.5 if measured in 0.01M CaC12. The natural conditions, the water table is within 10 inches
Oa horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1; 5YR 2/1), dark of the surface for 1 to 3 months during most years.
reddish brown (SYR 2/2, 3/, 3/3), very dark brown (10YR It is within 10 to 40 inches for 6 or more months in
2/2), or dark brown (10YR 3/3, 4/3; 7.5YR 3/2) sapric most years and recedes below 40 inches in extended
material (muck). Fiber content ranges from about 2 to 16
percent after rubbing. Mineral content ranges from about dry periods.
10 to 30 percent. In a representative pedon the surface layer is very
The IIC horizon is black (10YR 2/1), very dark gray dark gray sand about 8 inches thick. Next is a sub-
grayish brown d(10Y (R 2) or light ray (10YR 7/1, 7/2)' surface layer of sand that extends to a depth of about
grayish brown (iYR 5/2), or ligt gray (iYR 7/1, 7/2) 3 i
sand, fine sand, or loamy sand that has few to many fine 34 inches. The first 5 inches is grayish brown, the next
shell fragments. Many pedons have no shell fragments. 13 inches is white, and the last 8 inches is grayish
Sandy mineral material extends to a depth below 51 inches. brown. The next layer is black sand weakly cemented
Okeelanta soils are associated with Terra Ceia, Okee- by organic matter and is about 8 inches thick. Below
chobee, Pahokee, Sanibel, and Tequesta soils. Unlike Okee- porter and is about 8 inches thick. Below
chobee and Terra Ceia soils, Okeelanta soils have a sandy this is a layer of dark grayish brown sandy loam about
IIC horizon within a depth of 40 inches. They have a sandy 4 inches thick. Below this is a layer of brown loamy
IIC horizon rather than limestone underlying the organic sand that overlies layers of mixed sand, shell, and
layer as in Pahokee soils. Okeelanta soils are of organic marl at a depth of about 50 inches.
origin, and Sanibel and Tequesta soils are of mineral origin
and have only a thin organic surface layer. Permeability is rapid in the sandy surface layer and
in eelanta uc his is a nearly le er n the subsurface layer, moderate or moderately rapid
On-Okeelanta muck. This is a nearly level, very in the weakly cemented sand and sandy loam layer, and
poorly drained, organic soil that has sandy mineral rapid below this. The available water capacity is ver
material within a depth of 40 inches. It is in large rapid below this. The available water capacity is very
material within a depth of 40 inches. It is in large, low to a depth of about 34 inches, medium to a depth
fresh water marshes and small, isolated depressions. of about 46 inches, and low below that. Organic-matter
It has the pedon described as representative of the content and natural fertility are low.
series. Under natural conditions, the soil is covered by conRepresentative pedon of Oldsmar sand, 200 feet
water, or the water table is within 10 inches of the sur- north of State Road 822 and about 3smand00 feet west of the
face for 6 to 12 months in most years, except during north of State Road 822 and about 300 feet west of the
face for 6 to 12 months in most years, except during Sunshine State Parkway, SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 32, T. 44 S.,
extended dry periods. R 42E.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pahokee, Lauderhill, Terra Ceia, Okeechobee, Sanibel, A1-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; mix-
and Tequesta soils; and soils that have a slightly higher ture of fine black (N 2/0) organic-matter granules
fiber content and are less well-decomposed, grand grular structure; very friable; weak fine and
fiber content and are less well-decomposed, granular structure; very friable; many fne and







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 27

few medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy described as representative of the series. Under natural
A21-8 tou da ches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand conditions, the water table is within 10 inches of the
many fine faint yellowish brown mottles; single surface for 1 to 3 months during most years. It is with-
grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; in 10 to 40 inches for 6 or more months in most years
gradual wavy boundary. and recedes to below 40 inches in extended dry periods.
A22-13 to 26 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy bound- Immokalee, Myakka, Wabasso Basinger, Holopaw,
ary. Immokalee, Myakka, Wabasso,
A23-26 to 34 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand; Riviera, and Tequesta soils; and soils that have a sub-
many fine distinct dark grayish brown mottles; surface layer of brown and yellow.
single grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; The natural vegetation is saw-palmetto, slash pine,
comon black and very dark gray streaks in old cabbage palm, inkberry, southern bayberry, pineland
root channels; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bh-34 to 42 inches; black (5YR 2/1) sand; common three-awn, blue maidencane, fetterbush, broomsedge,
medium distinct dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) bluestem, and a variety of other grasses. Some areas
mottles; massive in place, crushes to weak fine are in cultivated crops and improved pasture. Most of
granular structure; weakly cemented; friable; this soil is in native vegetation.
many fine roots; sand grains well coated with
organic matter; lower 2 inches dominantly dark If irrigation water is available, this soil is moderately
reddish brown (5YR 2/2); strongly acid; abrupt well suited to vegetables. Intensive management and a
wavy boundary, very careful control of the water table level are essen-
B2t-42 to 46 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) tial. A drainage system or a subsurface irrigation sys-
sandy loam; few medium faint very dark grayish
brown (10YR 3/2) mottles; weak coarse sub- tem that rapidly removes excess water in rainy periods
angular blocky structure; friable; many fine and and irrigates in dry periods should be carefully de-
medium old roots; sand grains coated and bridged signed, installed, and maintained. Application of fertil-
with clay; few thin light brownish gray (10YR izer and lime is needed.
6/2) sand streaks; slightly acid; clear wavy bound- ea i is eed
ary. This soil is poorly suited to citrus. Poor drainage,
B3-46 to 50 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loamy sand; weak rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and droughtiness
coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; com- affect the growth of citrus. If the groves are well man-
mon large pockets of sandy loam; slightly acid; aged and there is a properly designed water control
abrupt wavy boundary.
IICca-50 to 54 inches; mixed yellowish brown and white system, citrus trees can be grown successfully.
sand and marl modules; partly cemented; mildly If a drainage system is established to remove excess
alkaline, calcareous. water during wet periods, a high-quality pasture of im-
Combined thickness of the A and Bh horizons ranges from proved grasses can be maintained on this soil. Large
40 to 60 inches. The A horizon is more than 30 inches thick. applications of fertilizer and lime are required. If irri-
It is strongly acid or very strongly acid. The Al horizon is gated, clover can be grown with grasses. Capability
black (10YR 2/1; N 2/0), very dark gray (10YR 3/1; N
3/0), or dark gray (10YR 4/1; N 4/0) and is 4 to 8 inches unit IVw-3.
thick. The A2 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish
brown (10YR 5/2), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2), light Paokee Series
brownish gray (10YR 6/2), or white (10YR 8/1). In some
pedons the A2 horizon has mottles of brown or yellow. Some
pedons have a very dark gray (10YR 3/1; N 3/0), dark The Pahokee series consists of nearly level, very
gray (10YR 4/1; N 4/0), dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), poorly drained, organic soils in broad, freshwater
or dark brown (10YR 4/3) transitional A&Bh horizon that marshes. These soils formed in moderately thick de-
ranges to 4 inches in thickness, posits of hydrophytic plant remains over limestone.
Reaction of the Bh horizon ranges from very strongly Under natural conditions, the soil is covered by water,
acid to slightly acid. It is black- (10YR 2/1; 5YR 2/1), very
dark brown (10YR 2/2), dark brown (7.5YR 3/2), or dark or the water table is within 10 inches of the surface
reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2). Thickness ranges from 8 for 6 to 12 months during most years, except during
to 16 inches. Some pedons have a Bh&B3 horizon beneath extended dry periods.
the Bh horizon. The Bh&B3 horizon is dark brown (10YR In a representative pedon the upper 28 inches is
3/3; 7.5YR 4/4), dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4, 4/4),
or brown (10YR 4/3, 5/3) and has black or dark reddish black muck (sapric material). Below this is dark red-
brown weakly cemented fragments. The B2t horizon is dark dish brown muck that extends to the limestone bedrock
grayish brown (10YR 4/2; 2.5Y 4/2), gray (10YR 5/1), or at a depth of 42 inches. The limestone has numerous
grayish brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2) sandy loam or sandy solution holes (fig. 3).
clay loam and has gray, brown, or yellow mottles. It is
slightly acid to moderately alkaline. Permeability is rapid. The available water capacity
The IICca horizon is sand or loamy sand, sand and shell is very high, and natural fertility is moderate.
fragments, or sand that has fragments of marl or limestone. Representative pedon of Pahokee muck, 0.5 mile west
Oldsmar soils are associated with Immokalee, Wabasso, of State Road 827-A and about 200 feet north of State
Holopaw, Riviera, and Tequesta soils. Unlike Immokalee
soils, they have a sandy loam Bt horizon beneath the Bh Road 827, NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 30, T. 44 S., R. 37 E.
horizon. In Oldsmar soils the Bh and Bt horizons are at Oap-0 to 10 inches; black (N 2/0) muck (sapric material);
greater depths than in Wabasso soils. Oldmar soils have less than 5 percent fiber unrubbed; moderate coarse
a Bh horizon; Holopaw, Riviera, and Tequesta soils do not. essanu r bloy sruure, prting to modera te
Oldsmar soils lack the muck Oa surface horizon of Tequesta fine and medium gran ular structure; very friable;
sodium pyrophosphate extract is dark brown (10YR
Os-Oldsmar sand. This is a nearly level, poorly 4/3); estimated mineral content 35 percent;
drained, sandy soil that has a dark colored, weakly slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
cemented layer below a depth of 30 inches over a loamy Oa2-10 to 28 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck (sapric mate-
layer n boad, flatwood aea t ha the eorial); about 65 percent fiber, 10 percent rubbed;
layer. It is in broad, flatwood areas. It has the pedon massive; sodium pyrophosphate extract is pale








28 SOIL SURVEY










Se.




V. -



















Figure 3.-Bank of drainage ditch in Pahokee muck. The nearly level surface of the underlying limestone and the solution holes
in the upturned slab can be readily seen. The crop is sugarcane.


brown (10YR 6/3); estimated mineral content Pa-Pahokee muck. This is a nearly level, very
about 33 percent; slightly acid; gradual smooth poorly drained, organic soil that rests on limestone at
boundary.
Oa3-28 to 42 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) muck a depth of 36 to 51 inches. It is in broad, freshwater
(sapric material); about 40 percent fiber, 10 per- marshes. It has the pedon described as representative
cent rubbed; massive; sodium pyrophosphate ex- of the series. Under natural conditions, the soil is
tract is brown (10YR 5/3); estimated mineral con- covered by water, or the water table is within 10 inches
tent 35 percent; slightly acid; abrupt wavy bound- of the surface for 6 to 12 months during most years,
ary.ofteurfeo6 1m t d i ot a
R-42 inches; hard limestone containing solution holes, except during extended dry periods.
Thickness of organic material and depth to hard limestone Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
range from 36 to 51 inches. Reaction ranges from medium Lauderhill. Terra Ceia, Torry, and Okeelanta soils;
acid to mildly alkaline when measured with a field test kit. soils that have a thin, sandy layer over th limestone
The pH is more than 4.5 when measured in 0.01M CaC12. sols that have a thin, sandy layer over the limestone
Mineral content ranges from 10 to 45 percent, and soils that have a layer of more fibrous, less decom-
The Oa horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1; 5YR 2/1) or posed, organic material.
dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3). Before rubbing, The natural vegetation is sawgrass, willow, bay,
the fiber content ranges from 25 to 65 percent; after rub-
bing, the fiber content is 2 to 16 percent. In some pedons, elderberry, scattered cypress and an undergrowth of
a thin layer of calcareous loamy mineral material is between ferns, pickerelweed, maidencane, and other water-tol-
the Oa horizon and limestone. erant plants. Some large areas are in native vegetation,
Pahokee soils are associated with Terra Ceia, Torry, but most of this soil is used for sugarcane, cultivated
Okeelanta, Okeechobee, and Lauderhill soils. They have lime-
stone within a depth of 51 inches, and Terra Ceia, Torry, crops, pasture, and sod.
and Okeechobee soils do not. Unlike Okeelanta soils, they This soil is not suited to cultivation in its native
overlie limestone rather than sandy mineral material. They state. If good water control is established and main-
are most similar to Lauderhill soils, but they have limestone tin h a ssm is, i s, n ms,
at a depth of more than 36 inches, and Lauderhill soils have tained through a system of dikes ditches, and pumps,
it above 36 inches. it is well suited to a wide variety of vegetables and







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 29

sugarcane. In many areas, however, the underlying yellowish brown sand and shell fragments extend to a
limestone must be removed by blasting to construct depth of more than 80 inches.
ditches. In addition to maintaining the water control Permeability is very rapid, and the available water
system, saturating the soil when crops are not growing capacity is very low throughout. Organic-matter con-
minimizes oxidation of the organic material (fig. 4). tent and natural fertility are very low.
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to crop Representative pedon of Palm Beach sand, about 100
needs. feet south of the access road to the Lantana Public
This soil is not suited to citrus. It has many soil Beach area, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 10, T. 45 S., R. 43 E.
properties not favorable for citrus, and the drainage A-0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
needed for this crop would cause rapid deterioration of single grained; loose; many fine roots; estimated
the soil. 30 percent multicolored, sand-size shell fragments;
If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to many uncoated sand grains; moderately alkaline,
calcareous; clear smooth boundary.
high-quality pasture of improved grasses and clover C1-6 to 40 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; single
mixtures. Major management concerns are providing grained; loose; very few medium and coarse roots;
a water control system to remove excess surface water estimated 30 percent multicolored shell fragments;
and to maintain the level of the water table, adequately most sand grains uncoated; moderately alkaline,
applying fertilizer and lime as required, and carefully C2-40 al nceus; ih yeowih brown (10YR 6/4)
controlling grazing. Capability unit IIIw-12. sand; single grained; loose; estimated 30 percent
multicolored shell fragments; sand grains un-
coated; moderately alkaline, calcareous.
Palm Beach Series Reaction is mildly or moderately alkaline and weakly to
strongly calcareous throughout. Pockets or lenses dominantly
The Palm Beach series consists of nearly level to of shells may occur throughout the soil. The A horizon is
sloping, excessively drained, deep, sandy soils that very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), dark grayish brown
have a high content of shell fragments. These soils are (10YR 4/2), or grayish brown (10YR 5/2). It contains
on long, dunelike ridges generally parallel to the Atlan- about 5 to 35 percent sand-size shell fragments. It is 2 to
tic coast. They formed in thick beds of marine sand The C horizon contains shell fragments ranging from
and shell fragments. Under natural conditions, the sand size to about % inch and from 15 to 70 percent by
water table is below a depth of 6 feet. volume. In some pedons there are a few small, nearly white
lumps of sand cemented with lime in the C horizon. The
In a representative pedon the surface layer is dark C1 horizon is grayish brown (10YR 5/2), light brownish
grayish brown sand and shell fragments about 6 inches gray (10YR 6/2), or pale brown (10YR 6/3). It has 20 to
thick. The next layer is pale brown sand and shell 60 percent shell fragments, mostly of sand size. The C2
fragments about 34 inches thick. Below this, light horizon is lenses of sand and multicolored shells or shell
fragments, or mixed sand and shells. The color of the hori-
zon depends mostly on the color of the shells.
Palm Beach soils are associated with Canaveral, Paola,
and St. Lucie soils. They are similar to Canaveral soils but
have a water table deeper than 6 feet. Unlike Paola and
St. Lucie soils, Palm Beach soils have shell fragments
throughout.
PbB-Palm Beach-Urban land complex. This com-
plex consists of Palm Beach sand and Urban land.
About 50 to 70 percent of the complex is open land,
such as lawns, vacant lots, and undeveloped areas.
These areas are made up of nearly level to sloping,
excessively drained, Palm Beach sand that has been
graded and leveled in many places for urban develop-
ment. The original soil has a pedon similar to that
described as representative of the series. About 30 to
50 percent of the complex is covered by sidewalks,
streets, parking lots, buildings, and other structures.
Included with the open areas of this complex in
mapping are small areas of Canaveral sand that has
fill material on the original surface in many places.
Some of this fill material comes from the adjacent,
higher Palm Beach sand during the process of leveling.
The percentage of open land and urban areas varies.
A few narrow coastal ridges of Palm Beach sand
-L remain undeveloped, but the amount of such land is
being continually reduced by urban expansion. Not
placed in a capability unit.

Figure 4.-This house was built on pilings about 50 years ago on Paola Series
Pahokee muck. When built, it had only two front steps, but now
11 are needed because of oxidation and subsidence of the organic The Paola series consists of nearly level to sloping,
material. excessively drained, deep, sandy soils on long, narrow,







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 29

sugarcane. In many areas, however, the underlying yellowish brown sand and shell fragments extend to a
limestone must be removed by blasting to construct depth of more than 80 inches.
ditches. In addition to maintaining the water control Permeability is very rapid, and the available water
system, saturating the soil when crops are not growing capacity is very low throughout. Organic-matter con-
minimizes oxidation of the organic material (fig. 4). tent and natural fertility are very low.
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to crop Representative pedon of Palm Beach sand, about 100
needs. feet south of the access road to the Lantana Public
This soil is not suited to citrus. It has many soil Beach area, NE1/4SE1/4 sec. 10, T. 45 S., R. 43 E.
properties not favorable for citrus, and the drainage A-0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
needed for this crop would cause rapid deterioration of single grained; loose; many fine roots; estimated
the soil. 30 percent multicolored, sand-size shell fragments;
If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to many uncoated sand grains; moderately alkaline,
calcareous; clear smooth boundary.
high-quality pasture of improved grasses and clover C1-6 to 40 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; single
mixtures. Major management concerns are providing grained; loose; very few medium and coarse roots;
a water control system to remove excess surface water estimated 30 percent multicolored shell fragments;
and to maintain the level of the water table, adequately most sand grains uncoated; moderately alkaline,
applying fertilizer and lime as required, and carefully C2-40 al nceus; ih yeowih brown (10YR 6/4)
controlling grazing. Capability unit IIIw-12. sand; single grained; loose; estimated 30 percent
multicolored shell fragments; sand grains un-
coated; moderately alkaline, calcareous.
Palm Beach Series Reaction is mildly or moderately alkaline and weakly to
strongly calcareous throughout. Pockets or lenses dominantly
The Palm Beach series consists of nearly level to of shells may occur throughout the soil. The A horizon is
sloping, excessively drained, deep, sandy soils that very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), dark grayish brown
have a high content of shell fragments. These soils are (10YR 4/2), or grayish brown (10YR 5/2). It contains
on long, dunelike ridges generally parallel to the Atlan- about 5 to 35 percent sand-size shell fragments. It is 2 to
tic coast. They formed in thick beds of marine sand The C horizon contains shell fragments ranging from
and shell fragments. Under natural conditions, the sand size to about % inch and from 15 to 70 percent by
water table is below a depth of 6 feet. volume. In some pedons there are a few small, nearly white
lumps of sand cemented with lime in the C horizon. The
In a representative pedon the surface layer is dark C1 horizon is grayish brown (10YR 5/2), light brownish
grayish brown sand and shell fragments about 6 inches gray (10YR 6/2), or pale brown (10YR 6/3). It has 20 to
thick. The next layer is pale brown sand and shell 60 percent shell fragments, mostly of sand size. The C2
fragments about 34 inches thick. Below this, light horizon is lenses of sand and multicolored shells or shell
fragments, or mixed sand and shells. The color of the hori-
zon depends mostly on the color of the shells.
Palm Beach soils are associated with Canaveral, Paola,
and St. Lucie soils. They are similar to Canaveral soils but
have a water table deeper than 6 feet. Unlike Paola and
St. Lucie soils, Palm Beach soils have shell fragments
throughout.
PbB-Palm Beach-Urban land complex. This com-
plex consists of Palm Beach sand and Urban land.
About 50 to 70 percent of the complex is open land,
such as lawns, vacant lots, and undeveloped areas.
These areas are made up of nearly level to sloping,
excessively drained, Palm Beach sand that has been
graded and leveled in many places for urban develop-
ment. The original soil has a pedon similar to that
described as representative of the series. About 30 to
50 percent of the complex is covered by sidewalks,
streets, parking lots, buildings, and other structures.
Included with the open areas of this complex in
mapping are small areas of Canaveral sand that has
fill material on the original surface in many places.
Some of this fill material comes from the adjacent,
higher Palm Beach sand during the process of leveling.
The percentage of open land and urban areas varies.
A few narrow coastal ridges of Palm Beach sand
-L remain undeveloped, but the amount of such land is
being continually reduced by urban expansion. Not
placed in a capability unit.

Figure 4.-This house was built on pilings about 50 years ago on Paola Series
Pahokee muck. When built, it had only two front steps, but now
11 are needed because of oxidation and subsidence of the organic The Paola series consists of nearly level to sloping,
material. excessively drained, deep, sandy soils on long, narrow,








30 SOIL SURVEY

dune-like ridges near the Atlantic coast. They formed layer. It is on long, narrow dunelike ridges near the
in thick beds of sandy marine sediments. The water Atlantic coast. It has the pedon described as repre-
table is below a depth of 6 feet. sentative of the series. The water table is below a depth
In a representative pedon the surface layer is dark of 6 feet.
gray sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
is white sand about 17 inches thick. A layer of yellow St. Lucie, Palm Beach, and Pomello soils; soils that
sand 4 inches thick is at a depth of 21 inches. It is lack the thick, white, subsurface layer; and soils that
transitional to the subsoil, which is strong brown sand have the yellowish layer at a depth greater than that
about 12 inches thick. Light yellowish brown sand described for Paola sand.
extends from a depth of 37 inches to a depth of 80 The natural vegetation is sand pine and an under-
inches or more. growth of scrub oak, palmetto, and rosemary. The
Permeability is very rapid throughout. The available surface is sparsely covered by grasses, cacti, mosses,
water capacity is very low. Organic-matter content and and lichens. Large areas are in native vegetation. Some
natural fertility are very low. areas are cleared and smoothed for urban use.
Representative pedon of Paola sand, about 0.4 mile This soil is not suited to vegetables and most culti-
west of U.S. Highway 1 on the north side of Donald vated crops because it is drought and has many other
Ross Road in a cutbank on the right-of-way, SW1/4 poor soil qualities. It is moderately well suited to
SW1/4 sec. 21, T. 41 S., R. 43 E. citrus. In citrus groves, a cover crop of weeds and
A1-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single grasses is needed to keep the soil between the trees
grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; very from blowing. Tillage should be kept to a minimum.
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. s e Sprinkle irrigation is needed to insure the survival of
A2--4 to 21 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single grained;
loose; common fine and medium roots; slightly acid young trees and a good yield of fruit from mature
gradual wavy boundary. trees.
B1-21 to 25 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) sand; white (10YR This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture of
8/1), light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), and bahiagrass and other deep-rooted grasses. In such
brownisedloose di YRc 6id6) lear yoh; undare pastures, frequent application of fertilizer and care-
B&A-25 to 37 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) sand; fully controlled grazing are needed. Capability unit
single grained; loose; tongues 1 to 3 inches in VIs-1.
diameter extend through horizon, filled with white
(10YR 8/2), yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), and
light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) sand, outer Pineda Series
edges of tongues, 0.5 to 1.0 inch wide stained dark
brown (7.5YR 4/4) by organic material, weakly The Pineda series consists of nearly level, poorly
cemented; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. drained, sandy soils over loamy material. These soils
B3-37 to 80 inches; light yellowish brown (llYR 6/4) are on broad, low flatwoods and in grassy sloughs.
sand; single grained; loose; color gradually lightens
with increasing depth; slightly acid. They formed in sandy and loamy marine sediments.
Sand extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. Silt plus Under natural conditions, the water table is within 10
clay between a depth of 10 and 40 inches is less than 5 per- inches of the surface for 1 to 6 months in most years
cent. Reaction is generally strongly or very strongly acid, and within 10 to 30 inches most of the remainder of
but ranges to slightly acid during dry periods because of each year, except during extended dry periods. Water
ocean spray. covers depressions for to 3 months.
The Al horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1), or gray (10YR covers depressions for 1 to 3 months.
5/1, 6/1), and is 2 to 5 inches thick. The A2 horizon is light In a representative pedon the surface layer is dark
gray (N 7/0; 10YR 7/1, 7/2) or white (N 8/0; 10YR 8/1, grayish brown sand about 3 inches thick. Below this
8/2) and ranges from 10 to 40 inches in thickness. Some is about 16 inches of yellowish brown and brownish
pedons have a thin, discontinuous B1 horizon which ranges yellow sand. The next layer is light gray sand about 15
to 5 inches in thickness and is yellow (10YR 7/6, 7/8) or yellow sand. The next layer is light gray sand about 15
brownish yellow (10YR 6/6, 5/8) and has few to common inches thick. A grayish brown sandy loam that has
splotches of white, light gray, yellow, or brown, vertical sandy tongues that extend from the layer
The B&A horizon is strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, 5/8), above is at a depth of 34 inches. The underlying mate-
brownish yellow (10YR 6/6, 6/8), or yellow (10YR 7/6, rial is a mixture of light gray sand and shell fragments
7/8). Tongues of white sand, 1 to 3 inches in diameter ex- al is a mixture of light gray sand and shell fragments
tend through the horizon. The tongues have a /2- to 1-inch below a depth of 44 inches.
sheath of dark brown (7.5YR 4/4) to brown (10YR 5/3) Permeability is rapid in the sandy layers and mod-
weakly cemented sand. The B&A horizon commonly has a erately rapid in the loamy layer. The available water
few coarse weakly cemented, dark reddish brown to strong erately rapid in the loamy layer. The available water
brown pockets. capacity is very low in the sandy layers and medium in
The B3 horizon is below a depth of 36 inches and is light the loamy layer. Organic matter content is low, and
yellowish brown (10YR 6/4), brown (10YR 5/3), pale natural fertility is low.
brown (10YR 6/3), or very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4, 8/3,
8/4). Representative pedon of Pineda sand, about 0.45
Paola soils are associated with St. Lucie, Palm Beach, and mile east of the Sunshine State Parkway and about
Pomello soils. They have a B&A horizon, and St. Lucie soils 660 feet south of Forest Hill Boulevard, NE1/4NW1/4
do not. Unlike Palm Beach soils, they have a B&A horizon 16, T. 44 R 4
and lack shell fragments. They are better drained than sec. 1 44 ., 42 E.
Pomello soils and lack the black weakly cemented Bh horizon A1-0 to 3 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
of Pomello soils. weak fine granular structure; very friable; many
PcB-Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This nearly fine roots; medium acid; clear smooth boundary.
S B21ir-3 to 14 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sand;
level to sloping, excessively drained, deep, sandy soil common medium faint light yellowish brown (10YR
has yellowish layers beneath the white subsurface 6/4) and few fine prominent yellowish red mottles;








