• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Prime farmland
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Okaloosa County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025735/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Okaloosa County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 166 p., 52 p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Overing, John D
United States -- Natural Resources Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.
Publication Date: [1995]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Okaloosa County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Okaloosa County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 97) and index to map units.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service ; in cooperation with the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "By John D. Overing ... et al."--P. 1.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025735
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002281001
notis - ALN4103
oclc - 33270509
lccn - 95228390

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        List, Tables 2
    Foreword
        Page vii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    How this survey was made
        Page 6
        Map unit composition
            Page 7
            Page 8
    General soil map units
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
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        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Prime farmland
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 51
        Crops and pasture
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 54
        Recreation
            Page 55
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Engineering
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
    Soil properties
        Page 63
        Engineering index properties
            Page 63
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 64
        Soil and water features
            Page 65
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
        Engineering index test data
            Page 70
    Classification of the soils
        Page 71
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 71
        Albany series
            Page 71
        Angie series
            Page 72
        Bibb series
            Page 73
        Bigbee series
            Page 73
        Bonifay series
            Page 74
        Chipley series
            Page 75
        Corolla series
            Page 75
        Cowarts series
            Page 76
        Dorovan series
            Page 76
        Dothan series
            Page 77
        Duckston series
            Page 78
        Escambia series
            Page 78
        Foxworth series
            Page 79
        Fuquay series
            Page 79
        Garcon series
            Page 80
        Hurricane series
            Page 81
        Johnston series
            Page 82
        Kinston series
            Page 82
        Kureb series
            Page 83
        Lakeland series
            Page 83
        Leefield series
            Page 84
        Leon series
            Page 85
        Lucy series
            Page 86
        Mandarin series
            Page 86
        Newhan series
            Page 87
        Notcher series
            Page 87
        Orangeburg series
            Page 88
        Pansey series
            Page 89
        Pickney series
            Page 89
        Resota series
            Page 90
        Rutlege series
            Page 90
        Stilson series
            Page 91
        Troup series
            Page 91
        Yemassee series
            Page 92
            Page 93
            Page 94
    Formation of the soils
        Page 95
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 95
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 96
    Reference
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Glossary
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Tables
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
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        Page 125
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        Page 128
        Page 129
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        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
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        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
    General soil map
        Page 167
    Index to map sheets
        Page 168
        Page 169
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 52
Full Text


United States In cooperation with r
) Department of University of Florida, SO il S urvey of
W Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, O kaloosa
Natural Agricultural Experiment
Resources Stations, and Soil
Conservation Science Department; and C O unity, F o rida
Service Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services




























; ,'~















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can L/
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas. -

Kok moa
To find information about
your area of interest, 2k 4
locate that area on the Q
Index to Map Sheets, MAP SHEET
which precedes the soil
maps. Note the number of 1 17,.. ..... .1... T.
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet. INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
that sheet.

WaF
Locate your area of 7 \a
interest on the map Ba AsB
sheet. Note the map unit I BaC
symbols that are in that
area. Turn to the Index
to Map Units (see Con- AREA OF INTEREST
tents), which lists the map NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
units b sm and survey may consist only of numbers or
units by symbol and letters, or they may be a combination
name and shows the of numbers and letters.
page where each map MAP SHEET
unit is described.

The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal
agencies, State agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil
Conservation Service) has leadership for the Federal part of the National
Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1988. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1988. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1988. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service; the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services; and the Florida Department of
Transportation. The Okaloosa County Board of Commissioners contributed office
space for the soil survey party. The survey is part of the technical assistance
furnished to the Yellow River Soil and Water Conservation District.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Natural Resources Conservation Service are
offered on a nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national
origin, religion, sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: Sea oats in an area of the Newhan-Corolla general soil map unit. These plants help to
protect the soils from erosion. (Photograph courtesy of David Shea's Studio, Ft. Walton Beach,
Florida)
















ii
















Contents


Index to map units ............................... iv Dorovan series ............................. 76
Summary of tables .............................. v Dothan series ................................ 77
Foreword ....................................... vii Duckston series ............................ 78
General nature of the county .................... 1 Escambia series ............................... 78
How this survey was made....................... 6 Foxworth series ................................. 79
Map unit composition ............................ 7 Fuquay series ................................. 79
General soil map units ........................... 9 Garcon series ................................. 80
Detailed soil map units ......................... 15 Hurricane series ............................... 81
Prime farmland.................................. 49 Johnston series................................ 82
Use and management of the soils............... 51 Kinston series ................................ 82
Crops and pasture ............................. 51 Kureb series................................... 83
Woodland management and productivity ....... 54 Lakeland series............................... 83
Recreation ................................... 55 Leefield series ............................. 84
Wildlife habitat ................................. 56 Leon series ................................. 85
Engineering .................................. 58 Lucy series ............................... 86
Soil properties .................................. 63 Mandarin series.............................. 86
Engineering index properties .................... 63 Newhan series .............. .... ............. 87
Physical and chemical properties ............... 64 Notcher series ................................. 87
Soil and water features ............. ......... 65 Orangeburg series ............................. 88
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses Pansey series ................................ 89
of selected soils ............................ 66 Pickney series ................................ 89
Engineering index test data .................... 70 Resota series................................. 90
Classification of the soils ........................ 71 Rutlege series ................................. 90
Soil series and their morphology .................. 71 Stilson series .................................. 91
Albany series ................................. 71 Troup series ............................... 91
Angie series .................................. 72 Yemassee series............................... 92
Bibb series .................................... 73 Formation of the soils .......................... 95
Bigbee series .................................. 73 Factors of soil formation ........................ 95
Bonifay series ................................ 74 Processes of soil formation ..................... 96
Chipley series ................................ 75 References ................................... 97
Corolla series.................................. 75 Glossary ........................................ 99
Cowarts series................................. 76 Tables .................................. 107

Issued June 1995









iii
















Index to Map Units


2-Arents, 2 to 8 percent slopes.................. 15 41-Fuquay loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
3-Beaches .................................... 16 slopes ................................ 35
4-Chipley and Hurricane soils, 0 to 5 percent 42-Fuquay loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
slopes...................................... 16 slopes ............................... 36
6-Dorovan muck, frequently flooded .............. 17 43-Kinston, Johnston, and Bibb soils, frequently
7-Duckston sand, frequently flooded .............. 18 flooded..................................... 37
8-Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........... 18 44-Leefield-Stilson complex, 0 to 5 percent
10- Kureb sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes............. 19 slopes.................................... .. 38
12-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......... 19 45-Orangeburg sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent
13-Lakeland sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes......... 20 slopes..................................... 39
14-Lakeland sand, 12 to 30 percent slopes....... 21 46-Orangeburg sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent
15- Leon sand .................................. 22 slopes ........................ ........... 40
16-Lucy loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 23 47-Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent
17-Mandarin sand, 0 to 3 percent slopes......... 23 slopes ......................... .......... 40
18-Newhan-Corolla complex, rolling ............. 24 48-Pickney loamy sand, depressional............ 41
20-Udorthents, nearly level ..................... 24 49-Bonifay-Dothan-Angie complex, 5 to 12
21-Resota sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 25 percent slopes ............................. 41
22-Rutlege sand, depressional.................. 25 50-Yemassee, Garcon, and Bigbee soils,
23-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 26 occasionally flooded ........................ 43
24-Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ............. 27 51-Troup-Orangeburg-Cowarts complex, 5 to
25-Troup sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes........... 27 12 percent slopes .......................... 44
26-Troup sand, 12 to 25 percent slopes......... 28 52-Escambia fine sandy loam, 0 to 3 percent
27-Urban land .................................. 29 slopes .................................. 45
34-Albany loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes...... 29 53-Notcher gravelly sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent
35-Angie sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes....... 30 slopes..................................... 46
36-Bonifay sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......... 31 54-Notcher gravelly sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent
37-Bonifay sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .......... 31 slopes..................................... 46
38-Dothan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes...... 32 55-Pansey sandy loam, depressional ............ 47
39-Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes...... 33 56-Pansey sandy loam, 1 to 3 percent slopes ..... 48
40-Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes...... 35













iv
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) .................................. 108

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 2) .................. 109

Land capability and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 3) .......... 110

Woodland management and productivity (table 4)........................ 113

Recreational development (table 5) ......................... ............. 119

W wildlife habitat (table 6) ................................................ 123

Building site development (table 7) ........... .............. ............. 126

Sanitary facilities (table 8) .............................................. 130

Construction materials (table 9) ......................................... 134

Water management (table 10) ........................... ... ............. 137

Engineering index properties (table 11) ................................. 142

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 12).................. 147

Soil and water features (table 13) ....................................... 150

Physical analyses of selected soils (table 14) ............................. 153

Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 15)........................... 158

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 16) ............................. 162

Engineering index test data (table 17) ............... .................... 164

Classification of the soils (table 18) ...................................... 166








v



















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Okaloosa County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, foresters, and
agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan
land use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to
ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists
in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use
the survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow over bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey
or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high
water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the
Natural Resources Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Natural Resources Conservation Service












vii













Soil Survey of

Okaloosa County, Florida


By John D. Overing, H. Harrel Weeks, Joseph P. Wilson, Jr., Julius Sullivan, and
Richard D. Ford, Natural Resources Conservation Service

Fieldwork by Greg Howard, George Teachman, Mark Morrison, Duane Simonson,
Steve Fischer, Tom Brantmeier, Roger DeKett, Mike Domeier, Brad Wheeler, Bill Anzalone,
Joe Calus, and Bob Lisante, Natural Resources Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services



OKALOOSA COUNTY is in the western part of the winter. This moderating effect is strong along the coast
Florida Panhandle (fig. 1). It is bordered on the north by but diminishes quickly a few miles inland. The northern
Alabama, on the west by Santa Rosa County, on the part of the county is influenced by the North American
east by Walton County, and on the south by the Gulf of landmass, which creates extremes in temperature that
Mexico. are greater than those in the southern part of the
The total area of Okaloosa County is 637,043 acres, county. Thus, the influence of the Gulf of Mexico gives
or about 995 square miles. This acreage includes about the southern portion of the county a humid, subtropical
38,125 acres of water. The land area covers 598,918 climate, and the influence of the North American
acres, or about 935 square miles. The county is about continent gives the northern portion of the county a
42 miles long and 24 miles wide. Crestview, the county humid, continental climate. The average year-round
seat, is in the central part of the county, temperature is 76 degrees F.
The economy of Okaloosa County is diversified. It is Rainfall varies a great deal throughout the year.
supported primarily by tourism, agriculture, light According to the Air Weather Service at Eglin Air Force
industry, and the military. Base, the monthly average is 5.1 inches and the yearly
average is approximately 62 inches. July generally has
the most rainfall, followed by September, August, and
General Nature of the County June. The period of least rainfall usually occurs from
This section provides general information about October through February (7).
environmental and cultural factors that affect the use More than 44 percent of the annual precipitation
and management of soils in Okaloosa County. It occurs from June through September in the form of
describes climate, history and development, thundershowers. Most of this rainfall occurs during the
transportation facilities, recreation, and geology, afternoon and evening hours. These showers are widely
scattered, are of short duration, and are often heavy.
Climate Winter and spring rains generally are less intense than
summer thunderstorms. The winter rains are generally
The climate of Okaloosa County is characterized by associated with winter frontal systems passing from the
long, warm, humid summers and mild winters. The Gulf west to the east. Summarized climatic data based on
of Mexico moderates temperatures in summer and records from the Air Weather Service at Eglin Air







2 Soil Survey


hot, desiccating winds and very high temperatures are
rare. Warm, summery weather lasts until early October.
During the winter, Okaloosa County is occasionally
o affected by cold air masses from the north. The coldest
Tallahassee temperatures occur on the second or third night after
the arrival of the cold air because the heat is lost
through radiation. The average temperature in
December, January, and February is 64 degrees F.
Prevailing winds generally are southerly during the
summer. Windspeed is generally between 10 and 15
miles per hour in the afternoon and from 5 to 10 miles

S and August is 4 miles per hour.

SHistory and Development
Pearl Tyner, member of the Board of Supervisors of the Yellow
River Soil and Water Conservation District, helped prepare this
s ^i section.
The area that is now Okaloosa County was originally
settled by a variety of people. By 1824, pioneers of
Scottish descent had settled along the Yellow River,
which they used as a means of transportation. They
established a grist mill and raised corn, cotton,
Figure 1.-Location of Okaloosa County in Florida. potatoes, peas, and rice. They raised cattle and hogs,
which were allowed to roam the woods. By 1828, there
were post offices in Almerante and Oak Grove. Some
settlers were in the coastal areas, but most inhabitants
Force Base is shown in table 1. lived in the isolated back country of northern Okaloosa.
Daylong rains are rare and are almost always The settlers were dependent on the three main rivers
associated with tropical storms or hurricanes, which can and the stagecoach routes for transportation and
affect the area any time from early June through late contact with surrounding areas.
November. The southern half of the county was visited by
Extended periods of dry weather can occur in any legendary pirates, such as Captain Billy Bowlegs,
season, but such periods are most common in the whose lost gold still draws hopeful treasure hunters
spring and fall. Dry periods in the spring generally are today. In 1871, John Newton, a schoolteacher, moved
of shorter duration than those in the fall, but they tend to the area and settled on Santa Rosa Sound. He
to be more serious because temperatures are higher named the resulting community Mary Esther, in honor of
and the need for moisture is greater. his wife and daughter. Although sparsely settled in early
Hail occasionally accompanies thunderstorms. The times, the coast is heavily developed today.
hailstorms are small, however, and damage is usually During the late 1800's, the timber industry discovered
minimal. Snowfall is rare, and measurable snow occurs the rich timber resources of the county. Thriving timber
only about once in 10 years. The snow very rarely businesses were started, and railroads were established
remains on the ground for more than 24 hours. to transport timber products to market. Eventually the
Ground fog generally occurs in the early morning or timber industry waned, and farming again became the
at night in the winter, late fall, and early spring. The sun mainstay of life in the area. Farming is still the
dissipates the fog very quickly. livelihood of many inhabitants of northern Okaloosa
The average temperature in June, July, and August County today.
is 80 degrees F. Temperatures of 90 degrees or higher As the development of the area continued, it became
may occur from May to September, but temperatures of increasingly difficult for settlers to travel to the towns of
100 degrees or more occur on only a few days each DeFuniak Springs, to the east, and Milton, to the west.
year. Warm and humid days are moderated by clouds To overcome this problem, W.H. Mapoles (Walton
and the associated thunderstorms or showers. Because County's representative to the State legislature)
the Gulf of Mexico moderates most of the air masses, proposed a bill to create a new county, which would







Okaloosa County, Florida 3


consist of part of Walton County and part of Santa Rosa major river systems; various farm ponds, public ponds,
County. In 1915, Okaloosa County was created and and lakes; Blackwater River State Forest; Eglin Air
Milligan was designated the county seat. Flooding along Force Base; public parks; wayside areas; and golf
the Yellow River made it necessary to move the county courses.
seat to Crestview in 1917. The Yellow River, the Shoal River, and the
Times were hard in Okaloosa County during the Blackwater River are in the northern part of the county.
Great Depression, but in 1935 the county received an They provide excellent opportunities for fishing,
economic boon when Eglin Air Force Base was canoeing, swimming, and sunbathing. Also, the
established in the southern part of the county. Today Blackwater River runs through portions of Blackwater
the base is the world's largest military installation, River State Forest, which contains state-run facilities at
employing over 20,000 military and civilian personnel. Hurricane Lake, Karrick Lake, and Bone Creek. Visitors
Okaloosa County is much changed from its origins. It can enjoy swimming, fishing, camping, hiking, and
now has a diverse economy, including agriculture, picnicking at these facilities.
forestry, construction, manufacturing, transportation, In the southern part of Okaloosa County, Eglin Air
wholesale and retail businesses, real estate, and State Force Base provides many recreational opportunities,
and Federal reservations. In 1986, the population of including camping, fishing, hunting, boating, and
Okaloosa County was 142,714. The major concentration sunbathing. The Choctawhatchee Bay and its adjoining
was in the southern half of the county. bayous also are popular recreational areas in the
southern part of the county. They provide opportunities
Transportation Facilities for swimming, sunbathing, boating, skiing, parasailing,
jet skiing, wind surfing, and fishing. Also, many boats
Okaloosa County is served by several major can be chartered in Destin for deep-sea fishing in the
highways. U.S. Highway 98 is in the southern part of Gulf of Mexico (fig. 2).
the county, parallel to the coast. It is on the mainland in The county has several museums, including the
the western part of the county and on the barrier island Indian Burial Mound (or Temple Mound) in Fort Walton
in the eastern part of the county. U.S. Highway 90 Beach and the Historical Museum in Valparaiso.
crosses the central portion of the county in an east-to- There are many playgrounds and parks throughout
west direction, passing through Deerland, Crestview, Okaloosa County. Also, there are many golf courses
Milligan, Galiver, and Holt. Interstate 10 runs somewhat and tennis courts in the Crestview and Fort Walton
parallel to U.S. Highway 90. There is restricted access Beach areas.
to Interstate 10 at Crestview and Holt. Florida Highway
4 begins at Milligan and runs northwest through Baker Geology
into Santa Rosa County. Florida Highway 85 begins at
Fort Walton Beach and runs northward through Walter Schmidt, Florida Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology,
Crestview and Laurel Hill into Walton County. Several prepared this section.
county roads connect outlying towns or outlying areas, Geology and Geomorphology
such as Escambia Farms, with the major roads in the
county. Okaloosa County is divided into two physiographic
A major railroad line runs east and west, parallel to provinces (11). The northern portion is the Western
U.S. Highway 90. East Pass at Destin provides access Highlands subdivision of the Northern Highlands, and
from the Choctawhatchee Bay and the Intracoastal the southern portion is the Gulf Coastal Lowlands, a
Waterway out to the Gulf of Mexico. Barge traffic is subdivision of the Coastal Lowlands.
common on the Intracoastal Waterway. The Western Highlands is characterized by gently
The three commercial airports in the area are in sloping plateaus at the relatively higher elevations
Crestview, Destin, and Fort Walton Beach. Also, there separated by lower, large stream valleys. Dendritic
are a few private landing fields in the county. Bus streams drain the margins of the Highlands. The
service is available in Crestview, Destin, and Fort northern two-thirds of Okaloosa County is in this
Walton Beach. A few trucking firms also serve the area. subdivision. At the southern edge of the Western
Highlands, and separating it from the Gulf Coastal
Recreation Lowlands, is a south-facing scarp called the Cody
Scarp. This scarp represents the most persistent
A wide variety of recreational areas are available in topographic break in Florida.
Okaloosa County. These areas include more than 24 The Gulf Coastal Lowlands are that portion of the
miles of coastline; the Choctawhatchee Bay; three Coastal Lowlands physiographic province that is







4 Soil Survey



































Figure 2.-Destin Harbor is an important fishing resort on the Gulf of Mexico.




in average elevation than the Highlands to the north, the western panhandle (4). The Pensacola clay does
Marine terraces, formed when the sea level was higher not extend very far into Okaloosa County.
than at present, are characteristic, and most features
are parallel to the coast. Landforms typical of this Oligocene Series
subdivision include barrier islands, such as Santa Rosa Chickasawhay Limestone.-This unit extends from its
Island; lagoons, such as Santa Rosa Sound; estuaries, type area in Mississippi into the Florida Panhandle (4).
such as the Choctawhatchee Bay; coastal ridges; sand The top of the unit ranges between 50 feet above mean
dune ridges; relict spits and bars; and valleys. sea level (MSL) in the northeast corner of Okaloosa
County to 950 feet below MSL in the southwest corner
Stratigraphy of the county. The Chickasawhay Limestone (Late
Oligocene in age) and the Tampa Stage Limestone
Okaloosa County represents a transitional zone (Chattahoochee Formation of the central panhandle)
between the shallow stratigraphy of the central consist of the same lithology; that is, tan sucrosic
panhandle and that of the western panhandle. A dolostone to light tan fossiliferous limestone. The Ocala
Mississippi rock unit, the Chickasawhay Limestone, Group limestone underlies the Chickasawhay
extends into the area, and two other units, the Limestone. Depending upon location within the county,







Okaloosa County, Florida 5


the Bruce Creek Limestone, Alum Bluff Group lenses, and pavements. It is typically red, orange, or
sediments, or Miocene coarse clastics overlie the yellow and caps most of the hills in Okaloosa County
Chickasawhay Limestone (3). (11). It overlies the Miocene coarse clastics or the
Alum Bluff Group sediments and underlies
Miocene Series undifferentiated surficial sediments. It is as much as
Bruce Creek Limestone.-The Bruce Creek 250 feet thick (3).
Limestone (early to Middle Miocene in age) consists of
light-colored, somewhat sandy, moderately hard, Pliocene to Holocene Series
granular, fossiliferous and dolomitic limestone. The type Undifferentiated Surficial Sediments.-The
area of the Bruce Creek Limestone, which is the only undifferentiated surficial sediments are composed of
outcrop of this formation, is in Walton County at the unconsolidated quartz sand and are widespread in the
base of Bruce Creek. The top of the Bruce Creek area. Clay and shell beds are in some areas of this unit.
Formation varies in elevation from more than 55 feet The unit is thickest in the southern coastal areas. It is
above MSL in east-central Okaloosa County to more thinnest in the northern part of the county. It overlies
than 660 feet below MSL in southwestern Okaloosa the Intracoastal Formation, the Alum Bluff Group
County. The Bruce Creek Limestone underlies the sediments, or the Citronelle Formation. It is at the
Intracoastal Formation and overlies the Chickasawhay surface in much of the county (3).
Limestone. It is absent in the northern third of the
county. It is predominantly in the coastal area and Ground Water
pinches out to the north (inland) (3). An aquifer is a unit that can yield a usable amount of
water to wells and through which water easily passes.
Miocene to Pliocene Series There are two aquifer systems in Okaloosa County: the
Intracoastal Formation.-In Okaloosa County, the surficial aquifer system and the Floridan aquifer system.
Intracoastal Formation (Middle Miocene to Pliocene in The surficial aquifer system (locally known as the
age) consists of sandy, clayey, phosphatic, crumbly and sand and gravel aquifer) consists of unconsolidated
soft, fossiliferous limestone and a middle bed of quartz sand and gravel. Because the quartz grains are
sparsely fossiliferous phosphatic sand. The unconsolidated (uncemented) and are variable in size,
Intracoastal Formation exists only in the extreme the unit has high intergranular porosity. This void space
southern coastal area. The formation grades into the is filled with water (below the water table) from the high
Miocene coarse clastics to the west and into the Alum local rainfall. The unit is composed of the
Bluff Group sediments to the north. The Intracoastal undifferentiated surficial sediments, the Citronelle
Formation underlies the undifferentiated surficial Formation, and a variable (upper) portion of the
sediments and overlies the Bruce Creek Miocene coarse clastics (6). Although this aquifer is an
Limestone (3). important water source in the counties to the west, the
Miocene Coarse Clastics Floridan aquifer system is the primary source of ground
The Miocene coarse clastics unit (Miocene to Late water in Okaloosa County (5).
Pliocene in age) consists of gray to brown sand and The Floridan aquifer system in Okaloosa County
gravel with some clay and shell material intermixed consists of the permeable carbonate rocks of the Bruce
throughout. The unit interfingers with the Intracoastal Creek Limestone and Chickasawhay Limestone and
Formation in southern Okaloosa County and with the rocks from deeper formations. Water from the deeper
Alum Bluff Group sediments in the west-central portion rocks is generally salty. The water in the aquifer is
of the county. The formation is as much as 500 feet derived from cavities and fractures, from interstitial pore
thick. The top portion of the Miocene coarse clastics is space, and from moldic porosity. Interconnected cavities
Pliocene in age. The Citronelle Formation or and fractures typically range from a few inches to tens
undifferentiated surficial sediments overlie the Miocene of feet in size and can produce great quantities of
coarse clastics, and the Alum Bluff Group sediments or water. Pore space consists of open space between
the Chickasawhay Limestone underlies it (3). grains, such as between fossil grains. Pore space is
generally very small in individual pore volume. If the
Pleistocene Series pores are sufficiently interconnected, moderate
Citronelle Formation.-The Citronelle Formation quantities of water can be obtained. Moldic porosity is
(Early Pleistocene in age) consists of unfossiliferous the open volume that results when fossils are removed
sand, clay, and gravel and has scattered limonite beds, by dissolution, leaving a void in the rock. The Bruce







6 Soil Survey


Creek Formation typically has low to high moldic soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
porosity. the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
Mineral Resources supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
No mineral commodities are commercially mined in landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify
Okaloosa County. Clayey sand, clay, and gravel, predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
primarily from the Citronelle Formation, are mined on a determine the boundaries.
small scale for local use from relatively small pits. Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
Unconsolidated sand from the undifferentiated surficial profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
sediments also is mined locally from small, shallow pits. size and shape of soil aggregates, distribution of plant
The suitability of the soil for various uses is normally roots, reaction, and other features that enable them to
determined by evaluating properties within the soil. identify soils. After describing the soils in the survey
Interpretations of the effects these properties could area and determining their properties, the soil scientists
have on soil use are included in this soil survey. There assigned the soils to taxonomic classes (units).
are many geologic features that are not expressed Taxonomic classes are concepts. Each taxonomic class
within the soil that may significantly affect the suitability has a set of soil characteristics with precisely defined
of a site for a particular use. Individual sites should be limits. The classes are used as a basis for comparison
evaluated by onsite examination and testing. In many to classify soils systematically. The system of taxonomic
cases special planning, design, and construction classification used in the United States is based mainly
techniques can be used to overcome geologic on the kind and character of soil properties and the
problems. arrangement of horizons within the profile. After the soil
scientists classified and named the soils in the survey
area, they compared the individual soils with similar
How This Survey Was Made soils in the same taxonomic class in other areas so that
they could confirm data and assemble additional data
This survey was made to provide information about based on experience and research.
the soils in the survey area. The information includes a While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
description of the soils and their location and a of the soils in the area are generally collected for
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists interpret the data from these analyses and
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape of tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
slopes; the general pattern of drainage; and the kinds of the soil properties to determine the expected behavior
crops and native plants growing on the soils. They dug of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the the soils are field tested through observation of the soils
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The in different uses under different levels of management.
profile extends from the surface down into the Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
unconsolidated material from which the soil formed. The and some new interpretations are developed to meet
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other local needs. Data are assembled from other sources,
living organisms and has not been changed by other such as research information, production records, and
biological activity, field experience of specialists. For example, data on
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly crop yields under defined levels of management are
pattern that is related to the geology, landforms, relief, assembled from farm records and from field or plot
climate, and natural vegetation of the area. Each kind of experiments on the same kinds of soil.
soil is associated with a particular kind of landscape or Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
with a segment of the landscape. By observing the soils soil properties but also on such variables as climate
in the survey area and relating their position to specific and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
segments of the landscape, a soil scientist develops a over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
concept, or model, of how the soils were formed. Thus, from year to year. For example, soil scientists can
during mapping, this model enables the soil scientist to predict with a fairly high degree of accuracy that a given
predict with a considerable degree of accuracy the kind soil will have a high water table within certain depths in
of soil at a specific location on the landscape. most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
into one another as their characteristics gradually specific date.
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, After soil scientists located and identified the







Okaloosa County, Florida 7


significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit. the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
accurately. map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
Map Unit Composition or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
dominated by two or three kinds of soil. A map unit is of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
identified and named according to the taxonomic descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a observed and consequently are not mentioned in the
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, complex that it was impractical to make enough
the soils are natural objects. In common with other observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in landscape.
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
properties may extend beyond the limits defined for a diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes, landscape into segments that have similar use and
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or management requirements. The delineation of such
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units, information for the development of resource plans, but
these latter soils are called inclusions or included soils. onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
In the general soil map units, they are called soils of in small areas.
minor extent.









9









General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication Lakeland soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 6 inches
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it sand. The upper 43 inches is brownish yellow, the next
consists of one or more major soils and some minor 24 inches is yellowish brown, and the lower 7 inches or
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making more is yellow.
up one unit can occur in another but in a different Of minor extent in this map unit are Foxworth, Troup,
pattern, and Kureb soils.
The general soil map can be used to compare the Some areas of this map unit, including areas in the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of cities of Fort Walton Beach, Niceville, and Valparaiso,
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, are used for urban development. Also, commercial
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified, buildings and many houses have been built in some of
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for the privately owned areas.
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or a building or other 2. Kureb-Lakeland-Resota
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from
place to place in slope, depth, drainage, and other Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained
characteristics that affect management. and moderately well drained soils that are sandy
throughout
Soils of the Barrier Islands and the Coastal Plain
This map unit consists of deep soils in the uplands.
These soils are excessively drained, well drained, These soils are in the inland part of Moreno Point and
and somewhat poorly drained and are nearly level to in the southernmost part of the mainland.
steep. They are on high dune ridges and in high upland The natural vegetation consists of sand pine, live
areas. The soils are sandy throughout. They are in the oak, scrub oak, rosemary, saw palmetto, pineland
southern part of the county, threeawn (wiregrass), and reindeer moss.
This map unit makes up about 6,516 acres, or about
1. Lakeland 1.1 percent of the survey area. It is about 48 percent
Kureb soils, 14 percent Lakeland soils, 10 percent
Nearly level to steep, excessively drained soils that are Resota soils, and 28 percent soils of minor extent.
sandy throughout Kureb soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
This map unit consists of deep soils in the uplands, surface layer is dark gray sand about 5 inches thick.
These soils are on the Coastal Plain and extend north Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is sand. The
from the Intracoastal Waterway to about the middle of upper 28 inches is light gray or yellowish brown, the
the county. Most areas of this map unit are on Eglin Air next 31 inches is brownish yellow or yellow, and the
Force Base. lower 16 inches or more is very pale brown.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine, Lakeland soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
turkey oak, sand live oak, saw palmetto, pricklypear, surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 6 inches
pineland threeawn (wiregrass), lichens, and reindeer thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is
moss. sand. The upper 43 inches is brownish yellow, the next
This map unit makes up about 244,975 acres, or 24 inches is yellowish brown, and the lower 7 inches or
about 40.9 percent of the survey area. It is about 80 more is yellow.
percent Lakeland soils and 20 percent soils of minor Resota soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
extent. the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 3






10 Soil Survey


inches thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more 4. Chipley-Foxworth
is sand. The upper 15 inches is white; the next 29 Nearly level and gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
inches is dark brown, yellowish brown, or brownish and moderately well drained soils that are sandy
yellow; and the lower 33 inches or more is white. throughout
Of minor extent in this map unit are Chipley,
Newhan, and Foxworth soils. This map unit consists of deep soils on low knolls
Some areas of this map unit, including areas in the and ridges in the flatwoods. These soils are in the
cities of Destin, Fort Walton Beach, Mary Esther, and southern part of the survey area. Some areas of this
Wynn Havesn Beach, are used for urban development unit are in the cities of Fort Walton Beach, Niceville,
Wynn Haven Beach, are used for urban development, and Valparaiso.
and Valparaiso.
Also, commercial buildings and many houses have an V aio
Abeen buit in some areas The natural vegetation in most areas on knolls and
ridges consists of longleaf pine, turkey oak, saw
3. Nea palmetto, and pineland threeawn.
Sewhan-Coroa This map unit makes up about 8,791 acres, or about
1.4 percent of the survey area. It is about 60 percent
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained, Chipley soils, 20 percent Foxworth soils, and 20 percent
moderately well drained, and somewhat poorly drained soils of minor extent.
soils that are sandy throughout Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained. They are
This map unit consists of deep soils on high dune on broad flatwoods. Typically, the surface layer is very
ridges of the barrier islands. These soils parallel the dark gray sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying
Gulf of Mexico and extend across the county in an east- material to a depth of 80 inches or more is light
west direction. yellowish brown, yellowish brown, brownish yellow, very
The natural vegetation consists of sea oats, stunted pale brown, and white sand.
sand pine, and sand live oak. Foxworth soils are moderately well drained. They are
This map unit makes up about 5,934 acres, or about on long, narrow ridges and low knolls in the flatwoods.
0.9 percent of the survey area. It is about 54 percent Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand about
Newhan soils, 26 percent Corolla soils, and 20 percent 4 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80
soils of minor extent. inches or more is brown, brownish yellow, light
Newhan soils are excessively drained. Typically, they yellowish brown, and white sand.
are sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 45 Of minor extent in this map unit are Rutlege, Leon,
inches is white, and the lower 35 inches or more is light and Hurricane soils.
gray. Some areas of this map unit, including areas in the
Corolla soils are moderately well drained and cities of Fort Walton Beach, Shalimar, and Niceville, are
somewhat poorly drained. Typically, they are light gray used for urban development. Also, commercial buildings
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. and many houses have been built in some areas.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Duckston and 5. Rutlege-Leon-Chipley
Kureb soils and areas of beaches.
Most areas of this map unit have not been Nearly level and gently sloping, very poorly drained to
somewhat poorly drained soils that have a dark surface
developed. They protect the mainland from storms in somewhat poorly drained soils that have a dark surface
the gulf. Specl rosver to the beach have been layer, have a sandy subsoil coated with organic matter,
the gulf. Special crossovers to the beach have been a snytruht
constructed to protect the dunes from erosion and to or are sandy throughout
protect the delicate vegetation. This map unit consists of soils in broad areas of
flatwoods and in scattered wet depressions. These soils
Soils of the Flatwoods, Low Knolls, and Ridges are in the southern part of the survey area. Some areas
Soils of the Flatwoods, Low Knlls, and Ridges of this map unit are in the cities of Wynn Haven Beach,
These soils are nearly level and gently sloping and Destin, and Wright.
are moderately well drained and very poorly drained. The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine,
They are in broad areas of flatwoods, in the slightly blackgum, red maple, and gallberry.
higher areas of flatwoods that are surrounded and This map unit makes up about 7,597 acres, or 1.3
intersected by poorly defined drainageways and percent of the survey area. It is about 56 percent
depressions, and on low knolls and ridges in the Rutlege soils, 23 percent Leon soils, 7 percent Chipley
flatwoods. Some of the soils are sandy throughout, and soils, and 14 percent soils of minor extent.
some have a dark, sandy subsoil. The soils are in the Rutlege soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
southern part of the county. surface layer is black sand about 8 inches thick. The







Okaloosa County, Florida 11


underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is Most areas of this map unit support natural
very dark gray, dark gray, gray, and light brownish gray vegetation.
sand.
Leon soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface 7. Pickney
layer is dark gray sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 16 inches, is light Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that have a
gray sand. The subsoil, to a depth of about 34 inches, moderately thick surface layer and are sandy throughout
is dark reddish brown and dark yellowish brown sand. This map unit consists of soils in freshwater swamps
The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is light and drainageways. These soils are in the western part
yellowish brown and light gray sand. of East Bay Swamp, in the extreme southwestern part
Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained. They are of the county.
on broad flatwoods. Typically, the surface layer is very The natural vegetation consists of blackgum,
dark gray sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying buckwheattree, pond pine, redbay, slash pine, and
material to a depth of 80 inches or more is light sweetbay.
yellowish brown, yellowish brown, brownish yellow, very This map unit makes up about 1,598 acres, or 0.3
pale brown, and white sand. percent of the survey area. It is about 83 percent
Of minor extent in this map unit are Dorovan, Pickney soils and 17 percent soils of minor extent.
Foxworth, Hurricane, and Pickney soils. Typically, the Pickney soils have a surface layer of
Some areas of this map unit are used for urban black sand about 27 inches thick. Below this to a depth
development, of 80 inches or more is sand. The upper part is black,
the next part is dark gray, and the lower part is gray.
Soils of the Freshwater Swamps, Drainageways, and Of minor extent in this map unit are Dorovan, Leon,
Flood Plains and Rutlege soils.
Most areas of this map unit support natural
These soils are nearly level and are very poorly t t t t t
drained, poorly drained, somewhat poorly drained, and
excessively drained. They are in freshwater swamps 8. Kinston-Johnston-Bibb
and marshes; on broad, low flats; and in depressions
that are adjacent to major drainageways throughout the Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils
county. The soils are organic throughout, have a that have a dark, loamy or sandy surface layer and
moderately thick surface layer and are sandy loamy or sandy underlying material
throughout, have a thin surface layer and a loamy
throughout, have a thin surface layer and a loamy This map unit consists of soils on the flood plains
subsoil, or are sandy throughout.
subsoil, or are sandy throughout. along narrow creeks and streams and major streams
6. Dorovan and rivers. These soils are in the northern half of the
survey area.
The natural vegetation consists of American elm,
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are organic blak wll geen as ie i sweetgum, water
black willow, green ash, river birch, sweetgum, water
throughout
oak, and willow oak.
This map unit consists of soils in freshwater swamps This map unit makes up about 29,946 acres, or 5.0
and drainageways. These soils are primarily in the percent of the survey area. It is about 42 percent
southern half of the county. Kinston soils, 33 percent Johnston soils, 18 percent
The natural vegetation consists of baldcypress, Bibb soils, and 7 percent soils of minor extent.
blackgum, red maple, and water tupelo. Kinston soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
This map unit makes up about 28,088 acres, or 4.7 surface layer is very dark gray and dark gray silt loam
percent of the survey area. It is about 53 percent about 17 inches thick. Below this to a depth of 80
Dorovan soils and 47 percent soils of minor extent, inches or more is sandy clay loam. It is grayish brown
Typically, the Dorovan soils have a surface layer of in the upper part, light brownish gray in the next part,
very dark grayish brown muck about 4 inches thick. The and light gray in the lower part.
next layer, to a depth of about 60 inches, is black muck. Johnston soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is very dark surface layer is black very fine sandy loam about 24
brown muck. inches thick. The underlying material extends to a depth
Of minor extent in this map unit are Pickney, of 80 inches or more. The upper part is dark grayish
Rutlege, and Leon soils and soils that have less than 51 brown very fine sandy loam. The lower part is dark
inches of muck. gray, dark grayish brown, and light brownish gray sand.







