• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to soil map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Pasco County in...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Pasco County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025736/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Pasco County, Florida
Physical Description: ix, 231 p., 59 p. of plates : ill., maps (1 col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stankey, Daniel L
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Publisher: U.S. Dpet. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Pasco County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Pasco County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 135.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "In cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Station, Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services."
General Note: "Issued June 1982"--P. iv.
General Note: Item 102-B-9
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025736
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001251037
notis - AGA1605
oclc - 09324108
lccn - 82603168

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ia
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Index to soil map units
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Tables
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Foreword
        Page ix
    Location of Pasco County in Florida
        Page x
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Climate
            Page 1
        History and development
            Page 2
        Physiography, relief, and drainage
            Page 3
            Page 4
        Water resources
            Page 5
        Farming
            Page 5
        Transportation
            Page 6
        Recreation
            Page 6
    How this survey was made
        Page 6
    General soil map units
        Page 7
        Soil descriptions
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 17
        Soil descriptions
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
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            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
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            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
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            Page 53
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            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 63
        Crops and pasture
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
        Range and grazeable woodland
            Page 67
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 68
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 69
        Recreation
            Page 69
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 70
        Engineering
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
    Soil properties
        Page 77
        Engineering index properties
            Page 77
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 78
        Soil and water features
            Page 79
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 80
            Page 81
        Engineering index test data
            Page 82
    Classification of the soils
        Page 83
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
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        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Formation of the soils
        Page 133
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 133
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 134
    Reference
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Glossary
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Tables
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
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        Page 215
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        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
    General soil map
        Page 232
    Index to map sheets
        Page 233
        Page 234
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 59
Full Text































Soilsrve*o

Pasc County Florid






















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HOW TO US


Locate your area of interest on
the "Index to Map Sheets" (the ---
last page of this publication).

SKokomo

2X 3 4

1 ..,4 ,, [

2 -Note the number of the map
-L- sheet and turn to that sheet.






3 Locate your area of interest
3. on the map sheet.



1 34A
56B 27C 1318
134A? L4B








List the map unit symbols
that are in your area
..... i ...Symbols

151c, 27C


7 1 227C
6B 1 ...134A

1A -4 A8-----B 14







HIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5. which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. -_ :-. _-







-.--. .. ...













See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6 Contents) for location of additional data -.'-'""
on a specific soil use.

















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was performed in the period 1976-79. Soil
names and descriptions were approved in 1980. Unless otherwise indicated,
statements in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1979.
This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance
furnished to the Pasco Soil and Water Conservation District. The Pasco County
Board of County Commissioners contributed financially to the acceleration of
the survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.
Cover: This area of the Lake-Chandler map unit, on the general soil map, is
south of Dade City along U.S. Highway 301. Areas adjacent to the highway are
being developed for urban use. Other parts of the map unit are used for growing
improved pasture grasses and citrus trees.
















contents


Index to soil map units............................................. v Windbreaks and environmental plantings............. 69
Sum m ary of tables.................................... ............ vii Recreation .................................................................... 69
Forew ord...................................................................... ix W wildlife habitat ...................................................... 70
G general nature of the county......................................... 1 Engineering ............................................................... 71
Clim ate............................................................. ....... 1 Soil properties ............................................................ 77
History and develop ent............................................ 2 Engineering index properties...................................... 77
Physiography, relief, and drainage ............................ 3 Physical and chem ical properties.............................. 78
W ater resources ............................ ........................ 5 Soil and w ater features............................................... 79
Farm ing...................................................................... 5 Physical, chem ical, and m ineralogical analyses of
Transportation........................................................... 6 selected soils................................................. 80
Recreation ........................ .................................. 6 Engineering index test data........................................ 82
How this survey w as m ade ......................................... 6 Classification of the soils......................................... 83
G general soil m ap units ............................................. 7 Soil series and their m orphology................................... 83
Soil descriptions .......................................................... 7 Form action of the soils ..................................................133
Detailed soil m ap units ................................................ 17 Factors of soil form ation...................................... 133
Soil descriptions .......................................................... 17 Processes of soil form action ........................................ 134
Use and management of the soils ............................ 63
Crops and pasture....................................................... 63 References .............................................................. 135
Range and grazeable w oodland............................. 67 G lossary ....................................................................... 137
W oodland m anagem ent and productivity .............. 68 Tables .............................................................................. 143


soil series

Adam sville series.......................................................... 83 M icanopy series........................................................ 105
Anclote series............................................................... 84 M illhopper series .......... ..................................... 106
Aripeka series ............................................................... 85 M yakka series ........................................................... 107
Arredondo series ............................................................. 86 Narcoossee series .......................................................... 107
Astatula series .............................................................. 87 New nan series.......................................................... 108
Basinger series............................................................. 87 Nobleton series ........................................................ 109
Bessie series................................................................. 88 O keelanta series....................................................... 110
Blichton series .............................................................. 89 O na series................................................................. 111
Candler series.............................................................. 90 O rlando series .......................................................... 111
Candler Variant ............................................................. 90 Paisley series ............................................................ 112
C assia series................................................................. 91 Palm etto series......................................................... 113
Chobee series ............................................................... 92 Paola series ..................................................................... 114
Delray series ............... ..................... .................. 93 Pineda series ............................................................ 115
EauG allie series............. ................... ................. 94 Placid series.............................................................. 116
Electra Variant .............................................................. 95 Pom ello series .......................................................... 117
Felda series...................................................................... 96 Pom ona series ................................................................. 117
Flem ington Variant........................... 97 Pom pano series........................................................ 119
Gainesville series ........................ 98 Quartzipsamments ....................................................... 119
Hom osassa series ........................................................... 99 Sam sula series ................................................................ 1 19
Im m okalee series ............................................................ 99 Sellers series ................................................................... 120
Jonesville series .............................................................. 100 Sm yrna series .................................................................. 121
Kanapaha series........................................................... 101 Sparr series............................................................... 122
Kendrick series ............................................................. 101 Tavares series .......................................................... 123
Lacoochee series............................................................ 102 Terra Ceia series........................................................ 124
Lake series.................................................................... 103 Tom oka series ........................................................... 124
Lochloosa series ............................................................. 104 Udalfic Arents .......................................................... 125
iii




















Vero series ....................................................................... 125 W eekiwachee series ........... .......................... 129
Vero Variant...................................................................... 126 Zephyr series................................................................... 129
W auchula series .............................................................. 127 Zolfo series ...................................................................... 130

Issued June 1982







































iv

















index to soil map units


1-Wauchula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 17 39-Chobee soils, frequently flooded........................ 38
2- Pomona fine sand .................................................. 18 40- Paisley fine sand .................................................. 39
3- Pineda fine sand..................................................... 19 41- Pits-Dumps complex ............................................ 40
4- Felda fine sand....................................................... 20 42- Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......... 40
5- Myakka fine sand ................................................... 20 43-Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 40
6-Tavares sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................... 22 44-Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes........ 41
7-Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 22 45- Kendrick fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........ 42
8-Sellers mucky loamy fine sand............................. 23 46-Cassia fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 42
9-Ona fine sand ......................................................... 24 47-Weekiwachee muck............................................. 43
10-Vero fine sand...................................................... 24 48- Lochloosa fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 43
11-Adamsville fine sand............................................ 25 49- Blichton fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ......... 43
12-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......... 25 50- Blichton fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ......... 45
13-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......... 26 51- Blichton fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ......... 45
14-Candler fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.......... 26 52-Samsula muck...................................................... 46
15-Tavares-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent 53-Sparr fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.............. 46
slopes............................ .................................. 27 54- Flemington Variant fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
16-Zephyr muck......................................................... 28 slopes................................................................. 47
17- Immokalee fine sand ........................................... 28 55- Homosassa mucky fine sandy loam.................. 47
18- Electra Variant fine sand, O to 5 percent slopes. 29 56- EauGallie-Urban land complex........................... 48
19- Paola fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes ............. 29 57-Vero Variant fine sand......................................... 48
20-Aripeka fine sand ................................................. 30 58-Tomoka muck....................................................... 49
21-Smyrna fine sand ................................................ 30 59- Newnan fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 49
22- Basinger fine sand ............................................... 31 60- Palmetto-Zephyr-Sellers complex ...................... 50
23- Basinger fine sand, depressional....................... 32 61- Pompano fine sand, frequently flooded............. 52
24-Quartzipsamments, shaped, 0 to 5 percent 62-Kendrick fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ........ 52
slopes..................................................................... 33 63- Delray mucky fine sand .......................................... 53
25-Jonesville fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...... 33 64- Nobleton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes....... 53
26- Narcoossee fine sand.......................................... 33 65-Gainesville loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
27-Anclote fine sand ........ ..................................... 34 slopes........................................................................ 53
28- Pits......................................................................... 35 66- Micanopy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes....... 54
29- Lacoochee complex............................................. 35 67- Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......... 54
30-Okeelanta-Terra Ceia association...................... 35 68- Lake fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............... 55
31- Udalfic Arents-Urban land complex................... 35 69- Millhopper fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 56
32- Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............... 36 70- Placid fine sand.................................................... 57
34- Pompano fine sand.............................................. 36 71-Anclote-Tavares-Pomello association, flooded... 58
35- EauGallie fine sand.............................................. 37 72-Orlando fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......... 59
36-Candler-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent 73-Zolfo fine sand...................................................... 59
slopes..................................................................... 37 74-Candler Variant fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
37- Paola-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent slopes..................................................................... 60
slopes........................................................................ 38 75- B beaches ................................................................... 6 1
38- Urban land ............................................................. 38 76- Bessie muck ..................................................... 61








v



















summary of tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)........................................................ 144
Freeze data (table 2) .................................................................................... ... 144
Soil ratings and limiting properties for selected uses, by general soil map
unit (ta ble 3)............................................................................................... ... 145
Map unit and component soils. Percent of survey area.
Suitability for pasture. Potential for pine trees. Limitations
for urban uses-Septic tank absorption fields, Building
sites, Recreation areas.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) ............................. 150
Acres. Percent.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 5) ............................................ 152
Oranges. Grapefruit. Soybeans. Annual hay crops.
Bahiagrass. Improved bermudagrass. Grass-clover.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 6)................................................. 155
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Rangleland productivity (table 7) .................................................................. 156
Range site. Total production, by kind of year-Favorable,
Normal, Unfavorable.
Woodland management and productivity (table 8)...................................... 159
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 9)................................................................ 163
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
Wildlife habitat potentials (table 10)............................................................... 168
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 11) ............................................................. 172
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 12) .......................................................................... ... 177
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 13) ................................................................ 183
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.


vii




















W ater management (table 14) ........................................................................... 188
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Grassed waterways.
Engineering index properties (table 15) ........................................................ 194
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of soils (table 16)................................... 202
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.
Soil and water features (table 17)..................................................................... 207
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Bedrock.
Subsidence. Risk of corrosion.
Physical analyses of selected soils (table 18).............................................. 212
Depth. Horizon. Class and particle-size distribution.
Hydraulic conductivity. Bulk density field moisture. Water
content.
Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 19)........................................ 218
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Cation exchange capacity. Base saturation. Organic
carbon. Electrical conductivity. ph. Pyrophosphate
extractable. Citrate dithionite extractable.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 20).............................................. 224
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay minerals;
Montmorillonite, 14 angstrom intergrade, Kaolinite, Quartz,
Gibbsite.
Engineering index test data (table 21) .......................................................... 227
Classification. Grain-size distribution. Liquid limit. Plasticity
index. Moisture density.
Classification of the soils (table 22).................................................................. 231
Family or higher taxonomic class.







viii
















foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Pasco County, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.





William E. Austin
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service








ix

























PENSACL ACKSONVILLE
PENSACOLA


GAINESVIL E






APPROXIMATE SCALES DADE CIT
S0 00r ORLANO
o o50 100 TAMPA
MILES

0 100 200
KILOMETERS











State Agricultural Experiment Station




Location of Pasco County in Florida.












soil survey of


Pasco County, Florida


By Daniel L. Stankey, Soil Conservation Service

Soils surveyed by Daniel L. Stankey, Lloyd Law, Jr.
Robert L. Weatherspoon, and Adam G. Hyde

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department
and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services



Pasco County is on the Gulf of Mexico, near the development; physiography, relief, and drainage; water
middle of Florida. It is bordered on the north by resources; farming; transportation; and recreation.
Hernando County, on the east by Polk and Sumter
Counties, on the south by Hillsborough and Pinellas climate
Counties, and on the west by the Gulf of Mexico.
The land area of the county is about 475,000 acres, or The climate of Pasco County is characterized by long,
warm, relatively humid summers and mild, dry winters.
742 square miles. About 7,076 acres, or 11 square miles, About 60 percent of the annual rainfall occurs during the
is state and federally owned. Most of this acreage is the months of June through September. The driest months
Withlacoochee State Forest. Pasco County has about are November through February. Climatic data collected
8,649 acres of water in bodies of less than 40 acres and at St. Leo College in the period 1951-60 are summarized
about 19,000 acres of salt and fresh water in bodies in table 1 (9, 11). A summary for the period 1951-74
greater than 40 acres. shows the average rainfall as 54.63 inches. Extremes in
The county is approximately rectangular. At its widest annual rainfall recorded at the St. Leo station range from
points, it runs about 57 miles east to west and 27 miles a high of 82.82 inches in 1900 to a low of 36.31 inches
north to south. Dade City, the county seat, is in the in 1961. Annual rainfall in the low, flat coastal areas of
eastern part, about 8 miles from the eastern and the western part of the county averages about 52
northern county boundaries. inches.
Agriculture is the main enterprise in the county. Trade Most summer rainfall comes from localized afternoon
and service industries are the largest nonagricultural or early evening thundershowers. During the period June
enterprises. Other enterprises include production of through September, rainfall of at least 0.1 inch can be
wood, concrete, and metal products and processing of expected about 4 days out of every 10 days and rainfall
citrus and dairy and poultry products. of 1 inch or more can be expected 1 day out of 10.
Daylong rains are rare in summer and are usually
associated with a tropical storm. Summer showers are
general nature of the county sometimes heavy, and 2 or 3 inches of rain may fall in 1
or 2 hours. Winter and spring rains are usually
In this section, the environmental factors that affect associated with large-scale continental weather patterns
the use and management of soils in Pasco County are and are of longer duration. These rains are usually not
described. These factors are climate; history and intense and can last for periods of 24 hours or more.
1

X-357935 0001(00)(17-NOV-81-14:37:24) F9657b 11/13/81












soil survey of


Pasco County, Florida


By Daniel L. Stankey, Soil Conservation Service

Soils surveyed by Daniel L. Stankey, Lloyd Law, Jr.
Robert L. Weatherspoon, and Adam G. Hyde

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department
and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services



Pasco County is on the Gulf of Mexico, near the development; physiography, relief, and drainage; water
middle of Florida. It is bordered on the north by resources; farming; transportation; and recreation.
Hernando County, on the east by Polk and Sumter
Counties, on the south by Hillsborough and Pinellas climate
Counties, and on the west by the Gulf of Mexico.
The land area of the county is about 475,000 acres, or The climate of Pasco County is characterized by long,
warm, relatively humid summers and mild, dry winters.
742 square miles. About 7,076 acres, or 11 square miles, About 60 percent of the annual rainfall occurs during the
is state and federally owned. Most of this acreage is the months of June through September. The driest months
Withlacoochee State Forest. Pasco County has about are November through February. Climatic data collected
8,649 acres of water in bodies of less than 40 acres and at St. Leo College in the period 1951-60 are summarized
about 19,000 acres of salt and fresh water in bodies in table 1 (9, 11). A summary for the period 1951-74
greater than 40 acres. shows the average rainfall as 54.63 inches. Extremes in
The county is approximately rectangular. At its widest annual rainfall recorded at the St. Leo station range from
points, it runs about 57 miles east to west and 27 miles a high of 82.82 inches in 1900 to a low of 36.31 inches
north to south. Dade City, the county seat, is in the in 1961. Annual rainfall in the low, flat coastal areas of
eastern part, about 8 miles from the eastern and the western part of the county averages about 52
northern county boundaries. inches.
Agriculture is the main enterprise in the county. Trade Most summer rainfall comes from localized afternoon
and service industries are the largest nonagricultural or early evening thundershowers. During the period June
enterprises. Other enterprises include production of through September, rainfall of at least 0.1 inch can be
wood, concrete, and metal products and processing of expected about 4 days out of every 10 days and rainfall
citrus and dairy and poultry products. of 1 inch or more can be expected 1 day out of 10.
Daylong rains are rare in summer and are usually
associated with a tropical storm. Summer showers are
general nature of the county sometimes heavy, and 2 or 3 inches of rain may fall in 1
or 2 hours. Winter and spring rains are usually
In this section, the environmental factors that affect associated with large-scale continental weather patterns
the use and management of soils in Pasco County are and are of longer duration. These rains are usually not
described. These factors are climate; history and intense and can last for periods of 24 hours or more.
1

X-357935 0001(00)(17-NOV-81-14:37:24) F9657b 11/13/81






2 Soil survey



Occasionally, large amounts of water are released over and May are usually of shorter duration, but their effects
large areas. The greatest 24-hour rainfall recorded in the are compounded by higher temperatures.
county, 9.17 inches, occurred on April 13, 1953. In winter The average relative humidity in midafternoon is about
and spring, rainfall of at least 0.1 inch per day can be 50 to 65 percent. Humidity is higher at night, and the
expected about 1 day in 15 days, and rainfall of 1 inch or average at dawn is about 85 to 95 percent. The sun
more can be expected about 1 day in 60. shines more than 70 percent of the time possible in
The Gulf of Mexico and the numerous inland lakes summer and more than 60 percent in winter. Prevailing
have a moderating influence on both summer and winter winds in the area are generally southeasterly and
temperatures. Coastal areas are slightly warmer in winter easterly in spring and summer and northerly in fall and
and cooler in summer than inland areas. Summer winter. Wind direction is influenced locally by convection
temperatures are fairly uniform from year to year and forces inland and by the land-and-sea-breeze-effect near
show little day-to-day variation. Afternoon temperatures the coast. Windspeed usually ranges between 8 and 15
reach 90 degrees F or slightly above with great regularity miles per hour during the day, but it nearly always drops
during the months of June through September. below 8 miles per hour at night. March and April are the
Temperatures seldom rise above about 96 degrees, windiest months. High local winds of short duration occur
Winter temperatures vary considerably from day to day occasionally in connection with thunderstorms in summer
as well as from year to year. This variation results from and with cold fronts in winter.
periodic invasions of cold, dry air masses from the north.
The frequency of these cold wave invasions cannot be history and development
predicted. Some winters, occasionally several in
succession, pass with few invasions of the cold air; William G. Dalton, past president of the Pasco County Historical
others may bring several severe cold waves. These cold Society, prepared this section.
waves usually last for periods of 2 to 3 days. When they Pasco County was created by the Florida legislature
follow periods of relative warmth, the cold waves can on May 12, 1887. It had been the southern end of
cause considerable damage to tender crops and new Hernando County, commonly called the "clabber end"
growth. by early settlers. The new county was named in honor of
Frost and freezing temperatures can be expected to U.S. Senator Samuel Pasco. In a referendum held in
occur in 8 out of 10 years. Temperatures of 28 degrees 1889, Dade City was named as the county seat
F or lower can be expected in 1 out of 10 years. A The Pasco County area has been inhabited since
record low of 18 degrees F was recorded February 14, prehistoric times. A large number of archaeological sites
1899, and again on December 13, 1962. Snowfall is rare showing human occupation as early as 9,000 B.C. are in
and occurs about once in 20 years. The greatest the area. When Spanish explorers passed through the
recorded accumulation of snow, about 1.5 inches, area in the sixteenth century, it was inhabited by Indians
occurred on January 19, 1977. The frost-free growing of the Muskogean language group.
period ranges from about 314 days in the northeastern In the early 1700's, a band of southern Creeks, the
part of the county to about 345 days in the southwestern Seminoles, moved into the area. They were later joined
part (3). Freeze data shown in table 2 (10) were taken at by groups of escaped black slaves and remained until
St. Leo, Florida, and are representative of the county. the first half of the nineteenth century, when they were
Hail falls at irregular intervals, during thundershowers. forcibly moved to Oklahoma or driven south to the
The hailstones are usually small and seldom cause much Everglades. Among the Seminole chiefs whose territories
damage. included parts of what is now Pasco County were
Tropical storms can affect the area any time during Aripeka, Chipco, and Tiger Tail.
the period from early June through mid-November. Following the opening battle of the Second Seminole
These storms diminish in intensity quite rapidly as they War in 1835, a fort was built near present-day
move inland. The chance of winds reaching hurricane Lacoochee in the northeastern part of Pasco County. It
force (74 miles per hour or greater) in Pasco County in was named in honor of Major Dade, who was killed in
any given year is about 1 in 25. The heavy rains the battle. The signing of the Treaty of Fort Dade in
associated with these storms may cause considerable 1836 ended the most active phase of the war, and the
damage at areas distant from the storm center. fort was abandoned in 1839. With the cessation of
Extended periods of dry weather, or droughts, can hostilities and the passage of the Armed Occupation Act
occur in any season, but are most common in spring and of 1842, a number of families settled in the area. In
fall. By definition, a drought occurs when the soil does 1845, the Fort Dade Post Office was established at
not have enough available water for plants to maintain White House plantation in what is now the northeastern
normal growth. In most years, there are periods when part of Dade City. About the same time, the Tucker
rainfall does not supply as much water as most crops family planted the first orange grove in the area at their
need. During these periods, supplementary irrigation is plantation near Richland (then called Tuckertown). In
needed for maximum crop production. Droughts in April 1849, the U.S. Army rebuilt Fort Dade near the present







Pasco County, Florida 3


site of Community General Hospital in Dade City. The Gulf Coastal Lowlands, the Brooksville Ridge, the Tsala
fort was used as a refuge for settlers during the Third Apopka Plain, and the Western Valley (fig. 1).
Seminole War. The county is underlain by several thousand feet of
Before the coming of the railroads in 1887, the sedimentary rock, principally various limestone
principal communities in the survey area were Dade City, formations (4). A very gently sloping, very flat limestone
Fort Dade, Chipco, Lake Buddy, San Antonio, terrain extends inland from the Gulf of Mexico. This is
Tuckertown, and Hudson. The establishment of rail lines the Coastal Swamps area. It extends the length of the
through the area made the production and shipment of county and ranges up to about 2 miles in width. As one
oranges, tobacco, lumber, and naval stores highly goes inland, the terrain changes very gradually from
profitable, and many small towns developed throughout shallow marine water to salt marshes to fresh water
the county. Most of these communities of the 1880's and swamps. Much of the area is shallow to limestone, and
1890's disappeared when the virgin pine forests were cut because there are no barrier formations, sands did not
down or after the Great Freeze of 1895, which severely accumulate and beaches did not form. In some areas,
damaged the citrus industry in the area. Tobacco the limestone has dissolved and pockets of organic
became a principal crop for a period of around 20 years materials have accumulated. As a result, some places
following the freeze. The pine lumber and turpentine have a mixture of organic and mineral soils.
industries continued well into the twentieth century. The The soils of the Coastal Swamps area are very poorly
cypress lumber industry developed more slowly. Both drained, and the marsh areas are subject to daily
pine and cypress are still being logged in Pasco County. flooding by normal tides. The vegetation ranges from
At present the principal communities in Pasco County salt-tolerant grasses in the marshes to stands of mixed
are Dade City, Zephyrhills, New Port Richey, Holliday, hardwoods on more elevated areas. Elevation ranges
and San Antonio. Dade City was known as Fort Dade from sea level to about 10 feet above sea level. Some
until 1881. Zephyrhills was established in 1911 as a urban development has taken place in the area. In some
retirement center for veterans of the Union Army. New places limestone is mined.
Port Richey was founded in 1915, adjacent to the older The Gulf Coastal Lowlands lie between the Coastal
town of Port Richey, which was established by Captain Swamps and the Brooksville Ridge and the Western
Aaron Richey in the 1880's. San Antonio was the center Valley. In the northern part of the county they conjoin
of a religious colony established by Judge Edwin Dunne the Brooksville Ridge, and in the southern part they
in 1881. Holliday appeared as part of the extensive conjoin the Western Valley area at Zephyrhills Gap. The
development of the county's west coast in the 1960's. elevation ranges between about 10 and 50 feet above
During the Second World War, two of the largest sea level. The area consists mainly of pine and
citrus-packing plants in the world were established in sawpalmetto flatwoods and has numerous small ponds
Pasco County. One of these plants was largely and broad grassy sloughs. The soils are predominantly
responsible for developing the procedure for making nearly level, wet, and sandy. Some areas have deep,
orange juice concentrate, well drained and excessively drained sands which are
The coastal area of the county was undeveloped until relict sand dunes. Much of the urban development in the
the second half of the twentieth century, when it became county has occurred on the better drained parts of the
favored as a retirement area. In recent years, huge lowlands. Much of the wetter acreage is used as
residential developments have appeared around U.S. pastureland.
Highway 19, causing the county's population center to The Brooksville Ridge extends south from Hernando
shift to the west coast. County to about the area of Zephyrhills. It extends about
The principal educational institutions serving the from Florida Highway 581 on the west to U.S. Highway
county are a public community college, a public junior 301 on the east. Considerable local relief has developed
college with campuses at Dade City and New Port along the ridge as a result of the numerous sinkholes.
Richey, and a private 4-year college. The elevation varies from about 70 to 300 feet over
short distances. Clay Hill, 6 miles northwest of Dade
physiography, relief, and drainage City, reaches an altitude of 301 feet, while Lake Dowling,
a sinkhole lake 0.7 mile away, is at an altitude of only 75
Pasco County is in the central or mid-peninsular feet. There is little surface drainage. Most of the surface
physiographic zone of the' Florida Peninsula. The county is covered by a few feet of sand. Near the western side
is characterized by discontinuous highlands in the form of the ridge are thicker deposits of sand that may be old
of ridges separated by broad valleys. The ridges are stabilized dunes. Natural vegetation on the deep sands
above the static level of the water in the aquifer, but the is mainly turkey oak and scattered longleaf pine. Other
broad valleys are below it. Broad shallow lakes are areas consist of poorly drained to well drained, sandy to
common on the valley floors, and smaller deep lakes are clayey soils that support pine and hardwoods. Much of
on the ridges. Based on physiography, the county can be the Brooksville Ridge has been cleared and is used for
divided into five areas (13): the Coastal Swamps, the cultivated crops and pasture.






4 Soil survey




I

HERNANDO COUNTY /TSALA
/ z
/ I APOPKA/ i
/ MEXICO
/ \ /\PLAIN



Q,[-

S\ \ZEPHYRHI GAP
\ 1 \ --- --,,

GULF / \

PINF LLAS \ BROOKSVILLERIGE /HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY
MEXICO \ GULF COASTAL LOWLANDS \ I Z














The Tsala Apopka Plain extends south from Hernando The drainage of the area has been studied (12). Much
County east of U.S. Highway 301 to about 3 miles north of the water falling on the county is returned to the
of Dade City. It is about 6 miles wide and ranges in atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. The
elevation from about 75 to 85 feet above sea level. The remainder enters the ground. Ultimately, all of this
area consists mostly of pine and sawpalmetto flatwoods. ground water flows into the Gulf of Mexico. It drains from
Numerous ponds, depressions, and broad grassy the area through the underlying limestone and via a few
sloughs are present. The soils are mainly nearly level surface streams. Streams are present only where
and wet and generally have a loamy subsoil. Most of this materials of slow permeability overlie the limestone or
area remains in natural vegetation and is used primarily the water level in the limestone is near the ground
as woodland and wildlife habitat. surface. The Pithlachascotee and Anclote Rivers drain
The Western Valley extends the length of the county the area west of U.S. Highway 41 and south of Florida
on its eastern side. The Western Valley turns west at the Highway 52. The southeastern and south-central parts of
termination of the Brooksville Ridge and unites with the the county are drained by tributaries of the Hillsborough
Gulf Coastal Lowlands at Zephyrhills Gap. It contains the River. The Withlacoochee River drains the eastern part
valleys of the Withlacoochee and Hillsboro Rivers and of the county.
consists mainly of poorly drained sandy soils. The Some areas of the county have sinkhole drainage
vegetation is mainly longleaf pine and sawpalmetto. patterns. Bear Creek, for example, drains into Bear Sink
Most of the soils in the Western Valley have a loamy and, when Bear Sink is full, into a second sinkhole. In
subsoil ranging from acid to alkaline over short distances. periods when both of these sinks cannot drain the full
Outcroppings of limestone are common in some parts. water flow, the excess flows westward, via a poorly
Scattered throughout the Western Valley area are small developed channel, across U.S. Highway 19 to the Gulf
to large, slightly depressional areas of sandy soils that of Mexico. Several lakes east of Port Richey are drained
support mixed swamp hardwoods and cypress. Much of by Rocky Sink.
the area remains in natural vegetation, but some areas Some parts of the county are drained by closed
have been cleared and planted to improved pasture and depressions. These are common in the drainage areas
cultivated crops. of streams. These closed depressions, which drain






Pasco County, Florida 5



internally, generally provide adequate subsurface formations. Water from wells near the coast may have a
drainage during periods of normal rainfall. During very high chloride content because of seawater
wet periods, however, the closed depressional drains encroachment or the geologic trapping of seawater in
may receive more water than they can release into the portions of the aquifer.
underlying limestone formation. Then, the closed The piezometric surface of an aquifer is the imaginary
depressions become flowing springs, surface to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that
Ground-water drainage emerges as spring flow at or penetrate an artesian aquifer. Two piezometric highs
near the coast. Spring flow increases during wet periods, have been noted in Pasco County. One of these is near
but there is a lag period in relation to the periods of Dixie and the other is in the St. Leo area. Water moves
rainfall inland. The water from the springs has a away from the local piezometric highs in all directions
bicarbonate level of about 100 to 200 parts per million. along hydraulic gradients toward the rivers and the Gulf
The chloride content of the inland springs is low, and of Mexico.
that of springs near the coast is much greater. Recharge of the aquifer by rainfall is by direct
movement of surface water into drain sinks, by
water resources downward percolation through the overlying sand and
clay, and by lateral movement along the hydraulic
The Withlacoochee, Hillsborough, Pithlachascotee, gradient.
and Anclote Rivers are the major permanent streams
and surface drainage systems in the county. Numerous farming
small streams and creeks are along the coast.
Springs, both fresh water and saline, occur in the Farming has always been important to the economy of
county. The largest is Crystal Spring, which has a flow Pasco County. Farming is diversified largely because of
rate of 75 cubic feet per second. Most of the springs lie the variety of suitable soils. Land-use patterns are
along the coastal areas, and some have submarine changing, and according to the 1974 Census of
openings. The chloride content of these coastal springs Agriculture, the percentage of the land area in farms
ranges up to 10,000 parts per million, dropped from 71.3 percent in 1969 to 66.1 percent in
About 195 lakes, ranging from about 1 to 693 acres in 1974. The number of farms also decreased during this
size, are in the county. Crews Lake is the largest. During period, but the size of the average farm increased
extended dry periods, many of the lakes are greatly slightly. Acreage in citrus trees, rangeland, and woodland
reduced in size and may even dry up completely, has gradually been decreasing as more and more land is
Most of the water for industries, farmland, and homes used for urban development. It is estimated that in 1977
in the county comes from wells (5). The wells range from there was about 45,000 acres of urban and built-up land
about 60 to 1,000 feet in depth, but most are about 80 in the county, and this acreage has been increasing at
to 300 feet deep. These wells are drilled into the the rate of about 2,000 acres per year.
limestone formations of the Floridan Aquifer, which According to the Bureau of Economic and Business
underlies the county. In sequence from the deepest Research at the University of Florida, Pasco County
formations, the aquifer in this area is composed of all or ranked 10th among the state's 67 counties in sales of
part of the Lake City Limestone; the Avon Park agricultural commodities in 1976. The county ranked 2nd
Limestone; the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River in sales of poultry and poultry products, 8th in sales of
Formations; and the Suwannee and Tampa Limestones. oranges, and 9th in sales of dairy products.
Undifferentiated deposits of sand and clay overlie the About 58 percent of the total farm income in 1974 was
Tampa Limestone. from the sale of livestock, poultry, and their products,
The quality of water from the various layers differs. and 40 percent was from the sale of fruits and berries.
Wells which produce water from the sand and clay Poultry and egg production is scattered throughout the
overlay are little used because the water has a high iron county, with the largest concentration in the Zephyrhills
concentration and is likely to be highly colored. Rather, area. Beef and dairy cattle herds are scattered
about 90 percent of the wells are drilled into the hard tharea. Beef and dairy cattle herds are scattered of the
portions of the limestone formations. Most of the throughout the county. About 122,600 acres of the
limestone formations are hard throughout or have hard county is used for pasture and rangeland. In 1978,
layers. The Williston and Crystal River Formations are 33,367 acres was planted to citrus and nearly 90 percent
soft and generally do not maintain a drilled opening. of this acreage was in oranges. Soybeans are one
Most of the wells are drilled into the Tampa or commonly grown field crop. Some acreage is used for
Suwannee Limestones. Wells drilled into the Inglis vegetable production. Commonly grown vegetables are
Formation and the Avon Park and Lake City Limestones watermelon, peppers, eggplant, squash, and cherry
commonly provide the most water, but that water tomatoes. Strawberry production is increasing in
contains more sulfate than does water from overlying acreage. Hay production is also increasing.






Pasco County, Florida 5



internally, generally provide adequate subsurface formations. Water from wells near the coast may have a
drainage during periods of normal rainfall. During very high chloride content because of seawater
wet periods, however, the closed depressional drains encroachment or the geologic trapping of seawater in
may receive more water than they can release into the portions of the aquifer.
underlying limestone formation. Then, the closed The piezometric surface of an aquifer is the imaginary
depressions become flowing springs, surface to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that
Ground-water drainage emerges as spring flow at or penetrate an artesian aquifer. Two piezometric highs
near the coast. Spring flow increases during wet periods, have been noted in Pasco County. One of these is near
but there is a lag period in relation to the periods of Dixie and the other is in the St. Leo area. Water moves
rainfall inland. The water from the springs has a away from the local piezometric highs in all directions
bicarbonate level of about 100 to 200 parts per million. along hydraulic gradients toward the rivers and the Gulf
The chloride content of the inland springs is low, and of Mexico.
that of springs near the coast is much greater. Recharge of the aquifer by rainfall is by direct
movement of surface water into drain sinks, by
water resources downward percolation through the overlying sand and
clay, and by lateral movement along the hydraulic
The Withlacoochee, Hillsborough, Pithlachascotee, gradient.
and Anclote Rivers are the major permanent streams
and surface drainage systems in the county. Numerous farming
small streams and creeks are along the coast.
Springs, both fresh water and saline, occur in the Farming has always been important to the economy of
county. The largest is Crystal Spring, which has a flow Pasco County. Farming is diversified largely because of
rate of 75 cubic feet per second. Most of the springs lie the variety of suitable soils. Land-use patterns are
along the coastal areas, and some have submarine changing, and according to the 1974 Census of
openings. The chloride content of these coastal springs Agriculture, the percentage of the land area in farms
ranges up to 10,000 parts per million, dropped from 71.3 percent in 1969 to 66.1 percent in
About 195 lakes, ranging from about 1 to 693 acres in 1974. The number of farms also decreased during this
size, are in the county. Crews Lake is the largest. During period, but the size of the average farm increased
extended dry periods, many of the lakes are greatly slightly. Acreage in citrus trees, rangeland, and woodland
reduced in size and may even dry up completely, has gradually been decreasing as more and more land is
Most of the water for industries, farmland, and homes used for urban development. It is estimated that in 1977
in the county comes from wells (5). The wells range from there was about 45,000 acres of urban and built-up land
about 60 to 1,000 feet in depth, but most are about 80 in the county, and this acreage has been increasing at
to 300 feet deep. These wells are drilled into the the rate of about 2,000 acres per year.
limestone formations of the Floridan Aquifer, which According to the Bureau of Economic and Business
underlies the county. In sequence from the deepest Research at the University of Florida, Pasco County
formations, the aquifer in this area is composed of all or ranked 10th among the state's 67 counties in sales of
part of the Lake City Limestone; the Avon Park agricultural commodities in 1976. The county ranked 2nd
Limestone; the Inglis, Williston, and Crystal River in sales of poultry and poultry products, 8th in sales of
Formations; and the Suwannee and Tampa Limestones. oranges, and 9th in sales of dairy products.
Undifferentiated deposits of sand and clay overlie the About 58 percent of the total farm income in 1974 was
Tampa Limestone. from the sale of livestock, poultry, and their products,
The quality of water from the various layers differs. and 40 percent was from the sale of fruits and berries.
Wells which produce water from the sand and clay Poultry and egg production is scattered throughout the
overlay are little used because the water has a high iron county, with the largest concentration in the Zephyrhills
concentration and is likely to be highly colored. Rather, area. Beef and dairy cattle herds are scattered
about 90 percent of the wells are drilled into the hard tharea. Beef and dairy cattle herds are scattered of the
portions of the limestone formations. Most of the throughout the county. About 122,600 acres of the
limestone formations are hard throughout or have hard county is used for pasture and rangeland. In 1978,
layers. The Williston and Crystal River Formations are 33,367 acres was planted to citrus and nearly 90 percent
soft and generally do not maintain a drilled opening. of this acreage was in oranges. Soybeans are one
Most of the wells are drilled into the Tampa or commonly grown field crop. Some acreage is used for
Suwannee Limestones. Wells drilled into the Inglis vegetable production. Commonly grown vegetables are
Formation and the Avon Park and Lake City Limestones watermelon, peppers, eggplant, squash, and cherry
commonly provide the most water, but that water tomatoes. Strawberry production is increasing in
contains more sulfate than does water from overlying acreage. Hay production is also increasing.