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 31

single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual The natural vegetation is slash pine, cabbage pal-
smooth boundary. metto, scattered cypress and southern bayberry, St.
B22ir-14 to 19 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) sand; metto, scttered bcress and souther a er
single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual Johnswort, little blue maidencane, pineland three-awn
smooth boundary. chloris, chalky bluestem, sand cordgrass, and numerous
A'2-19 to 34 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; common other grasses. Most areas are in natural vegetation or
fine distinct yellow mottles; single grained; loose; improved pasture.
B'tg&A- to nglyacide; ra hpt irregu 5Yo arndy If a water control system is installed, this soil is well
loam; few medium faint light olive brown (2.5Y suited to a variety of vegetables. In addition to drain-
5/4) mottles; massive in place, crushes to weak age and irrigation, growing cover crops in fallow
coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; periods helps maintain the organic-matter content and
grains are coated and bridged with clay; few verti- tilth Fertilizer and lime should be applied according
cal tongues, 1 to 2 inches wide, of A'2 horizon tilth. Fertizer and lime should be applied according
extend into upper 8 inches; slightly acid; clear to crop needs.
wavy boundary. If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited or
IIC-44 to 62 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) sand mixed well suited to citrus. A water control system is needed
with shell fragments; single grained; loose; esti- tointain a constant water table at a depth of 3 feet
mated about 15 percent shell fragments; moderately maintain a constant water table at a depth of 3 feet
alkaline, calcareous. or more. Trees should be planted on broad, elevated
Combined thickness of the A and Bir horizons ranges beds and fertilizer should be applied frequently.
from 20 to 40 inches. Reaction ranges from very strongly This soil is well suited to high-quality pasture of
acid to slightly acid in the A, Bir and A'2 horizons and from improved grasses and clover. A water control system
slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the B'tg&A horizon, that provides surface drainage and subsurface irriga-
The Al horizon is black (10YR 2/1), very dark gray tion is needed to improve cron growth. Adequate ferti-
(10YR 3/1), dark gray (10YR 4/1), dark grayish brown application and careful controwt. Adequate er
(10 YR 4/2), or grayish brown (10YR 5/2). The A2 horizon, lizer application and careful control of grazing are
if present, is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish brown (10YR needed to maintain healthy plant growth. Capability
5/2), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), light gray (10YR unit IIIw-4.
7/1, 7/2), or white (10YR 8/1, 8/2).
The B2ir horizon is yellowish brown (10YR 5/6, 5/8),
brownish yellow (10YR 6/6, 6/8), or strong brown (7.5YR Pinellas Series
5/6, 5/8). It commonly has mottles in shades of gray, brown,
or yellow. The Pinellas series consists of nearly level, poorly
The A'2 horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1; N 4/0), gray drained soils that have a sandy, calcareous subsurface
(10YR 5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2; layer and a loamy subsoil. These soils are in nearly
N 7/0; 2.5Y 7/2), dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2; 2.5Y
4/2), grayish brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2). or light brown- level areas that border sloughs and shallow depres-
ish gray (10YR 6/2; 2.5Y 6/2). Some pedons do not have sions. They formed in sandy and loamy marine sedi-
this horizon. ments. Under natural conditions, the water table is
The B'tg&A horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1;in 1 inches of the surface for 1 to 3 months and
4/0), gray (10YR 5/1; N 5/0), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2; within 10 inches o the surface for to 3 months an
N 7/0; 2.5Y 7/2), dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2; 2.5Y within 10 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years.
4/2), grayish brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2), or light brown- In a representative pedon the surface layer is black
ish gray (10YR 6/2; 2.5Y 6/2) and has mottles in shades fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
of yellow and brown. The B'tg part is sandy loam or sandy 4 to 36 inches thick. In the upper 6 inches it is grayish
clay loam, and tongues of sand extend vertically into the
horizon from above. Some pedons have a gray to light olive brown fine sand, in the middle 12 inches it is white fine
gray loamy sand B'3g horizon, sand and calcium carbonate, and in the lower 14 inches
The IIC horizon is a gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), it is light gray fine sand. The subsoil is gray fine sandy
light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2; N 7/0; 2.5Y 7/2), or light loam 18 inches thick. The substratum is light gray
brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mixture of sand and shell frag- sand mixed with shell fragments.
ments. sand mixed with shell fragments.
Pineda soils are associated with Riviera, Boca, Pinellas, Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
Hallandale, Holopaw, Wabasso, and Oldsmar soils. They are layers, moderate in the subsoil, and rapid in the sub-
similar to Riviera soils but have a Bir horizon above the stratum. The available water capacity is very low in
B'tg&A horizon. Unlike Boca and Hallandsle soils, they have the upper 10 inches and medium to a depth of about
no limestone within a depth of 40 inches. They lack the thindepth of about
marl A2ca horizon of Pinellas soils. They have a Bir horizon 54 inches. The organic-matter content and natural
and B'tg&A horizon within a depth of 40 inches, which fertility are low.
Holopaw soils lack. They lack the Bh horizon of Wabasso Representative pedon of Pinellas fine sand, in the
and Oldsmar soils. Corbett Wildlife Management Area, about 4 miles
Pd-Pineda sand. This is a nearly level, poorly northeast of Canal L-8, 100 feet west of main grade,
drained, sandy soil over loamy material. It is on broad, SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 26, T. 41 S., R. 39 E.
low flatwoods and grassy sloughs. It has the pedon A1-0 to 4 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak fine
described as representative of the series. Under granular structure; very friable; many fine roots;
natural conditions, the water table is within 10 inches many uncoated sand grains; neutral; abrupt wavy
of the surface for 1 to 6 months in most years and boundary.
within 10 to 30 inches most of the remainder of each A21-4 to 10 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
year except during extended dr rids Watfew fine distinct strong brown (7.YR 5/6) mottles
year, except during extended dry periods. Water and common medium distinct dark grayish brown
covers depressions for 1 to 3 months. (10YR 4/2) mottles; single grained; loose; few
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas fine and medium roots; common fine very dark
of Riviera, Pinellas, Boca, and Hallandale soils; and gray and dark grayish brown streaks on old root
soils that have loamy material below a depth of 40 channels; neutral; abrupt wavy boundary.
soils that have loamy material below a depth of 40 A22ca-10 to 22 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; few
inches. fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles








32 SOIL SURVEY

and common medium distinct yellow (10YR 7/8) drainage and irrigation, the use of cover crops during
mottles in upper part; massive, crushes to moderate fallow periods helps to maintain the organic-matter
medium granular structure; firm in place, friable;
secondary calcium carbonate in interstices between content and improve tilth. Fertilizer and lime should
sand grains; sand grains coated with calcium be applied according to crop needs.
carbonate; mildly alkaline, calcareous; abrupt wavy If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited
boundary.
A23-22 to 86 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; or well suited to citrus. A water control system is
single grained; loose; mildly alkaline; clear wavy needed to maintain a constant water table at a depth
boundary. of 3 feet or more. Trees should be planted on broad
Btg-36 to 54 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam; weak elevated beds. Fertilizer should be applied frequently.
coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky;
sand grains coated and bridged with clay; common This soil is well suited to high-quality pasture of
coarse pockets of light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; improved grasses and clover. A water control system
mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary that provides surface drainage and subsurface irriga-
IIC-54 to 60 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand mixed
with white shell fragments; moderately alkaline, tion is needed to improve crop growth. Adequate appli-
calcareous. cation of fertilizer and careful control of grazing are
The A horizon is 20 to 40 inches thick. Reaction ranges needed to maintain healthy plant growth. Capability
from medium acid to mildly alkaline. The A22ca horizon is unit IIIw-4.
calcareous. The Al horizon is black (10YR 2/1; N 2/0),
very dark gray (10YR 3/1), very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2), dark gray (10YR 4/1), or dark grayish brown (10YR Pits
4/2). It is 2 to 6 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray (10YR
5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2; N 7/0; Pf-Pits consist of excavations from which soil and
2.5Y 7/2), white (0YR 8/1, 8/2; N 8/0; 2.5Y 7/2), grayish geologic material have been removed for use in road
brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2), light brownish gray (lOYR i
6/2; 2.5Y 6/2), brown (10YR 5/3), pale brown (10YR 6/3)( construction or for foundation purposes. Pits, locally
or very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 8/3). The A horizon gener- called borrow pits, are in small to large areas in the
ally has mottles in shades of brown, yellow, or gray. Ac- eastern part of the county.
cumulations of secondary calcium carbonate in the A22ca Included with this unit in mapping is waste material,
horizon occur as coatings on sand grains and in the inter-
stices between sand grains. The A22ca horizon is more than mostly mixtures of sand and shell fragments, that are
6 inches thick. piled or scattered around the edges of the pits.
The Btg horizon is dark gray (YR 4/1; N 4/0; 5Y 4/1), Most pits have been excavated below the normal
gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0; 5Y 5/1, 6/1), or light
gray (10YR 7/1; N 7/0; 5Y 7/1) with or without mottles, water table and are ponded for 9 months or more each
or it is dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2; 2.5Y 4/2), olive year. Most are abandoned, though excavation continues
gray (5Y 4/2, 5/2), grayish brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2), in a few places. Many of the older pits are used for
light brownish gray (10YR 6/2, 2.5Y 6/2), light olive gray fishing and as feeding areas by wading birds and
(5Y 6/2), or light gray (10YR 7/2; 2.5Y 7/2; 5Y 7/2) with
mottles. It is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Secondary waterfowl. Most of these pits can be improved for such
accumulations of calcium carbonate occur in root channels uses by stocking with fish. A few pits serve as stock
or as small scattered nodules in some pedons. The Btg hori- watering ponds. They have no other farming use. Not
zon in some pedons has small to large pockets of fine sand, placed in a capability unit.
or loamy fine sand. Some pedons have a B3tg horizon of
loamy fine sand.
The IIC horizon is a mixture of fine sand and shell frag- Placid Series
ments in varying proportions. Color is largely dependent
on the shell fragments, but the fine sand has colors similar The Placid series consists of nearly level, very poorly
to those of the Btg horizon. A sandy C horizon overlies the drained, deep, sandy soils that have a thick dark sur-
layers of shell fragments in some pedons. drained, deep, sandy soils that have a thick dark sur-
Pe-Pinellas fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly face layer. These soils are in depressions and poorly
drained soil that has a sandy, calcareous subsurface define d drainageways. They formed in thick beds of
layer and a loamy subsoil. This soil is in nearly level sandy marine sediments. Under natural conditions, the
areas that border sloughs and depressions. It has the water table is within 10 inches of the surface for more
pedon described as representative of the series. Under than 6 months during most years. Depressed areas
natural conditions, the water table is within 10 inches are covered by water for more than 6 months.
of the surface for 1 to 3 months and within 10 to 30 In a representative pedon the surface layer is black
inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. fine sand in the upper 10 inches and is very dark gray
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of fine sand in the lower 7 inches. The next layer is light
Riviera, Pineda, Boca, Holopaw, and Hallandale soils brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 23 inches. Below
soils that lack a loamy subsoil within a depth of 40 this is light gray fine sand that extends to a depth of
inches; soils that have highly colored sand layers 60 inches or more.
between the marl layer and the loamy subsoil and, in Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available
a few places, soils that have limestone within a depth water capacity is high in the dark surface layer and
of 40 inches. low in the layers below. The organic-matter content is
The natural vegetation is slash pine, cabbage palm, high, and natural fertility is medium.
saw-palmetto, inkberry, pineland three-awn, and many Representative pedon of Placid fine sand, about 0.35
other grasses. Most areas of this soil are in native mile north of Clint Moore Road and 0.2 mile east of
vegetation. Military Trail, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 36, T. 46 S., R. 43 E.
If a water control system is installed, this soil is A11-0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; few fine
well suited to a variety of vegetables. In addition to light gray streaks and pockets; moderate fine and








32 SOIL SURVEY

and common medium distinct yellow (10YR 7/8) drainage and irrigation, the use of cover crops during
mottles in upper part; massive, crushes to moderate fallow periods helps to maintain the organic-matter
medium granular structure; firm in place, friable;
secondary calcium carbonate in interstices between content and improve tilth. Fertilizer and lime should
sand grains; sand grains coated with calcium be applied according to crop needs.
carbonate; mildly alkaline, calcareous; abrupt wavy If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited
boundary.
A23-22 to 86 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; or well suited to citrus. A water control system is
single grained; loose; mildly alkaline; clear wavy needed to maintain a constant water table at a depth
boundary. of 3 feet or more. Trees should be planted on broad
Btg-36 to 54 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam; weak elevated beds. Fertilizer should be applied frequently.
coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky;
sand grains coated and bridged with clay; common This soil is well suited to high-quality pasture of
coarse pockets of light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; improved grasses and clover. A water control system
mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary that provides surface drainage and subsurface irriga-
IIC-54 to 60 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand mixed
with white shell fragments; moderately alkaline, tion is needed to improve crop growth. Adequate appli-
calcareous. cation of fertilizer and careful control of grazing are
The A horizon is 20 to 40 inches thick. Reaction ranges needed to maintain healthy plant growth. Capability
from medium acid to mildly alkaline. The A22ca horizon is unit IIIw-4.
calcareous. The Al horizon is black (10YR 2/1; N 2/0),
very dark gray (10YR 3/1), very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2), dark gray (10YR 4/1), or dark grayish brown (10YR Pits
4/2). It is 2 to 6 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray (10YR
5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2; N 7/0; Pf-Pits consist of excavations from which soil and
2.5Y 7/2), white (0YR 8/1, 8/2; N 8/0; 2.5Y 7/2), grayish geologic material have been removed for use in road
brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2), light brownish gray (lOYR i
6/2; 2.5Y 6/2), brown (10YR 5/3), pale brown (10YR 6/3)( construction or for foundation purposes. Pits, locally
or very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 8/3). The A horizon gener- called borrow pits, are in small to large areas in the
ally has mottles in shades of brown, yellow, or gray. Ac- eastern part of the county.
cumulations of secondary calcium carbonate in the A22ca Included with this unit in mapping is waste material,
horizon occur as coatings on sand grains and in the inter-
stices between sand grains. The A22ca horizon is more than mostly mixtures of sand and shell fragments, that are
6 inches thick. piled or scattered around the edges of the pits.
The Btg horizon is dark gray (YR 4/1; N 4/0; 5Y 4/1), Most pits have been excavated below the normal
gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0; 5Y 5/1, 6/1), or light
gray (10YR 7/1; N 7/0; 5Y 7/1) with or without mottles, water table and are ponded for 9 months or more each
or it is dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2; 2.5Y 4/2), olive year. Most are abandoned, though excavation continues
gray (5Y 4/2, 5/2), grayish brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2), in a few places. Many of the older pits are used for
light brownish gray (10YR 6/2, 2.5Y 6/2), light olive gray fishing and as feeding areas by wading birds and
(5Y 6/2), or light gray (10YR 7/2; 2.5Y 7/2; 5Y 7/2) with
mottles. It is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Secondary waterfowl. Most of these pits can be improved for such
accumulations of calcium carbonate occur in root channels uses by stocking with fish. A few pits serve as stock
or as small scattered nodules in some pedons. The Btg hori- watering ponds. They have no other farming use. Not
zon in some pedons has small to large pockets of fine sand, placed in a capability unit.
or loamy fine sand. Some pedons have a B3tg horizon of
loamy fine sand.
The IIC horizon is a mixture of fine sand and shell frag- Placid Series
ments in varying proportions. Color is largely dependent
on the shell fragments, but the fine sand has colors similar The Placid series consists of nearly level, very poorly
to those of the Btg horizon. A sandy C horizon overlies the drained, deep, sandy soils that have a thick dark sur-
layers of shell fragments in some pedons. drained, deep, sandy soils that have a thick dark sur-
Pe-Pinellas fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly face layer. These soils are in depressions and poorly
drained soil that has a sandy, calcareous subsurface define d drainageways. They formed in thick beds of
layer and a loamy subsoil. This soil is in nearly level sandy marine sediments. Under natural conditions, the
areas that border sloughs and depressions. It has the water table is within 10 inches of the surface for more
pedon described as representative of the series. Under than 6 months during most years. Depressed areas
natural conditions, the water table is within 10 inches are covered by water for more than 6 months.
of the surface for 1 to 3 months and within 10 to 30 In a representative pedon the surface layer is black
inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. fine sand in the upper 10 inches and is very dark gray
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of fine sand in the lower 7 inches. The next layer is light
Riviera, Pineda, Boca, Holopaw, and Hallandale soils brownish gray fine sand to a depth of 23 inches. Below
soils that lack a loamy subsoil within a depth of 40 this is light gray fine sand that extends to a depth of
inches; soils that have highly colored sand layers 60 inches or more.
between the marl layer and the loamy subsoil and, in Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available
a few places, soils that have limestone within a depth water capacity is high in the dark surface layer and
of 40 inches. low in the layers below. The organic-matter content is
The natural vegetation is slash pine, cabbage palm, high, and natural fertility is medium.
saw-palmetto, inkberry, pineland three-awn, and many Representative pedon of Placid fine sand, about 0.35
other grasses. Most areas of this soil are in native mile north of Clint Moore Road and 0.2 mile east of
vegetation. Military Trail, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 36, T. 46 S., R. 43 E.
If a water control system is installed, this soil is A11-0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; few fine
well suited to a variety of vegetables. In addition to light gray streaks and pockets; moderate fine and








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 33

medium granular structure; friable; many fine Pomello Series
roots; many uncoated sand grains; estimated 15 to
18 percent organic-matter content; very strongly The Pomello series consists of nearly level to gently
acid; clear wavy boundary. sloping, moderately well drained, deep, sandy soils that
A12-10 to 17 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand, sloping, moderately well drained, deep, sandy soils that
rubbed, light gray (10YR 7/1) and black (10YR have a weakly cemented layer below a depth of 30
2/1), unrubbed; common pockets of black organic inches. These soils are on low knolls and ridges. They
matter; weak fine granular structure; very friable; formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediments. Under
many fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; natural conditions, the water table is at a depth of 24
gradual irregular boundary to 40 inches for 1 to 4 months during the normal wet
C1--17 to 23 inches; gray (10YR 6/6) fine sand; common
dark colored streaks in old root channels; single period and below 40 inches during the remainder of
grained; loose; common fine roots; very strongly the year.
acid; gradual wavy boundary. In a representative pedon the surface layer is gray
C2-23 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; few fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
fine faint yellowish mottles and few faint brownish
streaks in old root channels; single grained; loose; is light gray and white fine sand. It extends to a depth
very strongly acid. of 44 inches. The next layer is black fine sand weakly
Reaction ranges from strongly to very strongly acid cemented with organic matter. It is about 10 inches
throughout. The A horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1) or thick. Below this is a layer of dark reddish brown fine
very dark gray (10YR 3/1) and is 10 to 20 inches thick. sand about 6 inches thick. Light yellowish brown fine
The C horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), grayish sand is at a depth of 60 to 80 inches or more.
brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2), or light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2;
N 7/0). Most pedons have mottles in shades of brown and Permeability is very rapid to a depth of 44 inches,
yellow and have darker colored streaks in old root channels, moderately rapid to a depth of 60 inches, and rapid
Placid soils are associated with Basinger, Pompano, below this. The available water capacity is medium in
Anclote, Myakka, and Immokalee soils. Unlike Basinger and the weakly cemented layer and very low in all other
Pompano soils, they have a thick, dark colored Al horizon.
They are more acid than Anclote soils. Placid soils do notlayers. Organic-matter content and natural fertility are
have the Bh horizon of Myakka and Immokalee soils, very low.
Pg-Placid fine sand. This is a nearly level, very Representative pedon of Pomello fine sand, about
poorly drained, deep, sandy soil that has a thick, dark 0.25 mile south of State Road 706 and about 800 feet
colored surface layer. This soil is on depressed areas west of Perry Avenue in Jupiter, Florida, SE1/4SW1/4
and in poorly defined drainageways. It has the pedon sec. 1, T. 41 S., R. 42 E.
described as representative of the series. Under natural A1-0 to 4 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak fine
conditions, the water table is within 10 inches of the granular structure; very friable; many fine roots;
many uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid;
surface for more than 6 months during most years. clear smooth boundary. very s y
Depressed areas are covered with water for more than A21-4 to 28 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; common
6 months. coarse faint light gray (10YR 7/1) splotches;
single grained; loose; common medium and coarse
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas roots; medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
of Anclote, Basinger, Myakka, and Immokalee soils; A22-28 to 44 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; few
soils that have a thin organic surface layer; soils that to common black to very dark grayish brown
have a black, weakly cemented layer within a depth of streaks in old root channels; single grained; loose;
few medium roots; medium acid; abrupt wavy
30 inches; and soils that have a brown to pale brown boundary.
subsoil. B2h-44 to 54 inches; black (10YR 2/1) and dark reddish
brown (5YR 2/2) fine sand; many medium distinct
The natural vegetation is pickerelweed, maidencane, dark gray (10Y R 4/1) mottles; massive in displace,
ferns, St. Johnswort, and a variety of other water- parts to weak fine granular structure; very friable;
tolerant grasses and sedges. Cypress, bay, and gum darkest parts weakly cemented; slightly acid; clear
trees grow in some areas. Most areas of this soil are wavy boundary.
in native vegetation. B3-54 to 60 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) and
reddish brown (5YR 4/3) fine sand; single grained;
Unless drained, this soil is not suited to cultivated loose; many uncoated sand grains; very strongly
crops. If a water control system is installed, it is well acid; gradual wavy boundary.
suited to a variety of vegetables. If outlets are avail- C-60 to 80 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) fine
sand; single grained; loose; strongly acid.
able, simple water control systems remove excess water Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid.
in wet periods and provide for subsurface irrigation in hReActi iran 30rom vershronth1 acid o slighhotl acid
in wet periods and provide for subsurface irrigation in The A horizon is 30 to 50 inches thick. The Al horizon is
dry periods. Drainage is generally not feasible in dark gray (10YR 4/1; N 4/0), or gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1;
isolated small areas that have no natural outlet. In N 5/0, 6/0). It is 2 to 6 inches thick. The A2 horizon is light
some areas, dikes are needed to keep out water from gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2; N 7/0) or white (10YR 8/1, 8/2;
adjacent wet areas. In addition to drainage and N 8/0). In some pedons, a transitional horizon /2 to 2 inches
adjacent wet areas. In addition to drainage and irriga- thick that has some uncoated sand grains is between the
tion, fertilizer and lime should be applied according to base of the A2 horizon and the toD of the Bh horizon.
crop needs. The B2h horizon is black (10YR 2/1; 5YR 2/1), dark
This sil is p sit t ci i brown (7.5YR 3/2), or dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2,
This soil is poorly suited to citrus. If drainage and 3/3, 3/4). It is 6 to 20 inches thick and the sand grains are
water control are adequate, it is well suited to high- coated with organic matter. The B3 horizon is dark reddish
quality pasture of improved grasses and clover. Appli- brown (5YR 3/4), reddish brown (5YR 4/3, 4/4), or dark
cation of fertilizer and lime according to plant needs brown (7.5YR 4/2, 4/4; 10YR 3/3, 4/3) and has common to
and control of grazing ar e needed to maintain healt many uncoated sand grains. Some pedons have a few weakly
and control of grazing are needed to maintain healthy cemented Bh fragments, and some have mottles in shades
plant growth. Capability unit IIIw-7. of brown and yellow in the B3 horizon.








34 SOIL SURVEY

The C horizon is commonly light gray (10YR 7/1), gray C2-32 to 52 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
(10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish brown (10YR 5/2), pale brown single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual
(10YR 6/3), very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4), or light wavy boundary.
yellowish brown (10YR 6/4). C3-52 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand;
Pomello soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka, single grained; loose; very strongly acid.
Basinger, St. Lucie, and Paola soils. They are better drained Reaction ranges from extremely acid to mildly alkaline
than Immokalee, Myakka, and Basinger soils. They have an throughout. The A horizon is very dark gray (10YR 3/1;
A horizon more than 30 inches thick, and Myakka soils do N 3/0), dark gray (10YR 4/1; N 4.0), gray (10YR 5/1;
not. They have a well developed, weakly cemented Bh hori- N 5/0), grayish brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2), or dark
zon, and Basinger soils do not. Pomello soils are less well grayish brown (10YR 4/2; 2.5Y 4/2). It is 3 to 8 inches
drained than St. Lucie and Paola soils and have a Bh hori- thick.
zon, which St. Lucie and Paola soils do not have. The C horizon is grayish brown (10YR 5/2, 2.5Y 5/2),
PhB-Pomello fine sand. This is a nearly level to brown (10YR 5/3), pale brown (10YR 6/3), very pale
gently sloping, moderately well drained, deep, sandy brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2),
gently sloping, moderately well drained, deep, sandy gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), or light gray (10YR 7/1,
soil that has a dark, weakly cemented layer below a 7/2). It has mottles in shades of brown or yellow.
depth of 30 inches. This soil is on low ridges and knolls. Pompano soils are associated with Basinger, Anclote, Im-
Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. It has the pedon mokalee, Riviera, and Holopaw soils. Unlike Basinger soils,
described as representative of the series. Under natu- they lack a friable Bh horizon weakly stained by organic
described as rerestate o th i n matter. Pompano soils lack the thick, dark Al horizon of
ral conditions, the water table is within 24 to 40 inches Anclote soils and the weakly cemented Bh horizon of Immo-
for 1 to 4 months during wet periods and below 40 kalee soils. Pompano soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches
inches during the remainder of the year. or more, and Riviera and Holopaw soils are not.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas Po-Pompano fine sand. This is a nearly level,
of Immokalee, Myakka, Basinger, St. Lucie, and Paola poorly drained, deep, sandy soil in broad, grassy
soils; and soils in which the dark, weakly cemented sloughs, concave depressions, and drainageways. It
layer is below 50 inches, or is less well developed, has the pedon described as representative of the series.
The natural vegetation is slash pine, sand pine, scrub Under natural conditions, the water table is within 10
oak, saw-palmetto, inkberry, sand plum, fetterbush, inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months in most years
pineland three-awn, and other native grasses. Most and within 30 inches for more than 9 months. Water
areas are in native vegetation, covers depressions for more than 3 months in most
This soil is generally not suited to cultivation be- years.
cause of poor soil properties. It is not suited to row Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
crops or most vegetables and is poorly suited to citrus. Basinger, Anclote, Immokalee, Holopaw, and Riviera
It is poorly suited to bahiagrass and other deep-rooted, soils; and soils that have a brownish yellow, ironstained
drought-resistant grasses, even if large amounts of layer.
fertilizer and lime are applied. Capability unit VIs-2. The natural vegetation is southern bayberry, mela-
leuca, pineland three-awn, sand cordgrass, and other
Pompano Series grasses. Scattered cypress, slash pine, and cabbage
palm trees grow in some places. Some areas are in
The Pompano series consists of nearly level, poorly improved pasture.
drained, deep, sandy soils in broad, grassy sloughs, Unless drained, this soil is not suited to cultivated
concave depressions, and drainageways. These soils crops. If drained and intensively managed, it is mod-
formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediments. Under erately well suited to vegetation. A well-designed,
natural conditions, the water table is within 10 inches constructed, and maintained water control system
of the surface for 2 to 6 months in most years and maintains the level of the water table and provides
within 30 inches for more than 9 months. Water covers subsurface irrigation. Frequent applications of ferti-
depressions for more than 3 months in most years, lizer and lime are needed.
In a representative pedon the surface layer is dark This soil is poorly suited to citrus. Because it is in
grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. Below low positions and generally has a high water table,
this is light gray fine sand to a depth of about 32 water control is difficult. A well-designed water control
inches. The next layer is pale brown fine sand about 20 system and bedding are needed if citrus is planted.
inches thick. Below this is very pale brown fine sand Fertility is difficult to maintain because the soil is
that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. sandy and low in fertility. Frequent applications of
fertilizer are needed. During dry periods, irrigation is
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available needed to insure good yields.
water capacity is very low. Organic-matter content and If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to
natural fertility are low. improved pasture of grass or grass and clover. Major
Representative pedon of Pompano fine sand, about management concerns are providing a water control
100 feet east of El Rio Canal and about 0.45 mile system that is less intensive but is otherwise similar to
north of entrance road to Florida Atlantic University, that system required for cultivated crops, frequently
NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 18, T. 47 S., R. 43 E. applying fertilizer and lime as required, and carefully
Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) crushed controlling grazing. Capability unit IVw-1.
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very
friable; many uncoated sand grains; extremely Quartzipsamments, Shaped
acid; clear wavy boundary. uartzipsamments, Shaped
C1-8 to 32 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; single QAB artzipsammens shaped. This mapping
grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual smooth QAB-Qartzipsamments, spe is m in
boundary. unit consists of nearly level to gently sloping, well








34 SOIL SURVEY

The C horizon is commonly light gray (10YR 7/1), gray C2-32 to 52 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
(10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish brown (10YR 5/2), pale brown single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual
(10YR 6/3), very pale brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4), or light wavy boundary.
yellowish brown (10YR 6/4). C3-52 to 80 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand;
Pomello soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka, single grained; loose; very strongly acid.
Basinger, St. Lucie, and Paola soils. They are better drained Reaction ranges from extremely acid to mildly alkaline
than Immokalee, Myakka, and Basinger soils. They have an throughout. The A horizon is very dark gray (10YR 3/1;
A horizon more than 30 inches thick, and Myakka soils do N 3/0), dark gray (10YR 4/1; N 4.0), gray (10YR 5/1;
not. They have a well developed, weakly cemented Bh hori- N 5/0), grayish brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2), or dark
zon, and Basinger soils do not. Pomello soils are less well grayish brown (10YR 4/2; 2.5Y 4/2). It is 3 to 8 inches
drained than St. Lucie and Paola soils and have a Bh hori- thick.
zon, which St. Lucie and Paola soils do not have. The C horizon is grayish brown (10YR 5/2, 2.5Y 5/2),
PhB-Pomello fine sand. This is a nearly level to brown (10YR 5/3), pale brown (10YR 6/3), very pale
gently sloping, moderately well drained, deep, sandy brown (10YR 7/3, 7/4), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2),
gently sloping, moderately well drained, deep, sandy gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), or light gray (10YR 7/1,
soil that has a dark, weakly cemented layer below a 7/2). It has mottles in shades of brown or yellow.
depth of 30 inches. This soil is on low ridges and knolls. Pompano soils are associated with Basinger, Anclote, Im-
Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. It has the pedon mokalee, Riviera, and Holopaw soils. Unlike Basinger soils,
described as representative of the series. Under natu- they lack a friable Bh horizon weakly stained by organic
described as rerestate o th i n matter. Pompano soils lack the thick, dark Al horizon of
ral conditions, the water table is within 24 to 40 inches Anclote soils and the weakly cemented Bh horizon of Immo-
for 1 to 4 months during wet periods and below 40 kalee soils. Pompano soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches
inches during the remainder of the year. or more, and Riviera and Holopaw soils are not.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas Po-Pompano fine sand. This is a nearly level,
of Immokalee, Myakka, Basinger, St. Lucie, and Paola poorly drained, deep, sandy soil in broad, grassy
soils; and soils in which the dark, weakly cemented sloughs, concave depressions, and drainageways. It
layer is below 50 inches, or is less well developed, has the pedon described as representative of the series.
The natural vegetation is slash pine, sand pine, scrub Under natural conditions, the water table is within 10
oak, saw-palmetto, inkberry, sand plum, fetterbush, inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months in most years
pineland three-awn, and other native grasses. Most and within 30 inches for more than 9 months. Water
areas are in native vegetation, covers depressions for more than 3 months in most
This soil is generally not suited to cultivation be- years.
cause of poor soil properties. It is not suited to row Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
crops or most vegetables and is poorly suited to citrus. Basinger, Anclote, Immokalee, Holopaw, and Riviera
It is poorly suited to bahiagrass and other deep-rooted, soils; and soils that have a brownish yellow, ironstained
drought-resistant grasses, even if large amounts of layer.
fertilizer and lime are applied. Capability unit VIs-2. The natural vegetation is southern bayberry, mela-
leuca, pineland three-awn, sand cordgrass, and other
Pompano Series grasses. Scattered cypress, slash pine, and cabbage
palm trees grow in some places. Some areas are in
The Pompano series consists of nearly level, poorly improved pasture.
drained, deep, sandy soils in broad, grassy sloughs, Unless drained, this soil is not suited to cultivated
concave depressions, and drainageways. These soils crops. If drained and intensively managed, it is mod-
formed in thick beds of sandy marine sediments. Under erately well suited to vegetation. A well-designed,
natural conditions, the water table is within 10 inches constructed, and maintained water control system
of the surface for 2 to 6 months in most years and maintains the level of the water table and provides
within 30 inches for more than 9 months. Water covers subsurface irrigation. Frequent applications of ferti-
depressions for more than 3 months in most years, lizer and lime are needed.
In a representative pedon the surface layer is dark This soil is poorly suited to citrus. Because it is in
grayish brown fine sand about 8 inches thick. Below low positions and generally has a high water table,
this is light gray fine sand to a depth of about 32 water control is difficult. A well-designed water control
inches. The next layer is pale brown fine sand about 20 system and bedding are needed if citrus is planted.
inches thick. Below this is very pale brown fine sand Fertility is difficult to maintain because the soil is
that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. sandy and low in fertility. Frequent applications of
fertilizer are needed. During dry periods, irrigation is
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available needed to insure good yields.
water capacity is very low. Organic-matter content and If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to
natural fertility are low. improved pasture of grass or grass and clover. Major
Representative pedon of Pompano fine sand, about management concerns are providing a water control
100 feet east of El Rio Canal and about 0.45 mile system that is less intensive but is otherwise similar to
north of entrance road to Florida Atlantic University, that system required for cultivated crops, frequently
NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 18, T. 47 S., R. 43 E. applying fertilizer and lime as required, and carefully
Ap-0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) crushed controlling grazing. Capability unit IVw-1.
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very
friable; many uncoated sand grains; extremely Quartzipsamments, Shaped
acid; clear wavy boundary. uartzipsamments, Shaped
C1-8 to 32 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; single QAB artzipsammens shaped. This mapping
grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual smooth QAB-Qartzipsamments, spe is m in
boundary. unit consists of nearly level to gently sloping, well