12 Soil Survey


Bibb soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface Dorovan, Johnston, Kinston, and Rutlege soils.
layer is very dark gray loam about 6 inches thick. The Most areas of this map unit support natural
underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches or vegetation. Some areas have been cleared for
more. The upper part is dark grayish brown silt loam, agricultural uses and timber production.
and the lower part is light gray sand.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Dorovan, Soils of the Upper Coastal Plain
Yemassee, Garcon, Bigbee, Pickney, and Rutlege soils.
Most areas of this map unit support natural These soils are nearly level to strongly sloping and
vegetation. are excessively drained and well drained. They are in
broad flat areas and on side slopes in the uplands. The
9. Yemassee-Garcon-Bigbee soils have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches,
have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches,
Nearly level, somewhat poorly drained or excessively have a loamy subsoil at a depth of more than 40
drained soils that have a loamy or sandy surface layer inches, or are sandy throughout.
and subsoil and sandy underlying material
10. Dothan-Fuquay
This map unit consists of soils on flood plains along
the major streams and rivers. These soils are Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained soils that
occasionally flooded. They are in the northern half of have a loamy subsoil
the survey area.
The natural vegetation consists of American holly, This map unit consists of deep soils in the uplands.
flowering dogwood, hawthorn, loblolly pine, slash pine, These soils are in the northern part of the survey area.
southern magnolia, water oak, live oak, laurel oak, and Some areas of this unit are in the cities of Dorcas,
sweetgum. Laurel Hill, and Blackman.
This map unit makes up about 8,708 acres, or 1.5 The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine,
percent of the survey area. It is about 45 percent American holly, hickory, southern magnolia, and white
Yemassee soils, 25 percent Garcon soils, 13 percent oak.
Bigbee soils, and 17 percent soils of minor extent. This map unit makes up about 75,974 acres, or 12.7
Yemassee soils are somewhat poorly drained. percent of the survey area. It is about 53 percent
Typically, the surface layer is fine sandy loam about 8 Dothan soils, 23 percent Fuquay soils, and 24 percent
inches thick. The upper part is very dark gray, and the soils of minor extent.
lower part is yellowish brown. The subsoil, to a depth of Typically, the Dothan soils have a surface layer of
about 50 inches, is sandy clay loam. The upper part is very dark grayish brown loamy sand about 5 inches
yellowish brown, and the lower part is gray. The thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 12
underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches or inches, is yellowish brown loamy sand. The subsoil to a
more. The upper part is gray fine sandy loam, and the depth of 80 inches or more is sandy clay loam. The
lower part is light gray sand. upper part is yellowish brown, and the lower part is
Garcon soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, brownish yellow.
the surface layer is very dark gray loamy fine sand Typically, the Fuquay soils have a surface layer of
about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth brown loamy fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
of about 35 inches, is pale brown loamy fine sand. The subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 28 inches.
subsoil, to a depth of about 70 inches, is fine sandy The upper part is brownish yellow loamy fine sand, and
loam. The upper part is light brownish yellow, and the the lower part is light yellowish brown fine sandy loam.
lower part is brownish gray. The underlying material to The subsoil extends to a depth of about 67 inches. The
a depth of 80 inches or more is white fine sand. upper part is yellowish brown fine sandy loam, the next
Bigbee soils are excessively drained. Typically, the part is yellowish brown sandy clay loam, and the lower
surface layer is very dark grayish brown loamy fine part is yellow sandy clay loam. The underlying material
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of to a depth of 80 inches or more is yellow fine sandy
about 9 inches, is brown loamy fine sand. The loam.
underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches or Of minor extent in this map unit are Angie, Bonifay,
more. The upper part is light yellowish brown loamy fine Escambia, Lucy, Orangeburg, and Troup soils.
sand, the next part is very pale brown sand, and the Most areas of this map unit are used for the
lower part is white sand. production of timber or for crops, pasture, or forage.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Bibb, Chipley, Some small areas are used for urban development.







Okaloosa County, Florida 13


11. Dothan-Troup-Fuquay American holly, hickory, and southern magnolia.
This map unit makes up about 16,220 acres, or 2.7
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained soils that percent of the survey area. It is about 69 percent
have a loamy or sandy subsoil Orangeburg soils, 21 percent Lucy soils, and 10 percent
This map unit consists of deep, sandy or loamy soils soils of minor extent.
in the uplands. These soils are in the north-central, Typically, the Orangeburg soils have a surface layer
northwestern, and northern parts of the survey area. of dark brown sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The
The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine, subsurface layer, to a depth of about 9 inches, is
longleaf pine, American holly, hickory, southern reddish brown sandy loam. The subsoil to a depth of 80
magnolia, white oak, turkey oak, and laurel oak. inches or more is red sandy clay loam.
This map unit makes up about 39,995 acres, or Typically, the Lucy soils have a surface layer of very
about 6.7 percent of the survey area. It is about 40 dark grayish brown loamy sand about 6 inches thick.
percent Dothan soils, 21 percent Troup soils, 8 percent The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 28 inches, is
Fuquay soils, and 31 percent soils of minor extent. loamy sand. The upper part is yellowish brown, and the
Typically, the Dothan soils have a surface layer of lower part is strong brown. The subsoil to a depth of 80
very dark grayish brown loamy sand about 5 inches inches or more is red sandy clay loam.
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 12 Of minor extent in this map unit are Bonifay, Dothan,
inches, is yellowish brown loamy sand. The subsoil to a Fuquay, Pansey, and Troup soils.
depth of 80 inches or more is sandy clay loam. The Most areas of this map unit are used for the
upper part is yellowish brown, and the lower part is production of timber or for crops, pasture, or forage.
brownish yellow. Some small areas are used for urban development.
Typically, the Troup soils have a surface layer of
dark brown sand about 5 inches thick. The subsoil, to a 13. Troup-Lakeland-Bonifay
depth of about 48 inches, is loamy sand. The upper part
is dark yellowish brown, the next part is strong brown, Nearly level to steep, well drained and excessively
and the lower part is yellowish red. The subsoil to a drained soils that have a loamy subsoil or are sandy
depth of 80 inches or more is red sandy clay loam. throughout
Typically, the Fuquay soils have a surface layer of
brown loamy fine sand about 5 inches thick. The This map unit consists of deep, loamy and sandy
subsurface layer extends to a depth of about 28 inches. soils in the uplands. These soils are in the north-central
The upper part is brownish yellow loamy fine sand, and part of the survey area. Some areas of this map unit
the lower part is light yellowish brown fine sandy loam. are in the cities of Crestview, Dorcas, Holt, Laurel Hill,
The subsoil extends to a depth of about 67 inches. The and Deerland.
upper part is yellowish brown fine sandy loam, the next The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine,
part is yellowish brown sandy clay loam, and the lower longleaf pine, American holly, hawthorn, turkey oak, live
part is yellow sandy clay loam. The underlying material oak, and laurel oak.
to a depth of 80 inches or more is yellow fine sandy This map unit makes up about 124,616 acres, or
loam. about 20.8 percent of the survey area. It is about 35
Of minor extent in this map unit are Bonifay, percent Troup soils, 10 percent Lakeland soils, 8
Escambia, Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. percent Bonifay soils, and 47 percent soils of minor
Most areas of this map unit are used for the extent.
production of timber or for crops, pasture, or forage. Troup soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
Some small areas are used for residential development, layer is dark brown sand about 5 inches thick. The
subsoil, to a depth of about 48 inches, is loamy sand.
12. Orangeburg-Lucy The upper part is dark yellowish brown, the next part is
Nearly level and gently sloping, well draiedsoils that strong brown, and the lower part is yellowish red. The
have a loamy subsoloping, well drained soils that subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is red sandy
clay loam.
This map unit consists of deep, loamy soils in the Lakeland soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
uplands. These soils are on small plateaus throughout surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 6 inches
the county. Most areas are in the central-northwestern thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is
part of the survey area. Some areas are in the cities of sand. The upper 43 inches is brownish yellow, the next
Auburn and Baker. 24 inches is yellowish brown, and the lower 7 inches or
The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine, more is yellow.







14


Bonifay soils are well drained. Typically, the surface Of minor extent in this map unit are Dothan, Fuquay,
layer is very dark grayish brown sand about 7 inches Lucy, and Orangeburg soils.
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 44 Most areas of this map unit are used for the
inches, is yellowish brown loamy sand. The subsoil production of timber or for pasture or forage. Some
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper areas are used for urban development. Also,
part is brownish yellow sandy loam, and the lower part commercial buildings and manufacturing facilities are in
is brownish yellow sandy clay loam. some areas.






15









Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area. the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and made up of all of them. Chipley and Hurricane soils, 0
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be to 5 percent slopes, is an undifferentiated group in this
used to plan the management needed for those uses. survey area.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
under the heading "Use and Management of the Soils." other than those for which the map unit is named.
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents Some of these included soils have properties that differ
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
soils for which the unit is named, differences could significantly affect use and
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit management of the soils in the map unit. The included
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
general facts about the soil and gives the principal small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for a special symbol on the soil maps.
specific uses. This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up areas have little or no soil material and support little or
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the no vegetation. Urban land is an example. Miscellaneous
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
of a series have major horizons that are similar in small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
composition, thickness, and arrangement. the soil maps.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface Table 2 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into "Glossary" defines many of the terms used in
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed describing the soils.
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or 2-Arents, 2 to 8 percent slopes. These excessively
management. For example, Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 drained, gently sloping or sloping soils consist of sandy
percent slopes, is a phase of the Lakeland series, soil material, which has been excavated from the
Some map units are made up of two or more major Intracoastal Waterway and deposited along the banks
soils. These map units are called soil complexes or and within the sound. This material is a mixture of fine
undifferentiated groups. sand, sand, and fragments of subsoil material from the
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such associated Hurricane and Leon soils and sand from the
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they Foxworth and Rutlege soils. Most areas are long and
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The are as much as one-fourth mile wide. Some of these
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar soils are in the northern portion of the survey area in
in all areas. Troup-Orangeburg-Cowarts complex, 5 to places where the soils have been disturbed and specific
12 percent slopes, is an example, soil types cannot be consistently recognized. The soil
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more material in these areas is a mixture of sand and clay
soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped from the associated Orangeburg, Dothan, Fuquay, and
as one unit because similar interpretations can be made Lucy soils. Areas of Arents generally are rectangular or







16 Soil Survey


polygonal and range from 5 to 200 acres in size. Natural vegetation grows only on some of the low
In most places the soils are variable and have dunes. It is sparse and consists primarily of sea oats
discontinuous lenses, pockets, and streaks of light gray, and a few other salt-tolerant plants.
grayish brown, very pale brown, yellowish brown, The water table is at the surface to a depth of more
yellow, black, dark reddish brown, strong brown, than 4 feet, depending on distance from the edge of the
yellowish red, and red fine sand or sand. They contain water, the height of the beaches, the effect of storms,
few or common black and dark reddish brown and the time of year.
fragments of sandy material from the subsoil of the soils Sand dunes border the beaches on the north side.
in the borrow area. Thickness of the material ranges They consist mainly of Newhan and Corolla soils. The
from 2 to 20 feet. These soils do not have an orderly dunes are not subject to wave action, except during
sequence of horizons. storms, but they commonly receive salt spray.
Included with these soils in mapping are areas where Beaches are not suited to cultivated crops, improved
the overburden is less than 2 feet thick. Also included pasture, or pine trees because of periodic flooding,
are small areas containing fragments of organic excessive salt content, low natural fertility, and
material or muck. Included areas make up less than 15 droughtiness. Because beaches have great esthetic
percent of the map unit. value, they are an important part of the waterfront.
Permeability is rapid in the Arents. The available Beaches are suitable for use as recreational areas
water capacity is low or very low. Natural fertility and and wildlife habitat. They are used intensively for
the content of organic matter are very low. Depth to the recreation. In most places they are smooth and wide
water table is more than 6 feet. enough at low tide for automobile traffic. Because of the
These soils support little vegetation, primarily proximity to the gulf, other uses are not practical.
rosemary, sand pine, and reindeer lichens. No capability subclass or woodland ordination symbol
These soils are not suitable for cultivated crops, is assigned.
pasture, or woodland.
Limitations affecting septic tank absorption fields are 4-Chipley and Hurricane soils, 0 to 5 percent
slight. Because the soils have a poor filtering capacity, slopes. These nearly level or gently sloping, somewhat
however, ground-water contamination is a hazard in poorly drained soils are in areas bordering
areas where there are many septic tanks. Alternative drainageways in the uplands or on low ridges in the
systems should be used. Limitations are slight in areas flatwoods. The soils do not occur in a regularly
used for homesite development and for local roads and repeating pattern on the landscape. Some areas consist
streets. Limitations affecting small commercial buildings of Chipley and similar soils, some consist of Hurricane
are moderate because of the slope. Limitations affecting and similar soils, and some consist of both soils. Slopes
trench and area sanitary landfills are severe because of are dominantly less than 5 percent. Individual areas are
seepage. In areas used for sewage lagoons and irregular in shape and range from 3 to 200 acres in
landfills, the sandy sidewalls should be sealed, size.
Limitations affecting camp areas, picnic areas, and On 86 percent of the acreage mapped as Chipley
paths and trails are severe because the soils are too and Hurricane soils, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Chipley,
sandy. Limitations are severe in areas used for Hurricane, and similar soils make up 78 to 93 percent of
playgrounds because of the slope and because of the the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up about 7 to
sandy surface layer, which causes poor trafficability. 22 percent.
The addition of suitable topsoil or some other material Typically, the surface layer of the Chipley soil is very
can compensate for the sandy textures, dark gray sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying
No capability subclass or woodland ordination symbol material to a depth of 80 inches or more is sand. The
is assigned. upper part is dark grayish brown, the next part is light
yellowish brown and brownish yellow, and the lower
3-Beaches. Beaches consist of narrow strips of part is very pale brown and white.
very rapidly permeable white sand on the coastline Permeability is rapid in the Chipley soil. The available
along the Gulf of Mexico. Individual areas range from water capacity is low. A seasonal high water table is at
200 to 500 feet in width. As much as half of the beach a depth of 24 to 36 inches for 2 to 4 months in most
can be flooded daily by high tides, and all of the beach years. Runoff is slow. Natural fertility is low.
can be flooded by storm tides. The shape and slope of Typically, the surface layer of the Hurricane soil is
the beaches commonly change with every storm. Most very dark grayish brown sand about 6 inches thick. The
areas have a uniform, gentle slope and a short, subsurface layer is sand about 59 inches thick. The
stronger slope at the edge of the water, upper part is brownish yellow, and the lower part is light







Okaloosa County, Florida 17


gray. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is unless a drainage system is provided. A good ground
very dark gray and black sand. cover of close-growing plants between tree rows
Permeability is rapid or very rapid in the upper part of reduces the hazard of erosion. If site preparation is not
the Hurricane soil and moderately rapid to very rapid in adequate, competition from undesirable plants can
the lower part. The available water capacity is low. The prevent or delay the natural or artificial reestablishment
effective rooting depth is limited by a seasonal high of trees. Appropriate species should be selected.
water table, which is at a depth of about 24 to 42 Leaving debris on the surface helps to maintain the
inches from November through April. Runoff is slow. content of organic matter.
Natural fertility is low. These soils are poorly suited to recreational
Dissimilar soils included with the Chipley and development. The sandy surface layer results in poor
Hurricane soils in mapping are Leon and Rutlege soils. trafficability. The plant cover can be maintained by
Leon soils are in the slightly lower landscape positions controlling traffic.
and have a well developed subsoil. Rutlege soils have a These soils are moderately suited to use as sites for
dark surface layer that is more than 10 inches thick. homes, small commercial buildings, and local roads and
Also included are small areas of poorly drained soils streets. Wetness and the caving of cutbanks are the
that have a light-colored surface layer and have gray main limitations. Installing a drainage system and
mottles within a depth of 20 inches. installing drain tile around footings can reduce the
The natural vegetation on this map unit consists of wetness. In undrained and nonirrigated areas, plants
slash pine and longleaf pine and a few scattered that can tolerate wetness and droughtiness should be
blackjack oak, turkey oak, and post oak. The understory selected for planting. Onsite sewage disposal systems
includes gallberry, greenbrier, saw palmetto, and may not function properly during periods of high rainfall
yaupon. The most common native grass is pineland because of a restrictive layer in the Hurricane soil.
threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses include Septic tank absorption fields are mounded in most
bluestem species, panicum, hairy panicum, and areas.
indiangrass. The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
The Chipley and Hurricane soils are well suited to ordination symbol is 11S for the Chipley soil and 11W
cultivated crops. Suitable crops are corn, soybeans, for the Hurricane soil.
peanuts, and cotton. A perched water table that
develops during rainy periods in spring generally limits 6-Dorovan muck, frequently flooded. This nearly
the suitability of the soils for deep-rooted crops. level, very poorly drained soil is in large hardwood
Returning all crop residue to the soil and using a swamps and on flood plains along drainageways in the
cropping system that includes grasses, legumes, or southern part of the survey area. Slopes are dominantly
grass-legume mixtures conserve moisture, maintain less than 2 percent. Individual areas range from about
fertility, and help to control erosion. Frequent 10 to more than 750 acres in size.
applications of fertilizer and lime are generally needed. On 94 percent of the acreage mapped as Dorovan
Runoff and erosion can be controlled by plowing in the muck, frequently flooded, Dorovan and similar soils
fall, applying fertilizer, and seeding a cover crop. Tillage make up 88 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
should be on the contour or across the slope. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 12 percent.
These soils are moderately suited to pasture. Typically, the surface layer of the Dorovan soil is
Management measures that maintain optimum vigor very dark grayish brown mucky peat about 4 inches
and quality of forage plants are generally needed, thick. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more is
Wetness limits the choice of plants and the period of black and very dark brown muck.
grazing. The low available water capacity limits the Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
production of plants during extended dry periods. Rutlege, Bibb, Kinston, and Leon soils. Rutlege soils
Applications of fertilizer and lime help deep-rooted are mineral soils and are around the perimeter of the
plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, unit. Bibb and Kinston soils are stratified mineral soils.
to tolerate drought. Proper stocking rates, pasture Leon soils have a firm, sandy subsoil.
rotation, and timely deferment of grazing help to keep Permeability is moderate in the Dorovan soil. The
the pasture in good condition. Applications of fertilizer available water capacity is high. The water table is near
and lime are needed for the optimum growth of grasses or above the surface for most of the year. The soil is
and legumes, flooded more than once every 2 years for periods of
These soils are well suited to the production of slash more than 1 month. Natural fertility is medium. The
pine and loblolly pine. The seasonal high water table is content of organic matter is high. The internal drainage
the main limitation. The use of equipment is limited rate is slow because of the high water table. The soil







18 Soil Survey


responds well to artificial.drainage. very rapid. Natural fertility and the content of organic
The natural vegetation consists mostly of matter are very low.
baldcypress, blackgum, red maple, and water tupelo The natural vegetation consists of sand cordgrass,
and an understory of buttonbush and dahoon holly, marshhay cordgrass, smooth cordgrass, and scattered
The wetness is a very severe limitation affecting waxmyrtle.
cultivated crops. In undrained areas, the soil is not This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, pasture, or
suitable for cultivation. If drained and protected from woodland because of salinity and the hazard of
flooding, the soil is suited to most vegetable crops. A flooding.
well designed and maintained water-control system is This soil is not suited to use as a site for urban or
needed. Excess water should be drained from areas recreational development because of the flooding and
used for crops, but uncultivated areas should be kept the wetness.
saturated with water. Applications of lime and fertilizer, The capability subclass is Vllw. No woodland
including phosphates, potash, and minor elements, are ordination symbol is assigned.
needed. Water-tolerant cover crops should be used in
areas that are not used for row crops. Leaving crop 8-Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
residue on the surface and planting cover crops help to nearly level or gently sloping, moderately well drained
protect the soil from wind erosion. soil is in the uplands and in elevated areas in the
Most improved grasses and clovers that are adapted flatwoods. Slopes are dominantly less than 5 percent.
to the area grow well on this soil if water is properly Individual areas range from about 5 to 200 acres in
controlled. Water-control measures that maintain the size.
water table near the surface help to prevent excessive On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Foxworth
oxidation of the organic material in the surface layer. sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Foxworth and similar soils
The potential productivity of pine trees is moderate. make up 90 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
The use of equipment is limited. Seedling mortality, Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 10 percent.
windthrow, and plant competition are severe Typically, the surface layer of the Foxworth soil is
management concerns. very dark gray sand about 4 inches thick. The
This soil is not suited to use as a site for urban or underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
recreational development because of the flooding and sand. The upper part is brown, the next part is brownish
the wetness. yellow, and the lower part is light yellowish brown and
white.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland white.
donation symbol is 7W. Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
ordination symbol is 7W.
Albany and Troup soils. Albany soils have a slightly
higher water table than the Foxworth soil and have a
7-Duckston sand, frequently flooded. This poorly loamy subsoil. Troup soils are better drained than the
drained soil is in broad, level tidal marshes that border Foxworth soil and have a loamy subsoil at a depth of
the Choctawhatchee Bay and Santa Rosa Sound. It is more than 40 inches.
frequently flooded by heavy rains or high storm tides. Permeability is very rapid in the Foxworth soil. The
Slopes are less than 1 percent. Individual areas range available water capacity is low. Runoff is very slow. In
from 10 to 400 acres in size. most years, a seasonal high water table is at a depth of
On 80 to 90 percent of the acreage mapped as 42 to 72 inches for more than 3 months. The water
Duckston sand, frequently flooded, Duckston and table recedes to a depth of more than 72 inches during
similar soils make up 80 to 90 percent of the mapped prolonged dry periods. Natural fertility is low.
areas. Dissimilar soils make up 10 to 20 percent. The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine and
Typically, the surface layer of the Duckston soil is turkey oak. The understory includes aster, brackenfern,
light brownish gray sand about 12 inches thick. The partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, and wild indigo.
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray The most common native grass is pineland threeawn
sand. (wiregrass). Other native grasses include hairy
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are panicum, yellow indiangrass, low panicum, and
Leon and Rutlege soils and soils that have a surface pineywoods dropseed.
layer of muck about 4 inches thick. This soil is generally unsuited to most cultivated
The Duckston soil has a water table within a depth of crops because of droughtiness and the rapid leaching of
20 inches during most of the year. The chance of plant nutrients. Irrigation is generally feasible in areas
flooding for brief periods in any one year is 50 percent. used for high-value crops if irrigation water is readily
The available water capacity is very low. Permeability is available. Returning all crop residue to the soil and







Okaloosa County, Florida 19


using a cropping system that includes grasses, Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
legumes, or grass-legume mixtures conserve moisture, Corolla and Mandarin soils. Corolla soils are somewhat
maintain fertility, and help to control erosion. Frequent poorly drained and are in the slightly lower landscape
applications of fertilizer and lime are generally needed. positions. Mandarin soils have a well developed subsoil
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The low and are somewhat poorly drained.
available water capacity limits the production of plants The Kureb soil has a loose, well aerated root zone to
during extended dry periods. Applications of fertilizer a depth of more than 72 inches. The available water
and lime help deep-rooted plants, such as coastal capacity is very low. Permeability is rapid. Natural
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, to tolerate drought, fertility and the content of organic matter are very low.
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and timely Fertilizer is rapidly leached through the soil. Rainfall is
deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in good rapidly absorbed in protected areas, and there is little
condition. Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed runoff. The seasonal high water table is at a depth of
for the optimum growth of grasses and legumes, more than 6 feet during most of the year.
This soil is well suited to the production of slash pine. The natural vegetation consists mostly of bluejack
If site preparation is not adequate, competition from oak, myrtle oak, sand live oak, and sand pine. In some
undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural or areas sand pine is dominant. The understory includes
artificial reestablishment of trees. The major dwarf huckleberry, gopher apple, pricklypear, and saw
management concern is the low available water palmetto. The most common native grass is pineland
capacity, which results in a moderate seedling mortality threeawn (wiregrass). Other vegetation includes
rate and hinders growth. Appropriate species should be grassleaf goldaster, reindeer moss, and cat greenbrier.
selected for planting. Leaving debris on the surface The vegetation nearest the Gulf of Mexico is stunted
helps to maintain the content of organic matter. because of salt spray.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development. This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops.
The sandy surface limits trafficability. The plant cover This soil is poorly suited to pasture. If fertilizer is
can be maintained by controlling traffic. applied, the growth of grasses, such as coastal
This soil is well suited to use as a site for homes, bermudagrass and bahiagrass, is only fair. Clovers are
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets, not adapted.
Revegetating disturbed areas around construction sites The potential productivity for pine trees is low. The
helps to control erosion. Mulching, applying fertilizer, use of equipment is limited. Seedling mortality is a
and irrigating help to establish lawn grasses and other severe management concern. Plant competition is a
small-seeded plants. If the density of housing is slight management concern. Sand pine is the best tree
moderate or high, community sewage systems are for planting.
needed to prevent the contamination of water supplies. Limitations are slight on sites used for homes, small
This soil is poorly suited to trench sanitary landfills commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
because of seepage and the seasonal high water table. Limitations affecting septic tank absorption fields are
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland slight, but ground-water contamination is a hazard in
ordination symbol is 10S. areas where there are many septic tanks because of
the poor filtering capacity of the soil. Alternative
10-Kureb sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This systems should be used. Limitations affecting sewage
excessively drained soil is on nearly undulating ridges lagoons and sanitary landfills are severe because of the
and short side slopes on upland sandhills and dunelike sandy texture and seepage. In areas used for these
ridges. Individual areas range from 50 to 800 acres in purposes, the sandy sidewalls and the bottoms should
size. Slopes are smooth, convex, or concave, be sealed.
On 97 percent of the acreage mapped as Kureb Limitations affecting recreational development are
sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes, Kureb and similar soils severe because of the sandy surface layer. The addition
make up 87 to 100 percent of the mapped areas. of suitable topsoil or some other material can
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 13 percent, compensate for the sandy texture.
Typically, the surface layer of the Kureb soil is dark The capability subclass is VIIs. The woodland
gray sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is ordination symbol is 6S.
light gray sand about 12 inches thick. The subsoil is
yellowish brown sand about 16 inches thick. The 12-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is nearly level or gently sloping, excessively drained soil is
sand. The upper part is brownish yellow, the next part is on broad ridgetops in the uplands. Slopes are
yellow, and the lower part is very pale brown. dominantly less than 5 percent. Individual areas range







20 Soil Survey


from about 5 to 1,000 acres in size. slash pine and longleaf pine. If site preparation is not
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Lakeland adequate, competition from undesirable plants can
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Lakeland and similar soils prevent or delay the natural or artificial reestablishment
make up 90 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. of trees. Appropriate species should be selected for
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 10 percent, planting. Firelines and access roads should slope gently
Typically, the surface layer of the Lakeland soil is to streams and cross at a right angle. Water turnouts or
dark grayish brown sand about 6 inches thick. The broad-based dips are needed on roads to direct water
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is and sediments away from the roads and streams and
sand. The upper part is brownish yellow, the next part is into the surrounding woods. Water bars are needed on
yellowish brown, and the lower part is yellow, skid trails and firelines. The use of equipment is limited.
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are Leaving debris on the surface helps to maintain the
Chipley and Foxworth soils. Chipley and Foxworth soils content of organic matter.
are in the lower landscape positions and are somewhat This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
poorly drained and moderately well drained. The sandy surface limits trafficability. The plant cover
Permeability is rapid in the Lakeland soil. The can be maintained by controlling traffic.
available water capacity is very low. Runoff is slow. The This soil is well suited to use as a site for homes,
seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than 80 small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
inches. The soil dries quickly after rains. Natural fertility The caving of cutbanks in areas used for shallow
is low. excavations is the main limitation. Preserving the
co t existing plant cover during construction and
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine and existing antcover during construction and
revegetating disturbed areas around construction sites
turkey oak. The understory includes aster, brackenfern, revegetatng disturbed areas around construction sites
partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, and wild indigo. In help to control erosion. Plans for homesite development
partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, and wild indigo. In
should provide for the preservation of as many trees as
the southern part of the county, the natural vegetation
includes sand pine, live oak, saw palmetto, and possible. Mulching, applying fertilizer, and irrigating help
includes sand pine, live oak, saw palmetto, and
to establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded
reindeer moss. The most common native grass is to establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded
ineand threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grass plants. The soil is poorly suited to use as a site for
pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses cause of
include hairy panicum, yellow indiangrass, low panicum, sewage. It is wel suited to use a s cafr sepc
and pineywoods dropseed. seepage. It is well suited to use as a site for septic tank
and pineywoods dropseed. absorption fields.
This soil is generally unsuited to most cultivated The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
crops because of droughtiness and the rapid leaching of ordination symbol is 10S.
plant nutrients. Irrigation is generally feasible if irrigation
water is readily available. Returning all crop residue to 13-Lakeland sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This
the soil and using a cropping system that includes sloping or strongly sloping, excessively drained soil is
grasses, legumes, or grass-legume mixtures conserve on upland side slopes leading to drainageways and
moisture, maintain fertility, and help to control erosion. around depressions. Individual areas range from about
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are generally 30 to 100 acres in size.
needed. A crop rotation that includes close-growing On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Lakeland
cover crops, contour cultivation of row crops, and sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes, Lakeland and similar soils
minimum tillage help to control erosion. Soil blowing is make up 86 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
a hazard in cultivated areas, but it can be controlled by Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 14 percent.
establishing a good ground cover of close-growing Typically, the surface layer of the Lakeland soil is
plants, dark grayish brown sand about 6 inches thick. The
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The very underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
low available water capacity limits the production of sand. The upper part is brownish yellow, the next part is
plants during extended dry periods. Applications of yellowish brown, and the lower part is yellow.
fertilizer and lime help deep-rooted plants, such as Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, to tolerate Chipley and Foxworth soils. They are in the lower
drought. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and landscape positions. Chipley soils are somewhat poorly
timely deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in drained, and Foxworth soils are moderately well
good condition. Applications of fertilizer and lime are drained.
needed for the optimum growth of grasses and Permeability is rapid in the Lakeland soil. The
legumes. available water capacity is very low. Runoff is slow. The
This soil is moderately suited to the production of seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than 80







Okaloosa County, Florida 21


inches. The soil dries quickly after rains. Natural fertility provide for the preservation of as many trees as
is low. possible. Mulching, applying fertilizer, and irrigating help
The natural vegetation generally consists of longleaf to establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded
pine and turkey oak. In the southern part of the county, plants. The soil is poorly suited to use as a site for
the natural vegetation includes sand pine, live oak, saw sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills because of
palmetto, and reindeer moss. The understory includes seepage and the slope. It is only moderately suited to
aster, brackenfern, partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, use as a site for septic tank absorption fields because
and wild indigo. The most common native grass is of the slope.
pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses The capability subclass is Vis. The woodland
include hairy panicum, yellow indiangrass, low panicum, ordination symbol is 10S.
and pineywoods dropseed.
This soil is generally unsuited to most cultivated 14-Lakeland sand, 12 to 30 percent slopes. This
crops because of the slope and the hazard of erosion, moderately steep or steep, excessively drained soil is
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The very on upland side slopes leading to drainageways and
low available water capacity limits the production of depressional areas. Individual areas range from about
plants during extended dry periods. Applications of 20 to 80 acres in size.
fertilizer and lime help deep-rooted plants, such as On 96 percent of the acreage mapped as Lakeland
coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, to tolerate sand, 12 to 30 percent slopes, Lakeland and similar
drought. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and soils make up 88 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
timely deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 12 percent.
good condition. Applications of fertilizer and lime are Typically, the surface layer of the Lakeland soil is
needed for the optimum growth of grasses and dark grayish brown and grayish brown sand about 6
legumes. inches thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80
This soil is moderately suited to the production of inches or more is sand. The upper part is brownish
slash pine and longleaf pine. A properly designed yellow, the next part is yellowish brown, and the lower
drainage system and carefully placed culverts can help part is yellow.
to control erosion. Spoil from excavations is subject to Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
rill and gully erosion and to sloughing. If site preparation Bonifay and Foxworth soils. Bonifay soils have a loamy
is not adequate, competition from undesirable plants subsoil and have a water table within a depth of 60
can prevent or delay the natural or artificial inches. Foxworth soils are in swales and are somewhat
reestablishment of trees. Appropriate species should be poorly drained.
selected for planting. Firelines and access roads should Permeability is rapid in the Lakeland soil. The
slope gently to streams and cross at a right angle. available water capacity is very low. Runoff is slow. The
Water turnouts or broad-based dips are needed on seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than 80
roads to direct water and sediments away from the inches. The soil dries quickly after rains. Natural fertility
roads and streams and into the surrounding woods. is low.
Water bars are needed on skid trails and firelines. The The natural vegetation generally consists of longleaf
use of equipment is limited. Leaving debris on the pine and turkey oak. In the southern part of the county,
surface helps to maintain the content of organic matter. the natural vegetation includes live oak and saw
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development palmetto. The understory includes aster, brackenfern,
because of the slope. Paths and trails should extend partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, and wild indigo.
across the slope. Maintaining an adequate plant cover The most common native grass is pineland threeawn
helps to control erosion and sedimentation and (wiregrass). Other native grasses include hairy panicum
enhances the beauty of the area. and pineywoods dropseed.
This soil is moderately suited to use as a site for This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or to
homes, small commercial buildings, and local roads and pasture.
streets. The slope and the caving of cutbanks in areas This soil is moderately suited to the production of
used for shallow excavations are the main management slash pine and longleaf pine. Gullies limit the use of
concerns. Erosion is a hazard in the steeper areas, equipment. A properly designed drainage system and
Preserving the existing plant cover during construction carefully placed culverts help to control erosion. Spoil
and revegetating disturbed areas around the from excavations is subject to rill and gully erosion and
construction site help to control erosion. Only the part of to sloughing. If site preparation is not adequate,
the site that is used for construction should be competition from undesirable plants can prevent or
disturbed. Plans for homesite development should delay the natural or artificial reestablishment of trees.