6



transportation records, field experience, and state and local specialists.
For example, data on crop yields under defined
Most of Pasco County is served by good management are assembled from farm records and from
transportation facilities, including county, state, and field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
federal highways. Several interstate trucking firms serve But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
the county. have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
Rail and bus services are available. Scheduled airlines on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
serve the county at the Tampa International airport. Air other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed
cargo service is available at the Zephyrhills municipal information then needs to be organized so that it can be
airport, and three other private airstrips have been used by farmers, rangeland and woodland managers,
established, engineers, planners, developers and builders, home

recreation buyers, and others.
A variety of recreation facilities are available in Pasco
County. These include marinas for fresh and salt water
boaters and fishermen, hiking and nature trails,
campgrounds, golf courses, tennis courts, and parks and
playgrounds. A number of areas in the Withlacoochee
State Forest have been set aside for camping. Anclote
Key State Park, on Anclote Key, about 6 miles from the
mainland, has the only natural sand beach in the county.

how this survey was made
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what soils are
in the survey area, where they are, and how they can be
used. They observed the steepness, length, and shape
of slopes; the size of streams and the general pattern of
drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops; and the
kinds of rock. They dug many holes to study soil profiles.
A profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in
a soil. It extends from the surface down into the parent
material, which has been changed very little by
weathering or by plant roots.
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
profiles they studied and compared those profiles with
others in nearby counties and in more distant places.
They classified and named the soils according to
nationwide uniform procedures. They drew the
boundaries of the soils on aerial photographs. These
photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately.
The soil maps at the back of this publication were
prepared from aerial photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called map units.
Most map units are made up of one kind of soil. Some
are made up of two or more kinds. The map units in this
survey area are described under "General soil map
units" and "Detailed soil map units."
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
soils are taken for laboratory measurements and for
engineering tests. All soils are field tested to determine
their characteristics. Interpretations of those
characteristics may be modified during the survey. Data
are assembled from other sources, such as test results,






6



transportation records, field experience, and state and local specialists.
For example, data on crop yields under defined
Most of Pasco County is served by good management are assembled from farm records and from
transportation facilities, including county, state, and field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
federal highways. Several interstate trucking firms serve But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
the county. have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
Rail and bus services are available. Scheduled airlines on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
serve the county at the Tampa International airport. Air other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed
cargo service is available at the Zephyrhills municipal information then needs to be organized so that it can be
airport, and three other private airstrips have been used by farmers, rangeland and woodland managers,
established, engineers, planners, developers and builders, home

recreation buyers, and others.
A variety of recreation facilities are available in Pasco
County. These include marinas for fresh and salt water
boaters and fishermen, hiking and nature trails,
campgrounds, golf courses, tennis courts, and parks and
playgrounds. A number of areas in the Withlacoochee
State Forest have been set aside for camping. Anclote
Key State Park, on Anclote Key, about 6 miles from the
mainland, has the only natural sand beach in the county.

how this survey was made
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what soils are
in the survey area, where they are, and how they can be
used. They observed the steepness, length, and shape
of slopes; the size of streams and the general pattern of
drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops; and the
kinds of rock. They dug many holes to study soil profiles.
A profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in
a soil. It extends from the surface down into the parent
material, which has been changed very little by
weathering or by plant roots.
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
profiles they studied and compared those profiles with
others in nearby counties and in more distant places.
They classified and named the soils according to
nationwide uniform procedures. They drew the
boundaries of the soils on aerial photographs. These
photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately.
The soil maps at the back of this publication were
prepared from aerial photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called map units.
Most map units are made up of one kind of soil. Some
are made up of two or more kinds. The map units in this
survey area are described under "General soil map
units" and "Detailed soil map units."
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
soils are taken for laboratory measurements and for
engineering tests. All soils are field tested to determine
their characteristics. Interpretations of those
characteristics may be modified during the survey. Data
are assembled from other sources, such as test results,






6



transportation records, field experience, and state and local specialists.
For example, data on crop yields under defined
Most of Pasco County is served by good management are assembled from farm records and from
transportation facilities, including county, state, and field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
federal highways. Several interstate trucking firms serve But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
the county. have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
Rail and bus services are available. Scheduled airlines on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
serve the county at the Tampa International airport. Air other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed
cargo service is available at the Zephyrhills municipal information then needs to be organized so that it can be
airport, and three other private airstrips have been used by farmers, rangeland and woodland managers,
established, engineers, planners, developers and builders, home

recreation buyers, and others.
A variety of recreation facilities are available in Pasco
County. These include marinas for fresh and salt water
boaters and fishermen, hiking and nature trails,
campgrounds, golf courses, tennis courts, and parks and
playgrounds. A number of areas in the Withlacoochee
State Forest have been set aside for camping. Anclote
Key State Park, on Anclote Key, about 6 miles from the
mainland, has the only natural sand beach in the county.

how this survey was made
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what soils are
in the survey area, where they are, and how they can be
used. They observed the steepness, length, and shape
of slopes; the size of streams and the general pattern of
drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops; and the
kinds of rock. They dug many holes to study soil profiles.
A profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in
a soil. It extends from the surface down into the parent
material, which has been changed very little by
weathering or by plant roots.
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
profiles they studied and compared those profiles with
others in nearby counties and in more distant places.
They classified and named the soils according to
nationwide uniform procedures. They drew the
boundaries of the soils on aerial photographs. These
photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and
other details that help in drawing boundaries accurately.
The soil maps at the back of this publication were
prepared from aerial photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called map units.
Most map units are made up of one kind of soil. Some
are made up of two or more kinds. The map units in this
survey area are described under "General soil map
units" and "Detailed soil map units."
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
soils are taken for laboratory measurements and for
engineering tests. All soils are field tested to determine
their characteristics. Interpretations of those
characteristics may be modified during the survey. Data
are assembled from other sources, such as test results,






7








general soil map units


The general soil map at the back of this publication 1. Tavares-Adamsville-Narcoossee
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map and somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor throughout have a dark-colored layer wthn a
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up depth of 25 inches
one unit can occur in other units but in a different This map unit is on uplands. One large area extends
pattern, southwest from Crews Lake to Florida Highway 52, then
The general soil map can be used to compare the turns south and parallels the coast to the Pinellas
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of County line. In width, this area varies from 1 mile to
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, about 8 miles. Another large area begins about 3 miles
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. north of Land O' Lakes and extends south along Florida
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for Highway 583 and U.S. Highway 41 to the Hillsborough
planning the management of a farm or field or for County line. Smaller areas are scattered in the
electing a site for a road or building or other structure. southwestern part of the county. The towns of New Port
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. Richey and Elfers and several large developments are in
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place this map unit.
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that The landscape is mainly one of broad, nearly level to
affThe soilsect management gently sloping ridges. Interspersed are small ponds,
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their swamps, and a few small sinks. Sand-bottom lakes
potential or suitability for major land uses. For the soils in ranging from about 5 to 160 acres are in some areas.
each map unit, table 3 shows the suitability and The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, longleaf
limitations for pasture use, the potential and limitations pine, live oak, laurel oak, willow oak, water oak,
for woodland use, and the degree and kind of limitation blackjack oak, turkey oak, and post oak. The understory
for urban uses. The ratings are based on the practices vegetation is greenbrier, sawpalmetto, pineland
commonly used in the survey area to overcome soil threeawn, creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
limitations. These ratings reflect the ease of overcoming panicum, purple lovegrass, and broomsedge bluestem.
the limitations. They also reflect the problems that will This unit makes up about 64,160 acres, or about 13.5
persist even if such practices are used. percent of the land area of the county. It is about 34
Pasture consists of improved grasses grown percent Tavares soils, about 28 percent Adamsville soils,
extensively in the survey area. Woodland refers to areas about 10 percent Narcoossee soils, and about 28
of native trees. Urban uses include residential, percent soils of minor extent.
commercial, and industrial developments. Recreation Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
areas are campsites, picnic areas, ballfields, and other the surface layer is very dark gray sand. Below this, to a
areas that are subject to heavy foot traffic. depth of 86 inches or more, are layers of yellowish
soil descriptions brown, light yellowish brown, very pale brown, and white
soil desnptions sand.
soils of the upland ridges Adamsville soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray and grayish
The seven map units in this group consist of brown fine sand. The surface layer is underlain by layers
excessively drained to poorly drained, nearly level to of very pale brown, light gray, and white fine sand to a
sloping soils on the uplands. Some soils are sandy depth of 80 inches or more.
throughout, some are sandy to a depth of less than 20 Narcoossee soils are somewhat poorly drained.
inches over loamy or clayey materials, and some are Typically, the surface and subsurface layers are very
sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches over loamy material, dark gray and grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil
These soils are scattered throughout the county but are consists of layers of dark brown and brown fine sand.
less common in the southern and central parts. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, are layers






7








general soil map units


The general soil map at the back of this publication 1. Tavares-Adamsville-Narcoossee
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map and somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor throughout have a dark-colored layer wthn a
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up depth of 25 inches
one unit can occur in other units but in a different This map unit is on uplands. One large area extends
pattern, southwest from Crews Lake to Florida Highway 52, then
The general soil map can be used to compare the turns south and parallels the coast to the Pinellas
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of County line. In width, this area varies from 1 mile to
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, about 8 miles. Another large area begins about 3 miles
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. north of Land O' Lakes and extends south along Florida
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for Highway 583 and U.S. Highway 41 to the Hillsborough
planning the management of a farm or field or for County line. Smaller areas are scattered in the
electing a site for a road or building or other structure. southwestern part of the county. The towns of New Port
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. Richey and Elfers and several large developments are in
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place this map unit.
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that The landscape is mainly one of broad, nearly level to
affThe soilsect management gently sloping ridges. Interspersed are small ponds,
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their swamps, and a few small sinks. Sand-bottom lakes
potential or suitability for major land uses. For the soils in ranging from about 5 to 160 acres are in some areas.
each map unit, table 3 shows the suitability and The natural vegetation is mainly slash pine, longleaf
limitations for pasture use, the potential and limitations pine, live oak, laurel oak, willow oak, water oak,
for woodland use, and the degree and kind of limitation blackjack oak, turkey oak, and post oak. The understory
for urban uses. The ratings are based on the practices vegetation is greenbrier, sawpalmetto, pineland
commonly used in the survey area to overcome soil threeawn, creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass,
limitations. These ratings reflect the ease of overcoming panicum, purple lovegrass, and broomsedge bluestem.
the limitations. They also reflect the problems that will This unit makes up about 64,160 acres, or about 13.5
persist even if such practices are used. percent of the land area of the county. It is about 34
Pasture consists of improved grasses grown percent Tavares soils, about 28 percent Adamsville soils,
extensively in the survey area. Woodland refers to areas about 10 percent Narcoossee soils, and about 28
of native trees. Urban uses include residential, percent soils of minor extent.
commercial, and industrial developments. Recreation Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
areas are campsites, picnic areas, ballfields, and other the surface layer is very dark gray sand. Below this, to a
areas that are subject to heavy foot traffic. depth of 86 inches or more, are layers of yellowish
soil descriptions brown, light yellowish brown, very pale brown, and white
soil desnptions sand.
soils of the upland ridges Adamsville soils are somewhat poorly drained.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray and grayish
The seven map units in this group consist of brown fine sand. The surface layer is underlain by layers
excessively drained to poorly drained, nearly level to of very pale brown, light gray, and white fine sand to a
sloping soils on the uplands. Some soils are sandy depth of 80 inches or more.
throughout, some are sandy to a depth of less than 20 Narcoossee soils are somewhat poorly drained.
inches over loamy or clayey materials, and some are Typically, the surface and subsurface layers are very
sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches over loamy material, dark gray and grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil
These soils are scattered throughout the county but are consists of layers of dark brown and brown fine sand.
less common in the southern and central parts. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, are layers







8 Soil survey



of light brownish gray, very pale brown, and light subsurface layer underlain by brownish yellow and very
yellowish brown fine sand. pale brown fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Minor in this unit are Candler, Zolfo, Millhopper, Sparr, Minor in this unit are Adamsville, Basinger, Myakka,
and Sellers soils. Pompano, and Sparr soils. These minor soils surround,
Most of the acreage of this map unit is in natural or are in, the scattered low, wet areas.
vegetation. Large urban developments have been Much of the acreage of this map unit remains in
constructed in some areas of this unit. Other areas have natural vegetation. Large areas have been cleared and
been cleared and planted to citrus trees and improved used for urban development. Some areas have been
pasture. planted to citrus trees or improved pasture.

2. Candler-Tavares-Paola 3. Lake-Candler

Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained and Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained soils that are
moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout; sandy throughout; some have thin lamellae of loamy fine
some have thin lamellae of loamy fine sand below a sand below a depth of 50 inches
depth of 50 inches This map unit is on uplands. It is in the eastern part of
This map unit is on uplands. It is found in two areas, the county and extends from slightly south of the
both extending south from Hernando County. The largest Hernando County line along U.S. Highway 301 and
area, between U.S. Highways 19 and 41, extends Florida Highway 35A to Florida Highway 530. The unit
southwest along U.S. Highway 19 and narrows until it varies in width from about 1 mile to 5 miles. Dade City,
terminates about a mile south of Jasmine. The other the county seat, is in this map unit.
area is around the towns of Trilby and Lacoochee and The landscape is mainly one of broad, nearly level to
extends about 3 miles on either side of U.S. Highway gently sloping ridges and a few narrow, sloping hillsides.
301. It rapidly narrows as it extends southward and Small sinks and depressions are scattered throughout
terminates in the area of Buttonwood Lake. Bayonet most of the unit. Small lakes and ponds are common.
Point is in this map unit. The natural vegetation is of turkey oak, blackjack oak,
The landscape is mainly one of broad, nearly level to bluejack oak, post oak, live oak, scattered longleaf pine
sloping ridges interspersed with small ponds, swamps, and slash pine, and an understory of scattered
and a few sinks. A few moderately large sand-bottom sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, bluestem, paspalum,
lakes are in the unit. The natural vegetation on Candler creeping lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem,
and Tavares soils is a mixture of turkey oak, bluejack panicum, purple lovegrass, and broomsedge bluestem.
oak, and post oak, scattered longleaf pine and slash Water-tolerant trees and grasses are in the water areas.
pine, and a sparse understory of native grasses and This unit makes up about 35,600 acres, or about 7.5
annual forbs. On the Paola soils the natural vegetation is percent of the land area of the county. It is about 55
sand pine, scrub live oak, and scattered turkey oak and percent Lake soils, 28 percent Candler soils, and about
bluejack oak. In the swamps, the vegetation is bay, gum, 16 percent soils of minor extent.
and cypress trees and water-tolerant grasses and Lake soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
sedges. surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand. Below this,
This unit makes up about 39,840 acres, or about 8.4 yellowish brown and brownish yellow fine sand extends
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 53 to a depth of 80 inches or more.
percent Candler soils, 24 percent Tavares soils, 5 Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
percent Paola soils, and 18 percent soils of minor extent. surface layer is grayish brown'fine sand. Below this are
Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, the layers of brown, brownish yellow, and yellow fine sand to
surface layer is grayish brown fine sand. Below this are a depth of 80 inches or more. Thin lamellae of loamy
layers of brown, brownish yellow, and yellow fine sand to fine sand are below a depth of about 50 inches.
a depth of 80 inches or more. Thin lamellae of loamy Minor in this unit are Adamsville, Basinger, Arredondo,
fine sand are below a depth of about 50 inches. Gainesville, Kendrick, Millhopper, Orlando, Placid, Sparr,
Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typically, and Zephyr soils. The Basinger, Placid, Sparr, and
the surface layer is very dark gray sand. Below this, to a Zephyr soils are in or surround the wetter areas.
depth of 86 inches or more, are layers of yellowish Most of the acreage has been cleared. Some areas
brown, light yellowish brown, very pale brown, and white have been planted to citrus trees and crops such as
sand. soybeans. Other areas have been planted to improved
Paola soils are excessively drained. Typically, the pasture. Some urbanization has taken place along U.S.
surface layer is gray fine sand. Next is a white fine sand Highway 301.






Pasco County, Florida 9



4. Tavares-Sparr-Adamsville 5. Arredondo-Sparr-Kendrick
Nearly level to sloping, moderately well drained and Nearly level to sloping, well drained and somewhat
somewhat poorly drained soils; some are sandy poorly drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 20 to
throughout, and others are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 more than 40 inches and loamy below
inches and loamy below This map unit is on uplands. It is found in two areas in
This map unit is on uplands. There are several the eastern part of the county. The largest area extends
scattered areas, dominantly in the eastern half of the southeast from the Hernando County line about 3 miles
county. Individual areas are irregular in shape. The west of U.S. Highway 301. It terminates at Zephyrhills. It
largest, in the vicinity of Zephyrhills, is about 5 miles varies from about 1 mile to 5 miles in width. A smaller
across at its widest part and 10 miles long. It extends area is south of St. Leo. Parts of the St. Leo community
southwest from near Richland to Florida Highway 579. are in this map unit.
Another area, which ranges up to about 4 miles in width, The landscape is one of nearly level to gently sloping
extends west from Florida Highway 581 to the Crews ridges with a few narrow, sloping hillsides. Small sinks
Lakten arwea San Atonida iinohe ao theiand wet depressions are scattered throughout most of
Lake area. San Antonio is in another area of this map the area. The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf
unit, and Wesley Chapel is in the vicinity of another pine, live oak, laurel oak, water oak, magnolia, hickory,
area. dogwood, and an understory of native grasses and
The landscape is mainly one of broad, nearly level to annual forbs.
gently sloping ridges and sloping hillsides. There are a This unit makes up about 34,080 acres, or about 7.2
few scattered sinkholes and wet areas. Lakes and ponds percent of the land area of the county. It is about 40
are common in some places. The natural vegetation is percent Arredondo soils, 20 percent Sparr soils, 15
scattered longleaf pine, slash pine, turkey oak, blackjack percent Kendrick soils, and 25 percent soils of minor
oak, post oak, hickory,-and sweetgum, with an extent.
understory of pineland threeawn, creeping bluestem, Arredondo soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
lopsided indiangrass, panicum, broomsedge, and layer is dark gray and dark grayish brown fine sand. The
scattered sawpalmetto. subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 58 inches
This unit makes up about 34,200 acres, or about 7.2 and consists of yellowish brown, light brownish yellow,
percent of the land area of Pasco County. It is about 30 and light yellowish brown fine sand. Below this, to a
percent Tavares soils, 23 percent Sparr soils, 20 percent depth of 87 inches or more, is the subsoil. The upper
Adamsville soils, and 27 percent soils of minor part of the subsoil is brownish yellow fine sand, and the
extent. lower part consists of layers of yellowish brown and light
Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typically, yellowish brown sandy clay loam mottled with other
the surface layer is very dark gray sand. Below this, to a colors.
depth of 86 inches or more, are layers of yellowish Sparr soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the
brown, light yellowish brown, very pale brown, and white surface layer is dark gray fine sand. Below this are
sand. subsurface layers of grayish brown, pale brown, and light
sand. yellowish brown fine sand that extend to a depth of
Sparr soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the about 43 inches. These layers are over light yellowish
surface layer is dark gray fine sand. Below this, to a brown sandy clay loam.
depth of about 43 inches, is a subsurface layer of Kendrick soils are well drained. The surface layer is
grayish brown, pale brown, and light yellowish brown fine dark grayish brown fine sand. Below this are subsurface
sand. This layer is over a light yellowish brown sandy layers of yellowish brown and mixed yellowish brown and
clay loam subsoil. light yellowish brown fine sand. The subsoil begins at a
Adamsville soils are somewhat poorly drained, depth of about 28 inches. It consists of layers of sandy
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand. clay loam that are yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and
Below this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, are layers a mixture of pale brown, reddish yellow, and pink.
of grayish brown, pale brown, light gray, and white fine Minor in this unit are Adamsville, Basinger, Blichton,
sand. Candler, Flemington Variant, Gainesville, Kanapaha,
Minor in this unit are Arreondo, Blichton, Candler, Lochloosa, Micanopy, Millhopper, Myakka, Narcoossee,
Minor in this unit are Arredondo, Blichton, Candler, Newnan, Tavares, Vero, and Wauchula soils. These
Candler Variant, Electra Variant, Kanapaha, Kendrick, minor soils generally occur as small delineations which
Millhopper, and Zolfo soils. The most common minor soil are highly intermixed. Most of this unit has been cleared
is Millhopper. and is planted to citrus trees and improved pasture.
Most areas of this unit have been cleared and used for Some areas are used for cultivated crops (fig. 2). The
urban development, for cropland, and for improved remaining uncleared areas provide cover and a fairly
pasture, adequate supply of food for native wildlife.






10 Soil survey



































Figure 2.-These soybeans and citrus trees are growing in an area of the Arredondo-Sparr-Kendrick map unit.




6. Millhopper-Candler Variant This unit makes up about 7,780 acres, or about 1.6
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 70
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained percent Millhopper soils, 20 percent Candler Variant
and well drained soils; some are sandy throughout with soils, and 10 percent soils of minor extent.
lamellae of loamy fine sand below a depth of 50 inches, Millhopper soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
and others are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 inches and the surface layer is dark gray and grayish brown fine
loamy below sand. Below this, and extending to a depth of about 59
This map unit is on uplands in the north-central part of inches, are layers of very pale brown and light yellowish
the county. It is about 6 miles wide at the Hernando brown fine sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80
County line and extends southward about 2 miles into inches or more. The upper part of the subsoil is yellowish
that county. brown fine sandy loam, and the lower part is gray
The landscape is dominantly one of nearly level ridges sandy clay loam.
and gently sloping hillsides. A few grassy ponds and Candler Variant soils are well drained. Typically, the
small sinkholes are in the unit. The native vegetation is surface layer is gray and dark grayish brown fine sand.
scattered live oak, laurel oak, water oak, turkey oak, Below this, and extending to a depth of about 72 inches,
longleaf pine, and slash pine and an understory of is yellowish brown and very pale brown fine sand. Below
lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, chalky this, and extending to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
bluestem, creeping bluestem, paspalum, and other white fine sand that contains thin lamellae of brown
grasses and forbs. loamy fine sand.






Pasco County, Florida 11



Minor in this unit are Arredondo, Candler, Kendrick, brown, light brownish gray, and light gray clay. The next
Nobleton, Sparr, and Tavares soils. layer is white and light gray clay that extends to a depth
About half the acreage has been cleared. Much of this of 80 inches or more.
area is undergoing urban development. The rest is Minor in the acreage are Adamsville, Arredondo,
mainly planted to grasses for improved pasture and for Basinger, Kendrick, Kanapaha, Lochloosa, Micanopy,
hay production. Several large egg farms are on this unit. Paisley, Sparr, and Wauchula soils. Areas of the minor
soils commonly are small and are highly intermixed with
7. Nobleton-Blichton-Flemington Variant the areas of major soils of the unit.
Most of the acreage has been cleared and planted to
Nearly level to sloping, somewhat poorly drained and improved pasture grasses. Some areas are used for
poorly drained soils that are sandy to a depth of less cultivated crops and citrus trees. Some residential
than 40 inches and loamy or clayey below development has taken place. The remaining wooded
Areas of this map unit are on the uplands in the north- areas provide excellent food and cover for wildlife.
central part of the county. The largest area extends soils of the flatwoods and depressions
south from the Hernando County line along Florida The three map units in this group consist of poorly
Highway 581. It is about 7 miles wide and terminates drained and very poorly drained, nearly level soils in
about 1.5 miles north of Florida Highway 52. Several flatwoods and depressions. Some are sandy throughout,
smaller areas are around St. Leo and Pasco. Darby and some have a sandy layer 20 to 40 inches thick over
St. Joseph are in areas of this map unit. loamy material, and others have a sandy layer 40 to 80
The landscape is mainly one of nearly level to sloping inches thick over loamy material. These soils occupy
uplands. Sinkholes are in many places. The slopes vary most of the south-central and central parts of the county,
from short, sharp-breaking, wet areas to long, seepy from Pinellas and Hillsborough Counties to slightly north
hillsides. They are wet because of hillside seepage. of Florida Highway 52. Other smaller areas are east of
During wet seasons, many of the nearly level soils at the the Withlacoochee River.
base of the slopes are subject to ponding because of
the high rate of runoff on the slopes and the lack of 8. Smyrna-Sellers-Myakka
drainage outlets. The natural vegetation on this unit is
slash pine, longleaf pine, scattered laurel, live oak, water Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
oak, sweetgum, hickory, dogwood, ironwood, and that are sandy throughout; some have a dark-colored
scattered redcedar. The understory is chiefly waxmyrtle, subsoil within a depth of30 inches, and some have a
inkberry, American beautyberry, deertongue, scattered thick dark-colored surface layer
sawpalmetto, and various native grasses. This map unit is in low flatwoods. Several very
This unit makes up about 14,330 acres, or about 3 irregularly shaped areas of this unit are in the county.
percent of the land area in the county. It is about 32 The largest covers much of the west-central and
percent Nobleton soils, 26 percent Blichton soils, 13 southwestern parts of the county. It extends from slightly
percent Flemington Variant soils, and 29 percent soils of west of Big Cypress Swamp on the east to the
minor extent. Pithlachascotee River, or a point slightly beyond, on the
Nobleton soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, west. It extends north from the boundaries of Pinellas
the surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand. and Hillsborough Counties and terminates about 4 miles
Next is the subsurface layer of yellowish brown and pale north of Florida Highway 52. Another area, about 1 to 2
brown fine sand. The sandy clay loam subsoil begins at miles wide, parallels the Withlacoochee River for about
a depth of about 29 inches and extends to a depth of 80 10 miles in the eastern part of the county. Smaller areas
inches or more. The upper layer of the subsoil is pale are around Buddy Lake, southeast of St. Leo, and
ein sequence, around Lake Conley, adjacent to U.S. Highway 19A.
brown; and the layers below that are, iGowers Corner and Seven Springs are in this unit.
mottled yellow, red, brown, gray, and light gray. The landscape is one of nearly level flatwoods
Blichton soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface interspersed with swampy depressional areas (fig. 3).
layer is very dark gray fine sand and the subsurface Poorly developed drainageways connect many of the
layers are grayish brown and gray fine sand. The subsoil swampy areas. Rivers, creeks, and connected tributaries
of gray fine sandy loam and sandy clay loam begins at a flow across soils of this unit. Small, scattered areas of
depth of about 22 inches and extends to a depth of low ridges and knolls are common in some parts of the
about 62 inches. Below the subsoil, and extending to a unit. In others, there are many ponds and lakes ranging
depth of 80 inches or more, is a mixture of light gray, in size from about 1 to 300 acres.
strong brown, and yellowish brown fine sandy loam. The natural vegetation in the flatwoods is scattered
Flemington Variant soils are poorly drained. Typically, longleaf pine and slash pine with an understory of
the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand. Below this, sawpalmetto, running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle,
to a depth of about 46 inches, is the subsoil. It is grayish huckleberry, pineland threeawn, and scattered







12 Soil survey






































Figure 3.-Newly constructed roadways in an area of the Smyrna-Sellers-Myakka map unit. Heavy rainfall has caused ponding where
the roadways pass through natural drainageways and depressions.

fetterbush. The natural vegetation on the swampy depressional areas. Typically, they have a thin layer of
depressional parts is baldcypress, pond pine, bay, muck on the surface. Below this, to a depth of about 24
sweetgum, pickerelweed, and various water-tolerant inches, are black mucky loamy fine sand and black and
grasses. very dark gray fine sand. Below this, and extending to a
This unit makes up about 89,560 acres, or 18.9 depth of 80 inches or more, are layers of dark brown,
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 30 dark yellowish brown, and pale brown fine sand.
percent Smyrna soils, 21 percent Sellers soils, 16 Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
percent Myakka soils, and about 33 percent soils of and subsurface layers are black, dark gray, gray, and
minor extent. light gray fine sand. The subsoil is between depths of 27
Smyrna soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface and 48 inches. It consists of layers of very dark gray,
layer is black and very dark gray fine sand. Next is a dark reddish brown, and dark brown fine sand. Below the
subsurface layer of gray fine sand. The subsoil extends subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is brown fine
from a depth of about 10 inches to 35 inches and has sand.
layers of dark grayish brown, dark brown, dark reddish Minor in this unit are Adamsville, Basinger,
brown, and brown fine sand. Beneath the subsoil, to a Narcoossee, Newnan, Ona, Palmetto, Pomona, and
depth of 80 inches or more, is light brownish gray fine Zephyr soils.
sand. About half the acreage of this map unit remains in
Sellers soils are very poorly drained and are in natural vegetation. Improved pasture has been planted in







Pasco County, Florida 13



some areas. Some residential development has taken depressional and swampy areas. Typically, a thin layer of
place. The wooded areas provide food and cover for a muck is on the surface. Below this, to a depth of about
wide variety of wildlife, especially birds and small 24 inches, are black mucky loamy fine sand and black
mammals. and very dark gray fine sand. Below this, and extending
to a depth of 80 inches or more, are layers of dark
9. Pomona-EauGallie-Sellers brown, dark yellowish brown, and pale brown fine sand.
Minor in this unit are Adamsville, Basinger, Myakka,
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained Narcoossee, Ona, Palmetto, Samsula, Smyrna, Sparr,
soils; some have a subsoil that is dark colored and Tomoka, Vero, Wauchula, and Zephyr soils. Narcoossee
sandy within a depth of 30 inches and loamy below; soils are commonly on low ridges and knolls scattered
some are sandy throughout and have a thick dark- across the landscape. The Samsula and Tomoka soils
colored surface layer are in the lowest depressional areas, which retain
This map unit is in low flatwoods, mainly in the eastern surface water longest.
half of the county. Interstate Highway 75 goes through Most of the acreage of this map unit is still in natural
the largest area. This area ranges from about 3 to 10 vegetation. In some areas, water control systems have
miles wide and extends from about Florida Highway 52 been installed and citrus trees, cultivated crops, and
south to the Hillsborough County line. Another area improved pasture grasses have been planted (fig. 4).
surrounds parts of the Anclote River in the western part Some residential development has taken place in a few
of the county. Several other scattered areas are adjacent areas. Wooded areas serve as excellent sources of food
to the Sumter, Polk, and Hillsborough county lines, and cover for wildlife.
Crystal Springs is in this unit.
The landscape is one of nearly level flatwoods 10. Basinger-Wauchula
interspersed with small, grassy, wet depressions and Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained soils; some
cypress ponds and swamps. Some of the depressions are sandy throughout; some have a subsoil that is dark
are connected by narrow drainageways. Surface streams colored and sandy within a depth of 30 inches and
and rivers are in most areas of the unit. The natural
vegetation of the flatwoods is scattered longleaf pine loamy below
and slash pine with an understory of sawpalmetto, This map unit is in flatwoods. Individual areas are
waxmyrtle, inkberry, running oak, and various native mainly in the northeastern corner of the county, but one
grasses and forbs. The vegetation on the depressions area is in the central part. The largest area is in the
and swamps ranges from dense stands of maidencane northeastern part of the county and contains most of the
and St.-Johnswort to mixed stands of cypress, bay, and Withlacoochee State Forest. Two smaller areas are
gum trees. south of the large area, and another area is in the
This unit makes up about 87,380 acres, or about 18.4 central part of the county around Big Fish Lake.
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 35 The landscape is one of nearly level flatwoods
percent Pomona soils, 14 percent EauGallie soils, 13 interspersed with cypress swamps and shallow ponds.
percent Sellers soils, and about 38 percent soils of minor Lakes and sinkholes are in some areas. The natural
extent. vegetation of the flatwoods is an open forest of longleaf
Pomona soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface pine and slash pine with an understory of sawpalmetto,
layer is black fine sand and the subsurface layer is gray gallberry, waxmyrtle, creeping bluestem, indiangrass,
and light gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil pineland threeawn, and various other grasses and forbs.
starts at a depth of about 22 inches and is grayish brown In the swamps, the vegetation is bay, cypress, cabbage
and brown fine sand. Below this, to a depth of 52 inches, palm, and water oak. Maidencane, St.-Johnswort,
the subsoil consists of layers of pale brown and dark waterlilies, pickerelweed, and other water-tolerant plants
brown fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil, to a pns
depth of 60 inches, is loam. Below this, gray loamy fine are in the shallow ponds.
sand extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. This unit makes up about 15,330 acres, or about 3.2
EauGallie soils are poorly drained. Typically, the percent of the land area in the county. It is about 55
surface layer is black fine sand and the subsurface layer percent Basinger soils, 35 percent Wauchula soils, and
is gray, light gray, and white fine sand. The upper part of 10 percent soils of minor extent.
the subsoil begins at a depth of 22 inches and is very Basinger soils are poorly drained. They are in the
dark grayish brown, dark brown, and dark reddish brown flatwoods and in depressions. Typically, they have
fine sand. Below this is light brownish gray and grayish surface and subsurface layers of dark gray and light gray
brown fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil is light fine sand. Below the subsurface layer is dark brown and
gray and greenish gray sandy clay loam and extends pale brown fine sand; and below this, to a depth of 80
from a depth of about 54 inches to 80 inches or more. inches or more, are layers of pale brown, light gray, and
Sellers soils are very poorly drained and are in the white fine sand.







14 Soil survey







































Figure 4.-An area of the Pomona-EauGallie-Sellers map unit. Hay is growing on the poorly drained Pomona and EauGallie soils.
Citrus trees are growing on Sparr soils, minor soils in this unit. Note the poorly defined drainageways on the uncultivated
parts.