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 35

drained, deep, sandy soils in areas where natural soils Riviera Series
have been altered by cutting down ridges and spread- T R s c o n l ,
ing the soil material over adjacent lower soils, by filling The Riviera series consists of nearly level, poorly
low areas above natural ground level, and by filling and drained soils that have a loamy subsoil. These soils
shaping soil material to form golf courses. The sandy are on broad, low areas and in depressions. They
fill material may be hauled in from a distant source formed in beds of sandy and loamy marine sediment.
but is generally obtained at the site by dredging nearby Under natural conditions, the water table is within 10
water areas or by excavating to create water areas. inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months in most years
The water table is below a depth of 60 inches. and within 10 to 30 inches for most of the remaining
No one pedon represents this mapping unit, but of year, except during extreme dry periods. Water covers
No one pedon represents this mapping unit, but of depressions for more than 6 months each year.
one of the most common the surface layer is dark gray- depressions for more than 6 months each year.
ish brown sand about 6 inches thick. Next, stratified In a representative pedon the surface layer is dark
layers of gray, grayish brown, light gray, light brown- grayish brown sand about 6 inches thick. Below this is
ish gray, and white sand in any sequence and of vari- a subsurface layer of white sand about 22 inches thick
able thickness are between a depth of 6 and 32 inches. that tongues (fig. 5) into a grayish brown sandy loam
Below this there is a layer of strong brown sand about subsoil to a depth of about 36 inches. Gray sand and
10 inches thick that has a few dark reddish brown shell fragments are below a depth of about 42 inches.
fragments of weakly cemented sand. The next layer Permeability is rapid to a depth of about 36 inches,
is grayish brown sand about 18 inches thick. Below this moderately rapid to a depth of about 42 inches, and
is a layer of white sand that extends to 80 inches or rapid below that. The available water capacity is low
more. to a depth of about 28 inches, medium between a depth
Permeability is very rapid. The available water capa- of 28 and 42 inches, and low below that. The organic-
city is very low. Organic-matter content and natural matter content and natural fertility are low.
fertility are low.
Reference pedon of Quartzipsamments, shaped,
about 200 feet west of intersection of Australian
Avenue and 15th Street West in the Riviera Beach
Industrial Area, NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 32, T. 42 S., R. 43
E.
A-0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
single grained; loose; many fine roots; many un-
coated sand grains; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
C1-6 to 32 inches; distinctly stratified layers of gray (N .
5/0), light gray (10YR 7/1), light brownish gray
(10YR 6/2), white (10YR 8/1), and grayish brown 1
(10YR 5/2) sand; single grained; loose; white. '
splotches or pockets in darker layers, which are -
discontinuous and vary in thickness and boundary;
neutral; clear wavy boundary.
C2-32 to 42 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) sand; single
grained; loose; few dark reddish brown and black
weakly cemented Bh fragments, splotches of dark
reddish brown (5YR 3/4) sand around Bh frag-
ments; mildly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
C3-42 to 60 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grained; loose; neutral; clear smooth bound-
ary.
C4--60 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
grained; loose; neutral.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to moderately
alkaline. The stratified material may occur in any sequence,
and stratification is generally most evident in the upper 20
to 50 inches. In some places, buried pedons of other soils
are below a depth of 20 inches. The sandy soil material has
a wide range of color and may be intricately mixed rather
than stratified. In some places, the soil has a high content
of fragmented marl and rock.
Included with this unit in mapping are small areas that
have less than 20 inches of fill material over a recognized
soil. Also included in some places are soils that have a
moderately high content of shell fragments and a few small
areas of soils that have a water table, for brief periods, at a
depth of less than 60 inches.
The soils in this mapping unit have been graded or shaped,
and generally altered for urban development. Most areas
have been well smoothed, and other areas are somewhat
rough. Vegetation varies. Figure 5.-A pedon of Riviera sand. Distinct tonguing of the
Present and future land use generally precludes use of light-colored sandy subsurface layer into the sandy loam subsoil
this soil for farming. Not placed in a capability unit, is a characteristic of this soil.








36 SOIL SURVEY

Representative pedon of Riviera sand, about 0.2 mile Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
east of Blanchette Trail and 0.35 mile south of Forest Boca, Pineda, Pinellas, Oldsmar, Wabasso, Holopaw,
Hill Boulevard, SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 17, T. 44 S., R. 42 E. and Hallandale soils. Also included are small areas of
A1-0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand; soils that lack the tonguing of the subsurface layer into
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many the subsoil; soils that have a dark surface layer more
fine roots; neutral; gradual smooth boundary. than 6 inches thick; and soils that have a brown
A2-6 to 28 inches; white (10YR 8/2) sand; single grained; n r av th subsoil later
loose; common fine roots; neutral; abrupt irregular organic-stained layer above te subsoil layer.
boundary. The natural vegetation is saw-palmetto, slash pine,
B&A-28 to 36 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy pineland three-awn, inkberry, blue maidencane, tooth-
loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; achegrass, chalky bluestem, scattered cabbage palm,
friable; common fine and medium roots; sand and cypress trees. Mst of this land is in native vegeta-
grains coated and bridged with clay; white (10YR and cypress trees. Most of ths land is in native vegeta-
8/2) sandy tongues of A2 horizon 1 to 4 inches tion, but some large areas are in cultivated crops,
wide, 3 to 8 inches deep, and 12 to 18 inches apart, citrus, and improved pasture.
make up about 30 percent of horizon; neutral; clear If a water control system is installed, this soil is
wavyB2tg36 grayish brown (2.5Y /2) sandy well suited to vegetables. In addition to drainage and
B2tg-36 to 42 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy
loam; common coarse faint olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) irrigation, the growth of cover crops during fallow
mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; periods maintains organic-matter content and improves
slightly sticky; common fine and medium roots; tilth. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to
sand grains coated and bridged with clay; neutral; crop needs.
abrupt smooth boundary. crop nee
IIC-42 to 62 inches; gray (N 6/0) sand and shell frag- If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited
ments; single grained; nonsticky; moderately alka- or well suited to citrus. A water control system is
line, calcareous. needed to maintain a constant water table at a depth of
The A horizon is 20 to 40 inches thick. The Al horizon 3 feet or more. Planting trees on broad, elevated beds
is black (10YR 2/1), very dark gray (10YR 3/1; N 3/0), is needed. Fertilizer should be applied frequently.
very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), dark gray (10YR
4/1), dark grayish brown (10YR4/2), or gray (YR 5/1). This soil is well suited to high-quality pasture of
If black, very dark gray, or very dark grayish brown, it is improved grasses and clover. A water control system
less than 6 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, that provides surface drainage and subsurface irriga-
6/1), grayish brown (10YR 5/2), light brownish gray tion is needed to improve crop growth. Adequate appli-
(10YR 6/2), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2), or white (10YR
8/1, 8/2). Reaction ranges from medium acid to neutral, cation of fertilizer and careful control of grazing are
The B&A horizon is dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), needed to maintain healthy plant growth. Capability
grayish brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2), light brownish gray unit IIIw-4.
10YR 6/2; 2.5Y 6/2), light olive gray (5Y 6/2), gray Rd-Riviera sand, depressional. This is a nearly
(10YR 5/1, 6/1; 5Y 6/1; N 6/0), or light gray (10YR 7/1,
7/2). The A part of this horizon has the same color range level, poorly drained soil that has a loamy subsoil. This
as the A2 horizon. The B part is sandy loam or sandy clay soil is in shallow, well defined depressions. It has a
loam, and tongues of sand extend vertically from the A2 pedon similar to that described as representative of
horizon. Reaction is slightly acid to moderately alkaline. the series, but the surface layer is generally slightly
The B2tg horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1), dark grayish
brown (10YR 4/2), grayish brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2), thinner, less than 3 inches thick in most places. All
gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), light brownish gray other features are similar, except wetness. This soil is
(10YR 6/2), or light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2), and has mottles covered with up to 2 feet of water for more than 6
in shades of brown, yellow, olive, and gray. Reaction ranges months each year.
from neutral to moderately alkaline. Texture is sandy loam
or sandy clay loam. In some pedons a B3g horizon has color Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Holo-
similar to that of the B2tg horizon and has a texture of paw soils. These soils make up about 30 percent of
loamy sand or sandy loam. If present, the B3g horizon is 1 some areas. Also included are small areas of Flori-
to 12 inches thick. dana, Tequesta, and Chobee soils.
The IIC horizon ranges in texture from loamy sand to a dana, Tequesta, and Chobee soils.
mixture of sand and shell fragments, and in some places it The natural vegetation is cypress, needlegrass, St.
has fragments of marl or limestone. Johnswort, corkweed, melaleuca, pickerelweed, sand
Riviera soils are associated with Boca, Pineda, Holopaw, cordgrass, maidencane, and water-tolerant plants.
Oldsmar, Wabasso, Pinellas, Floridana, Tequesta, Chobee, Mot r o i ni r in ni ion.
and Hallandale soils. They lack the limestone substratum Most areas of this unit are in native vegetation.
of Boca and Hallandale soils. Riviera soils have a B2tg This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops or
horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches, and this horizon is pasture. Capability unit VIIw-1.
below 40 inches in Holopaw soils. They lack the thick dark u--Riviera-Urban land complex. This complex
Al horizon of Chobee and Floridana soils, the muck surface Ru-Riviera-Urban land complex. his complex
layer of Tequesta soils, the weakly cemented Bh horizon consists of Riviera sand and Urban land. About 50 to
of Wabasso and Oldsmar soils, the A2ca horizon of Pinellas 70 percent of the complex is open land, such as lawns
soils, and the Bir horizon of Pineda soils, and vacant lots. These areas are made up mainly of
Ra-Riviera sand. This is a nearly level, poorly nearly level, poorly drained, Riviera sand that has
drained soil that has a thick sandy subsurface layer about 12 inches of sandy fill material on the original
that tongues into a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to surface in most places. A few small areas of Riviera
40 inches. This soil is in broad, low areas. It has the sand that have not been modified are in the complex.
pedon described as representative of the series. Under The original soil below the fill material has a pedon
natural conditions, the water table is within 10 inches similar to that described as representative of the
of the surface for 2 to 4 months in most years and Riviera series. About 30 to 50 percent of the complex
within 10 to 30 inches for most of the remaining year, is covered by streets, sidewalks, driveways, houses,
except during extreme dry periods, and other structures.






PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 37

Included in mapping are Pompano, Holopaw, and C2-20 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand;
Riviera soils in areas that were originally depressions. common fine faint brown (10YR 4/3) mottles;
These soils have about 20 inches of fill material on the sin gained old root chaels n per and light
surface. The fill material is dominantly sand and vary- acid.
ing amounts of limestone, marl, and shell fragments Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral throughout.
ranging from sand size up to about 3 inches in dia- The Oa horizon is black (10YR 2/1; N 2/0; 5YR 2/1); dark
meter. The percentage of Riviera sand and urban areas reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/4), very dark brown (10YR
varies. 2/2), or dark brown (7.5YR 3/2). It has a mineral content
rangAll areas of this complex are drained and depth to ing from 20 to 60 percent. This horizon is 8 to 16 inches
All areas of this complex are drained and depth to thick.
the water table depends on the degree of management. Combined thickness of the A and C horizons is more than
Except for brief periods following heavy rain when the 60 inches. The A horizon is black (10YR 2/1; N 2/0), very
water table may be at a depth of less than 10 inches, dark gray (10YR 3/1; N 3/0), dark gray (10YR 4/1), or
it is always at a greater depth than that described for dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2). It is 2 to 8 inches thick.
it is always at a greater depth than that described for Some pedons have no A horizon, or the A horizon is a thin
natural, undrained areas of Riviera soils, transitional horizon of mixed muck and sand at the bottom
Present land use precludes the use of this complex of the Oa horizon.
for farming. Not placed in a capability unit. The C horizon is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish brown
(10YR 5/2), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), light gray
(10YR 7/1, 7/2), or white (10YR 8/1, 8/2). It has few to
Sanibel Series common mottles in shades of gray, brown, and yellow.
Sanibel soils are associated with Okeelanta, Anclote,
The Sanibel series consists of nearly level; very Placid, Basinger, Pompano, Immokalee, Holopaw, and
Tequesta soils. They are mineral in origin rather than
poorly drained, sandy soils that have a thin organic organic, as are Okeelanta soils. Unlike Anclote, Plaid,
layer on the surface. These soils are in depressions, Basinger, Pompano, Immokalee, and Holopaw soils, Sanibel
poorly defined drainageways, and on broad, low flats soils have an Oa surface horizon 8 to 16 inches thick. They
that are transitional to organic soils. They formed in lack the Btg&A horizon of Tequesta soils.
thick beds of marine sand beneath a thin mantle of Sa-Sanibel muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly
organic material that accumulated during conditions drained, deep, sandy soil that has a thin organic layer
of a high water table. Under natural conditions, the on the surface. This soil is in depressions, drainage-
water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 6 to ways, and broad flats that are transitional to the
12 months during most years. Water covers the surface organic soils in the Everglades area. It has the pedon
for 2 to 6 months during wet periods, described as representative of the series. Under natural
In a representative pedon a layer of black muck conditions, the water table is within 10 inches of the
(sapric material) about 12 inches thick is at the sur- surface for 6 to 12 months in most years. Water covers
face. Below this the surface layer in the upper 3 inches the surface 2 to 6 months during wet periods.
is black sand and in the lower 3 inches is mixed black, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
very dark gray, and dark grayish brown sand. The of Okeelanta, Placid. Anclote, Holopaw, and Tequesta
next layer is gray sand about 14 inches thick. Below soils; small areas of soils that have a black or very
this is light brownish gray sand that extends to a dark gray sandy surface layer more than 8 inches
depth of 60 inches or more. thick; and areas of soils that have a dark, organic
Permeability is rapid. The available water capacity stained subsurface layer.
is very high in the organic surface layer and low in The natural vegetation is sawgrass, maidencane, cy-
the sandy layers. The organic-matter content is high, press, southern bayberry, pickerelweed, ferns, sedges,
and natural fertility is medium, and several water-tolerant grasses. Most areas are in
Representative pedon of Sanibel muck, about 0.6 natural vegetation, but some large areas are in im-
mile east of Military Trail and 0.3 mile north of Clint proved pasture.
Moore Road, NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 36, T. 46 S., R. 42 E. Unless drained, this soil is not suited to cultivated
Oa-12 to 0 inches; black (N 2/0) muck (sapric material) crops. If a water control system is installed, this soil
moderate coarse subangular bl(ky structurerl is well suited to vegetables. If outlets are available,
moderate coarse subangular blocky structure,
crushes to moderate fine and medium granular simple water control systems remove excess water in
structure; friable; thin waxy coatings on primary wet periods and provide subsurface irrigation in dry
ped faces; few uncoated sand grains and small periods. Drainage is usually not feasible in isolated
pockets of eight grayup sooand; many fine roots; small areas that have no natural outlet. In some areas,
slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
All-0 to 8 inches; black (N 2/0) sand; weak fine and dikes are needed to keep out water from adjacent
medium granular structure; friable; many fine areas. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according
roots; most sand grains well coated with organic to the crop needs.
matter, many uncoated sand grains; few streaks
and small pockets of gray sand; slightly acid; clear This soil is poorly suited to citrus, but intensive
wavy boundary. water control and high-level management help citrus
A12-3 to 6 inches; mixed black (N 2/0), very dark gray grow successfully.
(10YR 3/1), and dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable; If drainage and water control are adequate, this soil
many fine and medium roots; slightly acid; clear is well suited to high-quality pasture of improved
wavy boundary. grasses and clover. Adequate application of fertilizer
C1-6 to 20 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single grained; and lime according to plant needs and control of graz-
loose; common fine and medium roots; common
black and very dark gray streaks in old root chan- in are needed to maintain healthy plant growth. Capa-
nels; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. ability unit IIIw-10.







38 SOIL SURVEY

St. Lucie Series About 30 to 50 percent of the complex is covered by
streets, sidewalks, driveways, patios, buildings, and
The St. Lucie series consists of nearly level to slop- other structures.
ing, excessively drained, deep, sandy soils on long, The rest of the complex is made up of Paola and
narrow, dune-like ridges and isolated knolls near the Pomello soils. These soils may also be modified in
Atlantic coast. They formed in thick beds of marine or places, but the pedons are similar to that described as
eolian sand. The water table is below a depth of 6 feet. representative of their respective series. The percent-
In a representative pedon the surface layer is gray age of urban areas and open land varies.
sand about 5 inches thick. Below this is white sand Present land use precludes use of this complex for
that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. farming. Not placed in a capability unit.
Permeability is very rapid. The available water
capacity, the organic-matter content, and natural TequestaSeries
fertility are very low in all layers.esta series
Representative pedon of St. Lucie sand, about 0.45 The Tequesta series consists of nearly level, very
mile south of Lantana Road and 0.35 mile east of poorly drained soils that have a thin organic layer
Congress Avenue, SE1/4NW1/4 sec. 5, T. 45 S., R. 43 overlying a mineral soil that has a sandy surface layer,
E. a sandy subsurface layer, and a loamy subsoil. These
A-0 to 5 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; weak fine granu- soils are on broad, low flats and in marshes and
lar structure; very friable; many fine and medium depressions. They formed in sandy and loamy marine
roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. sediment under conditions favorable for the accumula-
C-5 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single grained; tion of hydrophyticplant remains. nder natural-
loose; few fine faint dark gray streaks in root tion of hydrophytic plant remains. Under natural
channels; medium acid. conditions, these soils are covered by water for 4 to 6
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid months in most years. The water table is within 10
throughout, but it changes to neutral in the surface layer inches of the surface for 6 to 12 months during most
in some areas during dry periods, if moist air comes in from years.
the ocean. If undisturbed, the A horizon is a mixture of
organic-matter granules and light gray (10YR 7/1) or In a representative pedon a layer of black, well-
white (10YR 8/1) sand. Rubbed, it is dark gray (10YR decomposed muck about 12 inches thick is at the sur-
4/1), gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), or grayish brown face. Below this is a surface layer of dark gray fine
(10YR 5/2). This horizon is 2 to 5 inches thick. The C sand about 13 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
horizon is light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2; N 7/0) or white (N dark grayish brown fine sand about 19 inches thick.
8/0; 10YR 8/1) and extends to a depth of 80 inches or more dark grayish brown fine sand about 19 inches thick.
St. Lucie soils are associated with Paola, Palm Beach, Below this is a fine sandy loam subsoil that has tongues
Pomello, Immokalee, and Basinger soils. They lack the of fine sand from the layer above. It is grayish brown
strong brown B&A horizon of Paola soils. Unlike Palm and about 28 inches thick. A substratum of mixed
Beach soils, they lack shell fragments mixed with the sand. l t gy sd ad fragment is h f
They are better drained than Pomello, Immokalee, and light gray sand and shell fragments is below a depth of
Basinger soils and lack the dark Bh horizon of these soils, about 60 inches.
ScB-St. Lucie sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This Permeability is rapid in the organic layer, sandy
nearly level to sloping, excessively drained, deep, sandy surface layer, and substratum and is moderate to
soil is on long narrow, dune-like coastal ridges and on moderately rapid in the loamy subsoil. The available
isolated knolls. This soil has the pedon described as water capacity is very high in the organic layer, low
representative of the series. The water table is below in the surface layer, and medium in the subsoil. Natu-
a depth of 6 feet. ral fertility is medium.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Representative pedon of Tequesta muck, about 3.75
Paola, Palm Beach, and Pomello soils. Also included miles south of State Road 80 and 0.7 mile west of Ous-
are small areas of soils that have either a dark-colored, ley Farm Road, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 19, T. 44 S., R. 41
organic-stained layer, or a brownish yellow, iron- E.
stained layer within a depth of 80 inches. In a few Oap-12 to 0 inches; black (N 2/0; 5YR 2/1) muck (sapric
places are soils that have a seasonally high water table material); less than 5 percent fiber rubbed; moder-
within a depth of 6 feet. ate coarse subangular blocky structure; friable;
The natural vegetation is sand pine, scrub oak, saw- common medium pockets of dark reddish brown
reindeer moss, and sparse (5YR 2/2) muck; few uncoated sand grains;
palmetto, rosemary, cacti, reindeer moss, and sparse strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
clumps of pineland three-awn and natalgrass. Large A1-0 to 13 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak
areas are in native vegetation, and some areas have fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
been cleared for future urban development. and medium streaks of black (10YR 2/1) sand; few
pockets of black (N 2/0) muck (sapric material);
This soil is not suited to vegetables and other culti- few coarse pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1) fine
vated crops, improved pasture, or citrus. Capability sand; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
unit VIIs-1. A2-13 to 32 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
SuB-St. Lucie-Urban land complex. This complex sand; common medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1)
mottles; single grained; loose; many fine black
consists of St. Lucie sand and Urban land. About 50 streaks in old root channels; neutral; abrupt wavy
to 70 percent of this complex is open land, such as boundary.
lawns, vacant lots, and playgrounds. These areas are Btg&A-32 to 60 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine
made up of nearly level to sloping, excessively drained sandy loam; common medium faint dark grayish
brown (10YR 4/2) mottles; weak coarse subangu-
St. Lucie soils. In places, these soils have been modified lar blocky structure; slightly sticky, plastic; sand
by cutting, grading, or shaping for urban development, grains coated and bridged with clay; few dark







38 SOIL SURVEY

St. Lucie Series About 30 to 50 percent of the complex is covered by
streets, sidewalks, driveways, patios, buildings, and
The St. Lucie series consists of nearly level to slop- other structures.
ing, excessively drained, deep, sandy soils on long, The rest of the complex is made up of Paola and
narrow, dune-like ridges and isolated knolls near the Pomello soils. These soils may also be modified in
Atlantic coast. They formed in thick beds of marine or places, but the pedons are similar to that described as
eolian sand. The water table is below a depth of 6 feet. representative of their respective series. The percent-
In a representative pedon the surface layer is gray age of urban areas and open land varies.
sand about 5 inches thick. Below this is white sand Present land use precludes use of this complex for
that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. farming. Not placed in a capability unit.
Permeability is very rapid. The available water
capacity, the organic-matter content, and natural TequestaSeries
fertility are very low in all layers.esta series
Representative pedon of St. Lucie sand, about 0.45 The Tequesta series consists of nearly level, very
mile south of Lantana Road and 0.35 mile east of poorly drained soils that have a thin organic layer
Congress Avenue, SE1/4NW1/4 sec. 5, T. 45 S., R. 43 overlying a mineral soil that has a sandy surface layer,
E. a sandy subsurface layer, and a loamy subsoil. These
A-0 to 5 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; weak fine granu- soils are on broad, low flats and in marshes and
lar structure; very friable; many fine and medium depressions. They formed in sandy and loamy marine
roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. sediment under conditions favorable for the accumula-
C-5 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single grained; tion of hydrophyticplant remains. nder natural-
loose; few fine faint dark gray streaks in root tion of hydrophytic plant remains. Under natural
channels; medium acid. conditions, these soils are covered by water for 4 to 6
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid months in most years. The water table is within 10
throughout, but it changes to neutral in the surface layer inches of the surface for 6 to 12 months during most
in some areas during dry periods, if moist air comes in from years.
the ocean. If undisturbed, the A horizon is a mixture of
organic-matter granules and light gray (10YR 7/1) or In a representative pedon a layer of black, well-
white (10YR 8/1) sand. Rubbed, it is dark gray (10YR decomposed muck about 12 inches thick is at the sur-
4/1), gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), or grayish brown face. Below this is a surface layer of dark gray fine
(10YR 5/2). This horizon is 2 to 5 inches thick. The C sand about 13 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
horizon is light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2; N 7/0) or white (N dark grayish brown fine sand about 19 inches thick.
8/0; 10YR 8/1) and extends to a depth of 80 inches or more dark grayish brown fine sand about 19 inches thick.
St. Lucie soils are associated with Paola, Palm Beach, Below this is a fine sandy loam subsoil that has tongues
Pomello, Immokalee, and Basinger soils. They lack the of fine sand from the layer above. It is grayish brown
strong brown B&A horizon of Paola soils. Unlike Palm and about 28 inches thick. A substratum of mixed
Beach soils, they lack shell fragments mixed with the sand. l t gy sd ad fragment is h f
They are better drained than Pomello, Immokalee, and light gray sand and shell fragments is below a depth of
Basinger soils and lack the dark Bh horizon of these soils, about 60 inches.
ScB-St. Lucie sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This Permeability is rapid in the organic layer, sandy
nearly level to sloping, excessively drained, deep, sandy surface layer, and substratum and is moderate to
soil is on long narrow, dune-like coastal ridges and on moderately rapid in the loamy subsoil. The available
isolated knolls. This soil has the pedon described as water capacity is very high in the organic layer, low
representative of the series. The water table is below in the surface layer, and medium in the subsoil. Natu-
a depth of 6 feet. ral fertility is medium.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Representative pedon of Tequesta muck, about 3.75
Paola, Palm Beach, and Pomello soils. Also included miles south of State Road 80 and 0.7 mile west of Ous-
are small areas of soils that have either a dark-colored, ley Farm Road, NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 19, T. 44 S., R. 41
organic-stained layer, or a brownish yellow, iron- E.
stained layer within a depth of 80 inches. In a few Oap-12 to 0 inches; black (N 2/0; 5YR 2/1) muck (sapric
places are soils that have a seasonally high water table material); less than 5 percent fiber rubbed; moder-
within a depth of 6 feet. ate coarse subangular blocky structure; friable;
The natural vegetation is sand pine, scrub oak, saw- common medium pockets of dark reddish brown
reindeer moss, and sparse (5YR 2/2) muck; few uncoated sand grains;
palmetto, rosemary, cacti, reindeer moss, and sparse strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
clumps of pineland three-awn and natalgrass. Large A1-0 to 13 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak
areas are in native vegetation, and some areas have fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
been cleared for future urban development. and medium streaks of black (10YR 2/1) sand; few
pockets of black (N 2/0) muck (sapric material);
This soil is not suited to vegetables and other culti- few coarse pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1) fine
vated crops, improved pasture, or citrus. Capability sand; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
unit VIIs-1. A2-13 to 32 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
SuB-St. Lucie-Urban land complex. This complex sand; common medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1)
mottles; single grained; loose; many fine black
consists of St. Lucie sand and Urban land. About 50 streaks in old root channels; neutral; abrupt wavy
to 70 percent of this complex is open land, such as boundary.
lawns, vacant lots, and playgrounds. These areas are Btg&A-32 to 60 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine
made up of nearly level to sloping, excessively drained sandy loam; common medium faint dark grayish
brown (10YR 4/2) mottles; weak coarse subangu-
St. Lucie soils. In places, these soils have been modified lar blocky structure; slightly sticky, plastic; sand
by cutting, grading, or shaping for urban development, grains coated and bridged with clay; few dark