22 Soil Survey


Conventional harvesting methods are difficult to use 10 inches for 1 to 4 months during periods of high
because of the slope. Planting a protective cover crop rainfall. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
helps to control erosion. Firelines and access roads during very dry periods. The available water capacity is
should slope gently to streams and cross at a right very low in the surface layer and subsurface layer and
angle. Water turnouts or broad-based dips are needed low in the subsoil and substratum. Permeability is rapid
on roads to direct water and sediments away from the in the surface layer and subsurface layer and moderate
roads and streams and into the surrounding woods. or moderately rapid in the subsoil.
Water bars are needed on skid trails and firelines. The natural vegetation consists mostly of slash pine,
Roads that are no longer used should be closed and live oak, dwarf huckleberry, gallberry, saw palmetto,
seeded to prevent excessive erosion, shining sumac, and waxmyrtle. The most common
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for sewage native grass is pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other
lagoons and sanitary landfills because of seepage and grasses are chalky bluestem, broomsedge bluestem,
the slope. It is poorly suited to use as a site for septic yellow indiangrass, lopsided indiangrass, low panicum,
tank absorption fields because of the slope, and sedges.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development This soil has very severe limitations affecting
because of the slope and the sandy texture. The slope cultivated crops because of the wetness. The number of
limits the use of the soil mainly to a few paths and adapted crops is limited unless very intensive
trails, which should extend across the slope, management practices are followed. If water-control and
Maintaining an adequate plant cover helps to control soil-improving measures are applied, the soil is suited
erosion and sedimentation and enhances the beauty of to a limited number of crops. Vegetables are the most
the area. suitable crops. A complete water-control system that
This soil is poorly suited to use as a site for homes. removes excess water quickly after heavy rains and
It is limited mainly by the slope, provides subsurface irrigation during dry periods is
The capability subclass is Vlls. The woodland needed. Row crops should be alternated with soil-
ordination symbol is 10S. improving crops in a rotation that keeps the cover crops
on the land at least three-fourths of the time. Leaving
15-Leon sand. This poorly drained, nearly level soil crop residue on the surface and using soil-improving
crops help to protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed
is on the Coastal Plain. Individual areas range from 5 to preparation should include the bedding of rows.
90 acres in size. Slopes are smooth, convex, or Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Coastal
On 94 percent of the acreage mapped as Leon sand, bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and several
Leon and similar soils make up 88 to 100 percent of the legumes are adapted. Water-control measures are
mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 12 needed to remove excess water during heavy rains.
percent. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Typically, the surface layer of the Leon soil is dark Grazing should be controlled to maintain vigorous
gray sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is plants and maximize yields.
light gray sand about 10 inches thick. The subsoil is The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
dark reddish brown sand about 8 inches thick. The The use of equipment is limited. Plant competition, the
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is hazard of windthrow, and the seedling mortality rate are
sand. The upper part is dark yellowish brown, the next moderate management concerns. Slash pine is
part is light yellowish brown, and the lower part is light preferred for planting.
gray. The seasonal high water table is a severe limitation
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are affecting sites for homes, small commercial buildings,
Chipley, Hurricane, Mandarin, and Rutlege soils. and local roads and streets. The wetness and the poor
Chipley soils are better drained than the Leon soil and filtering capacity are severe limitations on sites for
do not have a subsoil. Hurricane and Mandarin soils are septic tank absorption fields. Using alternative systems
better drained than the Leon soil and are in the slightly or adding fill can help to overcome the wetness.
higher landscape positions. Rutlege soils are in the Limitations affecting sewage lagoons and sanitary
lower landscape positions. They have a dark surface landfills are severe because of seepage and the
layer more than 10 inches thick. seasonal high water table. Limitations affecting
The Leon soil has a water table at a depth of 10 to recreational development are severe because of the
40 inches for periods of more than 9 months during seasonal high water table and the sandy surface layer.
most years. The water table is at a depth of less than The addition of suitable topsoil or some other material







Okaloosa County, Florida 23


can compensate for the sandy texture of the surface help to keep the pasture in good condition. Applications
layer. of fertilizer and lime are needed for the optimum growth
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland of grasses and legumes.
ordination symbol is 8W. This soil is moderately well suited to the production
of slash pine. If site preparation is not adequate,
16-Lucy loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This competition from undesirable plants can prevent or
well drained soil is in the uplands. Individual areas delay the natural or artificial reestablishment of trees.
range from 5 to 300 acres in size. Water turnouts or broad-based dips are needed on
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Lucy loamy roads to direct water and sediments away from the
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Lucy and similar soils roads and streams and into the surrounding woods.
make up 83 to 100 percent of the mapped areas. Water bars are needed on skid trails and firelines. The
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 13 percent. major management concern is the low available water
Typically, the surface layer of the Lucy soil is very capacity, which results in severe seedling mortality and
dark grayish brown loamy sand about 6 inches thick, hinders growth. Appropriate species should be selected
The subsurface layer is loamy sand about 22 inches for planting. Leaving debris on the surface helps to
thick. The upper part is yellowish brown, and the lower maintain the content of organic matter.
part is strong brown. The subsoil extends to a depth of This soil is well suited to recreational development.
80 inches or more. The upper part is yellowish red Maintaining an adequate plant cover helps to control
sandy loam, and the lower part is red sandy clay loam. erosion and sedimentation and enhances the beauty of
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are the area.
Bonifay, Dothan, and Fuquay soils. These soils have a This soil is well suited to urban development. The
perched water table within a depth of 48 inches. main limitation is seepage from sewage lagoons. In
Permeability is rapid in the upper part of the Lucy soil areas used for this purpose, the sidewalls should be
and moderate in the lower part. The available water sealed. Preserving the existing plant cover during
capacity is low. Runoff is slow. The seasonal high water construction helps to control erosion. Mulching, applying
table is at a depth of more than 80 inches. The soil fertilizer, and irrigating help to establish lawn grasses
dries quickly after rains. The shrink-swell potential and and other small-seeded plants. Limitations affecting
natural fertility are low. septic tank absorption fields are slight.
The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine, The capability subclass is Ils. The woodland
American holly, hickory, southern magnolia, white oak, ordination symbol is 8S.
and water oak. The understory includes shining sumac
and sparkleberry. The most common native grass is 17-Mandarin sand, 0 to 3 percent slopes. This
pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses somewhat poorly drained, nearly level soil is in slightly
include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low elevated areas on the Coastal Plain. Individual areas
panicum, and spike uniola. range from 3 to 50 acres in size. Slopes are smooth or
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. concave.
Droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients On 96 percent of the acreage mapped as Mandarin
are the main limitations. Suitable crops are corn, sand, 0 to 3 percent slopes, Mandarin and similar soils
soybeans, peanuts, and cotton. Irrigation is generally make up 88 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
feasible in most areas where irrigation water is readily Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 12 percent.
available. Minimizing tillage and returning all crop Typically, the surface layer of the Mandarin soil is
residue to the soil or regularly adding other organic dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
material improve fertility and help to maintain tilth and layer is gray sand about 21 inches thick. The subsoil, to
the content of organic matter. Frequent applications of a depth of about 54 inches, is sand. The upper 6 inches
fertilizer and lime are generally needed. A crop rotation is dark reddish brown, the next 14 inches is dark brown,
that includes close-growing cover crops, contour and the lower 8 inches is yellowish brown. The
cultivation of row crops, and minimum tillage help to substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is light gray
control erosion, sand.
This soil is well suited to pasture. The low available Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
water capacity limits the production of plants during Leon, Resota, and Rutlege soils. Leon soils are in the
extended dry periods. Applications of fertilizer and lime lower landscape positions and are poorly drained.
help deep-rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass Resota soils are in the slightly higher landscape
and bahiagrass, to tolerate drought. Proper stocking positions. They do not have a well defined subsoil.
rates, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of grazing Rutlege soils are in the lower landscape positions. They







24 Soil Survey


have a dark surface layer more than 10 inches thick. similar soils and 26 percent Corolla and similar soils.
The Mandarin soil has a water table at a depth of 18 Typically, the Newhan soil is white sand to a depth of
to 42 inches for 4 to 6 months and at a depth of more about 45 inches. Below this to a depth of 80 inches or
than 42 inches for 6 to 8 months during most years. more is light gray sand. Some pedons have black,
The water table is at a depth of 10 to 20 inches for as horizontal bands of mineral material.
long as 2 weeks after periods of heavy rainfall in some Permeability is very rapid in the Newhan soil. The
years. The available water capacity is very low or low in available water capacity, the content of organic matter,
the surface layer, subsurface layer, and substratum and and natural fertility are very low. The water table is at a
moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is very rapid in depth of more than 72 inches.
the surface layer and subsurface layer and moderate in Typically, the surface layer of the Corolla soil is gray
the subsoil. Natural fertility and the content of organic sand about 3 inches thick. Below this to a depth of 80
matter are low. inches or more is light gray sand. Some pedons have
The natural vegetation consists mostly of bluejack black, horizontal bands of mineral material and lenses
oak, myrtle oak, sand live oak, and sand pine. In some of gray sand.
areas sand pine is the dominant tree. The understory Permeability is very rapid in the Corolla soil. The
includes dwarf huckleberry, gopher apple, pricklypear, available water capacity, the content of organic matter,
and saw palmetto. The most common native grass is and natural fertility are very low. The water table is at a
pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other vegetation depth of 18 to 36 inches for 2 to 6 months during most
includes grassleaf goldaster, reindeer moss, and cat years and at a depth of 36 to 60 inches during the rest
greenbrier. of the year.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. Dissimilar soils included with the Newhan and Corolla
This soil is only moderately suited to pasture. The soils in mapping are Duckston soils. These included
growth of grasses, such as coastal bermudagrass and soils are in the lower landscape positions.
bahiagrass, is fair if fertilizer is applied. Clovers are not The natural vegetation on this map unit consists of
adapted. sea oats, stunted sand pine, and sand live oak.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate. Present land use precludes the use of these soils for
Limitations that restrict the use of equipment are a cultivated crops, improved pasture, or pine trees. The
moderate management concern. Seedling mortality and soi;s are used as sites for homes, lawns, parks, or
plant competition are management concerns. Slash pine playgrounds or as open spaces. The wetness, seepage,
is preferred for planting. and a poor filtering capacity are severe limitations
Wetness is a moderate limitation affecting sites used affecting most sanitary facilities. Regular applications of
for homes, small commercial buildings, and local roads fertilizer and water are needed to maintain lawn grasses
and streets. It is a severe limitation in areas used for and ornamental plants. Good-quality topsoil should be
septic tank absorption fields. Using alternative systems added in areas used for lawns. Drought-resistant
or adding fill can help to overcome the wetness. varieties should be selected for planting. Salt-tolerant
Limitations affecting sewage lagoons and sanitary plants should be used in areas near the Gulf of Mexico.
landfills are severe because of the high water table and The capability subclass is VIls. No woodland
seepage. The sandy surface layer is a severe limitation ordination symbol is assigned.
affecting areas used for recreational development. The
addition of suitable topsoil or some other material can 20-Udorthents, nearly level. These soils consist of
compensate for the sandy texture, material in areas of open excavations from which sand
The capability subclass is Vis. The woodland and loamy materials have been removed. Individual
ordination symbol is 8S. areas range from about 5 to 100 acres in size. The
depth of the excavations ranges from 2 to more than 12
18-Newhan-Corolla complex, rolling. These nearly feet. The soil material is used primarily for use in the
level to steep, excessively drained and moderately well construction and repair of roads and as fill material for
drained or somewhat poorly drained soils are in areas foundations.
of undulating dunes near the gulf coast. Individual areas Included areas, mostly mixtures of sandy, loamy, and
range from 40 to 800 acres in size. clayey material, are piled or scattered around the edges
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Newhan- of some of the excavated pits. This material has been
Corolla complex, rolling, Newhan, Corolla, and similar mixed to such an extent that identification of individual
soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the mapped areas. soils is not possible.
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 20 percent. Generally, the Small areas of this map unit are throughout the
mapped areas are about 54 percent Newhan and county. Most areas are almost barren. Some of the







Okaloosa County, Florida 25


areas have been abandoned, but many are still being Limitations affecting sites used for homes, small
used. A few areas are ponded during periods of high commercial buildings, and local roads and streets are
rainfall. Some areas support pine trees, but the soils slight. The seasonal high water table is a moderate
are not suitable for cultivation or the production of pine limitation on sites for septic tank absorption fields.
trees. Using alternative systems or adding fill can overcome
No capability subclass or woodland ordination symbol the wetness. In areas used for septic tanks, the
is assigned, contamination of ground water is a hazard because of
the poor filtering capacity of the soil. Seepage is a
21-Resota sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This severe limitation affecting sewage lagoons and area
moderately well drained, nearly level or gently sloping sanitary landfills. Limitations affecting trench sanitary
soil is on moderately high ridges on the Coastal Plain. landfills are severe because of the seepage, the
Individual areas generally range from 10 to more than seasonal high water table, and the sandy texture of the
50 acres in size, but some areas are as small as 5 soil. In areas used for sewage lagoons and landfills, the
acres. Slopes are smooth, convex, or concave, sandy sidewalls and the bottoms should be sealed.
On 99 percent of the acreage mapped as Resota In areas used for recreational development, the
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Resota and similar soils sandy surface layer is a severe limitation. The addition
make up 97 to 100 percent of the mapped areas. of suitable topsoil or some other material can
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 3 percent. compensate for the sandy texture.
Typically, the surface layer of the Resota soil is dark The capability subclass is Vis. The woodland
grayish brown sand about 3 inches thick. The ordination symbol is 8S.
subsurface layer is white sand about 15 inches thick.
The subsoil is sand. The upper 4 inches is dark brown, 22-Rutlege sand, depressional. This very poorly
the next 3 inches is yellowish brown, and the lower 22 drained, nearly level soil is in shallow depressional
inches is brownish yellow. The substratum to a depth of areas, such as ponds, bays, or sinks; on flood plains
80 inches or more is white sand. along streams and creeks; or on upland flats. Individual
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are areas range from 5 to 80 acres in size. Slopes are
Mandarin soils. These soils have a well defined subsoil. smooth or concave and are less than 1 percent.
They are in the slightly lower landscape positions. On 94 percent of the acreage mapped as Rutlege
The Resota soil has a water table at a depth of 42 to sand, depressional, Rutlege and similar soils make up
more than 60 inches in most years. The water table 86 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils
recedes to a depth of 60 to 80 inches during dry make up 1 to 14 percent.
periods. The available water capacity is very low. Typically, the surface layer of the Rutlege soil is
Permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility and the black sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
content of organic matter are low. Rainfall is rapidly very dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The
absorbed, and there is little runoff. underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
The natural vegetation consists mostly of bluejack sand. The upper part is dark gray, the next part is gray,
oak, myrtle oak, sand live oak, and sand pine. In some and the lower part is light brownish gray.
areas sand pine is the dominant tree. The understory Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
includes dwarf huckleberry, gopher apple, pricklypear, Leon and Dorovan soils. Leon soils are in the slightly
and saw palmetto. The most common native grass is higher landscape positions. They have a subsoil horizon
pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other vegetation that is stained with organic material. Dorovan soils are

includes grassleaf goldaster, deermoss, and cat organic. They are in the slightly lower landscape
greenbrier. Vegetation in areas near the Gulf of Mexico positions.
is stunted because of salt spray. The Rutlege soil has a water table at or near the
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay. surface for long periods during the year. Ponding is
Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass and common. Flooding is common on the flood plains. The
bahiagrass, are well adapted, but yields are reduced by available water capacity is high in the surface layer and
periodic droughts. Regular applications of fertilizer and low in the substratum. Permeability is rapid throughout,
lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to but internal drainage is slow because of the high water
maintain the vigor of plants and maximize yields. table. Natural fertility is medium, and the content of
The potential productivity for pine trees is low. organic matter is moderate. The response to artificial
Seedling mortality is a severe management concern, drainage is rapid.
The use of equipment is limited, and plant competition The natural vegetation consists mostly of
is a moderate management concern. baldcypress, blackgum, red maple, and water tupelo







26 Soil Survey


and an understory of buttonbush and dahoon holly, plant nutrients. Irrigation is generally feasible in areas
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops because where irrigation water is readily available. Returning all
of the wetness. crop residue to the soil and using a cropping system
If water-control measures are used to remove excess that includes grasses, legumes, or grass-legume
water, this soil is moderately well suited to improved mixtures conserve moisture, maintain fertility, and help
pasture. These measures are not used in most areas, to control erosion. Frequent applications of fertilizer and
however, because of a lack of drainage outlets and the lime are generally needed. A crop rotation that includes
difficulty of installing a drainage system. close-growing cover crops, contour cultivation of row
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately crops, and minimum tillage help to control erosion. Soil
high. The use of equipment is limited. Seedling mortality blowing is a hazard in cultivated areas, but it can be
is a severe management concern, and plant competition controlled by establishing a good ground cover of close-
is moderate. Slash pine is preferred for planting. growing plants.
This soil has severe limitations affecting sites used This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The very
for urban or recreational development, mainly because low available water capacity limits the production of
of the wetness and the ponding. Installing a drainage plants during extended dry periods. Applications of
system and adding large amounts of fill material are fertilizer and lime help deep-rooted plants, such as
necessary to make this soil suitable for these uses. coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, to tolerate
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland drought. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and
ordination symbol is 9W. timely deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in
good condition. Applications of fertilizer and lime are
23-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This nearly needed for the optimum growth of grasses and
level or gently sloping, well drained soil is on ridgetops legumes.
in the uplands. Individual areas range from about 40 to This soil is moderately well suited to the production
300 acres in size. of slash pine. If site preparation is not adequate,
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Troup competition from undesirable plants can prevent or
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Troup and similar soils delay the natural or artificial reestablishment of trees.
make up 92 to 100 percent of the mapped areas. Firelines and access roads should slope gently to
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 8 percent, streams and cross at a right angle. Water turnouts or
Typically, the surface layer of the Troup soil is dark broad-based dips are needed on roads to direct water
brown sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer and sediments away from the roads and streams and
is loamy sand about 43 inches thick. The upper part is into the surrounding woods. Water bars are needed on
dark yellowish brown, the next part is strong brown, and skid trails and firelines. The major management concern
the lower part is yellowish red. The subsoil to a depth of is the low available water capacity, which results in
80 inches or more is red sandy clay loam. severe seedling mortality and hinders growth.
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are Appropriate species should be selected for planting.
Bonifay and Fuquay soils. These soils have a perched Leaving debris on the surface helps to maintain the
water table within a depth of 48 inches. They are in the content of organic matter.
slightly lower landscape positions. This soil is poorly suited to recreational development.
Permeability is rapid in the upper part of the Troup The sandy surface layer limits trafficability.
soil and moderate in the lower part. The available water This soil is well suited to use as a site for homes,
capacity is low. Runoff is slow. The seasonal high water septic tank absorption fields, small commercial
table is at a depth of more than 80 inches. The soil buildings, and local roads and streets. The main
dries quickly after rains. The shrink-swell potential and limitation is seepage from sewage lagoons and sanitary
natural fertility are low. landfills. Cutbanks may cave on sites used for shallow
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine and excavations. Preserving the existing plant cover during
turkey oak. The understory includes aster, brackenfern, construction and revegetating disturbed areas around
partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, and wild indigo, construction sites help to control erosion. Plans for
The most common native grass is pineland threeawn homesite development should provide for the
(wiregrass). Other native grasses include hairy preservation of as many trees as possible. Mulching,
panicum, yellow indiangrass, low panicum, and applying fertilizer, and irrigating help to establish lawn
pineywoods dropseed. grasses and other small-seeded plants.
This soil is generally unsuited to most cultivated The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
crops because of droughtiness and the rapid leaching of ordination symbol is 8S.







Okaloosa County, Florida 27


24-Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This delay the natural or artificial reestablishment of trees.
sloping, well drained soil is in the uplands. Individual Firelines and access roads should slope gently to
areas range from about 30 to 500 acres in size. streams and cross at a right angle. Water turnouts or
On 92 percent of the acreage mapped as Troup broad-based dips are needed on roads to direct water
sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Troup and similar soils and sediments away from the roads and streams and
make up 84 to 100 percent of the mapped areas, into the surrounding woods. Water bars are needed on
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 16 percent. skid trails and firelines. The major management concern
Typically, the surface layer of the Troup soil is dark is the low available water capacity, which increases the
brown sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer seedling mortality rate and hinders growth. Appropriate
is loamy sand about 43 inches thick. The upper part is species should be selected for planting. Leaving debris
dark yellowish brown, the next part is strong brown, and on the surface helps to maintain the content of organic
the lower part is yellowish red. The subsoil to a depth of matter.
80 inches or more is red sandy clay loam. This soil is poorly suited to recreational development
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are because of the sandy surface layer, which limits
Bonifay, Dothan, and Fuquay soils. These soils have a trafficability. Maintaining an adequate plant cover helps
perched water table within a depth of 48 inches. They to control erosion and sedimentation and enhances the
are in the slightly lower landscape positions. beauty of the area.
Permeability is rapid in the upper part of the Troup This soil is well suited to use as a site for homes,
soil and moderate in the lower part. The available water septic tank absorption fields, small commercial
capacity is low. Runoff is slow. The seasonal high water buildings, and local roads and streets. The caving of
table is at a depth of more than 80 inches. The shrink- cutbanks in areas used for shallow excavations and
swell potential and natural fertility are low. seepage from sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills are
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine and the main limitations. Preserving the existing plant cover
turkey oak. The understory includes aster, brackenfern, during construction and revegetating disturbed areas
partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, and wild indigo, around construction sites help to control erosion. Plans
The most common native grass is pineland threeawn for homesite development should provide for the
(wiregrass). Other native grasses include hairy preservation of as many trees as possible. Mulching,
panicum, yellow indiangrass, low panicum, and applying fertilizer, and irrigating help to establish lawn
pineywoods dropseed. grasses and other small-seeded plants.
This soil is generally unsuited to most cultivated The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
crops because of droughtiness and the rapid leaching of ordination symbol is 8S.
plant nutrients. Returning all crop residue to the soil and
using a cropping system that includes grasses, 25-Troup sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes. This
legumes, or grass-legume mixtures conserve moisture, strongly sloping, well drained soil is on side slopes in
maintain fertility, and help to control erosion. Frequent the uplands. Individual areas range from about 20 to
applications of fertilizer and lime are generally needed. 100 acres in size.
A crop rotation that includes close-growing cover crops, On 87 percent of the acreage mapped as Troup
contour cultivation of row crops, and minimum tillage sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes, Troup and similar soils
help to control erosion. Soil blowing is a hazard in make up 80 to 98 percent of the mapped areas.
cultivated areas, but it can be controlled by establishing Dissimilar soils make up 2 to 20 percent.
a good ground cover of close-growing plants. Typically, the surface layer of the Troup soil is dark
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The very brown sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
low available water capacity limits the production of is loamy sand about 43 inches thick. The upper part is
plants during extended dry periods. Applications of dark yellowish brown, the next part is strong brown, and
fertilizer and lime help deep-rooted plants, such as the lower part is yellowish red. The subsoil to a depth of
coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, to tolerate 80 inches or more is red sandy clay loam.
drought. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
timely deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in Bonifay and Fuquay soils. These soils have a perched
good condition. Applications of fertilizer and lime are water table within a depth of 48 inches. They are in the
needed for the optimum growth of grasses and lower landscape positions.
legumes. Permeability is rapid in the upper part of the Troup
This soil is moderately well suited to the production soil and moderate in the lower part. The available water
of slash pine. If site preparation is not adequate, capacity is low. Runoff is slow. The seasonal high water
competition from undesirable plants can prevent or table is at a depth of more than 80 inches. The soil







28 Soil Survey


dries quickly after rains. The shrink-swell potential and The capability subclass is Vis. The woodland
natural fertility are low. ordination symbol is 8S.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine and
turkey oak. The understory includes aster, brackenfern, 26-Troup sand, 12 to 25 percent slopes. This
partridge pea, pineland threeawn, beggarweed, and wild moderately steep or steep, well drained soil is on side
indigo. The most common native grass is pineland slopes in the uplands. Individual areas range from
threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses include about 5 to 80 acres in size.
hairy panicum, yellow indiangrass, low panicum, and On 87 percent of the acreage mapped as Troup
pineywoods dropseed. sand, 12 to 25 percent slopes, Troup and similar soils
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. make up 76 to 97 percent of the mapped areas.
This soil is poorly suited to pasture. The very low Dissimilar soils make up 3 to 24 percent.
available water capacity limits the production of plants Typically, the surface layer of the Troup soil is dark
during extended dry periods. Applications of fertilizer brown sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
and lime help deep-rooted plants, such as coastal is loamy sand about 43 inches thick. The upper part is
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, to tolerate drought. dark yellowish brown, the next part is brown, and the
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and timely lower part is yellowish red. The subsoil to a depth of 80
deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in good inches or more is red sandy clay loam.
condition. Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
for the optimum growth of grasses and legumes. owarts and Dothan soils. Cowarts soils have loamy
r te material within a depth of 20 inches. They are in the
This soil is moderately well suited to the production material wlthi adept of 20 inches. They are in the
of slash pine. If site preparation is not adequate, slightly lower landscape positions. Dothan soils have a
of slash pine. If site preparation is not adequate,
competition from undesirable plants can prevent or perched watertable within a dep of 48 inches.
Permeability is rapid in the upper part of the Troup
delay the natural or artificial reestablishment of trees. soil and moderate in the lower part. The available water
Mechanical planting of trees on the contour helps tosoil and moderate in the lower part. The available water
Mechanical planting of trees on the contour helps to
control erosion. Firelines and access roads should capacity is low. Runoff is slow. The seasonal high water
control erosion. Firelines and access roads should
table is at a depth of more than 80 inches. The soil
slope gently to streams and cross at a right angle. dries quickly after rains. The shrink-swell potential and
Water turnouts or broad-based dips are needed on
roads to direct water and sediments away from the natural fertility are low.
roads to direct water and sediments away from the The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine and
roads and streams and into the surrounding woods. turkey oak. The understory includes aster, brackenfern,
Water bars are needed on skid trails and firelines. The partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, and wild indigo.
major management concern is the low available water The most common native grass is pineland threeawn
capacity, which increases the seedling mortality rate (wiregrass). Other native grasses include hairy
and hinders growth. Appropriate species should be panicum, yellow indiangrass, low panicum, and
selected for planting. Leaving debris on the surface pineywoods dropseed.
helps to maintain the content of organic matter. This soil is not suited to cultivated crops or pasture.
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development. This soil is moderately well suited to the production
The main management concerns are the sandy surface of slash pine. Gullies limit the use of equipment. Using
layer, which limits trafficability, and the slope, a harvesting system that minimizes erosion is essential.
Maintaining an adequate plant cover helps to control If site preparation is not adequate, competition from
erosion and sedimentation and enhances the beauty of undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural or
the area. artificial reestablishment of trees. Using conventional
This soil is moderately suited to use as a site for harvesting methods is difficult because of the slope.
homes, septic tank absorption fields, and local roads The slope limits the kinds of equipment that can be
and streets. The main management concerns are the used in forest management. Mechanical planting of
slope, the caving of cutbanks, and seepage from trees on the contour helps to control erosion. Firelines
sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills. Preserving the and access roads should slope gently to streams and
existing plant cover during construction and cross at a right angle. Water turnouts or broad-based
revegetating disturbed areas around construction sites dips are needed on roads to direct water and sediments
help to control erosion. Plans for homesite development away from the roads and streams and into the
should provide for the preservation of as many trees as surrounding woods. Water bars are needed on skid
possible. Mulching, applying fertilizer, and irrigating help trails and firelines. The major management concern is
to establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded the low available water capacity, which increases the
plants, seedling mortality rate and hinders growth. Appropriate







Okaloosa County, Florida 29


species should be selected for planting. Leaving debris and the lower part is light gray sandy clay loam.
on the surface helps to maintain the content of organic Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
matter. Bonifay, Chipley, Foxworth, and Rutlege soils. Bonifay
This soil is poorly suited to recreational development, soils have a perched water table within a depth of 48
The sandy surface layer and the slope are the main inches. Chipley and Foxworth soils do not have a
management concerns. Maintaining an adequate plant subsoil. Rutlege soils have a dark surface layer more
cover helps to control erosion and sedimentation and than 10 inches thick. They are in the lower landscape
enhances the beauty of the area. positions.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. Permeability is rapid or moderately rapid in the
Seepage and the slope are the main management surface layer and subsurface layer of the Albany soil
concerns. Preserving the existing plant cover during and moderate in the subsoil. The available water
construction and revegetating disturbed areas around capacity is very low in the surface layer, moderate or
construction sites help to control erosion. Mulching, low in the subsurface layer, and moderate or high in the
applying fertilizer, and irrigating help to establish lawn subsoil. The seasonal high water table is at a depth of
grasses and other small-seeded plants. 12 to 30 inches for 1 to 4 months. Natural fertility is low.
The capability subclass is Vile. The woodland The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine,
ordination symbol is 8R. American holly, hickory, southern magnolia, white oak,
and water oak. The understory includes shining sumac
and sparkleberry. The most common native grass is
27-Urban land. This map unit is in nearly level or and areerr he t native grass
gently sloping areas that are covered with airports, ine l and threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses
include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low
shopping centers, parking lots, large buildings, streets,
or sidewalks. The natural soil generally cannot be panicum, and spike uniola.
observed. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. Individual i oi s poy te t culiaed crs
periodic wetness and the thick sandy surface layer are
areas range from 20 to 150 acres in size.
Uncovered areas, mostly lawns, parks, vacant lots, the main limitations. Crops grown include corn,
Soybeans, peanuts, and small grain. An adequate
and playgrounds, consist of Bonifay, Foxworth, Kureb, soybeans, peanuts, and small grain. An adequate
Lakeland, and Troup soils. These areas are too small to drainage system is needed in most areas to remove
excess surface water and to reduce wetness, but
be mapped separately. The soils have been cut to a
depth of 1 hes oe or have been covd by f suitable outlets generally are not available. Minimizing
t depth of 12 inches or more or have been coveredand returning all crop residue to the soil or
ly a any loamy an e. t cntsregularly adding other organic material improve fertility
mostly of sandy and loamy material.
nsite investigation is needed to deteine the and help to maintain tilth and the content of organic
unsli nv areas is mned ftor a rti t matter. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are
suitability of areas of this map unit for a particular generally needed.
generally needed.
purpose. This soil is moderately well suited to pasture.
No capability subclass or woodland ordination symbol s soil is moeer oay well suited to pture
is assigned. Excessive water on the surface can be removed by
lateral ditches. Suitable pasture plants are coastal
bermudagrass, tifton-44 bermudagrass, improved
34-Albany loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. bahiagrass, and legumes. Proper stocking rates,
This nearly level or gently sloping, somewhat poorly pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during wet
drained soil is on seepage slopes and low flats in the periods help to keep the pasture in good condition.
uplands. Individual areas range from about 5 to 30 Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for the
acres in size. optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Albany This soil is moderately well suited to the production
loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Albany and similar of slash pine. The use of equipment is limited unless
soils make up 86 to 90 percent of the mapped areas. drainage is provided. If site preparation is not adequate,
Dissimilar soils make up 10 to 14 percent. competition from undesirable plants can prevent or
Typically, the surface layer of the Albany soil is very delay the natural or artificial reestablishment of trees.
dark grayish brown loamy sand about 6 inches thick. Appropriate species should be selected for planting.
The subsurface layer is loamy sand about 37 inches Bedding of rows helps to overcome the wetness. Water
thick. The upper part is yellowish brown, the next part is turnouts or broad-based dips are needed on roads to
light yellowish brown, and the lower part is light gray. direct water and sediments away from the roads and
The underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches streams and into the surrounding woods. Water bars
or more. The upper part is light gray fine sandy loam, are needed on skid trails and firelines. Leaving debris







30 Soil Survey


on the surface helps to maintain the content of organic include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low
matter. panicum, and spike uniola.
In areas used for recreational development, the main This soil is moderately well suited to cultivated crops.
limitations are the seasonal high water table and the Erosion is a hazard in areas used for row crops.
sandy surface layer. Suitable crops are corn, soybeans, and peanuts. A tile
This soil is only moderately suited to urban drainage system can be used to lower the water table if
development. The wetness and seepage are limitations suitable outlets are available. Returning all crop residue
affecting sanitary landfills and sewage lagoons. In areas to the soil and using a cropping system that includes
used for these purposes, the sandy sidewalls should be grasses, legumes, or grass-legume mixtures conserve
filled. The wetness is a limitation in areas used for moisture, maintain fertility, and help to control erosion.
septic tank absorption fields. Using alternative systems Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are generally
or adding fill helps to overcome the wetness. Plans for needed. A crop rotation that includes close-growing
homesite development should provide for the cover crops, contour cultivation of row crops, and
preservation of as many trees as possible. Plants that minimum tillage help to control erosion.
can tolerate wetness and droughtiness should be This soil is well suited to pasture. Suitable pasture
selected if drainage and irrigation are not provided, plants are tall fescue, clover, tifton-44 bermudagrass,
Septic tank absorption fields are mounded in most coastal bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass.
areas. Community sewage systems are needed in Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and timely
areas of dense homesite development to prevent the deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in good
contamination of water supplies, condition. Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed
The capability subclass is Ille. The woodland for the optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
ordination symbol is 9W. This soil is well suited to the production of loblolly
pine. The wetness limits the use of equipment. Firelines
35-Angie sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. This and access roads should slope gently to streams and
moderately well drained soil is in the uplands. Individual cross at a right angle. Water turnouts or broad-based
areas range from 3 to 30 acres in size. dips are needed on roads to direct water and sediments
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Angie away from the roads and streams and into the
sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Angie and similar surrounding woods. Water bars are needed on skid
soils make up 90 to 100 percent of the mapped areas. trails and firelines.
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 10 percent. This soil is moderately well suited to recreational
Typically, the surface layer of the Angie soil is development. The restricted permeability is the main
yellowish brown sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The limitation. The plant cover can be maintained by
subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The controlling traffic.
upper part is strong brown silty clay loam and silty clay, This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
the next part is yellowish brown clay, and the lower part shrink-swell potential and low strength are limitations in
is grayish brown clay. areas used for building site development. The restricted
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are permeability and the seasonal high water table are
small areas of Orangeburg and Pansey soils. limitations in areas used for septic tank absorption
Orangeburg soils are better drained than the Angie soil fields. The slope and the wetness are moderate
and do not have a water table within a depth of 80 management concerns in areas used for sewage
inches. Pansey soils are in the lower landscape lagoons. The seasonal high water table is a moderate
positions. They have a water table within a depth of 12 limitation affecting sanitary landfills. A drainage system
inches. is needed if roads and building foundations are
Permeability is moderate in the surface layer of the constructed. Preserving the existing plant cover during
Angie soil and slow in the subsoil. Runoff is rapid. The construction helps to control erosion. Plans for homesite
seasonal high water table is at a depth of about 36 to development should provide for the preservation of as
60 inches from December through April. The shrink- many trees as possible. The design of roads should
swell potential is high. Natural fertility is low. offset the limited ability of the soil to support a load.
The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine, Buildings and roads can be designed to compensate for
hickory, southern magnolia, white oak, and water oak. the effects of shrinking and swelling. Septic tank
The understory includes shining sumac and absorption fields are mounded in most areas.
sparkleberry. The most common native grass is The capability subclass is Ille. The woodland
pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses ordination symbol is 10W.







Okaloosa County, Florida 31


36-Bonifay sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This during extended dry periods. Applications of fertilizer
nearly level or gently sloping, well drained soil is on and lime help deep-rooted plants, such as coastal
ridgetops in the uplands. Individual areas range from bermudagrass and bahiagrass, to tolerate drought.
about 15 to 100 acres in size. Suitable pasture plants are coastal bermudagrass,
On 88 percent of the acreage mapped as Bonifay tifton-44 bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass.
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Bonifay and similar soils Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and timely
make up 75 to 100 percent of the mapped areas. deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in good
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 25 percent. condition.
Typically, the surface layer of the Bonifay soil is very This soil is moderately well suited to the production
dark grayish brown sand about 7 inches thick. The of slash pine. The sandy texture of the surface layer
subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy sand about limits the use of equipment. If site preparation is not
37 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 adequate, competition from undesirable plants can
inches or more. The upper part is brownish yellow prevent or delay the natural or artificial reestablishment
sandy loam, and the lower part is brownish yellow of trees. Appropriate species should be selected for
sandy clay loam. planting. The low available water capacity generally
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are affects the seedling survival rate in areas where
Albany, Foxworth, Lakeland, and Troup soils. Albany understory plants are numerous. Using special
soils have a water table within a depth of 18 inches. equipment, such as rubber-tired or crawler machinery,
They are in the lower landscape positions. Foxworth and harvesting during dry periods can help to overcome
soils are sandy throughout. Lakeland and Troup soils do problems caused by the sandy texture of the soil. Site
not have a water table within a depth of 80 inches, preparation, such as chopping, burning, applying
Lakeland soils do not have a subsoil. Troup soils are in herbicide, and bedding, removes debris, helps to control
the slightly higher landscape positions. plant competition, and facilitates hand and mechanical
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and planting. Leaving debris on the surface helps to
subsurface layer of the Bonifay soil and moderate in the maintain the content of organic matter.
subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the This soil is moderately well suited to recreational
surface layer and subsurface layer and moderate in the development. The sandy surface layer is a limitation.
subsoil. Available moisture is generally insufficient for Adding topsoil or some other material can overcome
plants during dry periods in the summer and fall of most this limitation. Maintaining an adequate plant cover
years. Runoff is slow. Water is perched above the helps to control erosion and sedimentation and
subsoil during periods of heavy rainfall. The shrink-swell enhances the beauty of the area.
potential and natural fertility are low. This soil is moderately well suited to urban
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine and development. The restricted permeability is a moderate
turkey oak. The understory includes aster, brackenfern, limitation on sites for septic tank absorption fields.
partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, and wild indigo. Using alternative systems or adding fill material helps to
The most common native grass is pineland threeawn overcome this limitation. Seepage is a severe limitation
(wiregrass). Other native grasses include hairy affecting sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills. In areas
panicum, yellow indiangrass, low panicum, and used for these purposes, the sandy sidewalls should be
pineywoods dropseed. sealed.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
Droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients ordination symbol is 10S.
are the main limitations. Crops grown include cotton,
peanuts, watermelons, and small grain. A well designed 37-Bonifay sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This
and well managed sprinkler irrigation system can help sloping or strongly sloping, well drained soil is on side
to maintain optimum soil moisture and maximize yields. slopes in the uplands. Individual areas range from
Minimizing tillage and returning all crop residue to the about 10 to 60 acres in size.
soil or regularly adding other organic material improve On 84 percent of the acreage mapped as Bonifay
fertility and help to maintain tilth and the content of sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Bonifay and similar soils
organic matter. Frequent applications of fertilizer and make up 80 to 91 percent of the mapped areas.
lime are generally needed. A crop rotation that includes Dissimilar soils make up 9 to 20 percent.
close-growing cover crops, contour cultivation of row Typically, the surface layer of the Bonifay soil is very
crops, and minimum tillage help to control erosion. dark grayish brown sand about 7 inches thick. The
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The low subsurface layer is yellowish brown loamy sand about
available water capacity limits the production of plants 37 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80







32 Soil Survey


inches or more. The upper part is brownish yellow prevent or delay the natural or artificial reestablishment
sandy loam, and the lower part is brownish yellow of trees. Appropriate species should be selected for
sandy clay loam. planting. The low available water capacity generally
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are affects the seedling survival rate in areas where
Albany, Foxworth, Lakeland, and Troup soils. Albany understory plants are numerous. Using special
soils have a water table within a depth of 18 inches, equipment, such as rubber-tired or crawler machinery,
They are in the lower landscape positions. Foxworth and harvesting during dry periods help to overcome
soils are sandy throughout. Lakeland and Troup soils do problems caused by the sandy texture of the soil. Site
not have a water table within a depth of 80 inches. preparation, such as chopping, burning, applying
Lakeland soils do not have a subsoil. herbicide, and bedding, removes debris, helps to control
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and plant competition, and facilitates hand and mechanical
subsurface layer of the Bonifay soil and moderate in the planting. Leaving debris on the surface helps to
subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the maintain the content of organic matter.
surface layer and subsurface layer and moderate in the This soil is moderately well suited to recreational
subsoil. Available moisture is generally insufficient for development. The sandy surface layer is the main
plants during dry periods in the summer and fall of most management concern. Adding topsoil or some other
years. Runoff is slow. Water is perched above the material can compensate for the sandy texture.
subsoil during periods of heavy rainfall. The shrink-swell Maintaining an adequate plant cover helps to control
potential and natural fertility are low. erosion and sedimentation and enhances the beauty of
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine and the area.
turkey oak. The understory includes aster, brackenfern, This soil is moderately well suited to urban
partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, and wild indigo, development. The restricted permeability is a moderate
The most common native grass is pineland threeawn limitation on sites for septic tank absorption fields.
(wiregrass). Other native grasses include hairy Using alternative systems or adding fill helps to
panicum, yellow indiangrass, low panicum, and overcome this limitation. Seepage and the slope are
pineywoods dropseed. major management concerns in areas used for sewage
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, lagoons and sanitary landfills. In areas used for these
Droughtiness and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients purposes, the sandy sidewalls should be sealed.
are the main management concerns. Crops grown The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
include cotton, peanuts, watermelons, and small grain, ordination symbol is 10S.
A well designed and well managed sprinkler irrigation
system helps to maintain optimum soil moisture and 38-Dothan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.
maximize yields. Minimizing tillage and returning all This nearly level, well drained soil is on broad ridgetops
crop residue to the soil or regularly adding other organic in the uplands. Individual areas range from about 10 to
material improve fertility and help to maintain tilth and 100 acres in size.
the content of organic matter. Frequent applications of On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Dothan
fertilizer and lime are generally needed. A crop rotation loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes, Dothan and similar
that includes close-growing cover crops, contour soils make up 81 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
cultivation of row crops, and minimum tillage help to Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 19 percent.
control erosion. Typically, the surface layer of the Dothan soil is very
This soil is moderately suited to pasture. The low dark grayish brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick.
available water capacity limits the production of plants The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 12 inches, is
during extended dry periods. Applications of fertilizer yellowish brown loamy sand. The subsoil to a depth of
and lime help deep-rooted plants, such as coastal 80 inches or more is sandy clay loam. The upper part is
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, to tolerate drought. The yellowish brown, and the lower part is brownish yellow
main suitable pasture plants are coastal bermudagrass, and reddish yellow.
tifton-44 bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass. Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and timely Escambia, Orangeburg, and Notcher soils. Escambia
deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in good soils have a water table within a depth of 24 inches.
condition. Orangeburg soils do not have a water table within a
This soil is moderately well suited to the production depth of 80 inches. Notcher soils do not have a perched
of slash pine. The sandy texture of the surface layer water table.
limits the use of equipment. If site preparation is not Permeability is moderately rapid in the upper part of
adequate, competition from undesirable plants can the Dothan soil and moderately slow in the lower part.