Wauchula soils are poorly drained. Typically, the planted to improved pasture after installation of water
surface layer is black and dark grayish brown fine sand. control systems. A few areas of the Basinger soils are in
The subsurface layers are gray and light brownish gray pine plantations. Only a small acreage of this unit has
fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil is very dark gray been developed for residential use.
and dark reddish brown fine sand. Next are layers of soils of the swamps, tidal marshes, and river flood
dark brown and pale brown fine sand. The lower part of soplains of the swamps, tidal marshes and river flood
the subsoil consists of light gray and light olive gray plains
sandy clay loam and extends to a depth of 80 inches or The four map units in this group consist of narrow to
more. broad expanses of moderately well drained to very
Minor in this unit are Adamsville, Delray, EauGallie, poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping mineral and
Myakka, Paisley, Pompano, Samsula, Sellers, Smyrna, organic soils. These soils are on flood plains and in
Tavares, Tomoka, and Vero soils. Areas of these minor swamps and tidal marshes.
soils are small and are intermixed with areas of the These soils are along the Gulf Coast, along the
major soils. Anclote, Hillsborough, Pithlachascotee, and
Most of the acreage of this unit remains in natural Withlacoochee Rivers, in Cypress and Wildcat swamps,
vegetation and provides food and cover for a great and along Devils Creek. Other smaller areas occur along
variety of wildlife. A few areas have been cleared and small streams and around lakes.







Pasco County, Florida 15


11. Chobee except for the Aripeka soils and some of the minor soils,
is covered by water, except during extended dry periods
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that have a dark- or unless areas have been drained. The natural
colored loamy surface layer less than 20 inches thick vegetation is a forest of sweetbay, sweetgum, cypress,
over calcareous loamy materials various pines, cabbage palm, water oak, hickory,
This map unit is on river and stream flood plains and magnolia, cattail, sawgrass, royal fern, cinnamon fern,
in swamps. Individual areas are scattered dominantly in sawpalmetto, muscadine vine, inkberry, and various
the southern and eastern parts of the county. Other aquatic plants.
areas are along Devils Creek and the Hillsborough and This unit makes up about 6,520 acres, or about 1.4
Withlacoochee Rivers in the eastern part of the county. percent of the land area of the county. It is about 37
This map unit also occurs along portions of the Anclote percent Aripeka soils, 19 percent Okeelanta soils, 9
and Pithlachascotee Rivers in the western part and in percent Terra Ceia soils, and about 35 percent soils of
small areas along the southern county line. Cypress minor extent.
Swamp is in this unit. Aripeka soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
The landscape is one of flood plains and swamps that the surface and subsurface layers are dark grayish
are subject to flooding. The vegetation is a dense growth brown and grayish brown fine sand. Below the
of water oak, cypress, elm, ash, hickory, red maple, and subsurface layer are layers of yellowish brown fine sand,
sweetgum. The understory vegetation is a mixture of strong brown fine sandy loam, and sandy clay loam.
water-tolerant plants such as maidencane, sawgrass, Hard white and yellow limestone is at a depth of about
swamp primrose, buttonbush, smartweed, sedge, and 26 inches.
other similar plants. Okeelanta soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
This unit makes up about 34,600 acres, or about 7.3 upper 27 inches is black and dark reddish brown muck.
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 64 Below the muck are layers of black and white fine sand.
percent Chobee soils and 36 percent soils of minor Terra Ceia soils are very poorly drained. Typically, they
extent. are layers of black and reddish brown muck to a depth
Chobee soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the of 52 inches or more.
surface layer is black and very dark gray fine sandy Minor in the unit are Adamsville, Immokalee, Myakka,
loam. Below this, to a depth of about 56 inches, are and Vero soils.
layers of calcareous gray and greenish gray sandy clay Much of the acreage of this map unit has been
loam. Below these layers, to a depth of 80 inches or cleared of natural vegetation and developed for urban
more, is a mixture of calcareous loamy materials. use or mined as a source of limestone.
The minor soils in this unit are Adamsville, EauGallie,
Felda, Nobleton, Okeelanta, Pineda, Pomona, Sellers, 13. Anclote-Tavares-Pomello
Tavares, Terra Ceia, and Vero soils.
Only a few small areas of this unit have been cleared Nearly level to gently sloping, very poorly drained and
of natural vegetation. A small area near Crystal Springs moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout;
has been developed for residential use. This unit some have a thick dark-colored surface layer, and some
provides excellent cover and abundant food for a wide have a dark-colored subsoil within a depth of 50 inches
This map unit is on flood plains of rivers and streams
12. Aripeka-Okeelanta-Terra Cela and in swamps. Some of the unit is flooded annually,
and most is flooded periodically in years of very high
Nearly level, somewhat poorly drained and very poorly rainfall. This unit is in the eastern part of the county. The
drained soils; some have sandy and loamy material 20 to largest area is about a mile wide and extends along the
30 inches thick over limestone, some have organic Withlacoochee River, between the Withlacoochee State
material 16 to 40 inches thick over sandy material, and Forest on the north and Ranch Road on the south. A
others have organic material more than 52 inches thick smaller area is east of this large area, in Wildcat Swamp.
This map unit is made up of nearly level, freshwater The landscape consists of a flood plain and low
hardwood and cypress swamps. It occurs as two areas ridges. The vegetation on the lowest parts that are
in the western part of the county. The largest area flooded annually is cypress, sweetgum, swamp maple,
parallels the coast and lies west of U.S. Highway 19. It is bay, and an understory of scattered myrtle, Sagittaria
about 1 mile wide and extends from Hernando County species, spatterdock, rush, sedge, maidencane, and
southward to near Elfers. The other small area is annual weeds. The low ridges have vegetation of
adjacent to Pinellas County, and U.S. Highway 19 scattered longleaf pine, slash pine, turkey oak, live oak,
crosses it. The city of Port Richey is located in this unit. and an understory of sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn,
The landscape is one of hardwood and cypress swamps and various annual and perennial grasses and forbs.
and slightly higher lying flatwoods. Most of the acreage, This unit makes up about 5,920 acres, or about 1.2







16



percent of the land area of the county. It is about 60 Homosassa soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
percent Anclote soils, 11 percent Tavares soils, 10 surface layer is very dark gray mucky fine sandy loam. It
percent Pomello soils, and 19 percent soils of minor is underlain by grayish brown loamy fine sand. Soft and
extent. hard limestone are at a depth of about 28 inches.
Anclote soils are very poorly drained. They are along Lacoochee soils are poorly drained. Typically, they
the riverbed and in narrow flood channels and side have a surface layer of light gray fine sandy loam. This is
streams. They are frequently flooded. Typically, the over a layer of sand, which in turn overlies hard
surface layer is black fine sand. Below the surface layer, limestone at a depth ranging from about 7 to 20 inches.
to a depth of 80 inches or more, are layers of dark Weekiwachee soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
grayish brown fine sand, which has common black a thick black muck surface is underlain by hard and soft
mottles, and gray fine sand. limestone at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Tavares soils are moderately well drained. They are on Aripeka and Vero soils are the dominant minor soils.
the low ridges. In places, these soils are occasionally Much of the acreage of this map unit is still in natural
flooded. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish vegetation. Some areas near Hudson, Bayonet Point,
brown fine sand. Below this are layers of pale brown and and Port Richey have been developed for urban use,
white fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. and some areas have been mined for limestone. The
Pomello soils are moderately well drained. They are on unit serves as a feeding ground for various waterfowl.
the low ridges. In places, these soils are occasionally
flooded. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand
and the subsurface layer is white fine sand. The subsoil
is dark reddish brown and yellowish brown fine sand.
Below the subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
light brownish gray fine sand.
Minor in the unit are Adamsville, Basinger, Delray,
Electra Variant, Myakka, Pompano, Pomona, Sellers,
Tomoka, and Vero soils. The Basinger, Delray,
Pompano, Sellers, and Tomoka soils are in close
association with the Anclote soils. The other minor soils
are on the low ridges.
This unit remains in natural vegetation. The larger
trees, especially cypress, are being harvested for lumber.
Most of the acreage is used for native pasture. Wildlife is
varied and abundant, as this unit provides much food
and good cover.

14. Homosassa-Lacoochee-Weekiwachee
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic and mineral
soils and nearly level, poorly drained sandy soils that are
underlain by soft and hard limestone; subject to frequent
tidal flooding
This map unit is in saltwater marshes. Areas are in the
western part of the county and extend the length of the
county along the Gulf of Mexico. Most areas of this unit
are less than a mile wide.
The landscape is one of tidal marsh. The natural
vegetation is mostly salt-tolerant grasses and shrubs
such as needlegrass rush, seashore saltgrass, marshhay
cordgrass, big cordgrass, smooth cordgrass, and red
mangrove. A few scattered cabbage palms and cedar
are found in scattered, more elevated areas.
This unit makes up about 5,700 acres, or about 1.2
percent of the land area of the county. It is about 76
percent Homosassa soils, 10 percent Lacoochee soils, 4
percent Weekiwachee soils, and 10 percent soils of
minor extent.







17








detailed soil map units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of and relative proportion of the soils are somewhat similar.
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The The Okeelanta-Terra Ceia association is an example.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
used to plan the management needed for those uses. for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
under "Use and management of the soils." be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an made up of all of them. Chobee soils, frequently flooded,
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils is an undifferentiated group in this survey area.
for which the unit is named. Not all of the map units in this county have been
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit mapped with the same degree of detail. Broadly defined
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes units, indicated by a superscript on the soil map legend,
general facts about the soil and gives the principal are apt to be larger and to vary more in composition
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for than the rest of the map units in the survey. Composition
specific uses. of these broadly defined units has been controlled well
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up enough, however, to be interpreted for the expected use
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the of the soils.
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
a osti th r ins tatrargesimiint of these included soils have properties that differ
composition, thickness, and arrangement, substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface differences could significantly affect use and
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in management of the soils in the map unit. The included
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil a special symbol on the soil maps.
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil have little or no soil material and support little or no
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
management. For example, Basinger fine sand, shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
depressional, is one of several phases in the Basinger shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
series. maps.
Some map units are made up of two or more major Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of tables")
associations, or undifferentiated groups. give properties of the soils and the limitations,
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar soil descriptions
in all areas. The Palmetto-Zephyr-Sellers complex is an
example. 1-Wauchula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
A soil association is made up of two or more nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained soil is in
geographically associated soils that are shown as one broad, low areas in the flatwoods and on wet seepage
unit on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil hillsides in the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave.
uses in the survey area, it was not considered practical Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 8 inches
or necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern thick. It is black in the upper 5 inches and dark grayish







17








detailed soil map units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of and relative proportion of the soils are somewhat similar.
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The The Okeelanta-Terra Ceia association is an example.
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
used to plan the management needed for those uses. for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
under "Use and management of the soils." be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an made up of all of them. Chobee soils, frequently flooded,
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils is an undifferentiated group in this survey area.
for which the unit is named. Not all of the map units in this county have been
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit mapped with the same degree of detail. Broadly defined
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes units, indicated by a superscript on the soil map legend,
general facts about the soil and gives the principal are apt to be larger and to vary more in composition
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for than the rest of the map units in the survey. Composition
specific uses. of these broadly defined units has been controlled well
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up enough, however, to be interpreted for the expected use
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the of the soils.
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
a osti th r ins tatrargesimiint of these included soils have properties that differ
composition, thickness, and arrangement, substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface differences could significantly affect use and
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in management of the soils in the map unit. The included
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil a special symbol on the soil maps.
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil have little or no soil material and support little or no
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
management. For example, Basinger fine sand, shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
depressional, is one of several phases in the Basinger shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
series. maps.
Some map units are made up of two or more major Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of tables")
associations, or undifferentiated groups. give properties of the soils and the limitations,
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar soil descriptions
in all areas. The Palmetto-Zephyr-Sellers complex is an
example. 1-Wauchula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
A soil association is made up of two or more nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained soil is in
geographically associated soils that are shown as one broad, low areas in the flatwoods and on wet seepage
unit on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil hillsides in the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave.
uses in the survey area, it was not considered practical Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 8 inches
or necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern thick. It is black in the upper 5 inches and dark grayish







18 Soil survey



brown in the lower 3 inches. The subsurface layer is fine and grazing should be controlled to prevent weakening
sand about 11 inches thick. It is gray in the upper 4 of the plants.
inches and light brownish gray in the lower 7 inches. The This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree
upper part of the subsoil consists of very dark gray fine production. The main management concerns are
sand and, below that, dark reddish brown and dark equipment limitations during periods of heavy rainfall,
brown fine sand. A layer of pale brown fine sand 3 seedling mortality, and plant competition. For best
inches thick separates the lower and upper parts of the results, a simple water control system to remove excess
subsoil. The lower part of the subsoil is light gray and surface water should be installed. Slash pine is the best
light olive gray sandy clay loam. species to plant.
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in the South
which have slopes of 5 to 7 percent. These soils Florida Flatwoods range site.
commonly are around the edge of mapped areas of this
Wauchula soil. Also included are small areas of Myakka, 2-Pomona fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
Pomona, and Wabasso soils. The included soils make up drained soil is in large areas on low ridges in the
about 10 percent of the map unit. flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to concave and range
In most years, under natural conditions, the water from 0 to 2 percent.
table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for about 1 to Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
4 months. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for as long inches thick. The subsurface layer consists of gray fine
as 6 months, except during very dry periods, when it sand 4 inches thick and, below that, light gray fine sand
drops below a depth of 40 inches. The available water 9 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is fine sand.
capacity is low in the surface layer and the layer It is grayish brown in the first 4 inches, brown in the next
separating the upper and lower parts of the subsoil, very 6 inches, and dark brown in the last 4 inches. A layer of
low in the subsurface layer, and medium to high in the pale brown fine sand 16 inches thick is between the
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, the upper and lower parts of the subsoil. The lower part of
subsurface layer, and the layer separating the upper and the subsoil is light olive gray fine sandy loam 8 inches
lower parts of the subsoil, and it is moderate to thick. Below this, to a depth of about 80 inches or more,
moderately rapid in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. is gray loamy fine sand.
The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, slash pine, and Included in mapping are small areas of Myakka,
an understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, Smyrna, and Wauchula soils. The included soils make up
creeping bluestem, indiangrass, little bluestem, Florida about 10 percent of the map unit.
paspalum, pineland threeawn, panicum, deertongue, In most years, under natural conditions, the water
grassleaf goldaster, huckleberry, and running oak. table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3 months
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops and is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or
because of wetness and poor soil quality. The number of more. The available water capacity is moderate in the
crops that can be grown on this soil is limited unless subsoil and low in the other layers. Natural fertility is low.
very intensive management and water control practices Permeability is moderate in the sandy part of the subsoil,
are followed. If wetness is controlled, this soil can be moderately slow in the loamy part of the subsoil, and
made well suited to a number of vegetable crops. A rapid in the other layers.
water control system is needed to remove excess water A large part of the acreage of this soil is in natural
in the wetter seasons and to provide water for vegetation of open forest consisting of longleaf pine,
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Crop residue and slash pine, and an understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry,
soil-improving crops should be plowed under. Seedbed waxmyrtle, creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
preparation should include bedding of the rows to help indiangrass, and pineland threeawn.
lower the effective depth to the water table. This soil is very severely limited for cultivated crops
This soil is moderately suited to growing citrus trees because of wetness and poor soil quality. Only a limited
after a carefully designed water control system that number of crops can be grown on this soil unless very
maintains the water table below a depth of 4 feet has intensive management practices are followed. This soil
been installed. Trees should be planted on beds to help can be made well suited to a number of vegetable crops.
lower the effective depth to the water table, and a A water control system is needed to remove excess
vegetative cover should be maintained between the water in the wetter seasons and to provide water for
trees. Trees should not be planted in areas that are subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Crop residue and
subject to freezing temperatures. soil-improving crops should be plowed under. Seedbed
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses. preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover This soil is suitable for growing citrus trees if a
grow well if well managed. Water control measures are carefully designed water control system is installed to
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy maintain the water table below a depth of 4 feet. Trees
rains. Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis, should be planted on beds to help lower the effective







Pasco County, Florida 19



depth to the water table, and a vegetative cover should thick. It is very dark gray in the upper 4 inches and
be maintained between the trees. Trees should not be grayish brown in the lower 3 inches. The subsurface
planted in areas that are subject to freezing layer is gray fine sand about 14 inches thick. The upper
temperatures in winter. part of the subsoil is yellowish brown fine sand to a
The soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses (fig. depth of 31 inches and strong brown fine sand to a
5). Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white depth of about 36 inches. Below this is a layer of dark
clover grow well if well managed. Water control grayish brown fine sand 3 inches thick that separates the
measures are needed to remove excess surface water upper and lower parts of the subsoil. The lower part of
after heavy rains. Fertilizer and lime should be applied the subsoil, which consists of grayish brown sandy clay
on a regular basis, and grazing should be controlled to loam, extends to a depth of 57 inches. Below this is a
prevent weakening of the plants. layer of greenish gray sandy clay loam 15 inches thick.
This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree Light gray sandy loam is below this layer.
production. The main management problems are Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant Felda and Vero soils. These soils make up less than 15
competition. For best results, a simple water control percent of the map unit. Also included with this unit are
system to remove excess surface water should be areas in the southeastern part of the county where the
installed. Slash pine is the best species to plant. Bir horizon or parts of it have become hardened to a
rocklike firmness.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the South The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to
Florida Flatwoods range site. 6 months in most years. In lower lying areas, water rises
above the surface for a brief period after exceptionally
3-Pineda fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly level heavy rainfall. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer,
soil is in the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in the subsurface layer, and the sandy part of the subsoil. It
shape. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. is slow to very slow in the loamy lower part of the
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 7 inches subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in all the





























Figure 5.-Cattle in a large improved bahiagrass pasture on poorly drained Pomona fine sand Areas of very poorly drained Sellers
mucky loamy fine sand have not been cleared and are in cypress trees.






20 Soil survey



sandy layers and medium in the loamy part of the Under natural conditions, the water table is within 10
subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter content inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months each year. The
are low. available water capacity is very low in the surface and
The natural vegetation on this soil is slash pine, subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil. Natural
cypress, waxmyrtle, cabbage palm, pineland threeawn, fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
and sand cordgrass. subsurface layers and is moderate to moderately rapid in
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops the subsoil.
because of wetness. If a complete water control system The natural vegetation is scattered longleaf pine, slash
is installed, this soil is well suited to many fruit and pine, and cabbage palms, and bluestem, maidencane,
vegetable crops. The water control system should pineland threeawn, and many other native grasses,
remove excess water rapidly and provide a means of vines, and shrubs.
applying subsurface irrigation. Good soil management This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops
includes crop rotations that keep the soil in close- because of wetness. If a complete water control system
growing cover crops at least two-thirds of the time. The is installed, the soil is well suited to many fruit and
cover crops and all crop residue should be plowed vegetable crops. Such a water control system should
under. Seedbed preparation should include bedding. remove excess water rapidly and provide subsurface
Fertilizer should be supplied according to the needs of irrigation. Good soil management includes crop rotations
the crop. that keep close-growing cover crops on the soil at least
If water is controlled, this soil has good suitability for two-thirds of the time and plowing under the cover crops
citrus trees. A water control system that maintains good and all crop residue. Seedbed preparation should include
drainage to a depth of about 4 feet is needed. Bedding bedding. Fertilizers should be applied according to the
helps to provide good surface drainage. A cover of needs of the crop.
close-growing vegetation is needed between young trees If proper water control is used, this soil is good for
to protect the soil from blowing. The trees require regular citrus trees. Water control systems that maintain good
applications of fertilizer and occasional liming, drainage to a depth of about 4 feet are needed. Bedding
This soil has good suitability for pasture and hay the tree rows helps to provide good surface drainage. A
crops. It is well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, cover of close-growing vegetation is needed between
and clovers. Under good management, excellent the trees to protect the soil from blowing when the trees
pastures of grass or a mixture of grass and clover can are young. Fertilizer should be applied on a regular
be grown. For highest yields, regular applications of basis, and the soil should be limed occasionally.
fertilizers and control of grazing are needed. This is a good soil for pasture and hay crops. It is well
This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and clovers.
production. The major management concerns are Excellent pastures of grass or a mixture of grass and
mobility of equipment, seedling mortality, and plant clover can be grown under good management. Fertilizer
competition. A simple water control system is needed to should be applied on a regular basis, and grazing should
remove excess surface water before planting trees. be controlled for highest yields.
Slash pine is the best species to plant. This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree
This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the Slough production. The major management concerns are
range site. mobility of equipment during periods of high rainfall and
plant competition. Seedling mortality is commonly high. A
4-Felda fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly level simple water control system should be installed to
soil is on low-lying, broad areas in the flatwoods. Slopes remove excess surface water. Slash pine is the best
range from 0 to 2 percent. species to plant.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 4 This soil is in capability subclass III1w and in the Slough
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 19 range site.
inches thick. It is light brownish gray in the upper 6
inches and light gray in the lower 13 inches. The subsoil 5-Myakka fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
extends to a depth of about 47 inches. It is gray sandy drained soil is on broad areas in the flatwoods. Slopes
clay loam in the upper 4 inches and gray fine sandy are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
loam with brownish yellow mottles in the next 8 inches. Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 6 inches
In the next 6 inches is gray loamy fine sand that has thick. It is black in the upper 3 inches and dark gray in
calcareous nodules and yellowish brown mottles. In the the lower 3 inches. The subsurface layer is fine sand
lower 6 inches of the subsoil is light gray loamy fine about 21 inches thick. It is gray in the upper 4 inches
sand. Below this is white fine sand 33 inches thick, and light gray in the lower 17 inches. The subsoil is fine
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of sand about 21 inches thick. It is weakly cemented in a
Pineda and Vero soils. The included soils make up less few places. It is very dark gray in the upper 3 inches,
than 20 percent of the map unit. dark reddish brown in the next 8 inches, and dark brown







Pasco County, Florida 21



in the lower 10 inches. The substratum is brown fine because of wetness and sandy texture. It is suited to
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. only a few crops unless very intensive management
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of practices are followed. This soil can be made suitable for
Adamsville, Narcoossee, Ona, Pomona, and Symrna a number of vegetable crops. A water control system is
soils. In some areas in the western part of the county, needed to remove excess water in the wetter seasons
limestone boulders 2 to 6 feet in diameter are at a depth and to provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry
of about 60 to 100 inches. The included soils make up seasons. Crop residue and soil-improving crops should
about 10 percent of the map unit. be plowed under. Seedbed preparation should include
bedding of the rows.
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches The soil is suitable for citrus trees only if a carefully
for 1 to 4 months in most years and recedes to a depth designed water control system that maintains the water
of more than 40 inches during very dry seasons. The table below 4 feet is installed (fig. 6). Trees should be
available water capacity is medium in the subsoil and planted on beds to help lower the effective depth to the
very low in the other layers. Permeability is rapid in the water table, and a vegetative cover should be
surface and subsurface layers and the substratum and is maintained between the trees. Citrus trees should not be
moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil. Internal planted in areas that are subject to freezing
drainage and runoff are slow. Natural fertility is low. temperatures in winter.
The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, slash pine, and This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses.
an undergrowth of sawpalmetto, running oak, gallberry, Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover
waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland threeawn, and grow well if the pasture is well managed. Water control
scattered fetterbushes. Most areas are in native forest. measures are needed to remove excess surface water
This soil is very severely limited for cultivated crops after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and

































Figure 6.-This citrus grove on Myakka fine sand is being developed for urban use. An extensive drainage system was established
on this poorly drained soil for the citrus trees.






22 Soil survey



lime are needed, and grazing should be controlled to places where irrigation water is readily available.
prevent weakening of the plants. Fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil has moderate potential for pine tree The soil is well suited to pasture grasses.
production. The main management concerns are Pangolagrass, Coastal bermudagrass, and bahiagrasses
equipment limitations during periods of heavy rainfall, grow well on this soil. They produce good yields if they
seedling mortality, and plant competition. For best are fertilized and limed. Control of grazing is needed for
results, a water control system should be installed to maximum yields.
remove excess surface water. Slash pine is the best This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree
species to plant. production. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the South plant competition are the main management concerns.
Florida Flatwoods range site. Slash pine is the best species to plant.
This soil is in capability subclass Ills and in the
6-Tavares sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This nearly Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site.
level to gently sloping, moderately well drained soil is on
low ridges and knolls throughout the county. Areas are 7-Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
irregular in shape. nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
The soil is sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. soil is on seasonally wet uplands. Slopes are smooth to




depth of 80 inches or more. light yellowish brown fine sand in the lower 8 inches.
dIencthued thi this olryer more f yesllo reof a The subsoil is light yellowish brown sandy clay loam to a
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of depth of about 80 inches.
Adamsville, Astatula, and Candler soils. Also included included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
are small areas of Millhopper and Sparr soils and, along have over 5 percent plinthite in the subsoil. Also
rivers, a few areas of soils that occasionally are flooded. included are small areas of Arredondo, Millhopper,
The included soils make up about 10 percent of the map Nobleton, and Tavares soils and a few areas along rivers
In most years, under natural conditions, the that are occasionally flooded. The included soils make
table is amost years, under natural conditions, for 6 theo 12 monthser up about 15 percent of the map unit.
table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 6 to 12 months This Sparr soil has a water table, commonly perched
and below 60 inches during very dry periods. The above the subsoil, at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 1 to
available water capacity is very low. Permeability is very 4 months during most years. The available water
rapid. Natural fertility is low. capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, is medium to high in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
blackjack oak, turkey oak, and post oak and an Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
understory of pineland threeawn, creeping bluestem, and is moderate in the subsoil.
lopsided indiangrass, hairy panicum, low panicum, purple The native vegetation is oak, hickory, magnolia,
lovegrass, and broomsedge bluestem. sweetgum, slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine.
This soil is severely limited for most cultivated crops. Some areas have an understory of gallberry, waxmyrtle,
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit scattered sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn.
the variety and potential yields of crops that can be This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops.
grown on this soil. Soil management should include Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are
planting row crops on the contour in alternation with the principal limitations for row crops. Special soil-
strips of close-growing crops. A crop rotation system that improving measures are necessary when this soil is
keeps close-growing crops on the land at least two- cultivated. Cultivated row crops should be planted on the
thirds of the time should be used. All crops should be contour in strips alternating with strips of close-growing
fertilized and limed. Soil-improving cover crops and all crops. Crop rotations should keep the soil under close-
crop residue should be left on the ground or plowed growing vegetation at least two-thirds of the time. Soil-
under. Irrigation of high-value crops is generally feasible improving cover crops and all crop residue should be left
where irrigation water is readily available. on the soil or plowed under. All crops need frequent
This soil is well suited to citrus trees in places that are fertilizing and liming. Irrigation of a few high-value crops
relatively free from freezing temperatures. A ground is feasible where irrigation water is readily available.
cover of close-growing vegetation should be maintained The soil is well suited to citrus trees in places that are
between the trees. Citrus can normally be grown without relatively free from freezing temperatures. A ground
irrigation, but irrigation maintains optimum yields in cover of close-growing plants is needed between the







Pasco County, Florida 23



trees to protect the soil from blowing. Good yields of Typically, a layer of black muck about 2 inches thick is
oranges and grapefruit can generally be obtained without on the surface. The surface mineral layer is black mucky
irrigation. Where water for irrigation is readily available, loamy fine sand in the upper 9 inches, black fine sand in
however, increased yields make irrigation feasible. the next 11 inches, and very dark gray fine sand in the
The soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. Deep lower 4 inches. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches or
rooting plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and more, is fine sand that is dark brown in the upper 10
bahiagrasses normally grow well if the soil is well inches, dark yellowish brown in the next 14 inches, and
fertilized and limed (fig. 7). Production is occasionally pale brown below.
restricted by extended drought. Grazing should be Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
controlled for highest yields. differ by having organic stained layers, by being less
This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree acid, or by having a loamy subsoil within a depth of 80
production. The main management concerns are inches. Also included are soils which are similar but have
equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant a thinner, dark-colored surface layer.
competition. Slash pine is the best species to plant. In most years, under natural conditions, the soil is
This soil is in capability subclass Ills. It has not been ponded during wet seasons for 3 to 6 months and the
assigned to a range site. water table is within a depth of about 10 inches for 6 to
12 months. The available water capacity is high in the
8-Sellers mucky loamy fine sand. This nearly level, organic surface layer, medium in the dark-colored layers
very poorly drained soil is in depressions. Slopes are to a depth of about 24 inches, and low below this depth.
generally concave and less than 2 percent. Areas are Permeability is rapid throughout; however, internal
circular to oblong, drainage is slow, impeded by a shallow water table. Both

































Figure 7.-Cattle grazing on improved bahiagrass pasture that is on Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil surrounds a
depressional area of poorly drained Palmetto-Zephyr-Sellers complex.







24 Soil survey


natural fertility and the organic matter content are high to water in the wetter seasons and to provide water for
a depth of about 27 inches and are low below this subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Crop residue and
depth. soil-improving crops should be plowed under, and
The natural vegetation is baldcypress, pond pine, bay, seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
sweetgum, pickerelweed, and various perennial grasses. This soil has moderate suitability for citrus tree
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to production, but only after a carefully designed water
crops and citrus trees. Plant growth is severely restricted control system has been installed to maintain the water
by the water table, which is above the surface much of table below 4 feet. Trees should be planted on beds to
the year. Establishing an adequate water control system is help increase the effective depth to the water table, and
difficult because in most places suitable outlets are not plant cover should be maintained between the trees.
available. However, if a water control system can be Trees should not be planted in areas that are subject to
installed, this soil has moderate suitability for the freezing in winter.
production of high-quality pasture. This soil is well suited to use as pasture.
This soil has high potential for pine tree production, Pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and clovers grow well if
but only if a good water control system is installed to they are well managed. Management needs include
remove excess surface water. Equipment limitations and installation of a simple water control system to remove
seedling mortality are the main management concerns, excess surface water and regular use of fertilizers and
Slash pine is the best species to plant. lime. Grazing should be controlled for highest yields.
This soil is in capability subclass VIIw and in the Fresh This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree
Marsh range site. production. The main management concerns are
9-Ona fine sand. This nearly level, poorly drained equipment limitations during periods of heavy rainfall,
soil is in broad areas in the flatwoods. Areas are irregular seedling mortality, and plant competition. For best
in shape. Slopes are smooth to concave and range from results, a water control system to remove excess surface
0 to 2 percent water should be installed. Slash pine is the best species
0 to 2 percent.plant.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand to a to plant.
depth of 5 inches and very dark gray fine sand to a This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the South
depth of 7 inches. The subsoil is fine sand about 16 Florida Flatwoods range site.
inches thick. It is dark brown in the upper 6 inches, dark
reddish brown in the next 5 inches, and brown in the 10-Vero fine sand. This nearly level, poorly drained
lower 5 inches. The substratum to a depth of about 45 soil is in broad areas in the flatwoods. Individual areas
inches is pale brown fine sand; and below that, to a are irregular in shape. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
depth of 80 inches or more, it is light gray fine sand. Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 17
Smyrna and Pomona soils. The included soils make up inches thick. It is gray in the upper 5 inches and light
about 10 percent of the map unit. brownish gray in the lower 12 inches. The subsoil to a
The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for a depth of about 30 inches is fine sand that is very dark
period of 4 to 6 months during most years. It rises to a grayish brown in the upper 4 inches and dark reddish
depth of less than 10 inches for a period of 1 to 2 brown below. The rest of the subsoil is sandy clay loam
months and may recede to a depth of more than 40 and extends to a depth of about 51 inches. It is light
inches during very dry seasons. The available water brownish gray in the upper 14 inches and light gray in
capacity is medium in the surface layer and subsoil and the lower 7 inches. Light gray fine sandy loam is
is very low to low in the substratum. Permeability is between depths of 51 and 66 inches. Below that, to a
moderate in the subsoil and rapid in the other layers. depth of 80 inches or more, is light gray sandy clay
Internal drainage and runoff are slow. Natural fertility is loam.
low. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The natural vegetation is longleaf pine and slash pine EauGallie and Paisley soils. In mapped areas west of
and an undergrowth of widely spaced sawpalmetto, U.S. Highway 19, Aripeka soils are common. The
running oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland included soils make up about 20 percent of the map unit.
threeawn, and scattered fetterbushes. Most areas are in In most years, the water table is at a depth of 10 to 40
improved pasture or in native forest. inches for more than 6 months if this soil is in an
This soil is very severely limited for cultivated crops unaltered natural state. It is at a depth of less than 10
because of wetness and poor soil quality. Only a limited inches for 1 to 4 months in wet seasons and at a depth
number of crops can be grown on this soil unless very of more than 40 inches during very dry seasons. The
intensive management practices are followed. This soil available water capacity is low in the surface and
can be made well suited to a number of vegetable crops subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil.
by installing a water control system to remove excess Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers







Pasco County, Florida 25



and is slow to very slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility is In most years, under natural conditions, the water
low. table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months;
The natural vegetation on this soil is longleaf pine, but it may rise to within 20 inches of the surface for less
slash pine, cabbage palm, a few scattered live oak, and than 2 weeks during very wet seasons. It recedes to a
an understory of sawpalmetto, laurel, waxmyrtle, and depth of more than 40 inches during dry periods. In this
pineland threeawn. soil, available water capacity is low to very low. Natural
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops fertility is low. Permeability is rapid.
because of wetness and the sandy surface layer. Only a A large part of this soil is in natural vegetation of slash
limited number of crops can be grown on this soil unless pine, longleaf pine, laurel, bluejack, turkey oak, water
very intensive management practices are followed. This oak, and an understory of sawpalmetto and pineland
soil can be made well suited to a number of vegetable threeawn.
crops by installing a water control system to remove This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops
excess water in the wet seasons and to provide water because of periodic wetness, which restricts the rooting
for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Crop residue and zone. The number of crops that can be grown on this
soil-improving crops should be plowed under. Seedbed soil is very limited unless intensive measures are used to
preparation should include bedding of the rows. control water. If such measures are used, this soil is well
This soil has moderate suitability for growing citrus suited to many kinds of flowers. A water control system
trees, but only if a carefully designed water control can be designed to remove excess water in wet seasons
system that maintains the water table below a depth of 4 and provide irrigation in dry seasons. Bedding can be
feet is installed. Trees should be planted on beds, and a used to lower the effective depth to the water table.
plant cover should be maintained between the trees. Other good management practices include a crop
Trees should not be planted in areas that are subject to rotation system that keeps a close-growing crop on the
freezing temperatures. soil at least two-thirds of the time, the use of soil-
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses. improving crops, and plowing under crop residue.
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clovers Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
grow well if well managed. Water control measures are needs of the crops.
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy This soil is not suited to citrus trees unless wetness is
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are controlled. If a well designed water control system is
needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent installed, the soil is moderately suited to citrus trees. The
weakening of the plants. water control system should be able to remove excess
This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree water from the soil rapidly to a depth of about 4 feet.
production. The main management concerns are Trees can be planted on beds to increase the effective
equipment limitations during periods of heavy rainfall, depth to the water table. Maintaining a cover of close-
seedling mortality, and plant competition. For best growing vegetation between the trees prevents soil
results, a simple water control system should be installed blowing in dry weather and erosion of the soil by water
to remove excess surface water. Slash pine is the best during heavy rains. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
species to plant. on a regular basis. For highest yields, irrigation is needed
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in the South in seasons of low rainfall.
Florida Flatwoods range site. This soil is moderately suited to use as pasture.
Pangolagrass and bahiagrass are well suited. These
11-Adamsville fine sand. This nearly level, grasses require simple water control systems to remove
somewhat poorly drained soil is on low broad flats that excess surface water in times of high rainfall. They also
are less than 2 feet higher in elevation than the adjacent require fertilizer and lime on a regular basis. Grazing
sloughs. Individual areas are irregular in shape and should be carefully controlled for highest yields.
range from 5 to 200 acres. Slopes are less than 2 This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree
percent. production. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand plant competition are the major management concerns.
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish Slash pine is the most productive tree to plant.
brown fine sand 5 inches thick. The underlying material This soil is in capability subclass Illw and in the South
to a depth of 80 inches or more is fine sand. It is very Florida Flatwoods range site.
pale brown to a depth of about 23 inches, light gray to a
depth of about 57 inches, and white below 57 inches. 12-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil is
Narcoossee, Tavares, and Zolfo soils. Also included, mainly in the sandhills. Areas are irregular in shape.
along rivers, are a few areas of soils that occasionally Slopes are smooth to concave.
are flooded. The included soils generally make up less Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
than 10 percent of the map unit. sand about 6 inches thick. Below this, to a depth of 29