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 39

grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and gray (10YR 5/1) water control systems remove excess water in wet
fine sand tongues extend down from the A2 hori- periods and provide subsurface irrigation in dry
zon; tongues %k to 2 inches wide and 6 to 12 inches
deep; mildly alkaline; clear wavy boundary, periods. Drainage is generally not feasible in isolated
IIC-60 to 70 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) mixed sand small areas that have no natural outlet. In some areas,
and shell fragments; single grained; few cemented dikes are needed to keep out water from adjacent
nodules up to 1 inch in size; moderately alkaline, areas. In addition to drainage and irrigation, fertilizer
calcareous.and lime should be applied according to crop needs.
Reaction ranges from strongly acid to neutral in the Oa a ie a in t .
and A horizons and from slightly acid to moderately alkaline If drainage and water control are adequate, this
in the Btg&A and IIC horizons, soil is well suited to high-quality pasture of improved
The Oa horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1; 5YR 2/1), grasses and clover. Adequate application of fertilizer
or dark reddish brown (SYR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3, 3/4) muck and lime according to plant needs and control of graz-
(sapric material) or mucky peat (hemic material) and is 6 dd to maintain hea plant growth a-
to 16 inches thick. ing are needed to maintain healthy plant growth. Capa-
The A horizon is 20 to 40 inches thick. The Al horizon is ability unit IIIw-9.
black (10YR 2/1), very dark gray (10YR 3/1), or dark
gray (10YR 4/1) and is 4 to 14 inches thick. Where it is
black or very dark gray the Al horizon is less than 10 inches Terra Ceia Series
thick. This horizon commonly has pockets of black muck and
streaks or pockets of sand in shades of gray. The A2 horizon The Terra Ceia series consists of nearly level, very
is dark gray (10YR 4/1; N 4/0), gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1; N poorly drained, organic soils in broad, fresh water
5/0, 6/0), dark grayish brown (0YR 4/2; 2.5Y 4/2) gray- marsh areas. They formed in thick deposits of well-
ish brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2), or light brownish gray
(10YR 6/2; 2.5Y 6/2) with few to common mottles in decomposed remains of hydrophytic plants. Under
shades of gray and brown, natural conditions, the soil is covered by water, or the
The Btg&A horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1, N 4/0), gray water table is within 10 inches of the surface for 6 to
(10YR 5/1, 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0; 5Y 5/1, 6/1), dark grayish 12 months in most years, except during extended dry
brown (10YR 4/2; 2.5Y 4/2), grayish brown (10YR 5/2;
2.5Y 5/2), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), olive gray (5Y periods.
5/2), or light olive gray (5Y 6/2), and has mottles in shades In a representative pedon the surface layer is black
of brown, yellow, and olive. The A part of the horizon has muck (sapric material) about 8 inches thick. Below
the same color range as the A2 horizon. The Btg part is fine this is dark reddish brown muck that extends to a
sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Tongues of fine sand extend ths s dark rddish brown muck that extends to a
vertically into the Btg&A horizon from the A2 horizon, depth of 65 inches or more.
The IIC horizon is sand, loamy sand, or a mixture of sand Permeability is rapid. The available water capacity
and shell. In some pedons it is absent, and the Btg&A hori- is very high, and natural fertility is moderate.
zon overlies a B3g horizon of similar color. If present, the s nd natural fertility moderate.
IIC horizon is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam and has Representative pedon of Terra Ceia muck, about 3.0
lenses and streaks of sand or loamy sand. miles east of U.S. Sugar Corporation mill at Bryant,
Tequesta soils are associated with Okeelanta, Sanibe Florida and 2.75 miles north of U.S. Highway 98
Holopaw, Floridana, Riviera, Chobee, Winder, and Jupiter Florda, and 2.75 miles north of U.S. Highway 98,
soils. They are of mineral origin rather than organic origin, NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 6, T. 42 S., R. 38 E.
as are Okeelanta soils. They have a loamy Btg&A horizon Oap-0 to 8 inches; black (N 2/0) unrubbed and rubbed
that Sanibel soils lack. Tequesta soils have a surface Oa muck (sapric material); less than 5 percent fiber;
horizon, 6 to 16 inches thick, and olopaw, Floridana, weak fine and medium granular structure; very
Riviera, Chobee, Winder, and Jupiter soils do not. friable; common fine roots; about 17 percent
Ta-Tequesta muck. This is a nearly level, very mineral material: medium acid (pH 5.7 in 1:1
oorly drained soil that has a thin organic layer on water, 5.3 in 0.01M CaC12); clear wavy boundary.
th sorflaceoeringa inea soil that has a in oani la on Oa2-8 to 65 inches; dark reddish brown (10YR 2/2) un-
the surface overlying a mineral soil that has a sandy rubbed and rubbed sapric material (muck); about
surface layer and a loamy subsoil. This soil is on broad, 30 percent fiber, 10 percent rubbed; fracture faces
low flats and in marshes and depressions. Under resemble weak medium subangular blocky struc-
natural conditions, this soil is covered by water for 4 ture; friable; slightly acid (pH 6.3 in 1:1 water,
to 6 months in most years. The water table is within 5.8 in 0.01M CaC12).
10 inches of the surface for 6 to 12 months during most The Oa horizon is more than 51 inches thick. Reaction
years oranges from medium acid to moderately alkaline when meas-
years. ured with a field test kit. The pH is more than 4.5 if meas-
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas ured in 0.01M CaC12. Mineral content ranges from about 5
of Okeelanta, Sanibel, Riviera, Winder, Chobee, Holo- to 40 percent. The Oap horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1;
paw, and Floridana soils. Also included are soils that 5YR 2/1) or dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2) and is 6
have a thick, rdark sandy layer beneath te imuck su- to 12 inches thick. The Oa2 horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR
have a thick, dark, sandy layer beneath the muck sur- 2/1; 5YR 2/1), dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3), or
face layer; soils that have a loamy subsoil at a depth very dark brown (10YR 2/2) and extends to a depth below
of less than 20 inches below the surface of the mineral 51 inches. The unrubbed fiber content commonly ranges from
soil; and soils that have limestone beneath the loamy 25 to 45 percent, but may range to 65 percent. The rubbed
subsoil. fiber content is 2 to 16 percent. Many pedons have a dark
reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3, 3/4) Oe horizon below
The natural vegetation is needlegrass, pickerelweed, a depth of 51 inches. Sandy, loamy, or clayey mineral mate-
maidencane, ferns, southern bayberry, and scattered rial mixed with shell fragments or limestone underlie the
cypress trees. Most areas of this soil are in natural organic material.
vegete large areas are used for improved Terra Ceia soils are associated with Torry, Okeechobee,
vegetation, but some large areas are used for improved Okeelanta, Pahokee, and Lauderhill soils. They have a
pasture and sod. mineral content of less than 40 percent within a depth of 36
Unless drained, this soil is not suited to cultivated inches, and Torry soils do not. Unlike Okeechobee soils,
crops. If a water control system is installed, it is well Terra Ceia soils have an Oa horizon that extends to below
suited to vegetable. f outlets are available, simle a depth of 51 inches. They lack the mineral IIC horizon that
suited to vegetables. If outlets are available, simple is within a depth of 51 inches in Okeelanta soils, and the








40 SOIL SURVEY

limestone that is above a depth of 51 inches in Pahokee and Included in mapping are areas that have a shell
Lauderhill soils. content ranging to 50 percent or more; areas that have
Tc-Terra Ceia muck. This is a nearly level, very a surface layer of silt loam or silty clay loam marl
poorly drained, deep, organic soil. This soil is in broad, that ranges to 12 inches thick; and a few areas that
freshwater marsh areas. It formed in thick deposits have a layer of muck at the surface more than 6 inches
of hydrophytic plant remains. It has the pedon des- thick. Also included are small areas that have a dark
cribed as representative of the series. Under natural surface layer less than 10 inches thick and a few places
conditions, the soil is covered by water, or the water where shelly limestone is at a depth below 40 inches.
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 6 to 12 Shallow mosquito control ditches have been dug in
months in most years, except during extended dry all areas of this unit. It is not suited to crops or past-
periods, ure. It is suited mainly to recreation and wildlife
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas habitat. It provides feeding and nesting grounds for
of Pahokee, Okeelanta, Okeechobee, and Torry soils; wading birds and breeding grounds for other wildlife.
and small areas of soils that have a layer of more Capability unit VIIIw-1.
fibrous, less decomposed organic material more than
12 inches thick within a depth of 51 inches. Tidal Swamp, Organic
The natural vegetation is sawgrass, willow, elder-
berry, scattered sweet bay and cypress trees, and TO-Tidal swamp, organic, is nearly level, very
undergrowth of fern, pickerelweed, sedges, and water- poorly drained, organic material that supports a
tolerant grasses. Most areas of this soil are in sugar- dense growth of mangrove trees. It is near the coast
cane, truck crops, or improved pasture. along the Intracoastal Waterway. It consists of thick
This soil is not suited to cultivation in its native layers of well-decomposed plant remains. In most
state, but if good water control is established and places, there is a layer of marl at a depth of 8 to 20
maintained through a system of ditches, dikes, and inches. It is flooded by salt or brackish water during
pumps, the soil is well suited to vegetables and sugar- daily high tides. Permeability is rapid in the organic
cane. In addition to maintaining the water control layers and moderately rapid in the marl layer. The
system, saturating the soil when crops are not growing available water capacity is very high.
minimizes oxidation of the organic material. Fertilizer The organic material has a strong sulfur odor in
and lime should be applied according to crop needs. some places, and no noticeable odor in others. The sur-
This soil is not suited to citrus. It has many soil face layer is black muck (sapric material) and is 8 to 20
properties unfavorable for citrus, inches thick. Reaction ranges from neutral to strongly
If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to alkaline. Below this in most places there is a layer of
high-quality pasture of improved grasses and clover soft marl. It commonly has numerous brown organic
mixtures. Major management concerns are providing fibers and ranges to 12 inches in thickness. Reaction is
a water control system to remove excess surface water moderately alkaline. In some places there is no marl
and to maintain the level of the water table, adequately layer.
applying fertilizer and lime as required, and carefully The underlying organic material is black, dark red-
controlling grazing. Capability unit IIIw-13. dish brown, or dark brown muck (sapric material). It
extends below a depth of 51 inches. This material may
T l S p, M l be made up of alternate layers of these same colors.
Tidal Swamp, Mineral In places, there are pockets or lenses of more fibrous,
TM-Tidal swamp, mineral, is nearly level, very less decomposed, organic material. Reaction ranges
poorly drained, sandy material that supports a from neutral to moderately alkaline.
dense growth of mangrove trees. It is only near Included in mapping are small areas of Okeelanta
the coast along the Intracoastal Waterway, around the soils and small areas where the marl layer is on the
edges of Lake Worth, and along the edges of the surface.
Loxahatchee River and its tributaries. It consists of Mosquito control ditches have been dug in all areas of
sandy marine sediments that are flooded by salt or this unit. It is not suited to crops or pasture. It is suited
brackish water during daily high tides. mainly to recreation and wildlife habitat. It provides
feeding and nesting grounds for wading birds and
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available breeding grounds for other wildlife. Capability unit
water capacity is high in the surface layer and low VIIIw-1.
below that. Natural fertility is low.
The surface layer is black, very dark gray, or very Torr
dark grayish brown and is 10 inches or more thick. It worry series
is mucky sand or mucky loamy sand. Reaction ranges The Torry series consists of nearly level, very poorly
from slightly acid to strongly alkaline. In many places, drained, deep, organic soils that have a high content of
the surface layer is fibrous muck 4 to 6 inches thick, fine textured mineral material. These soils are in large
The underlying material is black, very dark gray, freshwater marshes. They formed in the remains of
very dark grayish brown, dark gray, gray, grayish hydrophytic plants mixed with a high content of fine
brown, or brown sand, fine sand, or loamy sand. Re- mineral material. Under natural conditions, the soil
action ranges from extremely acid to mildly alkaline. In is covered with water, or the water table is within 10
places, the content of shell fragments ranges to 10 inches for 6 to 12 months in most years, except during
percent. extended dry periods.








40 SOIL SURVEY

limestone that is above a depth of 51 inches in Pahokee and Included in mapping are areas that have a shell
Lauderhill soils. content ranging to 50 percent or more; areas that have
Tc-Terra Ceia muck. This is a nearly level, very a surface layer of silt loam or silty clay loam marl
poorly drained, deep, organic soil. This soil is in broad, that ranges to 12 inches thick; and a few areas that
freshwater marsh areas. It formed in thick deposits have a layer of muck at the surface more than 6 inches
of hydrophytic plant remains. It has the pedon des- thick. Also included are small areas that have a dark
cribed as representative of the series. Under natural surface layer less than 10 inches thick and a few places
conditions, the soil is covered by water, or the water where shelly limestone is at a depth below 40 inches.
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 6 to 12 Shallow mosquito control ditches have been dug in
months in most years, except during extended dry all areas of this unit. It is not suited to crops or past-
periods, ure. It is suited mainly to recreation and wildlife
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas habitat. It provides feeding and nesting grounds for
of Pahokee, Okeelanta, Okeechobee, and Torry soils; wading birds and breeding grounds for other wildlife.
and small areas of soils that have a layer of more Capability unit VIIIw-1.
fibrous, less decomposed organic material more than
12 inches thick within a depth of 51 inches. Tidal Swamp, Organic
The natural vegetation is sawgrass, willow, elder-
berry, scattered sweet bay and cypress trees, and TO-Tidal swamp, organic, is nearly level, very
undergrowth of fern, pickerelweed, sedges, and water- poorly drained, organic material that supports a
tolerant grasses. Most areas of this soil are in sugar- dense growth of mangrove trees. It is near the coast
cane, truck crops, or improved pasture. along the Intracoastal Waterway. It consists of thick
This soil is not suited to cultivation in its native layers of well-decomposed plant remains. In most
state, but if good water control is established and places, there is a layer of marl at a depth of 8 to 20
maintained through a system of ditches, dikes, and inches. It is flooded by salt or brackish water during
pumps, the soil is well suited to vegetables and sugar- daily high tides. Permeability is rapid in the organic
cane. In addition to maintaining the water control layers and moderately rapid in the marl layer. The
system, saturating the soil when crops are not growing available water capacity is very high.
minimizes oxidation of the organic material. Fertilizer The organic material has a strong sulfur odor in
and lime should be applied according to crop needs. some places, and no noticeable odor in others. The sur-
This soil is not suited to citrus. It has many soil face layer is black muck (sapric material) and is 8 to 20
properties unfavorable for citrus, inches thick. Reaction ranges from neutral to strongly
If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to alkaline. Below this in most places there is a layer of
high-quality pasture of improved grasses and clover soft marl. It commonly has numerous brown organic
mixtures. Major management concerns are providing fibers and ranges to 12 inches in thickness. Reaction is
a water control system to remove excess surface water moderately alkaline. In some places there is no marl
and to maintain the level of the water table, adequately layer.
applying fertilizer and lime as required, and carefully The underlying organic material is black, dark red-
controlling grazing. Capability unit IIIw-13. dish brown, or dark brown muck (sapric material). It
extends below a depth of 51 inches. This material may
T l S p, M l be made up of alternate layers of these same colors.
Tidal Swamp, Mineral In places, there are pockets or lenses of more fibrous,
TM-Tidal swamp, mineral, is nearly level, very less decomposed, organic material. Reaction ranges
poorly drained, sandy material that supports a from neutral to moderately alkaline.
dense growth of mangrove trees. It is only near Included in mapping are small areas of Okeelanta
the coast along the Intracoastal Waterway, around the soils and small areas where the marl layer is on the
edges of Lake Worth, and along the edges of the surface.
Loxahatchee River and its tributaries. It consists of Mosquito control ditches have been dug in all areas of
sandy marine sediments that are flooded by salt or this unit. It is not suited to crops or pasture. It is suited
brackish water during daily high tides. mainly to recreation and wildlife habitat. It provides
feeding and nesting grounds for wading birds and
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available breeding grounds for other wildlife. Capability unit
water capacity is high in the surface layer and low VIIIw-1.
below that. Natural fertility is low.
The surface layer is black, very dark gray, or very Torr
dark grayish brown and is 10 inches or more thick. It worry series
is mucky sand or mucky loamy sand. Reaction ranges The Torry series consists of nearly level, very poorly
from slightly acid to strongly alkaline. In many places, drained, deep, organic soils that have a high content of
the surface layer is fibrous muck 4 to 6 inches thick, fine textured mineral material. These soils are in large
The underlying material is black, very dark gray, freshwater marshes. They formed in the remains of
very dark grayish brown, dark gray, gray, grayish hydrophytic plants mixed with a high content of fine
brown, or brown sand, fine sand, or loamy sand. Re- mineral material. Under natural conditions, the soil
action ranges from extremely acid to mildly alkaline. In is covered with water, or the water table is within 10
places, the content of shell fragments ranges to 10 inches for 6 to 12 months in most years, except during
percent. extended dry periods.








40 SOIL SURVEY

limestone that is above a depth of 51 inches in Pahokee and Included in mapping are areas that have a shell
Lauderhill soils. content ranging to 50 percent or more; areas that have
Tc-Terra Ceia muck. This is a nearly level, very a surface layer of silt loam or silty clay loam marl
poorly drained, deep, organic soil. This soil is in broad, that ranges to 12 inches thick; and a few areas that
freshwater marsh areas. It formed in thick deposits have a layer of muck at the surface more than 6 inches
of hydrophytic plant remains. It has the pedon des- thick. Also included are small areas that have a dark
cribed as representative of the series. Under natural surface layer less than 10 inches thick and a few places
conditions, the soil is covered by water, or the water where shelly limestone is at a depth below 40 inches.
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 6 to 12 Shallow mosquito control ditches have been dug in
months in most years, except during extended dry all areas of this unit. It is not suited to crops or past-
periods, ure. It is suited mainly to recreation and wildlife
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas habitat. It provides feeding and nesting grounds for
of Pahokee, Okeelanta, Okeechobee, and Torry soils; wading birds and breeding grounds for other wildlife.
and small areas of soils that have a layer of more Capability unit VIIIw-1.
fibrous, less decomposed organic material more than
12 inches thick within a depth of 51 inches. Tidal Swamp, Organic
The natural vegetation is sawgrass, willow, elder-
berry, scattered sweet bay and cypress trees, and TO-Tidal swamp, organic, is nearly level, very
undergrowth of fern, pickerelweed, sedges, and water- poorly drained, organic material that supports a
tolerant grasses. Most areas of this soil are in sugar- dense growth of mangrove trees. It is near the coast
cane, truck crops, or improved pasture. along the Intracoastal Waterway. It consists of thick
This soil is not suited to cultivation in its native layers of well-decomposed plant remains. In most
state, but if good water control is established and places, there is a layer of marl at a depth of 8 to 20
maintained through a system of ditches, dikes, and inches. It is flooded by salt or brackish water during
pumps, the soil is well suited to vegetables and sugar- daily high tides. Permeability is rapid in the organic
cane. In addition to maintaining the water control layers and moderately rapid in the marl layer. The
system, saturating the soil when crops are not growing available water capacity is very high.
minimizes oxidation of the organic material. Fertilizer The organic material has a strong sulfur odor in
and lime should be applied according to crop needs. some places, and no noticeable odor in others. The sur-
This soil is not suited to citrus. It has many soil face layer is black muck (sapric material) and is 8 to 20
properties unfavorable for citrus, inches thick. Reaction ranges from neutral to strongly
If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to alkaline. Below this in most places there is a layer of
high-quality pasture of improved grasses and clover soft marl. It commonly has numerous brown organic
mixtures. Major management concerns are providing fibers and ranges to 12 inches in thickness. Reaction is
a water control system to remove excess surface water moderately alkaline. In some places there is no marl
and to maintain the level of the water table, adequately layer.
applying fertilizer and lime as required, and carefully The underlying organic material is black, dark red-
controlling grazing. Capability unit IIIw-13. dish brown, or dark brown muck (sapric material). It
extends below a depth of 51 inches. This material may
T l S p, M l be made up of alternate layers of these same colors.
Tidal Swamp, Mineral In places, there are pockets or lenses of more fibrous,
TM-Tidal swamp, mineral, is nearly level, very less decomposed, organic material. Reaction ranges
poorly drained, sandy material that supports a from neutral to moderately alkaline.
dense growth of mangrove trees. It is only near Included in mapping are small areas of Okeelanta
the coast along the Intracoastal Waterway, around the soils and small areas where the marl layer is on the
edges of Lake Worth, and along the edges of the surface.
Loxahatchee River and its tributaries. It consists of Mosquito control ditches have been dug in all areas of
sandy marine sediments that are flooded by salt or this unit. It is not suited to crops or pasture. It is suited
brackish water during daily high tides. mainly to recreation and wildlife habitat. It provides
feeding and nesting grounds for wading birds and
Permeability is rapid in all layers. The available breeding grounds for other wildlife. Capability unit
water capacity is high in the surface layer and low VIIIw-1.
below that. Natural fertility is low.
The surface layer is black, very dark gray, or very Torr
dark grayish brown and is 10 inches or more thick. It worry series
is mucky sand or mucky loamy sand. Reaction ranges The Torry series consists of nearly level, very poorly
from slightly acid to strongly alkaline. In many places, drained, deep, organic soils that have a high content of
the surface layer is fibrous muck 4 to 6 inches thick, fine textured mineral material. These soils are in large
The underlying material is black, very dark gray, freshwater marshes. They formed in the remains of
very dark grayish brown, dark gray, gray, grayish hydrophytic plants mixed with a high content of fine
brown, or brown sand, fine sand, or loamy sand. Re- mineral material. Under natural conditions, the soil
action ranges from extremely acid to mildly alkaline. In is covered with water, or the water table is within 10
places, the content of shell fragments ranges to 10 inches for 6 to 12 months in most years, except during
percent. extended dry periods.








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 41

In a representative pedon the surface layer is black used for cultivated crops and improved pasture or are
muck (sapric material) about 12 inches thick and has developed for urban use.
a mineral content of about 70 percent. The next layer This soil is not suited to cultivated crops in its
is a sticky black muck that has about 60 percent min- natural state. If good water control is established and
eral material. It extends to a depth of about 36 inches. maintained through a system of ditches, dikes, and
Below this is black muck that has a mineral content of pumps, this soil is well suited to vegetables and sugar-
about 35 percent and extends to a depth of about 65 cane. In addition to maintaining the water control
inches. Hard limestone is at a depth of about 65 inches. system, saturating the soil when crops are not growing
Permeability is moderate to a depth of 36 inches and minimizes oxidation of the organic material. Fertilizer
rapid below that. The available water capacity is very and lime should be applied according to crop needs.
high in all layers. Natural fertility is high. This soil is not suited to citrus. It has many soil
Representative pedon of Torry muck 3.12 miles properties unfavorable for citrus, and the drainage
south of State Road 717 and Pelican Lake and about needs of this crop cause the soil to rapidly deteriorate.
100 feet west of the U.S. Sugar Corporation railroad, If intensively managed, this soil is well suited to
NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 2, T. 43 W., R. 37 E. high-quality pasture of improved grasses and clover
mixtures. Major management concerns are providing
Oap-0 to 12 inches; black (N 2/0) muck (sapric material); a water control system to remove excess surface water
less than 5 percent fiber unrubbed; moderate fine
and medium granula r structure; friable; mineral and to maintain the level of the water table, adequately
content 70 percent; slightly acid; gradual smooth applying fertilizer and lime as required, and carefully
boundary. controlling grazing. Capability unit IIIw-14.
Oa2-12 to 36 inches; black (N 2/0) muck (sapric mate-
rial); less than 5 percent fiber unrubbed; massive,
breaks to strong coarse subangular blocky struc- Udorthents
ture; very sticky; mineral content 60 percent;
slightly acid; gradual smooth boundary. UD-Udorthents. These soils consist of nearly level
Oa3-36 to 65 inches; black (N 2/0) muck (sapric mate- to steep, excessively drained, unconsolidated geologic
rial); about 20 percent fiber, less than 5 percent material. They formed in material excavated in
rubbed; massive; slightly sticky; mineral contentmaterial. They formed in material excavated in
35 percent; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary, the construction of canals and deposited along the
R-65 inches; hard limestone, banks in long narrow ridges. This material is shaped
Thickness of the organic material and depth to limestone to form levees that have side slopes of about 35 percent
range from 51 to 80 inches or more. Reaction ranges from and narrow, flat tops that are used as roadways, or
strongly acid to neutral if measured in 0.01M CaC12. the material is used for final covering of sanitary land
The.Oap and Oa2 horizons are black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1; fills and forms broad, nearly level areas that have
5YR 2/1) or dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3). Fiber
content ranges from 2 to 16 percent but is commonly less short, steep side slopes. They have no water table with-
than 5 percent. Mineral content ranges from 40 to 70 per- in 60 inches.
cent and consists primarily of clay. No one pedon represents this mapping unit, but the
The Oa3 horizon is black (N 2/0; 10YR 2/1; 5YR 2/1) surface layer of one of the more common ones is gray-
or dark reddish brown (6YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3). Fiber content
is less than 50 percent unrubbed and 2 to 16 percent rubbed, ish brown and dark grayish brown fine sand about 7
This horizon has a mineral content of 10 to 40 percent. In inches thick. It has numerous small shell and rock
some pedons, a layer of light gray loamy or clayey marl, fragments. The underlying material consists of large
2 to 6 inches thick, is at the base of the Oa3 horizon and limestone boulders and cobbles that have interstices
above the limestone.
Torry soils are associated with Terra Ceia, Pahokee, and filled with fine sand, fine carbonatic material, and shell
Okeelanta soils. Unlike these soils, Torry soils have an Oa and rock fragments.
horizon that has a high content of fine mineral material to Permeability is generally rapid but varies from
a depth of 36 inches. They lack the limestone that is within place to place. The available water capacity is low.
a depth of 51 inches in Pahokee soils, and they lack the
sandy IIC horizon 12 inches or more thick that is above a Reference pedon of Udorthents, at intersection of
depth of 51 inches in Okeelanta soils. Hillsborough Canal and Conservation Areas 1 and 2A:
Tr-Torry muck. This is a nearly level, very poorly A-0 to 7 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) and dark
drained, deep, organic soil in broad, freshwater grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand; single
marshes. This soil formed in well-decomposed remains grained; loose; many fine roots in upper 2 inches;
marshes. This soil formed in well-decomposed remains estimated 30 percent shell fragments and rock frag-
of hydrophytic plants mixed with a high content of ments up to 1 inch in diameter; few cobbles;
fine textured mineral material. It has the pedon des- moderately alkaline, calcareous; clear irregular
cribed as representative of the series. Under natural boundary.
conditions, the surface is covered with water, or the R-7 to 80 inches; large limestone boulders, some cobbles;
waontiions, tabl suae is covered witn water, or m thse interstices filled with fine sand, powdery carbonates,
water table is within 10 inches for 6 to 12 months in and small shell and rock fragments; moderately
most years, except during extended dry periods, alkaline, calcareous.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas The A horizon is 1 inch to 24 inches thick, but in most
of Terra Ceia, Pahokee, and Okeelanta soils; soils that pedons it is less than 10 inches thick. It is very dark gray
have a thin later or layers, of more fibrous, less well (10YR 3/1), very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2), dark
have a thin layer, or layers, of more fibrous, less well- brown (10YR 3/3, 4/3), dark gray (10YR 4/1), dark gray-
decomposed organic material; and a few small areas ish brown (10YR 4/2), gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), grayish
of fine textured mineral soils that have a high organic- brown (10YR 5/3), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), pale
matter content. brown (10YR 5/2), brown (10YR 5/3), light brownish gray
(10YR 6/2), pale brown (10YR 6/3), light gray (10YR 7/1,
There are no areas of this soil in native vegetation. 7/2), or very pale brown (10YR 7/3). It is sand or fine sand
Most areas are used for sugarcane. Other areas are in most pedons, though in some, fine, powdery calcium car-








42 SOIL SURVEY

bonate is dominant. Content of shell fragments ranges from mon fine roots; extremely acid; abrupt smooth
0 to 60 percent, but usually is about 20 to 50 percent. Rock boundary.
fragments and cobbles range from few to many. Reaction is Bh-22 to 32 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand grading to
moderately alkaline, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) in lower part;
The R horizon consists primarily of fragmented limestone massive in place, crushes to moderate fine granular
in the form of small to large boulders, cobbles, and smaller structure; weakly cemented; few fine and medium
rock fragments that have interstices filled with variable roots; sand grains well coated with organic matter;
colored sand, fine sand, shell fragments, and fine calcium strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
carbonate material. In areas of sanitary land fill, this hori- Bt-32 to 38 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) and very dark
zon is generally not present, and the A horizon or C horizon grayish brown (10YR 3/2) fine sandy loam; corn-
rests directly on refuse. mon medium distinct dark grayish brown (2.5Y
On Hoover Dike, the major area of this unit, the soil has 4/2) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
an improved grass cover in most places. In other areas, the structure; slightly sticky, slightly plastic; sand
soil has only a sparse cover of native grasses and weeds, grains coated and bridged with clay; many black
Because of present land use this soil can not be used for streaks in old root channels; slightly acid; abrupt
farming. Not placed in a capability unit. wavy boundary.
IIC-38 to 72 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand and shell
Urban Land fragments in about equal amounts; common bodies
of gray sandy clay loam that have interstices filled
with carbonates; massive; moderately alkaline,
Ur-Urban land consists of areas that are 60 to more calcareous.
than 75 percent covered with streets, buildings, large The l horizon is black (10YR 2/1; N 2/0), very dark
trk lot h 4 The Al horizon is black (l1YR 2/1; N 2/0), very dark
parking lots, shopping centers, industrial parks, air- gray (10YR 3/1; N 3/0), or dark gray (10YR 4/1: N 4/0).
ports, and related facilities. Other areas, mostly lawns, It is 4 to 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1,
parks, vacant lots, and playgrounds, are generally 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2; N 7/0), or
altered to such an extent that the former soils cannot light brownish gray (10YR 6/2). The A horizon is less
be easily recognized and are in tracts too small to be t onghi. Reaction ranges from extremelacid
mapped separately. Not placed in a capability unit. The Bh horizon is black (10YR 2/1; N 2/0; 5YR 2/1)
or dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3, 3/4). It is 4 to
Wabaso Sries 14 inches thick. Sand grains are well coated and weakly
abasso Series cemented with organic matter. In some pedons the upper
boundary is irregular, and the horizon may have coarse
The Wabasso series consists of nearly level, poorly pockets or tongues filled with A2 horizon material extending
drained, sandy soils that have a black, weakly cemented into it. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to neutral
sandy layer over loamy material. These soils are in In some pedons there is an A'2 horizon between the Bh
broad, flatwoods areas. They formed in thick beds of and B't horizons. It is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light gray
broad, (10YR 7/1, 7/2), grayish brown (10YR 5/2), light grayish
sandy marine sediment and the underlying loamy mate- brown (10YR 6/2), brown (10YR 5/3), or pale brown
rial. Under natural conditions, the water table is with- (10YR 6/3).
in 10 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. It The Bt horizon begins within a depth of 40 inches. It is
is between 10 and 40 inches most of the remainder of gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2), grayish
brown (10YR 5/2), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), brown
each year, except during extended dry periods. (10YR 4/3, 5/3), or pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sandy loam
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black or sandy clay loam, and in places it has few to many mottles
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer in shades of gray, brown, or yellow. Some pedons have black
is gray and light ra fine sand about 14 inches thick or very dark gray organic stains in root channels, and some
is gray and light gray fine sand about 14 inches thick, pedons have a few lenses or pockets of sand or loamy sand.
The next layer is black fine sand, weakly cemented Reaction ranges from medium acid to moderately alkaline.
with organic matter, about 10 inches thick. Below this The Bt horizon overlies brownish fine sandy loam or loamy
is a subsoil of brown and very dark grayish brown fine fine sand in a few places.
sandy loam about 6 inches thick. Below this is light The IIC horizon is generally a mixture of sand and shell
a oa ao inches thick Below this s lht fragments that has lenses or pockets of loamy sand or sandy
gray sand and shell fragments that extend to a depth loam. Limestone fragments are mixed with the shell in some
of 72 inches or more. pedons.
Perm ilit is rapid to a depth of 22 inches, mod- Wabasso soils are associated with Oldsmar, Immokalee,
Permeability s a 22 chess mod- Myakka, Riviera, Pineda, Boca, and Pinellas soils. Unlike
erate to 38, inches, and rapid below this. The available Oldsmar soils, they have a Bh horizon within a depth of 30
water capacity is low to very low in the upper 22 inches and a Bt horizon within a depth of 40 inches.
inches and below 38 inches. Between a depth of 22 Wabasso soils have a Bt horizon that Immokalee soils lack.
and 8 inches it is medium. The organic-matter con- Unlike Riviera, Pineda, Boca, and Pinellas soils, they have
tent and natural fertility are low. a oz
tent and natural fertility are low. Wa-Wabasso fine sand. This is a nearly level,
Representative pedon of Wabasso fine sand, about 5 poorly drained, sandy soil that has a black weakly
milespoory drained sandy soil that has a black weay
miles north of Okeechobee Road and about 100 feet cemented sand layer over loamy material. This soil is
east of Royal Palm Beach Boulevard, SE1/SWI/4 sec in broad, flatwoods areas. It has the pedon described
as representative of the series. Under natural condi-
All-0 to 4 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak fine tions, the water table is within 10 inches of the sur-
granular structure; very friable; many fine and face for 1 to 4 months during most years and between
medium roots; extremely acid; clear wavy bound-
ary. 10 and 40 inches most of the remainder of each year,
A12-4 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine except during extended dry periods.
granular structure; very friable; many fine and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
medium roots; many uncoated sand grains; ex- Oldsmar, Boca, Riviera, Pinellas, Pineda, Immokalee,
tremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A2-8 to 22 inches; mixed gray (N 5/0) and light gray and Myakka soils; areas of soils in which the black,
(10YR 7/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; com- weakly cemented layer is slightly below a depth of 30