Okaloosa County, Florida 33


The available water capacity is low or moderate in the and irrigating help to establish lawn grasses and other
surface layer and subsurface layer and very low to small-seeded plants.
moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is slow. A perched The capability class is I. The woodland ordination
seasonal high/water table is at a depth of 36 to 60 symbol is 9A.
inches during periods of heavy rainfall. The shrink-swell
potential and natural fertility are low. 39-Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes.
The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine, This gently sloping, well drained soil is on ridgetops in
American holly, hickory, southern magnolia, white oak, the uplands. Individual areas range from about 20 to
and water oak. The understory includes shining sumac 100 acres in size.
and sparkleberry. The most common native grass is On 89 percent of the acreage mapped as Dothan
pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Dothan and similar
include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low soils make up 78 to 100 percent of the mapped areas.
panicum, and spike uniola. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 22 percent.
This soil is well suited to cultivated crops. The Typically, the surface layer of the Dothan soil is light
wetness and a restricted root zone are slight olive brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The
management concerns. Suitable crops are corn, subsurface layer, to a depth of about 12 inches, is
soybeans, peanuts, and cotton. A well designed and yellowish brown loamy sand. The subsoil to a depth of
well managed sprinkler irrigation system can help to 80 inches or more is sandy clay loam. The upper part is
maintain optimum soil moisture and maximize yields. yellowish brown, and the lower part is brownish yellow
Minimizing tillage and returning all crop residue to the and reddish yellow.
soil or regularly adding other organic material improve Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
fertility and help to maintain tilth and the content of Angie, Escambia, Orangeburg, and Notcher soils. Angie
organic matter. Frequent applications of fertilizer and sois have a clayey subsoil. Escambia sois av a
lime are generally neededwater table within a depth of 24 inches. Orangeburg
lime are generally needed.
soils do not have a water table within a depth of 80
This soil is well suited to pasture. The low available soils do not have a er e h de
water capacity limits the production of plants during table.
extended dry periods. Applications of fertilizer and lime ermeability is moderately rapid in the upper part of
help deep-rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass e Dothan soil and moderately rapslow in the lower part of
and bahiagrass, to tolerate drought. Suitable pasture
and bahiagras to tolerate drought Suitable pasture The available water capacity is low or moderate in the
plants are coastal bermudagrass tifton-44 surface layer and subsurface layer and very low to
bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass. Proper moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is slow. A perched
stocking rates, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of seasonal high water table is at a depth of 36 to 60
grazing help to keep the pasture in good condition. inches during periods of heavy rainfall. The shrink-swell
Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for the potential and natural fertility are low.
optimum growth of grasses and legumes. The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine,
This soil is well suited to the production of slash pine American holly, hickory, southern magnolia, white oak,
(fig. 3). If site preparation is not adequate, competition and water oak. The understory includes shining sumac
from undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural and sparkleberry. The most common native grass is
or artificial reestablishment of trees. The major pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses
management concern is plant competition. Appropriate include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low
species should be selected for planting. Leaving debris panicum, and spike uniola.
on the surface helps to maintain the content of organic This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The
matter. wetness and a restricted root zone are slight limitations.
This soil is well suited to recreational development. Suitable crops are corn, soybeans, peanuts, and cotton.
The plant cover can be maintained by controlling traffic. A well designed and well managed sprinkler irrigation
This soil is well suited to urban development. The system can help to maintain optimum soil moisture and
main limitations are the seasonal high water table and maximize yields. Minimizing tillage and returning all
the restricted permeability in the subsoil. The restricted crop residue to the soil or regularly adding other organic
permeability is a moderate limitation on sites for septic material improve fertility and help to maintain tilth and
tank absorption fields. The wetness is a moderate the content of organic matter. Frequent applications of
limitation in areas used for trench sanitary landfills, fertilizer and lime are generally needed.
Preserving the existing plant cover during construction This soil is well suited to pasture. The low available
helps to control erosion. Mulching, applying fertilizer, water capacity limits the production of plants during







34 Soil Survey








































Figure 3.-A stand of pine trees in an area of Dothan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.



extended dry periods. Applications of fertilizer and lime artificial reestablishment of trees. Water turnouts or
help deep-rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass broad-based dips are needed on roads to direct water
and bahiagrass, to tolerate drought. Suitable pasture and sediments away from the roads and streams and
plants are coastal bermudagrass, tifton-44 into the surrounding woods. Water bars are needed on
bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass. Proper skid trails and firelines. The major management concern
stocking rates, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of is the low available water capacity, which increases the
grazing help to keep the pasture in good condition. seedling mortality rate and hinders growth. Appropriate
Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for the species should be selected for planting. Leaving debris
optimum growth of grasses and legumes. on the surface helps to maintain the content of organic
This soil is well suited to the production of slash pine. matter. Areas on rolling uplands are subject to erosion.
If site preparation is not adequate, competition from This soil is well suited to recreational development.
undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural or The plant cover can be maintained by controlling traffic.







Okaloosa County, Florida 35


This soil is well suited to urban development. The other organic material improve fertility and help to
main limitations are the seasonal high water table and maintain tilth and the content of organic matter.
the restricted permeability in the subsoil. The restricted Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are generally
permeability is a moderate limitation on sites for septic needed.
tank absorption fields. The wetness is a moderate This soil is well suited to pasture. The low or
limitation affecting trench sanitary landfills. Preserving moderate available water capacity limits the production
the existing plant cover during construction helps to of plants during extended dry periods. Applications of
control erosion. Mulching, applying fertilizer, and fertilizer and lime help deep-rooted plants, such as
irrigating help to establish lawn grasses and other coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, to tolerate
small-seeded plants, drought. Suitable pasture plants are coastal
The capability subclass is lie. The woodland bermudagrass, tifton-44 bermudagrass, and improved
ordination symbol is 9A. bahiagrass. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and
timely deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in
40-Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, good condition. Applications of fertilizer and lime are
This sloping or strongly sloping, well drained soil is on needed for the optimum growth of grasses and
side slopes in the uplands. Individual areas range from legumes.
about 20 to 100 acres in size. This soil is well suited to the production of slash pine.
On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Dothan If site preparation is not adequate, competition from
loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Dothan and similar undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural or
soils make up 79 to 100 percent of the mapped areas, artificial reestablishment of trees. Water turnouts or
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 21 percent, broad-based dips are needed on roads to direct water
Typically, the surface layer of the Dothan soil is light and sediments away from the roads and streams and
olive brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The into the surrounding woods. Water bars are needed on
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 12 inches, is skid trails and firelines. The major management concern
yellowish brown loamy sand. The subsoil to a depth of is the low available water capacity, which increases the
80 inches or more is sandy clay loam. The upper part is seedling mortality rate and hinders growth. Appropriate
yellowish brown, and the lower part is brownish yellow species should be selected for planting. Leaving debris
and reddish yellow. on the surface helps to maintain the content of organic
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are matter. Areas on rolling uplands are subject to erosion.
Orangeburg and Notcher soils. Orangeburg soils do not This soil is well suited to recreational development.
have a water table within a depth of 80 inches. Notcher The plant cover can be maintained by controlling traffic.
soils do not have a perched water table. This soil is well suited to urban development. The
Permeability is moderately rapid in the upper part of main limitations are the seasonal high water table and
the Dothan soil and moderately slow in the lower part. the restricted permeability in the subsoil. The restricted
The available water capacity is low or moderate in the permeability is a moderate limitation on sites for septic
surface layer and subsurface layer and very low to tank absorption fields. The wetness is a moderate
moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is slow. The seasonal limitation affecting trench sanitary landfills. Preserving
high water table is at a depth of 36 to 60 inches during the existing plant cover during construction helps to
periods of heavy rainfall. The shrink-swell potential and control erosion. Mulching, applying fertilizer, and
natural fertility are low. irrigating help to establish lawn grasses and other
The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine, small-seeded plants.
American holly, hickory, southern magnolia, white oak, The capability subclass is Ille. The woodland
and water oak. The understory includes shining sumac ordination symbol is 9A.
and sparkleberry. The most common native grass is
pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses 41-Fuquay loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low slopes. This nearly level or gently sloping, well drained
panicum, and spike uniola. soil is on broad ridgetops and gently sloping side
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The slopes. Individual areas range from about 15 to 100
wetness and a slightly restricted root zone are the main acres in size.
limitations. Suitable crops are corn, soybeans, peanuts, On 87 percent of the acreage mapped as Fuquay
and cotton. A well designed and well managed sprinkler loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Fuquay and
irrigation system can help to maintain optimum soil similar soils make up 78 to 97 percent of the mapped
moisture and maximize yields. Minimizing tillage and areas. Dissimilar soils make up 3 to 22 percent.
returning all crop residue to the soil or regularly adding Typically, the surface layer of the Fuquay soil is dark







36 Soil Survey


grayish brown loamy fine sand about 5 inches thick, tolerate seasonal wetness should be planted. Firelines
The subsurface layer is brownish yellow loamy sand and access roads should slope gently to streams and
about 17 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of cross at a right angle. Water turnouts or broad-based
about 67 inches. The upper part is light yellowish brown dips are needed on roads to direct water and sediments
and yellowish brown fine sandy loam, the next part is away from the roads and streams and into the
yellowish brown sandy clay loam, and the lower part is surrounding woods. Water bars are needed on skid
yellow sandy clay loam. The underlying material to a trails and firelines.
depth of 80 inches or more is yellow fine sandy loam. This soil is moderately well suited to recreational
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are development. The sandy surface layer is the main
Leefield and Troup soils. Leefield soils have a high limitation. Adding suitable topsoil or some other material
water table at a depth of 18 to 30 inches. They are in can compensate for the sandy texture. The plant cover
the slightly lower landscape positions. Troup soils do can be maintained by controlling traffic. The slope is a
not have a water table within a depth of 80 inches. management concern in areas used for playgrounds.
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and This soil is moderately well suited to urban
subsurface layer of the Fuquay soil and moderate in the development. The restricted permeability is a limitation
subsoil. The seasonal high water table is at a depth of in areas used for septic tank absorption fields. The
about 48 to 72 inches from January through March. slope is a moderate management concern on sites for
Water is perched above the subsoil during periods of sewage lagoons. Limitations are slight on sites for
heavy rainfall. The shrink-swell potential and natural sanitary landfills. Preserving the existing plant cover
fertility are low. during construction helps to control erosion. Plans for
The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine, homesite development should provide for the
American holly, hickory, southern magnolia, white oak, preservation of as many trees as possible. Mulching,
and water oak. The understory includes shining sumac applying fertilizer, and irrigating help to establish lawn
and sparkleberry. The most common native grass is grasses and other small-seeded plants.
pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses The capability subclass is Ils. The woodland
include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low ordination symbol is 8S.
panicum, and spike uniola.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. In 42-Fuquay loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent
areas used for row crops, the main limitations are slopes. This sloping or strongly sloping, well drained
droughtiness, the restricted permeability in the subsoil, soil is on side slopes in the uplands. Individual areas
and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients. Suitable crops range from about 5 to 80 acres in size.
are cotton, corn, soybeans, peanuts, and small grain. On 87 percent of the acreage mapped as Fuquay
Irrigation is generally feasible in most areas where loamy fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, Fuquay and
irrigation water is readily available. Minimizing tillage similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the mapped
and returning all crop residue to the soil or regularly areas. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 20 percent.
adding other organic material improve fertility and help Typically, the surface layer of the Fuquay soil is dark
to maintain tilth and the content of organic matter. grayish brown loamy fine sand about 5 inches thick.
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are generally The subsurface layer is brownish yellow loamy fine
needed. A crop rotation that includes close-growing sand about 17 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a
cover crops, contour cultivation of row crops, and depth of about 67 inches. The upper part is light
minimum tillage help to control erosion. yellowish brown and yellowish brown fine sandy loam,
This soil is well suited to pasture. Suitable pasture the next part is yellowish brown sandy clay loam, and
plants are coastal bermudagrass, tifton-44 the lower part is yellow sandy clay loam. The underlying
bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass. Proper material to a depth of 80 inches or more is yellow fine
stocking rates, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of sandy loam.
grazing help to keep the pasture in good condition. Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for the Leefield and Troup soils. Leefield soils are in the slightly
optimum growth of grasses and legumes, lower landscape positions. They have a high water table
This soil is moderately well suited to the production at a depth of 18 to 30 inches. Troup soils do not have a
of slash pine and loblolly pine. The wetness limits the water table within a depth of 80 inches.
use of equipment unless drainage is provided. If site Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
preparation is not adequate, competition from subsurface layer of the Fuquay soil and moderate in the
undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural or subsoil. The seasonal high water table is at a depth of
artificial reestablishment of trees. Only trees that can about 48 to 72 inches from January through March.







Okaloosa County, Florida 37


Water is perched above the subsoil during periods of landfills. Preserving the existing plant cover during
heavy rainfall. The shrink-swell potential and natural construction helps to control erosion. Plans for homesite
fertility are low. development should provide for the preservation of as
The natural vegetation consists of American holly, many trees as possible. Mulching, applying fertilizer,
hickory, southern magnolia, white oak, and water oak. and irrigating help to establish lawn grasses and other
The understory includes sumac and sparkleberry. The small-seeded plants.
most common native grass is pineland threeawn The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
(wiregrass). Other native grasses include longleaf ordination symbol is 8S.
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. 43-Kinston, Johnston, and Bibb soils, frequently
Droughtiness, the restricted permeability in the subsoil, flooded. These nearly level, poorly drained and very
and the rapid leaching of plant nutrients are the main poorly drained soils are on flood plains along narrow
limitations in areas used for row crops. Suitable crops creeks and streams and major streams and rivers. The
are cotton, corn, soybeans, peanuts, and small grain, soils do not occur in a regularly repeating pattern on the
Irrigation is generally feasible in most areas where landscape. Some areas are made up of Kinston and
irrigation water is readily available. Minimizing tillage similar soils, some are made up of Johnston and similar
and returning all crop residue to the soil or regularly soils, some are made up of Bibb and similar soils, and
adding other organic material improve fertility and help some are made up of all three soils. Slopes are
to maintain tilth and the content of organic matter. dominantly less than 2 percent. Individual areas are
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are generally elongated and range from 3 to 500 acres in size.
needed. A crop rotation that includes close-growing On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Kinston,
cover crops, contour cultivation of row crops, and Johnston, and Bibb soils, frequently flooded, Kinston,
minimum tillage help to control erosion. Johnston, Bibb, and similar soils make up 90 to 100
This soil is well suited to pasture. Suitable pasture percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
plants are coastal bermudagrass, tifton-44 0 to 10 percent.
bermudagrass, and improved bahiagrass. Proper The Kinston soil is poorly drained. Typically, the
stocking rates, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of surface layer is very dark gray silt loam about 8 inches
grazing help to keep the pasture in good condition, thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray silt loam about
Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for the 9 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth of 80
optimum growth of grasses and legumes. inches or more is sandy clay loam. The upper part is
This soil is moderately well suited to the production grayish brown, the next part is light brownish gray, and
of slash pine and longleaf pine. The wetness limits the the lower part is light gray.
use of equipment unless drainage is provided. If site Permeability is moderate in the Kinston soil. The
preparation is not adequate, competition from available water capacity is moderate or high. The
undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural or effective rooting depth is about 6 to 10 inches. Runoff is
artificial reestablishment of trees. Only trees that can slow. Natural fertility is medium. The soil is subject to
tolerate seasonal wetness should be planted. Firelines brief periods of flooding in the winter, spring, and
and access roads should slope gently to streams and summer.
cross at a right angle. Water turnouts or broad-based The Johnston soil is very poorly drained. Typically,
dips are needed on roads to direct water and sediments the surface layer is black fine sandy loam about 24
away from the roads and streams and into the inches thick. The next layer is dark grayish brown fine
surrounding woods. Water bars are needed on skid sandy loam about 3 inches thick. Below this to a depth
trails and firelines. of 80 inches or more is sand. The upper part is gray,
This soil is moderately well suited to recreational the next part is dark grayish brown, and the lower part
development. The sandy surface layer is the main is light brownish gray.
limitation. Adding suitable topsoil or some other material Permeability is moderately rapid or rapid in the
can compensate for the sandy texture. The plant cover Johnston soil. The available water capacity is moderate
can be maintained by controlling traffic. The slope is a or high. The effective rooting depth is limited by the
management concern in areas used for playgrounds. seasonal high water table, which is at the surface to 2
This soil is moderately well suited to urban feet above the surface from November through July.
development. The restricted permeability is a limitation Runoff is very slow. Natural fertility is high. The soil is
on sites for septic tank absorption fields. The slope is a subject to brief or long periods of flooding at any time of
moderate management concern on sites for sewage the year.
lagoons. Limitations are slight on sites for sanitary The Bibb soil is poorly drained. Typically, the surface







38 Soil Survey


layer is very dark gray loam about 6 inches thick. The seepage slopes and low flats. Individual areas are
underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches or irregular in shape and range from 5 to 50 acres in size.
more. The upper part is dark grayish brown silt loam, On 93 percent of the acreage mapped as Leefield-
and the lower part is light gray sandy loam. Stilson complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Leefield, Stilson,
Permeability is moderate in the Bibb soil. The and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the
available water capacity is moderate or high. The mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 20
effective rooting depth is.limited by the seasonal high percent. Generally, the mapped areas are about 70
water table, which is at a depth of about 0.5 foot to 1.5 percent Leefield and similar soils and 20 percent Stilson
feet from December through April. Runoff is slow. and similar soils.
Natural fertility is high. The soil is subject to brief Typically, the surface layer of the Leefield soil is
periods of flooding in the winter and spring, black loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
Dissimilar soils included with these soils in mapping layer is sand about 19 inches thick. The upper part is
are Rutlege soils and small areas of organic soils, yellowish brown, and the lower part is light yellowish
Rutlege soils have a dark, mineral surface layer more brown. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is
than 10 inches thick. The organic soils are 16 to 51 sandy clay loam. The upper part is brownish yellow, the
inches thick, next part is yellow, and the lower part is brownish
The natural vegetation on this map unit consists of yellow and yellow.
American elm, black willow, green ash, silver birch, Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
sweetgum, American sycamore, water oak, and willow subsurface layer of the Leefield soil and moderately
oak. The understory includes crossvine, greenbrier, slow or moderate in the subsoil. The available water
peppervine, poison ivy, trumpet creeper, and wild capacity is low in the surface layer and subsurface layer
grape, and moderate or low in the subsoil. Natural fertility is
These soils are not suited to cultivated crops or low.
pasture because of the wetness and the flooding. Typically, the surface layer of the Stilson soil is very
Most of the acreage in this map unit is used as dark grayish brown loamy sand about 5 inches thick.
woodland. The soils are moderately suited to the The subsurface layer is light yellowish brown sand
production of loblolly pine, longleaf pine, and sweetgum. about 17 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of
The wetness and the flooding are the main 80 inches or more. The upper part is yellowish brown
management concerns. The wetness limits the use of sandy loam, the next part is brownish yellow and
equipment. If site preparation is not adequate, reticulately mottled sandy clay loam, and the lower part
competition from undesirable plants can prevent or is mottled red, brown, and gray sandy clay loam.
delay the natural or artificial reestablishment of trees. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
Water-tolerant trees should be selected, and they subsurface layer of the Stilson soil and moderate in the
should be planted or harvested during dry periods, subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the
Suitable trees include loblolly pine, slash pine, and surface layer and subsurface layer and moderate or low
sweetgum. Bedding of rows helps to overcome the in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
wetness. Trees are subject to windthrow because of the Dissimilar soils included with the Leefield and Stilson
limited rooting depth. Some areas may be suited to soils in mapping are the well drained Bonifay, Dothan,
cypress and hardwoods. and Fuquay soils. These dissimilar soils are in the
Some areas of the Bibb soil are used for recreation, higher landscape positions.
The wetness and the flooding are the main The natural vegetation on this map unit consists of
management concerns. loblolly pine, American holly, hickory, southern
These soils are not suited to urban development magnolia, white oak, and water oak. The understory
because of the wetness and the flooding, includes shining sumac and sparkleberry. The most
Wildlife habitat can be improved by low-level weirs common native grass is pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
for water control; level ditches; controlled burning; and, Other native grasses include broomsedge bluestem,
in places, controlled harvesting. longleaf uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland These soils are moderately well suited to cultivated
ordination symbol is 9W for the Kinston and Bibb soils crops. Wetness is the main limitation. Most climatically
and 7W for the Johnston soil. adapted crops can be grown if artificial drainage is
provided. Proper arrangement and bedding of tree rows,
44-Leefield-Stilson complex, 0 to 5 percent lateral ditches or tiles, and well constructed outlets help
slopes. These nearly level or gently sloping, somewhat to remove excess surface water and lower the water
poorly drained and moderately well drained soils are on table. A crop rotation that includes close-growing cover







Okaloosa County, Florida 39


crops, contour cultivation of row crops, and minimum Dothan, Fuquay, and Notcher soils and small areas of
tillage help to control erosion. Frequent applications of soils that have a clayey subsoil. Dothan, Fuquay, and
fertilizer and lime are generally needed. Notcher soils have a perched water table.
These soils are well suited to pasture. The main Permeability is moderately rapid in the upper part of
suitable pasture plants are coastal bermudagrass and the Orangeburg soil and moderate in the lower part.
bahiagrass. Proper grazing practices, weed control, and The available water capacity is low in the surface layer
applications of fertilizer are needed to maximize the and subsurface layer and moderate in the subsoil.
quality of forage. Runoff is slow. The seasonal high water table is at a
These soils are well suited to the production of depth of more than 80 inches. The shrink-swell potential
loblolly pine and longleaf pine. The main management is low. Natural fertility is medium.
concerns are the wetness, seedling mortality, and plant The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine,
competition. The wetness limits the use of equipment. American holly, hickory, southern magnolia, white oak,
Special site preparation, such as harrowing and and water oak. The understory includes shining sumac
bedding or double bedding, helps to establish and sparkleberry. The most common native grass is
seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality rate, and pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses
increases early growth. If site preparation is not include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low
adequate, competition from undesirable plants can panicum, and spike uniola.
prevent or delay the natural or artificial reestablishment This soil is well suited to cultivated crops. The main
of trees, suitable crops are corn, cotton, soybeans, peanuts, and
The seasonal high water table is the main limitation small grain. A well designed and well managed sprinkler
on sites for buildings or waste disposal systems. irrigation system can help to maintain optimum soil
Drainage should be provided on sites for buildings. The moisture and maximize yields. Minimizing tillage and
restricted permeability and the high water table are returning all crop residue to the soil or regularly adding
limitations on sites for septic tank absorption fields. The other organic material improve fertility and help to
absorption fields are mounded in most areas. maintain tilth and the content of organic matter.
Revegetating disturbed areas around construction sites Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are generally
helps to control erosion. Plans for homesite needed. A crop rotation that includes close-growing
development should provide for the preservation of as cover crops, contour cultivation of row crops, and
many trees as possible. Plants that can tolerate minimum tillage help to control erosion.
wetness and droughtiness should be selected if This soil is well suited to pasture. Suitable pasture
drainage and irrigation are not provided. Mulching, plants are coastal bermudagrass, tifton-44
applying fertilizer, and irrigating help to establish lawn bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and legumes.
grasses and other small-seeded plants. Proper grazing practices, weed control, and fertilizer are
The seasonal high water table is the main limitation needed for maximum quality of forage. Applications of
affecting areas used for recreation, fertilizer and lime are needed for the optimum growth of
The capability subclass is llw. The woodland grasses and legumes.
ordination symbol is 8W for the Leefield soil and 9W for This soil is moderately well suited to the production
the Stilson soil. of loblolly pine, longleaf pine, and slash pine. If site
preparation is not adequate, competition from
45-Orangeburg sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural or
slopes. This nearly level, well drained soil is on broad artificial reestablishment of trees. Appropriate species
ridgetops in the uplands. Individual areas range from should be selected for planting. Leaving debris on the
about 15 to 2,000 acres in size. surface helps to maintain the content of organic matter.
On 86 percent of the acreage mapped as This soil is well suited to recreational development.
Orangeburg sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, The plant cover can be maintained by controlling traffic.
Orangeburg and similar soils make up 80 to 98 percent This soil is well suited to use as a site for urban
of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 2 to 20 development or septic tank absorption fields. Seepage
percent. is the main limitation on sites for sewage lagoons.
Typically, the surface layer of the Orangeburg soil is Sidewalls should be sealed. Preserving the existing
dark brown sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The plant cover during construction and revegetating
subsurface layer is reddish brown sandy loam about 4 disturbed areas around construction sites help to control
inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or erosion. Plans for homesite development should provide
more is red sandy clay loam. for the preservation of as many trees as possible.
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are Mulching, applying fertilizer, and irrigating help to







40 Soil Survey


establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded plants. This soil is moderately well suited to the production
The capability class is I. The woodland ordination of loblolly pine, longleaf pine, and slash pine. If site
symbol is 8A. preparation is not adequate, competition from
undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural or
46-Orangeburg sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent artificial reestablishment of trees. Appropriate species
slopes. This gently sloping, well drained soil is on should be selected for planting. Leaving debris on the
ridgetops in the uplands. Individual areas range from surface helps to maintain the content of organic matter.
about 15 to 100 acres in size. This soil is well suited to recreational development.
On 83 percent of the acreage mapped as The plant cover can be maintained by controlling traffic.
Orangeburg sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, This soil is well suited to use as a site for urban
Orangeburg and similar soils make up 76 to 90 percent development or septic tank absorption fields. Seepage
of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 10 to 24 is the main limitation on sites for sewage lagoons.
percent. Sidewalls should be sealed. Preserving the existing
Typically, the surface layer of the Orangeburg soil is plant cover during construction and revegetating
dark brown sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The disturbed areas around construction sites help to control
subsurface layer is reddish brown sandy loam about 4 erosion. Plans for homesite development should provide
inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or for the preservation of as many trees as possible.
more is red sandy clay loam. Mulching, applying fertilizer, and irrigating help to
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded plants.
Dothan, Fuquay, and Notcher soils. These soils have a The capability subclass is lie. The woodland
perched water table. ordination symbol is 8A.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the upper part of
the Orangeburg soil and moderate in the lower part. s l ,
The available water capacity is low in the surface layer 4- ne sandy loam 5 to 8 percent
and subsurface layer and moderate in the subsoil. slopes. This sloping, well drained soil is on side slopes
in the uplands. Individual areas range from about 10 to
Runoff is slow. The seasonal high water table is at athe anl areas ra m about 10 to
depth of more than 80 inches. The shrink-swell potential 60 acres in size.
is low. Natural fertility is medium. On 85 percent of the acreage mapped as
The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine, Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes,
American holly, hickory, southern magnolia, white oak, Orangeburg and similar soils make up 85 to 100
and water oak. The understory includes shining sumac percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
and sparkleberry. The most common native grass is 0 to 15 percent.
pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses Typically, the surface layer of the Orangeburg soil is
include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low dark brown sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The
panicum, and spike uniola. subsurface layer is reddish brown sandy loam about 4
This soil is well suited to cultivated crops. The main inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
suitable crops are corn, cotton, soybeans, peanuts, and more is red sandy clay loam.
small grain. A well designed and well managed sprinkler Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
irrigation system can help to maintain optimum soil Dothan, Fuquay, Notcher, and Troup soils and small
moisture and maximize yields. Minimizing tillage and areas of soils that have a clayey subsoil. Dothan,
returning all crop residue to the soil or regularly adding Fuquay, and Notcher soils have a perched water table.
other organic material improve fertility and help to Troup soils are sandy to a depth of 40 to 79 inches.
maintain tilth and the content of organic matter. Permeability is moderately rapid in the upper part of
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are generally the Orangeburg soil and moderate in the lower part.
needed. A crop rotation that includes close-growing The available water capacity is low in the surface layer
cover crops, contour cultivation of row crops, and and subsurface layer and moderate in the subsoil.
minimum tillage help to control erosion. Runoff is slow. The seasonal high water table is at a
This soil is well suited to pasture. Suitable pasture depth of more than 80 inches. The shrink-swell potential
plants are coastal bermudagrass, tifton-44 is low. Natural fertility is medium.
bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and legumes. The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine,
Proper grazing practices, weed control, and applications American holly, hickory, southern magnolia, white oak,
of fertilizer are needed for maximum quality of forage. and water oak. The understory includes shining sumac
Fertilizer and lime are needed for the optimum growth and sparkleberry. The most common native grass is
of grasses and legumes. pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses







Okaloosa County, Florida 41


include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low layer, to a depth of about 45 inches, is black sand. The
panicum, and spike uniola. underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
This soil is well suited to cultivated crops. The main dark gray sand.
suitable crops are corn, cotton, soybeans, peanuts, and Dissimilar soils that are included with this soil in
small grain. A well designed and well managed sprinkler mapping are Dorovan and Leon soils. Dorovan soils are
irrigation system can help to maintain optimum soil organic to a depth of more than 51 inches. Leon soils
moisture and maximize yields. Minimizing tillage and have a sandy subsoil.
returning all crop residue to the soil or regularly adding Permeability is rapid in the Pickney soil. The
other organic material improve fertility and help to available water capacity is low. Water is ponded on the
maintain tilth and the content of organic matter, surface for about 4 to 6 months in most years. Natural
Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are generally fertility is medium.
needed. A crop rotation that includes close-growing The natural vegetation consists of blackgum,
cover crops, contour cultivation of row crops, and buckwheattree, pond pine, slash pine, and sweetbay.
minimum tillage help to control erosion. The understory includes dog-hobble, fetterbush, large
This soil is well suited to pasture. Suitable pasture gallberry, and titi.
plants are coastal bermudagrass, tifton-44 This soil is generally unsuited to most cultivated
bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and legumes. crops because of the wetness.
Proper grazing practices, weed control, and applications This soil is moderately well suited to pasture if good
of fertilizer are needed to maximize the quality of water-control measures are applied. Proper stocking
forage. Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for rates, pasture rotation, and restricted grazing during wet
the optimum growth of grasses and legumes. periods help to keep the pasture in good condition.
This soil is moderately well suited to the production This soil is moderately well suited to the production
of loblolly pine, longleaf pine, and slash pine. If site of loblolly pine and longleaf pine. The wetness limits the
preparation is not adequate, competition from use of equipment. Trees commonly are subject to
undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural or windthrow if the soil is excessively wet and winds are
artificial reestablishment of trees. Appropriate species strong. Seedling mortality, the windthrow hazard, and
should be selected for planting. Leaving debris on the plant competition are the major management concerns.
surface helps to maintain the content of organic matter. The equipment limitation is a concern unless drainage
This soil is well suited to recreational development, is provided. Bedding of rows helps to overcome the
The plant cover can be maintained by controlling traffic. wetness. Only trees that can tolerate seasonal wetness
This soil is well suited to use as a site for urban should be planted. Among the trees that are suitable for
development or septic tank absorption fields. Seepage planting are loblolly pine and longleaf pine. If site
is the main limitation on sites for sewage lagoons. preparation is not adequate, competition from
Sidewalls should be sealed. Preserving the existing undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural or
plant cover during construction and revegetating artificial reestablishment of trees.
disturbed areas around construction sites help to control This soil is not suited to use as a site for urban or
erosion. Plans for homesite development should provide recreational development because of the ponding and
for the preservation of as many trees as possible. the wetness.
Mulching, applying fertilizer, and irrigating help to The capability subclass is Vlw. The woodland
establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded plants. ordination symbol is 7W.
The capability subclass is Ille. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8A. 49-Bonifay-Dothan-Angie complex, 5 to 12
percent slopes. These sloping or strongly sloping, well
48-Pickney loamy sand, depressional. This nearly drained and moderately well drained soils are on side
level, very poorly drained soil is along drainageways slopes in the uplands. Individual areas range from 3 to
and in depressions. Slopes are dominantly less than 2 200 acres in size.
percent. Individual areas range from about 5 to 100 On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Bonifay-
acres in size. Dothan-Angie complex, 5 to 12 percent slopes, Bonifay,
On 82 percent of the acreage mapped as Pickney Dothan, Angie, and similar soils make up 91 to 99
loamy sand, depressional, Pickney and similar soils percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up
make up 80 to 92 percent of the mapped areas. 1 to 9 percent. Generally, the mapped areas consist of
Dissimilar soils make up 8 to 20 percent, about 35 percent Bonifay and similar soils, 35 percent
Typically, the surface layer of the Pickney soil is Dothan and similar soils, and 21 percent Angie and
black loamy sand about 27 inches thick. The subsurface similar soils.







