• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 How this survey was made
 General soil map
 Decriptions of the soils
 Use and management of the...
 Formation, morphology, and classification...
 General nature of the county
 Literature cited
 Glossary
 Guide to mapping units
 General soil map
 Index to map
 Map






Title: Soil survey, Okeechobee County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025734/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey, Okeechobee County, Florida
Physical Description: i, 62 p. : illus. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: McCollum, Samuel H
Pendleton, Robert F. ( joint author )
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: U.S. Soil Conservation Service for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Okeechobee County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Okeechobee County   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 59.
Statement of Responsibility: by Samuel H. McCollum and Robert F. Pendleton.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: On spine: Soil survey of Okeechobee County, Florida.
General Note: Prepared in cooperation with the University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025734
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001950707
oclc - 00221567
notis - AKC7249
lccn - 72614385 //r872

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    How this survey was made
        Page 1
    General soil map
        Page 2
        Pomello-Paola association
            Page 2
        Myakka-Basinger association
            Page 3
        Immokalee-Pompano association
            Page 3
        Parkwood-Bradenton-Wabasso association
            Page 4
        Placid-Pamlico-Delray association
            Page 4
        Pompano-Charlotte-Defray-Immokalee association
            Page 5
        Manatee-Delray-Okeelanta association
            Page 5
        Felda-Wabasso association
            Page 6
        Felda-Pompano-Parkwood association
            Page 6
        Okeelanta-Defray-Pompano association
            Page 7
    Decriptions of the soils
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 23
        General management for cultivated crops and pasture
            Page 23
        Management of the soils by capability units
            Page 24
            Capability grouping
                Page 24
                Page 25
                Page 26
                Page 27
                Page 28
        Estimated yields
            Page 29
        Use of the soils for range
            Page 30
            Range sites and range conditions
                Page 30
            Descriptions of range sites
                Page 31
                Page 32
        Use of the soils for woodland
            Page 33
            General woodland management
                Page 34
            Woodland suitability groups
                Page 34
                Page 35
        Use of the soils for wildlife
            Page 36
            Food and cover for wildlife
                Page 36
        Engineering uses of the soils
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Engineering classification systems
                Page 39
                Page 40
                Page 41
                Page 42
                Page 43
                Page 44
                Page 45
                Page 46
                Page 47
            Engineering test data
                Page 48
            Engineering properties
                Page 48
            Engineering interpretations
                Page 48
        Nonfarm uses of the soils
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
    Formation, morphology, and classification of soils
        Page 52
        Formation of soils
            Page 53
        Morphology of soils
            Page 53
        Classification of soils
            Page 54
    General nature of the county
        Page 55
        Geology
            Page 56
        Climate
            Page 57
        Farming
            Page 58
    Literature cited
        Page 59
    Glossary
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Guide to mapping units
        Page 62
    General soil map
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Index to map
        Page 65
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
Full Text
Issued September 1971



SOIL SURVEY


Okeechobee County, Florida














-. i- : #- 4 .,-' 7-..
wCj6:C^^ .^Wf -' ,,.-*^.^ ^



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS






Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in January 1967. Soil names and descriptions were
approved in July 1967. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this publication refer to the conditions
in the county in 1967. This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the Uni-
versity of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations as part of the assistance furnished to the Okeechobee
Soil and Water Conservation District.
Either enlarged or reduced copies of the soil map in this publication can be made by commercial pho-
tographers, or can be purchased on individual order from the Cartographic Division, Soil Conservation
Service, USDA, Washington, D.C. 20250.