26 Soil survey



inches, is a layer of brown fine sand; and below this, understory of lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem,
very pale brown fine sand extends to a depth of 80 pineland threeawn, panicum, and annual forbs.
inches or more. This soil is very severely limited for cultivated crops
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of because of its sandy texture and droughtiness. Intensive
Candler, Paola, and Tavares soils. The included soils soil management practices are required to grow
make up about 10 percent of the map unit. cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
The water table is below a depth of 72 inches. Both plant nutrients reduce the variety and potential yields of
the available water capacity and the natural fertility of crops that are suited to this soil. The crop rotation
the soil are very low. Permeability is very rapid system should keep close-growing crops on the soil at
throughout the soil. least three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving crops and
Few areas of this soil have been cleared. The native all crop residue should be left on the ground or plowed
vegetation is sand pine, longleaf pine, scrub live oak, under. Only a few crops produce good yields without
bluejack oak, turkey oak, and an understory of rosemary, irrigation. Irrigation is generally feasible where irrigation
pineland threeawn, bluestem, paspalum, sawpalmetto, water is readily available.
and cacti. In places that are relatively free from freezing
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops because of temperatures, this soil is suitable for growing citrus trees.
droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients. A ground cover of close-growing plants is needed
This soil is poorly suited to citrus. Yields are only fair, between the trees to protect the soil from blowing. Good
even under a high level of management. yields can be obtained in some years without irrigation,
The suitability of this soil for improved pasture grasses but a well designed irrigation system which maintains
is moderate under good management practices. Growth optimum moisture conditions, is needed to assure best
of grasses such as pangolagrass and bahiagrass is only yields.
fair. This soil is not suited to clover. This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture
This soil has low potential for pine tree production. grasses. Deep-rooting plants such as Coastal
Seedling mortality and equipment use limitations are the bermudagrass and bahiagrasses are well suited, but
major management problems. Sand pine is the best yields are reduced by periodic droughtiness. Fertilizer
species to plant. and lime are needed on a regular basis. Grazing should
This soil is in capability subclass VIs and in the Sand be controlled to maintain plant vigor.
Pine Hills range site. This soil has moderate potential for commercial
production of pine trees. The major management
13-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This concerns, caused by the sandiness of the soil, are
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and excessively seedling mortality and difficulty in using equipment. Sand
drained. Individual areas are irregular in shape and range pine and slash pine are the best species to plant
from about 40 to several hundred acres in size. This soil is in capability subclass IVs and in the
Typically, the surface layer consists of grayish brown Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site.
fine sand 3 inches thick and, below that, brown fine sand
6 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of about 14-Candler fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
50 inches is fine sand. It is brownish yellow in the upper excessively drained, sloping soil is on upland side slopes
23 inches and yellow below. Below a depth of 50 inches in the sandhill areas of the county. Individual areas range
is a mixture of brownish yellow and yellow fine sand, from about 15 to 60 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
which contains lenses or lamellae of strong brown loamy concave.
fine sand that are about 1/16 to 1/4 inch thick and 2 to Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
6 inches long. fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of consists of fine sand and extends to a depth of more
Arredondo, Astatula, Lake, and Tavares soils. Also than 80 inches. It is light yellowish brown in the upper 16
included are similar soils that have slope of 5 to 8 inches and very pale brown in the next 45 inches. In the
percent and a few areas of soils that have no lamellae. lower part, between depths of 65 and 80 inches or more,
The included soils make up about 10 percent of the map it is very pale brown fine sand and has strong brown
unit. loamy sand lamellae. The lamellae are about 1/16 to
The available water capacity is very low to a depth of 1/8 inch wide and 1 to 4 inches long.
50 inches and low below that depth. Permeability is very Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
rapid in the upper 50 inches of the soil and rapid below. Astatula, Tavares, Lake, and Arredondo soils. Also
Natural fertility is low. The water table is below a depth included are small areas of Candler soils that have slope
of 80 inches. of 0 to 5 percent and 8 to 12 percent. The included soils
Some areas of this soil have been cleared. The native make up less than 20 percent of the map unit.
vegetation is bluejack, post oak, turkey oak, and The water table is below a depth of 80 inches. The
scattered longleaf pine and slash pine, with a sparse available water capacity is very low to a depth of 65







Pasco County, Florida 27



inches and low below that depth. Permeability is very should be greatly restricted to maintain highest yields
rapid in the upper 65 inches of the soil and rapid below, and good ground cover.
Natural fertility is low. This soil has moderate potential for the commercial
Some areas of this soil have been cleared. The native production of pine trees. Sand pine and slash pine are
vegetation is bluejack oak, post oak, turkey oak, the best species to plant. Seedling mortality and
scattered longleaf pine, and slash pine. There is a sparse limitations on the mobility of equipment are the major
understory of lopsided indiangrass, chalky bluestem, management problems.
pineland threeawn, hairy panicum, and annual forbs. This soil is in capability subclass VIs and in the
.. Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site.
This soil is not suitable for most of the common Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site.
cultivated crops. Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant 15-Tavares-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
nutrients, and strong slopes are limitations to the use of slopes. This map unit consists of areas of Urban land
this soil as cropland. and nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well
In places that are relatively free from freezing drained Tavares soils on low ridges (fig. 8). Tavares soils
temperatures, this soil is suitable for growing citrus trees. make up 45 to 65 percent of the map unit, and Urban
Good yields of fruit can be obtained in some years land makes up from 30 to 45 percent. The areas of
without irrigation, but for best yields, irrigation should Tavares soils and Urban land are so intricately mixed, or
always be used wherever the water is available, so small, that it is not practical to separate them in
Management practices which minimize the hazard of mapping at the scale used.
erosion should be used. Tavares soils are sand to a depth of 80 inches or
This soil is moderately suited to pasture grasses. more. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray and is
Grasses such as Coastal bermudagrass and about 3 inches thick. Beneath the surface layer the sand
bahiagrasses are best suited, and clovers are not suited. is yellowish brown and light yellowish brown to a depth
Yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Fertilizer and of 56 inches, very pale brown to between depths of 56
lime should be applied on a regular basis. Grazing and 76 inches, and white between depths of 76 and 80






























Figure 8.-An area of Tavares-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes.







28 Soil survey



inches or more. In some places, the soil has been The natural vegetation is cypress, cattails, and dense
radically altered. Some of the low areas have been filled stands of maidencane and sawgrass.
or leveled during construction, and other small areas Under natural conditions, this soil is not suitable for
have been cut, built up, or smoothed, crops and citrus trees. The water table, which is above
Urban land is covered by streets, parking lots, the surface most of the year, severely restricts plant
buildings, and other structures that so obscure or alter growth. Adequate water control systems are difficult to
the soils that identification is not feasible. establish because in most places suitable outlets are not
Included in mapping, and making up 5 to 15 percent of available. However, if a water control system can be
the unit, are small areas of Adamsville and Astatula installed, the soil can be made moderately suitable for
soils. The somewhat poorly drained Adamsville soils are production of good quality pasture.
in the slightly lower and wetter areas. The excessively This soil has moderate potential for pine tree
drained Astatula soils are in higher, convex areas of the production, but only if a water control system is installed.
landscape. A water control system designed to remove excess
Most areas of this map unit are artificially drained by water is needed before trees can be planted. Equipment
sewer systems, surface ditches, and canals. Tavares limitations and seedling mortality are the main
soils that are not drained have a water table at a depth management concerns. Slash pine is the best species to
of 40 to 60 inches for 6 to 10 months in most years. plant.
Permeability is very rapid throughout the Tavares soils, This soil is in capability subclass VIIw and in the Fresh
and natural fertility is low. The available water capacity is Marsh range site.
very low. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
medium acid throughout the soil. 17-immokalee fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
The Tavares soils are mostly in lawn grasses and drained soil is in broad flatwood areas. Individual areas
shrubs. Regular watering and fertilizing are needed for are somewhat oblong in shape. Slopes are smooth to
good lawns. Turkey oak and bluejack oak are common in convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
this unit. A few scattered longleaf pine are also present. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
Present land use in areas of this complex precludes about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray sand
the use of the Tavares soils for crops, pasture, or to a depth of about 16 inches and white fine sand to a
woodland. depth of 33 inches. The subsoil is dark reddish brown
The Tavares soils have not been assigned to a fine sand in the upper 12 inches and dark brown fine
capability subclass or a range site. sand in the lower 17 inches. Below the subsoil, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is very pale brown fine sand.
16-Zephyr muck. This nearly level, very poorly Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
drained soil is in depressions. Slopes are smooth to differ by having a dark-colored surface layer thicker than
concave and are less than 2 percent. 8 inches. Also included are small areas of Myakka and
Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 13 Pomona soils. The included soils make up about 15
inches thick. The subsurface layer in the upper 10 inches percent of the map unit.
is light brownish gray fine sand that has very dark gray The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
streaks, and in the lower 8 inches it is dark grayish for 2 months in most years and is between depths of 10
brown fine sand. The subsoil begins about 18 inches and 40 inches for a period of more than 8 months each
below the top of the mineral surface and is about 30 year. It is at a depth of more than 40 inches during dry
inches thick. It is grayish brown sandy clay loam in the periods. The available water capacity is medium in the
upper 21 inches and gray sandy clay loam in the lower 9 subsoil but very low or low in the other layers.
inches. Below this is the substratum, which is grayish Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
brown fine sandy loam in the first 10 inches. Below this, and in the substratum and is moderate in the subsoil.
and extending to a depth of 67 inches below the top of Internal drainage and runoff are slow. Natural fertility is
the mineral surface layer, is dark grayish brown loamy low.
fine sand. Areas that have adequate drainage are used mainly
Included with this soil in mapping are soils that are for improved pasture. Other areas are used for range or
similar but do not have a muck surface. Also included remain in forest. The natural vegetation is longleaf pine,
are small areas of Anclote and Felda soils. The included slash pine, and an undergrowth of sawpalmetto, running
soils make up about 20 percent of the map unit. oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland
This soil is ponded for more than 6 months in most threeawn, and scattered fetterbush.
years. The available water capacity is very high in the This soil is very severely limited for cultivated crops
surface layer, medium in the subsoil, and low in the because of wetness and sandy texture. Only a limited
subsurface layer. Permeability is rapid in the surface and number of crops can be grown on this soil unless very
subsurface layers and is slow in the subsoil. Natural intensive management practices are followed. This soil
fertility is medium. can be made suitable for a number of vegetable crops. A







Pasco County, Florida 29



water control system is needed to remove excess water capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers
in the wetter seasons and to provide water for and is low to medium below. Permeability is rapid in the
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Crop residue and surface and subsurface layers and in the layer between
soil-improving crops should be plowed under. Seedbed the upper and lower parts of the subsoil. It is moderately
preparation should include bedding of the rows. rapid in the upper part of the subsoil and slow in the
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. Citrus trees lower part.
can be grown if a carefully designed water control The natural vegetation is sand live oak and scattered
system that maintains the water table below 4 feet is longleaf pine, slash pine, and sand pine, with an
installed. Trees should be planted on beds to help understory of pineland threeawn, sawpalmetto, running
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a oak, blueberry, creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
plant cover should be maintained between the trees. indiangrass, low panicum, and numerous forbs.
Trees should not be planted in areas that are subject to This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops because of
freezing in winter. droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients.
The soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses. This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. Good yields of
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover fruit can be obtained in some years without irrigation; but
grow well if the pasture is well managed. Water control if water is available, the soil should be irrigated for best
measures are needed to remove excess surface water yields.
after heavy rains. Fertilizer and lime should be applied The soil is only moderately suitable for improved
on a regular basis, and grazing should be controlled. pasture grasses, even if good management practices are
This soil has moderate potential for pine tree used. It is best suited to grasses, such as bahiagrass. It
production. The main management problems are is not suited to clover. Yields are reduced by periodic
equipment limitations during periods of heavy rainfall, drought. Fertilizer and lime should be applied on a
seedling mortality, and plant competition. For best regular basis. Grazing should be greatly restricted in
results, a water control system to remove excess surface order to maintain highest yields and good ground cover.
water should be installed. Slash pine is the best species This soil has moderate potential for commercial
to plant. production of pine trees. Seedling mortality, mobility of
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the South equipment, and plant competition are the major
Florida Flatwoods range site. management concerns for commercial tree production.
Slash pine is the best species to plant.
18-Electra Variant fine sand, 0 to 5 percent This soil is in capability subclass Vis and in the South
slopes. This nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat Florida Flatwoods range site.
poorly drained soil is on upland ridges. Individual areas
are irregular in shape. Slopes are smooth to convex. 19-Paola fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 5 inches excessively drained, nearly level to sloping soil is in the
thick. It is dark gray in the upper 2 inches and gray in the sandhill areas of the county. Individual areas are irregular
lower 3 inches. The subsurface layer is white fine sand in shape. Slopes are smooth to concave.
about 34 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
dark brown fine sand to a depth of 41 inches. Below inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand and
this, to a depth of 51 inches, it is mixed very dark gray extends to a depth of about 26 inches. The subsoil is
and dark yellowish brown fine sand. Separating the brownish yellow fine sand that has a few tongues of
upper and lower parts of the subsoil is 19 inches of dark white fine sand from the subsurface layer mixed with it.
yellowish brown fine sand and brown fine sand. The Below a depth of 57 inches, and extending to a depth of
lower part of the subsoil is grayish brown sandy loam in 80 inches or more, is very pale brown fine sand.
the first 4 inches and grayish brown sandy clay loam in Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
the last 4 inches. Soft, white limestone underlies the Astatula, Candler, and Tavares soils. The included soils
subsoil and extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. make up less than 10 percent of the map unit.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The water table is below a depth of 72 inches. Both
similar soils in which the upper part of the subsoil is only the available water capacity and natural fertility are very
weakly developed. Also included are small areas of low. Permeability is very rapid throughout.
Narcoossee soils. The included soils make up about 12 Few areas of this soil have been cleared. The native
percent of the map unit. vegetation is sand pine, scrub live oak, scattered turkey
In most years, under natural conditions, the water oak, bluejack oak, and an undergrowth of scattered
table is at a depth of 25 to 40 inches for a cumulative sawpalmetto, sand heath, cacti, mosses, and lichens.
period of 4 months and recedes to a depth of more than This soil is not suited to cultivated crops because of
40 inches during drier periods. Infrequently, the water extreme droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
table may rise to within 10 inches of the surface briefly nutrients. This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees, and
during periods of high rainfall. The available water yields are low even if irrigation is used. This soil has only






30 Soil survey



moderate suitability for improved pasture grasses even if This soil is moderately suitable for improved pasture.
good management practices are used. Grasses such as The pasture should be protected from flooding by storm
pangolagrass and bahiagrass produce only fair yields. tides. Fertilizing and liming are needed on a regular
This soil has low potential for pine tree production, basis. Grazing should be controlled for best yields.
Seedling mortality and mobility of equipment are the This soil has moderately high potential for the
major management concerns for commercial tree production of pine trees. The main management
production. Sand pine is the best species to plant. problems are seedling mortality and plant competition.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis and in the Sand Slash pine is the best species to plant.
Pine Hills range site. This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the
Cabbage Palm Flatwoods range site.
20-Aripeka fine sand. This nearly level, somewhat
poorly drained soil is on low ridges adjacent to the 21-Smyrna fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
saltwater marsh. Individual areas are commonly long and drained soil is in broad flatwood areas. Individual areas
narrow and are parallel to the marsh. Slopes are less are irregular in shape. Slopes are smooth to concave
than 2 percent. and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 5 inches
sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer consists thick. It is black in the upper 3 inches and very dark gray
of fine sand and is 10 inches thick; it is grayish brown in in the lower 2 inches. The subsurface layer is gray fine
the upper 7 inches and white in the lower 3 inches. The sand about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is fine sand about
subsoil begins at a depth of 12 inches and extends to a 25 inches thick. It is dark grayish brown in the upper 3
depth of 26 inches. It is yellowish brown fine sand in the inches, dark brown in the next 3 inches, and dark
upper 5 inches, strong brown fine sandy loam in the next reddish brown in the next 9 inches, and brown in the
upper 5 inches, strong brown fine sandy loam in the next lower 10 inches. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches
6 inches, and strong brown sandy clay loam, whichor more is very pale brown and light brownish gray fine
contains limestone cobblestones, in the lower 3 inches. sand.
Hard, white and yellow limestone begins at a depth of 26 Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
inches. Solution holes that vary in depth and diameter Adamsville, Narcoossee, Ona, Pomona, and Myakka
are in the i mestone. soils. The included soils make up about 10 percent of
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils the map unit.
which have a subsoil texture of sandy clay, are more The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
poorly drained, have surface and subsurface layers that for a period of 1 to 4 months in most years and between
are more than 20 inches thick, or have limestone within 10 and 40 inches for more than 6 months. In rainy
a depth of 20 inches. The included soils make up about seasons or after heavy rains, the water table may rise
25 percent of the map unit. above the surface briefly. In this Smyrna soil, the
The water table is at a depth of 18 to 30 inches for 2 available water capacity is medium in the subsoil but
to 6 months and at a depth of 30 to 60 inches for 6 very low in the other layers. Permeability is rapid in the
months or more during most years. During severe surface layer, the subsurface layer, and the substratum
storms, this soil may be very briefly flooded by storm and is moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil. Both
tides. The available water capacity is low in the surface internal drainage and runoff are slow. Natural fertility is
and subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil. low.
Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, slash pine, and
and subsurface layers and is moderately rapid in the an undergrowth of sawpalmetto, running oak, gallberry,
subsoil. waxmyrtle, huckleberry, pineland threeawn, and
The native vegetation is longleaf and slash pines, live scattered fetterbush. Most areas remain in native forest
oak, southern redcedar, and cabbage palm, with an This soil is very severely limited for cultivated crops
undergrowth dominantly of sawpalmetto, pineland because of wetness and sandy texture. Only a limited
threeawn, and a few scattered gallberry. number of crops can be grown on this soil unless very
This soil is very severely limited for cultivated crops intensive management practices are followed. This soil
because of the shallow root zone and the hazard of can be made suitable for a number of vegetable crops. A
flooding. Management practices include the use of a water control system is needed to remove excess water
crop rotation that keeps close-growing plants on the soil in the wetter seasons and to provide water for
at least three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving crops subsurface irrigation in dry seasons (fig. 9). Crop residue
and all crop residue should be left on the land or plowed and soil-improving crops should be plowed under, and
under. Only a few crops produce good yields without seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
irrigation, and irrigation of these crops is generally not This soil has poor suitability for citrus trees, and then
feasible. This soil is not suitable for citrus trees because only if a carefully designed water control system is
of the wetness and the hazard of flooding, installed to maintain the water table below 4 feet. Trees







Pasco County, Florida 31


































Figure 9.-Seepage irrigation system on Smyrna fine sand. Areas of Sellers soils remain in a natural vegetation of cypress trees.
During wet periods, the irrigation system helps to remove surface water.



should be planted on beds to help increase the effective 22-Basinger fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
depth to the water table, and a plant cover should be level soil is in poorly defined drainageways and sloughs
maintained between the trees. Trees should not be in the flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape.
planted in areas that are subject to freezing in winter. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
grow well if well managed. Water control measures are fine sand and extends to a depth of about 10 inches.
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy The subsoil is mixed pale brown and dark brown fine
rains. Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis, sand about 9 inches thick. The next layer, extending to a
and grazing should be controlled to prevent weakening depth of about 30 inches, is pale brown fine sand. Below
of the plants. this, to a depth of 42 inches, is light gray fine sand; and
This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree below this, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is white fine
production. The main management concerns are sand.
equipment limitations during periods of heavy rainfall, Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
seedling mortality, and plant competition. For best differ by having a dark-colored surface layer more than 3
results, a water control system to remove excess surface inches thick. Also included in mapping are small areas of
water should be installed. Slash pine is the best species Anclote, Myakka, and Pompano soils. The included soils
to plant. make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the South The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
Florida Flatwoods range site. for 2 to 6 months annually and at a depth of 10 to 30







32 Soil survey



inches for a period of more than 6 months in most years.
Permeability is very rapid throughout the soil. The
available water capacity is very low in the surface and
subsurface layers, medium in the subsoil, and low in the
substratum. Natural fertility is low.
This soil is mainly covered by natural vegetation, which
is scattered longleaf pine and slash pine. The understory
consists of waxmyrtle, St.-Johnswort, pineland threeawn,
and sawpalmetto.
Under natural conditions, this soil is very severely
limited for cultivated crops because of wetness and
sandy texture. The number of crops that can be grown
on this soil is limited unless very intensive management
practices are followed. Proper water control and soil-
improving measures can make this soil suitable for a
number of vegetable crops. A water control system
which removes excess water in wet seasons and
provides water through subsurface irrigation in dry
seasons is needed. Seedbed preparation should include
bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be
supplied according to the needs of the crops.
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus trees. It can be made suitable for growing citrus
trees only by installing a carefully designed water control
system that maintains the water table below a depth of
about 4 feet. Trees should be planted on beds to help
increase the effective depth to the water table, and a
plant cover should be maintained between the trees. Figure 10.-Slash pine on Basinger fine sae. For best
Fertilizer and lime should be applied on a regular basis. growth of the trees, drainage is needed to
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses. remove excess water on many areas of tfs
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover soil
grow well when they are well managed. A water control
system that removes excess surface water after heavy
rains is needed. Fertilizer and lime should be applied on
a regular basis, and grazing should be controlled to
prevent weakening of the plants. soils that have a thin organic surface layer and similar
This soil has moderate potential for slash pine soils that have a thicker, dark-colored surface layer. The
production (fig. 10). A water control system that removes included soils make up about 20 percent of the map unit
excess surface water is necessary if the potential This soil is pounded for 6 to 9 months or more in most
productivity is to be realized. Seedling mortality and years. Natural fertility of this soil is low, and fertilization
equipment limitations are the main management raises the fertility to a moderate level. Internal drainage
problems. Slash pine is the best species to plant. of this soil is slow in the natural state, but the soil
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the responds rapidly to artificial drainage. The available
Slough range site. water capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface
layers, medium in the subsoil, and low in the substratum.
23-Basinger fine sand, depressional. This nearly Permeability is very rapid.
level, poorly drained soil is in depressional areas in the A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation of
flatwoods. It is also along the edges of some lakes. bay, cypress, cabbage palm, and water oak. Other areas
Areas are circular or elongated. Slopes are smooth to are covered by maidencane, St.-Johnswort, waterlily,
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. pickerelweed, and other plants that tolerate wetness.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand Under natural conditions, this soil is not suitable for
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray cultivated crops or improved pastures. Establishing an
fine sand about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is mixed adequate drainage system is difficult, and in most places
dark brown and gray fine sand about 20 inches thick. suitable outlets are not available. In its native state, this
The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is pale soil provides watering places and feeding grounds for
brown fine sand. many kinds of wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil has moderate potential for pine tree
Anclote and Pompano soils. Also included are similar production, but only after a good water control system is






Pasco County, Florida 33


installed to remove surface water. Equipment limitations, Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
management concerns. Tree planting is feasible only in about 18 inches thick. It is gray in the upper 6 inches,
areas which have adequate surface drainage. In these light gray in the next 6 inches, and light yellowish brown
areas, slash pine is the best species to plant, in the lower 6 inches. The subsoil is about 6 inches
This soil is in capability subclass Vllw and in the thick. It is brownish yellow sandy clay loam. The
Maidencane Pond range site. substratum is soft limestone.
Included in mapping are similar soils that have
24-Quartzipsamments, shaped, 0 to 5 percent limestone within 20 inches of the surface. Also included
slopes. These nearly level to gently sloping sandy soils are small areas of Kendrick soils. The included soils
have been reworked and shaped by earthmoving make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
equipment. They commonly are near urban centers or The available water capacity of this soil is low in the
along major highways on the mainland. Many areas are surface layer and the subsoil and is very low in the
former sloughs, marshes, or shallow ponds that have subsurface layer. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
been filled with various soil materials to the level of subsurface layers and is moderate to moderately slow in
surrounding areas or to a higher level. In some areas, the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
the soils originally made up high ridges but have been Most areas are in native vegetation of slash pine,
excavated to below natural ground level and reworked. longleaf pine, post oak, live oak, scattered sawpalmetto,
In a few places, soils have been reworked in place and and native weeds and grasses.
not moved. Smoothing and shaping have made these This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops
soils better suited to use as building sites, roadways, because of droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant
recreation areas, and related uses. nutrients, and great variability in depth to and occurrence
The color and thickness of these soils vary from one of the subsurface layers and rock. Intensive
area to another, but one of the more common profiles management practices are required if cultivated crops
has a surface layer of mixed dark gray, gray, brownish are grown. Row crops should be planted on the contour
yellow, and light gray fine sand about 25 inches thick. in strips alternating with strips of close-growing crops.
Below this is pale brown fine sand 10 inches thick. A Crop rotations should include close-growing cover crops
layer of dark gray fine sand is between depths of 35 and at least two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving cover crops
39 inches. Below this, and extending to a depth of more and all crop residue should be left on the soil or plowed
than 80 inches, is brownish yellow fine sand. under. Irrigation is needed for nearly all crops.
nc 8inhes sois inge sma o This soil is suitable for growing citrus trees in areas
Included with these soils in mapping are small reeas of that are relatively free from feezing temperatures. A
natural soils which have not been altered. Also included cover of close-growing plants is needed between the
are small areas which have less than 20 inches of fill trees to protect the soil from blowing and washing during
material and areas where small amounts of soil material heavy rains. In established groves, good yields of fruit
such as sandy loam, sandy clay loam, and sandy clay can be obtained without irrigation, but the highest yields
are mixed with the sand. In some areas, scattered can be obtained on a regular basis if irrigation is used.
pieces of hard limestone are present. The inclusions This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
generally make up less than 20 percent of the map unit. crops. Deep-rooting Coastal bermudagrass and the
The depth to the water table is variable, but ranges improved bahiagrasses are well suited, but yields are
from about 20 inches to more than 72 inches, depending reduced by periodic droughts. Fertilizer and lime should
on thickness of the fill material and drainage of the be applied on a regular basis. Grazing should be
underlying soil. In most excavated areas, the water table controlled to maintain plant vigor and a good ground
is below a depth of 72 inches. Permeability is variable, cover.
but generally it is very rapid. The available water capacity This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree
is also variable but generally is very low. Both natural production. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
fertility and the organic matter content are low. plant competition are the main management concerns.
These soils have not been assigned to a capability Slash pine is the most productive species to plant.
subclass or a range site. This soil is in capability subclass Ills and in the
Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site.
25-Jonesville fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This nearly level to gently sloping, well drained soil is on 26-Narcoossee fine sand. This somewhat poorly
the uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape and drained soil is on low knolls and ridges in the flatwoods.
commonly are somewhat long and narrow. Areas of this Individual areas are irregular in shape. Slopes are less
soil are in the western part of the county, slightly inland than 2 percent.
from the coast. They tend to parallel the coast line. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
Slopes are smooth to concave, about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish







34 Soil survey



brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is fine plant competition are the main management concerns.
sand about 9 inches thick. It is dark brown in the upper 3 Slash pine is the best species to plant.
inches and dark gray in the lower 6 inches. Below the This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in the South
subsoil is a layer of light brownish gray fine sand 10 Florida Flatwoods range site.
inches thick. Below this are a layer of very pale brown
fine sand 9 inches thick and a layer of light yellowish 27-Anclote fine sand. This nearly level, very poorly
brown fine sand, which extends to a depth of 62 inches. drained soil is in depressions along drainageways and
From 62 to 75 inches is pale brown fine sand. low areas surrounding some inland bodies of water.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Individual areas range from somewhat oblong to nearly
Adamsville and Smyrna soils. Also included are very circular. Slopes commonly are concave and are less
similar soils which have a second dark-colored sandy than 2 percent.
subsoil. This second subsoil is commonly at a depth of Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 14
75 inches or more. The included soils make up about 20 inches thick. The upper half is black and the lower half is
percent of the map unit. very dark gray. Below the surface layer is fine sand,
In most years, under natural conditions, the water which extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. It is
table is at a depth of 2 to 3.5 feet for 4 to 6 months. grayish brown in the upper 8 inches, light brownish gray
During extended dry periods, the water table recedes to in the next 13 inches, and gray fine sand to a depth of
a depth of more than 60 inches. During the wet season, 80 inches or more.
after heavy rains, the water table may briefly rise above Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
a depth of 2 feet. The available water capacity is very Basinger, Pompano, and Sellers soils. The included soils
low or low. Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
all layers except in the subsoil, which has moderately In most years, under natural conditions, the water
rapid permeability. table is near or above the surface during wet seasons
A large part of the acreage of this soil is in natural for 3 to 6 months. The water table recedes to a depth of
vegetation of slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak, laurel more than 20 inches during dry seasons. The available
oak, willow oak, water oak, and an understory of water capacity is medium in the surface layer and low in
greenbrier, sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, creeping the other layers. Permeability is rapid throughout
bluestem, lovegrass, and lopsided indiangrass. However, internal drainage is slow, impeded by a high
In its natural state, this soil is severely limited for water table. Natural fertility and the organic matter
cultivated crops because of periodic wetness. The content of this soil are high in the surface layer and low
number of crops that can be grown on this soil is very in the other layers.
limited unless intensive water control measures are The natural vegetation is cypress, cabbage palm, bay,
used. This soil is suitable for many crops if a water and pond pine. Grasses include maidencane, giant
control system that removes excess water in wet cutgrass, low panicum, sand cordgrass, and other
seasons and provides subsurface irrigation in dry perennial grasses.
seasons is installed. Soil-improving crops and the This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops unless it is
residue of all other crops should be plowed under, drained. If wetness is controlled, this soil is well suited to
Fertilizer and lime should be supplied according to the many locally important crops. A well designed and
needs of the crop. maintained water control system can remove excess
This soil is well suited to citrus trees if a water control water rapidly during heavy rains. Other important soil
system that removes excess water from the soil to a management practices are good seedbed preparation,
depth of about 4 feet is installed. The trees should be crop rotation, and regular application of fertilizer. Cover
planted on beds. A cover of close-growing vegetation crops should be rotated with row crops and should
should be maintained between the trees to protect the remain on the soil two-thirds of the time. All crop residue
soil from blowing in dry weather and from water erosion and cover crops should be plowed under.
during heavy rains. The trees should have regular The soil is not suitable for citrus trees unless it is
applications of fertilizer and, for highest yields, should be drained. If water is intensively controlled, those areas
irrigated in seasons of low rainfall. Citrus should not be that are not subject to damage from cold are moderately
grown in areas of this soil that are frequently subject to suited to citrus trees. The trees should be planted on
freezing temperatures. beds, and close-growing vegetation should be
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses. A maintained between the trees. Fertilizer should be added
simple water control system is needed to remove excess on a regular basis.
surface water in times of heavy rainfall. Fertilizer should This soil is too wet for most improved pasture grasses
be supplied on a regular basis. Grazing should be and legumes. Simple drainage measures are needed to
carefully controlled for maximum production. remove excess surface water. If water is adequately
This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree controlled, such plants as pangolagrass, bahiagrasses,
production. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and and clovers are well suited to this soil. These plants






Pasco County, Florida 35



grow well when they are properly fertilized and limed. This complex is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus
Grazing should be controlled for best yields. trees, or pasture grasses or to use as woodland because
This soil has high potential for longleaf pine and slash of the hazard of frequent flooding and the high salt
pine production, but a system designed to remove content.
excess surface water is needed before trees can be This complex is in capability subclass VIllIw and in the
planted. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are Salt Marsh range site.
the main management concerns. Slash pine is the best
tree to plant. 30-Okeelanta-Terra Ceia association. This
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in the association consists of nearly level, very poorly drained
Maidencane Pond range site. soils that occur in a regular and repeating pattern. The
landscape is a low swampy area that has a few low
28-Pits. Pits are excavations from which soil and ridges. The Okeelanta soils are on the edge of areas of
geologic material have been removed, primarily for use the association, where the organic material is thinner.
in road construction or for foundations. Some pits were Areas are mostly long and broad, and individual areas of
constructed to retain runoff water. Small areas of waste each soil range from about 25 to 100 acres. Slopes are
material, mostly mixed sand and sandy loam, are piled or dominantly less than 1 percent.
scattered around the edge of the pits. Pits, locally called Okeelanta soils make up about 60 percent of this
borrow pits, are mostly small, but a few are large. Many association. Typically, they are black and very dark gray
of the pits have been abandoned. Pits have little or no muck to a depth of about 27 inches. Below the muck is
value for agriculture or pine tree production. black and gray fine sand.
This unit has not been assigned to a capability Okeelanta soils have a water table that is at or near
subclass or a range site. the surface except during extended dry periods.
Permeability is rapid throughout. The available water
29-Lacoochee complex. This complex consists of capacity is very high in the organic layers and low in the
Lacoochee fine sandy loam and other similar nearly mineral layers. The organic matter content is very high,
level, poorly drained soils in low, broad tidal marsh and natural fertility is medium.
areas. These soils are so intermingled that they can not Terra Ceia soils make up about 30 percent of the
be separated at the scale selected for mapping. association. Typically, Terra Ceia soils are dark reddish
Individual areas of the complex are irregular in shape. brown or black muck to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 Terra Ceia soils have a water table that is at or above
percent. the surface except during extended dry periods. Runoff
Lacoochee fine sandy loam makes up about 40 to 60 is slow. Internal drainage and permeability are rapid. The
percent of each mapped area. Typically, the surface available water capacity is very high. The organic matter
layer is light brownish gray fine sandy loam about 8 content is very high, and natural fertility is medium.
inches thick. It is high in carbonates. The subsurface Soils of minor extent make up about 10 percent of the
layer is dark grayish brown loamy fine sand about 3 association. Anclote soils are the most common of the
inches thick. The subsoil is brownish yellow fine sand to minor soils. Also included are small areas of Myakka and
a depth of about 18 inches. Below 18 inches is white Basinger soils. These soils are on low ridges scattered
soft limestone. throughout the association.
About 20 to 40 percent of the complex consists of This association is still in natural vegetation, which is
soils that are similar to the Lacoochee soil except that mostly sweetbay, sweetgum, cypress, longleaf pine,
limestone is at a depth of slightly less than 40 inches. In cabbage palm, water oak, and an understory of
many places, these similar soils have a loamy subsoil. maidencane, sawgrass, royal fern, cinnamon fern, and
About 12 percent of the complex consists of soils that various aquatic plants. The vegetation on the marsh
are similar to the Lacoochee soil except that they have a areas is mostly sawgrass.
surface layer that is not calcareous. About 10 percent of Okeelanta and Terra Ceia soils are not suitable for
the complex is scattered small areas of Aripeka and cultivation in their native state. However, if a water
Homosassa soils. Limestone boulders are common on control system is installed, they are well suited to some
the surface. specialty crops and improved pasture grasses. These
The water table fluctuates with the tide, and the soil is soils are not suitable for production of citrus trees or
flooded during normal high tides. The available water pine trees.
capacity is high in the surface layer and medium below. These soils are in capability subclass IIIw and in the
Permeability is moderate in the surface layer and Fresh Marsh range site.
moderately rapid below.
The natural vegetation is seashore saltgrass, 31-Udalfic Arents-Urban land complex. This
needlegrass rush, and gulf cordgrass. Vegetation is complex consists of small areas of nearly level Udalfic
commonly sparse. Arents and Urban land that are so intermingled they can







36 Soil survey



not be separated at the scale used for mapping. The potential yields of crops that are suited to this soil. Row
complex is in the western part of the county, near the crops should be planted on the contour in strips
Gulf of Mexico. Slopes are predominantly 0 to 2 percent, alternating with strips of close-growing crops. Crop
but they are much steeper along canal banks. rotations should keep close-growing crops on the soil at
About 40 to 60 percent of the complex consists of least three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving crops and
Udalfic Arents. Udalfic Arents are highly variable within all crop residue should be left on the ground or plowed
short distances, but one of the more common profiles is under. Only a few crops produce good yields without
mixed black fine sand and dark gray, gray, and brownish irrigation. Irrigation is generally feasible where irrigation
yellow sandy loam, sandy clay loam, and sandy clay in water is readily available.
the upper 30 inches. The next 15 inches is a mixture of In places that are relatively free from freezing
brownish yellow sandy clay loam and black sand temperatures, the soil is suitable for citrus trees. A cover
containing many fragments of limestone, which range up of close-growing plants is needed between the trees to
to 3 inches in diameter. Below this is a layer of grayish protect the soil from blowing or washing. Good yields of
brown loamy fine sand 15 inches thick. Below this is a citrus can be obtained in some years without irrigation,
layer of brown sandy loam 11 inches thick. White but an irrigation system designed to maintain optimum
limestone rock is at a depth of 61 inches. moisture conditions insures best yields.
About 30 to 45 percent of the complex is Urban land, This soil is moderately suitable for pasture and hay
which is covered by shopping centers, parking lots, crops. Deep-rooting plants such as Coastal
houses, buildings, streets, sidewalks, and other related bermudagrass and bahiagrasses are well suited, but
structures. yields are reduced by periodic drought Fertilizer and lime
Included with this complex in mapping are sanitary should be applied on a regular basis. Grazing should be
landfill sites. The mixed soil materials covering the waste controlled to permit plants to recover from grazing and
material are Udalfic Arents. maintain their vigor.
The Udalfic Arents make up mainly lawns, vacant lots, This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree
and playgrounds. Present land use precludes the use of production. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
these soils for cultivated crops, pasture, citrus, or competition from undesirable plants are the main
woodland. These soils are poorly suited to lawn grasses management concerns. Slash pine is the best species to
and shrubs unless topsoil is spread over the surface to plant.
make a suitable root zone. This soil is in capability subclass IVs and in the
The soils in this complex have not been assigned to a Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site.
capability subclass or a range site.
34-Pompano fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
32-Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This drained soil is on broad low flats and in poorly defined
nearly level to gently sloping, excessively drained soil is drainageways. Individual areas are irregular to elongated
along ridgetops and on low hillsides in the uplands. in shape. Slopes are generally less than 1 percent
Slopes are smooth to concave. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine about 7 inches thick. Below, fine sand extends to a
sand about 8 inches thick. The next 52 inches is depth of 80 inches or more. It is grayish brown in the
yellowish brown fine sand. Below this, and extending to upper 8 inches, very pale brown in the next 18 inches,
a depth of more than 80 inches, is brownish yellow fine and light brownish gray in the next 22 inches. Below this,
sand. to a depth of 80 inches or more, it is very pale brown.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Arredondo, Candler, Orlando, and Tavares soils. The Adamsville, Anclote, and Basinger soils. The included
included soils make up less than 15 percent of the map soils generally make up less than 10 percent of the map
unit. unit.
Permeability is rapid throughout the soil, and the water In most years, under natural conditions, the water
table is below a depth of 120 inches. The available water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 6
capacity is very low in all layers. The natural fertility and months. Even in drier years, it is within a depth of 30
organic matter content are both low. inches for 9 months or more. The available water
The native vegetation on this soil is bluejack oak, capacity is very low. Natural fertility is low, and
blackjack oak, turkey oak, live oak, scattered longleaf permeability is very rapid.
pine, and an understory of scattered sawpalmetto, A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation of
pineland threeawn, bluestem, and paspalum. slash pine, cypress, cabbage palm, oak, magnolia, and
This deep sand is very severely limited for cultivated hickory. The understory is creeping bluestem, lopsided
crops. Intensive soil management practices are required indiangrass, blue maidencane, Florida paspalum,
when cultivated crops are grown. Droughtiness and rapid pineland threeawn, low panicum, grassleaf goldaster,
leaching of plant nutrients reduce the variety and inkberry, and sawpalmetto.