42 SOIL SURVEY

bonate is dominant. Content of shell fragments ranges from mon fine roots; extremely acid; abrupt smooth
0 to 60 percent, but usually is about 20 to 50 percent. Rock boundary.
fragments and cobbles range from few to many. Reaction is Bh-22 to 32 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand grading to
moderately alkaline, dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) in lower part;
The R horizon consists primarily of fragmented limestone massive in place, crushes to moderate fine granular
in the form of small to large boulders, cobbles, and smaller structure; weakly cemented; few fine and medium
rock fragments that have interstices filled with variable roots; sand grains well coated with organic matter;
colored sand, fine sand, shell fragments, and fine calcium strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
carbonate material. In areas of sanitary land fill, this hori- Bt-32 to 38 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) and very dark
zon is generally not present, and the A horizon or C horizon grayish brown (10YR 3/2) fine sandy loam; corn-
rests directly on refuse. mon medium distinct dark grayish brown (2.5Y
On Hoover Dike, the major area of this unit, the soil has 4/2) mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky
an improved grass cover in most places. In other areas, the structure; slightly sticky, slightly plastic; sand
soil has only a sparse cover of native grasses and weeds, grains coated and bridged with clay; many black
Because of present land use this soil can not be used for streaks in old root channels; slightly acid; abrupt
farming. Not placed in a capability unit. wavy boundary.
IIC-38 to 72 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand and shell
Urban Land fragments in about equal amounts; common bodies
of gray sandy clay loam that have interstices filled
with carbonates; massive; moderately alkaline,
Ur-Urban land consists of areas that are 60 to more calcareous.
than 75 percent covered with streets, buildings, large The l horizon is black (10YR 2/1; N 2/0), very dark
trk lot h 4 The Al horizon is black (l1YR 2/1; N 2/0), very dark
parking lots, shopping centers, industrial parks, air- gray (10YR 3/1; N 3/0), or dark gray (10YR 4/1: N 4/0).
ports, and related facilities. Other areas, mostly lawns, It is 4 to 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1,
parks, vacant lots, and playgrounds, are generally 6/1; N 5/0, 6/0), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2; N 7/0), or
altered to such an extent that the former soils cannot light brownish gray (10YR 6/2). The A horizon is less
be easily recognized and are in tracts too small to be t onghi. Reaction ranges from extremelacid
mapped separately. Not placed in a capability unit. The Bh horizon is black (10YR 2/1; N 2/0; 5YR 2/1)
or dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, 3/2, 3/3, 3/4). It is 4 to
Wabaso Sries 14 inches thick. Sand grains are well coated and weakly
abasso Series cemented with organic matter. In some pedons the upper
boundary is irregular, and the horizon may have coarse
The Wabasso series consists of nearly level, poorly pockets or tongues filled with A2 horizon material extending
drained, sandy soils that have a black, weakly cemented into it. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to neutral
sandy layer over loamy material. These soils are in In some pedons there is an A'2 horizon between the Bh
broad, flatwoods areas. They formed in thick beds of and B't horizons. It is gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light gray
broad, (10YR 7/1, 7/2), grayish brown (10YR 5/2), light grayish
sandy marine sediment and the underlying loamy mate- brown (10YR 6/2), brown (10YR 5/3), or pale brown
rial. Under natural conditions, the water table is with- (10YR 6/3).
in 10 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years. It The Bt horizon begins within a depth of 40 inches. It is
is between 10 and 40 inches most of the remainder of gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1), light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2), grayish
brown (10YR 5/2), light brownish gray (10YR 6/2), brown
each year, except during extended dry periods. (10YR 4/3, 5/3), or pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sandy loam
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black or sandy clay loam, and in places it has few to many mottles
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer in shades of gray, brown, or yellow. Some pedons have black
is gray and light ra fine sand about 14 inches thick or very dark gray organic stains in root channels, and some
is gray and light gray fine sand about 14 inches thick, pedons have a few lenses or pockets of sand or loamy sand.
The next layer is black fine sand, weakly cemented Reaction ranges from medium acid to moderately alkaline.
with organic matter, about 10 inches thick. Below this The Bt horizon overlies brownish fine sandy loam or loamy
is a subsoil of brown and very dark grayish brown fine fine sand in a few places.
sandy loam about 6 inches thick. Below this is light The IIC horizon is generally a mixture of sand and shell
a oa ao inches thick Below this s lht fragments that has lenses or pockets of loamy sand or sandy
gray sand and shell fragments that extend to a depth loam. Limestone fragments are mixed with the shell in some
of 72 inches or more. pedons.
Perm ilit is rapid to a depth of 22 inches, mod- Wabasso soils are associated with Oldsmar, Immokalee,
Permeability s a 22 chess mod- Myakka, Riviera, Pineda, Boca, and Pinellas soils. Unlike
erate to 38, inches, and rapid below this. The available Oldsmar soils, they have a Bh horizon within a depth of 30
water capacity is low to very low in the upper 22 inches and a Bt horizon within a depth of 40 inches.
inches and below 38 inches. Between a depth of 22 Wabasso soils have a Bt horizon that Immokalee soils lack.
and 8 inches it is medium. The organic-matter con- Unlike Riviera, Pineda, Boca, and Pinellas soils, they have
tent and natural fertility are low. a oz
tent and natural fertility are low. Wa-Wabasso fine sand. This is a nearly level,
Representative pedon of Wabasso fine sand, about 5 poorly drained, sandy soil that has a black weakly
milespoory drained sandy soil that has a black weay
miles north of Okeechobee Road and about 100 feet cemented sand layer over loamy material. This soil is
east of Royal Palm Beach Boulevard, SE1/SWI/4 sec in broad, flatwoods areas. It has the pedon described
as representative of the series. Under natural condi-
All-0 to 4 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; weak fine tions, the water table is within 10 inches of the sur-
granular structure; very friable; many fine and face for 1 to 4 months during most years and between
medium roots; extremely acid; clear wavy bound-
ary. 10 and 40 inches most of the remainder of each year,
A12-4 to 8 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine except during extended dry periods.
granular structure; very friable; many fine and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
medium roots; many uncoated sand grains; ex- Oldsmar, Boca, Riviera, Pinellas, Pineda, Immokalee,
tremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A2-8 to 22 inches; mixed gray (N 5/0) and light gray and Myakka soils; areas of soils in which the black,
(10YR 7/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; com- weakly cemented layer is slightly below a depth of 30








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 43

inches or the loamy layer is slightly deeper than 40 A21-2 to 11 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; common
inches; and in a few places, areas of soils that have a fine faint light brownish gray mottles; single
grained; loose; common very dark gray and dark
dark colored surface layer more than 8 inches thick. grayish brown streaks in root channels; neutral;
The natural vegetation includes slash pine, cabbage clear wavy boundary.
palm, saw-palmetto, southern bayberry, runner oak, A22-11 to 16 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
and pineland three-awn. Most areas are still in native sand; common fine distinct dark grayish brown
mottles; single grained; loose; neutral; abrupt ir-
vegetation, though some large areas are used for truck regular boundary.
crops, citrus, and improved pasture. B2tg&A-16 to 24 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam;
If a water control system is installed, this soil is well few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and
suited to vegetables. In addition to drainage and irriga- light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) mottles common
medium faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2) mottles;
tion, the growth of cover crops during fallow periods weak coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly
maintains organic-matter content and improves tilth, sticky, plastic; sand grains coated and bridged
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to crop with clay; tongues of light brownish gray (10YR
needs. 6/2) fine sand, 1 to 2 inches in diameter and ap-
proximately 6 inches apart in all directions, extend
If well managed, this soil is moderately well suited through horizon and have few medium faint light
or well suited to citrus. A water control system is gray (10YR 7/2) mottles and common small
needed to maintain the water table at a depth of 3 feet pockets of dark grayish brown loamy sand; neu-
or more. Trees should be planted on broad, elevated trial; gradual wavy boundary.
beds. Frequent application of fertilizer is a major B3&A-24 to 30 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) loamy fine sand;
beds. Frequent application of fertilizer is a major few fine faint grayish brown mottles; weak sub-
management concern. angular blocky structure; slightly sticky; tongues
This soil is well suited to high-quality pasture of fewer but similar to those in horizon above; few
improved grasses and clover. A water control system medium pockets of white shell fragments in lower
that provides surface drainage and subsurface o r sart; moderately alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
that provides surface drainage and subsurface irriga- IICg-30 to 50 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) mixture of fine sand
tion is needed to improve crop growth. Adequate ferti- and shell fragments; moderately alkaline, calcare-
lizer application and careful control of grazing are ous.
needed to maintain healthy plant growth. Capability Reaction in the A horizon ranges from medium acid to
unit IIIw-3. mildly alkaline. The A horizon is 6 to 20 inches thick. The
Al horizon is black (10YR 2/1), very dark gray (10YR
3/1), or dark gray (10YR 4/1). It is less than 8 inches
Winder Series thick. The A2 horizon is gray (10YR 5/1), grayish brown
(10YR 5/2), or light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) and has
The Winder series consists of nearly level, poorly mottles in shades of gray, brown, and yellow. In some pedons
drained soils that have a loamy subsoil within a depth this horizon is a mixture of these same colors.
The B2tg&A horizon is dark gray (10YR 4/1; N 4/0;
of 20 inches below the soil surface. They are on broad, 5Y 4/1), olive gray (5Y 4/2, 5/2), gray (10YR 5/1, 6/1;
low flats and in depressions and poorly defined drain- N 5/0, 6/0; 5Y 5/1, 6/1), dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2;
ageways. They formed in sandy and loamy marine 2.5Y 4/2), grayish brown (10YR 5/2; 2.5Y 5/2), or light
sediments. Under natural conditions, the water table brownish gray (10YR 6/2; 2.5Y 6/2) and has mottles in
shades of gray, brown, or yellow. The Btg part of the hori-
is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months zon is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Tongues of fine
during most years. Some areas are flooded for periods sand that are 1 to 2.5 inches wide, few to common, and 4 to
of a few days to about 3 months. 12 inches apart extend vertically from the A2 horizon. Most
In a representative pedon the surface layer is black pedons have a few smaller tongues. Dark-colored organic
ine sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurace layer is stains occur on sand grains at the base of some tongues.
fine sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer is The B3&A horizon has color similar to that of the Btg&A
light gray and light brownish gray fine sand that horizon. It is loamy fine sand that has fine sand tongues
extends to a depth of about 16 inches. The subsoil is of the A2 horizon. Some pedons have no B3&A horizon.
gray fine sandy loam about 8 inches thick that has The IICg horizon is a mixture of gray or light gray fine
tongues of fine sand from the layer above sand mixed with white shell fragments. This horizon is at a
tongues of fine sand from the layer above. Below this depth of more than 24 inches and is moderately alkaline.
is a layer of gray loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick Winder soils are associated with Riviera, Chobee,
also containing tongues of fine sand. The substratum Tequesta, Hallandale, and Pinellas soils. Unlike Riviera
is a mixture of gray fine sand and white shell frag- soils, they have a Btg&A horizon above a depth of 20 inches.
ments. They do not have the thick dark Al horizon of Chobee soils.
mentsWinder soils do not have an organic Oa surface layer such
Permeability is rapid to a depth of 16 inches, mode- as that in Tequesta soils. Unlike Hallandale soils, they have
rate between 16 and 24 inches, and rapid below that. a loamy Btg&A horizon rather than limestone within a depth
The available water capacity is medium in the loamy of 20 inches. They lack the A22ca horizon of Pinellas soils.
subsoil layer and low to very low in all other layers. Wn-Winder fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
The organic-matter content and natural fertility are drained soil that has a sandy subsurface layer that
low. tongues into a loamy subsoil at a depth of less than 20
Repre p n of W r fe a t inches. This soil is on broad, low flats and in depres-
Representative pedon of Winder fine sand, about sions and poorly defined drainageways. It has the
0.25 mile west of C-18 Canal and 100 feet south of sons and poorly defined drainageways. It has the
0.25 mle west of C-18 Canal and 100 feet south of pedon described as representative of the series. Under
P.G.A. Boulevard, NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 8, T. 42 W., R. natural conditions, the water table is within 10 inches
42 E. of the surface for 2 to 6 months during most years.
Al-0 to 2 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine Some areas are flooded for periods of a few days to
and medium granular structure; very friable; about 3 months.
man r ne root; estimated 20 peeand regain Included with this soil in mapping are small areas
slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. of Riviera, Chobee, and Tequesta soils; soils that have








44 SOIL SURVEY

few or no tongues from the subsurface layer in the Crops and Pasture
subsoil; and soils in depressions that lack a dark colored
surface layer. Most soils in Palm Beach County Area are not suited
The natural vegetation is maidencane, St. Johnswort, to farming unless there is some water control. A na-
needlegrass, pickerelwood, southern bayberry, and scat- tural or geographic division separates these soils into
tered cypress trees. Most areas of this soil are in native two broad groups: mineral or sandy soils in the eastern
vegetation, third of the county and organic or muck soils of the
Everglades in the western part. Generally, the soils
If a water control system is installed, this soil is well most used for crops and pasture in the sandlands are
suited to vegetables. In addition to drainage and irriga- poorly drained and have a sand surface layer and a
tion, the growth of cover crops during fallow periods sandy or loamy subsoil that, in places, rests on lime-
maintains organic-matter content and improves tilth, stone. All of the organic soils in the mucklands are
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to crop used intensively for crops and pasture (fig. 6). In their
needs. Capability unit IIIw-5. natural condition, these soils are very poorly drained
and are made up of well decomposed organic material
that rests on limestone at varying depths. When these
Use and Management of the Soils soils are drained or not completely saturated with
water, the organic material subsides and oxidizes at the
Palm Beach County Area is urbanizing rapidly. Land rate of about 1 inch per year.
that was used a few years ago for commercial produc- In the sandland area, truck crops were grown on
tion of citrus, truck crops, other farm crops, and cattle 34,790 acres in the 1973-1974 season. The major crops
has been recently converted to nonfarm use. Agricul- were beans, sweet corn, green peppers, and tomatoes.
tural production in the Everglades, however, continues Citrus crops were produced on an estimated 20,000
to grow. acres. Production of cut flowers, bulbs, and ornamentals
In this section, the soils are rated for various engi- is also important in the sandlands.
neering or nonfarm uses, their engineering properties In the muckland area, sugarcane is the major crop.
are evaluated, and their suitability for farming, wild- In the 1973-1974 season, sugarcane was grown on more
life, and recreational development are discussed. than 240,000 acres, which indicates about a 50 percent































Figure 6.-Young sweet corn and mature sugarcane growing on Terra Ceia muck. These two crops are widely grown on this soil.








44 SOIL SURVEY

few or no tongues from the subsurface layer in the Crops and Pasture
subsoil; and soils in depressions that lack a dark colored
surface layer. Most soils in Palm Beach County Area are not suited
The natural vegetation is maidencane, St. Johnswort, to farming unless there is some water control. A na-
needlegrass, pickerelwood, southern bayberry, and scat- tural or geographic division separates these soils into
tered cypress trees. Most areas of this soil are in native two broad groups: mineral or sandy soils in the eastern
vegetation, third of the county and organic or muck soils of the
Everglades in the western part. Generally, the soils
If a water control system is installed, this soil is well most used for crops and pasture in the sandlands are
suited to vegetables. In addition to drainage and irriga- poorly drained and have a sand surface layer and a
tion, the growth of cover crops during fallow periods sandy or loamy subsoil that, in places, rests on lime-
maintains organic-matter content and improves tilth, stone. All of the organic soils in the mucklands are
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to crop used intensively for crops and pasture (fig. 6). In their
needs. Capability unit IIIw-5. natural condition, these soils are very poorly drained
and are made up of well decomposed organic material
that rests on limestone at varying depths. When these
Use and Management of the Soils soils are drained or not completely saturated with
water, the organic material subsides and oxidizes at the
Palm Beach County Area is urbanizing rapidly. Land rate of about 1 inch per year.
that was used a few years ago for commercial produc- In the sandland area, truck crops were grown on
tion of citrus, truck crops, other farm crops, and cattle 34,790 acres in the 1973-1974 season. The major crops
has been recently converted to nonfarm use. Agricul- were beans, sweet corn, green peppers, and tomatoes.
tural production in the Everglades, however, continues Citrus crops were produced on an estimated 20,000
to grow. acres. Production of cut flowers, bulbs, and ornamentals
In this section, the soils are rated for various engi- is also important in the sandlands.
neering or nonfarm uses, their engineering properties In the muckland area, sugarcane is the major crop.
are evaluated, and their suitability for farming, wild- In the 1973-1974 season, sugarcane was grown on more
life, and recreational development are discussed. than 240,000 acres, which indicates about a 50 percent































Figure 6.-Young sweet corn and mature sugarcane growing on Terra Ceia muck. These two crops are widely grown on this soil.







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 45

increase in the last few years. About 80,000 acres in much alike that they are suited to the same crops and
the Everglades are used for sweet corn, celery, pasture plants, require about the same management,
radishes, leafy vegetables, and other truck crops, and have generally similar productivity and other re-
About 180,000 acres throughout the county are used sponse to management. Capability units are generally
for pasture, primarily for beef cattle but also for dairy identified by numbers assigned locally, for example,
cattle. Pangolagrass and Bahiagrass are improved IIIw-1 or VIs-1.
grasses, which are mostly used for sandland pasture. The eight classes in the capability system, the sub-
St. Augustine grass is used mostly for muckland pas- classes, and the units in Palm Beach County Area are
ture. described in the following list. The unit designation is
Sod is produced on about 13,000 acres. Formerly, this given at the end of each mapping unit description.
acreage was about equally divided between sandland The following mapping units are not assigned to a
and muckland, but now almost all sod is grown on capability unit: Arents, very steep; Arents-Urban
organic soil. land complex; Arents-Urban land complex, organic
substratum; Basinger-Urban land complex; Canaveral-
Capability grouping Urban land complex; Cocoa-Urban land complex;
The capability grouping is based on the permanent Myakka-Urban land complex; Palm Beach-Urban land
limitations of soils if used for field crops, the risk of complex; Pits; Quartzipsamments, shaped; Riviera-
damage if these soils are farmed, and the way they re- Urban land complex; St. Lucie-Urban land complex;
spond to treatment. The grouping does not take into Udorthents; and Urban land. None of these units are
account major and generally expensive landforming used for crops.
that would change slope, depth, or other characteristics Class I. Soils have few limitations that restrict their
of the soils; does not take into consideration possible use (no subclasses). (None in Palm Beach County
but unlikely major reclamation projects; and does not Area.)
apply to rice, horticultural crops, or other crops requir- Class II. Soils have moderate limitations that reduce
ing special management. the choice of plants or require moderate conservation
The capability classification can be used to determine practices. (None in Palm Beach County Area.)
the behavior of soils when used for other purposes. This Class III. Soils have severe limitations that reduce the
classification, however, is not a substitute for interpre- choice of plants, require special conservation prac-
tations designed to show suitability and limitations of tices, or both.
groups of soils for wildlife, for recreation, or for engi- Subclass IIIw. Soils severely limited because of
neering. excess water.
In the capability system, soils are grouped at three Unit IIIw-1. Nearly level, somewhat poorly
levels: the class, the subclass, and the unit. The broad- drained sandy soils 24 to 40 inches deep
est grouping is the capability class and is designated over an organic soil.
by Roman numerals I to VIII. Soils in class I have the Unit IIIw-2. Nearly level, poorly drained
fewest limitations, the widest range of use, and the soils that have a loamy subsoil underlain by
least risk of damage if used. The soils in the other fractured limestone at a depth of 24 to 40
classes have progressively greater natural limitations. inches.
For example, soils and land forms in class VIII are so Unit IIIw-3. Nearly level, poorly drained
rough, shallow, or otherwise limited that they do not sandy soils that have a layer weakly ce-
produce worthwhile yields of crops, forage, or wood mented with organic matter within a depth
products, of 40 inches.
The capability subclass indicates major kinds of limi- Unit IIIw-4. Nearly level, poorly drained
stations within a class. Within most classes there are up soils that have a sandy surface and sub-
to 4 subclasses. Subclasses are designated by adding a surface layer 20 to 40 inches thick and a
small letter, e, w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for loamy subsoil.
example, IIe. The letter e shows that the main limita- Unit IIIw-5. Nearly level, poorly drained
tion is risk of erosion unless close-growing plant cover sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil within
is maintained; w means that water in or on the soil a depth of 20 inches.
interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some Unit IIIw-6. Nearly level, very poorly
soils the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial drained loamy soils that have a thick, black
drainage) ; s shows that the soil is limited mainly be- surface layer.
cause it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c indicates Unit IIIw-7. Deep, nearly level, very poorly
that the chief limitation is climate that is too cold or too drained sandy soils that have a thick, black
dry. surface layer.
In class I there are no subclasses, because the soils Unit IIIw-8. Nearly level, very poorly
of this class have few or no limitations. Class V can drained sandy soils that have a thick, black
contain, at the most, only subclasses w, s, and c, because surface layer and a loamy subsoil 20 to 40
the soils are subject to little or no erosion but have inches thick.
other limitations that confine their use largely to pas- Unit IIIw-9. Nearly level, very poorly
ture, range, or wildlife habitat. drained sandy soils that have a black muck
Subclasses are further divided into groups called surface layer 6 to 16 inches thick and a
capability units. These are groups of soils that are so loamy subsoil.







46 SOIL SURVEY

Unit IIIw-10. Deep, nearly level, very poorly restrict their use largely to range, woodland, or wild-
drained sandy soils that have a black muck life habitat.
surface layer 8 to 16 inches thick. Subclass VIIs. Soils very severely limited because
Unit IIIw-11. Nearly level, very, poorly of droughtiness.
drained organic soils that have organic Unit VIIs-1. Deep, nearly level to sloping,
layers 16 to 40 inches thick underlain by excessively drained soils that are sandy
sandy mineral material. throughout.
Unit IIIw-12. Nearly level, very poorly Subclass VIIw. Soils very severely limited be-
drained organic soils that have an organic cause of wetness.
layer 20 to 51 inches thick underlain by Unit VIIw-1. Nearly level, very poorly
hard limestone. drained sandy soils. Some have a loamy sub-
Unit IIIw-13. Nearly level, very poorly soil and others have a layer weakly ce-
drained organic soils that have an organic mented with organic matter. They are
layer more than 51 inches thick, covered with shallow water much of the
Unit IIIw-14. Deep, nearly level, very poorly time.
drained organic soils that have a high con- C V Sil a l h limii
tent of fine textured mineral material. Class VIII. Soils and landforms have limitations that
tent of fie t d m l m preclude their use for commercial plants and restrict
Class IV. Soils have very severe limitations that re- their use to recreation, wildlife habitat, water supply,
duce the choice of plants, require very careful man- or to esthetic purposes.
agement, or both. Subclass VIIIw. Soils very severely limited be-
Subclass IVw. Soils very severely limited because cause of wetness.
of excess water. Unit VIIIw-1. Nearly level or gently sloping
Unit IVw-1. Deep, nearly level, poorly sandy and shell soil along the shoreline that
drained sandy soils. is flooded daily by high tide.
Unit IVw-2. Nearly level, poorly drained, Unit VIIIw-2. Nearly level areas along the
sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil layer coast that are covered by brackish water or
at a depth of 40 to 60 inches. Some have a daily high tides.
layer that is weakly cemented with organic
matter above the loamy subsoil.
Unit IVw-3. Deep, nearly level, poorly Estimated yields
drained sandy soils that have a layer weakly Table 3 lists estimated average yields per acre of the
mntehd th organic matter within a principal crops in Palm Beach County Area. These esti-
depth of 45 inches. mated yields are those that can be expected under high
Unit IVw-4. Nearly level, poorly drained level management practices. In areas used for crops
sandy soils that are underlain by limestone and groves, these practices include applying adequate
at a depth of less than 20 inches. amount of fertilizer and lime, controlling insects, prop-
Class V. Soils are not likely to erode but have other erly managing crop residue, supplying drainage or
limitations that are impractical to remove and that water control if needed, and installing properly de-
limit their use largely to pasture, range, woodland, signed irrigation systems. Management practices in
or wildlife habitat. areas used for improved pasture include applying ade-
Subclass Vw. Soils too wet for cultivation; drain- quate amounts of fertilizer and lime, controlling graz-
age or protection not feasible. ing, rotating pasture, selecting forage varieties best
Unit Vw-1. Nearly level, very poorly drained adapted to the soils involved, controlling undesirable
organic soils underlain by limestone within plants, providing drainage to remove excess surface
a depth of 20 inches, water, and installing irrigation systems if feasible and
Class VI. Soils have severe limitations that make needed.
them generally unsuited to cultivation and that limit The yields in table 3 are based largely on informa-
their use largely to pasture, range, woodland, or tion obtained from interviews with farmers, from
wildlife habitat. observations by members of the soil survey party,
Subclass VIs. Soils severely limited because of from records and experience of the district conserva-
droughtiness. tionist and County Extension Director, from bulletins
Unit VIs-1. Deep, nearly level to sloping, and other information compiled by the University of
excessively drained soils that are sandy Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, from com-
throughout. parsons of yields on similar soils in other counties in
Unit VIs-2. Deep, nearly level to gently South Florida, and from records of crop yields kept by
sloping, moderately well drained sandy soils the Florida Crop Reporting Service. The yield esti-
that have a layer weakly cemented with mates assume optimum weather conditions.
organic matter at a depth of 30 inches or Arents, very steep; Beaches; Pits; Quartzipsam-
more. ments, shaped; Udorthents; Urban land; and the
Class VII. Soils have very severe limitations that Urban land complexes are not placed in this table
make them generally unsuited to cultivation and that because they are not used for crops and pasture.