HOW TO USE THIS SOIL SURVEY

THIS SOIL SURVEY of Okeechobee a moderate limitation can be colored yellow,
County contains information that can be arnd those with a severe limitation can be
applied in managing farms, ranches, and wood- colored red.
lands; in selecting sites for roads, ponds, build- Farmers and those who work with farmers
ings, or other structures; and in judging the can learn about use and management of soils in
value of tracts of land for farming, industry, the soil descriptions, and in the section that
or recreation. discusses management of the soils for crops and
pasture, for range, for woodland, and for
Locan Soils wildlife.
Foresters and others interested in woodland
All the soils of Okeechobee County are cnn refer to the section "Use of the Soils for
shown on the detailed map at the back of this Woodland" where the soils of the county are
survey. This map consists of many sheets that grouped according to their suitability for
are made from aerial photographs. Each sheet specified kinds of trees, and the factors that
is numbered to correspond with numbers shown affect management of woodland are explained.
on the Index to Map Sheets. Ranchers and others interested in rangeland
On each sheet of the detailed map, soil areas can find, under "Use of the Soils for Range,"
are outlined and are identified by symbols. All groupings of the soils according to their suit-
areas marked with the same symbol are the ability for range, and also the plants that grow
same kind of soil. The soil symbol is inside the on each range site.
area if there is enough room; otherwise, it is Community planners and others concerned
outside and a pointer shows where the symbol with suburban development can get informa-
belongs. tion about the soil properties that affect the
choice of homesites, industrial sites, and the
Finding and Uinq Informaion location of schools, playgrounds, and parks in
the section "Nonfarm Uses of the Soils."
The "Guide to Mapping Units" at the back Engineers and builders will find in the sec-
of this survey can be used to find information tion "Engineering Uses of the Soils" tables
in the survey. This guide lists all the soils of that give engineering descriptions of the soils
the county in alphabetic order by map symbol, in the county and that name soil properties that
It shows the page where each soil is described, affect engineering practices and structures.
and also the page for the capability unit, the Scientists and others can read about how the
range site, or any other group in which the soil soils of Okeechobee County were formed and
has been placed. how they are classified in the section "Forma-
Individual colored maps showing the relative tion, Morphology, and Classification of Soils."
suitability or limitations of soils for many Students, teachers, and others can find infor-
special purposes can be developed by using the mation about the soils and their management in
soil map and information in the text. Interpre- various parts of the text.
stations not included in the text can be developed Newcomers in Okeechobee County will be
by grouping the soils according to their suit- especially interested in learning general infor-
ability or limitations for a particular use. nation about the county from the section "Gen-
Translucent material can be used as an overlay eral Soil Map," where broad patterns of soils
over the soil map and colored to show soils are described. They may also be interested in
that have the same limitations or suitability, the section "General Nature of the County,"
For example, soils that have a slight limitation which gives additional information about the
for a given use can be colored green, those with county.


Cover picture.-Beef cattle grazing on improved
pasture of pangolagrass and white Dutch clover on
Pompano and Felda soils. Palm hammocks on Park-
wood soils provide shelter for the cattle.

U.S. 60VERNEIM T PRIIITIRG FFIC. I971
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Offce
Washington. D.C. 2002













Contents
Page
How this survey was made -----------------------____--------_--- 1
General soil map_ ---- ---------------___________----- ----- 2
1. Pomello-Paola association---------------------------------- 2
2. Myakka-Basinger association---------- ------------------- 3
3. Immokalee-Pompano association---__--_--.------------------ 3
4. Parkwood-Bradenton-Wabasso association------------------- 4
5. Placid-Pamlico-Delray association ------------------------- 4
6. Pompano-Charlotte-Delray-Immokalee association--_--------- 5
7. Manatee-Delray-Okeelanta association -------------------- 5
8. Felda-Wabasso association-_-------.------------------------ 6
9. Felda-Pompano-Parkwood association ------------_---------- 6
10. Okeelanta-Delray-Pompano association_--------------------- 7
Descriptions of the soils------------__--------------------------- 7
Use and management of the soils-__--- _------ __------_--------- 23
General management for cultivated crops and pasture -----------_ 23
Management of the soils by capability units -----_ ---__----- ---- 24
Capability grouping ---- ------_-------------__--------- 24
Estimated yields-- -------___ -------------------29
Use of the soils for range --------------_ ------------------- 30
Range sites and range conditions ------------_-------------- 30
Descriptions of range sites-__ ---- ------------------------ 31
Use of the soils for woodland ------------_ ---_------_---- ---- 33
General woodland management ------------------------------_ 34
Woodland suitability groups-___----- ---- --------_------- 34
Use of the soils for wildlife ------------------------------------- 36
Food and cover for wildlife-__------------------------------ 36
Engineering uses of the soils ------------------------------------ 37
Engineering classification systems----------------------------- 39
Engineering test data ---------------------------------------- 48
Engineering properties-------------------------------- --48
Engineering interpretations -------_--------------------- 48
Nonfarm uses of the soils------------------------------------ 49
Formation, morphology, and classification of soils --__--------------- 52
Formation of soils ---------------------------------------- 53
Morphology of soils----__ ----- ----------- ------------ 53
Classification of soils ---------------------_---------------- 54
General nature of the county--------------------------------- 55
Geology ---------------_------------------- ----- 56
Climate -------------------------------------------------- 57
Farming ----- -----------_ --------------------------- 58
Literature cited-------------------------- --------------_ 59
Glossary ------------------------------------------59
Guide to mapping units -----------.-----_------------ Following 61