Pasco County, Florida 37



Under natural conditions, this soil is very severely limestone. The included soils make up about 16 percent
limited for cultivated crops because of wetness and poor of any mapped area.
soil quality. The number of crops that can be grown on In most years, under natural conditions, the water
this soil is limited unless very intensive management table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 4 months
practices are followed. If good water control and soil- and within a depth of 40 inches for more than 6 months.
improving measures are used, this soil is suitable for a The available water capacity of this EauGallie soil is very
number of vegetable crops. A water control system is low in the surface layer, the subsurface layer, and the
needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and to layer between the upper and lower parts of the subsoil,
provide water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. and it is medium to low in the subsoil. Natural fertility is
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows. low. Permeability is moderate to moderately rapid in the
Fertilizer and lime should be supplied according to the subsoil and is rapid in the other layers.
needs of the crops. A large part of the acreage of this soil is in open
In its natural condition, this soil is poorly suited to forest. The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, slash
citrus trees. It can be made suitable for citrus by pine, and an understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry,
installing a carefully designed water control system that waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn.
maintains the water table below a depth of about 4 feet. This soil is very severely limited for the production of
Trees should be planted on beds to help increase the cultivated crops because of wetness and poor soil
effective depth to the water table, and a plant cover quality. Only a limited number of crops can be grown on
should be maintained between the trees. Fertilizer and this soil unless very intensive management practices are
lime are needed on a regular basis. followed. This soil can be made suitable for a number of
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses. vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover vegemove crops. A water in the wetter sem is need to
grow well if they are well managed. A water control provide water for susurface irrigation in ry seasons.
system that removes excess surface water after heavy Crop residue and soil-improving crops should be plowed
rains is needed. Fertilizer and lime should be applied on under. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of
a regular basis, and grazing should be controlled to undereedbed on should include bedding of
prevent weakening of the plants. the rows.
This soil has moderate potential for longleaf pine and This soil is suited to citrus trees only after installation
slash pine production. A water control system to remove of a water control system that maintains the water table
excess surface water is needed in order to realize the below a depth of 4 feet. The trees should be planted on
potential productivity. Seedling mortality and equipment beds to help increase the effective depth to the water
limitations are the main management concerns. Slash table, and a plant cover should be maintained between
pine is the best species to plant. the trees. Trees should not be planted in areas which
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the are subject to frequent freezing.
Slough range site. The soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses.
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover
35-EauGallie fine sand. This nearly level, poorly grow well if well managed. Water control measures are
drained soil is on low ridges in the flatwoods. Slopes are needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. rains. Fertilizer and lime should be applied on a regular
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 7 basis, and grazing should be controlled to maintain the
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 15 vigor of the plants.
inches thick. It is gray in the upper 2 inches, light gray in This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree
the next 4 inches, and white in the lower 9 inches. The production. The main management problems are
upper part of the subsoil is fine sand about 13 inches equipment limitations during periods of heavy rainfall,
thick. It is very dark grayish brown in the first 3 inches, seedling mortality, and plant competition. Best results
dark brown in the next 5 inches, and mixed dark brown are achieved if excess surface water is removed. Slash
and dark reddish brown in the last 5 inches. Between the pine is the best species to plant.
upper and lower parts of the subsoil is a layer of light This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the South
brownish gray fine sand about 16 inches thick. The lower Florida Flatwoods range site.
part of the subsoil is grayish brown fine sandy loam in
the first 3 inches, light gray sandy clay loam in the next 5 36-Candler-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent
inches, and greenish gray sandy clay loam to a depth of slopes. This complex consists of areas of nearly level to
more than 80 inches. sloping Candler fine sand and of areas of Candler fine
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of sand that has been altered for use as Urban land. These
Vero and Pomona soils. Also included, west of U.S. areas are so small and intermixed that it is not practical
Highway 19, are EauGallie soils that are underlain by to separate them at the scale used in mapping.
soft limestone containing scattered fragments of hard Individual areas are symmetrical in shape.







38 Soil survey



About 45 to 65 percent of the complex is Candler fine This unit has not been assigned to a capability
sand. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about subclass or a range site.
4 inches thick. The subsurface layer consists of pale
brown, brown, and light yellowish brown fine sand to a 38-Urban land. In this miscellaneous area, the
depth of about 60 inches. Between 60 and 80 inches is original soil has been modified through cutting, grading,
a very pale brown fine sand that contains lamellae of filling, and shaping for urban development. Major soil
dark yellowish brown sandy loam and loamy fine sand properties that originally limited urban uses have been
that range from 1/16 to 1 inch in thickness and have a overcome in an acceptable manner. Urban facilities such
total thickness of about 4 inches. as paved parking areas, streets, industrial buildings,
The water table is below a depth of 80 inches. In the houses, shopping centers, and underground utilities have
upper 60 inches of this soil, the available water capacity been constructed on 75 percent or more of the mapped
is very low and permeability is very rapid. Below 60 area. In the places not covered by urban facilities, the
inches, the available water capacity is low and soils generally have been so altered that identification is
permeability is rapid. Both natural fertility and the organic not feasible.
matter content are very low. Urban land is primarily in downtown areas, shopping
About 20 to 45 percent of the complex is Urban land. districts, industrial parks, and along main thoroughfares
This land is covered by streets, driveways, houses and of cities and towns. It is also in isolated shopping
other buildings, parking lots, and other similar structures. centers and small business areas at intersections of
Included in mapping are areas of other sandy soils, primary roads. In places, there are small, less intensively
mostly Astatula fine sand. developed areas and small areas of identifiable soils.
Present use precludes the use of the Candler soil for This miscellaneous area has not been assigned to a
crops, pasture, and pine tree production. capability subclass or a range site.
This soil has not been assigned to a capability 39-Chobee soils, frequently flooded. These nearly
subclass or to a range site. level, very poorly drained soils are in swamps along the
37-Paola-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent flood plains of most of the major rivers and streams in
slope. Thisa lnd com aex 0o 8prcen the county. Most areas of the unit are long and narrow
slopes. This map unit consists of areas of Urban land and tend to parallel the streams and rivers. Some large
and nearly level to sloping, excessively drained Paola areas lie slightly removed from the streams, but they are
soils. The Paola soils make up 45 to 65 percent of the connected to the streams by narrow flood channels. The
map unit, and Urban land makes up 30 to 45 percent. unit consists of Chobee soils and closely similar soils


in mappil ng. mapped area. Individual areas of each soil are large
A typical Paola soil has a surface layer of gray fine enough to map separately in most map units. However,
sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is white because of inaccessibility and present and predicted use
fine sand to a depth of about 26 inches. The subsoil is they were not separated in mapping.
brownish yellow fine sand mixed with a few tongues of In one of the more typical pedons of Chobee soils, the
white fine sand from the subsurface layer. Below a depth surface layer is fine sandy loam about 11 inches thick. It
of 57 inches, and extending to a depth of 80 inches or is black in the upper 6 inches and very dark gray in the
more, is very pale brown fine sand. lower part. The subsoil is calcareous and extends to a
The water table is below 72 inches. Both the available depth of about 56 inches. In the upper 14 inches it is
water capacity and natural fertility are very low. gray sandy clay loam, and below this, it is greenish gray
Permeability is very rapid. sandy clay loam which has olive brown mottles in the
The Urban land part of the unit consists of streets, lower part. The substratum, extending from a depth of 56
parking lots, buildings, and other structures that so inches to 80 inches or more, is mixed greenish gray and
obscure or alter the soils that identification is not light greenish gray calcareous sandy clay loam.
feasible. Under natural conditions, the water table of the
Included in mapping, and making up less than 10 Chobee soils is within 10 inches of the surface for more
percent of the unit, are small areas of Astatula soils. than 6 months in most years. Flooding occurs frequently
The areas of soil that are not covered by manmade during the rainy season. The duration and extent of
objects are mostly in lawn grasses and shrubs. Regular flooding are variable and are related directly to the
watering and applications of fertilizer are needed for intensity and frequency of rainfall. In most years, the
good lawns. Sand pine, scrub live oak, turkey oak, and lowest lying area and the areas along the streams are
bluejack oak are common in this unit. flooded during the rainy season. During periods of
Present land use precludes the use of the Paola soils intense, long-lasting rainfall, nearly all of the area of
for cultivated crops, pasture, or woodland. these soils may be flooded. Flooding normally lasts from







Pasco County, Florida 39


1 to 4 months. Runoff and internal drainage are slow. sawgrass, swamp primrose, buttonbush, smartweed, and
The available water capacity is medium, and natural sedges.
fertility is low. Permeability is moderately rapid in the The soils in this map unit are not suited to cultivated
surface layer and slow to very slow in the subsoil, crops and citrus trees because they are subject to
Some of the soils similar to Chobee soils are on a frequent flooding and are very poorly drained. In order to
similar landscape position and are subject to the same make these soils suitable for cultivated crops and citrus,
flooding. Typically, the surface layer is black loamy fine flooding must be prevented and drainage outlets must be
sand 18 inches thick. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches installed. Both of these measures are difficult to
or more, is very dark gray and light gray sandy loam. implement, since they generally require regulating the
These soils have a water table within a depth of 10 streamflow. If water can be controlled, these soils are
inches for more than 6 months during most years. well suited to many cultivated crops and to improved
Flooding occurs frequently during the rainy season. The pasture crops.
available water capacity is medium in the surface layer These soils have high potential for pine tree
and low in the subsoil. Permeability is moderately rapid production if water control measures can be developed.
in the surface layer and moderate in the other layers. They are well suited to habitat for wetland and woodland
Other soils similar to Chobee soils differ by having wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily developed, and
limestone at a depth of about 30 inches. These soils are the vegetation provides abundant food and shelter.
in small areas scattered throughout the map unit but are These soils are in capability subclass Vw. They have
most significant in the southeastern part of the county. not been assigned to a range site.
Typically, the surface layer is black and very dark grayish 40-Paisley fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
brown fine sand about 10 inches thick. Below this is nearly level, poorly
brown fine sand about 10 inches thick. Below this is a drained soil is on low broad ridges in the flatwoods.
layer of dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The Individual areas are irregular in shape. Slopes are
subsoil extends from a depth of 14 inches to 30 inches smooth to concave and range from 0 to 1 percent.
and is light gray sandy clay loam. Hard limestone is at a Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 3
depth of 30 inches. These similar soils have a water inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish brown fine
table within a depth of 10 inches for more than 6 months sand 7 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay about 42
during most years. They are subject to frequent flooding inches thick. It is light gray in the upper 31 inches and
during the rainy season. The available water capacity is mixed light gray and gray in the lower 11 inches. The
medium to low in all layers above the rock. Permeability substratum is light gray clay and extends to a depth of
is rapid in the sandy layers and moderate in the subsoil. 80 inches or more.
Other soils similar to Chobee soils are slightly less Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
subject to flooding but are still frequently flooded. These Vero soils. Also included are small areas of similar soils
similar soils are very slightly elevated on the landscape which have a weak organic stained layer 2 to 3 inches
and are flooded for slightly shorter periods. Typically, the thick over the sandy clay subsoil. The included soils
surface layer is black fine sand about 12 inches thick. make up less than 18 percent of the map unit.
Below this, and extending to a depth of about 30 inches, The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
is grayish brown fine sand. Next is about 9 inches of for 2 to 6 months during most years and above the
dark gray sandy clay loam. Below this and extending to a surface for less than 1 month in wet seasons. The
depth of 80 inches or more is dark gray and gray sandy available water capacity is low in the surface and
loam. The water table of these similar soils is at a depth subsurface layers and is high in the subsoil. Permeability
of less than 10 inches for more than 6 months in most is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and is slow
years. These soils are frequently flooded. The available in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low, but plant response
water capacity is medium in the surface layer, low in the to fertilizer is good.
subsurface layer, and medium in the subsoil. The natural vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, live
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers oak, sweetgum, and an understory of gallberry, pineland
and is moderately slow in the subsoil. threeawn, cabbage palm, hairy panicum, panicum,
Minor soils make up about 25 percent of the mapped grapevine, and sedge.
areas. Pineda, Nobleton, and Zephyr soils are scattered This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops
throughout most areas but are most significant in the because of wetness. Cobblestones and boulders
eastern and south-central parts of the county. Okeelanta scattered on the soil surface in some areas may interfere
and Terra Ceia soils are common minor soils west of with tillage operations. If adequately drained, this soil is
U.S. Highway 41. suited to several important crops. A water control system
Nearly all the acreage of this map unit remains in is needed to remove excess surface water and internal
natural vegetation of water oak, cypress, elm, ash, water rapidly. The slowly permeable subsoil makes an
hickory, red maple, and sweetgum. The understory adequate drainage system difficult to establish and
vegetation is water-tolerant plants such as maidencane, maintain. Seedbeds should be well prepared and the







40 Soil survey



rows should be bedded to aid in lowering the effective extending to a depth of 32 inches. The subsoil is fine
depth of the water table. A crop rotation system that sand. It is dark reddish brown in the upper 9 inches and
keeps close-growing, soil-improving crops on the soil at dark brown in the next 9 inches. Below that, to a depth
least two-thirds of the time is needed. These crops and of 80 inches or more, it consists of dark yellowish brown
residue of all other crops should be plowed under, and dark brown fine sand.
Fertilizer should be applied according to crop needs and Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
lime should be added occasionally. have loamy layers beneath the subsoil. Also included are
This soil is well suited to citrus trees if water is small areas of Immokalee, Myakka, and Narcoossee
controlled. The water control system should maintain soils. The included soils make up about 5 percent of the
good drainage to a depth of about 4 feet. The trees map unit.
should be planted on beds to aid in increasing the The water table is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1
effective depth to the water table. Maintaining a cover to 4 months and at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 8
crop of close-growing vegetation between the trees months during most years. The available water capacity
protects the soil from blowing in dry weather and from is very low except in the subsoil, where it is medium.
washing during rains. Fertilizer and lime should be Natural fertility is low. Permeability is very rapid in the
applied as needed. surface and subsurface layers and is moderately rapid in
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. Water the subsoil.
control measures are needed to remove excess surface The natural vegetation on this soil is dwarf live oak,
water during heavy rains. Coastal bermudagrass, sand live oak, sawpalmetto, longleaf pine, slash pine,
bahiagrasses, tall fescue, and clover are well suited. pineland threeawn, gallberry, waxmyrtle, running oak,
Good management includes water control, fertilization, fetterbush, creeping bluestem, broomsedge bluestem,
liming, and control of grazing. splitbeard bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, switchgrass,
This soil has very high potential for pine tree panicum, and paspalum.
production. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, This soil is not suited to most commonly cultivated
windthrow hazard, and plant competition are
management concerns. Slash pine is the best species to crops. It is poorly suited to citrus trees. Only fair yields
plantagement can be obtained, even under a high level of
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in the South management. For best yields, sprinkler irrigation should
Florida Flatwoods range site. be provided. Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular
basis.
41-Pits-Dumps complex. This complex consists of The soil is only moderately suited to improved pasture
Pits, from which limestone, phosphate, or other material grasses, even if good management practices are used. It
has been or is being removed, and Dumps, where the is better suited to bahiagrasses than to other types of
limestone and overburden have been piled. It includes grasses, and it is not suited to clovers. Droughtiness is
exposed limestone ready for mining and piles of topsoil the major limitation except during the wet season.
that is being saved to aid in revegetating the area after Fertilizer and lime are needed on a regular basis.
mining operations have ceased. Mapping individual areas Grazing should be well controlled to maintain highest
of Pits and Dumps is not practical. yields and good ground cover.
Mining operations are still active in most areas of this This soil has moderate potential for pine tree
complex, but a few areas have been abandoned. These production. Seedling mortality, plant competition, and
areas are of little use agriculturally, but have high equipment mobility are the major management concerns.
potential for wildlife habitat and have esthetic value if Sand pine is the best species to plant.
reshaped and revegetated to conform with existing This soil is in capability subclass Vis and in the Sand
landscapes. Many of the pits contain water. These Pine Hills range site.
areas, mapped separately on the soil map as water, may
have high potential for fish if stocked and managed 43-Arredondo fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
properly. This nearly level to gently sloping, well drained soil is on
This unit has not been assigned to a capability uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape. Slopes
subclass or a range site. are smooth to concave.
Typically, the surface layer consists of dark grayish
42-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This brown fine sand about 5 inches thick and dark gray fine
nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is about
soil is on low ridges in the flatwoods. Individual areas are 50 inches thick. It is yellowish brown fine sand in the
irregular in shape. Slopes are smooth to concave, upper 10 inches and light yellowish brown fine sand in
Typically, the surface layer consists of dark gray fine the remaining 40 inches. The subsoil is brownish yellow
sand 3 inches thick and, below that, gray fine sand 3 fine sand in the upper 5 inches. In the next 9 inches it is
inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand yellowish brown sandy clay loam mottled with red. Below







Pasco County, Florida 41



that, to a depth of 87 inches or more, is light yellowish Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
brown sandy clay loam that is mottled. fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils in about 49 inches thick. It is yellowish brown fine sand in
which plinthite makes up more than 5 percent of the the upper 6 inches, brownish yellow fine sand in the next
subsoil. Also included are small areas of Candler, 26 inches, and light yellowish brown fine sand in the
Kendrick, Lake, Millhopper, and Sparr soils. The included lower 17 inches. The subsoil is strong brown loamy fine
soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit. sand in the upper 3 inches and strong brown sandy clay
In this Arredondo soil, the available water capacity is loam in the next 20 inches. Below this, to a depth of
low in the surface and subsurface layers and is high in about 80 inches or more, it is strong brown fine sandy
the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and loam.
subsurface layers and is moderate or moderately rapid in Included with this soil in mapping are soils that are
the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. similar but have over 5 percent plinthite, and soils that
Most areas of this soil are cleared and planted to are similar but have a slope gradient less than 5 percent
pasture grasses or citrus trees. The natural vegetation in or greater than 8 percent. Also included are small areas
the remaining areas is loblolly pine, slash pine, longleaf of Candler, Kendrick, Lake, and Sparr soils. The included
pine, live oak, laurel oak, water oak, magnolia, hickory, soils make up about 20 percent of the map unit.
dogwood, and an understory of bluestem, dwarf The available water capacity is low in the surface and
huckleberry, smilax, yellow jasmine, paspalum, pineland subsurface layers and is medium to high in the subsoil.
threeawn, and other native grasses and weeds. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops. and ls modernt e orility ismod low. lately rapid in the subsoil.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are Natural fertility is low.
the principal limitations for row crops. Special soil- Some areas of this soil have been cleared and are
improving measures are needed if this soil is cultivated. mostly in pasture or citrus. The natural vegetation in
Strips of cultivated row crops should be planted on the wooded areas is slash pine, longleaf pine, or loblolly
contour in alternation with strips of close-growing crops. pine, live oak, laurel oak, water oak, hickory, magnolia,
The crop rotation system should keep the soil under
close-growing vegetation at least two-thirds of the time. huckleberry, greenbrier, yellow jasmine, paspalum,
pineland threeawn, and other native grasses and weeds.
Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue should fourhs o threetime Crop native g les and we
Soil-improving cover crops and all crop residue should This soil is very severely limited for cultivated crops
frequent fertilizing and liming. Irrigation of a few high- mainly because of droughtiness and steepness of slope.
value crops can be feasible where irrigation water is Special measures to improve the soil and control erosion
readily available.should be used if cultivated crops are grown.
readily available sues Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and
This soil is well suited to citrus trees in places that are erosion are the principal limitations of this soil for row
relatively free from freezing temperatures. A ground crops. Cultivated row crops should be planted on the
cover of close-growing plants is needed between the contour in strips alternating with strips of close-growing
trees to protect the soil from blowing. Good yields can crops. The crop rotation system should keep the soil
generally be obtained without irrigation. Where irrigation under close-growing, soil-improving crops at least three-
water is readily available, however, the increased yields fourths of the time. Crop residue should be left on the
make irrigation feasible. soil or plowed under. Frequent fertilizing and liming are
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. Deep- needed for all crops.
rooting plants such as Coastal bermudagrasses and This soil is well suited to citrus trees in places that are
bahiagrasses normally grow well if the soil is adequately relatively free from freezing temperatures. A ground
fertilized and limed. Yields are occasionally reduced by cover of close-growing vegetation is needed between
extended drought. Grazing should be controlled for the trees to protect the soil from blowing and washing.
highest yields. Good yields of citrus can be obtained in most years
This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree without irrigation.
production. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
plant competition are the main management concerns, crops. Under normal conditions, deep-rooting plants such
Slash pine is the best species to plant. as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass grow well if
This soil is in capability subclass Ills and in the Mixed the soil is fertilized and limed. Yields are occasionally
Hardwood-Pine Forest range site. restricted by extended drought. Grazing should be
controlled for highest yields.
44-Arredondo fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree
This sloping, well drained soil is on uplands. Individual production. Equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and
areas are long, narrow, and winding. Slopes are smooth plant competition are the main management concerns.
to concave. Slash pine is the best species to plant.







42 Soil survey



This soil is in capability subclass IVs and in the Mixed The potential for pine tree production is high.
Hardwood-Pine Forest range site. Moderate seedling mortality, equipment limitations, and
plant competition are the main management concerns.
45-Kendrick fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This Slash pine and loblolly pine are the best species to
well drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is on plant.
uplands. Areas are large to small and are irregular in This soil is in capability subclass lie. It has not been
shape. Slopes are smooth to concave, assigned to a range site.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand about 7 inches thick. Next is a layer of fine sand 46-Cassia fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
about 21 inches thick. It is yellowish brown in the upper nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
7 inches and light yellowish brown and brownish yellow soil is on low ridges in the flatwoods. Individual areas are
in the lower 14 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of irregular in shape. Slopes are smooth to concave.
73 inches. In the upper 4 inches it is yellowish brown Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 9
sandy clay loam. In the next 14 inches it is mottled, inches thick. The subsurface layer is about 9 inches
yellowish brown sandy clay loam, and in the next 27 thick. It is gray fine sand in the upper 5 inches and light
inches it is mottled, brownish yellow sandy clay loam. gray fine sand in the lower 4 inches. The subsoil is fine
Below this to a depth of about 80 inches is mixed very sand about 13 inches thick. It is dark reddish brown in
pale brown, reddish yellow, and pink sandy clay loam. the upper 8 inches and dark brown in the lower 5 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The next layer, to a depth of about 65 inches, is brown
Arredondo, Blichton, and Nobleton soils. Also included fine sand. Below that is very dark gray fine sand.
are small areas of Kendrick soils that have slope of 5 to Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
8 percent. The included areas make up about 15 percent Adamsville, Narcoossee, Myakka, and Pomello soils. The
of the map unit. included soils make up about 16 percent of any mapped
The water table is below a depth of 72 inches. The area.
available water capacity is low in the surface and The water table is at a depth of 15 to 40 inches for a
subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil. Natural period of about 6 months in most years and recedes to a
fertility is medium. Permeability is rapid above the subsoil depth of more than 40 inches during very dry seasons.
and moderate in the subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the surface and
The natural vegetation is a forest of longleaf pine, subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil. Natural
loblolly pine, slash pine, magnolia, dogwood, laurel oak, fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
live oak, water oak, and an understory of bluestem subsurface layers, moderate to moderately rapid in the
species, indiangrass, hairy panicum, and annual forbs. subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. Internal drainage
This soil is limited for cultivated crops because of the and runoff are slow.
slope. It is moderately suited to many crops grown in the The natural vegetation is longleaf pine and slash pine,
area. Erosion control measures are needed. These with an undergrowth of sawpalmetto, running oak,
include contour cultivation of row crops in alternate strips huckleberry, pineland threeawn, creeping bluestem,
with cover crops and the use of a crop rotation system lovegrass, and lopsided indiangrass. Most areas remain
that keeps cover crops on the soil at least half of the in forest.
time. Cover crops and all crop residue should be left on This soil is not suitable for cultivated field crops
the soil or plowed under. For maximum yields, good because of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
seedbed preparation, fertilizing, and liming are needed. nutrients.
This soil is drought in dry seasons, and yields are often The soil is only moderately suited to citrus trees. In
reduced by untimely drought. Irrigation of some high- some years, trees produce well without irrigation, but for
value crops is feasible where irrigation water is readily best results irrigation should be used wherever water is
available, available.
This soil is well suited to citrus trees in areas that are The suitability of this soil for improved pasture grasses
relatively free from freezing temperatures in winter. A is moderate under good management. Grasses such as
ground cover of close-growing vegetation is needed bahiagrass are best suited. Clover is not suited. Yields
between the trees to protect the soil from blowing and are reduced by periodic drought. Fertilizer and lime
water erosion. Fertilizer and lime should be applied for should be applied on a regular basis. Grazing should be
highest yields. greatly restricted to maintain highest yields and good
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. ground cover.
Improved pasture plants such as clover, tall fescue, This soil has moderate potential for pine tree
Coastal bermudagrass, and the improved bahiagrasses production. Seedling mortality, equipment limitations, and
are well suited. Fertilizing, occasional liming, and plant competition are the major management concerns
controlled grazing are needed to maintain highest yields for commercial tree production. Sand pine is the best
and good ground cover, species to plant.







Pasco County, Florida 43



This soil is in capability subclass VIs and in the Sand capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
Pine Hills range site. is medium in the subsoil.
This soil is moderately limited for cultivated crops
47-Weekiwachee muck. This nearly level, very because of wetness. In the soil's natural state, only
poorly drained organic soil is in the tidal marsh. crops that are tolerant of slight wetness can be grown.
Individual areas are irregular in shape. Slopes are less Water control is needed for highest yields of most crops.
than 1 percent. A crop rotation system that keeps close-growing crops
Typically, the surface is black muck about 31 inches on the soil at least half the time should be followed. Soil-
thick. Beneath the muck is dark gray fine sand about 8 improving cover crops and all crop residue should be left
inches thick. Below this, to a depth of 44 inches, is white on the land or plowed under. For best yields, good
soft limestone surrounding cobblestones and boulders of seedbed preparation, fertilization, and liming are
hard limestone. Below a depth of 44 inches is hard required.
limestone that can be chipped but not dug with a spade. This soil is moderately suited to citrus trees in places
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of that are relatively free from freezing temperatures. A
Lacoochee and Homosassa soils. The included soils ground cover of close-growing vegetation is needed
make up about 15 percent of the map unit. between the trees to minimize erosion. Good yields of
The water table fluctuates with the tide. This soil is citrus can generally be obtained without irrigation, but
flooded during normal daily high tides. The available irrigating when needed produces optimum yields.
water capacity is very high in the organic layers and Fertilizer and lime should be applied as needed.
medium in the mineral layers. Natural fertility is high, and The soil is well suited to use as pasture. Such grasses
permeability is moderately rapid. as Coastal bermudagrass and improved bahiagrasses
The native vegetation is dominantly needlegrass rush, grow well if well managed. Several legumes are also well
seashore saltgrass, marshhay cordgrass, big cordgrass, suited. For highest yields, fertilizer and lime should be
and smooth cordgrass. applied and grazing should be controlled.
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops, citrus This soil has high potential for pine tree production.
trees, pasture grasses, or woodland. The potential for There are no serious management problems. Slash pine
these uses is very low because of the daily hazard of is the best species to plant.
flooding and the high content of salt and sulfur. This soil is in capability subclass llw. It has not been
This soil is in capability subclass VIlIw and in the Salt assigned to a range site.
Marsh range site.
49-Blichton fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. This
48-Lochloosa fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, nearly level, poorly drained soil is on the uplands.
This nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly Individual areas are irregular in shape. Slopes are
drained soil is on the uplands. Individual areas are smooth to concave.
irregular in shape. Slopes are smooth to concave. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is about 16
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is about 29 inches thick. It is grayish brown fine sand in the upper 8
inches thick. It is brown fine sand in the upper 10 inches inches and gray fine sand in the lower 8 inches. The
and very pale brown fine sand in the lower 19 inches. subsoil is gray fine sandy loam to a depth of about 28
The subsoil is yellowish brown fine sandy loam in the inches and gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about 63
first 6 inches and yellowish brown sandy clay loam in the inches.
next 21 inches. Below this is light gray sandy clay loam. Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of have slope of 2 to 5 percent. Also included are similar
similar soils that have thinner surface and subsurface soils in which plinthite makes up less than 5 percent of
layers and small areas of other similar soils that are less the subsoil. Small areas of Flemington Variant,
loamy in the lower part of the subsoil. Also included are Lochloosa, Nobleton, and Wauchula soils are also
small aeas of Blichton, Kendrick, and Sparr soils. The included in mapping. The included soils make up about
included soils make up about 10 percent of the map unit. 18 percent of any mapped area.
The water table is at a depth of 30 to 60 inches for a In most years, under natural conditions, the water
period of 1 to 4 months during most years. It rises to a table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for a
depth of about 15 inches for 1 to 3 weeks during rainy cumulative period of 1 to 4 months. In drier seasons, it
seasons. The water table recedes to a depth of more recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches. The
than 60 inches in the dry season. Wetness is caused by available water capacity is low in the surface and
seepage in the more sloping areas. Permeability is rapid subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil. Natural
in the surface and subsurface layers and is moderate to fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
moderately rapid in the subsoil. The available water subsurface layers and is moderately slow in the subsoil.







44 Soil survey



The natural vegetation in areas of this soil is in which close-growing, soil-improving crops are on the
predominantly slash pine, longleaf pine, loblolly pine, soil three-fourths of the time and row crops are on the
oak, hickory, magnolia, sweetgum, and pineland soil one-fourth of the time should be used. Crop residue
threeawn. and soil-improving crops should be plowed under.
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows
because the rooting zone is restricted by the water table. to lower the effective depth to the water table. Fertilizer
The number of crops that can be grown on this soil is and lime should be supplied according to the needs of
limited unless proper management practices are followed the crops.
(fig. 11). If good water control and soil-improving This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees unless very
measures are used, this soil is well suited to a number of intensive management practices are used. In areas that
vegetable crops. A water control system is needed to are subject to frequent freezing temperatures, it is not
remove excess water in wet seasons. A rotation system suited. If a carefully designed water control system is










































Figure 11.-Excavated pond in a natural drainageway on Blichton fine sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. The more elevated areas of this
soil have been planted to citrus trees and the lower areas to improved pasture grasses.