42 Soil Survey


The Bonifay soil is well drained. Typically, the These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
surface layer is very dark grayish brown sand about 7 slope is the main management concern. A crop rotation
inches thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown that includes close-growing cover crops, buffer strips,
loamy sand about 37 inches thick. The subsoil extends and minimum tillage help to control erosion. Limiting
to a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper part is tillage for seedbed preparation and controlling weeds
brownish yellow sandy loam, and the lower part is help to control runoff and erosion. All tillage should be
brownish yellow sandy clay loam. on the contour or across the slope.
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and In areas used for pasture, the slope is the main
subsurface layer of the Bonifay soil and moderate in the management concern. All adapted pasture plants can
subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the be grown, but bunch-type species that are planted
surface layer and subsurface layer and moderate in the alone generally are not suited because of the hazard of
subsoil. Runoff is slow. The seasonal high water table erosion. The main suitable pasture plants are coastal
is at a depth of about 3.5 to 5.0 feet for brief periods bermudagrass, tifton-44 bermudagrass, improved
during wet periods. Natural fertility is low. bahiagrass, and legumes. Proper stocking rates,
The Dothan soil is well drained. Typically, the surface pasture rotation, and timely deferment of grazing help to
layer is very dark grayish brown loamy sand about 5 keep the pasture in good condition. Applications of
inches thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown fertilizer and lime are needed for the optimum growth of
loamy sand about 7 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth grasses and legumes.
of 80 inches or more is sandy clay loam. The upper part These soils are moderately well suited to pines and
is yellowish brown, and the lower part is brownish hardwoods. Plant competition is the main management
hardwoods. Plant competition is the main management
yellow and reddish yellow.
yellow anreish ylow concern. Using a harvesting system that minimizes the
Permeabity is moderate in the Dothan soil The hazard of erosion is essential. If site preparation is not
available water capacity is low in the surface layer and
adequate, competition from undesirable plants can
subsurface layer and moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is u p
subsurface layer and moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is prevent or delay the natural or artificial reestablishment
generally slow, but it is very rapid in unprotected areas o ree. Aropriate species should be selected for
of trees. Appropriate species should be selected for
during heavy rains. The seasonal high water table is at t
a depth of more than 80 inches. Natural fertility is low. plants The trees that are suitable o planting include
The Angie soil is moderately well drained. Typically, obloly pne and slash pine Mechanical planting of
the surface layer is yellowish brown sandy loam about 6 trees on thecontour helpsto control erion. Water
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 turnouts or broad-based dips are needed on roads to
inches or more. The upper part is strong brown silty direct water and sediments away from the roads and
clay loam and silty clay, the next part is yellowish brown streams and into the surrounding woods. Water bars
clay, and the lower part is light brownish gray clay. are needed on skid trails and firelines. Leaving debris
Permeability is moderate in the surface layer of the on the surface helps to maintain the content of organic
Angie soil and slow in the subsoil. The available water matter.
capacity is low or moderate. Runoff is moderately rapid. These soils are moderately suited to recreational
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of about 36 development. The slope limits use mainly to a few paths
to 60 inches. Natural fertility is low. and trails, which should extend across the slope.
Dissimilar soils included with the Bonifay, Dothan, Maintaining an adequate plant cover helps to control
and Angie soils in mapping are Lakeland, Orangeburg, erosion and sedimentation and enhances the beauty of
and Troup soils and small areas of soils that have a the area.
clayey subsoil. Lakeland soils do not have a water table These soils are moderately suited to urban
within a depth of 80 inches. They are sandy throughout. development. In areas used for building site
Orangeburg and Troup soils do not have a perched development, onsite waste disposal, septic tank
water table. Troup soils are sandy to a depth of 40 to absorption fields, or sanitary landfills, the depth to the
79 inches. water table and the slope are moderate management
The natural vegetation on this map unit consists of concerns. Using alternative systems, land shaping, or
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, American holly, turkey oak, adding fill can help to overcome the wetness and
and hickory. The understory includes shining sumac, problems caused by the slope. Preserving the existing
aster, brackenfern, partridge pea, and sparkleberry. The plant cover during construction and revegetating
most common native grass is pineland threeawn disturbed areas around construction sites help to control
(wiregrass). Other native grasses include hairy erosion. Plans for homesite development should provide
panicum, broomsedge bluestem, yellow indiangrass, for the preservation of as many trees as possible.
low panicum, and longleaf uniola. The capability subclass is IVe. The woodland







Okaloosa County, Florida 43


ordination symbol is 9S for the Bonifay soil, 9A for the is subject to brief periods of flooding in the spring.
Dothan soil, and 10W for the Angie soil. Natural fertility is low.
The Bigbee soil is excessively drained. Typically, the
50-Yemassee, Garcon, and Bigbee soils, surface layer is very dark grayish brown fine sand about
occasionally flooded. These nearly level or gently 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brown fine sand
sloping, somewhat poorly drained and excessively about 3 inches thick. The underlying material extends to
drained soils are on flood plains along major streams a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper part is light
and rivers. The soils do not occur in a regular repeating yellowish brown loamy fine sand, the next part is very
pattern on the landscape. Some areas consist of pale brown sand, and the lower part is white sand.
Yemassee and similar soils, some consist of Garcon Permeability is rapid in the Bigbee soil. The available
and similar soils, some consist of Bigbee and similar water capacity is low. The effective rooting depth is
soils, and some consist of all three soils. Slopes are limited by the seasonal high water table, which is at a
dominantly less than 2 percent but are as much as 5 depth of about 3.5 to 6.0 feet from January through
percent in some areas. Individual areas are elongated March. Runoff is slow. The soil is subject to brief
and range from 3 to 100 acres in size. periods of flooding in the spring. Natural fertility is low.
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Yemassee, Dissimilar soils included with the Yemassee, Garcon,
Garcon, and Bigbee soils, occasionally flooded, and Bigbee soils in mapping are Bibb, Johnston,
Yemassee, Garcon, Bigbee, and similar soils make up Kinston, and Rutlege soils and small areas of soils that
91 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils have organic material at a depth of 16 to 51 inches.
make up 1 to 9 percent. Bibb, Johnston, and Kinston soils are in the lower
The Yemassee soil is somewhat poorly drained, landscape positions. They have a high water table at a
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy depth of less than 12 inches. Rutlege soils have a dark
loam about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is surface layer that is more than 10 inches thick.
yellowish brown fine sandy loam about 3 inches thick. The natural vegetation on this map unit consists of
The subsoil, to a depth of about 50 inches, is sandy American holly, flowering dogwood, hawthorn, loblolly
clay loam. The upper part is yellowish brown, and the pine, southern magnolia, white oak, water oak, live oak,
lower part is gray. The substratum extends to a depth of laurel oak, slash pine, and sweetgum. The understory
80 inches or more. The upper part is gray fine sandy includes gallberry, saw palmetto, shining sumac,
loam, and the lower part is light gray sand. waxmyrtle, and sparkleberry. The most common native
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer grass is pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native
and subsurface layer of the Yemassee soil and grasses include chalky bluestem, broomsedge
moderate in the subsoil. The available water capacity is bluestem, yellow indiangrass, lopsided indiangrass, low
low in the surface layer and subsurface layer and panicum, and switchgrass.
moderate or high in the subsoil. The effective rooting These soils are moderately suited to cultivated crops.
depth is limited by the seasonal high water table, which The wetness and the flooding are the major
is at a depth of about 1.0 to 1.5 feet from December management concerns. Corn and soybeans are suitable
through March. Runoff is slow. The soil is subject to crops if an adequate drainage system is installed. The
brief periods of flooding in winter and spring. Natural hazard of flooding can be reduced by constructing dikes
fertility is low. and water-retention structures. If suitable outlets are
The Garcon soil is somewhat poorly drained, available, lateral ditches and tile drains can be used to
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy fine lower the water table. Minimizing tillage and returning
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is pale all crop residue to the soil or regularly adding other
brown loamy fine sand about 28 inches thick. The organic material improve fertility and help to maintain
subsoil extends to a depth of about 70 inches. The tilth and the content of organic matter. Frequent
upper part is light brownish yellow sandy clay loam, and applications of fertilizer and lime are generally needed.
the lower part is light brownish gray fine sandy loam. These soils are well suited to pasture. The wetness
The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is light and the flooding are the major management concerns.
gray fine sand. The main suitable pasture plants are coastal
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, subsurface bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass. Proper
layer, and substratum of the Garcon soil and moderate stocking rates, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of
in the subsoil. The available water capacity is moderate. grazing help to keep the pasture in good condition.
The effective rooting depth is limited by the seasonal Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for the
high water table, which is at a depth of about 1.5 to 3.0 optimum growth of grasses and legumes.
feet from January through April. Runoff is slow. The soil Most of the acreage is used as woodland. These







44 Soil Survey


soils are well suited to the production of pines and subsurface layer of the Troup soil and moderate in the
hardwoods. The wetness and the flooding are the main subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the
management concerns. The wetness limits the use of surface layer and subsurface layer and moderate in the
equipment. If site preparation is not adequate, subsoil. Runoff is slow. Water erosion is only a problem
competition from undesirable plants can prevent or if water-control measures are not used. The seasonal
delay the natural or artificial reestablishment of trees. high water table is at a depth of more than 80 inches.
Appropriate species should be selected for planting. Typically, the surface layer of the Orangeburg soil is
Bedding of rows helps to overcome the wetness. The dark brown sandy loam about 5 inches thick. The
trees that are suitable for planting include slash pine subsurface layer is reddish brown sandy loam about 4
and loblolly pine. Site preparation, such as chopping, inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
burning, applying herbicide, and bedding, removes more is red sandy clay loam.
debris, reduces plant competition, and facilitates hand Permeability is moderately rapid in the upper part of
and mechanical planting. Leaving debris on the surface the Orangeburg soil and moderate in the lower part.
helps to maintain the content of organic matter. The available water capacity is low in the surface layer
These soils are moderately suited to recreational and subsurface layer and moderate in the subsoil.
development. The wetness and the flooding are the Runoff is rapid, and erosion is a hazard in unprotected
major management concerns. Good drainage is needed areas. The seasonal high water table is at a depth of
in areas used for paths and trails. Protection from more than 80 inches. Natural fertility is medium.
flooding is needed. Typically, the surface layer of the Cowarts soil is
These soils are poorly suited to use as a site for yellowish brown loamy sand about 4 inches thick. The
urban development and sanitary facilities. The wetness subsurface layer is brownish yellow loamy sand about
and the flooding are the major management concerns. 11 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of about
Excess water can be removed by using shallow ditches 38 inches. The upper part is yellowish brown sandy clay
and by providing the proper grade. Roads and streets loam, and the lower part is reticulately mottled sandy
should be elevated above the expected flood level. The clay loam. The underlying material extends to a depth
flooding can be controlled by using major flood-control of 80 inches or more. The upper part is mottled fine
structures, sand, and the lower part is yellow sand.
Wildlife habitat can be improved by low-level weirs Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer,
for water control; level ditches; controlled burning; and, subsurface layer, and substratum of the Cowarts soil
in places, controlled harvesting, and moderate in the subsoil. The available water
The capability subclass is IIw. The woodland capacity is low or moderate in the surface layer,
ordination symbol is 9W for the Yemassee soil, 10W for subsurface layer, and substratum and moderate in the
the Garcon soil, and 9S for the Bigbee soil. subsoil. Runoff is slow. Unprotected areas are subject
to severe erosion. The seasonal high water table is at a
51-Troup-Orangeburg-Cowarts complex, 5 to 12 depth of more than 80 inches. Natural fertility is low.
percent slopes. These sloping or strongly sloping, well Dissimilar soils included with the Troup, Orangeburg,
drained soils are on side slopes in the uplands. and Cowarts soils in mapping are Bonifay, Chipley, and
Individual areas are irregular in shape and range from 3 Dothan soils. Bonifay and Dothan soils have a perched
to 100 acres in size. water table. Chipley soils are sandy throughout and
On 85 percent of the acreage mapped as Troup- have a water table within a depth of 30 inches.
Orangeburg-Cowarts complex, 5 to 12 percent slopes, The natural vegetation on this map unit consists of
Troup, Orangeburg, Cowarts, and similar soils make up loblolly pine, American holly, hickory, southern
80 to 97 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils magnolia, white oak, and water oak. The understory
make up 3 to 20 percent. Generally, the mapped areas includes shining sumac and sparkleberry. The most
consist of about 47 percent Troup and similar soils, 18 common native grass is pineland threeawn (wiregrass).
percent Orangeburg and similar soils, and 15 percent Other native grasses include broomsedge bluestem,
Cowarts and similar soils. longleaf uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
Typically, the surface layer of the Troup soil is dark These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
brown sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer slope and the hazard of erosion are the main
is dark yellowish brown loamy sand about 9 inches management concerns. Returning all crop residue to the
thick. Below this, to a depth of about 48 inches, is soil and using a cropping system that includes grasses,
strong brown and yellowish red loamy sand. The subsoil legumes, or grass-legume mixtures conserve moisture,
to a depth of 80 inches or more is red sandy clay loam. maintain fertility, and help to control erosion, Frequent
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and applications of fertilizer and lime are generally needed.







Okaloosa County, Florida 45


A crop rotation that includes close-growing cover crops, The subsurface layer is brownish yellow fine sandy
contour cultivation of row crops, and minimum tillage loam about 3 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a
help to control erosion. Using gradient terraces and depth of 80 inches or more. The upper part is brownish
contour farming can reduce the hazard of sheet and rill yellow fine sandy loam, and the lower part is reticulately
erosion on the steeper slopes, mottled sandy clay loam.
These soils are moderately well suited to pasture. Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
The main suitable pasture plants are coastal Dothan, Fuquay, and Stilson soils. These soils are
bermudagrass, tifton-44 bermudagrass, improved better drained than the Escambia soil, but they have a
bahiagrass, and legumes. Proper stocking rates, perched water table during periods of high rainfall. Also
pasture rotation, and timely deferment of grazing help to included are soils that have a clayey subsoil.
keep the pasture in good condition. Applications of Permeability is slow in the Escambia soil. The
fertilizer and lime are needed for the optimum growth of available water capacity is low or moderate. Runoff is
grasses and legumes. slow. The seasonal high water table is at a depth of
These soils are well suited to the production of pines about 18 to 30 inches during the winter months. The
and hardwoods. The slope and the hazard of erosion soil dries slowly after heavy rains. The shrink-swell
are the main management concerns. Using a harvesting potential and natural fertility are low.
system that minimizes erosion is essential. If site The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine,
preparation is not adequate, competition from American holly, hickory, southern magnolia, white oak,
undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural or and water oak. The understory includes shining sumac
artificial reestablishment of trees. Appropriate species and sparkleberry. The most common native grass is
should be selected for planting. The trees that are pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses
suitable for planting include slash pine, loblolly pine, include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low
and longleaf pine. Mechanical planting of trees on the panicum, and spike uniola.
contour helps to control erosion. Water turnouts or This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops.
broad-based dips are needed on roads to direct water Wetness is the main limitation. Suitable crops are corn,
and sediments away from the roads and streams and soybeans, peanuts, and cotton. The perched water
into the surrounding woods. Water bars are needed on table generally limits the suitability of the soil for deep-
skid trails and firelines. Leaving debris on the surface rooted crops. Minimizing tillage and returning crop
helps to maintain the content of organic matter, residue to the soil or regularly adding other organic
These soils are poorly suited to recreational material improve fertility and help to maintain tilth and
development. The slope and the hazard of erosion are the content of organic matter. Frequent applications of
the main management concerns. Maintaining an fertilizer and lime are generally needed. Using gradient
adequate plant cover helps to control erosion and terraces and contour farming can reduce the hazard of
sedimentation and enhances the beauty of the area. sheet and rill erosion on the steeper slopes.
These soils are moderately suited to urban This soil is well suited to pasture. Seedbeds should
development. Limitations affecting septic tank be prepared on the contour or across the slope. The
absorption fields are moderate. Seepage and the slope low available water capacity limits the production of
are major management concerns in areas used for plants during extended dry periods. Applications of
sewage lagoons and sanitary landfills. Sandy sidewalls fertilizer and lime help deep-rooted plants, such as
should be sealed, coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass, to tolerate
The capability subclass is Vis. The woodland drought. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and
ordination symbol is 8S for the Troup soil, 8A for the timely deferment of grazing help to keep the pasture in
Orangeburg soil, and 9A for the Cowarts soil. good condition. Applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed for the optimum growth of grasses and
52-Escambia fine sandy loam, 0 to 3 percent legumes.
slopes. This gently sloping, moderately well drained soil This soil is well suited to the production of slash pine.
is on low side slopes in the uplands. Individual areas If site preparation is not adequate, competition from
range from about 5 to 80 acres in size. undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural or
On 97 percent of the acreage mapped as Escambia artificial reestablishment of trees. Mechanical planting of
fine sandy loam, 0 to 3 percent slopes, Escambia and trees on bedded rows helps to overcome the seasonal
similar soils make up 92 to 100 percent of the mapped high water table. Water turnouts or broad-based dips
areas. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 8 percent. are needed on roads to direct water and sediments
Typically, the surface layer of the Escambia soil is away from the roads and streams and into the
very dark gray fine sandy loam about 5 inches thick. surrounding woods. Water bars are needed on skid







46 Soil Survey


trails and firelines. The major management concern is pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses
the low available water capacity, which increases the include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low
seedling mortality rate and hinders growth. Appropriate panicum, and spike uniola.
species should be selected for planting. Leaving debris This soil is well suited to cultivated crops. Suitable
on the surface helps to maintain the content of organic crops are corn, soybeans, peanuts, and cotton. The
matter. Areas on rolling uplands are subject to erosion. perched water table generally limits the suitability of the
This soil is moderately well suited to recreational soil for deep-rooted crops. Minimizing tillage and
development. The wetness is the main limitation. The returning crop residue to the soil or regularly adding
plant cover can be maintained by controlling traffic. other organic material improve fertility and help to
In areas used for urban development, wetness is the maintain tilth and the content of organic matter.
main limitation. The wetness is a severe limitation on Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are generally
sites for septic tank absorption fields and trench needed.
sanitary landfills. Preserving the existing plant cover This soil is well suited to pasture. The low available
during construction helps to control erosion. Plants that water capacity limits the production of plants during
can tolerate wetness and droughtiness should be extended dry periods. Applications of fertilizer and lime
selected if drainage and irrigation are not provided, help deep-rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass
Mulching, applying fertilizer, and irrigating help to and bahiagrass, to tolerate drought. Proper stocking
establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded plants, rates, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of grazing
The capability subclass is llw. The woodland help to keep the pasture in good condition. Applications
ordination symbol is 9W. of fertilizer and lime are needed for the optimum growth
of grasses and legumes.
53-Notcher gravelly sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent This soil is well suited to the production of slash pine.
slopes. This nearly level, moderately well drained soil is If site preparation is not adequate, competition from
on broad ridgetops in the uplands. Individual areas undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural or
range from about 5 to 80 acres in size. artificial reestablishment of trees. Appropriate species
On 95 percent of the acreage mapped as Notcher should be selected for planting. Leaving debris on the
gravelly sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, Notcher and surface helps to maintain the content of organic matter.
similar soils make up 92 to 100 percent of the mapped This soil is well suited to recreational development.
areas. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 8 percent. The plant cover can be maintained by controlling traffic.
Typically, the surface layer of the Notcher soil is very This soil is moderately suited to urban development.
dark gray gravelly sandy loam about 4 inches thick. The The main limitations are the seasonal high water table
subsurface layer is yellowish brown gravelly sandy loam and the restricted permeability. The wetness and the
about 6 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 80 restricted permeability are severe limitations on sites for
inches or more is gravelly sandy clay loam. The upper septic tank absorption fields. Preserving the existing
part is yellowish brown, the next part is brownish plant cover during construction helps to control erosion.
yellow, and the lower part is brownish yellow. The lower Plants that can tolerate wetness and droughtiness
part of the subsoil is mottled in shades of red and gray. should be selected if drainage and irrigation are not
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are provided. Mulching, applying fertilizer, and irrigating
Angie and Escambia soils. Angie soils have a clayey help to establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded
subsoil. Escambia soils are in the slightly lower plants. Small stones are a problem in areas used for
landscape positions. They have a high water table at a lawns.
depth of 18 to 30 inches. The capability class is I. The woodland ordination
Permeability is moderately slow in the Notcher soil. symbol is 9A.
The available water capacity is very low or moderate in
the surface layer and subsurface layer and low or 54-Notcher gravelly sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent
moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is medium. The slopes. This gently sloping, moderately well drained soil
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 36 to 48 is on side slopes in the uplands. Individual areas range
inches for 1 or 2 months. Water is perched above the from about 5 to 80 acres in size.
subsoil during periods of heavy rainfall. The shrink-swell On 90 percent of the acreage mapped as Notcher
potential and natural fertility are low. gravelly sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes, Notcher and
The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine, similar soils make up 78 to 100 percent of the mapped
American pine, hickory, southern magnolia, white oak, areas. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 22 percent.
and water oak. The understory includes shining sumac Typically, the surface layer of the Notcher soil is very
and sparkleberry. The most common native grass is dark gray gravelly sandy loam about 4 inches thick. The







Okaloosa County, Florida 47


subsurface layer is yellowish brown gravelly sandy loam seedling mortality rate and hinders growth. Appropriate
about 6 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 80 species should be selected for planting. Leaving debris
inches or more is gravelly sandy loam. The upper part on the surface helps to maintain the content of organic
is yellowish brown, the next part is brownish yellow, and matter. Areas on rolling uplands are subject to erosion.
the lower part is brownish yellow and is mottled in This soil is well suited to recreational development.
shades of red and gray. The plant cover can be maintained by controlling traffic.
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are This soil is moderately suited to urban development.
Angie and Escambia soils. Angie soils have a clayey The main limitations are the seasonal high water table
subsoil. Escambia soils are in the lower landscape and the restricted permeability. The wetness and the
positions. They have a water table at a depth of 18 to restricted permeability are severe limitations on sites for
30 inches, septic tank absorption fields. Preserving the existing
Permeability is moderately slow in the Notcher soil. plant cover during construction helps to control erosion.
The available water capacity is very low to moderate in Plants that can tolerate wetness and droughtiness
the surface layer and subsurface layer and low or should be selected if drainage and irrigation are not
moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is medium. The provided. Mulching, applying fertilizer, and irrigating
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 36 to 48 help to establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded
inches for 1 or 2 months. Water is perched above the plants. Small stones are a problem in areas used for
subsoil during periods of heavy rainfall. The shrink-swell lawns.
potential and natural fertility are low. The capability subclass is lie. The woodland
The natural vegetation consists of loblolly pine, ordination symbol is 9A.
American holly, hickory, southern magnolia, white oak,
and water oak. The understory includes shining sumac 55-Pansey sandy loam, depressional. This very
and sparkleberry. The most common native grass is poorly drained soil is in upland depressions. Slopes are
pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Other native grasses concave and are dominantly less than 1 percent.
include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low Individual areas are generally round or oval and range
panicum, and spike uniola. from 3 to 5 acres in size.
This soil is moderately suited to cultivated crops. The On 88 percent of the acreage mapped as Pansey
wetness and a restricted root zone are the main sandy loam, depressional, Pansey and similar soils
limitations. Suitable crops are corn, soybeans, peanuts, make up 91 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
and cotton. Minimizing tillage and returning all crop Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 9 percent.
residue to the soil or regularly adding other organic Typically, the surface layer of the Pansey soil is very
material improve fertility and help to maintain tilth and dark gray sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The
the content of organic matter. Frequent applications of subsurface layer is dark gray and gray sandy loam
fertilizer and lime are generally needed. Using gradient about 11 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of about
terraces and contour farming can reduce the hazard of 80 inches is sandy clay loam that is mottled in shades
sheet and rill erosion on the steeper slopes, of red, brown, and gray. The upper part is gray, the
This soil is well suited to pasture. The low available next part is light brownish gray, and the lower part is
water capacity limits the production of plants during light gray.
extended dry periods. Applications of fertilizer and lime Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are
help deep-rooted plants, such as coastal bermudagrass soils that have a clayey subsoil.
and bahiagrass, to tolerate drought. Proper stocking Permeability is slow in the Pansey soil. The available
rates, pasture rotation, and timely deferment of grazing water capacity is very low or low in the surface layer
help to keep the pasture in good condition. Applications and low or moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is slow.
of fertilizer and lime are needed for the optimum growth Undrained areas are ponded for 4 to 8 months in most
of grasses and legumes. years.
This soil is well suited to the production of slash pine. The natural vegetation consists mostly of
If site preparation is not adequate, competition from baldcypress, blackgum, red maple, and water tupelo
undesirable plants can prevent or delay the natural or and an understory of buttonbush and dahoon holly.
artificial reestablishment of trees. Water turnouts or This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
broad-based dips are needed on roads to direct water of the wetness.
and sediments away from the roads and streams and This soil is poorly suited to pasture. The wetness and
into the surrounding woods. Water bars are needed on the ponding are the major management concerns. The
skid trails and firelines. The major management concern wetness limits the choice of plants and the period of
is the low available water capacity, which increases the grazing.







48


This soil is poorly suited to the production of slash This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
pine. The wetness and the ponding are the major periodic wetness is the main limitation. An adequate
management concerns. Trees should be planted or drainage system is needed in most areas to remove
harvested during dry periods. Bedding of rows helps to excess surface water and reduce the wetness, but
overcome the wetness. Only trees that can tolerate suitable outlets are generally not available. Minimizing
seasonal wetness should be planted. Trees are subject tillage and returning all crop residue to the soil or
to windthrow because of the limited rooting depth. regularly adding other organic material improve fertility
Overcoming the excessive wetness is very difficult. and help to maintain tilth and the content of organic
Some areas may be suited to cypress and hardwoods if matter. Frequent applications of fertilizer and lime are
the trees are harvested and planted during extended generally needed.
dry periods. This soil is moderately suited to pasture. Excess
This soil is poorly suited to urban and recreational water on the surface can be removed by lateral ditches.
development because of the wetness and the ponding. Suitable pasture plants are coastal bermudagrass,
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland tifton-44 bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and
ordination symbol is 9A. legumes. Proper stocking rates, pasture rotation, and
restricted grazing during wet periods help to keep the
56-Pansey sandy loam, 1 to 3 percent slopes, pasture in good condition. Applications of fertilizer and
This gently sloping, poorly drained soil is on low side lime are needed for the optimum growth of grasses and
slopes in the uplands. Individual areas range from legumes.
about 3 to 500 acres in size. This soil is moderately well suited to the production
On 88 percent of the acreage mapped as Pansey of slash pine. The wetness limits the use of equipment
sandy loam, 1 to 3 percent slopes, Pansey and similar unless drainage is provided. If site preparation is not
soils make up 82 to 94 percent of the mapped areas. adequate, competition from undesirable plants can
Dissimilar soils make up 6 to 18 percent. prevent or delay the natural or artificial reestablishment
Typically, the surface layer of the Pansey soil is very of trees. Appropriate species should be selected for
dark gray sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The planting. Bedding of rows helps to overcome the
subsurface layer is dark gray and gray sandy loam wetness. Water turnouts or broad-based dips are
about 11 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of 80 needed on roads to direct water and sediments away
inches or more is sandy clay loam that is mottled in from the roads and streams and into the surrounding
shades of red, brown, and gray. The upper part is gray, woods. Water bars are needed on skid trails and
the next part is light brownish gray, and the lower part firelines. Leaving debris on the surface helps to
is light gray. maintain the content of organic matter.
Dissimilar soils included with this soil in mapping are This soil is poorly suited to recreational development
Dothan and Escambia soils. These soils are in the because of the wetness.
higher landscape positions. They are better drained This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
than the Pansey soil. wetness and seepage are limitations on sites for septic
Permeability is slow in the Pansey soil. The available tank absorption fields. Using alternative systems or
water capacity is very low or low in the surface layer adding fill can help to overcome these limitations. Plans
and low or moderate in the subsoil. Runoff is slow. The for homesite development should provide for the
soil receives runoff and seepage water from the preservation of as many trees as possible. Plants that
surrounding higher soils, can tolerate wetness should be selected if drainage is
The natural vegetation consists mostly of slash pine, not provided. Septic tank absorption fields are mounded
sand live oak, and an understory of dwarf huckleberry, in most areas. If the density of housing is moderate or
gallberry, saw palmetto, shining sumac, and waxmyrtle. high, community sewage systems are needed to
The most common native grass is pineland threeawn prevent the contamination of water supplies.
(wiregrass). Other grasses are chalky bluestem, The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland
broomsedge bluestem, yellow indiangrass, lopsided ordination symbol is 10W.
indiangrass, low panicum, and sedges.






49









Prime Farmland


In this section, prime farmland is defined and the structures. Public land is land not available for farming
soils in Okaloosa County that are considered prime in National forests, National parks, military reservations,
farmland are listed, and State parks.
Prime farmland is one of several kinds of important Prime farmland soils usually receive an adequate
farmland defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and dependable supply of moisture from precipitation or
It is of major importance in meeting the Nation's short- irrigation. The temperature and growing season are
and long-range needs for food and fiber. The acreage favorable. The acidity or alkalinity level of the soils is
of high-quality farmland is limited, and the U.S. acceptable. The soils have few or no rocks and are
Department of Agriculture recognizes that government permeable to water and air. They are not excessively
at local, State, and Federal levels, as well as erodible or saturated with water for long periods and
individuals, must encourage and facilitate the wise use are not frequently flooded during the growing season.
of our Nation's prime farmland. The slope ranges mainly from 0 to 5 percent.
Prime farmland soils, as defined by the U.S. The following map units are considered prime
Department of Agriculture, are soils that are best suited farmland in Okaloosa County. This list does not
to food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops. Such constitute a recommendation for a particular land use.
soils have properties that favor the economic production The location of each map unit is shown on the detailed
of sustained high yields of crops. The soils need only to soil maps at the back of this publication. The extent of
be treated and managed by acceptable farming each unit is given in table 2. The soil qualities that
methods. The moisture supply must be adequate, and affect use and management are described in the
the growing season must be sufficiently long. Prime section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
farmland soils produce the highest yields with minimal The soils identified as prime farmland in Okaloosa
expenditure of energy and economic resources. County are:
Farming these soils results in the least damage to the
environment. 35 Angie sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
Prime farmland soils may presently be used as 38 Dothan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
cropland, pasture, or woodland or for other purposes. 39 Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
They are used for food or fiber or are available for 45 Orangeburg sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes
these uses. Urban or built-up land, public land, and 46 Orangeburg sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
water areas cannot be considered prime farmland. 52 Escambia fine sandy loam, 0 to 3 percent
Urban or built-up land is any contiguous unit of land 10 slopes
acres or more in size that is used for such purposes as 53 Notcher gravelly sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent
housing, industrial, and commercial sites, sites for slopes
institutions or public buildings, small parks, golf 54 Notcher gravelly sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent
courses, cemeteries, railroad yards, airports, sanitary slopes
landfills, sewage treatment plants, and water-control









51









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural land capability classification used by the Natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to Resources Conservation Service is explained; and the
prevent soil-related failures in land uses. estimated yields of the main crops and hay and pasture
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, plants are listed for each soil.
conservationists, engineers, and others collect Planners of management systems for individual fields
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral or farms should consider the detailed information given
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, in the description of each soil under the heading
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect "Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific information can be
various soil uses and management. Field experience obtained from the local office of the Natural Resources
and collected data on soil properties and performance Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior. Service.
Information in this section can be used to plan the In 1986, more than 73,000 acres in Okaloosa County
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as was used for crops and pasture. Of this total, 30,000
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, acres was used for permanent pasture; 31,000 acres for
highways and other transportation systems, and parks row crops, mainly soybeans; 7,000 acres for close-
and other recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat. growing crops, mainly wheat and oats; and the rest for
It can be used to identify the potentials and limitations cotton, peanuts, corn, truck crops, and other crops.
of each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent The potential of the soils in Okaloosa County for
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil increased production of food is good. About 20,000
properties. acres of potentially good cropland and 60,000 acres of
Planners and others using soil survey information potentially good pastureland is currently used as
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on woodland. In addition to the reserve productive capacity
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the represented by this land, food production could also be
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain increased considerably by extending the latest crop
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with production technology to all of the cropland in the
nature. county. This soil survey can greatly facilitate the
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of application of such technology.
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to Field crops adapted to the soils and climate of the
identify areas where wetness or very firm soil layers survey area include many that are not now commonly
can cause difficulty in excavation, grown. Soybeans, cotton, corn, and peanuts are the
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and common row crops. Grain sorghum, sunflowers,
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can potatoes, and similar crops could also be grown. Wheat
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate and oats are the common close-growing crops. Rye
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, could also be grown, and grass seed could be produced
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. from fescue, common bermudagrass, and bahiagrass.
Specialty crops grown commercially in Okaloosa
Crops and Pasture County are vegetables, pecans, peaches, and
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, Natural Resources strawberries. A small acreage is used for melons, sweet
Conservation Service, helped prepare this section. corn, tomatoes, greens, and other vegetables. Large
General management needed for crops and pasture areas in the county could be used for other specialty
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants crops, such as blueberries, grapes, and plums.






51









Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural land capability classification used by the Natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to Resources Conservation Service is explained; and the
prevent soil-related failures in land uses. estimated yields of the main crops and hay and pasture
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, plants are listed for each soil.
conservationists, engineers, and others collect Planners of management systems for individual fields
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral or farms should consider the detailed information given
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion, in the description of each soil under the heading
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect "Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific information can be
various soil uses and management. Field experience obtained from the local office of the Natural Resources
and collected data on soil properties and performance Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior. Service.
Information in this section can be used to plan the In 1986, more than 73,000 acres in Okaloosa County
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as was used for crops and pasture. Of this total, 30,000
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, acres was used for permanent pasture; 31,000 acres for
highways and other transportation systems, and parks row crops, mainly soybeans; 7,000 acres for close-
and other recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat. growing crops, mainly wheat and oats; and the rest for
It can be used to identify the potentials and limitations cotton, peanuts, corn, truck crops, and other crops.
of each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent The potential of the soils in Okaloosa County for
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil increased production of food is good. About 20,000
properties. acres of potentially good cropland and 60,000 acres of
Planners and others using soil survey information potentially good pastureland is currently used as
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on woodland. In addition to the reserve productive capacity
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the represented by this land, food production could also be
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain increased considerably by extending the latest crop
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with production technology to all of the cropland in the
nature. county. This soil survey can greatly facilitate the
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of application of such technology.
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to Field crops adapted to the soils and climate of the
identify areas where wetness or very firm soil layers survey area include many that are not now commonly
can cause difficulty in excavation, grown. Soybeans, cotton, corn, and peanuts are the
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and common row crops. Grain sorghum, sunflowers,
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can potatoes, and similar crops could also be grown. Wheat
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate and oats are the common close-growing crops. Rye
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, could also be grown, and grass seed could be produced
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. from fescue, common bermudagrass, and bahiagrass.
Specialty crops grown commercially in Okaloosa
Crops and Pasture County are vegetables, pecans, peaches, and
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, Natural Resources strawberries. A small acreage is used for melons, sweet
Conservation Service, helped prepare this section. corn, tomatoes, greens, and other vegetables. Large
General management needed for crops and pasture areas in the county could be used for other specialty
is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants crops, such as blueberries, grapes, and plums.







52 Soil Survey


Deep soils that have good natural drainage and that cover, help to control runoff, and increase the rate of
warm up early in spring, such as the Dothan, Notcher, water infiltration. A cropping system that keeps a plant
and Orangeburg soils that have slopes of less than 5 cover on the surface for extended periods can minimize
percent, are especially well suited to many vegetables erosion losses and maintain the productive capacity of
and small fruits. These soils cover about 62,000 acres the soil. On livestock farms, which require pasture and
in the county. Also, if irrigated, the Bonifay, Lakeland, hay, including grasses and legumes in the cropping
and Troup soils that have slopes of less than 5 percent system helps to control erosion, improves tilth, and
are very well suited to vegetables and small fruits. provides nitrogen for subsequent crops.
Crops can generally be planted and harvested earlier Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the
on these soils than on the other soils in the county, surface increase the rate of water infiltration and help to
Most of the well drained soils in the survey area are control runoff and erosion. No-till farming helps to
suitable for orchards and nurseries, but soils in low control erosion in sloping areas used for corn and
positions, where frost is frequent and air drainage is soybeans. This practice can be adapted to most soils in
poor, are generally poorly suited to early vegetables, the survey area. It is less feasible, however, in eroded
small fruits, and orchards. areas than in other areas.
The latest information and suggestions for growing Terraces and diversions reduce the length of slopes
specialty crops are available from local offices of the and help to control runoff and erosion. They are most
Cooperative Extension Service and the Natural practical on deep, well drained soils that have regular
Resources Conservation Service. slopes. Dothan, Notcher, and Orangeburg soils are
Generally, the soils that are well suited to crops also suitable for terraces.
are well suited to urban development. The acreage Contour farming is an important erosion-control
used for crops and pasture has remained constant, but practice in Okaloosa County. It is most suitable on soils
some areas of woodland have been developed for that have smooth, uniform slopes, including most areas
urban use. In 1980, about 46,558 acres of the county of the sloping Dothan, Fuquay, Lucy, Notcher, and
was urban or built-up land. Each year approximately Orangeburg soils.
1,800 additional acres is developed for urban uses in Soil blowing is a hazard on the sandy Bonifay,
Milligan, Baker, Laurel Hill, and other towns in Okaloosa Lakeland, Orangeburg, and Troup soils. Strong winds
County. Much of this land is well suited to crops. can damage these soils in only a few hours if the soils
are dry and are not covered by vegetation or surface
Information in this publication can be used in planning aredry and aren't cover y veetaon or surface
future land use. mulch. Maintaining a plant cover or surface mulch can
e aaas a es e e anaeen minimize soil blowing on these soils. Windbreaks
The paragraphs that follow describe the management
needed for crops tand pasture in the survey area. consisting of adapted shrubs and trees, such as laurel-
needed for crops and pasture in the survey area.
cherry and slash pine, or strips of small grain are
Erosion is the major potential soil problem on about effective in controlling soil blowing.
one-third of the cropland and one-fifth of the Information on the design of erosion-control
pastureland in Okaloosa County. Water erosion is a measures for each kind of soil is available from local
hazard on soils that have slopes of more than 2 offices of the Natural Resources Conservation Service.
percent. The Dothan, Notcher, and Orangeburg soils Soil drainage is the major management concern on
that have slopes of 2 to 5 percent are examples. some of the acreage used for crops and pasture in the
Dothan and Notcher soils have a seasonal high water survey area. Poorly drained and very poorly drained
table, which is an additional concern. Soil blowing is a soils are naturally so wet that the production of common
hazard on soils that are dry and bare and are not crops is generally not possible. Somewhat poorly
sheltered from strong winds. Bonifay, Lakeland, Lucy, drained soils, such as Albany and Leefield soils, are so
Troup, and some Orangeburg soils are examples. Soil wet that crops are damaged during most years unless
blowing damages tender crops. the soils are artificially drained.
Loss of the surface layer through erosion is Except during periods when the water table is high,
damaging for two reasons. First, productivity is reduced Albany soils have good natural drainage, but they tend
as the surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is to dry out slowly after rains. Small areas of wet soils
incorporated into the plow layer. Second, erosion on along drainageways and in swales are commonly
farmland results in the sedimentation of streams, included in areas of moderately well drained soils,
Controlling erosion minimizes this pollution and especially those that have slopes of 2 to 5 percent. A
improves the quality of water for municipal and drainage system is needed in some of these wetter
recreational uses and for fish and wildlife. areas.
Erosion-control practices provide a protective surface Surface drainage is needed in most areas of the







Okaloosa County, Florida 53


poorly drained and somewhat poorly drained soils that varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; control of
are used intensively for row crops. The design of weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; favorable
surface drainage systems varies with the kind of soil. soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
For example, drains should be more closely spaced in phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
soils that are slowly permeable than in the more rapidly crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
permeable soils. Information on water-control practices and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures
for each kind of soil is available from local offices of the the smallest possible loss.
Natural Resources Conservation Service. The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
Soil fertility is naturally low in most of the soils on of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
uplands in Okaloosa County. All of the soils on uplands likely to increase as new production technology is
are naturally acid. The soils on the flood plains, such as developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
Bibb, Johnston, Kinston, and Yemassee soils, range with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change.
from very strongly acid to slightly acid. These soils have Crops other than those shown in table 3 are grown in
a higher content of plant nutrients than most of the soils the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
on uplands, because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
Many of the soils on uplands are naturally very office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service or
strongly acid. These soils require applications of ground of the Cooperative Extension Service can provide
limestone to raise the pH level sufficiently for good information about the management and productivity of
growth of crops that grow only on nearly neutral soils. the soils for those crops.
Levels of available phosphorus and potassium are
naturally low in most of the upland soils. On all soils, Land Capability Classification
additions of lime and fertilizer should be based on the Land capability classification shows, in a general
results of soil tests, on the needs of the crop, and on way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops
the expected level of yields. The Cooperative Extension that require special management are excluded. The
Service can help in determining the kinds and amounts soils are grouped according to their limitations for field
of fertilizer and lime to apply. crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops,
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of and the way they respond to management. The criteria
seeds and in the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils used in grouping the soils do not take into account
with good tilth are granular and porous. major and generally expensive landforming that would
Most of the soils used for crops in Okaloosa County change slope, depth, or other characteristics of the
have a light-colored surface layer of loamy sand or soils, nor do they include possible but unlikely major
sandy loam that has a low content of organic matter. reclamation projects. Capability classification is not a
Generally, such soils have poor tilth. Regular additions substitute for interpretations designed to show suitability
of crop residue, manure, and other organic material can and limitations of groups of soils for woodland and for
improve tilth. engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
Yields per Acre at three levels-capability class, subclass, and unit.
The average yields per acre that can be expected of Only class and subclass are used in this survey.
the principal crops under a high level of management Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
are shown in table 3. In any given year, yields may be designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
higher or lower than those indicated in the table numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
because of variations in rainfall and other climatic narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
factors. The land capability classification also is shown defined as follows:
in the table. Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
The yields are based mainly on the experience and use.
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and the choice of plants or that require moderate
results of field trials and demonstrations are also conservation practices.
considered. Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
The management needed to obtain the indicated choice of plants or that require special conservation
yields on the various crops depends on the kind of soil practices, or both.
and the crop. Management can include drainage, Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the proper reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
planting and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop management, or both.