Issued September 1971




Issued September 1971














SOIL SURVEY OF OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA

BY SAMUEL H. McCOLLUM AND ROBERT F. PENDLETON, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE'
[TED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE, IN COOPERATION WITH THE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS



KEECHOBEE COUNTY is in the south-central the people lived in the city of Okeechobee, -which had a
part of Florida (fig. 1). It has a total land area of population of 7,500.
square miles, or 499,200 acres. Okeechobee, the county The landscape generally consists of broad, saw-palmet-
;, is about 3 miles north of Lake Okeechobee, which tos and pine flatwoods; of small ponds; of long, wooded,
ms the southern boundary of the county. This lake is swampy drainageways; and of many parklike hammocks.
second largest fresh water lake wholly within a State. The soils generally are sandy, and most are wet to some
degree.
Farming, based on the raising of livestock, is the major
enterprise in the county. Much of the cash income is
T Derived from the raising of beef cattle. These cattle graze
TALLAHAJACKSONVILLE large areas of open rangeland in the countyy and an in-
creasing acreage in pastures of improved grasses. Dairying
also provides much cash income, and improved pastures
Sof high quality are maintained for dairy cattle. The most
important commercial crops grown are tomatoes, water-
melons, and citrus.
Sport fishing in Lake Okeechobee brings many visitors
to the county, especially in winter. Commercial harvest-
ing of catfish is a small but continuous enterprise.
TAMPA

SHow This Survey Was Made
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of
soils are in Okeechobee Comity, where they are located,
and how they can be used. The soil scientists went into
the county knowing they likely would find many soils
they had already seen and perhaps some they had not. As
S they surveyed the county, they observed the lay of the
S land; the kinds of native plaints or crops; the kinds of
S underlying rock; the drainage and water control sys-
,. o' teams; and many facts about the soils. They dug many
*s.I.A,0rEi.urE..pn'.ntSi holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the sequence of
natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it extends from the
Figure 1.-Location of Okeechobee County in Florida. surface down into the parent material that has not been
changed much by leaching or by the action of plant
elevation in the county ranges from 15 feet above sea roots.
sl, near the shoreline of Lake Okeechobee, to 75 feet The soil scientists made comparisons among the profiles
the north-central part. The average annual rainfall is they studied, and they compared these profiles with those
ut 50 inches, and the average temperature is 730 F. in counties nearby and in'places more distant. They clas-
infall is abundant, but it is unevenly distributed. sified and named the soils according to nationwide, uni-
?he county had a population of 12,000 in 1968, accord- form procedures. The soil series is the category of soil
to the Okeechobee Chamber of Commerce. Most of classification most used in this survey.
Soils that have profiles almost alike make up a soil
Others participating in the field survey were EARL S. VANATTA, series. Except for different texture in the surface layer,
OTIS T. HOLLY, DAVID E. PETTRY, WARD J. AAS, CLARION S. the major horizons of all the soils of one series are sim-
ETH, JR., DONALD W. OWENS, DALE E. JAKEL, and DALE E. ilar in thickness, arrangement, and other important
KER, Soil Conservation Service.
1