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 47

TABLE 3.-Yields per acre of crops and pasture
[All yields were estimated for a high level of management in 1974. Absence of a yield figure indicates the crop is seldom grown or is not suited.
Only arable soils are listed]

Soil name and map symbol Sugarcane Corn, Celery Tomatoes Peppers Bahia- Grass-
sweet grass clover

Ton Ton Crate Ton Bu AUM AUM
Anclote: An -----------------.-.------- _. ----4.5 ---...---- 6 450 10.0 13.0
Basinger: Ba---- -----.-------------.. ----------- 4.0 -------- 13 -------- 8.0 12-0
Boca: Bo ---------------------------------_---- 3.8 ---- 16 800 8.0 ----
Chobee: Ch----- ------------- ---------- ------- --------- 6 ------------ 12.0 15.0
Dania: Da -- ----------------- ----------------------------------- ------ 15.0---- --
Floridana: Fa-------- ----------- ------- ---- 3.5 14 800 10.0 13.0
Hallandale: Ha --------------------- ---16 -----5.5
Holopaw: Ho ------- -------------- ------------ 3.5 --------- 8 ------ 8.0 10.0
Immokalee: Im-------------------------- ----------------- --- 15 ------ 9.0 12.0
Jupiter: Ju------------------------- ---------------------- --16 ----------_ 5.5 -----
Lauderhill: La-------------------- 40 4.5 800--------------------- 15.0-----------
Myakka: Mk----------------------- ----------------------15 -----------9.0 12.0
Okeechobee: Oc-------------------- 40 4.5 800 ------------------ 15.0 -----------
Okeelanta: On --------------------.- 35 4.5 800-------------------- 15.0 -----------
Oldsmar: Os --------------------------- 3.0 8 750 9.0 12.0
Pahokee: Pa----------------------- 40 4.5 800-------------------- 15.0 ----------
Paola: PcB----_---------------------------- .---------------------- 4.5 ----------
Pineda: Pd ------------------------------------ 2.5 ---------- 7 ------ 10.0 12.0
Pinellas: Pe ----------------------- ----2.5 -7--- 7 ---- 10.0 12.0
Placid: Pg -------.--.----- ------------ 4.5 ---- 6 450 10.0 13.0
Pomello: PhB-------------------------------------------- ----------------------- -----3.5 -------
Pompano: Po ------ ---------------4 13 ------8.0 12.0
Riviera: Ra----------- --------- --- ----- 2.5 ----- 7 ---- 10.0 12.0
Sanibel: Sa ----------------- -- ------------ 3.5 ---- 6 800 15.0 -------
Tequesta: Ta -------------- ----- ------- 3.5 ---- 6 800 15.0 -----
Terra Ceia: Tc --------------------- 40 4.5 800 ----- --------------. 15.0----------
Torry: Tr------------------------- 50 5 825 ------------------------ 15.0 -----------
Wabasso: Wa ------------------- ------- 2.5 1_ 13 ------- 9.0 12.0
Winder: Wn------------------------------------------ 8 ------------ 9.0 12.0

SAnimal-unit-month: The amount of forage or feed required to feed one animal unit (one cow, one horse, one mule, five sheep, or five
goats) for a period of 30 days.


Wildlife 2 Rabbits and armadillos frequent parts of the survey
area, though few armadillos live in the mucklands.
Wildlife is a valuable resource of Palm Beach County Bobcats are not uncommon. They generally live in
Area. Although urban expansion is rapid in the coastal swamps and wooded areas that provide needed protec-
area, large areas in other parts of the survey area tion.
remain undeveloped and support a large number of Alligators are common in Palm Beach County Area.
wildlife species. They live mostly in the muckland of the Everglades,
White-tailed deer and wild turkeys make their home but also live in swamps, canals, and depressions. Otter
almost exclusively in large, undeveloped areas. Wild are also fairly common and have the same habitat and
turkeys are few and live mainly in mineral soil population distribution as the alligator.
areas. Deer are numerous and find suitable habitat on Florida mallards are resident wild ducks. They in-
the sandlands and the mucklands of the Everglades. habit open water in very poorly drained areas through-
Quail and dove live mainly in the eastern sandland area out the survey area. Ringnecks, pintail, mallard,
where suitable habitat exists on all but the wettest wigeon, teal, and other migratory wild ducks also in-
soils. habit these areas in the fall and winter.
Numerous other game and nongame species of wild- Large sandhill cranes are not numerous. They feed
life thrive in the survey area. Raccoons are numerous in open flatwoods and slough areas and nest in shallow
and find suitable habitat in all parts of the survey area, water areas. Although cattle egrets are not native to
especially in wooded areas. They feed on berries, small the survey area, they are numerous, feed on insects
reptiles and amphibians, shell fish, crustaceans, vege- stirred up by grazing cattle, and nest in trees in
table crops, and citrus. swamps and in thickets near ponds.
Gray squirrels are few, and they live mainly in Snowy egrets, white and wood ibis, limpkins, great
heavily wooded flatwoods, swamps, and wooded areas blue and little blue herons, and other wading birds are
near ponds. abundant in the wet, mineral and organic soil areas.
These birds feed on snails, small fish, frogs, and insects
2JOHN F. VANCE, JR., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, in shallow water areas and adjacent sloughs. They nest
helped prepare this section, in bushes and trees over water.








48 SOIL SURVEY

Many saltwater game fish live in the coastal waters. The seven wildlife habitat elements in table 4 are
The most common freshwater game fish are black discussed in the following paragraphs:
crappie, speckled perch, large mouth black bass, shell- Grain and seed crops are domestic and seed produc-
crackers, channel catfish, and bluegill bream. Most ing annual plants that provide food for wildlife. Exam-
perch and shellcrackers are in Lake Okeechobee. Bass ples are corn, oats, millet, cowpeas, rye, sorghum, and
and bream live in the lakes and canals of the interior soybeans.
and provide fair to good fishing. Excavated ponds can Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
be established almost anywhere in soils that have a and herbaceous legumes that provide wildlife cover and
relatively stable high water table. Ponds one half acre food. Examples are bahiagrass, pangolagrass, combine
or more in size that are properly stocked and managed peas, white clover, lespedeza, and hairy indigo.
provide good fishing; stocking of such ponds with Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
channel catfish is increasing, established grasses and forbs (including weeds) that
Successful management of wildlife on any tract of provide food and cover for wildlife. These plants are
land requires that food, cover, and water be available established mainly through natural processes. Exam-
in a suitable combination. The lack of any one of these ples are beggarweed, partridge pea, pokeweed, carpet-
requirements results in an unfavorable balance or an grass, pokeberry, ragweed, lespedeza, and Aeschyno-
inadequate distribution of desirable wildlife species, mene americana or deer-vetch.
Most wildlife habitats are managed by planting Hardwood trees and shrubs include nonconiferous
suitable vegetation, manipulating existing vegetation trees and associated woody understory plants that
to bring about a favorable habitat, or a combination provide wildlife cover or that produce nuts, buds, cat-
of these measures. Water areas can be created and kins, twigs, bark, or foliage used as food by wildlife.
natural ones improved for wildlife habitat. The influ- Examples are oak, hickory, maple, sweetgum, dog-
ence of a soil on the growth of many plants is known, wood, cabbage palm, blueberry, briars, grape, and
and for other plants the soil influence can be inferred honeysuckle.
from a knowledge of the characteristics and behavior Coniferous plants are cone-bearing trees, shrubs, or
of the soil. groundcover that provide wildlife cover or supply food
Soil interpretations for wildlife habitat serve as an in the form of browse, seeds, or fruit-like cones. They
aid in selecting the more suitable sites for various are established mainly through natural processes, but
kinds of habitat management. They serve as indicators may be planted. Examples are pines and cedars.
of the level of management needed to achieve satis- Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild her-
factory results and as a means of showing why it may baceous plants in moist to wet sites, exclusive of
not be feasible to manage a particular area for a given submerged or floating aquatics. Wetland plants pro-
kind of wildlife. They also serve in a broad-scale plan- vide food or cover used extensively by wetland wildlife.
ning of wildlife management areas. Examples are cattail, cutgrass, wild millet, smartweed,
Wildlife habitat can be created, improved, or main- sedges, and rushes.
trained by planting or managing existing vegetation on Shallow water areas are areas of surface water
the soils to provide desirable plants. In table 4 the with an average depth of less than 5 feet. These
soils are rated for their suitability for producing seven areas are useful to wildlife. They may be natural wet
kinds of wildlife habitat elements and three general areas or those created by dams, dikes, or levees used
kinds of wildlife. The present land use, the relation- for controlling the water in marshy areas. In places
ship of soils to adjoining areas, and the movement of they are designed so that these areas can be drained
wildlife are not considered in these ratings. The size, or flooded.
shape, or location of the areas does not affect the rat- The three general kinds of wildlife in table 4 are
ing. Certain influences on habitat must be appraised by described in the following paragraphs:
onsite investigation. The level of suitability ratings in Openland wildlife generally inhabits croplands,
table 4 are defined as follows: pastures, groves, lawns, and areas overgrown with
Good: Habitats are easily improved, maintained, grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. Openland wildlife
or created. There are few or no soil limitations in includes quail, doves, cottontail rabbits, meadowlarks,
habitat management, and satisfactory results can be and field sparrows.
expected. Woodland wildlife generally inhabits wooded areas
Fair: Habitats can be improved, maintained or that have either hardwood trees, coniferous trees and
Fair: Habitats can be improved, maintained or srub or mixture of both. Woodland wildlife
created on these soils, but moderate soil limitations Shrubs, dr w tukeys squirrels raccoons, and
affect habitat management or development. A moderate includes deer, wild turkeys, squirrels, raccoons, and
intensity of management and fairly frequent attention woodpeckers.
may be required to ensure satisfactory results. as ponds, ditches, mrshes, and swamps. etland wild-
Poor: Habitats can be improved, maintained, or life includes ducks, geese, shore birds, herons, otter,
created on these soils, but the soil limitations are and alligators.
severe. Habitat management may be difficult and
expensive and require intensive effort. Results are Engineering
questionable. Engineering
Very poor: Under the prevailing soil conditions, This section is useful to those who need information
it is not practical to attempt to improve, maintain, or about soils used as structural material or as founda-
create habitats. Unsatisfactory results are probable, tions upon which structures are built. Among those









PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 49

TABLE 4.-Wildlife habitat potentials
[See text for definitions of "good," "fair," "poor," and "very poor." There are no ratings for Beaches (Bn), Pits (Pf), Urban land (Ur), or
Urban land part of AU, AX, Be, Cc, CuB, Mu, PbB, Ru, or SuB]

Potential for habitat elements Potential as habitat for-

Soil name and
map symbol Grain Grasses Wild Hard- Conif- Shallow Open- Wood- Wetland
and and herba- wood erous Wetland water land land wild-
seed legumes ceous trees plants plants areas wild- wild- life
crops plants life life

Adamsville variant: AdB ----- Poor---- Poor-- Poor-.. Fair _-- Fair.--- Poor --. Very Poor-- Fair --- Very
poor. poor.
Anclote: An --------------- Very Poor-- Poor---- Fair---- Poor .-- Good--- Good_-- Poor --- Fair .-- Good.
poor.
Arents, very steep: ASF------- Very Very Very Very Very Very Very Very Very Very
poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor.
Arents: AU--- ------------ Poor --- Poor ..- Poor- .. Fair --- Fair .-- Poor _-- Poor P Fr---- Poor F Poor.
Arents, organic substratum: Poor --- Poor .-- Poor.--- Fair..-- Fair --- Poor---- Poor --- Poor.--- Fair --- Poor.
AX.
Basinger:
Ba, Bc-------------------- Poor.- Poor ..- Fair -.. Poor-... Poor-..- Good--. Fair---- Poor-.. Poor... Fair.
BM:
Basinger part ------------Very Very Very Very Very Good_-- Good--- Very Very Good.
poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor.
Myakka part ------------Very Very Very Very Very Fair---- Good _- Very Very Good.
poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor.
Boca: Bo ------------------ Poor _-- Fair- Fair ..- Poor..-- Poor .-- Good--- Fair---- Fair-- Poor -- Fair.
Canaveral: Cc -------------Poor --. Poor .- Fair --- Poor __ Poor --- Very Very Poor---- Poor --- Very
poor. poor. poor.
Chobee: Ch---------------- Poor ..- Poor --- Poor --- Fair.-.. Poor---- Good_- Good_-- Poor---- Poor --- Good.
Cocoa: CuB---------------- Poor--- Poor--.- Poor --- Poor-..- Poor---- Very Very Poor---- Poor --- Very
poor. poor. poor.
Dania: Da----------------- Very Poor---- Poor .-- Poor --- Poor---- Good--- Good--- Poor --- Poor --- Good.
poor.
Floridana: Fa--------------- Poor-- Poor---- Fair .-- Poor---- Poor---- Good-__ Fair .- Poor.--- Poor---- Fair.
Hallandale: Ha------------- Poor .-- Poor-___ Poor --- Poor--- Poor.--- Fair---- Good_-- Poor---- Poor --- Fair.
Holopaw: Ho ------------ Poor .- Fair..-- Fair -- Poor---- Fair Fair -- Fair -- Fair -- Fair -- Fair.
Immokalee: Im ------------- Poor --- Fair Good__- Poor --. Fair --- Fair --- Poor .-- Fair --- Fair .-- Poor.
Jupiter: Ju --------------- Poor -- Poor .-- Poor .-- Poor .-- Poor.--- Good___ Poor.--- Poor --- Poor --- Fair.
Lauderhill: La-------------- Very Poor---- Poor---- Poor---- Poor --- Good__- Good--- Poor---- Poor---- Good.
poor.
Myakka: Mk, Mu------------ Poor _-- Fair .-- Good___ Poor-- Fair --- Fair-.. Poor.--- Fair --- Fair---- Poor.
Okeechobee: Oc------------ Very Poor --- Poor .-- Poor-- Poor --- Good_-- Good--- Poor -- Poor---- Good.
poor.
Okeelanta: On-------------- Very Poor .-- Very Very Very Good--- Good___ Very Very Good.
poor, poor. poor. poor. poor. poor.
Oldsmar: Os--------------- Poor __- Fair-. Fair---- Poor---- Fair.--- Poor --- Poor --- Fair---- Fair-.-- Poor.
Pahokee: Pa --------------- Very Poor --- Very Very Very Good_-- Good __ Very Very Good.
poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor.
Palm Beach: PbB--------- Poor--. Poor --- Poor--- Very Very Very Very Poor.--- Very Very
poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor.
Paola: PcB----------------- Poor -- Poor--- Fair --- Very Poor.-- Very Very Poor --- Poor --- Very
poor. poor. poor. poor.
Pineda: Pd-------------- Poor---. Fair --- Fair .-- Poor.--- Poor.--- Good_-- Fair---- Fair --- Poor --- Fair.
Pinellas: Pe---------------- Very Poor---- Poor --- Poor... Poor --- Fair --- Fair-.. Poor -. Poor --- Fair.
poor.
Placid: P ----------------- Poor--- Fair --- Fair Poor. --- Fair -- Good___ Good--- Fair --- Fair --- Good.
Pomello: PhB------------- Poor --- Poor Poor---- Poor.--- Poor---. Very Very Poor -- Poor---- Very
poor. poor. poor.
Pompano: Po --------------- Poor .-- Fair-. Poor --- Poor --- Poor---. Fair.. Fair.. Poor-.- Poor -.. Fair.
Quartzipsamments, shaped: Poor._-- Poor --- Poor --- Very Poor .-- Very Very Poor --- Poor --- Very
QAB. poor. poor. poor. poor.
Riviera:
Ra, Ru----_--------_------- Poor Fair- Fair -- Fair--- Fair---- Poor --- Fair --- Fair---- Fair---- Fair.
Rd---------------------- Very Poor .-- Very Very Very Good--- Good-_- Very Very Good.
poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor.
Sanibel: Sa--------------- Very Poor.--- Poor.--- Very Very Good__- Good--- Poor---- Very Good.
poor. poor. poor. poor.
St. Lucie: ScB, SuB ----------Poor-..- Poor .-- Fair ---- Very Poor-- Very Very Poor -- Poor.--- Very
poor. poor. poor. poor.
Tequesta: Ta-- ---------_ Poor- .. Fair Fair .. Poor --- Poor ..- Good___ Good___ Poor --- Poor .-- Good.
Terra Ceia: Tc.-------------. Very Poor ... Poor .-- Poor .-- Poor ..- Good_-- Good_-- Poor .-- Poor.--- Good.
poor.
Tidal swamp, mineral: TM.--- Very Very Very Very Very Very Good.-- Very Very Fair.
poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor.








50 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 4.-Wildlife habitat potentials-Continued

Potential for habitat elements Potential as habitat for-
Soil name and
map symbol Grain Grasses Wild Hard- Conif- Shallow Open- Wood- Wetland
and and herba- wood erous Wetland water land land wild-
seed legumes ceous trees plants plants areas wild- wild- life
crops plants life life

Tidal swamp, organic: TO----- Very Very Very Very Very Very Good --- Very Very Fair.
poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor. poor.
Torry: Tr--- --------------Very Poor --- Poor .-- Poor _-. Poor __- Good_- Good_ Poor Poor--. Good.
poor.
Udorthents: UD-------------Poor _-- Poor ..- Fair --- Poor---- Poor .-- Very Very Poor -- Poor--- Very
poor. poor. poor.
Wabasso: Wa-------------- Poor-..- Poor---- Poor-__ Poor- Good-__ Fair --- Poor--- Poor .-- Fair ... Poor.
Winder: Wn--------------- Poor --- Fair---- Fair -.. Fair --- Fair --- Fair-..- Fair---- Fair --- Fair.--- Fair.


who can use this information are planning commis- planning more detailed field investigations and for
sions, town and city managers, land developers, engi- suggesting the kinds of problems that may be expected.
neers, contractors, and farmers. Some terms used by soil scientists have a special
Among properties of soils highly important in meaning in soil science. These terms are defined in
engineering are permeability, shear strength, compac- the Glossary.
tion characteristics, soil drainage condition, shrink-
swell potential, grain size, plasticity, soil reaction, Engineering classification systems
depth to the water table, depth to bedrock, and soil
slope. These properties, in various degrees and com- The two systems of soil classification in general use
binations, affect construction and maintenance of by engineers are the system adopted by the American
roads, airports, pipelines, foundations for small build- Association of State Highway and Transportation
ings, irrigation systems, ponds and small dams, and Officials (AASHTO) (1), and the Unified system (2)
systems for disposal of sewage and refuse. developed by the Waterways Experiment Station,
The information in this survey can be used to: Corps of Engineers, and now used by the U.S. Depart-
ement of Defense and by the Soil Conservation Service.
1. Make soil and land use studies that will aid in The AASHTO system is used to classify soils accord-
selecting and developing industrial, commer- ing to those properties that affect use in highway
cial, residential, and recreational areas. maintenance. In this system, a soil is placed in one of
2. Plan the construction of drainage and irriga- seven basic groups ranging from A-1 to A-7 on the
tion systems, ponds, and other soil and water basis of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasti-
conservation structures, city index. In group A-1 are gravelly soils of high
3. Make preliminary evaluations of soils in bearing strength, or the best soils for subgrade
selecting locations for highways, airports, pipe- (foundation). At the other extreme, in group A-7, are
lines, cables, and buildings, and in planning clay soils that have low strength if wet and that are
more detailed investigations at the selected the poorest soils for subgrade. If laboratory data are
location, available to justify a further breakdown, the A-i, A-2,
4. Locate sources of sand, topsoil, and other and A-7 groups are divided as follows: A-i-a, A-l-b,
construction material. A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, and A-7-6. As
5. Correlate performance of engineering struc- additional refinement, the engineering value of a soil
tures with soil mapping units and thus revelp material can be indicated by a group index number.
tures with soil mapping units and thus develop Group indexes range from 0 for the best material to
information that will be useful in designing 20 or more for the poorest.
and maintaining structures. or oe forthe poorest.
6. Determine the suitability of soil mapping units The AASHTO classification for tested soils, with
foDetermine the suitability of soil mapping units group index numbers in parentheses, is shown in Table
for cross country movement of vehicles and
construction equipment. 5; the estimated classification, without group index
construction equipmentnumbers, is given in Table 6 for all soils mapped in
7. Supplement other publications, such as maps, the survey area.
reports, and aerial photographs that are used In the Unified system, soils are classified as coarse
to prepare engineering reports for a specific grained, fine grained, or organic, according to particle-
area. size distribution, plasticity, liquid limit, and organic-
The engineering interpretations reported here can be matter content.
used for many purposes, but they do not eliminate the There are eight classes of coarse-grained soils, each
need for sampling and testing soils at the site of a consisting of soils in which more than half the particles
specific engineering work. The s6il map is useful for are larger than 0.074 millimeter. These classes are







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 51

designated by G for gravel and S for sand, combined estimates are made for typical soil pedons, by layers
with W for well graded, P for poorly graded, M for sufficiently different to have different significance for
silty, or C for clayey. soil engineering. The estimates are based on field obser-
There are six classes of fine-grained soils, each con- nations made in the course of mapping, on test data for
sisting of soils in which more than half the particles these and similar soils, and on experience with the same
are smaller than 0.074 millimeter. These classes are kinds of soils in other areas.
designated by M for silts, C for clays, and 0 for Following are explanations of some of the columns
organic soils, combined with L for low liquid limit or in table 6.
H for high liquid limit. Soil texture is described in table 6 in the standard
Highly organic, or peaty, soils are designated by the terms used by the Department of Agriculture. These
symbol Pt. terms take into account relative percentages of sand,
Table 5 shows the AASHTO and Unified classifica- silt, and clay in soil material that has particles less than
tions of specified soils in the county, as determined by 2 millimeters in diameter. Sandy clay loam, for example,
laboratory tests, and table 6 shows the estimated is soil material that is 20 to 35 percent clay, less than
classification of all the soils in the county. 28 percent silt, and 45 percent or more sand. Texture
is estimated on the basis of field examination and labo-
Engineering test data ratory data. If the soil contains gravel or other par-
Table 5 contains engineering test data made by the tides coarser than sand, an appropriate modifier is
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transporta- added, for example, "gravelly loamy sand." "Sand,"
tion, Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of "silt," "clay," and some of the other terms used in
the major soil series in Palm Beach County Area. USDA textural classification are defined in the Glos-
These tests were made to evaluate the soils for engi- sary. Also listed in table 6 are the Unified and the
neering purposes. The engineering classifications given AASHTO classifications.
are based on data obtained by mechanical analysis and The columns showing the percent of soil material
by tests that determine liquid limits and plastic limit, passing the number 4, 10, 40, and 200 sieves indicate
The mechanical analyses were made by combined estimated minimum and maximum amounts of each
sieve and hydrometer methods. In this method the significant layer of the soil profile that will pass these
various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis sieves.
of all material in the soil sample, including those parti- Liquid limit and plasticity index are also estimated
cles that are coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. in this table. Explanations of liquid limit and plasticity
The mechanical analyses used in this method should index are given in the paragraph explaining the
not be used in naming textural classes of soils. columns in table 5, in the section "Engineering test
Compaction (or moisture density) data are impor- data."
tant in earthwork. If a soil material is compacted at Physical and chemical properties of soils
a successively higher moisture content, assuming that Psical n cemil preries
the compactive effort remains constant, the density of significant in engineering
the compacted material increases until the optimum Table 7 shows estimated values for several soil
moisture content is reached. After that, density de- characteristics and features that affect the behavior of
creases with the increase in moisture content. The soils in engineering use. These estimates are given for
highest dry density obtained in the compactive test is each major horizon, at the depths indicated, in the
termed maximum dry density. As a rule, the maximum representative pedon of each soil. The estimates are
strength of earthwork is obtained if the soil is com- based on field observations and on test data for these
pacted to the maximum dry density, and similar soils.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of Permeability is estimated on the basis of known
water on the strength and consistency of soil material, relationships between the soil characteristics, observed
As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased in the field, that influence the downward movement of
from a dry state, the material changes from semisolid water in the soil, particularly soil structure; porosity;
to plastic. If the moisture content is further increased, and gradation or texture. The estimates are for water
the material changes from plastic to liquid. The plastic moving vertically when the soil is saturated. Not con-
limit is the moisture content at which the soil material sidered in the estimates are lateral seepage or such
changes from semisolid to plastic, and the liquid limit transient soil features as plowpans and surface crusts.
is the moisture content at which the soil material Permeability of the soil is an important factor to be
changes from plastic to liquid. The plasticity index is considered in the planning and design of drainage sys-
the numerical difference between the liquid limit and teams, in the evaluation of the potential of soils for
the plastic limit. It indicates the range of moisture septic tank systems and other waste disposal systems,
content within which a soil material is plastic. The and in many other aspects of land use and management.
data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table Available water capacity is rated on the basis of soil
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples. characteristics that influence the ability of the soil to
hold water and make it available to plants. Important
Classifications and physical properties characteristics are organic-matter content, soil texture,
significant in engineering and soil structure. Shallow-rooted plants are not likely
Classifications and physical properties of the soils to use the available water from the deeper soil horizons.
significant in engineering are given in table 6. These Available water capacity is an important factor in the







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 51

designated by G for gravel and S for sand, combined estimates are made for typical soil pedons, by layers
with W for well graded, P for poorly graded, M for sufficiently different to have different significance for
silty, or C for clayey. soil engineering. The estimates are based on field obser-
There are six classes of fine-grained soils, each con- nations made in the course of mapping, on test data for
sisting of soils in which more than half the particles these and similar soils, and on experience with the same
are smaller than 0.074 millimeter. These classes are kinds of soils in other areas.
designated by M for silts, C for clays, and 0 for Following are explanations of some of the columns
organic soils, combined with L for low liquid limit or in table 6.
H for high liquid limit. Soil texture is described in table 6 in the standard
Highly organic, or peaty, soils are designated by the terms used by the Department of Agriculture. These
symbol Pt. terms take into account relative percentages of sand,
Table 5 shows the AASHTO and Unified classifica- silt, and clay in soil material that has particles less than
tions of specified soils in the county, as determined by 2 millimeters in diameter. Sandy clay loam, for example,
laboratory tests, and table 6 shows the estimated is soil material that is 20 to 35 percent clay, less than
classification of all the soils in the county. 28 percent silt, and 45 percent or more sand. Texture
is estimated on the basis of field examination and labo-
Engineering test data ratory data. If the soil contains gravel or other par-
Table 5 contains engineering test data made by the tides coarser than sand, an appropriate modifier is
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transporta- added, for example, "gravelly loamy sand." "Sand,"
tion, Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of "silt," "clay," and some of the other terms used in
the major soil series in Palm Beach County Area. USDA textural classification are defined in the Glos-
These tests were made to evaluate the soils for engi- sary. Also listed in table 6 are the Unified and the
neering purposes. The engineering classifications given AASHTO classifications.
are based on data obtained by mechanical analysis and The columns showing the percent of soil material
by tests that determine liquid limits and plastic limit, passing the number 4, 10, 40, and 200 sieves indicate
The mechanical analyses were made by combined estimated minimum and maximum amounts of each
sieve and hydrometer methods. In this method the significant layer of the soil profile that will pass these
various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis sieves.
of all material in the soil sample, including those parti- Liquid limit and plasticity index are also estimated
cles that are coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. in this table. Explanations of liquid limit and plasticity
The mechanical analyses used in this method should index are given in the paragraph explaining the
not be used in naming textural classes of soils. columns in table 5, in the section "Engineering test
Compaction (or moisture density) data are impor- data."
tant in earthwork. If a soil material is compacted at Physical and chemical properties of soils
a successively higher moisture content, assuming that Psical n cemil preries
the compactive effort remains constant, the density of significant in engineering
the compacted material increases until the optimum Table 7 shows estimated values for several soil
moisture content is reached. After that, density de- characteristics and features that affect the behavior of
creases with the increase in moisture content. The soils in engineering use. These estimates are given for
highest dry density obtained in the compactive test is each major horizon, at the depths indicated, in the
termed maximum dry density. As a rule, the maximum representative pedon of each soil. The estimates are
strength of earthwork is obtained if the soil is com- based on field observations and on test data for these
pacted to the maximum dry density, and similar soils.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of Permeability is estimated on the basis of known
water on the strength and consistency of soil material, relationships between the soil characteristics, observed
As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased in the field, that influence the downward movement of
from a dry state, the material changes from semisolid water in the soil, particularly soil structure; porosity;
to plastic. If the moisture content is further increased, and gradation or texture. The estimates are for water
the material changes from plastic to liquid. The plastic moving vertically when the soil is saturated. Not con-
limit is the moisture content at which the soil material sidered in the estimates are lateral seepage or such
changes from semisolid to plastic, and the liquid limit transient soil features as plowpans and surface crusts.
is the moisture content at which the soil material Permeability of the soil is an important factor to be
changes from plastic to liquid. The plasticity index is considered in the planning and design of drainage sys-
the numerical difference between the liquid limit and teams, in the evaluation of the potential of soils for
the plastic limit. It indicates the range of moisture septic tank systems and other waste disposal systems,
content within which a soil material is plastic. The and in many other aspects of land use and management.
data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table Available water capacity is rated on the basis of soil
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples. characteristics that influence the ability of the soil to
hold water and make it available to plants. Important
Classifications and physical properties characteristics are organic-matter content, soil texture,
significant in engineering and soil structure. Shallow-rooted plants are not likely
Classifications and physical properties of the soils to use the available water from the deeper soil horizons.
significant in engineering are given in table 6. These Available water capacity is an important factor in the







PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 51

designated by G for gravel and S for sand, combined estimates are made for typical soil pedons, by layers
with W for well graded, P for poorly graded, M for sufficiently different to have different significance for
silty, or C for clayey. soil engineering. The estimates are based on field obser-
There are six classes of fine-grained soils, each con- nations made in the course of mapping, on test data for
sisting of soils in which more than half the particles these and similar soils, and on experience with the same
are smaller than 0.074 millimeter. These classes are kinds of soils in other areas.
designated by M for silts, C for clays, and 0 for Following are explanations of some of the columns
organic soils, combined with L for low liquid limit or in table 6.
H for high liquid limit. Soil texture is described in table 6 in the standard
Highly organic, or peaty, soils are designated by the terms used by the Department of Agriculture. These
symbol Pt. terms take into account relative percentages of sand,
Table 5 shows the AASHTO and Unified classifica- silt, and clay in soil material that has particles less than
tions of specified soils in the county, as determined by 2 millimeters in diameter. Sandy clay loam, for example,
laboratory tests, and table 6 shows the estimated is soil material that is 20 to 35 percent clay, less than
classification of all the soils in the county. 28 percent silt, and 45 percent or more sand. Texture
is estimated on the basis of field examination and labo-
Engineering test data ratory data. If the soil contains gravel or other par-
Table 5 contains engineering test data made by the tides coarser than sand, an appropriate modifier is
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transporta- added, for example, "gravelly loamy sand." "Sand,"
tion, Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of "silt," "clay," and some of the other terms used in
the major soil series in Palm Beach County Area. USDA textural classification are defined in the Glos-
These tests were made to evaluate the soils for engi- sary. Also listed in table 6 are the Unified and the
neering purposes. The engineering classifications given AASHTO classifications.
are based on data obtained by mechanical analysis and The columns showing the percent of soil material
by tests that determine liquid limits and plastic limit, passing the number 4, 10, 40, and 200 sieves indicate
The mechanical analyses were made by combined estimated minimum and maximum amounts of each
sieve and hydrometer methods. In this method the significant layer of the soil profile that will pass these
various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis sieves.
of all material in the soil sample, including those parti- Liquid limit and plasticity index are also estimated
cles that are coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. in this table. Explanations of liquid limit and plasticity
The mechanical analyses used in this method should index are given in the paragraph explaining the
not be used in naming textural classes of soils. columns in table 5, in the section "Engineering test
Compaction (or moisture density) data are impor- data."
tant in earthwork. If a soil material is compacted at Physical and chemical properties of soils
a successively higher moisture content, assuming that Psical n cemil preries
the compactive effort remains constant, the density of significant in engineering
the compacted material increases until the optimum Table 7 shows estimated values for several soil
moisture content is reached. After that, density de- characteristics and features that affect the behavior of
creases with the increase in moisture content. The soils in engineering use. These estimates are given for
highest dry density obtained in the compactive test is each major horizon, at the depths indicated, in the
termed maximum dry density. As a rule, the maximum representative pedon of each soil. The estimates are
strength of earthwork is obtained if the soil is com- based on field observations and on test data for these
pacted to the maximum dry density, and similar soils.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of Permeability is estimated on the basis of known
water on the strength and consistency of soil material, relationships between the soil characteristics, observed
As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased in the field, that influence the downward movement of
from a dry state, the material changes from semisolid water in the soil, particularly soil structure; porosity;
to plastic. If the moisture content is further increased, and gradation or texture. The estimates are for water
the material changes from plastic to liquid. The plastic moving vertically when the soil is saturated. Not con-
limit is the moisture content at which the soil material sidered in the estimates are lateral seepage or such
changes from semisolid to plastic, and the liquid limit transient soil features as plowpans and surface crusts.
is the moisture content at which the soil material Permeability of the soil is an important factor to be
changes from plastic to liquid. The plasticity index is considered in the planning and design of drainage sys-
the numerical difference between the liquid limit and teams, in the evaluation of the potential of soils for
the plastic limit. It indicates the range of moisture septic tank systems and other waste disposal systems,
content within which a soil material is plastic. The and in many other aspects of land use and management.
data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table Available water capacity is rated on the basis of soil
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples. characteristics that influence the ability of the soil to
hold water and make it available to plants. Important
Classifications and physical properties characteristics are organic-matter content, soil texture,
significant in engineering and soil structure. Shallow-rooted plants are not likely
Classifications and physical properties of the soils to use the available water from the deeper soil horizons.
significant in engineering are given in table 6. These Available water capacity is an important factor in the









52 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 5.-Engineering
[Tests performed by the Florida State Department of Transportation (FDOT) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Public Schools

Moisture density

FDOT
Soil name and location report Depth
No. Maximum Optimum
dry moisture
density content


In Lb/Cu ft Pd
Anclote fine sand:
About Y mile south of Donald Ross Road and 1 mile west of Prosperity Farms 69 0-17 97.8 14.7
Road; NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 5, T. 41 S., R. 43 E. 71 17-62 101.1 13.9

Basinger fine sand:
About 0.3 mile east of 1-95 and 2 mile north of Blue Heron Blvd., 100 feet west 33 3-25 101.6 14.8
of paved road, center of eastern half of NW1/2 sec. 30, T. 42 S., R. 43 E. 34 44-54 108.1 13.2
Chobee fine sandy loam:
About 4 miles north of State Road 80 and 0.5 mile east of Royal Palm Beach 52 4-16 107.4 15.9
Blvd., SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 11, T. 43 S., R. 41 E. 53 16-26 111.7 14.7
54 26-32 119.1 12.6

Holopaw fine sand:
About 1 mile northeast of L-8 and about 1.8 miles south of Corbett Wildlife 57 4-42 103.0 13.3
Preserve boundary; SE1/4NE1/4 sec. 25, T. 42 S., R. 39 E. 58 42-47 114.8 12.1
Immokalee fine sand:
About Y mile northeast of the Boca Raton Airport office, 75 feet north of paved 42 18-37 101.0 15.2
road; NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 7, T. 47 S., R. 43 E. 43 45-58 105.6 13.3
Myakka sand:
About 100 feet north of 10th Avenue North, and % mile east of Jog Road; 1 7-26 104.1 14.1
NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 22, T. 44 S., R. 42 E. 2 26-36 101.3 14.6
3 47-72 107.5 10.8

Oldsmar sand:
About 0.2 mile north of Lantana Road and 0.2 mile west of the Sunshine State 59 13-26 103.8 13.6
Parkway; SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 32, T. 44 S., R. 42 E. 60 34-42 106.7 12.7
61 42-46 115.3 14.0

Paola sand:
About 1V mile west of U.S. Hwy. 1 on Donald Ross Road R/w, north side; 45 4-21 100.2 15.6
SW1/4SW1/4 sec. 21, T. 41 S., R. 43 E. 46 37-80 103.8 14.4
Pineda sand:
About Y mile south of Forest Hill Blvd.; 2100 feet east of Sunshine State Park- 8 3-19 104.7 12.6
way; NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 16, T. 44 S., R. 42 E. 9 19-34 102.0 13.2
10 34-44 115.6 12.4

Placid fine sand:
About 0.2 mile east of Military Trail, % mile north of Clint Moore Road; 40 23-60 101.0 16.3
NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 36, T. 47 S., R. 43 E.
Pomello fine sand:
About 500 feet west of Perry Avenue and about 1000 feet north of Tony Penna 48 4-44 96.8 17.2
Road in Jupiter; SE1/4SW1/4 sec. 1, T. 41 S., R. 42 E.
Pompano fine sand:
About 100 feet east of El Rio Canal, about 0.45 mile north of entrance road to 35 8-32 101.0 15.8
Florida Atlantic University; NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 18, T. 47 S., R. 43 E. 36 32-52 102.4 14.6
Riviera sand:
About 0.2 mile east of Blanchette Trail and 0.3 mile south of Forest Hill Blvd., 4 6-28 103.7 12.6
SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 17, T. 44 S., R. 42 E. 5 36-42 114.1 13.3
Sanibel muck:
About 0.6 mile east of Military Trail and 0.3 mile north of Clint Moore Road; 41 6-60 101.5 15.3
NW1/4SE1/4 sec. 36, T. 46 S., R. 42 E.
St. Lucie sand:
About 0.2 mile east of Congress Avenue and 0.2 mile south of Lantana Road; 44 5-80 100.9 14.5
SE1/4NW1/4 sec. 5, T. 45 S., R. 43 E.









PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 53

test data
in accordance with standard procedures of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) (1)]

Mechanical analysis 2 Classification

Percentage passing sieve- Percentage smaller than- Liquid Plasticity
limit index
AASHTO Unified 4
No. 10 No. 40 No. 200
(2.0 mm) (0.42 mm) (0.074 mm) 0.05 mm 0.02 mm 0.002 mm

Pet
100 87 7 6 3 1 ---------- NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 87 2 2 2 0 ------------ NP A-3(0) SP

100 89 2 1 0 0 ----------- NP A-3(0) SP
100 91 5 5 2 1---------- NP A-3(0) SP-SM

100 93 16 13 8 5------------ NP A-2-4(0) SM
100 93 18 15 12 9 ----------- NP A-2-4(0) SM
100 68 25 24 21 12 ---------- NP A-2-4(0) SM

100 95 1 0 0 0----------- NP A-3(0) SP
100 96 19 17 15 14----------- NP A-2-4(0) SM

100 88 2 1 0 0 ----------- NP A-3(0) SP
100 89 7 5 1 0 ------------ NP A-3(0) SP-SM

100 90 2 1 0 0 ----------- NP A-3(0) SP
100 92 7 5 3 3 ------ NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 90 5 5 3 2----------_ NP A-3(0) SP-SM

100 90 2 2 2 1 ---- --- NP A-3(0) SP
100 90 6 4 3 1 -----_---- NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 91 17 16 15 13----------- NP A-2-4(0) SM

100 85 1 0 0 0 --------- NP A-3(0) SP
100 81 2 1 0 0 ------------ NP A-3(0) SP

100 86 2 2 2 0 ---------- NP A-3(0) SP
100 86 1 1 1 0 --------- NP A-3(0) SP
100 85 15 13 12 3 -----------NP A-2-4(0) SM

100 92 1 0 0 0----------- NP A-3(0) SP


100 96 3 1 0 0----------- NP A-3(0) SP


100 94 1 1 0 0 ------_---- NP A-3(0) SP
100 94 2 2 0 0------------ NP A-3(0) SP

100 88 1 1 0 0------------ NP A-3(0) SP
100 90 10 16 14 14----------- NP A-2-4(0) SM

100 81 1 0 0 0------------ NP A-3(0) SP


100 87 1 0 0 0 ------------ NP A-3(0) SP








54 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 5.-Engineering

Moisture density
FDOT
Soil name and location report Depth
No. Maximum Optimum
dry moisture
density content


In Lb/Cu ft Pd
Wabasso fine sand:
About 100 feet east of Main Road, 3 miles north of Okeechobee Road; SE1/4 37 22-32 105.5 12.9
SW1/4 sec. 2, T. 43 S., R. 41 E. 38 32-38 109.7 14.3
Winder fine sand:
About 100 feet south of P. G. A. Road and j4 mile west of C-18; NE1/4NW1/4 39 16-24 114.1 12.8
sec. 8, T. 42 S., R. 42 E.

1Based on AASHTO Designation T99-70 (1).
2 Mechanical analysis according to AASHTO Designation T88-70(1). Results by this procedure differ somewhat from results obtained by
the soil survey procedure of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS). In the AASHTO procedure, the fine material is analyzed by the hydrometer
method and the various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis of all the material, including that coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter.
In the SCS soil survey procedure, the fine material is analyzed by the pipette method and the material coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter
is excluded from calculations of grain-size fractions. The mechanical analysis data used in this table are not suitable for naming textural classes
for soils.


choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the design Risk of corrosion, as used in table 7, pertains to po-
of irrigation systems. tential soil-induced chemical action that dissolves or
Soil reaction is expressed as range in pH values. The weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of corro-
range in pH of each major horizon is based on many sion of uncoated steel is related to soil moisture, par-
field checks. For many soils the values have been veri- tical-size distribution, total acidity, and electrical con-
fled by laboratory analyses. Soil reaction is important ductivity of the soil material. The rating of soils for
in selecting the crops and ornamental or other plants to corrosivity to concrete is based mainly on the sulfate
be grown, in evaluating soil amendments for fertility content, soil texture, and acidity. Protective measures
and stabilization, and in evaluating the corrosivity of for steel or more resistant concrete help to avoid or
soils. minimize damage resulting from corrosion. Installa-
Salinity is expressed as the electrical conductivity tions of steel that intersect soil boundaries of soil hori-
of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter zons are more susceptible to corrosion than installations
at 250 C. Estimates are based on field and laboratory entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil
measurements at representative sites on nonirrigated horizon.
soils. The salinity of individual irrigated fields is Erosion factors are used to predict the erodibility of
largely affected by the quality of the irrigation water a soil and its tolerance to erosion in relation to specific
and the irrigation practices. Hence, the salinity of kinds of land use and treatment. The soil erodibility
individual fields can differ greatly from the value given factor (K) is a measure of the susceptibility of the soil
in table 7. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil for to erosion by water. Soils having the highest K values
crop production, its stability when used as a construc- are the most erodible. K values range from 0.10 to 0.64.
tion material, and its potential to corrode metal and To estimate annual soil loss per acre, the K value of a
concrete, soil is modified by factors representing plant cover,
Shrink-swell potential depends mainly on the amount grade and length of slope, management practices, and
and kind of clay in the soil. Laboratory measurements climate. The soil-loss tolerance factor (T) is the maxi-
of the swelling of undisturbed clods were made for mum rate of soil erosion, whether from rainfall or
many soils. For others shrink-swell potential was esti- soil blowing, that can occur without reducing crop pro-
mated on the basis of the kind of clay in the soil and on duction or environmental quality. The rate is expressed
measurements of similar soils. The size of imposed in tons of soil loss per acre per year.
loadings and the magnitude of changes in soil moisture Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that
content are also important factors that influence the have similar properties that affect their resistance to
swelling of soils. Shrinking and swelling of some soil blowing if cultivated. The groups are used to pre-
can cause damage to building foundations, basement soil blowing if cultivated. The groups are used to pre-
walls, roads, and other structures unless special designs dict the susceptibility of soil to blowing and the amount
are used. A high shrink-swell potential indicates that of soil lost as a result of blowing. Soils are grouped ac-
special design and added expense may be required if cording to the following distinctions:
the planned use of the soil will not tolerate large vol- 1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine
ume changes. sands. These soils are extremely erodible, so vegetation








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 55

test data-Continued

Mechanical analysis 2 Classification

Percentage passing sieve- Percentage smaller than- Liquid Plasticity
limit index
AASHTO Unified 4
No. 10 No. 40 No. 200
(2.0 mm) (0.42 mm) (0.074 mm) 0.05 mm 0.02 mm 0.002 mm

Pet
100 92 5 4 1 1 --- NP A-3(0) SP-SM
100 92 22 21 18 11 27 9 A-2-4(0) SC

100 95 17 16 14 13 ------------NP A-2-4(0) SM


3 Based on AASHTO Designation M 145-66(1).
4 SCS and BPR have agreed to consider that all soils having plasticity indexes within two points of A-line are to be given a borderline
classification. An example of borderline classification is SP-SM.
6 Nonplastic.




is difficult to establish. They are generally not suitable cant in planning, installing, and maintaining water
for crops. control structures.
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very Soil and site limitations are expressed as slight,
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible, but moderate, and severe. Slight means that the soil
crops can be grown if intensive measures to control soil properties and site features are generally favorable for
blowing are used. the specified use and that any limitation is minor and
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy easily overcome. Moderate means that some soil
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly properties or site features are unfavorable for the
erodible, but crops can be grown if intensive measures rated use but can be overcome or modified by special
to control soil blowing are used. planning and design. Severe means that the soil prop-
Wind erodibility groups 4 through 8 do not occur in erties and site features are so unfavorable and so
Palm Beach County Area. difficult to correct or overcome that major soil recla-
Sm mation, special design, or intensive maintenance is
Water management required.
Many soil properties and site features that affect Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
water management practices have been identified in embankment. Soils suitable for this use have low seep-
this soil survey. In table 8 the degree of soil limitation age, which is related to their permeability and depth to
and the soil and site features that affect use are indi- fractured or permeable bedrock or other permeable
cated for each kind of soil. This information is signifi- material.




TABLE 6.-Engineering properties and classifications
[An asterisk in the first column indicates that at least one mapping unit in this series is made up of two or more kinds of soil that may have
different properties and limitations. It is necessary, therefore, to follow carefully the instructions for referring to other series that appear
in the first column. The symbol < means less than; > means greater than. Absence of an entry means data were not estimated]


Classification Frag- Percentage passing sieve number- Plas-
Soil name and Depth USDA texture ments _Liquid ticity
map symbol >3 limit index
Unified AASHTO inches 4 10 40 200

In Pet
Pet
Adamsville variant: 0-36 Sand --------SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 80-95 2-10 -------- NP
AdB. 36-65 Muck, sapric Pt, OH A-7 0 100 100 95-100 70-100 60-100 30-50
material.









56 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 6.-Engineering properties and classifications-Continued

Classification Frag- Percentage passing sieve number- Plas-
Soil name and Depth USDA texture ments Liquid ticity
map symbol >3 limit index
Unified AASHTO inches 4 10 40 200

In Pet Pt
Anclote: An------ 0-17 Finesand ---, SP,SP-SM A-3, 0 100 95-100 85-100 2-12 ------_ NP
A-2-4
17-62 Finesand .. SP, SM, A-3, 0 100 95-100 85-100 2-20 ------- NP
SP-SM A-2-4

Arents, very steep: 0-80 Sand,finesand. SP,SP-SM A-3, 0 95-100 75-95 60-90 2-12 --- NP
ASF. A-2-4

Arents: AU------- 0-60 Sand,finesand. SP,SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 80-95 2-10 -------NP
No ratings for
Urban land
part.
Arents, organic sub- 0-39 Sand,finesand_ SP,SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 80-95 2-10 ----- NP
stratum: AX. 39-72 Muck, sapric Pt ----- 0
No ratings for material.
Urban land 72-80 Sand,finesand_ SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 80-95 2-10 --------NP
part.

*Basinger:
Ba------------- 0-72 Fine sand.--.- SP,SP-SM A-3, 0 100 100 85-100 2-12 -------NP
A-2-4
Bc------------- 0-72 Finesand----- SP,SP-SM A-3, 0 100 100 90-100 2-12 ------ NP
No ratings for A-2-4
Urban land
part.
BM------------ 0-72 Finesand --- SP,SP-SM A-3, 0 100 100 90-100 2-12 -------NP
For Myakka A-2-4
part, see
Myakka
series.

Beaches: Bn------- 0-60 Sand,finesand_ SP, SW A-3, 0-5 60-80 50-75 40-70 1-5 ------ NP
A-l-b

Boca: Bo--------. 0-5 Finesand ---. SP,SP-SM A-3, 0 100 100 80-99 2-12 ----- NP
A-2-4
5-29 Fine sand---- SP, SP-SM A-3, 0 100 100 80-99 2-12 ------ NP
A-2-4
29-34 Sandy loam, SC A-2-4, 0 100 100 80-99 25-40 20-40 11-20
sandy clay A-6
loam.
34-36 Variable ------ ------------_------ 0
36 Unweathered
bedrock.
Canaveral: Cc- ... 0-8 Fine sand, SP A-3 0 100 100 90-100 1-4 ------- NP
No ratings for sand, coarse
Urban land sand.
part. 8-65 Fine sand, SP A-3 0 70-100 70-95 65-90 1-3 ------ NP
sand, coarse
sand.
Chobee: Ch------. 0-26 Fine sandy SM, A-2-4 0 100 100 85-99 12-25 <40 NP-10
loam. SM-SC
26-37 Sandy clay SM, A-2-4 0 100 100 65-99 25-35 <40 NP-10
loam. SM-SC
87-40 Loamy sand, SM, A-2-4 0 100 100 80-99 12-25 <40 NP-10
loamy fine SM-SC
sand, fine
sandy loam.
Cocoa: CuB------_ 0-22 Sand--------- SP, A-3, 0 100 100 70-90 4-15 _--- NP
No ratings for SP-SM, A-2-4
Urban land SM
part. 22-30 Sand, loamy SP-SM, A-2-4 0 100 100 80-90 10-25 -----_ NP
sand, loamy SM
fine sand.
30 Weathered
bedrock.








PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 57

TABLE 6.-Engineering properties and classifications-Continued

Classification Frag- Percentage passing sieve number- Plas-
Soil name and Depth USDA texture ments Liquid ticity
map symbol >3 limit index
Unified AASHTO inches 4 10 40 200

In Pet Pet
Dania: Da-------- 0-16 Muck, sapric Pt 0___------_ ------------------------
material.
16-18 Sand, fine SP, A-3, 0 100 95-100 80-95 2-15 <25 NP-3
sand, loamy SP-SM, A-2-4
sand. SM
18 Unweathered
bedrock.
Floridana: Fa----- 0-18 Fine sand---. SP-SM, A-3, 0 100 100 80-90 5-15 -------- NP
SM A-2-4
18-32 Fine sand----- SP,SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 80-90 2-10 -------- NP
32-44 Sandy loam, SM-SC, SC A-2-4, 0 100 100 85-95 20-35 20-30 5-20
sandy clay A-2-6
loam.
44-65 Sand,fine SP-SM, A-3, 0 100 100 80-95 2-15 <25 NP-3
sand, loamy SM, SP A-2-4
sand.
Hallandale: Ha-- 0-6 Sand ------- SP,SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 90-100 2-6 -------- NP
6-15 Sand ------- SP,SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 90-100 2-6 -------- NP
15 Weathered
bedrock.
Holopaw: Ho---- 0-42 Fine sand ---- SP,SP-SM A-3 0 100 95-100 70-95 1-10 _------- NP
42-49 Sandy loam, SM, SM-SC A-2-4 0 100 95-100 70-99 15-30 <25 NP-7
sandy clay
loam.
49-60 Fine sand, SM, SP, A-2-4, 0 100 95-100 80-99 2-15 <25 NP-3
loamy fine SP-SM A-3
sand.
Immokalee: Im---- 0-4 Fine sand .--- SP,SP-SM A-3 10 100 100 85-100 2-10 -------- NP
4-37 Fine sand- .. SP, SP-SM A-3 10 100 100 85-100 2-10 -------- NP
37-79 Fine sand----- SP-SM, A-3, 10 100 100 85-100 5-21 ------- NP
SM A-2-4
79-80 Fine sand- ..- SP,SP-SM A-3 10 100 100 85-100 2-10 ---- NP

Jupiter: Ju--- --- 0-11 Fine sand ----- SP-SM, A-3, 0 100 100 85-95 5-12 ------- NP
SM A-2-4
11-14 Fine sand----- SP A-3 0 100 100 85-95 2-5 -------- NP
14 Weathered
bedrock.
Lauderhill: La---- 0-26 Muck, sapric Pt ----- 0
material.
26 Unweathered
bedrock.
Myakka: Mk, Mu 0-26 Sand -----..- SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 85-100 2-10 ------- NP
No ratings for 26-47 Sand ------- SM, A-3, 0 100 100 85-100 5-20 ------- NP
Urban land SP-SM A-2-4
part of Mu. 47-72 Sand ------ SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 85-100 2-8 -------- NP
Okeechobee: Oc-- 0-28 Muck, sapric Pt ---__0 --------
material.
28-50 Mucky peat, Pt -----0 --------------------
hemic ma-
terial.
50-66 Muck, sapric Pt----- 0
material.
Okeelanta: On---- 0-31 Muck, sapric Pt A-8 0 ----------- ------ ------
material.
31-65 Fine sand, SP, A-3, 0 100 85-100 80-95 2-15 ------- NP
sand, loamy SP-SM, A-2-4
sand. SM

Oldsmar: Os---- 0-34 Sand------- SP,SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 80-95 2-10 _--------NP
34-42 Sand--------- SM, A-2-4, 0 100 100 80-95 5-20 _--------NP
SP-SM A-3








58 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 6.-Engineering properties and classifications-Continued

Classification Frag- Percentage passing sieve number- Plas-
Soil name and Depth USDA texture ments Liquid ticity
map symbol >3 limit index
Unified AASHTO inches 4 10 40 200

In Pet Pd
42-46 Sandy loam, SM, A-2-4, 0 100 100 85-95 15-35 <35 NP-10
sandy clay SM-SC, A-2-6
loam. SC
46-50 Sand, loamy SP, SM, A-2-4, 0 100 100 85-95 2-15 ------- NP
sand. SP-SM A-3

Pahokee: Pa------ 0-42 Muck, sapric Pt ------__ 0
material.
42 Unweathered
bedrock.

Palm Beach: PbB_- 0-80 Sand------- SP, SW A-3, A-1 0 100 75-95 15-90 1-5 ------ NP
No ratings for
Urban land
part.
Paola: PcB---- --- 0-21 Sand--------- SP A-3 0 100 100 85-100 1-2 ------- NP
21-80 Sand--------- SP A-3 0 100 100 80-100 1-4 P------ NP

Pineda: Pd ------ 0-34 Sand ------ SP A-3 0 100 100 80-95 1-5 ------ NP
34-44 Sandy loam, SC, SM, A-2-4, 0 100 100 80-95 15-35 <30 NP-15
sandy clay SM-SC A-2-6
loam.
44-62 Sand, loamy SP-SM, A-3, 0 100 100 80-95 5-15 -------NP
sand. SM A-2-4

Pinellas: Pe ------ 0-10 Fine sand----- SP A-3 0 100 100 90-100 2-5 -------- NP
10-36 Fine sand----- SP-SM A-3, 0 100 100 90-100 5-12 ------ NP
A-2-4
36-54 Fine sandy SM, A-2-1 0 100 100 90-100 12-35 20-30 5-13
loam, sandy SM-SC,
clay loam. SC
54-60 Fine sand----- SP A-3 0-5 80-100 75-100 60-95 2-5 --------NP
Pits: PF.
No ratings.
Placid: P -------. 0-17 Fine sand----- SP, A-3, 0 100 100 90-100 1-20 -----1-NP
SP-SM, A-2-4
SM
17-60 Fine sand----- SP, A-3, 0 100 100 90-100 1-20 -------- NP
SP-SM, A-2-4
SM

Pomello: PhB----. 0-44 Fine sand---- SP,SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 60-100 1-8 ------NP
44-60 Fine sand----- SP-SM, A-3, 0 100 100 60-100 6-15 ----- NP
SM A-2-4
60-80 Fine sand----. SP,SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 60-100 4-10 ------ NP
Pompano: Po----- 0-80 Fine sand ---- SP,SP-SM A-3, 0 100 100 75-100 1-12 --------NP
A-2-4

Quartzipsamments, 0-80 Sand-------- SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 80-90 2-10 ------ NP
shaped: QAB.
Riviera: Ra, Rd, Ru_ 0-28 Sand--------- SP, SP-SM A-3, 0 100 100 80-100 1-12 --------NP
No ratings for A-2-4
Urban land 28-36 Sandy loam, SM, A-2-4 0 100 100 80-100 15-35 <35 NP-10
part of Ru. sandy clay SM-SC,
loam. SC
36-42 Sandy loam, SM-SC, A-2-4, 0 100 100 80-100 15-35 <35 NP-10
sandy clay SC, SM A-2-6
loam.
42-62 Sand,fine SP, SP-SM A-3, A-1 0 60-80 50-75 40-70 3-10 -------- NP
sand, loamy
sand.
Sanibel: Sa -----. 12-0 Muck, sapric Pt ------- 0 -------
material.
0-60 Sand--------- SP,SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 80-95 1-10 ------ NP









PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 59

TABLE 6.-Engineering properties and classifications-Continued

Classification Frag- Percentage passing sieve number- Plas-
Soil name and Depth USDA texture ments Liquid ticity
map symbol >3 limit index
Unified AASHTO inches 4 10 40 200

In Pet Pet
St.Lucie: ScB,SuB- 0-80 Sand ------- SP A-3 0 100 100 85-99 1-5 -------- NP
No ratings for
Urban land
part of SuB.
Tequesta: Ta-.--- 12-0 Muck, sapric Pt ------- 0 ----------------
material.
0-32 Fine sand .--- SP,SP-SM A-3, 0 100 100 80-100 2-12 -------- NP
A-2-4
32-60 Fine sandy SM, A-2-4 0 100 100 80-100 15-35 <35 NP-10
loam, sandy .SM-SC,
clay loam. SC
60-70 Fine sand, SP,SP-SM A-3, 0 60-100 50-100 40-80 3-20 -------- NP
loamy fine A-2-4
sand.
TerraCeia: Tc---- 0-65 Muck, sapric Pt ---------- 0 -------------------------- --------
material.
Tidal swamp, min- 0-10 Mucky loamy SP-SM, A-3, 0 100 100 80-95 5-25 --------NP
eral: TM. sand, mucky SM, A-2-4
sand. SC-SM
10-40 Sand, fine SP-SM, A-3, 0 100 100 80-95 5-25 --------NP
sand, loamy SM, A-2-4
sand. SC-SM
Tidal swamp, or- 0-12 Muck, sapric Pt --------- 0 ---- .. ----.- ----------------------
ganic: TO. material.
12-15 Marl-------- ML, A-4 0 100 100 90-100 70-90 10-28 0-7
CL-ML
15-65 Muck, sapric Pt -------- -------------- ----------------
material.
Torry: Tr-------- 0-36 Muck, sapric Pt, OH A-7 0 100 100 95-100 85-100 60-100 30-50
material.
36-65 Muck, sapric Pt, OH A-7 0 100 100 95-100 70-100 55-100 25-50
material.
65 Unweathered
bedrock.
Udorthents: UD-- 0-7 Cobbly fine SP, SP-SM A-3, 0-20 60-90 50-80 40-70 2-10 -------- NP
sand. A-2-4
7-80 Extremely ---------------------- 0 0 0 0 ----
bouldery,
variable.
Urban land: Ur.
No ratings.
Wabasso: Wa--.- 0-22 Fine sand _- SP, SP-SM A-3 0 100 100 90-100 2-10 -------- NP
22-32 Finesand.___- SP-SM, A-3, 0 100 100 90-100 5-20 ------- NP
SM A-2-4
32-38 Fine sandy SC, SM, A-2-4, 0 100 100 90-100 20-35 20-30 5-13
loam, sandy SM-SC A-2-6
clay loam.
38-72 Sand, fine SP-SM, A-3, 0 100 100 95-100 5-20 -------- NP
sand, loamy SM A-2-4
sand.
Winder: Wn----- 0-16 Fine sand- SP,SP-SM A-3, 0 100 100 80-100 2-12 -------- NP
A-2-4
16-24 Fine sandy SM, SC, A-2-4 0 60-80 50-75 40-100 15-35 <35 NP-20
loam, sandy SM-SC
clay loam.
24-30 Fine sand, SP, SM, A-3, 0 60-80 50-75 40-100 3-20 -------- NP
loamy fine SP-SM A-2-4
sand.
30-50 Fine sand-... SP, SP-SM A-3, 0 60-80 50-75 40-70 2-12 -------- NP
A-2-4









60 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 7.-Physical and chemical properties of soils
[An asterisk in the first column indicates that at least one mapping unit in this series is made up of two or more kinds of soil that may have
different properties and limitations. For this reason it is necessary to follow carefully the instructions for referring to other series that appear
in the first column. Dashes indicate data were not available. The symbol < means less than; > means greater than. The erosion tolerance
factor (T) and wind erodibility group are for the entire profile]

Risk of corrosion Erosion Wind
Soil name and Permea- Available Soil Shrink- __factors erodi-
map symbol Depth ability water reaction Salinity swell ability
capacity potential Uncoated Concrete group
steel K T

In In/hr In/in pH Mmhos/cm
Adamsville variant: AdB.-- 0-36 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 6.1-8.4 <2 Low- .... High .-.. Moderate_ 0.17 5 2
36-65 0.6-2.0 0.20-0.25 6.6-8.4 <2 Low-..--- High---- Moderate -----

Anclote: An------------- 0-17 6.0-20 0.10-0.15 5.6-8.4 <2 Verylow-- Moderate_ Moderate- 0.17 5 2
17-62 6.0-20 0.05-0.10 5.6-8.4 <2 Verylow-- Moderate_ Low .--- 0.17

Arents, very steep: ASF--- 0-80 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 6.1-8.4 <2 Low .---- Low ---. Low ---- 0.17 5 2
Arents: AU-------------- 0-60 6.0-20 0.02-0.08 5.1-7.3 <2 Low----- High---- Moderate- 0.17 5 2
No ratings for Urban
land part.