54 Soil Survey


Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have moderate, and severe are used to indicate the degree of
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their the major soil limitations to be considered in forest
use. management.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them Table 4 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The
generally unsuitable for cultivation, first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator
them unsuitable for cultivation, species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial productivity is based on the site index and the point
crop production. where mean annual increment is the greatest.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e, indicates the major kind of soil limitation affecting use
w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The and management. The letter R indicates a soil that has
letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk of a significant limitation because of steepness of slope.
erosion unless a close-growing plant cover is The letter X indicates that a soil has restrictions
maintained; w shows that water in or on the soil because of stones or rocks on the surface. The letter W
interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some soils indicates a soil in which excessive water, either
the wetness can be partly corrected by artificial seasonal or year-round, causes a significant limitation.
drainage); s shows that the soil is limited mainly The letter Tindicates a soil that has, within the root
because it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in zone, excessive alkalinity or acidity, sodium salts, or
only some parts of the United States, shows that the other toxic substances that limit the development of
chief limitation is climate that is very cold or very dry. desirable trees. The letter D indicates a soil that has a
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils limitation because of a restricted rooting depth, such as
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V a shallow soil that is underlain by hard bedrock, a
are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other hardpan, or other layers that restrict roots. The letter C
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland, indicates a soil that has a limitation because of the kind
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V or amount of clay in the upper part of the profile. The
contains only the subclasses indicated by w, s, or c. letter S indicates a dry, sandy soil. The letter F
The capability classification of each map unit is given indicates a soil that has a large amount of coarse
in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" and in the fragments. The letter A indicates a soil having no
yields table. significant limitations that affect forest use and
management. If a soil has more than one limitation, the
Woodland Management and Productivity priority is as follows: R, X, W, T, D, C, S, and F.
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability
Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Available that damage may occur if site preparation or harvesting
water capacity and depth of the root zone have major activities expose the soil. The risk is slight if no
effects on tree growth. Fertility and texture also particular preventive measures are needed under
influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion-control
determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site. measures are needed for particular silvicultural
Elevation and aspect are of particular importance in activities; and severe if special precautions are needed
mountainous areas. to control erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings
This soil survey can be used by woodland managers of moderate or severe indicate the need for construction
planning ways to increase the productivity of forest of higher standard roads, additional maintenance of
land. Some soils respond better to applications of roads, additional care in planning harvesting and
fertilizer than others, and some are more susceptible to reforestation activities, or the use of special equipment.
landslides and erosion after roads are built and timber Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the
is harvested. Some soils require special reforestation use of forest management equipment, year-round or
efforts. In the section "Detailed Soil Map Units," the seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope,
description of each map unit in the survey area suitable wetness, stoniness, and susceptibility of the surface
for timber includes information about productivity, layer to compaction. As slope gradient and length
limitations in harvesting timber, and management increase, it becomes more difficult to use wheeled
concerns in producing timber. Table 4 summarizes this equipment. On the steeper slopes, tracked equipment is
forestry information and rates the soils for a number of needed. On the steepest slopes, even tracked
factors to be considered in management. Slight, equipment cannot be operated and more sophisticated







Okaloosa County, Florida 55


systems are needed. The rating is slight if equipment shallow root systems in partial cutting operations. A
use is restricted by wetness for less than 2 months and plan for the periodic removal of windthrown trees and
if special equipment is not needed. The rating is the maintenance of a road and trail system may be
moderate if slopes are so steep that wheeled equipment needed.
cannot be operated safely across the slope, if wetness Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
restricts equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, if the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
stoniness restricts the use of ground-based equipment, competition is more severe on the more productive
or if special equipment is needed to prevent or minimize soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils having a
compaction. The rating is severe if slopes are so steep restricted root zone that holds moisture. The risk is
that tracked equipment cannot be operated safely slight if competition from undesirable plants hinders
across the slope, if wetness restricts equipment use for adequate natural or artificial reforestation but does not
more than 6 months per year, if stoniness restricts the necessitate intensive site preparation and maintenance.
use of ground-based equipment, or if special equipment The risk is moderate if competition from undesirable
is needed to prevent or minimize compaction. Ratings plants hinders natural or artificial reforestation to the
of moderate or severe indicate a need to choose the extent that intensive site preparation and maintenance
best suited equipment and to carefully plan the timing of are needed. The risk is severe if competition from
harvesting and other management activities, undesirable plants prevents adequate natural or artificial
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of reforestation unless the site is intensively prepared and
the death of naturally occurring or properly planted maintained. A moderate or severe rating indicates the
seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall, as need for site preparation to ensure the development of
influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features. an adequately stocked stand. Managers must plan site
Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much preparation measures to ensure reforestation without
water or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil delays.
for seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer, The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is
depth to a seasonal high water table and the length of expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in
the period when the water table is high, rock fragments the order of their observed general occurrence.
in the surface layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of Generally, only two or three species dominate. The first
the slope. The mortality rate generally is highest on tree listed for each soil is the indicator species for that
soils that have a sandy or clayey surface layer. The risk soil. An indicator species is a tree that is common in the
is slight if, after site preparation, expected mortality is area and that is generally the most productive on a
less than 25 percent; moderate if expected mortality is given soil.
between 25 and 50 percent; and severe if expected The site index is determined by taking height
mortality exceeds 50 percent. Ratings of moderate or measurements and determining the age of selected
severe indicate that it may be necessary to use trees within stands of a given species. This index is the
containerized or larger than usual planting stock or to average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a
make special site preparations, such as bedding, specified number of years. This index applies to fully
furrowing, installing a surface drainage system, and stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands.
providing artificial shade for seedlings. Reinforcement The productivity class represents an expected volume
planting is often needed if the risk is moderate or produced by the most important trees, expressed in
severe. cubic meters per hectare per year.
Ratings of windthrow hazard indicate the likelihood Trees to plant are those that are used for
that trees will be uprooted by the wind. A restricted reforestation or, under suitable conditions, natural
rooting depth is the main reason for windthrow. The regeneration. They are suited to the soils and can
rooting depth can be restricted by a high water table, a produce a commercial wood crop. The desired product,
fragipan, or bedrock or by a combination of such factors topographic position (such as a low, wet area), and
as wetness, texture, structure, and depth. The risk is personal preference are three factors among many that
slight if strong winds cause trees to break but do not can influence the choice of trees for use in
uproot them; moderate if strong winds cause an reforestation.
occasional tree to be blown over and many trees to
break; and severe if moderate or strong winds Recreation
commonly blow trees over. Ratings of moderate or
severe indicate that care is needed in thinning or that In table 5, the soils of the survey area are rated
the stand should not be thinned at all. Special according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
equipment may be needed to prevent damage to recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil







56 Soil Survey


features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
Not considered in the ratings, but important in when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of once a year during the period of use. They have
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic moderate slopes.
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines, some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for to prolonged flooding during the period of use. They
recreational uses by the duration and intensity of have moderate slopes. The suitability of the soil for tees
flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In or greens is not considered in rating the soils.
planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of the
height, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is Wildlife Habitat
essential.
In table 5, the degree of soil limitation is expressed John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Natural Resources Conservation
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil Service, helped prepare this section.
properties are generally favorable and that limitations Okaloosa County has extensive areas of good
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that wildlife habitat, including areas in the sandhills and
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning, flatwoods and areas of cropland interspersed with
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil swamps and hardwoods along rivers and creeks.
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be Important inland areas include the Eglin Air Force Base
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design, Reservation (235,000 acres), the Blackwater State
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination Forest (63,000 acres), Hart's Pasture Wildlife
of these measures. Management Area (10,000 acres), and the areas along
The information in table 5 can be supplemented by the Blackwater, Yellow, Shoal, and East Bay Rivers.
other information in this survey, for example, Important coastal areas include the Choctawhatchee
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 8 Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, and the coastal strand barrier
and interpretations for dwellings without basements and island, part of which is included in the Gulf Islands
for local roads and streets in table 7. National Seashore. Although the barrier island is small,
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping it is especially important to the thousands of migrating
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing birds that cross the Gulf of Mexico during the spring
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary and fall.
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to The primary game species include white-tailed deer,
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best squirrels, turkey, bobwhite quail, mourning dove, feral
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to hogs, and waterfowl. Nongame species include
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs raccoon, rabbit, armadillo, opossum, skunks, bobcat,
rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when gray fox, red fox, otter, and a variety of songbirds,
dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of wading birds, woodpeckers, predatory birds, reptiles,
constructing campsites. and amphibians.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most There are about 60 lakes and ponds in Okaloosa
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking County. The largest are Hurricane Lake (400 acres) and
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, Karick Lake (70 acres). These freshwater areas provide
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding good opportunities for fishing. Opportunities for fishing
during the period of use, and do not have slopes that also are provided by the Blackwater, Yellow, Shoal, and
increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access East Bay Rivers and their tributaries; the
roads and parking areas. Choctawhatchee Bay; and the Gulf of Mexico.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive Freshwater species include largemouth bass, channel
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not catfish, bullhead, bluegill, redear, spotted sunfish,
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The warmouth, black crappie, chain pickerel, gar, bowfin,
surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry. If and sucker. Important saltwater species include spotted
grading is needed, the depth of the soil over a hardpan trout, croaker, striped mullet, flounder, and red drum.
should be considered. There are a number of endangered and threatened
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding species in Okaloosa County. These species range from







Okaloosa County, Florida 57


the rarely seen red-cockaded woodpecker to the more of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
common southeastern kestrel. A detailed list of these water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flooding,
species and information on range and habitat needs are and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
available in the local office of the Natural Resources considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
Conservation Service. bahiagrass, lovegrass, Florida beggarweed, clover, and
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is sesbania.
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and properties and features that affect the growth of these
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
can be created or improved by planting appropriate layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil
by promoting the natural establishment of desirable moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
plants, herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod,
In table 6, the soils in the survey area are rated beggarweed, partridge pea, and bristlegrass.
according to their potential for providing habitat for Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining these plants are oak, palmetto, cherry, sweetgum, wild
the intensity of management needed for each element grape, hawthorn, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and
of the habitat. blueberry. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or suitable for planting on soils rated good are firethorn,
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or wild plum, and American beautyberry.
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, properties and features that affect the growth of
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
created, improved, or maintained in most places. Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar,
Moderately intensive management is required for and juniper.
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
limitations are severe for the designated element or herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
maintained in most places, but management is difficult properties and features affecting wetland plants are
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be plants are smartweed, wild millet, wildrice, saltgrass,
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
impractical or impossible. Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
following paragraphs, created by dams, levees, or other water-control
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface ponds.
stoniness, and flooding. Soil temperature and soil The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain in the following paragraphs.
and seed crops are corn, soybeans, wheat, browntop Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
millet, and grain sorghum. pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these







58 Soil Survey


areas include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field characteristics affecting engineering uses.
sparrow, cottontail, and red fox. This information can be used to evaluate the
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and and recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
gray fox, raccoon, deer, and bear. septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
attracted to such areas are ducks, geese, herons, shore topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
birds, otter, mink, and beaver. ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and predict performance of proposed
Engineering small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same
This section provides information for planning land or similar soils.
uses related to urban development and to water The information in the tables, along with the soil
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
most limiting features are identified. Ratings are given this survey, can be used to make additional
for building site development, sanitary facilities, interpretations.
construction materials, and water management. The Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
ratings are based on observed performance of the soils special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
and on the estimated data and test data in the "Soil "Glossary."
Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use Building Site Development
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for Table 7 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
planning site investigations prior to design and that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
construction. The information, however, has limitations, without basements, small commercial buildings, local
For example, estimates and other data generally apply roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. limitations are considered slight if soil properties and
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils site features are generally favorable for the indicated
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific use and limitations are minor and easily overcome;
soil. moderate if soil properties or site features are not
The information is not site specific and does not favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
design and construction of engineering works. site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict overcome that special design, significant increases in
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
not considered in preparing the information in this are required. Special feasibility studies may be required
section. Local ordinances and regulations should be where the soil limitations are severe.
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design. Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
Soil properties, site features, and observed maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
performance were considered in determining the ratings utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
determinations were made about grain-size distribution, observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, soil wetness, filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to a
depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, likelihood cemented pan or to a very firm, dense layer; stone
of flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, and soil content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the year
density. Data were collected about kinds of clay that excavations can be made is affected by the depth
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and to a seasonal high water table and the susceptibility of
the kinds of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for the soil to flooding. The resistance of the excavation
erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell walls or banks to sloughing or caving is affected by soil
potential, available water capacity, and other behavioral texture and depth to the water table.







Okaloosa County, Florida 59


Dwellings and small commercial buildings are costs, and possibly increased maintenance are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed required.
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family Table 8 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are as daily cover for landfill. A rating of good indicates that
made for small commercial buildings without soil properties and site features are favorable for the
basements, for dwellings with basements, and for use and good performance and low maintenance can
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on be expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
soil properties, site features, and observed performance features are moderately favorable for the use and one
of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrinking and or more soil properties or site features make the soil
swelling, and organic layers can cause the movement of less desirable than the soils rated good; and poor
footings. A high water table, depth to a cemented pan, indicates that one or more soil properties or site
large stones, slope, and flooding affect the ease of features are unfavorable for the use and overcoming
excavation and construction. Landscaping and grading the unfavorable properties requires special design, extra
that require cuts and fills of more than 5 or 6 feet are maintenance, or costly alteration.
not considered. Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material; and a evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally features, and observed performance of the soils.
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil Permeability, a high water table, depth to a cemented
properties, site features, and observed performance of pan, and flooding affect absorption of the effluent. Large
the soils. Depth to a cemented pan, a high water table, stones and cemented pans interfere with installation.
flooding, large stones, and slope affect the ease of Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
excavating and grading. Soil strength (as inferred from fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
the engineering classification of the soil), shrink-swell surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
potential, frost action potential, and depth to a high public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
water table affect the traffic-supporting capacity, permeable sand and gravel are less than 4 feet below
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf the base of the absorption field, if slope is excessive, or
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established if the water table is near the surface. There must be
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil unsaturated soil material beneath the absorption field to
properties, site features, and observed performance of filter the effluent effectively. Many local ordinances
the soils. Soil reaction, a high water table, depth to require that this material be of a certain thickness.
bedrock or to a cemented pan, the available water Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the content of hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the
salts, sodium, and sulfidic materials affect plant growth. solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly
Flooding, wetness, slope, stoniness, and the amount of level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface layer affect compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
trafficability after vegetation is established. the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
Sanitary Facilities required to minimize seepage and contamination of
ground water.
Table 8 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations Table 8 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
that affect septic tank absorption fields, sewage up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations are or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
considered slight if soil properties and site features are excavated to provide material for the embankments.
generally favorable for the indicated use and limitations The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
are minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil and observed performance of the soils. Considered in
properties or site features are not favorable for the the ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table,
indicated use and special planning, design, or depth to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones, and
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the content of organic matter.
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features Excessive seepage resulting from rapid permeability
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that in the soil or a water table that is high enough to raise
special design, significant increases in construction the level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to







60 Soil Survey


function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
excessive or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
content of organic matter is detrimental to proper sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
functioning of the lagoon because it inhibits aerobic properties and site features that affect the removal of
activity. Slope and cemented pans can cause the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
construction problems, and large stones can hinder compaction, minor processing, and other standard
compaction of the lagoon floor, construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste and used in road embankments in another place. In this
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in exacting in design than higher embankments.
successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layer of soil from a source away from the site. layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground- their profile. The table showing engineering index
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation properties provides detailed information about each soil
should be considered.
shou e consiaere layer. This information can help to determine the
The ratings in table 8 are based on soil properties, suitability of each layer for use as roadfill The
site features, and observed performance of the soils. per ane of il aers stabilizedwith lime or
performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or
Permeability, depth to a cemented pan, a high water
table, slope, and flooding affect both types of landfill. cement isnot considered in the ratings
Texture, stones, highly organic layers, soil reaction, and The ratings are based on sol property site
content of salts and sodium affect trench landfills, features, and observed performance of the soils. The
Unless otherwise stated, the ratings apply only to that thickness stable mateia is a major consideration.
part of the soil within a depth of about 6 feet. For The ease of excavation is affected by large stones, a
deeper trenches, a limitation rated slight or moderate high water table, and slope. How well the soil performs
may not be valid. Onsite investigation is needed. in place after it has been compacted and drained is
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used determined by its strength (as inferred from the
to cover compacted solid waste in an area sanitary engineering classification of the soil) and shrink-swell
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported potential.
to the landfill, and spread over the waste. Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material material, a low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil plasticity index of less than 10. They have a moderate
blowing, shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
After soil material has been removed, the soil many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
material remaining in the borrow area must be thick Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
enough over a cemented pan or the water table to a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
permit revegetation. The soil material used as final more than 25 percent. They are wet and have a water
cover for a landfill should be suitable for plants. The table at a depth of less than 1 foot. These soils may
surface layer generally has the best workability, more have layers of suitable material, but the material is less
organic matter, and the best potential for plants, than 3 feet thick.
Material from the surface layer should be stockpiled for Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
use as the final cover, commercial use with a minimum of processing. They
are used in many kinds of construction. Specifications
Construction Materials for each use vary widely. In table 9, only the probability
Table 9 gives information about the soils as a source of finding material in suitable quantity is evaluated. The
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated suitability of the material for specific purposes is not







Okaloosa County, Florida 61


evaluated, nor are factors that affect excavation of the Water Management
material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a Table 10 gives information on the soil properties and
source of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes site features that affect water management. The degree
(as indicated by the engineering classification of the and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
soil), the thickness of suitable material, and the content areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
of rock fragments. Acidity and stratification are given excavated ponds. The limitations are considered slight if
in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain soil properties and site features are generally favorable
sizes is given in the table on engineering index for the indicated use and limitations are minor and are
properties, easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of features are not favorable for the indicated use and
clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
up to 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
least 3 feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, properties or site features are so unfavorable or so
large stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable difficult to overcome that special design, significant
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as increase in construction costs, and possibly increased
shale and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and maintenance are required.
gravel. This table also gives for each soil the restrictive
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation features that affect drainage, irrigation, terraces and
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 diversions, and grassed waterways.
inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
area. seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and and the depth to permeable material. Excessive slope
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading can affect the storage capacity of the reservoir area.
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table, constructed to impound water or to protect land against
rock fragments, and toxic material, overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of 5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly
less than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble mixed and compacted during construction.
salts, are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
and are not so wet that excavation is difficult. soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have depth even greater than the height of the embankment
a relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 can affect performance and safety of the embankment.
to 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, determine these properties.
or soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
are not so wet that excavation is difficult. seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high
amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes content of stones, organic matter, or salts or sodium. A
of more than 15 percent, or have a seasonal high water high water table affects the amount of usable material.
table at or near the surface. It also affects trafficability.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
retention of moisture and releases a variety of plant only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
nutrients as it decomposes. impound water 3 feet or more above the original







62


surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The
quality of the water as inferred from the salinity of the construction of a system is affected by large stones and
soil. The content of large stones affects the ease of depth to a cemented pan. The performance of a system
excavation, is affected by the depth of the root zone, the amount of
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and salts or sodium, and soil reaction.
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to a combination of channels and ridges constructed across
cemented pan or to other layers that affect the rate of a slope to control erosion and conserve moisture by
water movement, permeability, depth to a high water intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
table or depth of standing water if the soil is subject to depth to a cemented pan affect the construction of
ponding, slope, susceptibility to flooding, subsidence of terraces and diversions. A restricted rooting depth, a
organic layers, and the potential for frost action, severe hazard of soil blowing or water erosion, an
Excavating and grading and the stability of ditchbanks excessively coarse texture, and restricted permeability
are affected by depth to a cemented pan, large stones, adversely affect maintenance.
slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving. The Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
the root zone, such as salts, sodium, or sulfur. stones, wetness, slope, and depth to a cemented pan
Availability of drainage outlets is not considered in the affect the construction of grassed waterways. A hazard
ratings. of soil blowing, low available water capacity, restricted
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to rooting depth, toxic substances such as salts or sodium,
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The and restricted permeability adversely affect the growth
design and management of an irrigation system are and maintenance of the grass after construction.
affected by depth to the water table, the need for






63









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
the course of the soil survey. The data and the percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
explained on the following pages, sand is as much as about 15 percent, an appropriate
Soil properties are determined by field examination of modifier is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some terms are defined in the "Glossary."
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Classification of the soils is determined according to
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
made and examined to identify and classify the soils adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are and Transportation Officials (1).
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the The Unified system classifies soils according to
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, properties that affect their use as construction material.
and compaction characteristics. These results are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
reported in table 17. of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
Estimates of soil properties are based on field according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
accurately by field observation, and help to characterize properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
key soils, for example, SP-SM.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg those properties that affect roadway construction and
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Engineering Index Properties Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
Table 11 gives estimates of the engineering soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
classification and of the range of index properties for are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most inspection.
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
upper 5 or 6 feet. groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
series under the heading "Soil Series and Their numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
Morphology." 20 or higher for the poorest.
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the Rock fragments 3 to 10 inches in diameter are
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay weight basis. The percentages are estimates
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters determined mainly by converting volume percentage






63









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
the course of the soil survey. The data and the percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
explained on the following pages, sand is as much as about 15 percent, an appropriate
Soil properties are determined by field examination of modifier is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some terms are defined in the "Glossary."
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Classification of the soils is determined according to
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
made and examined to identify and classify the soils adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are and Transportation Officials (1).
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the The Unified system classifies soils according to
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, properties that affect their use as construction material.
and compaction characteristics. These results are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
reported in table 17. of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
Estimates of soil properties are based on field according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
accurately by field observation, and help to characterize properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
key soils, for example, SP-SM.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg those properties that affect roadway construction and
limits, the engineering classification, and the physical maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Engineering Index Properties Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
Table 11 gives estimates of the engineering soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
classification and of the range of index properties for are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most inspection.
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
upper 5 or 6 feet. groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
series under the heading "Soil Series and Their numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
Morphology." 20 or higher for the poorest.
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the Rock fragments 3 to 10 inches in diameter are
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay weight basis. The percentages are estimates
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters determined mainly by converting volume percentage






64 Soil Survey


in the field to weight percentage. texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated drainage systems and septic tank absorption fields.
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3 Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard plants. The capacity for water storage is given in inches
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074 of water per inch of soil for each major soil layer. The
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field. The most important properties are the content of
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
estimates are based on test data from the survey area in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
or from nearby areas and on field examination, design and management of irrigation systems. Available
water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
Physical and Chemical Properties water actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
Table 12 shows estimates of some characteristics is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
area. The estimates are based on field observations analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
and on test data for these and similar soils, and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. corrosion.
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the laboratory measurements at representative sites of
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
moisture. They influence the shrink-swell potential, affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving operations. given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at construction material, and the potential of the soil to
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at corrode metal and concrete.
1/-bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil minerals with water and varies with the amount and
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk type of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, the soil and the magnitude of the change in soil
available water capacity, total pore space, and other moisture content influence the amount of swelling of
soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates soils in place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For
density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and others, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind
root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by and amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil measurements of similar soils.
structure. If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
downward movement of water when the soil is often needed.
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture







Okaloosa County, Florida 65


content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
classes are low, a change of less than 3 percent; ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used.
moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high, more than 6 7. Silts, noncalcareous silty clay loams that are less
percent. Very high, more than 9 percent, is sometimes than 35 percent clay, and fibric soil material. These
used. soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil ordinary measures to control soil blowing are used.
to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six 8. Soils that are not subject to soil blowing because
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) of coarse fragments on the surface or because of
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet surface wetness.
and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and soil at various stages of decomposition. In table 12, the
organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure estimated content of organic matter is expressed as a
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69. percentage, by weight, of the soil material that is less
The higher the value, the more susceptible the soil is to than 2 millimeters in diameter.
sheet and rill erosion by water. The content of organic matter in a soil can be
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
that can occur without affecting crop productivity over a infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year. other nutrients for crops.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to soil Soil and Water Features
blowing in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the Table 13 gives estimates of various soil and water
Table 13 gives estimates of various soil and water
susceptibility to soil blowing. Soils are grouped features. The estimates are used in land use planning
according to the following distinctions: that involves engineering considerations.
1. Coarse sands, sands, fine sands, and very fine Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult g ey g
assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
o esais. according to the infiltration of water when the soils are
2. Loamy coarse sands, loamy sands, loamy fine thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
sands, loamy very fine sands, and sapric soil material, duration storms.
These soils are very highly erodible. Crops can be The four hydrologic soil groups are:
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
used. runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
3. Coarse sandy loams, sandy loams, fine sandy mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of
highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive water transmission.
measures to control soil blowing are used. Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate
4L. Calcareous loams, silt loams, clay loams, and when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
silty clay loams. These soils are erodible. Crops can be moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or
grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to
used. moderately coarse texture. These soils have a
4. Clays, silty clays, noncalcareous clay loams, and moderate rate of water transmission.
silty clay loams that are more than 35 percent clay. Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
These soils are moderately erodible. Crops can be thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
grown if measures to control soil blowing are used. layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
5. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are less soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
than 20 percent clay and sandy clay loams, sandy soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
clays, and hemic soil material. These soils are slightly Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate
erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to control soil (high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These
blowing are used. consist chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell
6. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are potential, soils that have a permanent high water table,
more than 20 percent clay and noncalcareous clay soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the
loams that are less than 35 percent clay. These soils surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly







66 Soil Survey


impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate perched water table is water standing above an
of water transmission, unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water
If a soil is assigned to two hydrologic groups in table table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
13, the first letter is for drained areas and the second is Two numbers in the column showing depth to the
for undrained areas. water table indicate the normal range in depth to a
Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is saturated zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot.
caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent The first numeral in the range indicates the highest
slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods water level. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
after rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding, nor indicates that the water table is above the surface of
is water in swamps and marshes. the soil. "More than 6.0" indicates that the water table
Table 13 gives the frequency and duration of flooding is below a depth of 6 feet or that it is within a depth of 6
and the time of year when flooding is most likely. feet for less than a month.
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
occurrence are estimated. Frequency is expressed as saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
none, rare, occasional, and frequent. None means that generally results from either desiccation and shrinkage
flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but or oxidation of organic material, or both, following
possible under unusual weather conditions (the chance drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually
of flooding is nearly 0 percent to 5 percent in any year); over a period of several years. Table 13 shows the
occasionalthat it occurs infrequently under normal expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of
weather conditions (the chance of flooding is 5 to 50 drainage, and total subsidence, which results from a
percent in any year); and frequent that it occurs often combination of factors.
under normal weather conditions (the chance of Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
flooding is more than 50 percent in any year). Duration electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
is expressed as very brief (less than 2 days), brief (2 to weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
7 days), long (7 days to 1 month), and very long (more corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
than 1 month). The time of year that floods are most soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
likely to occur is expressed in months. About two-thirds electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion
to three-fourths of all flooding occurs during the stated of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
period, content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the
The information is based on evidence in the soil soil. Special site examination and design may be
profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay needed if the combination of factors creates a severe
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic hazard of corrosion. The steel in installations that
matter content with increasing depth; and little or no intersect soil boundaries or soil layers is more
horizon development, susceptible to corrosion than steel in installations that
Also considered are local information about the are entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil
extent and levels of flooding and the relation of each layer.
soil on the landscape to historic floods. Information on For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed
the extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage
than that provided by detailed engineering surveys that class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation
levels, extract.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The estimates as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
are based mainly on the evidence of a saturated zone, acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.
namely grayish colors or mottles in the soil. Indicated in
table 13 are the depth to the seasonal high water table; Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
the kind of water table-that is, perched or apparent; Analyses of Selected Soils
and the months of the year that the water table
commonly is high. A water table that is seasonally high Dr. Victor W. Carlisle, professor of soil science, Soil Science
for less than 1 month is not indicated in table 13. Department, University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Station,
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water prepared this section.
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is properties of representative pedons sampled in
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A Okaloosa County are presented in tables 14, 15, and







Okaloosa County, Florida 67


16. The analyses were conducted and coordinated by 18-angstrom, 14-angstrom, 7.2-angstrom, 4.83-
the Soil Characterization Laboratory at the University of angstrom, and 4.31-angstrom positions represent
Florida. Detailed profile descriptions of analyzed soils montmorillonite, interstratified expandable vermiculite or
are given in alphabetical order in the section 14-angstrom intergrades, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz,
"Classification of the Soils." Profile information and respectively. Peaks were measured, added, and
laboratory data for the soils in Okaloosa County and in normalized to give percent soil minerals identified in the
other counties in Florida are on file at the Soil Science x-ray diffractograms. These percentage values do not
Department, University of Florida. indicate absolute determined quantities of soil minerals
Typical pedons were sampled from pits at carefully but do imply a relative distribution of minerals in a
selected locations. Samples were air dried, crushed, particular mineral suite. Absolute percentages would
and sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most of the require additional knowledge of particle size,
analytical methods used are outlined in Soil Survey crystallinity, unit structure substitution, and matrix
Investigations Report No. 1 (9). problems.
Particle-size distribution was determined using a The results of physical analyses are shown in table
modified pipette method with sodium 14. Soils sampled for laboratory analyses in Okaloosa
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity County are inherently very sandy, but many pedons
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil have an argillic horizon in the lower part of the solum.
cores. Water-retention parameters were obtained from Chipley, Foxworth, Kureb, Lakeland, Leon, Mandarin,
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe and Resota soils have more than 90 percent total sand
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at to a depth of 2 meters or more. The content of clay in
100 centimeters water (1/o bar) and 345 centimeters these soils rarely exceeds 3 percent. Hurricane sand
water (1/ bar) were calculated from volumetric water has more than 90 percent sand in all horizons, except
percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were for the Bhl horizon. Deeper argillic horizons in the
oven dried and ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and Bonifay, Dothan, Escambia, Fuquay, Leefield, Notcher,
the 15-bar water retention was determined. Organic Orangeburg, and Troup soils have enhanced amounts
carbon was determined by a modification of the of clay ranging from 14.8 to 28.0 percent. The content
Walkley-Black wet combustion method. of silt ranges from 0.1 percent in the C4 horizon of
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils Foxworth sand to 32.9 percent in the Btg2 horizon of
with normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Escambia fine sandy loam. Fine sand dominates the
Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined sand fractions of the Bigbee, Dothan, Escambia,
by flame emission, and calcium and magnesium were Fuquay, Leefield, Notcher, and Orangeburg soils. All
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. horizons of the Bigbee soils contain more than 50
Extractable acidity was determined by the barium percent fine sand. Medium sand dominates the sand
chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. Cation- fractions of the Bonifay, Chipley, Foxworth, Hurricane,
exchange capacity was calculated by summation of Kureb, Lakeland, Leon, Mandarin, Resota, and Troup
extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base soils. All horizons of the Chipley, Hurricane, Kureb,
saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation- Lakeland, Leon, Mandarin, and Resota soils contain
exchange capacity expressed in percent. The pH more than 50 percent sand. All horizons of the Bigbee
measurements were made with a glass electrode using and Leefield soils have more than 20 percent very fine
a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01 molar calcium chloride sand, and all horizons of the Escambia, Notcher, and
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and normal Orangeburg soils have more than 10 percent. All
potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio. horizons of the Chipley, Foxworth, Hurricane, Kureb,
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with Lakeland, Leon, Mandarin, and Resota soils have less
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron than 5 percent very fine sand, and Hurricane, Kureb,
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate Leon, Mandarin, and Resota soils contain less than 1
were determined by atomic absorption percent. All horizons of Bigbee fine sand and Escambia
spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were fine sandy loam contain less than 2 percent coarse
extracted from probable spodic horizons with 0.1 molar sand. All horizons of the Bonifay, Lakeland, and Troup
sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and soils contain 10 percent or more coarse sand. The
iron was by atomic absorption, and determination of content of coarse sand generally ranges from 2 to 8
extracted carbon was by the Walkley-Black wet percent in all other soils. Very coarse sand is
combustion method. nondetectable throughout all horizons of the Bigbee,
Mineralogy of the clay fraction less than 2 microns Chipley, and Hurricane soils. Most other soils have less
was ascertained by x-ray diffraction. Peak heights at than 1 percent very coarse sand.







68 Soil Survey


Excessively sandy soils in Okaloosa County, such as loam. Bigbee, Chipley, Dothan, Escambia, Foxworth,
Chipley, Foxworth, Kureb, Lakeland, and Mandarin Fuquay, Hurricane, Kureb, Leon, Mandarin, Notcher,
soils, become very drought during periods of low and Resota soils contain 0.50 milliequivalent per 100
precipitation. Conversely, these soils are rapidly grams or less extractable calcium throughout. Bigbee,
saturated when they receive large amounts of rainfall. Chipley, Foxworth, Hurricane, Leon, Mandarin, Notcher,
Soils with inherently poor drainage, such as the Leon and Resota soils and Escambia fine sandy loam contain
soils, may remain saturated because ground water is less than 0.25 milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable
close to the surface for long periods, calcium. Extractable magnesium exceeds 0.50
Hydraulic conductivity values exceed 34 centimeters milliequivalent per 100 grams in one of the deeper
per hour throughout the Foxworth, Kureb, and Lakeland horizons of Escambia fine sandy loam and one of the
soils. Similarly, values of more than 34 centimeters per deeper argillic horizons of Leefield loamy fine sand.
hour are recorded for Chipley, Hurricane, and Resota Combined amounts of extractable calcium and
soils to a depth of slightly more than 1 meter. Hydraulic magnesium rarely exceed 0.50 milliequivalent per 100
conductivity values in Bonifay, Dothan, Escambia, grams in the surface layer. The content of sodium is
Fuquay, Leefield, Notcher, and Orangeburg soils rarely generally less than 0.05 milliequivalent per 100 grams;
exceed 2.0 centimeters per hour in the argillic horizon, however, several horizons in the Notcher soils have
Hydraulic conductivity values are less than 1.0 slightly more than this amount. Except for Troup sand,
centimeter per hour throughout the profile of Escambia all of the soils have horizons that have 0.05
fine sandy loam. Low hydraulic conductivity values at a milliequivalent per 100 grams or less potassium.
shallow depth in Dothan, Escambia, and Notcher soils Bigbee, Chipley, Dothan, Foxworth, Hurricane, Kureb,
may affect the design and function of septic tank Leon, Mandarin, and Resota soils have one or more
may affect the design and function of septic tank
horizons that have nondetectable amounts of
absorption fields. Hydraulic conductivity values in the x be assu
Bh horizon of the Leon and Mandarin soils are higher V ct chae caact a catr
than those generally recorded for spodic horizons in Values for cation-exchange capacity, an indicator of
mosthan those generaly recorde of water available to nutrient-holding capacity, exceed 10 milliequivalents per
most Florida soils. The amount of water available to Escambia,
100 grams in the surface layer of the Escambia,
plants can be estimated from bulk density and water Lkeand, Leefield, and Notcher soils. A slightly
content data. Excessively sandy soils, such as Chipley, enhanced cation-exchange capacity parallels the higher
Foxworth, Hurricane, Kureb, Lakeland, Leon, Mandarin, clay content in the Bt horizon of the Bonifay, Dothan,
and Resota soils, retain very small amounts of available Escambia, Fuquay, Leefield, Notcher, Orangeburg, and
water. Conversely, soils with higher amounts of fine Troup soils. Soils that have a low cation-exchange
textured materials, such as Dothan, Escambia, and capacity in the surface layer, such as Kureb soils,
Notcher soils, retain much larger amounts of available require only a small amount of lime or sulfur to
water. significantly alter both their base status and soil
The results of chemical analyses are shown in table reaction. Generally, soils with inherently low fertility are
15. Most of the soils in Okaloosa County contain small associated with low values for extractable bases and a
amounts of extractable bases. All soils that were tested low cation-exchange capacity, and fertile soils are
contain three or more horizons that have less than 1 associated with high values for extractable bases, a
milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable bases. high base saturation value, and a high cation-exchange
Bigbee, Chipley, Dothan, Escambia, Foxworth, Fuquay, capacity.
Hurricane, Kureb, Leon, Mandarin, Notcher, and Resota The content of organic carbon is less than 1 percent
soils contain less than 1 milliequivalent per 100 grams in all horizons of the Bonifay, Dothan, Fuquay, Kureb,
extractable bases throughout. Bigbee, Chipley, Resota, and Troup soils. In the surface layer of the
Foxworth, Hurricane, Kureb, Leon, Mandarin, and Bigbee, Chipley, Escambia, Foxworth, Lakeland,
Resota soils and Escambia fine sand contain less than Leefield, Notcher, and Orangeburg soils, the organic
0.5 milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable bases carbon content ranges from 1.02 to 2.74 percent. The
throughout. The relatively mild, humid climate of content of organic carbon generally decreases rapidly
Okaloosa County results in a rapid depletion of basic with increasing depth. It increases, however, in the Bh
cations (calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium) horizon of the Hurricane, Leon, Mandarin, and Resota
through leaching. soils. Since organic carbon content in the surface layer
Calcium is the dominant base in most of the soils, is directly related to the nutrient- and water-holding
but magnesium is dominant in Escambia fine sand and capacity of sandy soils, management practices that
Leefield loamy fine sand and in the argillic horizon of conserve and maintain organic carbon are highly
the Dothan and Notcher soils and Escambia fine sandy desirable.