2 SOIL SURVEY

characteristics. Each soil series is named for a town or of soils in other places are also assembled. Data on yields
other geographic feature near the place where a soil of of crops under defined practices are assembled from farm
that series was first observed and mapped. Adamsville records and from field or plot experiments on the same
and Basinger, for example, are the names of two soil kinds of soils. Yields under defined management are esti-
series. All the soils in the United States having the same mated for all the soils.
series name are essentially alike in those characteristics The soil scientists set up trial groups of soils on the
that affect their behavior in the undisturbed landscape. basis of yield and practice tables and other data they
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface have collected. They test these groups by further study
soil and in slope, stoniness, or some other characteristic and by consultation with farmers, agronomists, engineers,
that affects use of the soils by man. On the basis of such and others. Then they adjust the groups according to the
differences, a soil series is divided into phases. The name results of their studies and consultation. Thus, the groups
of a soil phase indicates a feature that affects manage- that are finally evolved reflect up-to-date knowledge of
ment. For example, Basinger fine sand and Basinger the soils and their behavior under present methods of use
fine sand, ponded (mapped in the undifferentiated unit and management.
Basinger and Pompano fine sands, ponded), are two
phases of the Basinger series.
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils General Soil Map
had been worked out, the soil scientists drew the bound-
aries of the individual soils on aerial photographs. These The general soil map at the back of this survey shows,
photographs show woodlands, buildings, field borders, in color, the soil associations in Okeechobee County. A
trees, and other, details that help in drawing boundaries soil association is a landscape that has a distinctive pro-
accurately. The soil map in the back of this publication portional pattern of soils. It normally consists of one or
was prepared fTom aerial photographs. more major soils and at least one minor soil, and it is
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping named for the major soils. The soils in one association
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in may occur in another, but in a different pattern.
planning the management of farms and fields, a mapping A map showing soil associations is useful to people
unit is nearly equivalent to a soil phase. It is not exactly who want a general idea of the soils in a county, who
equivalent, because it is not practical to show on such a want to compare different parts of a county, or who want
map all the small, scattered bits of soil of some other to know the location of large tracts that are suitable for
kind that have been seen within an area that is domi- a particular land use. Such a map is a useful general
nantly of a recognized soil phase, guide in managing a watershed, a wooded tract, or a wild-/
Some mapping units are made up of soils of different life area, or in planning engineering works, recreational'
series or of different phases within one series. Two such facilities, and community developments. It is not a suit-
kinds of mapping units are shown on the soil map of able map for planning the management of a farm or field,
Okeechobee County: soil complexes and undifferentiated or for selecting the exact location of a road, building, or
groups. similar structure, because the soils in any one association
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils, ordinarily differ in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, and
so intricately mixed or so small in size that they cannot other characteristics that affect their management.
be shown separately on the soil map. Each area of a com- The 10 soil associations in Okeechobee County are dis-
plex contains some of. each of the two or more dominant cussed briefly in this section. They consist of nearly level
soils, and the pattern and relative proportions are about soils that vary principally in wetness, thickness, texture,
the same in all areas. The :name of a soil complex con- or acidity. More detailed information about the indi-
sists of the names of the dominant soils, joined by a hy- vidual soils in each association can be obtained by study-
phen. Basinger-Placid complex is an example. ing the detailed soil map and by reading the section
An undifferentiated soil group is made up of two or "Descriptions of the Soils." Use and management of the
more soils that could be delineated individually but are soils for farming is discussed in the section "Use and
shown as one unit because, for the purpose of the soil Management of the Soils." That section also describes
survey, there is little value in separating them. The pat- uses of the soils for engineering and nonfarm purposes.
tern and proportion of. soils are not uniform. An area
shown on the map may be made up of only one of the 1. Pomello-Paola Association
dominant soils, or of two or more. The name of an undif-
ferentiated group consists of the names of the dominant Nearly level, moderately well drained soils that are sandy
soils, joined by "and." Basinger and Pompano fine sands, to a depth of more than 40 inches; on low knolls and
ponded, is an example. ridges
In some areas surveyed there, are places where the soil This association consists of nearly level, very strongly
material is so altered by man anId machinery that it can- acid, deep, sandy soils that are moderately well drained.
not be classified by soil series. These places are shown on These soils are adjacent to and surround small areas of
the soil map and are described in. the survey, but they are lower, wetter, deep sandy soils. They occur as small dry
called land types and are given descriptive names. Made knolls and ridges of light-colored sand near drainage-
land is a land type in Okeechobee County. ways in the flatwoods. The water table, normally at a,\
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists take depth of about 60 inches, fluctuates between 30 and 72
soil samples needed for laboratory measurements and for inches. Most areas are in the eastern part of the county,
engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kinds chiefly near Fort Drum.