Pasco County, Florida 45



installed, this soil can be made moderately suitable for If proper water control and soil-improving measures are
citrus production. The use of a water control system used, this soil is well suited to a number of vegetable
combined with the practice of planting the trees on beds crops. A water control system is needed to remove
should keep the effective depth to the water table excess water in wet seasons. A rotation system in which
greater than 3 feet at all times. Other management close-growing, soil improving crops are on the land
practices include maintaining plant cover between the three-fourths of the time and row crops are on the land
trees and applying fertilizer and lime on a regular basis. one-fourth of the time should be used. Crop residue and
This soil is well suited to pasture crops. Pangolagrass, soil improving crops should be plowed under. Seedbed
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well when preparation should include bedding of the rows to lower
they are well managed. Water control measures are the effective depth to the water table. Fertilizer and lime
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy should be supplied according to the needs of the crops.
rains. Fertilizer and lime should be applied on a regular This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees unless very
basis, and grazing should be controlled to maintain plant intensive management practices are used. In areas that
vigor. are subject to frequent freezing temperatures, it is not
This soil has high potential for longleaf pine and slash suited. If a carefully designed water control system is
pine production. Best results can be achieved by installed, this soil is moderately suited to citrus
removing excess surface water. Equipment limitation is production. The use of a water control system combined
the main management concern. Slash pine is the best with the practice of planting the trees on beds should
species to plant. keep the effective depth to the water table greater than
This soil is in capability subclass Illw. It has not been 3 feet at all times. A plant cover should be maintained
assigned to a range site. between the trees, and fertilizer and lime should be
supplied on a regular basis.
50-Blichton fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This This soil is well suited to pasture crops. Pangolagrass,
gently sloping, poorly drained soil is commonly in small improved bahiagrass, and white clovers grow well if they
areas on the uplands. Individual areas are irregular in are well managed. Water control measures are needed
shape. Slopes are smooth to concave, to remove excess surface water after heavy rains.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand Fertilizer and lime should be applied on a regular basis,
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand and grazing should be controlled to maintain vigor of the
and extends to a depth of 38 inches. It is grayish brown plants.
in the upper 6 inches and light gray in the lower 24 This soil has high potential for longleaf pine and slash
inches. The subsoil is light gray fine sandy loam in the pine production. Best results can be achieved by
upper 6 inches and light gray sandy clay loam in the next removing excess surface water. Equipment limitation is
6 inches. Below this, to a depth of 62 inches, it is light the main management concern. Slash pine is the best
gray sandy clay. The underlying material to a depth of 80 species to plant.
inches or more is mottled light gray, strong brown, and This soil is in capability subclass IIIw. It has not been
yellowish brown fine sandy loam. assigned to a range site.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of similar
soils in which the subsoil is less than 5 percent plinthite 51-Blichton fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
and areas of similar soils in which the surface and soil is sloping and poorly drained. Individual areas are
subsurface layers combined are thicker than 40 inches. long and narrow and generally are on hillsides adjacent
Also included are small areas of Lochloosa, Flemington to intermittent streams. Slopes are smooth to concave.
Variant, Nobleton, and Wauchula soils. The included Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
soils make up about 18 percent of any mapped area. about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is about 23
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches inches thick. It is gray fine sand in the upper 18 inches
for a cumulative period of 1 to 4 months during most and light brownish gray fine sand in the lower 5 inches.
years. In the drier season, it recedes to a depth of more The subsoil is light gray fine sandy loam in the upper 12
than 40 inches. Permeability is rapid in the surface and inches. Below that, to a depth of about 55 inches, is light
subsurface layers and is moderately slow in the subsoil. brownish gray sandy clay loam. Below that is light gray
The available water capacity is low in the surface layer sandy clay.
and medium in the subsoil. Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
The natural vegetation is predominantly oak, hickory, are severely eroded. Also included are similar soils that
magnolia, sweetgum, pineland threeawn, slash pine, have slope of less than 5 percent or more than 8
longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. percent. Small areas of Flemington Variant, Lochloosa,
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops Nobleton, and Wauchula soils are included. The included
because the rooting zone is restricted by the water table, soils make up about 18 percent of any mapped area.
The number of crops that can be grown on this soil is This soil is saturated during wet seasons. The
limited unless good management practices are followed, available water capacity is low in the surface and







46 Soil survey



subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil. Natural some areas, similar soils having a muck layer more than
fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the surface and 40 inches thick are included. The included soils make up
subsurface layers and is moderately slow in the subsoil. about 20 percent of the map unit.
The native vegetation is predominantly slash pine, In most years, under natural conditions, the water
longleaf pine, loblolly pine, oak, hickory, magnolia, table is at or near the surface for 6 to 12 months and is
sweetgum, and pineland threeawn. commonly above the surface for very long periods. The
This soil is very severely limited for cultivated crops available water capacity is very high in the muck layers
because of the hazard of erosion and wetness. The and low in the sandy layers. Permeability is rapid
rooting zone is restricted by seepage water that comes throughout. Natural fertility is medium, and the organic
to the surface in wet seasons. The wetness is difficult to matter content is very high.
control. Intensive erosion control measures should be The native vegetation is mostly loblollybay and
used, and drains should be installed to remove excess scattered cypress, maple, gum, and pine. The ground
water. Row crops should be planted on beds to increase cover is greenbrier, fern, and other aquatic plants.
the effective depth to the water table, and the row crops In its natural state, this soil is not suitable for
should be planted on the contour in alternate strips with cultivation, but with an adequate water control system it
cover crops. The rotation system should keep a cover can be made suitable for some crops and improved
crop on the land at least two-thirds of the time. Crop pasture grasses. A water control system that removes
residue and the cover crops should be plowed under. excess water when crops are on the land and keeps the
Proper seedbed preparation, fertilization, and liming are soil saturated at other times is needed. Fertilizers that
needed for maximum yields. contain phosphates, potash, and minor elements are
In places that are relatively free from freezing needed. Heavy applications of lime are needed also.
temperatures, this soil is well suited to citrus crops. If water is properly controlled, this soil is well suited to
Seepage water entering these areas from higher improved pasture grasses and clover. The water control
elevations should be intercepted, and the water table system should maintain the water table near the surface
should be lowered by means of tile installation or open to prevent excessive oxidation of the organic horizons.
drains. The trees should be planted on beds on the Fertilizers high in potash, phosphates, and minor
contour, and close-growing vegetation should be elements are needed. Control of grazing is needed for
maintained between the trees. Proper fertilization and maximum yields.
liming are needed. This soil is not suitable for citrus trees or pine trees.
This soil is well suited to pasture crops. Coastal This soil is in capability subclass IVw and in the Fresh
bermudagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and clover Marsh range site.
produce well when they are well managed. Fertilizing,
liming, and controlled grazing are required to obtain the 53-Sparr fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This is a
best yields and maintain a good ground cover, sloping and somewhat poorly drained soil. Individual
This soil has high potential for longleaf pine and slash areas are commonly shaped like a quarter moon. Slopes
pine production. Limitations to the use of equipment are are smooth to concave.
the main management concerns. Slash pine is the best Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
species to plant. fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
This soil is in capability subclass IVw. It has not been 51 inches thick. It is pale brown fine sand in the upper 8
assigned to a range site. inches, brown fine sand in the next 10 inches, light
yellowish brown fine sand in the next 13 inches, and
52-Samsula muck. This very poorly drained, nearly very pale brown fine sand in the lower 20 inches. The
level soil is in low depressional areas. Individual areas subsoil is yellowish brown fine sandy loam in the upper 3
are circular to oblong in shape. Slopes are less than 2 inches. The next layer is grayish brown sandy clay loam
percent. to a depth of about 69 inches, and below this is light
Typically, the surface layer is muck about 32 inches gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
thick. It is black in the upper 3 inches, dark reddish Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
brown in the next 21 inches, and very dark grayish are severely eroded. Also included are similar soils
brown in the lower 8 inches. Beneath the muck is fine where slope is less than 5 percent and some where
sand and mucky fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or slope is 8 to 10 percent. Also included are small areas
more. Below this is a layer of very dark grayish brown of Arredondo, Blichton, Nobleton, and Tavares soils. The
mucky fine sand 3 inches thick. Dark gray fine sand is in included soils make up about 15 percent of the map unit.
the next 4 inches, and below this, to a depth of 80 inches In most years, under natural conditions, the water
or more, is gray and light gray fine sand. table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 1 to 4 months.
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that The water table is commonly perched on the surface of
differ by having loamy material within 52 inches of the the subsoil. In this soil, the available water capacity is
surface. Also included are small areas of Sellers soils. In low in the surface and subsurface layers and is medium







Pasco County, Florida 47



to high in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Permeability In most years, if this soil is in an unaltered natural
is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and is state, the seasonal high water table is perched in the
moderate in the subsoil. surface layer and the upper part of the subsoil. These
The native vegetation is oak, hickory, magnolia, layers are saturated for 1 to 4 months during wet
sweetgum, slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. seasons. The available water capacity in this soil ranges
Some areas have an understory of inkberry, waxmyrtle, from low to medium in the surface layer and from
scattered sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn. medium to high in the subsoil. Natural fertility is
This soil is very severely limited for cultivated crops. moderate. Permeability is moderately rapid to rapid in the
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit surface layer and very slow in the subsoil.
the variety and potential yields of crops that can be The natural vegetation is dominantly sweetgum, slash
grown on this soil. Row crops should be planted on the pine, longleaf pine, hickory, magnolia, ironwood, laurel
contour in alternate strips with a close-growing crop. oak, water oak, scattered redcedar, and dogwood and
Close-growing crops should be grown at least 3 out of 4 an understory of American beautyberry, huckleberry, and
years. All crops should be fertilized and limed as deer tongue.
needed. Soil-improving crops and all crop residue should This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops by
be left on the surface or plowed under. The soil is too wetness and the shallowness to the clayey subsoil. The
steep to be irrigated effectively. However, irrigation of a very slowly permeable subsoil makes establishing and
few high-value crops can be feasible where irrigation maintaining water control systems difficult. If water is
water is readily available. The rate of application should adequately controlled, however, the soil is suitable for
be carefully controlled so as to prevent runoff and some cultivated crops. Excess water on the surface and
erosion, in the soil should be removed quickly. Crops should be
The soil is well suited to citrus trees in places that are rotated, and a close-growing, soil-improving crop should
relatively free from the danger of freezing. A vegetative be on the land two-thirds of the time. Seedbeds should
ground cover is needed between the trees to protect the be well prepared, and rows should be bedded. Planting
soil from washing and blowing. Good yields of oranges should be on the contour. For highest yields, fertilizer
and grapefruit can be obtained in most years without and lime should be applied according to the needs of the
irrigation, but if water is available, irrigation is generally crops.
feasible in dry seasons. The water should be applied at This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. A water control
a rate that is low enough to prevent washing of the soil. system that maintains the water table at a depth of
The soil is moderately suited to use as pasture. Deep- about 4 feet is needed. Planting the trees on beds helps
rooting grasses such as bermudagrass and bahiagrass to provide better surface drainage and increases the
are well suited. Fertilizing and liming are needed, and effective depth to the water table. Cover crops should be
grazing should be controlled to maintain maximum yields maintained between trees. Areas that are subject to
and good ground cover, frequent freezing temperatures should not be planted to
This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree citrus.
production. The main management concerns are This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses.
equipment mobility, seedling mortality, and plant Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clover
competition. Slash pine is the best species to plant. grow well if properly managed. Water control measures
This soil is in capability subclass IVs. It has not been are needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
assigned to a range site. rainfall. Fertilizer and lime should be applied on a regular
basis. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
54-Flemington Variant fine sand, 2 to 5 percent vigor.
slopes. This gently sloping, poorly drained soil is in the This soil has high potential for the production of pine
uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape. Slopes trees. Excess surface water should be removed for best
are smooth to concave. results. Equipment limitations and plant competition are
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand the main management concerns. Slash pine is the best
about 5 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of species to plant.
about 46 inches. It is grayish brown, light brownish gray, This soil is in capability subclass Illw. It has not been
and light gray clay. Below the subsoil is about 17 inches assigned to a range site.
of white clay, and below this a layer of light gray clay
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. 55-Homosassa mucky fine sandy loam. This nearly
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that level, very poorly drained soil is in the tidal marsh.
have slope of 0 to 2 percent. Also included are similar Individual areas are irregular to elongated in shape.
soils that have a dark-colored surface layer as thick as Slopes are less than 1 percent.
12 inches. Small areas of Blichton soils are included in Typically, the surface layer is 16 inches thick. The
mapping. The included soils make up about 15 percent upper 11 inches is very dark gray mucky fine sandy
of any mapped area. loam, and the lower 5 inches is very dark grayish brown







48 Soil survey



loamy fine sand. The next layer is grayish brown loamy for 1 to 4 months and within a depth of 40 inches for
fine sand 9 inches thick, and below this is a layer of light more than 6 months. The available water capacity is very
brownish gray loamy fine sand 3 inches thick. Between low in all the layers except the subsoil, where it is low to
depths of 28 and 37 inches is light gray, soft limestone, medium. Natural fertility is low. Permeability is moderate
Included with this soil in mapping are large areas of to moderately rapid in the subsoil and is rapid in the
similar soils that differ mainly by having fine sandy loam other layers.
or mucky sandy clay loam texture in the surface layer. The present and predicted uses of the soils in this
Also included are small areas of Lacoochee and complex preclude their use for cultivated crops, pasture,
Weekiwachee soils. The included soils make up about or woodland.
40 percent of any mapped area. This complex has not been assigned to a capability
The water table fluctuates with the tide. The soil is subclass or a range site.
flooded daily during normal high tides. The available
water capacity is very high in the surface layer and is 57-Vero Variant fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
medium below. Permeability is moderately rapid to rapid drained soil is in the flatwoods. Individual areas are
throughout the soil. relatively long and narrow. Areas of this soil occur in two
The native vegetation is predominantly seashore parts of the county. The largest areas are west of
saltgrass, needlegrass rush, smooth cordgrass, Highway 19. These are rapidly being reduced in extent
sawgrass, and marshhay cordgrass. by mining operations for limestone. The other areas of
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus trees, this soil are in the Withlacoochee State Forest in the
pasture grasses, or woodland because of the daily northeastern part of the county. Here, delineations are
hazard of flooding and the high content of salt and small and scattered. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent
sulfur. Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 9 inches
This soil is in capability subclass VIllw and in the Salt thick. It is black in the upper 4 inches and dark gray in
Marsh range site. the lower 5 inches. The subsurface layer is gray fine
sand about 7 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil
56-EauGallie-Urban land complex. This complex is is fine sand about 10 inches thick. It is dark reddish
45 to 65 percent EauGallie soils and 30 to 45 percent brown in the upper 3 inches, dark brown in the next 4
Urban land. The areas of EauGallie soils and the areas inches, and brown in the lower 3 inches. Separating the
of Urban land are so intricately mixed, or so small, that it upper and lower parts of the subsoil is a layer of light
is not practical to separate them at the scale used in yellowish brown fine sand about 3 inches thick. Next is
mapping. The mapped areas are symmetrical in shape. strong brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 35 inches
The slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent. and below that, strong brown sandy clay loam to a depth
Typically, EauGallie soils have about 5 inches of mixed of about 39 inches. Soft, white limestone is at a depth of
sand fill on the surface. The surface layer is black fine 39 inches, and hard limestone is at a depth of about 45
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine inches.
sand about 19 inches thick. It is gray in the upper 12 Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
inches and light gray in the lower 7 inches. The upper differ by having a loamy subsoil within 20 inches of the
part of the subsoil is fine sand about 21 inches thick. It is surface. Also included are small areas of Aripeka soils.
black in the first 5 inches, dark reddish brown in the next The included soils make up about 30 percent of the map
7 inches, and brown in the last 9 inches. About 3 inches unit.
of grayish brown fine sand is between the upper and In most years, the water table is at a depth of 10 to 40
lower parts of the subsoil. The lower part of the subsoil inches for more than 5 months. It is at a depth of less
is grayish brown fine sandy loam in the first 6 inches and than 10 inches for less than 45 days in wet seasons,
then grayish brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 and it is at a depth of more than 40 inches during very
inches or more. dry seasons. Areas of this soil located west of Highway
The Urban land is covered by streets, parking lots, 19 may be covered by water for short periods after
buildings, and other structures that so obscure or alter severe storms. The available water capacity is very low
the original soils that identification is not feasible. The or low in the surface and subsurface layers and is
streets are 1 to 2 feet lower than the surrounding area medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
and are used for draining surface water. Soil material surface layer, the subsurface layer, and the layer
removed from the street beds has been spread on the between the upper and lower parts of the subsoil. It is
adjacent areas and shaped for building sites and lawns. moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
Included in mapping, and making up less than 10 Native vegetation is longleaf pine, slash pine, cabbage
percent of the complex, are small areas of Basinger and palm, and an undergrowth that is dominantly
Vero soils. sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, inkberry, lopsided
In most years, under natural conditions, the water indiangrass, chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, hairy
table in the EauGallie soils is within a depth of 10 inches panicum, and fetterbush lyonia.







Pasco County, Florida 49



This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops the loamy layers. Natural fertility is medium, and the
because of wetness and poor soil quality. The number of organic matter content is very high.
crops that can be grown on this soil is limited unless The native vegetation is sawgrass, lily, reed, sedge,
very intensive management practices are followed. This waxmyrtle, and other aquatic plants. Cypress, redbay,
soil can be made suitable for a number of vegetable white bay, maple, and pond pine are common tree
crops. A water control system is needed to remove species.
excess water in the wetter seasons and to provide water In its natural state, this soil is not suitable for
for subsurface irrigation in the dry seasons. Crop residue cultivation; but with an adequate water control system, it
and soil-improving crops should be plowed under. is well suited to some crops and improved pasture
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows. grasses. The water control system should remove
This soil is moderately suitable for citrus trees, but excess water when crops are on the land and keep the
only if a carefully designed water control system that soil saturated at other times to prevent decomposition of
maintains the water table below a depth of 4 feet is the organic matter. Fertilizers that contain phosphates,
installed. Trees should be planted on beds, and a plant potash, and minor elements are needed. Heavy
cover should be maintained between the trees. Trees applications of lime are needed.
should not be planted in areas that are subject to If wetness is properly controlled, this soil is well suited
freezing temperatures. to improved pasture grasses and clover. A water control
This soil has moderate suitability for improved pasture system should maintain the water table near the surface
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and to prevent excessive oxidation of the organic horizons.
white clover grow well if well managed. Water control Fertilizers that are high in potash, phosphates, and minor
measures are needed to remove excess surface water elements are needed. Grazing should be controlled for
after heavy rains. Fertilizer and lime should be applied maximum yields.
on a regular basis, and grazing should be controlled to This soil is not suitable for citrus trees or pine trees.
prevent weakening of the plants. This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in the Fresh
This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree Marsh range site.
production. The main management concerns are ,
equipment limitations during periods of heavy rainfall, 59-Newnan fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
seedling mortality, and plant competition. For best somewhat poorly drained soil is on low ridges in the
results, a simple system to remove excess surface water flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape.
should be installed. Slash pine is the best species to Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
plant. about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in the South about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
Florida Flatwoods range site. brownish gray fine sand about 17 inches thick. The
upper part of the subsoil is fine sand about 16 inches
58-Tomoka muck. This very poorly drained, nearly thick. It is dark brown in the upper 4 inches, dark
level soil is in low depressional areas. Individual areas yellowish brown in the next 7 inches, and yellowish
are circular to oblong. Slopes are less than 2 percent. brown in the next 5 inches. A layer of very pale brown
Typically, the surface layer is muck about 22 inches fine sand 6 inches thick separates the upper and lower
thick. It is dark reddish brown in the upper 10 inches and parts of the subsoil. The lower part of the subsoil is
black in the lower 12 inches. Next is a layer of fine sand yellowish brown sandy clay loam in the upper 26 inches
about 5 inches thick that has mixed colors of gray, very and grayish brown sandy clay loam below. It extends to
dark gray, and dark gray. Beneath this is gray fine sandy a depth of 80 inches or more.
loam to a depth of 32 inches. Gray sandy clay loam is Included in mapping are small areas of Adamsville,
between depths of 32 and 46 inches, and gray fine Narcoossee, and Sparr soils. The included soils make up
sandy loam is below this to a depth of 55 inches or about 15 percent of the map unit.
more. The water table is at a depth of about 24 to 40 inches
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that for about 2 to 4 months during most years and recedes
differ by having a layer of organic material less than 16 to a depth of more than 60 inches during drier periods.
inches thick. Also included are small areas of Samsula The available water capacity is medium in the subsoil
and Sellers soils. The included soils make up about 15 and low in the other layers. Natural fertility is low.
percent of the map unit. Permeability is very slow to moderately slow in the
This soil has a water table at or near the surface for 6 subsoil and rapid to moderately rapid in the other layers.
to 12 months. Under natural conditions, it is covered by A large part of the acreage is in natural vegetation of
water for very long periods. The available water capacity slash pine, longleaf pine, live oak, laurel oak, turkey oak,
is very high in the organic layers and low to medium in and an understory of greenbrier, sawpalmetto, pineland
the mineral layers. Permeability is rapid in the organic threeawn, creeping bluestem, lovegrass, and lopsided
and sandy layers and is moderate to moderately rapid in indiangrass.








50 Soil survey



In its natural state, this soil is severely limited for grasses and hay (fig. 12). A simple water control system
cultivated crops because of periodic wetness. The is needed to remove excess surface water in times of
number of crops that can be grown on this soil is very heavy rainfall. Fertilizer should be applied on a regular
limited unless a water control system that removes basis. Grazing should be carefully controlled to maintain
excess water in wet seasons and provides subsurface healthy plants for maximum production.
irrigation in dry seasons is installed. Soil-improving crops This soil has moderately high potential for longleaf
and the residue of all other crops should be plowed pine and slash pine production. Equipment limitations,
under. Fertilizer and lime should be supplied according seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main
to the needs of the crop. management concerns. Slash pine is the best species to
This soil has moderate suitability for growing citrus plant.
trees if a water control system that rapidly removes
excess water to a depth of about 4 feet is installed. The This soil is in capability subclass Ills and in the South
trees should be planted on beds to help increase the Florida Flatwoods range site.
effective depth to the water table. A cover of close-
growing vegetation should be maintained between the 60-Palmetto-Zephyr-Sellers complex. This complex
trees to protect the soil from blowing in dry weather and consists of areas of nearly level, poorly drained Palmetto
from washing during heavy rains. Fertilization is needed soils and closely similar soils and small areas of nearly
on a regular basis, and for highest yields, irrigation is level, very poorly drained Zephyr and Sellers soils. The
needed in seasons of low rainfall. Citrus should not be soils are so intermixed that they cannot be separated at
grown in areas of this soil that are frequently subject to the scale selected for mapping. The complex occurs as
freezing temperatures. elongated areas in the flatwoods. Palmetto soils are on
This soil has moderate suitability for improved pasture long, narrow, interwinding sloughs about 50 to 200 feet
































Figure 12.-Hay growing on Newnan fine sand. If well managed, this soil can produce good yields of hay. It can also be used for
improved pasture during some parts of the year.







Pasco County, Florida 51



wide, which are interspersed with circular depressions the drier seasons. The available water capacity is
containing Zephyr and Sellers soils. Individual medium to high in the surface layer and low below.
depressions are less than 4 acres in size. Slopes are Permeability is rapid throughout. However, internal
less than 2 percent. drainage is slow, impeded by the water table. Both
Palmetto soils and closely similar soils make up about natural fertility and the organic matter content are high to
45 to 60 percent of each mapped area. Typically, these a depth of about 33 inches and low below this depth.
soils have a surface layer of black fine sand about 4 Minor soils make up about 15 percent of the complex.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand Basinger soils are the most common of these soils.
about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is fine The natural vegetation in the wet depressions is bay,
sand about 18 inches thick. It is very dark grayish brown cypress, cattails, maidencane, sawgrass, pickerelweed,
in the upper 10 inches and mixed dark brown and brown and various perennial grasses. The slough areas are
in the lower 8 inches. A layer of pale brown and very vegetated with various native bluestem, panicum,
pale brown fine sand about 18 inches thick separates perennial goobergrass, maidencane, toothachegrass,
the upper and lower parts of the subsoil. The lower part cutgrass, sand cordgrass, and pineland threeawn. Slash
of the subsoil is light brownish gray fine sandy loam in pine, longleaf pine, pond pine, and closely spaced
the first 2 inches and light brownish gray sandy clay sawpalmetto are in some places.
loam below that to a depth of 57 inches. Between The Palmetto soils are very severely limited for
depths of 57 and 68 inches is light gray sandy clay loam, farming under natural conditions. Only a limited number
and below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray of crops can be grown on these soils unless very
sandy clay loam. intensive management practices are followed. Such
In these soils the water table is at a depth of less than practices include growing soil-improving crops and
10 inches for 2 to 6 months annually and at a depth of installing a water control system that removes excess
10 to 30 inches for more than 6 months during most water in wet seasons and provides water for subsurface
years. Water may stand on the surface for brief periods irrigation in dry seasons. Crop residue and soil-improving
after heavy rains. Permeability is rapid in the surface crops should be plowed under. Seedbed preparation
layer and the sandy upper part of the subsoil and is should include bedding of rows, and the soil should be
moderately slow in the loamy lower part of the subsoil. fertilized and limed according to the needs of the crop.
Natural fertility is low. The available water capacity is low Palmetto soils have poor suitability for citrus trees. The
in the surface layer and sandy part of the subsoil and is trees should not be grown in areas where temperatures
medium in the loamy part of the subsoil. frequently reach the freezing point. A water control
Zephyr soils make up about 10 to 15 percent of each system should be carefully designed to maintain the
mapped area. The surface layer is black muck in the water table below a depth of about 4 feet. Trees should
upper 5 inches and black fine sand in the next 7 inches. be planted on beds, and close-growing vegetation should
The subsurface layer is about 10 inches thick. It is light be maintained between the trees. Fertilizer and lime
gray fine sand in the upper 4 inches and grayish brown should be applied as needed.
fine sand in the lower 6 inches. The subsoil is 37 inches The Sellers and Zephyr soils are not suited to
thick. It is grayish brown fine sandy loam in the upper 3 cultivated crops and citrus trees because ponding
inches, dark grayish brown sandy clay loam in the next severely restricts plant growth. Adequate water control
12 inches, and grayish brown sandy clay loam in the systems are difficult to establish in most places because
lower 22 inches. Below the subsoil to a depth of 80 suitable outlets are not available. However, if a water
inches or more is light gray loamy fine sand. control system can be installed, these soils can be used
Zephyr soils are ponded for more than 6 months in to produce pasture of high quality.
most years. The available water capacity is high in the Zephyr soils are moderately suited to improved
muck part of the surface layer and low to medium beJow, pasture grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses,
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and slow in the and white clover grow well if the pasture is well
subsoil. managed. Water control measures are needed to
Sellers soils make up about 10 to 15 percent of each remove excess surface water after heavy rains. Fertilizer
mapped area. Typically, these soils have a layer of dark and lime should be applied on a regular basis, and
reddish brown mucky loamy fine sand about 5 inches grazing should be controlled.
thick on the surface. The mineral surface layer is black Palmetto soils have moderate potential for pine tree
fine sand about 28 inches thick. Below the surface layer production. The major management concerns are
to a depth of 80 inches or more is fine sand. It is dark equipment mobility during periods of high rainfall and
brown in the upper 5 inches, yellowish brown in the next plant competition. Seedling mortality is commonly high. A
18 inches, and pale brown below, simple water control system should be installed to
In most years, under natural conditions, the Sellers remove excess surface water. The Zephyr and Sellers
soils are ponded for 3 to 6 months. The water table soils have high potential for slash pine production. A
recedes to a depth of about 30 inches or more during good water control system designed for the removal of







52 Soil survey



excess water is needed before trees can be planted. areas are narrow and winding. Slopes are smooth to
Slash pine is the best species to plant. concave.
Palmetto soils are in capability subclass IVw, and Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
Zephyr and Sellers soils are in capability subclass Vllw. sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
Palmetto soils are in the Slough range site, and Zephyr yellowish brown fine sand about 21 inches thick. The
and Sellers soils are in the Fresh Marsh range site. subsoil extends to a depth of 72 inches. It is yellowish
brown fine sandy loam in the upper 8 inches and
61-Pompano fine sand, frequently flooded. This yellowish brown sandy clay loam in the next 29 inches.
nearly level, poorly drained soil is in well defined The lower 8 inches of the subsoil is brownish yellow
drainageways and on flood plains. Areas are mostly long sandy clay loam. Below 72 inches, to a depth of 80
and narrow and are generally adjacent to streams and inches or more, is mottled pale brown, reddish yellow,
rivers. Slopes are generally less than 1 percent. and pink sandy clay loam that has common lenses of
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6 sand.
inches thick. It has mottles of light brownish gray. Below, Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that
fine sand extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is have over 5 percent plinthite and similar soils that are on
dark grayish brown in the upper 3 inches and light gray slopes of 0 to 5 percent or 8 to 10 percent Also
below. included are small areas of Arredondo and Lochloosa
Included in mapping are small areas of Anclote and soils. The included soils make up about 20 percent of
Basinger soils. The included soils generally make up less the map unit.
than 25 percent of the map unit. The water table is below a depth of 72 inches. The
In most years, under natural conditions, the water available water capacity is low in the surface and
table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil. The
months. Even in drier years, it is within a depth of 30 natural fertility is medium. Permeability is rapid above the
inches for 9 months or more. The soil is frequently subsoil and moderate in the subsoil.
flooded for brief periods in most years. The available The natural vegetation is a forest of longleaf pine,
water capacity is very low. Natural fertility is low, and loblolly pine, slash pine, magnolia, dogwood, laurel, live
permeability is very rapid. oak, and water oak with an understory of bluestem
This soil remains in natural vegetation of water oak, species, indiangrass, hairy panicum, and annual forbs.
cypress, cabbage palm, sweetgum, willow, and hickory. This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops
The understory is blue maidencane, creeping bluestem, because of the slope. A variety of crops are moderately
waxmyrtle, Florida paspalum, brackenfern, panicum, suited to this soil if good management practices are
poison ivy, greenbrier, smartweed, sedge, and clusters of used. Crops such as corn and peanuts are only
sawpalmetto and other water tolerant plants. moderately suited, but watermelons are well suited.
In its native state, this soil is not suited to cultivated Erosion control measures that are needed include
crops, citrus trees, or improved pasture because of the contour stripcropping and a crop rotation system that
hazard of flooding. If the hazard of flooding can be keeps close-growing, soil-improving crops on the soil at
overcome, this soil is suitable for special crops. A water least two-thirds of the time.
control system is needed to remove excess water in wet This soil is well suited to citrus trees in places that are
seasons and to provide water for subsurface irrigation in relatively free from freezing temperatures. Tree rows
dry seasons. Seedbed preparation should include should be laid out on the contour, and close-growing
bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be vegetation should be maintained between the trees to
supplied according to the needs of the crops. minimize erosion. Citrus fruit can normally be grown
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture without irrigation. Irrigation is generally feasible where
raises if excess water is removed. Pangolagrass, water is readily available, but the irrigation system should
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they be designed and operated to avoid runoff and erosion.
are well managed. A water control system is needed to This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses if
remove excess surface water after heavy rains, and deep-rooting grasses such as Coastal bermudagrass,
flooding should be controlled. Fertilizer and lime should be pangolagrass, and bahiagrass are planted. Fertilization,
added on a regular basis, and grazing should be controlled occasional liming, and controlled grazing are needed to
to prevent weakening of the plants. maintain highest yields and good ground cover.
This soil is generally not suitable for pine trees. The potential of this soil for pine tree production is
This soil is in capability subclass Vlw. It has not been high. Moderate seedling mortality, equipment limitations,
assigned to a range site. and plant competition are the main management
assigned to a range site. concerns. Slash pine and loblolly pine are the best
species to plant.
62-Kendrick fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This This soil is in capability subclass Ille. It has not been
sloping, well drained soil is in the uplands. Individual assigned to a range site.







Pasco County, Florida 53



63-Deiray mucky fine sand. This very poorly the upper 12 inches and pale brown fine sand in the
drained, nearly level soil is in depressions in the lower 12 inches. The subsoil is pale brown sandy clay
flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape and loam in the upper 7 inches and mottled yellowish red,
commonly surround a slightly elevated area of better strong brown, yellowish brown, and gray sandy clay in
drained soil. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. the next 11 inches. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches
Typically, the surface layer is black. It is mucky fine or more, is light gray sandy clay loam.
sand in the upper 8 inches and fine sand in the lower 8 Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
inches. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 32 Blichton, Kendrick, Lochloosa, Millhopper, and Sparr
inches thick. It is grayish brown in the upper 5 inches, soils. The included soils make up about 12 percent of
light brownish gray in the next 22 inches, and grayish the map unit.
brown in the lower 5 inches. The subsoil is grayish This soil has a perched water table at a depth of 20 to
brown fine sandy loam in the upper 3 inches. It is grayish 40 inches for 1 to 4 months during the summer rainy
brown sandy clay loam in the next 15 inches and season in most years. Permeability is rapid in the surface
greenish gray sandy clay loam between depths, of 66 and subsurface layers and is moderately slow in the
and 75 inches. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches or subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the
more, is grayish brown sandy clay loam. A thin layer of surface and subsurface layers and is medium to high in
muck and litter commonly is on the surface. the subsoil.
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that The natural vegetation is a forest of live oak, laurel
have organic staining in the subsurface layer. Also oak, water oak, slash pine, longleaf pine, hickory,
included are small areas of Zephyr and Anclote soils. magnolia, and sweetgum. The understory vegetation is
The included soils make up about 15 percent of the map waxmyrtle, briers, and native grasses, including
unit. bluestem, pineland threeawn, toothachegrass, panicum,
Most areas of the Delray soil are ponded for 6 months and lopsided indiangrass.
or more in most years. The available water capacity is This soil is well suited to cultivated crops if good
high in the surface layer, medium in the subsoil, and low management practices are used. A water control system
in the subsurface layer. Permeability is rapid in the is needed to remove excess water. Good management
surface and subsurface layers and moderate to includes the use of a crop rotation that keeps close-
moderately rapid in the subsoil. Natural fertility is growing crops on the soil at least half of the time. Cover
medium. crops and soil-improving crops should be plowed under.
The natural vegetation is bay, cypress, sweetgum, Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows
pond pine, water oak, cattails, and in places, dense and the addition of fertilizer and lime according to the
stands of maidencane and sawgrass. needs of the crops.
In an unaltered natural condition, this soil is not suited This soil is moderately suited to citrus trees if wetness
to crops, citrus, trees, or improved pasture grasses. The is properly controlled. The trees should be planted on
water table, which is above the surface much of the beds for best results. Trees should not be planted in
year, severely restricts plant growth. Establishing an areas that are subject to freezing temperatures.
adequate water control system is difficult because in The soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses.
most locations suitable outlets are not available. Bahiagrasses and white clover grow well if properly
However, if a system can be installed, this soil can be managed. Water control measures are needed to
made suitable for production of improved pasture remove excess surface water after heavy rains. Fertilizer
grasses that tolerate wetness. and lime should be applied on a regular basis, and
The potential for pine tree production on this soil is grazing should be controlled to maintain plant vigor.
moderately high, but a water control system designed to This soil has high potential for pine tree production.
remove excess surface water is needed before trees can There are no significant management concerns. Slash
be planted. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality pine is the best species to plant.
are the main management concerns. Slash pine is the This soil is in capability subclass IIw. It has not been
best species to plant. assigned to a range site.
This soil is in capability subclass Vllw and in the Fresh
Marsh range site. 65-Gainesville loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes. This well drained, nearly level to gently sloping
64-Nobleton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is along ridgetops and low hillsides on the uplands.
nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained Slopes are smooth to concave.
soil is on the uplands. Individual areas are irregular in Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
shape. Slopes are smooth to concave, loamy fine sand about 8 inches thick. Below that, to a
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown depth of 80 inches or more, is loamy fine sand. It is dark
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown in the upper 21 inches and yellowish red in the
about 24 inches thick. It is yellowish brown fine sand in lower part.