Okaloosa County, Florida 69


Electrical conductivity values are low for all of the than 0.002 millimeter in size, are reported in table 16
soils sampled in Okaloosa County, ranging from for the major horizons of the pedons sampled. The clay
nondetectable amounts to 0.08 millimho per centimeter. mineralogical suite was made up mostly of
Nondetectable electrical conductivity values were montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom intergrade, kaolinite,
recorded for the entire profiles of the Kureb, Leon, and gibbsite, and quartz.
Mandarin soils. These data indicate that the soluble salt Montmorillonite occurs in the Bigbee, Chipley,
content of the soils, except for those in areas Foxworth, Hurricane, Kureb, Lakeland, Leon, Mandarin,
immediately adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico, are and Resota soils. The 14-angstrom intergrade mineral
insufficient to have a detrimental effect on the growth of occurs in all horizons of all the soils sampled. Kaolinite
salt-sensitive plants. also occurs in all horizons of all the soils sampled.
Soil reaction in water generally ranges between pH Gibbsite was nondetectable in the Escambia, Fuquay,
4.0 and 5.5. Values in excess of this range occur in the Leefield, Leon, Mandarin, and Resota soils. Varying
Lakeland and Troup soils. Reaction in the Troup soils amounts of gibbsite occurs in the Bigbee, Bonifay,
ranges from pH 5.5 to 6.1. It ranges from pH 6.9 to 7.1 Chipley, Dothan, Foxworth, Hurricane, Lakeland,
in the Lakeland soils. With very few exceptions, the Notcher, Orangeburg, and Troup soils. Quartz occurs
reaction in calcium chloride and potassium chloride is throughout all of the soils that were sampled. The
less than 1.0 pH unit lower than the reaction in water, amounts of calcite and mica are insufficient for the
The maximum availability of plant nutrients is generally assignment of numerical values.
attained when soil reaction is between pH 6.5 and 7.5. Montmorillonite in the soils in Okaloosa County
In Florida, however, maintaining soil reaction above pH appears to have been inherited from the sediments in
6.0 is not economically feasible for most kinds of which the soils formed. It generally occurs most
agricultural production. abundantly in poorly drained soils where the alkaline
The ratio of sodium pyrophosphate extractable elements have not been leached by percolating
carbon and aluminum to clay in the Bh horizon of the rainwater; however, montmorillonite can occur in
Hurricane, Leon, and Mandarin soils is sufficient to moderate amounts regardless of present drainage or
meet chemical criteria established for spodic horizons, chemical conditions. It is probably the least stable
Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron is 0.03 percent mineral component in the present acidic environment. It
or less in the Bh horizon of the Hurricane, Leon, and is a major constituent of the clay minerals occurring in
Mandarin soils. The ratio of sodium pyrophosphate the Kureb, Leon, and Resota soils. Because all of these
extractable iron and aluminum to citrate-dithionite soils are composed of more than 90 percent sand and
extractable iron and aluminum is also sufficient to meet very small amounts of clay, the amount of shrinking and
criteria established for spodic horizons in these soils. swelling is negligible. None of the soils sampled in
Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron does not Okaloosa County contain enough montmorillonite to
exceed 0.03 percent or is nondetectable in the create construction problems.
Hurricane soils. The 14-angstrom intergrade, a mineral of uncertain
Citrate-dithionite extractable iron in the Bt horizon of origin, is widespread in Florida soils. It tends to be more
the Bonifay, Dothan, Escambia, Fuquay, Leefield, prevalent under moderately acidic, relatively well
Notcher, Orangeburg, and Troup soils ranges from 0.02 drained conditions, although it occurs in a variety of soil
to 5.70 percent. Aluminum extracted by citrate-dithionite environments. This mineral is a major constituent of
from the Bt horizon of these soils ranges from 0.05 to sand grain coatings in the Bigbee, Chipley, Kureb,
0.56 percent. Larger amounts of citrate-dithionite Lakeland, and Resota soils. The amount of coatings in
extractable iron generally occur in the Bt horizon than in the Bigbee, Chipley, and Lakeland soils is sufficient to
the Bh horizon. The amount of iron and aluminum in the meet taxonomic criteria established for the recognition
soils of Okaloosa County is not sufficient to restrict the of coated classes of Quartzipsamments. The amount of
availability of phosphorus, coatings in the Kureb and Resota soils is not sufficient
Mineralogy of the sand fractions, which are 0.05 to meet these criteria. The occurrence of relatively large
millimeter to 2.0 millimeters in size, is siliceous. Quartz amounts of 14-angstrom intergrades and the general
is overwhelmingly dominant in all pedons. Varying tendency for these minerals to decrease in quantity with
amounts of heavy minerals are in most horizons. The increasing depth suggest that the 14-angstrom
greatest concentration is in the very fine sand fraction. intergrade minerals are among the most stable species
The soils have no weatherable minerals. The crystalline in this weathering environment.
mineral components of the clay fraction, which is less Kaolinite was most likely inherited from the parent







70


material, but it may have formed as a weathering Engineering Index Test Data
product of other minerals. It is relatively stable in the
acidic environment of the soils in Okaloosa County. The Table 17 shows laboratory test data for several
general tendency of kaolinite to increase in abundance pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey
with increasing depth indicates that this mineral species area. The pedons are typical of the series and are
is less stable than the 14-angstrom intergrades in the described in the section "Soil Series and Their
severe weathering environment near the surface. Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the Soil
Gibbsite is dominant in the Notcher, Orangeburg, and Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
Troup soils but nondetectable in the Escambia, Fuquay, Bureau of Materials and Research.
Kureb, Leefield, Leon, Mandarin, and Resota soils. This The testing methods generally are those of the
inconsistent occurrence of gibbsite is suggestive of American Association of State Highway and
inherited soil properties. Clay-sized quartz has primarily Transportation Officials (AASHTO) or the American
resulted from decrements of the silt fraction. As is usual Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
for Florida soils, mica occurs infrequently and in very The tests and methods are AASHTO classification-
small amounts. Soils that are dominated by M 145 (AASHTO), D 3282 (ASTM); Unified
montmorillonite and 14-angstrom intergrades have a classification-D 2487 (ASTM); Mechanical analysis-T
much higher cation-exchange capacity and retain more 88 (AASHTO), D 422 (ASTM), D 2217 (ASTM); Liquid
plant nutrients than soils with a similar total clay content limit-T 89 (AASHTO), D 4318 (ASTM); Plasticity
that are dominated by kaolinite, gibbsite, or quartz. index-T 90 (AASHTO), D 4318 (ASTM); and Moisture
density-T 99 (AASHTO), D 698 (ASTM).






71








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (8). other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and where there is much biological activity. Among the
series. Classification is based on soil properties properties and characteristics considered are particle-
observed in the field or inferred from those observations size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
or from laboratory measurements. Table 18 shows the of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
classification of the soils in the survey area. The slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The soil properties. An example is siliceous, thermic Typic
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- Psammaquents.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
example is Entisol. in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil the profile. The texture of the surface layer or of the
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties substratum can differ within a series.
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, Soil Series and Their Morphology
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol). In this section, each soil series recognized in the
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great described. The descriptions are arranged
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, in alphabetic order.
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and formed are identified for each series. The soil is
base status. Each great group is identified by the name compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm,
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime). follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (10).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (8). Unless otherwise
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are stated, colors ithe pedon descriptions are for moist soil.
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Following the pedon description is the range of
Extransitigradeons to other orders, suborders, or gre not important characteristics of the soils in the series.
Extragrades have some properties that are not The map units of each soil series are described in
representative of the great group but do not indicate The map units of each soil series are described in
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective Albany Series
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great The Albany series consists of very deep, somewhat
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. poorly drained, moderately permeable soils that formed
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup in sandy and loamy sediments. These soils are on






71








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (8). other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and where there is much biological activity. Among the
series. Classification is based on soil properties properties and characteristics considered are particle-
observed in the field or inferred from those observations size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
or from laboratory measurements. Table 18 shows the of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
classification of the soils in the survey area. The slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The soil properties. An example is siliceous, thermic Typic
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- Psammaquents.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
example is Entisol. in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil the profile. The texture of the surface layer or of the
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties substratum can differ within a series.
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, Soil Series and Their Morphology
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol). In this section, each soil series recognized in the
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great described. The descriptions are arranged
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, in alphabetic order.
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and formed are identified for each series. The soil is
base status. Each great group is identified by the name compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm,
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime). follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (10).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (8). Unless otherwise
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are stated, colors ithe pedon descriptions are for moist soil.
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Following the pedon description is the range of
Extransitigradeons to other orders, suborders, or gre not important characteristics of the soils in the series.
Extragrades have some properties that are not The map units of each soil series are described in
representative of the great group but do not indicate The map units of each soil series are described in
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective Albany Series
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great The Albany series consists of very deep, somewhat
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. poorly drained, moderately permeable soils that formed
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup in sandy and loamy sediments. These soils are on






71








Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (8). other characteristics that affect management. Generally,
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the the properties are those of horizons below plow depth
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and where there is much biological activity. Among the
series. Classification is based on soil properties properties and characteristics considered are particle-
observed in the field or inferred from those observations size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
or from laboratory measurements. Table 18 shows the of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
classification of the soils in the survey area. The slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
categories are defined in the following paragraphs. the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The soil properties. An example is siliceous, thermic Typic
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- Psammaquents.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
example is Entisol. in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil the profile. The texture of the surface layer or of the
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties substratum can differ within a series.
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, Soil Series and Their Morphology
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol). In this section, each soil series recognized in the
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great described. The descriptions are arranged
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, in alphabetic order.
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and formed are identified for each series. The soil is
base status. Each great group is identified by the name compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm,
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm, of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
meaning sand texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime). follows standards in the "Soil Survey Manual" (10).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. Many of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The defined in "Soil Taxonomy" (8). Unless otherwise
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not stated, colors in the descriptions are for moist soil.
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are stated, colors ithe pedon descriptions are for moist soil.
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Following the pedon description is the range of
Extransitigradeons to other orders, suborders, or gre not important characteristics of the soils in the series.
Extragrades have some properties that are not The map units of each soil series are described in
representative of the great group but do not indicate The map units of each soil series are described in
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective Albany Series
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great The Albany series consists of very deep, somewhat
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents. poorly drained, moderately permeable soils that formed
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup in sandy and loamy sediments. These soils are on







72 Soil Survey


broad, nearly level or gently sloping uplands. A The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12 to 30 8, and chroma of 1 to 8. In some pedons it has few or
inches for 1 to 4 months annually. Slopes range from 0 common mottles in shades of white, gray, yellow, olive,
to 5 percent. The soils are loamy, siliceous, thermic red, and brown. Mottles that have chroma of 2 or less
Grossarenic Paleudults. are within a depth of 30 inches. The texture is sand or
Albany soils are associated with Bibb, Bonifay, loamy sand. Clean sand grains are common. The
Fuquay, Kinston, Lakeland, Leefield, and Stilson soils. combined thickness of the A and E horizons ranges
Bibb and Kinston soils are poorly drained. Bonifay soils from 40 to less than 80 inches.
are better drained than the Albany soils. Fuquay, The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 2.5Y or
Leefield, and Stilson soils have a Bt horizon at a depth is neutral in hue. It has value of 4 to 8 and chroma of 0
of 20 to 40 inches. Lakeland soils do not have a Bt to 8. In some pedons the lower part of the Btg horizon
horizon, has no dominant matrix color and is mottled in shades
Typical pedon of Albany loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent of red, yellow, and gray. The texture of the Btg horizon
slopes, 1,050 feet west and 1,575 feet south of the is sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The content of clay
northeast corner of sec. 28, T. 3 F:., R. 23 W. in the upper 20 inches ranges from 18 to 35 percent.
A-0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) Angie Series
loamy sand; weak fine granular structure; loose;
common fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; The Angie series consists of very deep, moderately
clear smooth boundary. well drained, slowly permeable soils that formed in
E1-6 to 14 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loamy clayey marine sediments. These soils are on gently
sand; single grained; loose; common fine roots; very sloping uplands. Evidence of prolonged wetness is at a
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. depth of 36 to 60 inches. Slopes range from 0 to 5
E2-14 to 22 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) percent. The soils are clayey, mixed, thermic Aquic
loamy sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; Paleudults.
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. Angie soils are associated with Cowarts, Dothan,
E3-22 to 35 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) Fuquay, Orangeburg, and Notcher soils. These
loamy sand; few fine faint light gray (10YR 7/2), few associated soils have a Bt horizon that contains less
fine prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8), and than 35 percent clay. Also, Dothan, Fuquay, and
common medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) Notcher soils have a layer that contains more than 5
mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid; gradual percent plinthite within a depth of 60 inches.
smooth boundary. Typical pedon of Angie sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent
E4-35 to 43 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) loamy sand; slopes, 850 feet south and 1,900 feet west of the
common medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/1), few northeast corner of sec. 6, T. 5 N., R. 24 W.
fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8), and few A-0 to 6 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy
fine faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
single grained; loose; strongly acid; clear smooth many fine and few medium roots; strongly acid;
boundary. clear smooth boundary.
Btg1-43 to 66 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sandy Btl-6 to 14 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) silty clay
loam; common medium distinct light gray (10YR loam; few fine distinct light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6)
7/1), few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8), mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
and few fine faint light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) structure; friable; many fine and few medium roots;
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
very friable; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. Bt2-14 to 26 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) silty
Btg2-66 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay clay; few fine distinct red (2.5YR 4/6) and yellowish
loam; common medium distinct yellow (10YR 7/6) brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; moderate medium
mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots;
friable; strongly acid. strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The solum is more than 80 inches thick. Reaction Bt3-26 to 47 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay;
ranges from medium acid to extremely acid. common medium prominent red (2.5YR 4/6) and
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value yellowish red (5YR 5/6) and common medium
of 3 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 6 to 12 inches distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles; weak coarse
thick. It is sand, fine sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine subangular blocky structure; friable; few very fine
sand. roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.







Okaloosa County, Florida 73


Bg-47 to 80 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay; flood plain along the Blackwater River, 2,250 feet east
common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR and 350 feet south of the northwest corner of sec. 10,
5/6) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) and few T. 4 N., R. 25 W.
medium distinct light gray (5Y 7/1) mottles;
massive; firm; strongly acid. A-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loam; weak
fine granular structure; friable; many fine, medium,
The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction is and coarse roots; strongly acid; clear wavy
strongly acid or very strongly acid throughout the boundary.
profile. Cgl-6 to 20 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and loam; few fine distinct brown (10YR 5/3) mottles;
chroma of 1 to 4. It is 3 to 9 inches thick, weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
The AE or E horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR or common fine and medium roots; very strongly acid;
2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 to 4. It is 3 to 8 clear wavy boundary.
inches thick. Cg2-20 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy
The B or BE horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR or loam; single grained; loose; common thin strata of
2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 to 4. It is 3 to 8 loamy sand and silt loam; very strongly acid.
inches thick.
The upper part of the Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR or Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid.
10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Gray The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
mottles that have chroma of 2 or less are within a depth chroma of 1 to 3. It is 6 to 20 inches thick.
of 30 inches. The Bt horizon is silty clay loam, clay The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y or is neutral
loam, or clay. The content of clay ranges from 35 to 50 in hue. It has value of 3 to 7 and chroma of 0 to 2. In
percent. The Bt horizon is 20 to 50 inches thick. The some pedons it is mottled in shades of brown or yellow.
lower part of the Bt horizon or the Bg horizon has hue The 10- to 40-inch control section is stratified sand,
of 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. loamy sand, loamy fine sand, sandy loam, fine sandy
The BC horizon, if it occurs, has colors similar to loam, or silt loam. The average content of clay is less
those of the lower part of the Bt horizon. It is silty clay than 18 percent. In some pedons the C horizon has a
loam, clay loam, or clay. high content of organic matter.

Bibb Series Bigbee Series
The Bibb series consists of very deep, poorly The Bigbee series consists of very deep, excessively
drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in sandy
stratified, loamy and sandy alluvial sediments. These fluvial sediments near rivers and large streams. These
soils are on flood plains along creeks, streams, and soils are subject to flooding. They have a seasonal high
rivers. They are commonly flooded, and they are water table at a depth of 42 to 72 inches for about 1 to
saturated in the winter and early spring. Slopes 2 months during most years. Slopes range from 0 to 5
generally range from 0 to 2 percent, but short, steep percent. The soils are thermic, coated Typic
slopes that are as much as 5 feet high are along stream Quartzipsamments.
meanders. The soils are coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid, Bigbee soils are associated with Bibb, Garcon,
thermic Typic Fluvaquents. Johnston, Kinston, Rutlege, and Yemassee soils. These
Bibb soils are associated with Chipley, Dorovan, associated soils are more poorly drained than the
Escambia, Johnston, Kinston, and Rutlege soils. Bigbee soils.
Chipley and Escambia soils are on adjacent uplands. Typical pedon of Bigbee fine sand, in an area of

soils are on flood plains and in depressions. They are flooded; 1,950 feet east and 2,100 feet south of the
organic and are more poorly drained than the Bibb northwest corner of sec. 11, T. 2 N., R. 24 W.
soils. Johnston and Kinston soils are on flood plains.
Johnston soils are more poorly drained than the Bibb A-0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
soils. Kinston soils have more than 18 percent clay in fine sand; single grained; loose; many fine, medium,
the control section. Rutlege soils are in low, flat and coarse roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
depressions and in ponded areas. They have an umbric boundary.
epipedon and are sandy throughout. AC-6 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
Typical pedon of Bibb loam, in an area of Kinston, grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
Johnston, and Bibb soils, frequently flooded; on the very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.







Okaloosa County, Florida 73


Bg-47 to 80 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay; flood plain along the Blackwater River, 2,250 feet east
common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR and 350 feet south of the northwest corner of sec. 10,
5/6) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) and few T. 4 N., R. 25 W.
medium distinct light gray (5Y 7/1) mottles;
massive; firm; strongly acid. A-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loam; weak
fine granular structure; friable; many fine, medium,
The solum is more than 60 inches thick. Reaction is and coarse roots; strongly acid; clear wavy
strongly acid or very strongly acid throughout the boundary.
profile. Cgl-6 to 20 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) silt
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and loam; few fine distinct brown (10YR 5/3) mottles;
chroma of 1 to 4. It is 3 to 9 inches thick, weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
The AE or E horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR or common fine and medium roots; very strongly acid;
2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 to 4. It is 3 to 8 clear wavy boundary.
inches thick. Cg2-20 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy
The B or BE horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR or loam; single grained; loose; common thin strata of
2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 to 4. It is 3 to 8 loamy sand and silt loam; very strongly acid.
inches thick.
The upper part of the Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR or Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid.
10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. Gray The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
mottles that have chroma of 2 or less are within a depth chroma of 1 to 3. It is 6 to 20 inches thick.
of 30 inches. The Bt horizon is silty clay loam, clay The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y or is neutral
loam, or clay. The content of clay ranges from 35 to 50 in hue. It has value of 3 to 7 and chroma of 0 to 2. In
percent. The Bt horizon is 20 to 50 inches thick. The some pedons it is mottled in shades of brown or yellow.
lower part of the Bt horizon or the Bg horizon has hue The 10- to 40-inch control section is stratified sand,
of 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. loamy sand, loamy fine sand, sandy loam, fine sandy
The BC horizon, if it occurs, has colors similar to loam, or silt loam. The average content of clay is less
those of the lower part of the Bt horizon. It is silty clay than 18 percent. In some pedons the C horizon has a
loam, clay loam, or clay. high content of organic matter.

Bibb Series Bigbee Series
The Bibb series consists of very deep, poorly The Bigbee series consists of very deep, excessively
drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in sandy
stratified, loamy and sandy alluvial sediments. These fluvial sediments near rivers and large streams. These
soils are on flood plains along creeks, streams, and soils are subject to flooding. They have a seasonal high
rivers. They are commonly flooded, and they are water table at a depth of 42 to 72 inches for about 1 to
saturated in the winter and early spring. Slopes 2 months during most years. Slopes range from 0 to 5
generally range from 0 to 2 percent, but short, steep percent. The soils are thermic, coated Typic
slopes that are as much as 5 feet high are along stream Quartzipsamments.
meanders. The soils are coarse-loamy, siliceous, acid, Bigbee soils are associated with Bibb, Garcon,
thermic Typic Fluvaquents. Johnston, Kinston, Rutlege, and Yemassee soils. These
Bibb soils are associated with Chipley, Dorovan, associated soils are more poorly drained than the
Escambia, Johnston, Kinston, and Rutlege soils. Bigbee soils.
Chipley and Escambia soils are on adjacent uplands. Typical pedon of Bigbee fine sand, in an area of

soils are on flood plains and in depressions. They are flooded; 1,950 feet east and 2,100 feet south of the
organic and are more poorly drained than the Bibb northwest corner of sec. 11, T. 2 N., R. 24 W.
soils. Johnston and Kinston soils are on flood plains.
Johnston soils are more poorly drained than the Bibb A-0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
soils. Kinston soils have more than 18 percent clay in fine sand; single grained; loose; many fine, medium,
the control section. Rutlege soils are in low, flat and coarse roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
depressions and in ponded areas. They have an umbric boundary.
epipedon and are sandy throughout. AC-6 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
Typical pedon of Bibb loam, in an area of Kinston, grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
Johnston, and Bibb soils, frequently flooded; on the very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.







74 Soil Survey


C1-9 to 22 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) Also, they have less than 5 percent plinthite within a
loamy fine sand; single grained; loose; common fine depth of 60 inches.
and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy Typical pedon of Bonifay sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
boundary. 1,400 feet north and 1,800 feet east of the southwest
C2-22 to 40 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand; corner of sec. 33, T. 4 N., R. 25 W.
few medium distinct white (10YR 8/2) mottles;
single grained; loose; common fine roots; very A-0 to 7 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. sand; single grained; loose; common fine and
C3-40 to 51 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand; medium roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
common medium distinct white (10YR 8/2) mottles; E1-7 to 28 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loamy
single grained; loose; few fine roots; very strongly sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium
acid; clear wavy boundary. roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
C4-51 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/2) sand; common E2-28 to 44 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loamy
medium prominent very pale brown (10YR 7/3) sand; single grained; loose; many uncoated sand
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine roots; very grains; few ironstone pebbles that are 5 to 30
strongly acid. millimeters in diameter; few fine roots; very strongly
Ss a l acid; clear wavy boundary.
The sand and loamy sand are more than 80 inches Btv1-44 to 59 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
thick. The soils do not have lamellae. Reaction ranges sandy loam; common medium distinct light brownish
from medium acid to very strongly acid. gray (2.5Y 6/2) mottles; weak medium subangular
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and rocky structure; friable; about 8 to 10 percent, by
blocky structure; friable; about 8 to 10 percent, by
chroma of 2 to 4. It is 4 to 8 inches thick. volume, firm brittle plinthite nodules; strongly acid;
The AC horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value abrupt wavy boundary.
of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. It is 0 to 3 inches thick. Btv2-59 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
The upper part of the C horizon has hue of 10YR, sandy clay loam; common medium distinct yellow
value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 4 or 5. It is 6 to 30 (10YR 7/8) and light gray (10YR 7/2) and common
inches thick. The lower part of the C horizon has hue of medium prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles;
10YR, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 3. In some moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
pedons, the C horizon is mottled in shades of white, friable; few thin discontinuous ironstone clastics that
yellow, brown, red, and gray. The particle-size control are 11 millimeters by 45 millimeters; strongly acid.
section contains 5 to 10 percent silt and clay. A few
pedons have pockets of uncoated sand grains. Some The solum ranges from 60 to more than 80 inches in
pedons are underlain by coarse sand or gravel at a thickness. Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid
depth of 6 to 16 feet. throughout the profile. The content of ironstone pebbles
that are 2 to 15 millimeters in diameter ranges from 1 to
Bonifay Series 5 percent, by volume. Depth to a horizon that contains
The Bonifay series consists of very deep, well more than 5 percent plinthite is commonly 50 to 60
drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in inches but ranges from 42 to 60 inches.
sandy and loamy marine sediments. These soils are on The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
broad, nearly level to sloping ridges and side slopes. A 5, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is 3 to 8 inches thick.
high water table is at a depth of 48 to 60 inches for The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
short periods after heavy rainfall. These soils are dry chroma of 3 to 8. It is 37 to 52 inches thick. The texture
during the summer. Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent. is sand or loamy sand. In some pedons this horizon has
The soils are loamy, siliceous, thermic Grossarenic masses of uncoated sand grains that have hue of
Plinthic Paleudults. 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2.
Bonifay soils are associated with Albany, Dothan, The BE horizon, if it occurs, is typically sandy loam
Escambia, Fuquay, Leefield, Lucy, Notcher, Stilson, and but ranges to sandy clay loam. In some pedons it does
Troup soils. Albany and Escambia soils have a not have mottles or plinthite.
seasonal high water table that is closer to the surface The Bt or Btv horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR,
than that in the Bonifay soils. Dothan and Notcher soils value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is mottled in
have an A horizon that is less than 20 inches thick. shades of yellow, brown, or red. It is sandy loam or
Fuquay, Leefield, Lucy, and Stilson soils have an argillic sandy clay loam and has 15 to 35 percent clay and less
horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Troup soils have than 20 percent silt. In some pedons the Btv horizon is
an argillic horizon that has hue of 7.5YR or redder, firm and compact and contains 5 to 25 percent, by







Okaloosa County, Florida 75


volume, firm, brittle plinthite. In some pedons the Bt or C4-48 to 61 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand;
Btv horizon is reticulately mottled in shades of red, many medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and
yellow, brown, and gray. light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; single grained; loose;
few fine roots; many uncoated sand grains; very
Chipley Series strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The Chipley series consists of very deep, somewhat C5-61 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in grained; loose; uncoated sand grains; medium acid.
sandy marine sediments. These soils are on nearly The soils are sand or fine sand to a depth of 80
level to sloping uplands and on nearly level, low ridges inches or more. The content of silt and clay at a depth
in the flatwoods. A seasonal high water table is at a of 10 to 40 inches is 5 to 10 percent. Reaction ranges
depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 4 months during most from very strongly acid to medium acid throughout the
years. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils are profile, except in areas where lime has been applied.
thermic, coated Aquic Quartzipsamments. The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
Chipley soils are associated with Albany, Foxworth, 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is generally 4 to 20 inches
Hurricane, Lakeland, Leon, Mandarin, Rutlege, and thick, but where value is 3 or less, this horizon is less
Troup soils. Albany and Troup soils have a loamy than 10 inches thick.
subsoil. Foxworth and Lakeland soils are better drained The AC horizon, if it occurs, has colors and textures
than the Chipley soils. Hurricane, Leon, and Mandarin similar to those of the A horizon.
soils have a spodic horizon. Rutlege soils are more The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y,
poorly drained than the Chipley soils. value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 6. The upper part
Typical pedon of Chipley sand, in an area of Chipley commonly has chroma of 3 to 6, and the lower part has
and Hurricane soils, 0 to 5 percent slopes; 1,300 feet chroma of 1 to 3. Common or many gray mottles are at
east and 850 feet south of the northwest corner of sec. a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Some pedons have a few
18, T. 2 N., R. 23 W. streaks of gray or light gray uncoated sand grains along
A-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; root channels in the upper part of the C horizon.
single grained; loose; organic matter and uncoated
sand grains have a salt-and-pepper appearance; Corolla Series
many fine, medium, and coarse roots; extremely The Corolla series consists of moderately well
acid; clear wavy boundary. drained and somewhat poorly drained, very rapidly
AC-6 to 15 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) permeable soils. These soils formed in thick deposits of
sand; single grained; loose; many fine, medium, and marine sands that have been reworked by wind and
coarse roots; common uncoated sand grains; very wave action. They are nearly level to sloping and are on
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. flat and gentle slopes between dunes and next to
C1-15 to 20 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) depressions and sloughs along the coast. A seasonal
sand; common medium distinct strong brown high water table is at a depth of 18 to 36 inches for 2 to
(7.5YR 5/6) mottles along root channels; single 6 months annually. The water table is at a depth of 36
grained; loose; many fine, medium, and coarse to 60 inches during the rest of the year. Slopes range
roots; common uncoated sand grains; very strongly from 2 to 6 percent. The soils are thermic, uncoated
acid; gradual wavy boundary. Aquic Quartzipsamments.
C2-20 to 34 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) Corolla soils are associated with Foxworth, Kureb,
sand; common medium distinct strong brown Lakeland, Mandarin, Newhan, and Resota soils.
(7.5YR 5/6) mottles that have red (2.5YR 5/8) Foxworth and Lakeland soils have a yellow substratum.
centers around root channels; common medium Kureb and Resota soils have a yellow subsoil. Mandarin
distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; single soils have a spodic horizon. Newhan soils are
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots; excessively drained.
many uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid; Typical pedon of Corolla sand, in an area of Newhan-
gradual wavy boundary. Corolla complex, rolling; 5,000 feet west of the entrance
C3-34 to 48 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand; to the U.S. Coast Guard Office Building on U.S.
many medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)
many medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) Highway 98 and 400 feet south of U.S. Highway 98:
mottles along root channels; many medium distinct
light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; single grained; loose; A-0 to 3 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
few fine roots; many uncoated sand grains; very grained; loose; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. C1-3 to 20 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single







Okaloosa County, Florida 75


volume, firm, brittle plinthite. In some pedons the Bt or C4-48 to 61 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4) sand;
Btv horizon is reticulately mottled in shades of red, many medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and
yellow, brown, and gray. light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; single grained; loose;
few fine roots; many uncoated sand grains; very
Chipley Series strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The Chipley series consists of very deep, somewhat C5-61 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in grained; loose; uncoated sand grains; medium acid.
sandy marine sediments. These soils are on nearly The soils are sand or fine sand to a depth of 80
level to sloping uplands and on nearly level, low ridges inches or more. The content of silt and clay at a depth
in the flatwoods. A seasonal high water table is at a of 10 to 40 inches is 5 to 10 percent. Reaction ranges
depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 4 months during most from very strongly acid to medium acid throughout the
years. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils are profile, except in areas where lime has been applied.
thermic, coated Aquic Quartzipsamments. The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
Chipley soils are associated with Albany, Foxworth, 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is generally 4 to 20 inches
Hurricane, Lakeland, Leon, Mandarin, Rutlege, and thick, but where value is 3 or less, this horizon is less
Troup soils. Albany and Troup soils have a loamy than 10 inches thick.
subsoil. Foxworth and Lakeland soils are better drained The AC horizon, if it occurs, has colors and textures
than the Chipley soils. Hurricane, Leon, and Mandarin similar to those of the A horizon.
soils have a spodic horizon. Rutlege soils are more The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y,
poorly drained than the Chipley soils. value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 6. The upper part
Typical pedon of Chipley sand, in an area of Chipley commonly has chroma of 3 to 6, and the lower part has
and Hurricane soils, 0 to 5 percent slopes; 1,300 feet chroma of 1 to 3. Common or many gray mottles are at
east and 850 feet south of the northwest corner of sec. a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Some pedons have a few
18, T. 2 N., R. 23 W. streaks of gray or light gray uncoated sand grains along
A-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; root channels in the upper part of the C horizon.
single grained; loose; organic matter and uncoated
sand grains have a salt-and-pepper appearance; Corolla Series
many fine, medium, and coarse roots; extremely The Corolla series consists of moderately well
acid; clear wavy boundary. drained and somewhat poorly drained, very rapidly
AC-6 to 15 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) permeable soils. These soils formed in thick deposits of
sand; single grained; loose; many fine, medium, and marine sands that have been reworked by wind and
coarse roots; common uncoated sand grains; very wave action. They are nearly level to sloping and are on
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. flat and gentle slopes between dunes and next to
C1-15 to 20 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) depressions and sloughs along the coast. A seasonal
sand; common medium distinct strong brown high water table is at a depth of 18 to 36 inches for 2 to
(7.5YR 5/6) mottles along root channels; single 6 months annually. The water table is at a depth of 36
grained; loose; many fine, medium, and coarse to 60 inches during the rest of the year. Slopes range
roots; common uncoated sand grains; very strongly from 2 to 6 percent. The soils are thermic, uncoated
acid; gradual wavy boundary. Aquic Quartzipsamments.
C2-20 to 34 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) Corolla soils are associated with Foxworth, Kureb,
sand; common medium distinct strong brown Lakeland, Mandarin, Newhan, and Resota soils.
(7.5YR 5/6) mottles that have red (2.5YR 5/8) Foxworth and Lakeland soils have a yellow substratum.
centers around root channels; common medium Kureb and Resota soils have a yellow subsoil. Mandarin
distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; single soils have a spodic horizon. Newhan soils are
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots; excessively drained.
many uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid; Typical pedon of Corolla sand, in an area of Newhan-
gradual wavy boundary. Corolla complex, rolling; 5,000 feet west of the entrance
C3-34 to 48 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand; to the U.S. Coast Guard Office Building on U.S.
many medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6)
many medium distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) Highway 98 and 400 feet south of U.S. Highway 98:
mottles along root channels; many medium distinct
light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; single grained; loose; A-0 to 3 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
few fine roots; many uncoated sand grains; very grained; loose; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. C1-3 to 20 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single







76 Soil Survey


grained; loose; medium acid; gradual wavy sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
boundary, structure; firm; few fine faint pale brown (10YR 6/3)
C2-20 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single and red (2.5YR 4/6) mottles; approximately 5
grained; loose; medium acid. percent plinthite; strongly acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
The soils are sand or fine sand to a depth of 80 BC-32 to 38 inches; reticulately mottled yellowish
inches or more. Reaction ranges from medium acid to brown (10YR 5/6), light gray (10YR 7/1), yellow
mildly alkaline throughout. (10YR 7/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), rand yellowish
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y or is neutral red (5YR 5/6) sandy clay loam that has pockets or
in hue. It has value of 3 to 7 and chroma of 0 to 3. It is strata of finer or coarser textured material; massive;
2 to 8 inches thick. firm; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y or is neutral C-38 to 60 inches; reticulately mottled yellow (10YR
in hue. It has value of 4 to 7 and chroma of 0 to 2. In 7/6), white (10YR 8/1), yellowish red (5YR 5/8), and
some pedons it has few high-chroma mottles, reddish yellow (5YR 6/8 and 7/6) sandy loam,
The Ab horizon, if it occurs, is at a depth of 24 to 72 sandy clay loam, and clay loam; massive; friable;
inches. It has colors similar to those of the A horizon. It strongly acid.
contains few or common pieces of undecomposed plant
material. The thickness of the solum ranges from 20 to 40
The Cb horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y inches. Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid
or is neutral in hue. It has value of 4 to 7 and chroma of throughout the profile.
0 to 2. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 2 to 4. It is 4 to 6 inches thick.
Cowarts Series The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
chroma of 4 to 8. It is 4 to 12 inches thick.
The Cowarts series consists of very deep, well Some pedons have a thin BE horizon. This horizon
drained, slowly permeable soils that formed in sandy has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and
and loamy marine sediments. These soils are on chroma of 4 to 8. It is sandy loam or fine sandy loam.
sloping to strongly sloping side slopes along creeks and The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR to 5YR, value of 5
drainageways on the Coastal Plain and in the uplands. or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. The texture is commonly
Slopes range from 5 to 12 percent. The soils are fine- sandy clay loam, but it ranges to sandy clay in the
loamy, siliceous, thermic Typic Kanhapludults. lower part of the horizon. The content of plinthite is as
Cowarts soils are associated with Bonifay, Dothan, much as 5 percent. The Bt horizon is 12 to 34 inches
Fuquay, Lakeland, Orangeburg, and Troup soils. The thick.
solum of the Bonifay, Dothan, Fuquay, Orangeburg, and The BC horizon has colors similar to those of the Bt
Troup soils is more than 60 inches thick. Lakeland soils horizon or is reticulately mottled. It is mottled in shades
are sandy throughout, of gray, red, and brown. The texture ranges from sandy
Typical pedon of Cowarts loamy sand, in an area of loam to sandy clay. The BC horizon is as much as 10
Troup-Orangeburg-Cowarts complex, 5 to 12 percent inches thick.
slopes; 450 feet east and 1,300 feet south of the The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, 5YR, or
northwest corner of sec. 14, T. 4 N., R. 25 W. 2.5YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 8. It has
A-0 to 4 inches; yellowish brown (YR 5/4) loamy mottles in shades of gray, brown, red, and yellow. It
sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; common ranges from loamy sand to sandy clay. Pockets of
and; weak fine granular structure; friable; common material coarser or finer than the matrix are common.
fine and medium roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary. Dorovan Series
E-4 to 15 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) loamy
sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; common The Dorovan series consists of very deep, very
fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy poorly drained, moderately permeable soils that formed
boundary. in decomposed woody and herbaceous plant remains.
Bt-15 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sandy These soils are on broad, nearly level flood plains along
clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky the major streams and in large hardwood swamps.
structure; friable; few fine faint pale brown (10YR Internal drainage is impeded by a high water table that
6/3) and red (2.5YR 4/6) mottles; few fine and is near the surface most of the year. Slopes are less
medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. than 1 percent. The soils are dysic, thermic Typic
Btv-26 to 32 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) Medisaprists.







76 Soil Survey


grained; loose; medium acid; gradual wavy sandy clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
boundary, structure; firm; few fine faint pale brown (10YR 6/3)
C2-20 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single and red (2.5YR 4/6) mottles; approximately 5
grained; loose; medium acid. percent plinthite; strongly acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
The soils are sand or fine sand to a depth of 80 BC-32 to 38 inches; reticulately mottled yellowish
inches or more. Reaction ranges from medium acid to brown (10YR 5/6), light gray (10YR 7/1), yellow
mildly alkaline throughout. (10YR 7/8), strong brown (7.5YR 5/6), rand yellowish
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y or is neutral red (5YR 5/6) sandy clay loam that has pockets or
in hue. It has value of 3 to 7 and chroma of 0 to 3. It is strata of finer or coarser textured material; massive;
2 to 8 inches thick. firm; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y or is neutral C-38 to 60 inches; reticulately mottled yellow (10YR
in hue. It has value of 4 to 7 and chroma of 0 to 2. In 7/6), white (10YR 8/1), yellowish red (5YR 5/8), and
some pedons it has few high-chroma mottles, reddish yellow (5YR 6/8 and 7/6) sandy loam,
The Ab horizon, if it occurs, is at a depth of 24 to 72 sandy clay loam, and clay loam; massive; friable;
inches. It has colors similar to those of the A horizon. It strongly acid.
contains few or common pieces of undecomposed plant
material. The thickness of the solum ranges from 20 to 40
The Cb horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y inches. Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid
or is neutral in hue. It has value of 4 to 7 and chroma of throughout the profile.
0 to 2. The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 2 to 4. It is 4 to 6 inches thick.
Cowarts Series The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
chroma of 4 to 8. It is 4 to 12 inches thick.
The Cowarts series consists of very deep, well Some pedons have a thin BE horizon. This horizon
drained, slowly permeable soils that formed in sandy has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and
and loamy marine sediments. These soils are on chroma of 4 to 8. It is sandy loam or fine sandy loam.
sloping to strongly sloping side slopes along creeks and The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR to 5YR, value of 5
drainageways on the Coastal Plain and in the uplands. or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. The texture is commonly
Slopes range from 5 to 12 percent. The soils are fine- sandy clay loam, but it ranges to sandy clay in the
loamy, siliceous, thermic Typic Kanhapludults. lower part of the horizon. The content of plinthite is as
Cowarts soils are associated with Bonifay, Dothan, much as 5 percent. The Bt horizon is 12 to 34 inches
Fuquay, Lakeland, Orangeburg, and Troup soils. The thick.
solum of the Bonifay, Dothan, Fuquay, Orangeburg, and The BC horizon has colors similar to those of the Bt
Troup soils is more than 60 inches thick. Lakeland soils horizon or is reticulately mottled. It is mottled in shades
are sandy throughout, of gray, red, and brown. The texture ranges from sandy
Typical pedon of Cowarts loamy sand, in an area of loam to sandy clay. The BC horizon is as much as 10
Troup-Orangeburg-Cowarts complex, 5 to 12 percent inches thick.
slopes; 450 feet east and 1,300 feet south of the The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, 5YR, or
northwest corner of sec. 14, T. 4 N., R. 25 W. 2.5YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 8. It has
A-0 to 4 inches; yellowish brown (YR 5/4) loamy mottles in shades of gray, brown, red, and yellow. It
sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; common ranges from loamy sand to sandy clay. Pockets of
and; weak fine granular structure; friable; common material coarser or finer than the matrix are common.
fine and medium roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary. Dorovan Series
E-4 to 15 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) loamy
sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; common The Dorovan series consists of very deep, very
fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy poorly drained, moderately permeable soils that formed
boundary. in decomposed woody and herbaceous plant remains.
Bt-15 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sandy These soils are on broad, nearly level flood plains along
clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky the major streams and in large hardwood swamps.
structure; friable; few fine faint pale brown (10YR Internal drainage is impeded by a high water table that
6/3) and red (2.5YR 4/6) mottles; few fine and is near the surface most of the year. Slopes are less
medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. than 1 percent. The soils are dysic, thermic Typic
Btv-26 to 32 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) Medisaprists.