2 SOIL SURVEY

characteristics. Each soil series is named for a town or of soils in other places are also assembled. Data on yields
other geographic feature near the place where a soil of of crops under defined practices are assembled from farm
that series was first observed and mapped. Adamsville records and from field or plot experiments on the same
and Basinger, for example, are the names of two soil kinds of soils. Yields under defined management are esti-
series. All the soils in the United States having the same mated for all the soils.
series name are essentially alike in those characteristics The soil scientists set up trial groups of soils on the
that affect their behavior in the undisturbed landscape. basis of yield and practice tables and other data they
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface have collected. They test these groups by further study
soil and in slope, stoniness, or some other characteristic and by consultation with farmers, agronomists, engineers,
that affects use of the soils by man. On the basis of such and others. Then they adjust the groups according to the
differences, a soil series is divided into phases. The name results of their studies and consultation. Thus, the groups
of a soil phase indicates a feature that affects manage- that are finally evolved reflect up-to-date knowledge of
ment. For example, Basinger fine sand and Basinger the soils and their behavior under present methods of use
fine sand, ponded (mapped in the undifferentiated unit and management.
Basinger and Pompano fine sands, ponded), are two
phases of the Basinger series.
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils General Soil Map
had been worked out, the soil scientists drew the bound-
aries of the individual soils on aerial photographs. These The general soil map at the back of this survey shows,
photographs show woodlands, buildings, field borders, in color, the soil associations in Okeechobee County. A
trees, and other, details that help in drawing boundaries soil association is a landscape that has a distinctive pro-
accurately. The soil map in the back of this publication portional pattern of soils. It normally consists of one or
was prepared fTom aerial photographs. more major soils and at least one minor soil, and it is
The areas shown on a soil map are called mapping named for the major soils. The soils in one association
units. On most maps detailed enough to be useful in may occur in another, but in a different pattern.
planning the management of farms and fields, a mapping A map showing soil associations is useful to people
unit is nearly equivalent to a soil phase. It is not exactly who want a general idea of the soils in a county, who
equivalent, because it is not practical to show on such a want to compare different parts of a county, or who want
map all the small, scattered bits of soil of some other to know the location of large tracts that are suitable for
kind that have been seen within an area that is domi- a particular land use. Such a map is a useful general
nantly of a recognized soil phase, guide in managing a watershed, a wooded tract, or a wild-/
Some mapping units are made up of soils of different life area, or in planning engineering works, recreational'
series or of different phases within one series. Two such facilities, and community developments. It is not a suit-
kinds of mapping units are shown on the soil map of able map for planning the management of a farm or field,
Okeechobee County: soil complexes and undifferentiated or for selecting the exact location of a road, building, or
groups. similar structure, because the soils in any one association
A soil complex consists of areas of two or more soils, ordinarily differ in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, and
so intricately mixed or so small in size that they cannot other characteristics that affect their management.
be shown separately on the soil map. Each area of a com- The 10 soil associations in Okeechobee County are dis-
plex contains some of. each of the two or more dominant cussed briefly in this section. They consist of nearly level
soils, and the pattern and relative proportions are about soils that vary principally in wetness, thickness, texture,
the same in all areas. The :name of a soil complex con- or acidity. More detailed information about the indi-
sists of the names of the dominant soils, joined by a hy- vidual soils in each association can be obtained by study-
phen. Basinger-Placid complex is an example. ing the detailed soil map and by reading the section
An undifferentiated soil group is made up of two or "Descriptions of the Soils." Use and management of the
more soils that could be delineated individually but are soils for farming is discussed in the section "Use and
shown as one unit because, for the purpose of the soil Management of the Soils." That section also describes
survey, there is little value in separating them. The pat- uses of the soils for engineering and nonfarm purposes.
tern and proportion of. soils are not uniform. An area
shown on the map may be made up of only one of the 1. Pomello-Paola Association
dominant soils, or of two or more. The name of an undif-
ferentiated group consists of the names of the dominant Nearly level, moderately well drained soils that are sandy
soils, joined by "and." Basinger and Pompano fine sands, to a depth of more than 40 inches; on low knolls and
ponded, is an example. ridges
In some areas surveyed there, are places where the soil This association consists of nearly level, very strongly
material is so altered by man anId machinery that it can- acid, deep, sandy soils that are moderately well drained.
not be classified by soil series. These places are shown on These soils are adjacent to and surround small areas of
the soil map and are described in. the survey, but they are lower, wetter, deep sandy soils. They occur as small dry
called land types and are given descriptive names. Made knolls and ridges of light-colored sand near drainage-
land is a land type in Okeechobee County. ways in the flatwoods. The water table, normally at a,\
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists take depth of about 60 inches, fluctuates between 30 and 72
soil samples needed for laboratory measurements and for inches. Most areas are in the eastern part of the county,
engineering tests. Laboratory data from the same kinds chiefly near Fort Drum.







OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 3
This association makes up about 2 percent of the
anty. About 60 percent of the association is Pomello
ils, and most of the rest is Paola soils.
The Pomello soils have a thin surface layer of gray .
te sand and a subsurface layer of nearly white fine sand
at extends to a depth of more than 30 inches. A pan E
at consists of dark reddish-brown, very strongly acid
ad, weakly cemented with organic material, normally
at a depth between 30 and 60 inches. The water table
nerally is at a depth between 30 and 72 inches. .
The Paola soils are not so nearly white as the Pomello --.
ils and have a weakly developed, dark-colored layer -! .
at is stained with organic matter at a depth of about
inches.
Most of this association has a sparse cover of native
getation consisting of scrub oak, sand pine, slash pine, ';' .
f-palmetto, and many kinds of grasses. Because they
.re drier and somewhat higher than the surrounding .. .L -...--..l
.t land, some of the areas were selected for homesites
t land, some of the areas were selected for homesites Figure 2.-Broad areas of Myakka fine sand and shallow depres-
early settlers. Many of these have reverted to native sions of Basinger fine sand are typical of the Myakka-Basinger soil
getation. association. Many areas of the Basinger soil are ponded most of
The Pomello soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops the time and are used to provide water for livestock.
3ause they are drought and low in fertility. A few
,as, primarily of the Paola soil, have been cleared and Brownish-colored sandy materials underlie this layer and
stured or planted to citrus trees. This soil is moder- extend deep in the soil.
,ly well suited to citrus fruits and to improved pasture. Saw-palmetto, scattered stands of pine, gallberry, fet-
Ider good management, pine trees and native grasses terbush, runner oak, and grasses grow on the flatwoods.
aw fairly well. The prairie areas have a cover of grasses and shrubs sim-
rhe soils in this association produce plants that provide ilar to that growing on the flatwoods but are treeless.
ne food and cover for wildlife. They also provide high Grasses, sedges, and rushes that tolerate wetness grow in
,as where cattle and wildlife can find refuge in ex- the sloughs.
mely wet periods. Much of this association is used for native range, but
many large areas are in improved pasture. Tomatoes and
Myakka-Basinger Association watermelons are grown on newly cleared land before im-
proved pasture is established.
earlyy level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a If surface drainage is provided, the soils in this as-
pth of more than 40 inches and have an organic pan sociation are well suited to improved pasture. Intensive
a depth of 10 to 30 inches; on broad flatwoods and measures for water control are needed before the soils
Sn prairies and in scattered grassy sloughs and isolated can be used for cultivated crops. Then under a high level
oressions of management, most areas of these soils are well suited to
En this association are nearly level or depressional, truck crops and to special crops. The soils generally are
'y strongly acid, deep, sandy soils that are poorly poorly suited to citrus fruits. If managed well, areas of
mined. The landscape is one of broad tracts of flatwoods this association make good range and are moderately well
I open prairies and of narrow grassy sloughs and suited to pine trees.
lated shallow depressions (fig. 2). An organic pan This soil association is the natural habitat for many
.urs in the soils of the flatwoods and open prairies, and kinds of wildlife.
, water table normally is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches.
.ring wet periods, soils of the flatwoods and prairies 3. Immokalee-Pompano Association
. saturated, and shallow water covers the soils in the
ughs. Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
this association makes up about 40 percent of the depth of more than 40 inches; organic pan at a depth of
nty. About 80 percent of the association is Myakka 30 to 48 inches in most places; on broad flatwoods and in
Is, 10 percent is Basinger soils, and the rest is Placid, scattered grassy sloughs and depressions
Johns, Pompano, Pamlico, and other minor soils. This association consists of nearly level, deep, sandy
Che Myakka soils occur in the flatwoods and prairies, soils that are poorly drained. The landscape is one of
ey have a thin, dark-gray, sandy surface layer and a broad flatwoods, scattered grassy sloughs, and shallow
ht-gray, sandy subsurface layer. The organic pan is isolated depressions. An organic pan occurs in the soils
;hin a depth of 30 inches. It is black to dark reddish of the flatwoods. In the flatwoods the water table nor-
)wn and is weakly cemented. The Basinger soils oc- mally fluctuates between depths of 15 and 30 inches.
?y the sloughs and some depressions. They have a thin, Shallow water covers the sloughs during wet periods
:k-colored surface layer and a light-colored subsurface and stays in the depressions for most of the year.
*er that typically extends to a depth of 18 inches. This soil association makes up about 25 percent of the







OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 3
This association makes up about 2 percent of the
anty. About 60 percent of the association is Pomello
ils, and most of the rest is Paola soils.
The Pomello soils have a thin surface layer of gray .
te sand and a subsurface layer of nearly white fine sand
at extends to a depth of more than 30 inches. A pan E
at consists of dark reddish-brown, very strongly acid
ad, weakly cemented with organic material, normally
at a depth between 30 and 60 inches. The water table
nerally is at a depth between 30 and 72 inches. .
The Paola soils are not so nearly white as the Pomello --.
ils and have a weakly developed, dark-colored layer -! .
at is stained with organic matter at a depth of about
inches.
Most of this association has a sparse cover of native
getation consisting of scrub oak, sand pine, slash pine, ';' .
f-palmetto, and many kinds of grasses. Because they
.re drier and somewhat higher than the surrounding .. .L -...--..l
.t land, some of the areas were selected for homesites
t land, some of the areas were selected for homesites Figure 2.-Broad areas of Myakka fine sand and shallow depres-
early settlers. Many of these have reverted to native sions of Basinger fine sand are typical of the Myakka-Basinger soil
getation. association. Many areas of the Basinger soil are ponded most of
The Pomello soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops the time and are used to provide water for livestock.
3ause they are drought and low in fertility. A few
,as, primarily of the Paola soil, have been cleared and Brownish-colored sandy materials underlie this layer and
stured or planted to citrus trees. This soil is moder- extend deep in the soil.
,ly well suited to citrus fruits and to improved pasture. Saw-palmetto, scattered stands of pine, gallberry, fet-
Ider good management, pine trees and native grasses terbush, runner oak, and grasses grow on the flatwoods.
aw fairly well. The prairie areas have a cover of grasses and shrubs sim-
rhe soils in this association produce plants that provide ilar to that growing on the flatwoods but are treeless.
ne food and cover for wildlife. They also provide high Grasses, sedges, and rushes that tolerate wetness grow in
,as where cattle and wildlife can find refuge in ex- the sloughs.
mely wet periods. Much of this association is used for native range, but
many large areas are in improved pasture. Tomatoes and
Myakka-Basinger Association watermelons are grown on newly cleared land before im-
proved pasture is established.
earlyy level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a If surface drainage is provided, the soils in this as-
pth of more than 40 inches and have an organic pan sociation are well suited to improved pasture. Intensive
a depth of 10 to 30 inches; on broad flatwoods and measures for water control are needed before the soils
Sn prairies and in scattered grassy sloughs and isolated can be used for cultivated crops. Then under a high level
oressions of management, most areas of these soils are well suited to
En this association are nearly level or depressional, truck crops and to special crops. The soils generally are
'y strongly acid, deep, sandy soils that are poorly poorly suited to citrus fruits. If managed well, areas of
mined. The landscape is one of broad tracts of flatwoods this association make good range and are moderately well
I open prairies and of narrow grassy sloughs and suited to pine trees.
lated shallow depressions (fig. 2). An organic pan This soil association is the natural habitat for many
.urs in the soils of the flatwoods and open prairies, and kinds of wildlife.
, water table normally is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches.
.ring wet periods, soils of the flatwoods and prairies 3. Immokalee-Pompano Association
. saturated, and shallow water covers the soils in the
ughs. Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
this association makes up about 40 percent of the depth of more than 40 inches; organic pan at a depth of
nty. About 80 percent of the association is Myakka 30 to 48 inches in most places; on broad flatwoods and in
Is, 10 percent is Basinger soils, and the rest is Placid, scattered grassy sloughs and depressions
Johns, Pompano, Pamlico, and other minor soils. This association consists of nearly level, deep, sandy
Che Myakka soils occur in the flatwoods and prairies, soils that are poorly drained. The landscape is one of
ey have a thin, dark-gray, sandy surface layer and a broad flatwoods, scattered grassy sloughs, and shallow
ht-gray, sandy subsurface layer. The organic pan is isolated depressions. An organic pan occurs in the soils
;hin a depth of 30 inches. It is black to dark reddish of the flatwoods. In the flatwoods the water table nor-
)wn and is weakly cemented. The Basinger soils oc- mally fluctuates between depths of 15 and 30 inches.
?y the sloughs and some depressions. They have a thin, Shallow water covers the sloughs during wet periods
:k-colored surface layer and a light-colored subsurface and stays in the depressions for most of the year.
*er that typically extends to a depth of 18 inches. This soil association makes up about 25 percent of the