54 Soil survey


Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of a This soil has a perched water table at a depth of 18 to
similar soil that differs by having a dark-colored surface 30 inches for I to 3 months during most years. In drier
layer thicker than 10 inches. Small areas of Arredondo, periods, the water table recedes to a depth of more than
Orlando, and Lake soils are also included. The included 60 inches. The available water capacity is low in the
soils make up less than 15 percent of the map unit. surface and subsurface layers and is medium in the
The available water capacity is low in all layers of this subsoil. Natural fertility is medium. Permeability is rapid in
soil. Permeability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is the surface and subsurface layers and is moderate to
low, and fertilization raises the fertility to a moderate slow in the subsoil.
level. The natural vegetation is loblolly pine, slash pine,
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops longleaf pine, magnolia, hickory, dogwood, laurel oak,
because of the sandy texture. Droughtiness and rapid live oak, and water oak and an understory of creeping
leaching of applied plant nutrients reduce the variety and bluestem, chalky bluestem, indiangrass, toothachegrass,
potential yields of crops that can be grown. Intensive soil pineland threeawn, sawpalmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle,
management practices that are required if cultivated and numerous annual forbs.
crops are grown include the use of a rotation system This soil is limited for cultivated crops because of
that keeps close-growing crops on the surface at least wetness. It is poorly suited to cultivated crops if
two-thirds of the time. Soil-improving crops should be adequate drainage is not available, but it is well suited to
grown, and crop residue should be left on the ground or some cultivated crops if a good water control system is
plowed under. Lime and fertilizer should be applied on a used. Tile drains or open ditches are needed to provide
regular basis. Irrigation of a few high-value crops is adequate drainage in wet seasons. A crop rotation
generally feasible where irrigation water is readily system that keeps cover crops on the land at least half
available. the time is needed. Soil-improving cover crops and all
This soil is well suited to citrus trees in locations that crop residue should be left on the soil or plowed under
are relatively free from freezing temperatures. A ground For best yields, good seedbed preparation and the
cover of close-growing plants is needed between the addition of fertilizer and lime are required.
trees to protect the soil from blowing. Good yields of
citrus can be obtained in most years without irrigation. In places that are protected from freezing
Where irrigation water is readily available, irrigation is temperatures, this soil can be made moderately suitable
generally feasible. for citrus trees by the provision of a good drainage
This soil is well suited to pasture. Deep-rooting plants system. Ditches or tile drains are needed to intercept
such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses seepage water from higher elevations and to remove
generally grow well if the pasture is well fertilized and excess internal water. The trees should be planted on
limed. Yields are limited by drought in prolonged dry beds. A cover of vegetation should be maiintained
seasons. Grazing should be controlled for best yields. between the trees to protect the soil from blowing.
This soil has moderately high potential for growing Fertilizer and lime are needed for best yields.
pine trees. The main management concerns are This soil is well suited to use as pasture. Grasses such
equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses grow well if
competition. Slash pine is better suited than other well managed. White clover and other legumes are
species. moderately suited. For best yields, fertilizer and lime
This soil is in capability subclass Ills and in the should be applied and grazing should be carefully
Longleaf Pines-Turkey Oak Hills range site. controlled.
This soil has high potential productivity and no serious
66-Micanopy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes. management problems for pine trees. Slash pine is the
This gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained soil is on most productive species to plant.
the uplands. Slopes are smooth to concave. This soil is in capability subclass IIw. It has not been
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand assigned to a range site.
6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown fine sand 3
inches thick. The subsoil is mottled brown sandy clay 67-Kanapaha fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
loam to a depth of 15 inches and gray clay to a depth of This nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained soil is
44 inches. Below this, to a depth of 69 inches, is gray in low positions on uplands. Slopes are smooth to
sandy clay loam. Below this, to a depth of 89 inches, is concave.
mixed gray and grayish brown sandy clay loam. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about
have more than 5 percent plinthite in the subsoil. Also 66 inches thick. It is light brownish gray in the upper 7
included are small areas of Blichton, Flemington Variant, inches, light gray in the next 32 inches, and white in the
Kendrick, and Nobleton soils. The included soils make lower 27 inches. The subsoil extends below a depth of
up about 12 percent of the map unit. 80 inches. It is light brownish gray fine sandy loam.







Pasco County, Florida 55


Included with this soil in mapping are soils that are mobility of equipment when the soil is wet and
similar but differ by having a brownish stained competition by undesirable plants. Seedling mortality is
subsurface layer or more than 6 percent plinthite in the high. A simple water control system should be installed
subsoil. Also included are small areas of Blichton, to remove excess surface water. Slash pine is better
Nobleton, and Sparr soils. Included soils make up less suited than other tree species.
than 15 percent of any mapped area. This soil is in capability subclass IVw. It has not been
In most years, under natural conditions, this soil has a assigned to a range site.
water table at a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 to 3
months and between depths of 10 and 40 inches for 3 to 68-Lake fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
4 months. In drier seasons, the water table recedes to a sloping, excessively drained soil is on upland hillsides.
depth of more than 40 inches. The available water Individual areas are irregular in shape. Slopes are
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and smooth to concave.
is medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers sand about 7 inches thick. Beneath the surface layer,
and is moderately slow in the subsoil. layers of fine sand extend to a depth of more than 80
The natural vegetation is a forest of oak, sweetgum, inches. This sand is yellowish brown in the upper 14
maple, magnolia, hickory, slash pine, longleaf pine, inches. It changes gradually to strong brown at a depth
loblolly pine, and an understory of several bluestem of 21 inches and then becomes reddish yellow from a
species, longleaf uniola, hairy panicum, several threeawn depth of 32 to 80 inches.
species, and numerous forbs. In small, slightly Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
depressional areas the vegetation consists of a Lake soils that have slope of less than 5 percent or
moderate stand of maidencane with a few scattered oak n
more than 8 percent. Also included are small areas of
and scattered small clumps of sawpalmetto. Orlando soils that have slope ranging from 5 to 8
This soil is very severely limited for cultivated crops percent. The included soils make up less than 15
because of wetness and the thick sandy layer. The percent of the map unit
number of crops that can be grown on this soil is limited percent of the map unit.
Permeability is rapid throughout the Lake soil. The
unless veryintensive management practices are.
followed. If good water control measures and soil- water table is below a depth of 120 inches. The available
improving measures are used, this soil can be made water capacity is very low in all layers. Rainfall is
suitable for a number of vegetable crops. A water control absorbed in protected areas and there is little runoff.
system is needed to remove excess water in wet This soil is low in both natural fertility and organic matter
seasons and to provide water for subsurface irrigation in content.
dry seasons. Row crops should be rotated with close- The native vegetation consists of bluejack oak,
growing, soil-improving crops; and the soil-improving blackjack oak, turkey oak, live oak, scattered longleaf
crops should be on the land three-fourths of the time. pine, and an understory of a few scattered sawpalmetto,
Crop residue and soil-improving crops should be plowed pineland threeawn, bluestem, and paspalum grasses.
under. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops because of
the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added according slope, deep sand, and the hazard of erosion in
to the needs of the crops. unprotected areas (fig. 13). Droughtiness and a rapid
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees unless very leaching of applied plant nutrients restrict both the
intensive management is used. Those areas that are variety and potential yield of crops that can be grown on
relatively free from freezing temperatures are suitable for this soil. Exposed soil areas such as the spaces between
citrus, but only after a carefully designed water control crop rows are subject to erosion in the event of heavy
system has been installed. The water control system rainfall or if overhead irrigation is used.
should maintain the water table below a depth of 4 feet. The soil is suitable for citrus trees in areas that are
The trees should be planted on beds, and a plant cover relatively free from freezing temperatures. A ground
should be maintained between the trees. Fertilizer and cover of close-growing plants is needed between the
lime should be applied on a regular basis. trees to protect the soil from blowing and washing.
The soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass, Installation of a well planned irrigation system helps
improved bahiagrasses, and white clover grow well if maintain optimum moisture conditions and insure best
they are well managed. Water control measures are yields. Slope and the hazard of erosion must be
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy considered in planning the grove layout and the irrigation
rains. Fertilizer and lime should be applied on a regular system.
basis, and grazing should be controlled to prevent This soil is moderately suitable for use as pasture.
overgrazing and weakening of the plants. Deep-rooting plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and
This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree bahiagrasses are suited, but yields are reduced by
production. The major management concerns are periodic drought. Fertilizer and lime are needed on a








56 Soil survey





































Figure 13.-This gully has formed in a soybean field on Lake fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. It was caused by uncontrolled runoff
from a higher elevation.


regular basis. Grazing should be greatly restricted to a depth of about 59 inches. It is very pale brown to a
maintain highest yields and good ground cover. depth of 42 inches and then changes to light yellowish
The soil has moderately high potential for the brown. Below this, and extending to a depth of 80 inches
production of pine trees. The main management or more, is the subsoil. It is yellowish brown fine sandy
concerns are the erosion hazard, limitations to loam in the upper 5 inches and gray sandy clay loam
equipment usage, seedling mortality, and competition below.
from undesirable plants. Slash pine is the best species Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils on
to plant. similar landscape positions. They differ slightly by
This soil is in capability subclass Vis and in the containing more very fine sand in the surface and
Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. subsurface layers. Small areas of these soils are in
several parts of the county, but are concentrated in the
69-Millhopper fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, north-central part. Also included in mapping are small
This nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well areas of Arredondo, Candler, Kendrick, Nobleton, Sparr,
drained soil is on uplands. Individual areas are irregular and Tavares soils. The included soils make up about 15
in shape. Slopes are smooth to concave. percent of the map unit.
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand 7 inches thick. In an unaltered state, this soil has a water table
It is dark gray in the upper 3 inches and grayish brown perched above the loamy horizon. The water table is at
below. The subsurface layer is fine sand and extends to a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 to 4 months and at a







Pasco County, Florida 57



depth of 60 to 72 inches for 2 to 4 months in most Typically, the surface layer consists of a layer of black
years. In very wet years, the water table may be at a fine sand 9 inches thick over a layer of very dark grayish
depth of 30 to 40 inches for a cumulative period of 1 to brown fine sand 9 inches thick. Below this is fine sand. It
3 weeks. The available water capacity is low in the is dark grayish brown between depths of 18 and 31
surface and subsurface layers and is medium in the inches, grayish brown to a depth of 63 inches, and then
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. Permeability is rapid in the gray to a depth of more than 80 inches.
surface and subsurface layers and is moderate in the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
subsoil. soils that have up to 25 inches of muck on the surface.
The native vegetation is live oak, laurel oak, water These soils are in the lowest part of an area, have water
oak, sweetgum, hickory, slash pine, and longleaf pine. standing above the surface during wet seasons, and
The understory is lopsided indiangrass, hairy panicum, retain a water table near the surface for longer periods.
low panicum, greenbrier, hawthorn, persimmon, fringeleaf Also included are Basinger soils and other similar soils
paspalum, chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, and that have a thinner dark surface layer. These soils
pineland threeawn. commonly are at the edge of an area and have the
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops greatest fluctuation in depth to the water table. The
because of the thick sandy layers. Intensive soil proportion of included soils varies widely between areas,
management practices are required to produce cultivated but is commonly less than 30 percent.
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches
are the principal limitations. Row crops should be for a cumulative period of 6 months in most years. It
planted on the contour in strips alternating with strips of recedes to a depth of 60 inches or more during
close-growing crops. A crdp rotation system that keeps extended dry periods. In most years, the lowest parts of
the close-growing crops on the soil at least three-fourths an area have water above the surface during wet
of the time should be used. Soil-improving crops and all seasons. Infrequently, water covers most of an area
crop residue should be left on the ground or plowed during periods when extended heavy rainfall saturates
under. Only a few crops produce good yields without the soil and impedes drainage. The available water
irrigation. Irrigation is generally feasible where irrigation capacity is high in the surface and subsurface layers and
water is readily available, is low below. Permeability is rapid.
This soil is suitable for citrus trees in areas that do not Most areas of this soil have been cleared. A few areas
have frequent freezing temperatures. A ground cover of are in natural vegetation, which is pond pine, bay,
close-growing plants is needed between the trees to scattered cypress, gum, and coarse, water-tolerant
protect the soil from blowing or washing. Good yields of grasses. Wetter places commonly have pickerelweed,
oranges and grapefruit can be obtained without irrigation sawgrass, and wild shrubs.
in some years, but a well designed irrigation system, This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops unless it is
which maintains optimum moisture conditions, assures drained. If water is controlled, this soil can be made well
the best yields. suited to many locally important crops. A well designed
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay and maintained water control system should remove
crops. Deep-rooting plants such as Coastal excess water rapidly during heavy rains. Other important
bermudagrass and bahiagrasses are well suited, but soil management practices include good seedbed
yields are reduced by periodic drought. Fertilizer and lime preparation, crop rotation, and regular application of
should be applied on a regular basis. Grazing should be fertilizer. Cover crops should be rotated with row crops
controlled to maintain good ground cover and highest and should be on the land two-thirds of the time. All crop
yields. residue and cover crops should be plowed under.
The potential productivity of slash pine and longleaf This soil is not suitable for citrus trees unless it has
pine on this soil is moderately high. Restrictions on been drained. If intensive water control measures are
equipment use, seedling mortality, and plant competition used, areas that are not subject to freeze damage are
are the main limitations. Slash pine is the best species to moderately suitable for citrus. The trees should be
plant. planted on beds to help increase the effective depth to
This soil is in capability subclass Ills. It has not been the water table, and close-growing vegetation should be
assigned to a range site. maintained between the trees. Fertilizer is needed on a
regular basis.
70-Placid fine sand. This nearly level, very poorly The soil is too wet for most improved pasture grasses
drained soil is at the base of sloping parts of the and legumes. If water is adequately controlled, this soil is
landscape and along narrow, slightly depressional, short well suited to bahiagrasses and clover. Simple drainage
drainageways. Individual areas of this soil are irregular in measures are needed to remove excess surface water.
shape. Slopes are smooth to convex and less than 2 The plants grow well if the soil is properly fertilized and
percent. limed. Grazing should be controlled for best yields.







58 Soil survey


This soil has high potential for pine tree production, about 20 inches for a few days. The soils are
but installation of a water control system is necessary occasionally flooded for periods of about 7 days to 1
before the potential can be realized. Equipment month. On the average, flooding occurs about once
limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition are every 8 years, but areas may flood more or less
the main management concerns. Slash pine is the best frequently, depending on rainfall and runoff within the
species to plant. watershed. Floodwater may reach a depth of 4 feet or
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in the more on this soil.
Maidencane Pond range site. The moderately well drained Pomello soils make up
about 20 percent of the association. Typically, the
71-Anclote-Tavares-Pomello association, flooded, surface layer is black fine sand about 2 inches thick. The
This association consists of very poorly drained and subsurface layer is white fine sand about 30 inches thick.
moderately well drained soils that occur in a regular and The subsoil is dark reddish brown fine sand in the upper
repeating pattern along rivers and streams. The 4 inches and yellowish brown fine sand in the lower 6
landscape consists of a flood plain and low ridges. The inches. The substratum is light brownish gray fine sand
nearly level to gently sloping Tavares and Pomello soils to a depth of 80 inches or more.
are on low ridges about 50 to 100 feet wide and on In the Pomello soils, permeability is very rapid in the
broader, irregularly shaped areas. The nearly level surface and subsurface layers, moderately rapid in the
Anclote soils are in the low swampy areas near the river subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. Available water
channel and on the narrow flood channels and side capacity is very low in the surface layer, the subsurface
streams that dissect the landscape. The areas are layer, and the substratum and medium in the subsoil.
generally long and narrow and mostly adjacent to the The natural fertility and organic matter content are low.
Withlacoochee River, but some areas connected by In most years, the water table is at a depth of 24 to 40
flood channels extend inland from the river. Individual inches for 1 to 4 months during the rainy season. It
areas of each soil range from about 5 to 500 acres. The recedes to a depth of below 40 inches during dry
largest areas are the Anclote soils. periods. The soils are occasionally flooded. Flooding of
The very poorly drained Anclote soils make up about the Pomello soils is similar to that of the Tavares soils.
45 percent of the association. Typically, the surface layer Soils of minor extent make up about 15 percent of the
is black fine sand about 18 inches thick. Below the association. Some of the minor soils are frequently
surface layer and extending to a depth of 42 inches is flooded, and some are occasionally flooded.
dark grayish brown fine sand that has common black Most of this association is in natural vegetation. The
mottles. Below this is gray fine sand that extends to a frequently flooded parts have water-tolerant vegetation
depth of 80 inches or more. of cypress, sweetgum, maple, and bay trees with an
In the Anclote soils, permeability is rapid throughout. understory of myrtle, Sagittaria species, spatterdock,
The available water capacity is medium in the surface Junkus species, sedge, maidencane, and annual weeds.
layer and low in the other layers. Natural fertility and the The trees show high flood levels, and their lower
organic matter content of the surface layer are high. In branches have been killed by the flooding. The
most years, under natural conditions, the water table is occasionally flooded soils have a variable vegetation,
at or near the surface for 3 to 6 months. The soil is which shows the influence of flooding. On the most
frequently flooded in most years, commonly near the end elevated areas are a few very scattered longleaf pine,
of the rainy season. Some areas are flooded every year, turkey oak, and live oak trees, with an understory of
and some areas are flooded about once every 2 years. sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, and various perennial
The depth of the floodwater depends largely on grasses and herbs. The sawpalmetto form a dense
landscape position and may be 6 feet or more in places. growth, which sharply defines the usual flood level on
The flooding lasts about 2 to 4 months. these soils. Between this flood level and the areas of
The moderately well drained Tavares soils make up frequently flooded soils, only water-tolerant species
about 20 percent of the association. Typically, the survive the flooding. These are established ash, gum,
surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand about and swamp maple trees that have an undergrowth of
6 inches thick. The next layer, to a depth of about 60 myrtle and maidencane clumps. Tree seedlings and
inches, is pale brown fine sand. Below that is white fine invader plants become established between floods but
sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. are killed by the flooding.
In the Tavares soils, permeability is very rapid Under natural conditions, the Anclote soils are not
throughout and the available water capacity is very low. suitable for growing cultivated crops and citrus trees.
The natural fertility and organic matter content are low. The high water table and the frequent flooding severely
The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 6 restrict crop growth. Adequate water control systems are
months or more during most years, but recedes to a difficult to install because in most places suitable outlets
depth of more than 80 inches during droughts. In some are not available. Also, measures must be taken to
areas of these soils, the water table rises to a depth of protect the area from the threat of frequent flooding. In







Pasco County, Florida 59


those areas where a water control system can be The water table in this soil is at a depth of more than
installed, these soils have medium suitability for good 72 inches. The available water capacity is low in the
quality pasture. surface layer and very low in the other layers.
Tavares soils are severely limited for cultivated crops Permeability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is low.
because of droughtiness and flooding. Intensive soil The organic matter content is moderate in the surface
management practices are needed if these soils are layer amd moderately low to low in the other layers.
cultivated. Crops should be planted in alternating strips The native vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine,
with close-growing cover crops. Tavares soils are not laurel oak, live oak, turkey oak, some dogwood, hickory,
suitable for citrus trees because of flooding, magnolia, and an understory of widely spaced
Management practices suitable for Tavares soils include sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, and paspalum.
plowing under soil-improving crops and all other crop This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops
residue and adding fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is because of the sandy texture. Intensive soil management
necessary for the production of some crops. These soils practices are required if cultivated crops are grown.
have suitability for pasture and hay crops. Deep-rooting Droughtiness and rapid leaching of applied plant
plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass nutrients reduce the variety and potential yields of crops
are well suited, but periodic droughts reduce yields. suited to this soil. A rotation system that keeps close-
Fertilizer and lime should be applied on a regular basis. growing crops on the surface at least two-thirds of the
Grazing should be controlled for best yields. time should be used. Soil-improving crops should be
Pomello soils are not suitable for most commonly grown, and crop residue should be left on the ground or
cultivated crops. They are only fairly suitable for plowed under. Lime and fertilizer should be applied as
improved pasture grasses, even if good management needed on a regular basis. Irrigation of a few high-value
practices are used. Bahiagrasses are better suited than crops is commonly feasible where irrigation water is
other grasses, and clovers are not suited to these soils. readily available.
The major limitation is droughtiness, except during the This soil is well suited to citrus trees in places that are
relatively free from freezing temperatures. A ground
wet season. Fertilizer and lime should be applied on a
regular basis. Grazing should be well controlled to cover of close-growing plants is needed between the
regular basis. Grazing anhood grd cover.old o trees to protect the soil from blowing. Good yields of
maintain highest yields and good ground cover. Pomello citrus can be obtained in most years without irrigation.
soils are not suitable for citrus trees because of flooding. Where irrigation water is readily available, however,
Anclote soils have high potential, Tavares soils have irrigation is generally feasible.
moderately high potential, and Pomello soils have a This soil is well suited to use as pasture. Deep-rooting
moderate potential for growing pine trees. On Anclote plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses
soils, a water control system is needed to remove normally grow well if the soil is well fertilized and limed.
excess water. The frequency of flooding may make such Yields are limited by drought in prolonged dry seasons.
a system impractical. The main management concerns Control of grazing is needed for best yields.
are limitations on equipment usage and seedling This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree
mortality. Slash pine is the best tree to plant. production. The main management concerns are
Anclote soils are in capability subclass VIw, Tavares equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
soils are in subclass Ills, and Pomello soils are in competition. Slash pine is better suited than other
subclass VIs. The soils in this association have not been species.
assigned to a range site. This soil is in capability subclass Ills and in the

72-Orlando fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site.
well drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is on the 73-Zolfo fine sand. This nearly level, somewhat
uplands. poorly drained soil is on landscape positions that are
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray and very slightly higher than adjacent flatwood areas. Slopes
dark grayish brown fine sand about 21 inches thick. range from 0 to 2 percent.
Below the surface layer is a layer of mixed dark Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
yellowish brown, dark brown, and dark grayish brown inches thick. The subsurface layer consists of light
fine sand 10 inches thick. Below this are layers of brownish gray, pale brown, light gray, and white fine
yellowish brown and strong brown fine sand, which sand. The subsoil begins at a depth of 65 inches. It is
extend to a depth of 80 inches or more. dark reddish brown fine sand in the upper 15 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of The lower part is black fine sand and extends to a depth
Lake and Gainesville soils. Also included in mapping are of 80 inches or more.
small areas of similar soils that have a dark surface layer Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
less than 10 inches thick. The included soils make up Adamsville, Immokalee, Tavares, and Pomello soils.
less than 20 percent of the map unit. These included soils make up less than 20 percent of







60 Soil survey



any mapped area. Also included in mapping are very This soil has moderately high potential for pine tree
similar soils which have a less well developed subsoil, production. The main management concerns are
These very similar included soils may make up slightly equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
more than 20 percent of the map unit, especially in the competition. Slash pine is the most suitable species for
central and eastern parts of the survey area. planting.
Permeability is very rapid in the surface and This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in the South
subsurface layers and is moderate in the subsoil. The Florida Flatwoods range site.
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 24 to 40
inches for 2 to 6 months in most years. In some years, 74-Candler Variant fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
the water table may be at a depth of 10 to 24 inches for slopes. This nearly level to gently sloping, well drained
periods of up to 2 weeks. Commonly, the water table is soil is in the north-central part of the county. Areas are
at a depth of less than 60 inches for more than 9 irregular in shape and commonly are extensive. Slopes
months of the year. The available water capacity is low are smooth to concave.
to very low in the surface and subsurface layers and is Typically, the surface layer is about 8 inches thick. It is
medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low, and the gray fine sand in the upper 4 inches and dark grayish
organic matter content is low to very low. brown fine sand in the lower part. Below this is the
The native vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, subsurface layer, which extends to a depth of about 72
laurel, bluejack oak, turkey oak, live oak, water oak, and inches. It is yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of 23
an understory of sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, inches and very pale brown fine sand below that depth.
broomsedge, chalky bluestem, and other perennial Below 72 inches, and extending to a depth of more than
grasses. 80 inches, is white fine sand that has small
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops discontinuous horizontal bands lamellaee) of brown
because of periodic wetness, which limits the root zone. loamy fine sand.
For all but a very few suited crops, intensive water Included in mapping are small areas of Candler,
control measures are needed. These water control Millhopper, and Tavares soils. The included soils,
measures may involve installing a system to remove dominantly Millhopper soils, make up about 20 percent
excess water in wet seasons and planting trees on beds of the map unit.
to help increase the effective depth to the water table. The water table is below 72 inches. The available
An irrigation system is also needed to provide water water capacity is low, and natural fertility is very low.
during dry periods. Combining water control measures Permeability is rapid in all horizons.
with good management makes this soil well suited to Most areas of this soil have been cleared. The native
many kinds of flowers and vegetables. Good vegetation is bluejack oak, a few scattered turkey oak,
management includes crop rotations that keep a close- post oak, live oak, longleaf pine, slash pine, and an
growing crop on the land at least two-thirds of the time understory of pineland threeawn, creeping bluestem,
and the use of soil-improving crops. Crop residue should Florida paspalum, and other grasses and forbs.
be plowed under. Fertilizer and lime should be added This soil is very severely limited for cultivated crops
according to the needs of the crop. because of the thick sandy layers. Intensive soil
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees unless water is management practices are required to grow cultivated
controlled. By installing a system to remove excess crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
water during wet periods and by planting trees on beds reduce the variety and potential yields of suited crops.
to help increase the effective depth to the water table, Row crops should be planted on the contour in strips
this soil can be made moderately suitable for citrus. alternating with close-growing cover crops. A crop
Locations that are frequently subject to freezing rotation system that keeps the soil under close-growing
temperatures should be avoided. Excess water should crops at least three-fourths of the time should be used.
be removed rapidly and the water table maintained at Crop residue and soil-improving crops should be plowed
about 4 feet. A cover of close-growing vegetation should under. Irrigation of the crops during periods of dry
be maintained between the trees to protect the soil from weather should be considered.
blowing in dry weather and from washing during heavy This soil is suitable for growing citrus trees if the site is
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are relatively free of freezing temperatures. A ground cover
needed. For highest yields, the soil should be irrigated in of close-growing plants is needed between the trees to
seasons of low rainfall. prevent soil blowing and water erosion. Irrigation during
This soil is moderately suited to use as pasture. dry periods helps to establish good groves and assure
Pangolagrass and bahiagrass are well suited. A simple the best yields from mature groves. Fertilization and
system to remove excess surface water in times of high liming are needed on a regular basis.
rainfall is needed. Fertilizers and lime are needed on a The soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay crops.
regular basis. Grazing should be controlled for highest Deep-rooting plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and
yields. bahiagrass can give good yields, even with periodic







Pasco County, Florida 61


droughts, if a good management program has been limestone rock within 80 inches of the surface and small
followed. Plant vigor can be maintained by control of areas of soils that have layers of organic or silty material
grazing and by applying fertilizer and lime on a regular in the profile.
basis. When not covered by water, the beaches have a water
This soil has moderately high potential for the table at a depth of 0 to 6 feet. The depth to the water
commercial production of pine trees. Seedling mortality, table increases with distance from open water. Both the
equipment limitations, and plant competition are the main available water capacity and natural fertility are low, and
management concerns. Slash pine is the best species to the organic matter content is very low. When not
plant. impeded by a water table, permeability is rapid.
This soil is in capability subclass IVs and in the Most of the beaches are devoid of vegetation, but
Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills range site. inland edges are sometimes very sparsely covered by
railroad vine, scattered clumps of sea-oats, and
75-Beaches. Beaches are natural deposits of tide- seashore bermudagrass.
washed, very rapidly permeable sand. They are along Beaches are not suitable for cultivation or use as
the edges of a few small islands in the Gulf of Mexico. woodland.
Beaches are narrow, commonly less than 200 feet in Beaches are in capability subclass Vlllw. They have
width but ranging up to 300 feet. The seaward half has a not been assigned to a range site.
uniform gentle slope and is flooded during normal daily
high tides. The landward half consists predominantly of 76-Bessie muck. This very poorly drained, nearly
gentle slopes and areas of short, stronger slopes which level organic soil is in mangrove swamps on islands in
rntle sl to 15 percent. This Irangdward part is not the Gulf of Mexico. It is mainly on the eastern side of the
may range up to 15 percent. This landward part is not islands and is exposed to tidal flooding. Individual areas
flooded during periods of storm tides. Tidal action and are usually narrow and long, conforming to the overall
flooded during periods of storm tides. Tidal action and speofthsd. es pernt.
waves produce minor changes in beach shape and slope shape of the island. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
waves produce minor changes in beach shape and slope Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 35
almost daily. Storm tides, high waves, and strong winds inches thick. Below this is very dark brown sandy clay 8
may produce radical changes through erosion and inches thick. Below this, to a depth of more than 80
deposition of beach materials. inches, is a layer of gray fine sand mixed with varying
The material making up beaches is of a highly variable amounts of whole or fragmented shell.
composition both over short surface distances and within Included with this soil in mapping are very similar soils
the profile. This is a result of the frequent natural that do not have a clay or sandy clay layer. Also
reworking and mixing that occurs. The most common included are similar soils that have hard rock within 60
type of soil in most areas is pale brown to light gray inches of the surface. The included soils make up about
uncoated quartz sand. Mixed with this sand are varying 25 percent of the mapped area.
amounts of sand-size or larger fragments of shells and Normal daily tides flood much of the mapped area,
unbroken shells. Most areas of beaches have this and storm tides cover the mapped area totally. The
variable mixture of sand and shell to a depth of more available water capacity is very high in the organic
than 80 inches. surface layer, high in the clayey underlying layer, and low
Included with beaches in mapping are areas that are in the sandy underlying layer. Natural fertility is high.
more densely vegetated than is typical for beaches. Permeability is slow to very slow in the clayey layer and
These included areas are adjacent to the landward rapid in the other layers.
portion of the beaches, but they are slightly more All areas of this soil remain in natural vegetation,
elevated and are not covered by water except during which consists of red and black mangrove and, in more
times of extremely high storm tides. They also consist of sheltered locations, a few white mangrove. Scattered
variable mixture of sand and shell fragments and glasswort, bushy sea-oxeye, and scattered clumps of
commonly contain a layer stained with organic material salt-tolerant grasses are also present.
about 10 inches below the surface. The vegetation on This soil is not suitable for cultivation or for use as
these included areas is mainly cabbage palm with an pasture or woodland.
understory of various species of smilax. Also included This soil is in capability subclass VIllIw. It has not been
with beaches are small areas of soils that have hard assigned to a range site.