Okaloosa County, Florida 77


Dorovan soils are associated with Chipley, Kinston, Typical pedon of Dothan loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent
Pickney, and Rutlege soils. These associated soils are slopes, 1,300 feet east and 1,900 feet north of the
mineral soils. southwest corner of sec. 31, T. 5 N., R. 22 W.
Typical pedon of Dorovan muck, frequently flooded,
in a swamp, 2,650 feet east and 600 feet north of the A-0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
southwest corner of sec. 8, T. 1 S., R. 24 W. loamy sand; weak medium granular structure; loose;
many fine, medium, and coarse roots; very strongly
Oe-0 to 4 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) acid; clear wavy boundary.
mucky peat; black when rubbed and pressed; BE-5 to 12 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loamy
approximately 60 percent fiber unrubbed and sand; weak medium granular structure; loose;
rubbed; 25.8 percent mineral content; massive; common fine and medium roots; strongly acid; clear
nonsticky; many fine, medium, and coarse roots; wavy boundary.
extremely acid; clear wavy boundary. Bt-12 to 38 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy
Oal-4 to 60 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck that clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky
remains black when rubbed and pressed; less than structure; friable; common fine and medium roots;
5 percent fiber unrubbed and rubbed; 22.3 percent medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
mineral content; massive; nonsticky; common fine Btv1-38 to 56 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
roots; extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary, sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular
Oa2-60 to 80 inches; very dark brown (10YR 2/2) blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; about 5 to
muck; black unrubbed and rubbed; 23.4 percent 10 percent, by volume, plinthite nodules; very
mineral content; massive; nonsticky; few fine roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
extremely acid. Btv2-56 to 63 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) and
reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/8) sandy clay loam; few
The organic material is more than 51 inches thick, fine distinct white (10YR 8/2) mottles; moderate
Reaction is extremely acid in the organic layers. medium subangular blocky structure; firm; about 5
The Oe and Oa horizons have hue of 10YR to 5YR to 10 percent, by volume, plinthite nodules; few
or are neutral in hue. They have value of 2 or 3 and indurated ironstone pebbles; very strongly acid;
chroma of 0 to 2. In the Oa horizon, the content of abrupt wavy boundary.
unrubbed fiber is generally less than 30 percent and the Btv3-63 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) and
content of rubbed fiber is less than 10 percent. reddish yellow (7.5YR 7/8) sandy clay loam;
Some pedons have a C horizon. This horizon is sand common medium distinct white (10YR 8/2) mottles;
that is various shades of gray and brown. moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm;
about 1 to 5 percent, by volume, plinthite nodules;
Dothan Series few indurated ironstone pebbles; very strongly acid.

The Dothan series consists of very deep, well The thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to more
drained, moderately slowly permeable soils that formed than 80 inches. The depth to horizons that contain more
in loamy marine sediments. These soils are on nearly than 5 percent plinthite ranges from 24 to 60 inches.
level to sloping uplands. The water table is perched at a The content of ironstone pebbles is 0 to 5 percent, by
depth of 36 to 60 inches after periods of heavy rainfall, volume, in the A and E horizons and in the upper part
Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent. The soils are fine- of the Bt horizon. Reaction ranges from medium acid to
loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults. extremely acid throughout the profile.
Dothan soils are associated with Angie, Bonifay, The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
Escambia, Fuquay, Leefield, Lucy, Notcher, 5, and chroma of 2 or 3. It is 4 to 9 inches thick.
Orangeburg, Pansey, Stilson, and Troup soils. Angie The BE horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
soils have more clay in the Bt horizon than the Dothan and chroma of 3 to 6. It is as much as 10 inches thick.
soils. Bonifay, Fuquay, Leefield, Lucy, Stilson, and It is loamy sand or sandy loam.
Troup soils have a Bt horizon at a depth of more than The Bt and Btv horizons have hue of 10YR or 7.5YR,
20 inches. Escambia soils are moderately well drained, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 6 to 8. They have few to
Notcher soils have more than 5 percent ironstone in the many mottles in shades of red, white, brown, and gray.
A and E horizons and the upper part of the Bt horizon The white or gray mottles are at a depth of more than
and do not have plinthite. Orangeburg soils do not have 30 inches. The texture is generally sandy clay loam or
plinthite. Pansey soils are poorly drained and are sandy loam, but it ranges to sandy clay in the lower part
ponded. of the Btv horizon.







78 Soil Survey


Duckston Series Escambia Series

The Duckston series consists of very deep, very The Escambia series consists of very deep,
poorly drained, very rapidly permeable soils that formed somewhat poorly drained, moderately permeable soils
in sandy sediments. These soils are in nearly level that formed in loamy marine sediments. These soils are
marshes bordering the Intracoastal Waterway and the on the lower side slopes in he uplands. A seasonal
The water table is within a depth high water table is at a depth of 18 to 30 inches during
hoc 1 chess dri mt o the year. The sis are the winter. Slopes range from 0 to 3 percent. The soils
of 10 inches during most of the year. The soils are
frequently flooded by salt water. Slopes range from 0 to are oarse-loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthaquic
2 percent. The soils are siliceous, thermic Typic camia soils are associated with Albany, Bibb,
Escambia soils are associated with Albany, Bibb,
Psammaquents. Bonifay, Dothan, Fuquay, Johnston, Kinston, Leefield,
Duckston soils are associated with Leon and Rutlege Notcher, and Stilson soils. Albany and Bonifay soils
Notcher, and Stilson soils. Albany and Bonifay soils
soils. These soils are not commonly flooded by saltillic horizon at a deth of more than 40
water. Leon soils have a spodic horizon. Rutlege soils iche. b soils are sandy throughout. Dothan and
have an umbric Bibb soils are sandy throughout. Dothan and
have an umbric epipedon. Notcher soils are better drained than the Escambia
Typical pedon of Duckston sand, frequently flooded, soils. Fuquay, Leefield, and Stilson soils have an argillic
2,200 feet east of the Santa Rosa County line, on Santa horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Johnston and
Rosa Island, on Eglin Air Force Base, 100 feet north of Kinston soils are more poorly drained than the
Eglin Road 242: Escambia soils.
Typical pedon of Escambia fine sandy loam, 0 to 3
A-0 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand; percent slopes, 500 feet east and 2,000 feet south of
grayish brown (10YR 5/2) root stains; single the northwest corner of sec. 29, T. 6 N., R. 24 W.
grained; nonsticky; common fine roots; moderately
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. A-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sandy
Cg1-12 to 38 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
single grained; nonsticky; moderately alkaline; many fine, medium, and coarse roots; extremely
gradual wavy boundary. acid; clear wavy boundary.
Cg2-38 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; BE-5 to 8 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
single grained; nonsticky; moderately alkaline; sandy loam; dark gray (10YR 4/1) and gray (10YR
gradual wavy boundary. 5/1) organic stains; weak fine granular structure;
Cg3-50 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single very friable; common fine and medium roots;
grained; nonsticky; moderately alkaline, extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btv-8 to 25 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
The soils are sand or fine sand to a depth of 80 sandy loam; common medium prominent strong
inches or more. Reaction ranges from medium acid to brown (7.5YR 5/6) and few or common fine distinct
moderately alkaline. In some pedons the soil contains a light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles in the lower part; weak
moderately alkaline. In some pedons the soil contains a medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few
lfu r or below the surface horizon. The content of fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
sulfur odor below the surface horizon. The content of Btg1-25 to 48 inches; loam that is reticulately mottled
sulfur is less than 0.7 percent, in shades of brown, gray, red, and yellow; moderate
The Oe horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine
of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
less than 5 percent. The Oe horizon is generally 4 to 8 Btg2-48 to 80 inches; loam that is reticulately mottled
inches thick, in shades of brown, gray, red, and yellow; moderate
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y or is neutral medium subangular blocky structure; firm; very
in hue. It has value of 2 to 6 and chroma of 0 to 2. It is strongly acid.
9 to 34 inches thick.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y or is The solum ranges from 60 to more than 80 inches in
neutral in hue. It has value of 5 to 7 and chroma of 0 to thickness. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to
2. In some pedons, this horizon has few or common extremely acid throughout the profile. The depth to a
fine or medium, brown or dark grayish brown stains or horizon that has 5 percent or more plinthite is 20 to 42
mottles. Salinity varies, depending upon the amount of inches. The content of ironstone pebbles ranges from 0
time that has passed since the area was flooded by salt to 10 percent, by volume, in the A and E horizons and
water. in the upper part of the Bt horizon. The lower part of the







78 Soil Survey


Duckston Series Escambia Series

The Duckston series consists of very deep, very The Escambia series consists of very deep,
poorly drained, very rapidly permeable soils that formed somewhat poorly drained, moderately permeable soils
in sandy sediments. These soils are in nearly level that formed in loamy marine sediments. These soils are
marshes bordering the Intracoastal Waterway and the on the lower side slopes in he uplands. A seasonal
The water table is within a depth high water table is at a depth of 18 to 30 inches during
hoc 1 chess dri mt o the year. The sis are the winter. Slopes range from 0 to 3 percent. The soils
of 10 inches during most of the year. The soils are
frequently flooded by salt water. Slopes range from 0 to are oarse-loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthaquic
2 percent. The soils are siliceous, thermic Typic camia soils are associated with Albany, Bibb,
Escambia soils are associated with Albany, Bibb,
Psammaquents. Bonifay, Dothan, Fuquay, Johnston, Kinston, Leefield,
Duckston soils are associated with Leon and Rutlege Notcher, and Stilson soils. Albany and Bonifay soils
Notcher, and Stilson soils. Albany and Bonifay soils
soils. These soils are not commonly flooded by saltillic horizon at a deth of more than 40
water. Leon soils have a spodic horizon. Rutlege soils iche. b soils are sandy throughout. Dothan and
have an umbric Bibb soils are sandy throughout. Dothan and
have an umbric epipedon. Notcher soils are better drained than the Escambia
Typical pedon of Duckston sand, frequently flooded, soils. Fuquay, Leefield, and Stilson soils have an argillic
2,200 feet east of the Santa Rosa County line, on Santa horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Johnston and
Rosa Island, on Eglin Air Force Base, 100 feet north of Kinston soils are more poorly drained than the
Eglin Road 242: Escambia soils.
Typical pedon of Escambia fine sandy loam, 0 to 3
A-0 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand; percent slopes, 500 feet east and 2,000 feet south of
grayish brown (10YR 5/2) root stains; single the northwest corner of sec. 29, T. 6 N., R. 24 W.
grained; nonsticky; common fine roots; moderately
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. A-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sandy
Cg1-12 to 38 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
single grained; nonsticky; moderately alkaline; many fine, medium, and coarse roots; extremely
gradual wavy boundary. acid; clear wavy boundary.
Cg2-38 to 50 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; BE-5 to 8 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
single grained; nonsticky; moderately alkaline; sandy loam; dark gray (10YR 4/1) and gray (10YR
gradual wavy boundary. 5/1) organic stains; weak fine granular structure;
Cg3-50 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single very friable; common fine and medium roots;
grained; nonsticky; moderately alkaline, extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
Btv-8 to 25 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
The soils are sand or fine sand to a depth of 80 sandy loam; common medium prominent strong
inches or more. Reaction ranges from medium acid to brown (7.5YR 5/6) and few or common fine distinct
moderately alkaline. In some pedons the soil contains a light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles in the lower part; weak
moderately alkaline. In some pedons the soil contains a medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few
lfu r or below the surface horizon. The content of fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
sulfur odor below the surface horizon. The content of Btg1-25 to 48 inches; loam that is reticulately mottled
sulfur is less than 0.7 percent, in shades of brown, gray, red, and yellow; moderate
The Oe horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, value medium subangular blocky structure; firm; few fine
of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. The content of fiber is roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
less than 5 percent. The Oe horizon is generally 4 to 8 Btg2-48 to 80 inches; loam that is reticulately mottled
inches thick, in shades of brown, gray, red, and yellow; moderate
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y or is neutral medium subangular blocky structure; firm; very
in hue. It has value of 2 to 6 and chroma of 0 to 2. It is strongly acid.
9 to 34 inches thick.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y or is The solum ranges from 60 to more than 80 inches in
neutral in hue. It has value of 5 to 7 and chroma of 0 to thickness. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to
2. In some pedons, this horizon has few or common extremely acid throughout the profile. The depth to a
fine or medium, brown or dark grayish brown stains or horizon that has 5 percent or more plinthite is 20 to 42
mottles. Salinity varies, depending upon the amount of inches. The content of ironstone pebbles ranges from 0
time that has passed since the area was flooded by salt to 10 percent, by volume, in the A and E horizons and
water. in the upper part of the Bt horizon. The lower part of the







Okaloosa County,-Florida 79


Bt horizon contains less than 2 percent ironstone common uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid;
pebbles. gradual wavy boundary.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value C1-9 to 33 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
of 3 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is loamy sand, loamy single grained; loose; many fine roots; common
fine sand, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sand. uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy
Some pedons have an E horizon. This horizon has boundary.
hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 C2-33 to 45 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
to 4. It is loamy sand, loamy fine sand, sandy loam, fine few medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
sandy loam, or sand. mottles; single grained; loose; common fine roots;
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 few uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual
or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is mottled in shades of wavy boundary.
brown or red. Mottles that have chroma of 2 or less are C3-45 to 63 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
within a depth of 30 inches. The texture is sandy clay sand; common medium prominent strong brown
loam or sandy loam. (7.5YR 5/8) and light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles;
The Btv horizon is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, single grained; loose; few fine roots; few uncoated
brown, or red, or it is gray and is mottled in shades of sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
yellow, brown, or red. The texture is sandy clay loam, C4-63 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
sandy loam, or sandy clay. The particle-size control grained; loose; common uncoated sand grains;
section has 5 to 15 percent silt. strongly acid.
Some pedons have a BC horizon. This horizon has
colors and textures similar to those of the lower part of The soils are sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
the Btv horizon. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium
acid, except in areas where lime has been applied. The
content of silt and clay in the 10- to 40-inch control
Foxworth Series section is 5 to 10 percent.
The Foxworth series consists of very deep, The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
moderately well drained, very rapidly permeable soils 5, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is energy 3 to 15 inches
that formed in thick deposits of sandy marine or eolian thick, but where value is 3, it is less than 6 inches thick.
that formed in thick deposits of sandy marine or eolian
sediments. These soils are on broad, nearly level and The C horizon has hueof 10YR, value of 5 to 8 ad
chroma of 1 to 6. Generally, the upper part of the C
gently sloping uplands. They are saturated below a chroma of 4 to 6 and the lower part has
depth of about 42 inches in winter and early spring.hzon h chro ma of 1 to I so oans the lower part has
Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils are thermic, horizon has few or common fine to le masse of
coated Typic Quartzipsamments. horizon has few or common fine to large masses of
coated Typic Quartzipsamments.
Foxworth soils are associated with Albany, Chipley, uncoated sand grains that are not indicative of wetness.
Dorovan, Hurricane, Kureb, Lakeland, Leon, Mandarin, In some pedons the lower part of the horizon has few or
Resota, and Troup soils. Albany and Troup soils have common fine or medium, strong brown or yellowish red,
an A horizon that is 40 to 79 inches thick over an segregated iron mottles. The depth to mottles is
argillic horizon. Chipley soils have a water table that is commonly 45 to 60 inches but ranges from 40 to 70
higher during wet seasons than that of the Foxworth inches. Fewto many uncoated sand grain s are in the
soils. Dorovan soils are very poorly drained and are lower part of the C horizon.
organic. Hurricane, Leon, and Mandarin soils have a Fuquay Series
spodic horizon. Kureb and Lakeland soils areuquay es
excessively drained. Resota soils have a B horizon. The Fuquay series consists of very deep, well
Typical pedon of Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent drained, slowly permeable soils that formed in sandy
slopes, 1,850 feet north and 600 feet west of the and loamy marine sediments. These soils are on broad,
southeast corner of sec. 8, T. 2 N., R. 23 W. nearly level to sloping ridges and side slopes in the
uplands. The water table is perched at a depth of 48 to
A-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; 60 inches during periods of high rainfall. Slopes range
single grained; loose; mixture of organic matter and from 0 to 8 percent. The soils are loamy, siliceous,
uncoated sand grains; many fine, medium, and thermic Arenic Plinthic Kandiudults.
coarse roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy Fuquay soils are associated with Bonifay, Dothan,
boundary. Leefield, Stilson, and Notcher soils. Bonifay soils have a
AC-4 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single Bt horizon at a depth of more than 40 inches. Dothan
grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; and Notcher soils have a Bt horizon within a depth of







Okaloosa County,-Florida 79


Bt horizon contains less than 2 percent ironstone common uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid;
pebbles. gradual wavy boundary.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value C1-9 to 33 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
of 3 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is loamy sand, loamy single grained; loose; many fine roots; common
fine sand, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sand. uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy
Some pedons have an E horizon. This horizon has boundary.
hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 C2-33 to 45 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
to 4. It is loamy sand, loamy fine sand, sandy loam, fine few medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
sandy loam, or sand. mottles; single grained; loose; common fine roots;
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 few uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; gradual
or 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. It is mottled in shades of wavy boundary.
brown or red. Mottles that have chroma of 2 or less are C3-45 to 63 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
within a depth of 30 inches. The texture is sandy clay sand; common medium prominent strong brown
loam or sandy loam. (7.5YR 5/8) and light gray (10YR 7/1) mottles;
The Btv horizon is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, single grained; loose; few fine roots; few uncoated
brown, or red, or it is gray and is mottled in shades of sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
yellow, brown, or red. The texture is sandy clay loam, C4-63 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
sandy loam, or sandy clay. The particle-size control grained; loose; common uncoated sand grains;
section has 5 to 15 percent silt. strongly acid.
Some pedons have a BC horizon. This horizon has
colors and textures similar to those of the lower part of The soils are sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
the Btv horizon. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium
acid, except in areas where lime has been applied. The
content of silt and clay in the 10- to 40-inch control
Foxworth Series section is 5 to 10 percent.
The Foxworth series consists of very deep, The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
moderately well drained, very rapidly permeable soils 5, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is energy 3 to 15 inches
that formed in thick deposits of sandy marine or eolian thick, but where value is 3, it is less than 6 inches thick.
that formed in thick deposits of sandy marine or eolian
sediments. These soils are on broad, nearly level and The C horizon has hueof 10YR, value of 5 to 8 ad
chroma of 1 to 6. Generally, the upper part of the C
gently sloping uplands. They are saturated below a chroma of 4 to 6 and the lower part has
depth of about 42 inches in winter and early spring.hzon h chro ma of 1 to I so oans the lower part has
Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils are thermic, horizon has few or common fine to le masse of
coated Typic Quartzipsamments. horizon has few or common fine to large masses of
coated Typic Quartzipsamments.
Foxworth soils are associated with Albany, Chipley, uncoated sand grains that are not indicative of wetness.
Dorovan, Hurricane, Kureb, Lakeland, Leon, Mandarin, In some pedons the lower part of the horizon has few or
Resota, and Troup soils. Albany and Troup soils have common fine or medium, strong brown or yellowish red,
an A horizon that is 40 to 79 inches thick over an segregated iron mottles. The depth to mottles is
argillic horizon. Chipley soils have a water table that is commonly 45 to 60 inches but ranges from 40 to 70
higher during wet seasons than that of the Foxworth inches. Fewto many uncoated sand grain s are in the
soils. Dorovan soils are very poorly drained and are lower part of the C horizon.
organic. Hurricane, Leon, and Mandarin soils have a Fuquay Series
spodic horizon. Kureb and Lakeland soils areuquay es
excessively drained. Resota soils have a B horizon. The Fuquay series consists of very deep, well
Typical pedon of Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent drained, slowly permeable soils that formed in sandy
slopes, 1,850 feet north and 600 feet west of the and loamy marine sediments. These soils are on broad,
southeast corner of sec. 8, T. 2 N., R. 23 W. nearly level to sloping ridges and side slopes in the
uplands. The water table is perched at a depth of 48 to
A-0 to 4 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; 60 inches during periods of high rainfall. Slopes range
single grained; loose; mixture of organic matter and from 0 to 8 percent. The soils are loamy, siliceous,
uncoated sand grains; many fine, medium, and thermic Arenic Plinthic Kandiudults.
coarse roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy Fuquay soils are associated with Bonifay, Dothan,
boundary. Leefield, Stilson, and Notcher soils. Bonifay soils have a
AC-4 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single Bt horizon at a depth of more than 40 inches. Dothan
grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; and Notcher soils have a Bt horizon within a depth of







80 Soil Survey


20 inches. Leefield and Stilson soils have a water table The upper part of the Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR to
that is higher than that of the Fuquay soils. 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8. The lower
Typical pedon of Fuquay loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 part has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 8, and
percent slopes, 300 feet north and 150 feet west of the chroma of 1 to 8. The Bt horizon is mottled in shades of
southeast corner of sec. 7, T. 5 N., R. 24 W. red, yellow, and brown. Mottles that have chroma of 2
A-0 to 5 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loamy fine sand; or less are ata depth of more than 40 inches. The
single grained; loose many fine, medium, and texture is sandy loam or sandy clay loam. The reddish
coarse roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth soil material is hard and is surrounded by soft, strong
boundary brown and yellowish brown soil material. The reddish
boundary.
E-5 to 22 chess; brownish yellow (YR 6/6) loamy and brownish parts are sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
E-5 to 22 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) loamy
The gray parts are sandy clay loam or sandy clay. The
medium roots; very strongly acid; clear smooth content of soft masses of iron or hard, rough- or
du r r rny smooth-surfaced nodules of iron increases with
boundary.
BE-22 to 28 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) increasing depth within a zone that extends from the
upper part of the Bt horizon to a zone of discontinuous
plinthite. Generally, the redder parts are oriented
structure; friable; common fine roots; very strongly plinthite. Generally, the redder parts are oriented
horizontallyS
acid; clear smooth boundary. horizontally.
c The C horizon is sandy loam, loamy sand, or sandy
Btv1-28 to 45 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine clay loa. has aratd lors i shade of red
sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky clay loam. It has variegated colors in shades of red,
sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; few fine roots; few plinthite brown yellow and gray
nodules; very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. Garcon Series
Btv2-45 to 59 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
sandy clay loam; common medium distinct strong The Garcon series consists of very deep, somewhat
brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; moderate medium poorly drained, moderately permeable soils that formed
subangular blocky structure; friable; common in sandy and loamy fluvial sediments. In most years a
plinthite nodules; very strongly acid; clear smooth seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to 36
boundary. inches for 4 to 6 months and is below a depth of 40
Btv3-59 to 67 inches; yellow (10YR 7/8) sandy clay inches during the rest of the year. These soils are
loam; common medium prominent red (2.5YR 4/8) subject to flooding. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent.
and yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate The soils are loamy, siliceous, thermic Arenic
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; Hapludults.
common plinthite nodules; strongly acid; clear Garcon soils are associated with Bibb, Bigbee,
smooth boundary. Johnston, Kinston, Rutlege, and Yemassee soils. Bibb,
C-67 to 80 inches; yellow (10YR 8/6) fine sandy loam; Johnston, Kinston, and Rutlege soils are more poorly
massive; very friable; very strongly acid. drained than the Garcon soils. Bigbee soils are sandy
throughout. Yemassee soils have a surface layer and
The solum is more than 60 inches thick. The depth to subsurface layer with a combined thickness of less than
plinthite ranges from 35 to 60 inches. The content of silt 20 inches.
is less than 20 percent throughout the profile. Reaction Typical pedon of Garcon loamy fine sand, in an area
is strongly acid or very strongly acid. Typically, a few of Yemassee, Garcon, and Bigbee soils, occasionally
rounded nodules of iron that have a rough or smooth flooded; 3,000 feet east and 2,100 feet south of the
surface are on the surface and throughout the A horizon northwest corner of sec. 11, T. 2 N., R. 24 W.
and the upper part of the Bt horizon.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value A-0 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy fine
of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is sand, loamy sand, sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable;
or loamy fine sand. It is 4 to 10 inches thick. many fine, medium, and coarse roots; very strongly
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to acid; clear wavy boundary.
7, and chroma of 3 to 6. It is sand, loamy sand, or E1-7 to 15 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loamy fine
loamy fine sand. It is 16 to 30 inches thick. The sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable;
combined thickness of the A and E horizons ranges many fine and medium roots; very strongly acid;
from 20 to 40 inches. clear wavy boundary.
The BE horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, E2-15 to 25 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loamy fine
or 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 3 to 8. It is sand; common medium faint light gray (10YR 7/2)
sandy loam or loamy sand. mottles; weak medium granular structure; very








Okaloosa County, Florida 81


friable; common fine roots; very strongly acid; clear sloping soils are in slightly elevated areas in the
wavy boundary. flatwoods. The water table is between depths of 24 and
E3-25 to 35 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loamy fine 42 inches for 3 to 6 months during most years. It is at a
sand; common medium distinct light gray (10YR depth of 42 inches during the rest of the year. Slopes
7/2) and few fine prominent brownish yellow (10YR range from 0 to 5 percent. The soils are sandy,
6/8) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky siliceous, thermic Grossarenic Entic Haplohumods.
structure; very friable; few fine roots; very strongly Hurricane soils are associated with Chipley,
acid; clear wavy boundary. Foxworth, Leon, Mandarin, and Rutlege soils. Chipley,
Btl-35 to 50 inches; light brownish yellow (10YR 6/4) Foxworth, and Rutlege soils do not have a spodic
sandy clay loam; many coarse distinct light gray horizon. Leon and Mandarin soils have a spodic horizon
(10YR 7/2) and few fine distinct yellowish brown within a depth of 30 inches.
(10YR 5/4) mottles; moderate medium subangular Typical pedon of Hurricane sand, in an area of
blocky structure; friable; very strongly acid; clear Chipley and Hurricane soils, 0 to 5 percent slopes;
wavy boundary. 2,600 feet east and 1,800 feet south of the northwest
Bt2-50 to 70 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) corner of sec. 18, T. 2 S., R. 25 W.
fine sandy loam; common medium distinct yellowish 3
fine sandy loam; common medium distinct yellowish Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
brown (YR 5/4) and manycoarse distinct light sand; single grained; loose; many fine and medium
gray (10YR 7/2) mottles; moderate medium
gray (YR 7/2) mottles; moderate medium roots; mixture of uncoated sand grains and organic
subangular blocky structure; sticky; very strongly a; er strong acd cr boundary.
matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
acid; clear wavy boundary. E1--6 to 33 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
C-70 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; few
Single grained; loose; common fine roots; few
fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) and few n e grains; ton i; er w
medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; bundary.
single grained; nonstick; very strongly acid. E2-33 to 42 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand;
Thickness of the solum ranges from 40 to 60 inches. common medium distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3)
Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid and prominent yellowish red (5YR 4/6) mottles;
throughout the profile. single grained; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid;
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to clear wavy boundary.
7, and chroma of 3 to 6. It has mottles in shades of E3-42 to 65 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single
brown, yellow, and gray in the lower part. It is 5 to 15 grained; loose; medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
inches thick. It is loamy fine sand or loamy sand. The Bh1-65 to 70 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) loamy
combined thickness of the A and E horizons is 20 to 40 sand; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
inches, friable; sand grains are coated with organic matter;
The B horizon, if it occurs, has colors similar to those very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
of the Bt horizon. It is loamy sand or sandy loam. It is 0 Bh2-70 to 80 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak
to 6 inches thick, medium subangular blocky structure; firm; sand
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and grains are coated with organic matter; extremely
chroma of 1 to 6. It has fine to coarse mottles in shades acid.
of gray, brown, red, or yellow. It is sandy loam, fine Thickness of the solum ranges from 60 to more than
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. It is 5 to 35 inches 80 inches. Depth to the Bh horizon ranges from 51 to
thick. The content of clay in the upper 20 inches of the 79 inches. Low-chroma mottles are at a depth of more
argillic horizon is less than 18 percent, by weighted than 20 inches in some pedons. Reaction ranges from
average. medium acid to extremely acid throughout the profile.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and The Ap or A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to
chroma of 1 or 2. It has fine and medium mottles in
5, and chroma of 1 to 3. It is sand or fine sand.
shades of gray, yellow, and brown. It is sand or fine 5, and chroma of to t is s or ine sand.
sand. The upper part of the E horizon has hue of 10OYR or
sand. 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 8. It has
Hurricane Series common mottles in shades of yellow, brown, or gray.
The lower part of the E horizon, immediately above the
The Hurricane series consists of very deep, Bh horizon, has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
somewhat poorly drained, moderately rapidly permeable chroma of 1 or 2. The E horizon is fine sand or sand.
to very rapidly permeable soils that formed in thick beds The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, 7.5YR, or 10YR,
of sandy marine sediments. These nearly level or gently value of 2 to 5, and chroma of 1 to 4. Sand grains are







82 Soil Survey


well coated with organic matter. The texture is fine alluvial sediment is deposited on the dark A horizon.
sand, sand, loamy fine sand, or loamy sand. Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid
Some pedons have a C horizon. This horizon has throughout the profile.
hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 6. In The A horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y or is neutral in
some pedons the C horizon is mottled in shades of hue. It has value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 0 to 2. It is 24
yellow, brown, or gray. to 48 inches thick.
The AC horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR or
Johnston Series 2.5Y, value of 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 0 to 8
inches thick. The texture is loam, fine sandy loam, or
The Johnston series consists of very deep, very sandy loam.
poorly drained, moderately rapidly permeable soils that The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to
formed in highly variable sandy and loamy fluvial 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. It has brown or yellow mottles.
sediments. These soils are on the flood plains along It is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, loamy sand, or sand.
creeks, streams, and rivers. They are commonly flooded Some pedons are stratified with textures ranging from
and are saturated in the winter and early spring. Slopes sandy clay loam to sand.
generally range from 0 to 2 percent, but short, steep
slopes that are as much as 3 to 5 feet high are along Kinston Series
stream meanders. The soils are coarse-loamy,
siliceous, acid, thermic Cumulic Humaquepts. The Kinston series consists of very deep, poorly
Johnston soils are associated with Bibb, Chipley, drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in
Dorovan, Escambia, Kinston, and Rutlege soils. Bibb highly variable sandy, loamy, and clayey fluvial
soils are on flood plains. They are better drained than sediments. These soils are on the nearly level flood
the Johnston soils and do not have an umbric epipedon. plains along creeks, streams, and rivers on the Coastal
Chipley and Escambia soils are on adjacent uplands. Plain. They are saturated in winter and early spring.
They are better drained than the Johnston soils. Slopes generally range from 0 to 5 percent, but short,
Dorovan soils are on flood plains and in depressions. steep slopes that are as much as 3 feet high are along
They are organic. Kinston soils are on flood plains, stream meanders in old stream channels. The soils are
They have more than 18 percent clay in the control fine-loamy, siliceous, acid, thermic Typic Fluvaquents.
section. Rutlege soils do not have an umbric epipedon. Kinston soils are associated with Bibb, Chipley,
Typical pedon of Johnston fine sandy loam, in an Dorovan, Escambia, Johnston, and Rutlege soils. Bibb
area of Kinston, Johnston, and Bibb soils, frequently and Johnston soils are more poorly drained than the
flooded; on the flood plain along the Shoal River, 4,100 Kinston soils. Chipley and Escambia soils are on
feet north and 1,375 feet west of the southeast corner uplands. They are better drained than the Kinston soils.
of sec. 23, T. 3 N., R. 23 W. Dorovan soils are on flood plains and in depressions.
They are organic. Rutlege soils do not have an umbric
A-0 to 24 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy loam; epipedon.
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine, Typical pedon of Kinston silt loam, in an area of
medium, and coarse roots; very strongly acid; Kinston, Johnston, and Bibb soils, frequently flooded;
abrupt wavy boundary. 2,200 feet south and 1,950 feet east of the northwest
Cg1-24 to 27 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) corner of sec. 11, T. 2 N., R. 24 W.
fine sandy loam; few fine distinct strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky A1-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 4/1) silt loam;
structure; very friable; common fine and medium moderate medium granular structure; friable; very
roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
os; e ry t rgy aid; c vdryA2-8 to 17 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) silt loam; few
Cg2-27 to 40 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; e8 to 1 finches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) anst loam;
massive; very friable; few fine roots; very strongly fine faint very dark gray (lYR 3/1) and gra
acid; clear wavy boundary brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; weak medium granular
Cg3-40 to 50 inches; dark grayish brown (YR 4/2) structure; slightly sticky; very strongly acid; clear
sand; massive; very friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
wavy boundary. Cgl--17 to 35 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
Cg4-50 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) loam; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
sand; massive; very friable; very strongly acid. mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
sticky; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
The content of organic matter in the A horizon is 8 to Cg2-35 to 48 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
20 percent. In some pedons a few inches of recent sandy clay loam; common medium faint grayish







82 Soil Survey


well coated with organic matter. The texture is fine alluvial sediment is deposited on the dark A horizon.
sand, sand, loamy fine sand, or loamy sand. Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid
Some pedons have a C horizon. This horizon has throughout the profile.
hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 6. In The A horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y or is neutral in
some pedons the C horizon is mottled in shades of hue. It has value of 2 or 3 and chroma of 0 to 2. It is 24
yellow, brown, or gray. to 48 inches thick.
The AC horizon, if it occurs, has hue of 10YR or
Johnston Series 2.5Y, value of 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 0 to 8
inches thick. The texture is loam, fine sandy loam, or
The Johnston series consists of very deep, very sandy loam.
poorly drained, moderately rapidly permeable soils that The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to
formed in highly variable sandy and loamy fluvial 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. It has brown or yellow mottles.
sediments. These soils are on the flood plains along It is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, loamy sand, or sand.
creeks, streams, and rivers. They are commonly flooded Some pedons are stratified with textures ranging from
and are saturated in the winter and early spring. Slopes sandy clay loam to sand.
generally range from 0 to 2 percent, but short, steep
slopes that are as much as 3 to 5 feet high are along Kinston Series
stream meanders. The soils are coarse-loamy,
siliceous, acid, thermic Cumulic Humaquepts. The Kinston series consists of very deep, poorly
Johnston soils are associated with Bibb, Chipley, drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in
Dorovan, Escambia, Kinston, and Rutlege soils. Bibb highly variable sandy, loamy, and clayey fluvial
soils are on flood plains. They are better drained than sediments. These soils are on the nearly level flood
the Johnston soils and do not have an umbric epipedon. plains along creeks, streams, and rivers on the Coastal
Chipley and Escambia soils are on adjacent uplands. Plain. They are saturated in winter and early spring.
They are better drained than the Johnston soils. Slopes generally range from 0 to 5 percent, but short,
Dorovan soils are on flood plains and in depressions. steep slopes that are as much as 3 feet high are along
They are organic. Kinston soils are on flood plains, stream meanders in old stream channels. The soils are
They have more than 18 percent clay in the control fine-loamy, siliceous, acid, thermic Typic Fluvaquents.
section. Rutlege soils do not have an umbric epipedon. Kinston soils are associated with Bibb, Chipley,
Typical pedon of Johnston fine sandy loam, in an Dorovan, Escambia, Johnston, and Rutlege soils. Bibb
area of Kinston, Johnston, and Bibb soils, frequently and Johnston soils are more poorly drained than the
flooded; on the flood plain along the Shoal River, 4,100 Kinston soils. Chipley and Escambia soils are on
feet north and 1,375 feet west of the southeast corner uplands. They are better drained than the Kinston soils.
of sec. 23, T. 3 N., R. 23 W. Dorovan soils are on flood plains and in depressions.
They are organic. Rutlege soils do not have an umbric
A-0 to 24 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy loam; epipedon.
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine, Typical pedon of Kinston silt loam, in an area of
medium, and coarse roots; very strongly acid; Kinston, Johnston, and Bibb soils, frequently flooded;
abrupt wavy boundary. 2,200 feet south and 1,950 feet east of the northwest
Cg1-24 to 27 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) corner of sec. 11, T. 2 N., R. 24 W.
fine sandy loam; few fine distinct strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6) mottles; weak fine subangular blocky A1-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 4/1) silt loam;
structure; very friable; common fine and medium moderate medium granular structure; friable; very
roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
os; e ry t rgy aid; c vdryA2-8 to 17 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) silt loam; few
Cg2-27 to 40 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; e8 to 1 finches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) anst loam;
massive; very friable; few fine roots; very strongly fine faint very dark gray (lYR 3/1) and gra
acid; clear wavy boundary brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; weak medium granular
Cg3-40 to 50 inches; dark grayish brown (YR 4/2) structure; slightly sticky; very strongly acid; clear
sand; massive; very friable; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
wavy boundary. Cgl--17 to 35 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
Cg4-50 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) loam; few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
sand; massive; very friable; very strongly acid. mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
sticky; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
The content of organic matter in the A horizon is 8 to Cg2-35 to 48 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
20 percent. In some pedons a few inches of recent sandy clay loam; common medium faint grayish




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