Arents, organic substratum: 0-39 6.0-20 0.02-0.08 5.1-7.3 <2 Low ---- High.- Moderate_ 0.17 5 2
AX. 39-72 6.0-20 0.20-0.35 5.6-7.3 <2 Low------ High-. Moderate .----
No ratings for Urban 72-80 6.0-20 0.02-0.08 5.6-7.3 <2 Low ----- High-. Moderate- 0.17
land part.
*Basinger:
Ba------------------- 0-72 >20 0.03-0.07 4.5-7.8 <2 Verylow__ High---- Moderate_ 0.10 5 2
Bc--------------------- 0-72 >20 0.03-0.07 4.5-7.8 <2 Verylow__ High---- Moderate- 0.10 5 2
No ratings for Urban
land part.
BM --_----- -------_ 0-72 >20 0.03-0.07 4.5-7.8 <2 Verylow__ High----- Moderate_ 0.10 5 2
For Myakka part, see
Myakka series.
Beaches: Bn -- -------- 0-60 >20 0.02-0.05 7.4-9.0 <16 Low------ High--L.- Low ---- 0.15 5 1
Boca: Bo--------------- 0-5 6.0-20 0.05-0.10 5.1-7.3 <2 Low ---- High---- Moderate_ 0.17 5 2
5-29 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 5.1-7.3 <2------- High--- Moderate_ 0.17
29-34 0.6-2.0 0.10-0.15 6.6-8.4 <2------- High--- Moderate_ 0.20
34-36---------- -...---------
36 -------- ----------- -------- -------- -------- ------- ------- --

Canaveral: Cc---------- 0-8 >20 0.02-0,05 6.6-8.4 <2 Verylow__ Moderate- Low ---- 0.15 5 2
No ratings for Urban 8-65 >20 0.02-0.05 6.6-8.4 <2 Very low- Moderate- Low ---- 0.15
land part.

Chobee: Ch ------------- 0-26 2.0-6.0 0.10-0.15 3.6-7.3 <2 Low ---- Moderate_ Low---.- 0.24 5 3
26-37 0.6-2.0 0.12-0.17 7.4-8.4 <2 Moderate- Moderate- Low------ 0.32
37-40 6.0-20 0.06-0.10 7.4-8.4 <2 Low------ Moderate_ Low ---- 0.20

Cocoa: CuB ------------ 0-22 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 5.6-7.8 <2 Very low-_ Low--.- o Low--.-- 0.17 3 2
No estimates for Urban 22-30 6.0-20 0.05-0.10 5.6-7.8 <2 Verylow-_ Low .--. Low--.--- 0.17
land part. 30 --------- -----. --- --- ...............
Dania: Da----------------0-16 6.0-20 0.20-0.30 5.6-7.3 <2 Verylow__ High---- Moderate------------2 2
16-18 6.0-20 0.02-0.10 6.6-8.4 <2 Low ---.- High----- Moderate_ 0.17
18 -- ---------- ---- --------- .........-

Floridana: Fa -........-- 0-18 6.0-20 0.10-0.15 6.1-8.4 <2 Verylow Moderate_ Low------ 0.17 5 2
18-32 6.0-20 0.05-0.10 6.1-8.4 <2 Verylow_ Moderate Low ----. 0.32
32-44 0.6-2.0 0.10-0.15 6.1-8.4 <2 Low .--- Moderate- Low------ 0.20
44-65 6.0-20 0.05-0.10 6.1-8.4 <2 Low ---- Moderate- Low ---- 0.17

Hallandale: Ha----------- 0-6 6.0-20 0.05-0.10 5.1-6.5 <2 Low.---- High---- Low .--- 0.17 2 2
6-15 6.0-20 0.03-0.05 5.6-8.4 <2 Low ..-. High ..-- Low --.-- 0.17
15 --- --------- -------- ---...........-

Holopaw: Ho ----------- 0-42 6.0-20 0.03-0.07 5.1-7.3 <2 Verylow_ High---- Moderate_- ---
42-47 2.0-6.0 0.10-0.15 6.1-8.4 <2 Low High---- Low......------
47-60 6.0-20 0.05-0.10 6.6-8.4 <2 Verylow High---- Low------









PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 61

TABLE 7.-Physical and chemical properties of soils-Continued

Risk of corrosion Erosion Wind
Soil name and Permea- Available Soil Shrink- factors erodi-
map symbol Depth ability water reaction Salinity swell ___ ability
capacity potential Uncoated Concrete group
steel K T

In In/hr In/in pH Mnhos/cm
Immokalee: Im--------.--- 0-4 6.0-20 0.05-0.08 4.5-7.3 <2 Low- High-- High- 0.20 5 2
4-37 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 4.5-6.5 <2 Low----- High---- High---- 0.20
37-79 0.6-6.0 0.10-0.15 3.6-6.0 <2 Low-.--- High---- High----- 0.17
79-80 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 4.5-6.0 <2 Low ---- High----- High----- 0.20
Jupiter: Ju-------------- 0-11 6.0-20 0.12-0.18 6.1-8.4 <2 Low ---- High ---. Low----- 0.17 2 2
11-14 6.0-20 0.02-0.08 6.1-8.4 <2 Low------ High----. Low------ 0.17
14-- -
Lauderhill: La----------- 0-26 6.0-20 0.20-0.25 6.1-8.4 <2 Low-.--- High---- Moderate- -----_---- 2
26------ -- --
Myakka: Mk, Mu-------- 0-26 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 4.5-6.5 <2 Low ---- High----- High----- 0.20 5 2
No estimates for Urban 26-47 0.6-6.0 0.10-0.15 4.5-6.5 <2 Low ---- High.-- High- 0.20
land part of Mu. 47-72 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 4.5-6.5 <2 Low ---- High- High ---- 0.17
Okeechobee: Oc---------- 0-28 6.0-20 0.30-0.50 5.6-8.4 <2 Low ---- High--.- Low -------------- 2
28-50 6.0-20 0.45-0.65 5.6-8.4 <2 Low------ High---- Low----------
50-66 6.0-20 0.30-0.50 5.6-8.4 <2 Low ---- High---- Low.----------
Okeelanta: On ------------ 0-31 6.0-20 0.20-0.30 5.5-8.4 <2 Low --.- High----- Moderate -_--_---._- 2
31-65 6.0-20 0.05-0.10 5.6-8.4 <2 Low----- High-..- Moderate ------
Oldsmar: Os -------------- 0-34 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 4.5-7.3 <2 Verylow-_ Moderate_ High----- 0.20 5 2
34-42 0.6-6.0 0.10-0.15 4.5-6.5 <2 Low------ Moderate_ Moderate_ 0.20
42-46 0.6-6.0 0.10-0.15 6.1-8.4 <2 Low --.- Moderate- Low------ 0.24
46-50 6.0-20 0.05-0.10 6.1-8.4 2 Low------ Moderate- Low------ 0.20
Pahokee: Pa -------------- 0-42 6.0-20 0.20-0.25 5.6-7.3 <2 Low ---- High--__ Moderate _---------- 2
42 ---------- ------
Palm Beach: PbB-------- 0-80 >20 0.02-0.05 7.4-8.4 <2 Low---- Low------ Low------ 0.15 5 1
No estimates for Urban
land part.
Paola: PcB-- --------- 0-21 >20 0.02-0.05 4.5-6.5 <2 Verylow-_ Low----- High-.- 0.15 5 1
21-80 >20 0.02-0.05 4.5-6.5 <2 Verylow-_ Low------ High- .- 0.15
Pineda: Pd ------------ 0-34 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 4.5-6.5 <2 Low--.-- High---- Low ---- 0.17 5 2
34-44 2.0-6.0 0.10-0.15 6.1-7.8 <2 Low----- High----- Low------ 0.24
44-62 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 7.4-8.4 <2 Low------ High----- Low------ 0.17
Pinellas: Pe------------- 0-10 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 5.6-7.8 <2 Low ---- High---- Low ---- 0.17 5 2
10-36 6.0-20 0.10-0.15 6.6-7.8 <2 Low ---- High---- Low ---- 0.17
36-54 0.6-2.0 0.10-0.15 6.6-8.4 <2 Low------ High----- Low------ 0.24
54-60 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 7.9-8.4 <2 Low ---- High---- Low ---- 0.17
Pits: Pf.
No estimates.
Placid: Pg -0-17 6.0-20 0.15-0.20 3.6-5.5 <2 Verylow-_ High----- High----- ----............
17-60 6.0-20 0.05-0.08 3.6-5.5 <2 Very low- High----- High ----------
Pomello: PhB---------- 0-44 >20 0.02-0.05 4.5-6.0 <2 Verylow._ Low------ High---- 0.17 5 1
44-60 2.0-6.0 0.10-0.15 4.5-6.5 <2 Verylow__ Low------ High----- 0.20
60-80 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 4.5-6.0 <2 Verylow__ Low------ High---- 0.17
Pompano: Po ------------ 0-80 >20 0.02-0.05 3.6-7.8 <2 Verylow__ High----. Moderate- -------------
Quartzipsamments, shaped: 0-80 >20 0.02-0.05 4.5-8.4 <2 Verylow__ Low------ Moderate_ 0.15 5 1
QAB.
Riviera: Ra, Rd, Ru ------- 0-28 6.0-20 0.05-0.08 5.6-6.5 <2 Low------ High- High---- 0.17 4 2
No estimates for Urban 28-36 6.0-20 0.10-0.14 6.1-8.4 <2 Low--..- High----- Low------ 0.28
land part of Ru. 36-42 2.0-6.0 0.12-0.15 6.6-8.4 <2 Low------ High- .- Low------ 0.28
42-62 6.0-20 0.05-0.08 7.9-8.4 <2 Low----- High-.- Low ---- 0.15
Sanibel: Sa --------- 12-0 6.0-20 0.20-0.25 5.1-7.3 <2 Low------ High----- Low---------------- 2
0-60 6.0-20 0.05-0.10 5.1-7.3 <2 Low ---- High.---- Low---- 0.15








62 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 7.-Physical and chemical properties of soils-Continued

Risk of corrosion Erosion Wind
Soil name and Permea- Available Soil Shrink- factors erodi-
map symbol Depth ability water reaction Salinity swell ability
capacity potential Uncoated Concrete group
steel K T

In In/hr In/in pH Mmhos/cm
St. Lucie: ScB,SuB ----- 0-80 >20 0.02-0.05 4.5-6.5 <2 Verylow Low ---- Moderate 0.15 5 1
No estimates for Urban
land part of SuB.
Tequesta: Ta ------------ 12-0 6.0-20 0.20-0.25 5.1-7.3 <2 Very low.- High---- Low---- ------- 2
0-32 6.0-20 0.05-0.10 5.1-7.3 <2 Low ---- High---- Low ---- 0.20
32-60 0.6-6.0 0.10-0.15 6.1-8.4 <2 Low------ High-.--- Low---- 0.32
60-70 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 6.1-8.4 <2 Low ---- High- .. Low-..-- 0.20
Terra Ceia: Tc ---------- 0-65 6.0-20 0.30-0.50 4.5-8.4 <2 Low------ Moderate_ Moderate__---------- 2
Tidal swamp, mineral: TM__ 0-10 6.0-20 0.15-0.20 6.1-9.0 8-16 Low------ High---- Moderate_ 0.17 5 2
10-40 6.0-20 0.05-0.10 4.0-7.8 4-16 Low ---- High---- High-.-- 0.15
Tidal swamp, organic: TO_ 0-12 6.0-20 0.20-0.25 6.6-9.0 8-16 Moderate_ High---- Low---------------
12-15 2.0-6.0 0.12-0.17 7.9-8.4 4-16 Low ---- High---- Low_--
15-65 6.0-20 0.20-0.25 6.6-8.4 4-16 Moderate_ High---- Low-----------
Torry: Tr_------------ 0-36 0.6-2.0 0.20-0.25 5.1-7.3 <2 Moderate- High---- Moderate ---------- 2
36-65 6.0-20 0.20-0.30 5.1-7.3 <2 Moderate_ High---- Moderate ----
Udorthents: UD--------- 0-7 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 7.4-8.4 <2 Low --- Low -- Low--.-- 0.17 5 2
7-80 -------- ----_-- -- ----
Urban land: Ur.
No estimates.
Wabasso: Wa ------------ 0-22 6.0-20 0.02-0.05 3.6-6.5 <2 Low ---- Moderate_ High---. 0.20 5 2
22-32 0.6-2.0 0.10-0.15 4.5-7.3 <2 Low .---- Moderate_ High---- 0.20
32-38 0.6-2.0 0.10-0.15 5.6-7.8 <2 Low ---- Low---- o Low---. 0.24
38-72 6.0-20 0.05-0.10 7.4-7.8 <2 Low ---- Low--- w Low---. 0.17
Winder: Wn ------------- 0-16 6.0-20 0.03-0.08 5.6-7.8 <2 Low ---. High-.--L Low---. 0.15 5 2
16-24 0.6-2.0 0.06-0.12 6.1-8.4 <2 Low ---- High--- o Low---. 0.32
24-30 6.0-20 0.03-0.06 7.4-8.4 <2 Low----- High---- Low ---0. 0.20
30-50 6.0-20 0.03-0.06 7.4-8.4 <2 Low ---. High---. Low-- 0. 0.20



Embankments, dikes, and levees require soil material Irrigation of soil is affected by such features as
that is resistant to seepage, erosion, and piping and is slope, soil texture, content of stones, accumulation of
of favorable stability, shrink-swell potential, shear salts and alkali, depth of root zone, rate of water
strength, and compactibility. Presence of stones or intake at the surface, permeability of the soil layers
organic material in a soil are among factors that are below the surface layer and in fragipans or other
unfavorable, layers that restrict movement of water, amount of
An aquifer-fed excavated pond is a body of water water held available for plants, need for drainage,
created by excavating a pit or dugout into a ground- and depth to the water table or bedrock.
water aquifer. Excluded are ponds that are fed by
runoff and embankment ponds that impound water Construction materials for engineering uses
three feet or more above the original surface. Ratings
in table 8 are for ponds that are properly designed, The suitability of each soil as a source of roadfill,
located, and constructed. Soil properties and site fea- sand, gravel, and topsoil is indicated in table 9 by rat-
tures that affect aquifer-fed ponds are depth to a ings of good, fair, or poor. The texture, thickness, and
permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, organic-matter content of each soil horizon are impor-
quality of the water, and ease of excavation. tant factors in rating soils for use as construction mate-
Drainage of cropland and pasture is affected by such rial. Each soil is evaluated to the depth observed and
soil properties as permeability, texture and structure; described as the survey is made, generally about 6 feet
depth to claypan, rock, or other layers that influence RoadfiU is soil material used in embankments for
rate of water movement; depth to the water table; roads. The suitability ratings reflect the predicted
slope; stability in ditchbanks; susceptibility to stream performance of soil after it has been placed in an
overflow; salinity or alkalinity; and availability of out- embankment and properly compacted and provided
lets for drainage. with adequate drainage and the relative ease of exca-









PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 63

TABLE 8.-Water management
[An asterisk in the first column indicates that at least one mapping unit in this series is made up of two or more kinds of soil that may have
different properties and limitations. For this reason it is necessary to follow carefully the instructions for referring to other series that appear
in the first column]

Limitations for- Features affecting-
Soil name and map symbol
Pond reservoir Embankments, Aquifer-fed
areas dikes, and excavated Drainage Irrigation
levees ponds

Adamsville variant: AdB-------- Severe: seepage_- Severe: seepage, Moderate: deep Cutbanks cave-..- Droughty, too
piping, unstable to water. sandy.
fill.
Anclote: An----------------- Severe: seepage-- Severe: piping, Slight----------- Wetness, poor Wetness.
seepage. outlets.
Arents, very steep: ASF-------- Severe: slope --- Severe: erodes Severe: no water_ Not needed------- Erodes easily,
easily, piping. slope, seepage.
Arents: AU ------------------ Severe: seepage_- Severe: seepage-_ Moderate: deep Cutbanks cave _-- Too sandy.
No evaluations for Urban land to water.
part.
Arents, organic substratum: AX Severe: seepage_- Severe: seepage, Moderate: deep Cutbanks cave .-- Too sandy.
No evaluations for Urban land piping, unstable to water.
part. fill.
*Basinger:
Ba, Bc --_--_----------------- Severe: seepage-_ Severe: seepage, Slight ----------- Cutbanks cave, Wetness.
No evaluations for Urban land piping, unstable wetness.
part of Bc. fill.
BM ------------------------_ Severe: seepage-- Severe: seepage, Slight -----------Cutbanks cave, Wetness.
For Myakka part, see Myakka piping, unstable wetness, poor
series. fill. outlets.
Beaches: Bn.
No evaluations.
Boca: Bo ------------------- Severe: depth to Severe: piping, Moderate: depth Depth to rock, Seepage, wetness.
rock, seepage. thin layer, un- to rock. wetness.
stable fill.
Canaveral: Cc----------- --- Severe: seepage_- Severe: seepage, Moderate: deep Cutbanks cave, Droughty, fast
No evaluations for Urban land piping, unstable to water, wetness, intake.
part. fill.
Chobee: Ch------------------ Moderate: seep- Moderate: thin Moderate: slow Floods, poor out- Floods, wetness.
age. layer, refill, lets, wetness.
Cocoa: CuB------------------ Severe: depth to Severe: piping, Severe: no water_ Not needed------- Droughty, fast
No evaluations for Urban land rock, seepage, seepage, un- intake.
part. stable fill.
Dania: Da ------------------- Severe: depth to Severe: compress- Severe: depth to Depth to rock, Rooting depth,
rock, seepage. ible, low rock. wetness. seepage.
strength, seep-
age.
Floridana: Fa ---------------- Moderate: seep- Severe: seepage, Slight -----------Floods, wetness, Floods, wetness.
age. piping, unstable cutbanks cave.
fill.
Hallandale: Ha --------- -----Severe: depth to Severe: unstable Severe: large Depth to rock, Rooting depth,
rock, seepage. fill, seepage, stones, floods, wetness, wetness.
piping.
Holopaw: Ho---------------- Severe: seepage-_ Severe: piping, Slight----....---. Wetness, cut- Wetness, fast
seepage, banks cave. intake.
Immokalee: Im--------------- Severe: seepage-- Severe: seepage, Moderate: deep Cutbanks cave, Wetness.
piping, erodes to water, wetness.
easily.









64 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 8.-Water management-Continued

Limitations for- Features affecting-

Soil name and map symbol
Pond reservoir Embankments, Aquifer-fed
areas dikes, and excavated Drainage Irrigation
levees ponds

Jupiter: Ju----------- -------- Severe: depth to Severe: unstable Severe: depth to Depth to rock, Rooting depth,
rock, seepage. fill, seepage, rock. floods, wetness. too sandy, wet-
iping. ness.

Lauderhill: La ---------- -- Severe: depth to Severe: excess Severe: depth to Depth to rock, Wetness.
rock, excess humus, low rock. excess humus,
humus. strength, wetness.
shrink-swell.

Myakka:
Mk, Mu---- ..--------------- Severe: seepage__ Severe: seepage, Moderate: deep Cutbanks cave, Wetness.
No evaluations for Urban land piping, erodes to water, wetness.
part of Mu. easily.

Myakka part of BM ----------- Severe: seepage-- Severe: seepage, Slight ----------- Cutbanks cave, Wetness.
piping, erodes wetness, poor
easily. outlets.

Okeechobee: Oc --------------Severe: excess Severe: excess Slight ----------- Wetness, excess Wetness.
humus, seepage. humus, seepage, humus.
unstable fill.

Okeelanta: On-- -------------- Severe: excess Severe: compress- Slight_----- Excess humus, Wetness.
humus. ible, excess wetness.
humus, low
strength.

Oldsmar: Os----------------- Severe: seepage_- Severe: seepage, Moderate: deep Cutbanks cave, Fast intake, wet-
piping, erodes to water, wetness. ness.
easily.

Pahokee: Pa----------------- Severe: excess Severe: excess Slight __- __-_ Excess humus, Wetness.
humus, seepage, humus, low wetness, depth
strength, seep- to rock.
age.
Palm Beach: PbB ------------- Severe: seepage-_ Severe: seepage, Severe: no water_ Not needed------- Droughty, fast
No evaluations for Urban land unstable fill, intake.
part. piping.
Paola: PcB ------------------- Severe: seepage-- Severe: seepage, Severe: no water_ Not needed------- Droughty, too
piping, unstable sandy, fast in-
fill. take.

Pineda: Pd-----.-------------_ Severe: seepage-_ Moderate: seep- Moderate: deep Cutbanks cave --- Wetness.
age, thin layer, to water.
unstable fill.

Pinellas: Pe------------------ Moderate: seep- Severe: thin Slight ----------- Cutbanks cave, Wetness.
age. layer, seepage, wetness.
piping.

Pits: Pf.
No evaluations.

Placid: P ----------------.---- Severe: seepage__ Severe: seepage, Slight ----------- Wetness, cut- Wetness.
piping, banks cave.

Pomello: PhB -----------------Severe: seepage__ Severe: seepage, Moderate: deep Not needed------- Fast intake,
piping, unstable to water. drought.
fill.

Pompano: Po---------------- Severe: seepage-- Severe: seepage, Slight----------- Wetness, cut- Wetness.
piping, erodes banks cave.
easily.

Quartzipsamments, shaped: Severe: seepage-- Severe: seepage, Severe: no water_ Not needed------- Droughty, too
QAB. piping, erodes sandy.
easily.









PALM BEACH COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 65

TABLE 8.-Water management-Continued

Limitations for- Features affecting-
Soil name and map symbol
Pond reservoir Embankments, Aquifer-fed
areas dikes, and excavated Drainage Irrigation
levees ponds

Riviera:
Ra, Ru --------------------- Severe: seepage-- Severe: thin Slight----------- Wetness, cut- Wetness.
No evaluations for Urban land layer, seepage, banks cave.
part of Ru.
Rd ------------------------ Severe: seepage-. Severe: thin Slight ---------- Poor outlets, Wetness.
layer, seepage, cutbanks cave,
wetness.
Sanibel: Sa------------------ Severe: excess Severe: excess Slight----------- Cutbanks cave, Wetness.
humus, seepage, humus, low wetness, poor
strength, un- outlets.
stable fill.
St. Lucie: ScB, SuB------------ Severe: seepage-- Severe: seepage, Severe: no water_ Not needed------- Droughty, too
No evaluations for Urban land piping, unstable sandy, fast
part of SuB. fill. intake.
Tequesta: Ta----------------- Moderate: seep- Severe: excess Slight ------------ Wetness --------- Wetness.
age. humus, seepage,
compressible.
Terra Ceia: Tc-------- ------- Severe: excess Severe: excess Slight-----------. Wetness, excess Wetness.
humus, seepage, humus, seepage, humus.
unstable fill.
Tidal swamp, mineral: TM------ Severe: seepage-- Moderate: seep- Slight------------ Floods, cutbanks Floods, wetness.
age, piping. cave, wetness.
Tidal swamp, organic: TO ------Severe: excess Severe: excess Slight ---------Excess humus, Floods, wetness.
humus, seepage, humus, com- floods, wetness.
pressible, seep-
age.
Torry: Tr----.-----------.-- Moderate: ex- Severe: excess Slight--.--------. Excess humus, Wetness.
cess humus, humus, poor outlets.
seepage.
Udorthents: UD -----.--------- Severe: seepage.. Severe: large Severe: large Not needed------- Slope, fast intake,
stones, seepage. stones, no drought.
water.
Urban land: Ur.
No evaluations.
Wabasso: Wa-----------------. Severe: seepage-_ Severe: seepage, Slight------------ Cutbanks cave, Wetness.
piping, unstable wetness.
fill.
Winder: Wn----------------- Moderate: seep- Slight----------- Slight ----------Floods, wetness--- Floods, wetness.
age.



vating the material at borrow areas. A soil that has been potential frost action, and few cobbles and stones. They
stabilized with lime or cement is not considered in the are at least moderately well drained and have slopes
ratings. The suitability ratings apply to the soil pedon of 15 percent or less. Soils rated fair have a plasticity
between the A horizon and a depth of 5 to 6 feet. In index of less than 15 and have other limiting features,
excavating and spreading, soil horizons will be mixed, such as high shrink-swell potential, high potential frost
Many soils have horizons of contrasting suitability action, steep slopes, wetness, or many stones. If the
within the pedon. The estimated engineering properties suitable material is less than 3 feet thick, the entire
in table 9 provide more specific information about the soil is rated poor.
nature of each horizon that can help determine its Sand and gravel are used in large quantities in con-
suitability for roadfill. struction. The ratings in table 9 provide guidance as to
According to the Unified soil classification system, where to look for probable sources and are based on
soils rated good have low shrink-swell potential, low the probability that soils in a given area contain sizable









66 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 9.-Construction materials
[An asterisk in the first column indicates that at least one mapping unit in this series is made up of two or more kinds of soil that may have
different properties and limitations. For this reason it is necessary to follow carefully the instructions for referring to other series that appear
in the first column]

Suitability of the soil for-
Soil name and map symbol
Roadfill Sand Gravel Topsoil


Adamsville variant: AdB---------- Poor: excess humus, Fair: excess humus, Unsuited------------ Poor: too sandy.
thin layer. thin layer.
Anclote: An ------------------- Poor: wetness-------- Fair: excess humus___ Unsuited------------ Poor: wetness.

Arents, very steep: ASF----------- Severe: slope --------Fair: excess fines----- Unsuited------------ Poor: slope.
Arents: AU-------------------- Fair: wetness-------- Fair: excess fines----- Unsuited---------- Poor: too sandy.
No ratings for Urban land part.

Arents, organic substratum: AX_ .. Poor: excess humus, Fair: excess humus, Unsuited------------ Poor: too sandy.
No ratings for Urban land part. thin layer, thin layer.

*Basinger: Ba, Bc, BM ------------ Poor: wetness ------- Fair: excess fines----- Unsuited------------ Poor: too sandy,
No ratings for Urban land part of wetness.
Bc. For Myakka part of BM,
see Myakka series.

Beaches: Bn.
No ratings.

Boca: Bo_ ----_----------_----_ Poor: thin layer, Poor: excess fines, Unsuited------------ Poor: too sandy,
wetness. thin layer. wetness.

Canaveral: Cc------------------ Fair: wetness-------- Good --------------- Unsuited ------------ Poor: too sandy.
No ratings for Urban land part.

Chobee: Ch _---------_---------- Poor: wetness ------- Unsuited------------ Unsuited------------ Poor: thin layer,
wetness.

Cocoa: CuB-------------------- Good--------------- Fair: excess fines----- Unsuited------------ Poor: too sandy.
No ratings for Urban land part.

Dania: Da-- ------ --------------Poor: excess humus, Unsuited------------ Unsuited------------ Poor: wetness.
thin layer, wetness.

Floridana: Fa------------------- Poor: wetness------- Poor: excess fines----- Unsuited------------ Poor: too sandy,
wetness.

Hallandale: Ha----------------- Poor: wetness, thin Poor: thin layer------ Unsuited------------ Poor: too sandy,
layer, wetness.

Holopaw: Ho---- -------------Poor: wetness------- Good--------------- Unsuited------------ Poor: too sandy,
wetness.

Immokalee: Im -----------------Poor: wetness ------- Fair: excess fines----- Unsuited ------------Poor: too sandy,
wetness.

Jupiter: Ju- ------------------ Poor: thin layer, Poor: thin layer ----- Unsuited------------- Poor: too sandy,
wetness. wetness, thin layer.


Lauderhill: La---------- -----Poor: excess humus, Unsuited ------------ Unsuited------------ Poor: wetness.
low strength, wet-
ness.

Myakka:
Mk, Mu ---------------------- Poor: wetness ------- Fair: excess fines----- Unsuited ------------Poor: too sandy,
No ratings for Urban land part of wetness.
Mu.
Myakka part of BM -------------Poor: wetness ------- Fair: excess fines----- Unsuited ------------Poor: too sandy.

Okeechobee: Oc --------------Poor: wetness, low Unsuited------------ Unsuited ------------Poor: wetness.
strength, excess
humus.

Okeelanta: On--- ------------- Poor: excess humus, Unsuited------------ Unsuited------------ Poor: wetness.
low strength, wet-
ness.




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