63








use and management of the soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural listed for each soil.
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid Planners of management systems for individual fields
soil-related failures in land uses. or farms should consider the detailed information given
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, in the description of each soil under "Detailed soil map
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive units." Specific information can be obtained from the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Cooperative Extension Service.
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses Approximately 100,000 acres in Pasco County was
and management. Field experience and collected data used for crops and pasture in 1976. Of this, about
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis 60,000 acres was used for pasture; 34,000 acres was
in predicting soil behavior, used for citrus; and 2,500 acres was used for field crops,
Information in this section can be used to plan the use mainly small grain and soybeans. Nine hundred acres
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as was used for specialty crops, mainly watermelons,
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary vegetables, and nursery plants.
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and In Pasco County, about 1,981 acres, or less than one
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife half percent of the county's acreage meets the soil
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and requirements for prime farmland. This acreage is in map
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help unit 66, Micanopy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil (where adequately drained). Prime farmland, as defined
properties. by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, is the land that is
Planners and others using soil survey information can best suited to producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity oilseed crops. It may now be in crops, pasture,
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. woodland, or other land, but it may not be in urban and
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a built-up land or water areas. It must either be used for
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. producing food and fiber or be available for these uses.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of In Pasco County, much of this land is used for crops,
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to mainly corn and soybeans.
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil The potential of the soils in the Pasco soil survey area
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, for increased food production is good. About 70,000
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and acres of potentially good cropland is currently used as
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can rangeland, about 50,000 acres is used as pasture, and
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate about 20,000 acres is used as woodland. Conversion of
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, this land to cropland would require intensive
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. conservation measures to control water and to control
soil blowing. In addition to the reserve capacity
crops and pasture represented by this land, food production could be
increased considerably by extending the latest cropland
John D. Griffin and John D. Lawrence, state conservation technology to all cropland in the county. This soil survey
agronomists, Soil Conservation Service, assisted in preparing this can greatly facilitate the application of such technology.
Erosion by water is a problem in citrus groves and on
General management needed for crops and pasture is cropland and poorly managed pastureland in Pasco
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants County. For example, erosion occurs on well drained
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly Arredondo, Gainesville, and Kendrick soils, somewhat
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of poorly drained Electra Variant, Lochloosa, Nobleton, and
land capability classification used by the Soil Sparr soils, and poorly drained Blichton soils if the slope






63








use and management of the soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural listed for each soil.
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid Planners of management systems for individual fields
soil-related failures in land uses. or farms should consider the detailed information given
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, in the description of each soil under "Detailed soil map
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive units." Specific information can be obtained from the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, Cooperative Extension Service.
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses Approximately 100,000 acres in Pasco County was
and management. Field experience and collected data used for crops and pasture in 1976. Of this, about
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis 60,000 acres was used for pasture; 34,000 acres was
in predicting soil behavior, used for citrus; and 2,500 acres was used for field crops,
Information in this section can be used to plan the use mainly small grain and soybeans. Nine hundred acres
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as was used for specialty crops, mainly watermelons,
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary vegetables, and nursery plants.
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and In Pasco County, about 1,981 acres, or less than one
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife half percent of the county's acreage meets the soil
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and requirements for prime farmland. This acreage is in map
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help unit 66, Micanopy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil (where adequately drained). Prime farmland, as defined
properties. by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, is the land that is
Planners and others using soil survey information can best suited to producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity oilseed crops. It may now be in crops, pasture,
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. woodland, or other land, but it may not be in urban and
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a built-up land or water areas. It must either be used for
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. producing food and fiber or be available for these uses.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of In Pasco County, much of this land is used for crops,
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to mainly corn and soybeans.
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil The potential of the soils in the Pasco soil survey area
layers can cause difficulty in excavation, for increased food production is good. About 70,000
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and acres of potentially good cropland is currently used as
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can rangeland, about 50,000 acres is used as pasture, and
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate about 20,000 acres is used as woodland. Conversion of
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, this land to cropland would require intensive
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. conservation measures to control water and to control
soil blowing. In addition to the reserve capacity
crops and pasture represented by this land, food production could be
increased considerably by extending the latest cropland
John D. Griffin and John D. Lawrence, state conservation technology to all cropland in the county. This soil survey
agronomists, Soil Conservation Service, assisted in preparing this can greatly facilitate the application of such technology.
Erosion by water is a problem in citrus groves and on
General management needed for crops and pasture is cropland and poorly managed pastureland in Pasco
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants County. For example, erosion occurs on well drained
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly Arredondo, Gainesville, and Kendrick soils, somewhat
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of poorly drained Electra Variant, Lochloosa, Nobleton, and
land capability classification used by the Soil Sparr soils, and poorly drained Blichton soils if the slope







64 Soil survey



is more than 2 percent; and it occurs on excessively the poorly drained Basinger, Blichton, EauGallie,
drained Candler, Lake, and Paola soils if the slope is Palmetto, Felda, Flemington Variant, Immokalee,
more than 5 percent. It is especially a problem on land Kanapaha, Myakka, Ona, Paisley, Pineda, Pomona,
planted to citrus. Pompano, Smyrna, Vero, Wauchula, and Zephyr soils.
Loss of soil from the surface layer through erosion is The somewhat poorly drained soils are so wet that,
damaging for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced unless they are artificially drained, the wetness damages
as topsoil is lost and part of the subsoil is incorporated crops and citrus trees during most years. These soils are
into the plow layer. Second, the soil that is eroded the Adamsville, Aripeka, Cassia, Electra Variant,
enters streams as sediment. Control of erosion Lochloosa, Micanopy, Narcoossee, Newnan, Nobleton,
minimizes the pollution of streams by sediment and and Sparr soils. Wetness in these soils also damages
improves the quality of water for municipal use, for pasture grasses in most years unless the soils are
recreation, and for fish and wildlife, artificially drained.
Erosion control practices provide surface cover, The poorly drained and very poorly drained soils are
reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. A cropping so wet that pasture grasses common to the area cannot
system that keeps vegetative cover on the soil for be grown without artificial drainage. These soils are the
extended periods can hold soil erosion losses to Anclote, Basinger, Blichton, Chobee, Delray, EauGallie,
amounts that will not reduce the productive capacity of Felda, Flemington, Immokalee, Kanapaha, Myakka, Ona,
the soils. On livestock farms, which require pasture and Paisley, Palmetto, Pineda, Pomona, Pompano, Sellers,
hay, the use of the legume and grass forage crops in the Smyrna, Vero, Wauchula, and Zephyr soils.
cropping system reduces erosion on erodible sloping These poorly drained, somewhat poorly drained, and
land, improves tilth, and provides nitrogen for the very poorly drained soils also have low available water
following crop. capacity and are drought during dry periods. Irrigation is
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the necessary on these soils for intensive production of row
surface help to increase infiltration and reduce the crops, citrus, and pasture, and a combination of surface
hazards of runoff and erosion. These practices can be drainage and subsurface irrigation is needed for intensive
adapted to most soils in the survey area. No-tillage for crop and pasture production. The design of the surface
soybeans and small grain is effective in reducing erosion drainage and subsurface irrigation systems varies
on sloping land and can be adapted to most soils in the according to the kind of soil and the crops and pasture
survey area. grasses grown.
In many areas, the soils are too sandy and the slopes Because citrus trees have a deep taproot, they need
are too short and irregular for contour tillage or terracing. considerable rooting depth. Surface and subsurface
Contour tillage can be adapted to new citrus plantings drainage and drip irrigation systems are needed for
on sloping land. Stripcropping and the use of diversions intensive citrus production on the somewhat poorly
reduce the length of slope and reduce runoff and drained and poorly drained soils. The design of drainage
erosion. They are more practical on deep, well drained systems and drip irrigation systems varies with the kind
soils that have regular slopes. Diversions and sod of soil and the citrus crops grown.
waterways reduce runoff and erosion and can be Organic soils oxidize and subside when the pore
adapted to most sloping soils in the survey area. space is filled with air; therefore, special drainage and
Soil blowing, or wind erosion, is a major hazard on the irrigation systems are needed on these soils to control
sandy soils. Soil blowing can damage soils and tender the depth and period of drainage. Keeping the water
crops in a few hours in open unprotected areas if winds table at the highest practical level for the crop, tilling
are strong and the soil is dry and bare of vegetation and during the growing season, and raising the water table to
surface mulch. Maintaining vegetative cover and surface the surface during the off season minimize the oxidation
mulch minimizes soil blowing. Windbreaks of adapted and subsidence of organic soils.
trees and shrubs, such as slash pine, Southern redcedar, Information on drainage and irrigation for each kind of
and Japanese privet, and strip crops of small grain are soil is contained in the "Technical Guide," available in
effective in reducing soil blowing and crop damage. local offices of the Soil Conservation Service.
Information on the design of erosion control practices Soil fertility is naturally low in most soils in the survey
for each kind of soil is in the "Water and Wind Erosion area. Sandy soils have low fertility because they have
Control Handbook for Florida," which is available in local relatively low amounts of organic matter and low cation
offices of the Soil Conservation Service. exchange capacity. They also have low available water
Soil drainage is a major management need on about capacity. Most of the soils have a sandy surface layer
one-half of the acreage used for crops and pasture in and are light colored. The Aripeka, Jonesville, and Vero
the survey area. Some soils are naturally so wet that the Variant soils have an acid surface and are underlain by
production of citrus and crops common to the area is calcareous limestone which ranges from neutral to
generally not possible. These are the very poorly drained moderately alkaline. The Gainesville, Sellers, and Pineda
Anclote, Chobee, Delray, Placid, and Sellers soils and soils have a loamy surface texture. Many of the soils






Pasco County, Florida 65


have a sandy surface texture and a loamy subsoil. In this sugarcane, and sunflower can be increased if economic
category are the Aripeka, Arredondo, Blichton, Delray, conditions are favorable. Rye is the most common close-
EauGallie, Electra Variant, Felda, Jonesville, Kendrick, growing crop. Wheat, oats, and triticale can be grown but
Lochloosa, Micanopy, Newnan, Nobleton, Paisley, are not at this time. Bahiagrass, hairy indigo,
Pomona, Sparr, Vero, and Wauchula soils. Some of the aeschynomane, and alyceclover could be harvested for
soils have sandy textures to 80 inches or more. These seed as well as for forage.
are the Adamsville, Anclote, Astatula, Basinger, Candler, Special crops grown commercially in the survey area
Cassia, Gainesville, Immokalee, Lake, Myakka, are mainly citrus. A smaller acreage is used for
Narcoosee, Ona, Orlando, Pomello, Paola, Pompano, watermelons, vegetables, and nursery plants. The
Sellers, Smyrna, Tavares, and Zolfo soils. The Basinger, acreage of potatoes, tomatoes, strawberries, squash,
EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, Ona, Pomello, Smyrna, blueberries, grapes, and blackberries can be increased if
Vero, Wauchula, and Zolfo soils have an underlying layer economic conditions are favorable.
of organic-stained material. Deep soils that have good natural drainage are
Most of the soils have a strongly acid to very strongly especially well suited to many vegetables and small fruits
acid surface layer. If they have never been limed, they when irrigated. In the survey area, these soils are the
require applications of ground limestone to supply Arredondo, Gainesville, Kendrick, Lake, Orlando, and
calcium and raise the pH level sufficiently for good Tavares soils. In addition, if surface drained and irrigated,
growth of crops, citrus, and pasture. Levels of nitrogen, about 70,000 acres of Adamsville, Blichton, Electra
potash, and available phosphorus are naturally low in Variant, EauGallie, Flemington Variant, Immokalee,
most of these soils. On all soils, additions of lime and Lochloosa, Narcoosee, Nobleton, Paisley, Sparr, Vero,
fertilizer should be based on the results of soil tests, on and Zolfo soils is well suited to vegetables and small
the needs of the crops, and on the expected level of fruits.
yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can help in Soils in low-lying areas where frost is frequent and air
determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime drainage is poor generally are poorly suited to early
to apply to each crop. vegetables, small fruits, and orchards.
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of Latest information and suggestions for growing special
seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils that crops can be obtained from local offices of the
have good tilth are granular and porous. Most of the Cooperative Extension Service and the Soil Conservation
soils in the survey area have a sandy or loamy sand Service.
surface layer that is light in color and low in organic Pastures in the survey area are used to produce
matter content. The Anclote, Delray, Placid, Sellers, and forage for beef and dairy cattle operations and a few
Zephyr soils and the organic Okeelanta, Terra Ceia, horse farms. Beef cow-calf operations are the major
Samsula, and Tomoka soils have a dark surface and livestock systems. Bahiagrass and improved
high organic matter content. Intense rain on dry soils bermudagrass are the main pasture plants grown in the
that are low in organic matter content causes the survey area. Many soils are subsurface irrigated, and
colloidal material to cement, forming a slight crust. This white clover is grown in combination with the grass for
crust is slightly hard and slightly impervious to water winter and spring grazing. Many cattlemen seed rye on
when it is dry. Once the crust forms, it reduces infiltration cropland in fall for winter and spring grazing. Excess
and increases runoff. Regular additions of crop residue, grass is harvested as hay for feeding cattle during the
manure, and other organic material can help to improve winter months.
soil structure and to reduce crust formation. The well drained and moderately well drained
In some fields, preparing a good seedbed and tilling Arredondo, Candler Variant, Gainesville, Jonesville,
the soil are difficult because of limestone boulders on Kendrick, Millhopper, Orlando, and Tavares soils are well
the surface. In some areas of Jonesville, Paisley, and suited to bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass. If
Aripeka soils, boulders may interfere with tillage properly managed, hairy indigo and alyceclover may be
operations. grown during summer and fall.
Fall plowing is generally not a good practice on the The excessively drained Astatula, Candler, and Lake
soils of Pasco County. About 8,700 acres of the cropland soils are fairly well suited to bahiagrass. If properly
consists of sloping soils that are subject to damaging managed, hairy indigo and alyceclover may be grown on
water erosion if they are plowed in the fall. Also, most of these soils during the summer and fall. Growing these
the county's cropland soils are sandy and are subject to grasses will increase forage production and reduce the
damage by soil blowing if they are plowed in fall. amount of nitrogen fertilizer needed.
Field crops suited to the soils and climate of the The somewhat poorly drained Adamsville, Aripeka,
survey area include many that are not now commonly Electra Variant, Lochloosa, Micanopy, Narcoosee,
grown. Soybeans is the main row crop. The acreage Newnan, Nobleton, Sparr, and Zolfo soils are well suited
planted to soybeans has increased in recent years, to bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass. Legumes
Acreages planted to grain sorghum, potatoes, soybeans, such as sweet clover may be grown if these soils are







66 Soil survey



adequately limed and fertilized and if good management because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
practices are used. office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
With adequate surface drainage, the poorly drained Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
and very poorly drained Anclote, Basinger, Blichton, about the management and productivity of the soils.
Delray, EauGallie, Felda, Flemington Variant, Immokalee, land capability classification
Kanapaha, Myakka, Okeelanta, Terra Ceia, Ona, Paisley,
Pineda, Pomona, Pompano, Samsula, Sellers, Tomoka, Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
Vero, Wauchula, and Zephyr soils are well suited to the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops
bahiagrass and bermudagrass pastures. On soils having that require special management are excluded. The soils
slope of less than 2 percent, subsurface irrigation are grouped according to their limitations for field crops,
increases the length of the growing season and the total the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the
amount of forage production. Legumes such as white way they respond to management. The grouping does
clover are well suited to these soils if the soils are not take into account major and generally expensive
adequately limed and fertilized and if good management landforming that would change slope, depth, or other
practices are used. characteristics of the soils, nor does it consider possible
Pasture in many parts of the county is depleted by but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability classi-
continuous excessive grazing. Yields from pasture can fiction is not a substitute for interpretations designed to
be increased by adding lime and fertilizer, by using show suitability and limitations of groups of soils for
legumes in the cropping sequence, by irrigating, and by rangeland, for woodland, and for engineering purposes.
other management practices. In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
Differences in pasture yields are related closely to the three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
kind of soil. Proper management of pasture must be class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
based on the relationship among soils, pasture plants, are defined in the following paragraphs.
lime, fertilizer, and available moisture. Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
Latest information and suggestions for growing designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
pastures can be obtained from local offices of the numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
Cooperative Extension Service and the Soil Conservation narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
Service. defined as follows:
yields per acre Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
The average yields per acre that can be expected of choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
the principal crops under a high level of management practices.
are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because choice of plants or that require special conservation
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. practices, or both.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension the choice of plants or that require very careful
agents. Yield data from nearby counties and results of management, or both.
field trials and demonstrations are also considered. Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
The management needed to obtain the indicated limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion generally unsuitable for cultivation.
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; them unsuitable for cultivation.
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, crop production.
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
residue, barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; and They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss. c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
to increase as new production technology is developed, water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
other soils, however, is not likely to change. corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed and c, used in only some parts of the United States,







Pasco County, Florida 67


shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold range site and the total production in favorable, normal,
or very dry. and unfavorable years. Explanation of the column
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of headings in table 7 follows.
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in produces a characteristic natural plant community that
class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have differs from natural plant communities on other range
other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, sites in kind, amount, and proportion of range plants.
rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. The relationship between soils and vegetation was
Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The established during this survey; thus, range sites generally
soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to can be determined directly from the soil map. Soil
the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar properties that affect moisture supply and plant nutrients
management, and to have similar productivity. Capability have the greatest influence on the productivity of range
units are generally designated by adding an Arabic plants. Soil reaction, salt content, and a seasonal high
numeral to the subclass symbol, for example, lle-4 or water table are also important.
Ille-6. Total production is the amount of vegetation that can
The acreage of soils in each capability class and be expected to grow annually on well-managed
subclass is shown in table 6. The capability classification rangeland that is supporting the potential natural plant
of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed soil community. It includes all vegetation, whether or not it is
map units." palatable to grazing animals. It includes the current
year's growth of leaves, twigs, and fruits of woody
range and grazeable woodland plants. It does not include the increase in stem diameter
of trees and shrubs. It is expressed in pounds per acre
Clifford W. Carter, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, of air-dry vegetation for favorable, normal, and
helped prepare this section. unfavorable years. In a favorable year, the amount and
Native grasses are a significant part of the overall, distribution of precipitation and the temperatures make
year-round supply of forage to livestock producers in growing conditions substantially better than average. In a
Pasco County. This forage is readily available, it is normal year, growing conditions are about average. In an
economical, and it provides important roughage needed unfavorable year, growing conditions are well below
by cattle, average, generally because of low available soil
The dominant native forage species that grow on a moisture.
soil are generally the most productive and the most Dry weight is the total annual yield per acre with the
suitable for livestock. They will maintain themselves as moisture removed from the vegetation through air drying.
long as the environment does not change. The forage Range management requires a knowledge of the kinds
species are grouped into three categories according to of soil and of the potential natural plant community. It
their response to grazing-decreasers, increases, and also requires an evaluation of the present range
invaders. condition. Range condition is determined by comparing
Decreasers generally are the most palatable plants, the present plant community with the potential natural
and they decrease in abundance if the range is under plant community on a particular range site. The more
continuous heavy grazing. Increasers are less palatable closely the existing community resembles the potential
to livestock; they increase for a while under continuous community, the better the range condition. Range
heavy grazing but eventually decrease. A small number condition is an ecological rating only. It does not have a
of invaders are native to the range. They have little value specific meaning that pertains to the present plant
for forage; consequently, they tend to increase as other community for a given use.
vegetation deteriorates. The objective in range management is to control
Range condition is a measure of the range's current grazing so that the plants growing on a site are about
productivity in kinds and amounts of plants relative to its the same in kind and amount as the potential natural
potential. Four condition classes are used to measure plant community for that site. Such management
range condition. generally results in the optimum production of
In excellent condition, the range produces 76 to 100 vegetation, conservation of water, and control of water
percent of its potential; in good condition, 51 to 75 erosion and soil blowing. Sometimes, however, a range
percent of its potential; in fair condition, 26 to 50 percent condition somewhat below the potential meets grazing
of its potential; and in poor condition, 0 to 25 percent of needs, provides wildlife habitat, and protects soil and
its potential. Only about 15 percent of the range in water resources.
Pasco County is in excellent condition; about 65 percent Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory
is in fair or poor condition. of native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory is
Table 7 shows, for those soils in the survey area that an integral part of the forest plant community. The native
are used as rangeland or are suited to this use, the plants can be grazed without significantly impairing other







68 Soil survey


forest values. On such forestland, grazing is compatible exemplified on small nonindustrial tracts throughout the
with timber management if it is controlled or managed in county. Because of state and federal incentive programs
such a manner that timber and forage resources are and increased technical assistance in these areas, the
maintained or enhanced. situation is improving.
Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs, Markets are not plentiful but do exist for the wood of
shrubs, and other plants used by livestock or by grazing Pasco County. Mills for sawing cypress lumber are in
or browsing wildlife. A well-managed wooded area can Pasco and surrounding counties. Markets for pine
produce enough understory vegetation to supply food to sawtimber and pulpwood are also available.
large numbers of livestock and wildlife. More detailed information on woodland and woodland
The amount of forage production varies according to management can be obtained from the local offices of
the different kinds of grazeable woodland; the amount of the Soil Conservation Service, the Florida Division of
shade cast by the canopy; the accumulation of fallen Forestry, and the Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
needles; the intensity of grazing; the amount of time Table 8 can be used by woodland owners or forest
grazing has gone on; and the number, size, spacing, and managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops.
method of site preparation for tree plantings. Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The
table lists the ordination (woodland suitability) symbol for
woodland management and productivity each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol
require the same general management and have about
Carl D. Defazio, forester, Soil Conservation Service, and Gerald W. the same potential productivity.
Evans, county forester, Florida Division of Forestry, helped prepare this The first part of the ordination symbol, a number,
section. indicates the potential productivity of the soils for
Forests in Pasco County make up about 178,700 important trees. The number 1 indicates very high
acres, or 37 percent of the total land area. productivity; 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate;
Approximately 75 percent of this forest resource is in and 5, low. The second part of the symbol, a letter,
nonindustrial private ownership. These scattered private indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter x
holdings are relatively small, averaging under 500 acres. indicates stoniness or rockiness; w, excessive water in or
Corporate lands account for nearly 40,000 acres, and on the soil; t, toxic substances in the soil; d, restricted
the Withlacoochee State Forest accounts for 8,000 root depth; c, clay in the upper part of the soil; s, sandy
acres. texture; f, high content of coarse fragments in the soil
Gum and cypress, the predominant tree species in profile; and r, steep slopes. The letter o indicates that
Pasco County, occur on such soils as Sellers and limitations or restrictions are insignificant. If a soil has
Zephyr. These species account for nearly 45 percent of more than one limitation, the priority is as follows: x, w, t,
the county's woodland resource. They occur in cypress d, c, s, f, and r.
"heads" or "domes" throughout the county, particularly In table 8, slight, moderate, and severe indicate the
in the southwestern part. Pond cypress, black gum, and degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in
sweetgum along with other wetland hardwoods such as management.
water elm, pumpkin ash, red maple, and various oaks Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss
also occur along the Hillsborough and Withlacoochee of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the
Rivers in the eastern part of the county. expected soil loss is small, moderate if measures are
Slash pine occurs primarily in the northeastern corner needed to control erosion during logging and road
of the county on flatwood soils such as EauGallie, construction, and severe if intensive management or
Myakka, Pomona, and Vero. This species accounts for special equipment and methods are needed to prevent
nearly 17,000 acres of the total woodland resource. excessive loss of soil.
Much of this acreage is in the Withlacoochee State Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the
Forest. This area is being intensively managed for characteristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use
timber, cattle, and wildlife production. of the equipment generally needed in woodland
Longleaf pine and turkey oak predominate in the management or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates
northwestern and north-central parts of the county. that use of equipment is not limited to a particular kind of
These species occur on the Astatula, Tavares, Candler, equipment or time of year; moderate indicates a short
and Paola soils in the drier sandhills. These sandhill seasonal limitation or a need for some modification in
areas are rapidly being developed as residential areas, management or in equipment; and severe indicates a
and production of forest products is declining, seasonal limitation, a need for special equipment or
Approximately 57 percent of the commercial forestland management, or a hazard in the use of equipment.
in the county is understocked and is not producing at Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which
capacity. This condition is due primarily to past the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant
harvesting practices of clearcutting and periodic burning competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings
without concern for tree reproduction. This situation is apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly






Pasco County, Florida 69



planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of recreation
slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than
25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe, The soils of the survey area are rated in table 9
more than 50 percent. according to limitations that affect their suitability for
Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
which undesirable plants are expected to invade where features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
there are openings in the tree canopy. The invading surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings. A site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
rating of slight indicates little or no competition from size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
other plants; moderate indicates that plant competition is vegetation, access to water, potential water
expected to hinder the development of a fully stocked impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
stand of desirable trees; severe indicates that plant capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
competition is expected to prevent the establishment of ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
a desirable stand unless the site is intensively prepared, important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
weeded, or otherwise managed to control undesirable recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
plants. and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
The potential productivity of merchantable or common recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
the average height, in feet, that dominant and In table 9, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
number of years. The site index was determined at age properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
25 years for south Florida slash pine and at age 50 minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
years for other species. The site index applies to fully limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
grown trees are those that woodland managers generally properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
favor in intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
selected on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
marketability. of these measures.
Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils The information in table 9 can be supplemented by
and to commercial wood production. other information in this survey, for example,
and to commercial wood productioninterpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
12 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
windbreaks and environmental plantings and for local roads and streets in table 11.
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens, and and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low- and facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and shrubs heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
provide the most protection. soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife, constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock during the period of use, and do not have slopes or
of suitable species should be planted properly on a well stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
prepared site and maintained in good condition. sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
Service or from a nursery. and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the






Pasco County, Florida 69



planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of recreation
slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than
25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe, The soils of the survey area are rated in table 9
more than 50 percent. according to limitations that affect their suitability for
Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
which undesirable plants are expected to invade where features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
there are openings in the tree canopy. The invading surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings. A site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
rating of slight indicates little or no competition from size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
other plants; moderate indicates that plant competition is vegetation, access to water, potential water
expected to hinder the development of a fully stocked impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
stand of desirable trees; severe indicates that plant capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
competition is expected to prevent the establishment of ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
a desirable stand unless the site is intensively prepared, important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
weeded, or otherwise managed to control undesirable recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
plants. and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
The potential productivity of merchantable or common recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.
the average height, in feet, that dominant and In table 9, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
number of years. The site index was determined at age properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
25 years for south Florida slash pine and at age 50 minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
years for other species. The site index applies to fully limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
grown trees are those that woodland managers generally properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
favor in intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
selected on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
marketability. of these measures.
Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils The information in table 9 can be supplemented by
and to commercial wood production. other information in this survey, for example,
and to commercial wood productioninterpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
12 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
windbreaks and environmental plantings and for local roads and streets in table 11.
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens, and and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low- and facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and shrubs heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
provide the most protection. soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife, constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock during the period of use, and do not have slopes or
of suitable species should be planted properly on a well stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
prepared site and maintained in good condition. sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
Service or from a nursery. and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the







70 Soil survey


depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be be created or improved by planting appropriate
considered. vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
Paths and trails for hiking, horseback riding, and promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
bicycling should require little or no cutting and filling. The In table 10, the soils in the survey area are rated
best soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty according to their potential for providing habitat for
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
once a year during the period of use. They have planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are
the surface. suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be the intensity of management needed for each element of
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm the habitat.
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
not considered in rating the soils, and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
wildlife habitat established, improved, or maintained in most places.
John F. Vance, biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare Moderately intensive management is required for
this section. satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind
Pasco County has some extensive areas of good of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
wildlife habitat. However, intensive urban development, maintained in most places, but management is difficult
particularly in the coastal areas, and the establishment and must be intensive. A rating of verypoor indicates
of large areas of improved pasture and citrus have been that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
detrimental to wildlife habitat in parts of the county. For that restrictions for the elementor knd of habtat are
example, bald eagle nests were once common along the very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
coast, but in 1979, only two nesting pairs of this expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
endangered species were present. impractical or impossible.
The northeastern corner of the county has good The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
wildlife habitat and over 7,000 acres is in the Richloam following paragraphs.
Wildlife Management Area, a part of the Withlacoochee Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
State Forest. However, the best areas of habitat producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
generally are in the relatively undeveloped central parts features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
of the county. are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
The primary game species are white-tailed deer, available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
turkey, bobwhite quail, gray squirrel, and mourning dove. stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
Other wildlife, both game and nongame, include fox moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and
squirrel, gray and red fox, snipe, woodcock, raccoon, seed crops are millet, cowpeas, sunflowers, and
opossum, bobcat, otter, skunk, armadillo, and a variety soybeans.
of songbirds, woodpeckers, wading birds, reptiles, and. Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
amphibians. A number of waterfowl species overwinter and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
on the larger water bodies, and the wood duck and that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
Florida mallard are year-round residents of the swamps of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
and marshes, water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard,
Species that are listed as endangered or threatened and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
include the eagle, the alligator, the Florida mouse, and considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
the Florida gopher frog. A number of other threatened ryegrass, bahiagrass, deer vetch, hairy indigo, and
species can be found in Pasco County, and a detailed clover.
list with information on range and habitat may be Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
obtained from the district conservationist. established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is properties and features that affect the growth of these
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild






Pasco County, Florida 71



herbaceous plants are pokeweed, mushrooms, vegetative community in the stage or stages that favor
beggarweed, partridgepea, ragweed, and low panicum. that species.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts A primary factor in evaluating wildlife habitat is the
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil plant diversity in an area. A wide range in vegetative
properties and features that affect the growth of type or age class is generally favorable to wildlife.
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, Increasing dominance by a few plant species is
the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of commonly accompanied by a corresponding decrease in
these plants are oak, sawpalmetto, gallberry, cabbage numbers of wildlife.
palm, elderberry, huckleberry, blackberry, and catbriers.
Coniferous plants furnish browse, seeds, and cones. engineering
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of This section provides information for planning land
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness, uses related to urban development and to water
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, and management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
cedar. most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
Wet/andplants are annual and perennial wild given in the following tables: Building site development,
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites. Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil management. The ratings are based on observed
properties and features affecting wetland plants are performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity, test data in the "Soil properties" section.
slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland Information in this section is intended for land use
plants are smartweed, wild millet, cattail, maidencane, planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
rushes, and sedges. planning site investigations prior to design and
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less construction. The information, however, has limitations.
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are For example, estimates and other data generally apply
created by dams, levees, or other water-control struc- only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
tures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow water Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface stoniness, may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow water areas soil.
are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds. The information is not site specific and does not
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
the following paragraphs. for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
Habitat for open/and wildlife consists of cropland, design and construction of engineering works.
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild not considered in preparing the information in this
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas section. Local ordinances and regulations need to be
include bobwhite quail, dove, sparrow hawk, considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
meadowlark, field sparrow, cottontail, and cattle egret. Soil properties, site features, and observed
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of performance were considered in determining the ratings
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
turkey, towhee, owls, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox, bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the
raccoon, and deer. surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
kingfishers, alligators, and otter. fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-
management of wildlife habitat swell potential, available water capacity, and other
Wildlife habitat can thrive on disturbances such as behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses.
controlled burning, grazing, chopping, cultivation, water This information can be used to (1) evaluate the
level manipulation, and mowing if these practices are potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
properly done. Each species of wildlife occupies a niche and recreation uses; (2) make preliminary estimates of
in a vegetative community; therefore, if management is construction conditions; (3) evaluate alternative routes
for a particular species, an attempt is made to keep the for roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground







72 Soil survey



cables; (4) evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills, Landscaping and grading that require cuts and fills of
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; (5) more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
plan detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
(6) locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
topsoil; (7) plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
conservation; and (8) predict performance of proposed flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
small structures and pavements by comparing the limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
performance of existing similar structures on the same or properties, site features, and observed performance of
similar soils. the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps, water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as
survey can be used to make additional interpretations, inferred from the engineering classification of the soil),
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high water table
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the affect the traffic supporting capacity.
Glossary. Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and
building site development ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
Table 11 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and reaction, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
without basements, small commercial buildings without cemented pan, the available water capacity in the upper
basements, local roads and streets, and lawns and 40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic
landscaping. The limitations are considered slight if soil materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope,
properties and site features are generally favorable for the stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic
indicated use and limitations are minor and easily matter in the surface layer affect trafficability after
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are vegetation is established.
not favorable for the indicated use and special planning, sanitary facilities
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or Table 12 shows the degree and the kind of soil
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
that special design, significant increases in construction sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required. are considered slight if soil properties and site features
Special feasibility studies may be required where the soil are generally favorable for the indicated use and
limitations are severe. limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves, indicated use and special planning, design, or
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging, are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to special design, significant increases in construction
bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer; costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the Table 12 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
year that excavations can be made is affected by the as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
depth to a seasonal high water table and the soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of the and good performance and low maintenance can be
excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table. features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are more soil properties or site features make the soil less
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family that one or more soil properties or site features are
dwellings no higher than three stories. The ratings are unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
based on soil properties, site features, and observed properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
performance of the soils. A high water table, flooding, costly alteration.
shrink-swell potential, and organic layers can cause the Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
movement of footings. A high water table, depth to effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
bedrock or to a cemented pan, large stones, and flooding through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
affect the ease of excavation and construction. part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is







Pasco County, Florida 73



evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
features, and observed performance of the soils. needs to be considered.
Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a The ratings in table 12 are based on soil properties,
cemented pan, and flooding affect absorption of the site features, and observed performance of the soils.
effluent. Large stones and bedrock or a cemented pan Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a
interfere with installation. high water table, slope, and flooding affect both types of
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly organic
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent, layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and sodium
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the is needed.
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
the absorption field to effectively filter the effluent. Many to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
local ordinances require that this material be of a certain landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
thickness. to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level during wet and dry periods. Loamy soils that are free of
floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover for a
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are difficult
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing.
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is After soil material has been removed, the soil material
required to minimize seepage and contamination of remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over
ground water, bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit
Table 12 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The and the best potential for plants. Material from the
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and surface layer should be stockpiled for the final cover.
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth construction materials
to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones, Table 13 gives information about the soils as a source
and content of organic matter. of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive properties and site features that affect the removal of
or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the compaction, minor processing, and other standard
lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope, construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
bedrock, and cemented pans can cause construction evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
the lagoon floor, and used in road embankments in another place. In this
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is exacting in design than higher embankments.
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted, Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source their profile. The table showing engineering index
away from the site. properties provides detailed information about each soil
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy layer. This information can help determine the suitability
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil







74 Soil survey



after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
in the ratings. Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a depth
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
excavation is affected by large stones, a high water are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place not so wet that excavation is difficult.
after it has been compacted and drained is determined Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
by its strength (as inferred from the engineering relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential. 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and not so wet that excavation is difficult.
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or near the surface.
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet. The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10, for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to moisture and nutrients for plant growth.
the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers water management
of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
thick. Table 14 gives information on the soil properties and
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for site features that affect water management. The degree
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
gravel are used in many kinds of construction. areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 13, only ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil
the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is properties and site features are generally favorable for
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific the indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are
excavation of the material. not favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
by the engineering classification of the soil), the thickness site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to
of suitable material, and the content of rock fragments. overcome that special design, significant increase in
Kinds of. rock, acidity, and stratification are given in the soil construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
series descriptions. Gradation of grain sizes is given in the are required.
table on engineering index properties. This table also gives for each soil the restrictive
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean features that affect drainage, irrigation, and grassed
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to waterways.
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3 Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
source. Coarse fragments of soft rock, such as potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
limestone, are not considered to be sand and gravel, and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches of the reservoir area.
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
the reclamation potential of the borrow area. of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such constructed to impound water or to protect land against
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, and compacted during construction.






Pasco County, Florida 75



The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding; and
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a subsidence of organic layers. Excavating and grading
depth even greater than the height of the embankment and the stability of ditchbanks are affected by depth to
can affect performance and safety of the embankment. bedrock or to a cemented pan, large stones, slope, and
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to the hazard of cutbanks caving. The productivity of the
determine these properties, soil after drainage is adversely affected by extreme
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to acidity or by toxic substances in the root zone, such as
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include not considered in the ratings.
less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium. supplement rainfall and support plant growth (fig. 15).
A high water table affects the amount of usable material. The design and management of an irrigation system are
It also affects trafficability. affected by depth to the water table, the need for
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The construction
permanent water table (fig. 14). Excluded are ponds that of a system is affected by large stones and depth to
are fed only by surface runoff and embankment ponds bedrock or to a cemented pan. The performance of a
that impound water 3 feet or more above the original system is affected by the depth of the root zone, the
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a amount of salts or sodium, and soil reaction.
permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
quality of the water as inferred from the salinity of the channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
soil. Depth to bedrock and the content of large stones surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
affect the ease of excavation, stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth to affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is construction.









77








soil properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in soils as Pt. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
table 21. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
accurately by field observation, and help characterize of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
key soils. grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
engineering index properties 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
Table 15 gives estimates of the engineering can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
classification and of the range of index properties for the numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 for soils tested, with group index numbers in
or 6 feet. parentheses, is given in table 21.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
properties of each layer are given for each soil series weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
under "Soil series and their morphology." mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the weight percentage.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in inches in diameter based on an oven-dry weight. The
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
percent sand. If a soil contains particles coarser than millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for example, laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
"gravelly." Textural terms are defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.






77








soil properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in soils as Pt. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
table 21. groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
Estimates of soil properties are based on field SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
accurately by field observation, and help characterize of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
key soils. grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
engineering index properties 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
Table 15 gives estimates of the engineering can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
classification and of the range of index properties for the numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils 20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 for soils tested, with group index numbers in
or 6 feet. parentheses, is given in table 21.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
properties of each layer are given for each soil series weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
under "Soil series and their morphology." mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the weight percentage.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in inches in diameter based on an oven-dry weight. The
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
percent sand. If a soil contains particles coarser than millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for example, laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
"gravelly." Textural terms are defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.






78 Soil survey


Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) plants or crops to be grown and in the design and
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The management of irrigation systems. Available water
estimates are based on test data from the survey area or capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
from nearby areas and on field examination, actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
physical and chemical properties expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
Table 16 shows estimates of some characteristics and many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
The estimates are based on field observations and on fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
test data for these and similar soils. corrosion.
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. laboratory measurements at representative sites of
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
moisture. They influence shrink-swell potential, soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
a soil also affect tillage and earth-moving operations. construction material, and the potential of the soil to
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per corrode metal and concrete.
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root measurements of similar soils.
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward often needed.
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
based on soil characteristics observed in the field, change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
is considered in the design of soil drainage systems, change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
septic tank absorption fields, and construction where the millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
rate of water movement under saturated conditions less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
affects behavior. more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water is sometimes used.
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies, factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
depending on soil properties that affect the retention of to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
water and the depth of the root zone. The most and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates
important properties are the content of organic matter, are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and
soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure
water capacity is an important factor in the choice of and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69.







Pasco County, Florida 79



The higher the value the more susceptible the soil is to soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
sheet and rill erosion by water. infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum other nutrients for crops.
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
can occur without affecting crop productivity over a soil and water features
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have Table 17 gives estimates of various soil and water
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind features. The estimates are used in land use planning
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the that involves engineering considerations.
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
distinctions: assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine according to the intake of water when the soils are
sands. These soils are generally less suitable for crops. thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to duration storms.
establish. The four hydrologic soil groups are:
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
erosion are used. gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy transmission.
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
control wind erosion are used. or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can transmission.
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
are used. thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
control wind erosion are used. Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
control wind erosion are used. These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after
erodible. Crops can easily be grown. rainfall and water in swamps and marshes are not
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay considered flooding.
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate. Table 17 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
be grown. Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, rare,
to wind erosion. common, occasional, and frequent. None means that
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but
soil at various stages of decomposition. possible under unusual weather conditions; common that
In table 16, the estimated content of organic matter of it is likely under normal conditions; occasional that it
the plow layer is expressed as a percentage, by weight, occurs, on an average, no more than once in 2 years;
of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in and frequent that it occurs on an average of more than
diameter. once in 2 years. Duration is expressed as very brief if
The content of organic matter of a soil can be less than 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, and long if more
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the than 7 days. Probable dates are expressed in months;




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