4 SOIL SURVEY

county. About 70 percent of the .association is Immokalee and vines. In the pine flatwoods, the vegetation consists
soil, 15 percent is Pompano soils, and the rest is Basinger, of saw-palmetto, scattered pines, gallberry, fetterbush,
Charlotte, Delray, Placid, and other minor soils. runner oak, and many kinds of grasses.
The Imnnokalee soils are in the flatwoods and are very If surface drainage is provided, the soils in the pine
acid. They have a thin, very dark gray, sandy surface flatwoods are well suited to improved pasture. The palm
layer and a thick, light gray to white, sandy subsurface hammocks produce little forage, and improving such
layer. The organic pan, which is at a depth between 30 areas for pasture would not justify the cost. The most
and 48 inches, is black to dark reddish brown and is economical method generally is to improve only the flat-
weakly cemented. The Pompano soils are in the sloughs wood areas and to use the hanunocks to provide shade
and depressions and are slightly acid. Their surface layer and shelter for the cattle. If intensive measures for water
is dark gray and grayish brown and sandy. The underly- control are used, the soils in this association are well
ing material also is sandy and is grayish to brownish suited to truck crops and citrus fruits. Only a small
in color, acreage, however, is used for citrus.
Most of this association remains in native vegetation This association provides good feeding, shelter, and
consisting of saw-palmetto, scattered stands of slash pine, nesting areas for many kinds of wildlife.
gallberry, fetterbush, runner oak, and grasses. Many
large areas are cleared and used as open range or as im- 5. Placid-Pamlico-Delray Association
proved pasture. Tomatoes and watermelons are grown
prior to the establishment of improved pasture. Some Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are sandy to
small areas are planted to citrus fruits, a depth of more than 40 inches and organic soils; in
If surface drainage is provided, the soils in this as- swamps and heavily wooded drainageways
sociation are well suited to improved pasture. Intensive In this association are deep, very strongly acid to
measures for water control are needed for good growth mildly alkaline, sandy soils and acid muck and peat soils.
of truck crops and special crops, but citrus crops grow All of these soils are nearly level and are very poorly
poorly. If managed well, areas of this association make drained. The landscape is one of heavily wooded swamps
good range and are moderately well suited to pine trees, and cypress trees along the courses of sluggish natural
This association is the natural habitat for many kinds drainageways (fig. 3). Shallow, slow-moving water covers
of wildlife. the areas most of the time. The largest areas of this as-
sociation are in the eastern part of the county where
4. Parkwood-Bradenton-Wabasso Association natural drainage is better developed.
Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have' a
loamy or marly layer at a depth of less than 40 inches;
on palm hammocks and the interspersed pine /latwoods
This association consists of nearly level, neutral to
mildly alkaline, poorly drained, sandy soils that are
shallow to calcareous material and of slightly acid to very
strongly acid, sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil. The
landscape is one of palm hammocks interspersed with
pine flatwoods and a few ponds. The water table is nor-
mally at a depth of 15 to 30 inches, but during wet sea-
sons it rises to near the surface.
This association makes up about 1 percent of the
county. About 35 percent of the association is Parkwood
soil, 25 percent is Bradenton soil, 25 percent is Wabasso
soil, and the remaining 15 percent is Delray, Felda, Ft.
Drum, Manatee, Myakka, Pompano, and other minor
soils.
The Parkwood soils are on the palm hammocks. They
have a dark-colored, sandy surface layer underlain by
calcareous, marly material at a depth of 9 to 18 inches.
The Bradenton soils occur in both the palm hammock
and pine flatwood areas. They have a medium acid to
neutral, sandy surface layer that overlies a loamy subsoil
and a calcareous substratum. The W*abasso soils are in
the pine flatwoods. These soils have a very strongly acid,
sandy surface layer and a neutral to mildly alkaline,
loamy subsoil. An organic pan occurs at a depth of 12 to
30 inches.
Most of this association is used for native range. In
the palm hammock areas the vegetation is mainly
cabbage-palm, but oak and pine grow in some areas. The Figure 3.-Typical landscape in the Placid-Pamlico-Delray
undergrowth consists of sparse stands of grasses, shrubs, association.







4 SOIL SURVEY

county. About 70 percent of the .association is Immokalee and vines. In the pine flatwoods, the vegetation consists
soil, 15 percent is Pompano soils, and the rest is Basinger, of saw-palmetto, scattered pines, gallberry, fetterbush,
Charlotte, Delray, Placid, and other minor soils. runner oak, and many kinds of grasses.
The Imnnokalee soils are in the flatwoods and are very If surface drainage is provided, the soils in the pine
acid. They have a thin, very dark gray, sandy surface flatwoods are well suited to improved pasture. The palm
layer and a thick, light gray to white, sandy subsurface hammocks produce little forage, and improving such
layer. The organic pan, which is at a depth between 30 areas for pasture would not justify the cost. The most
and 48 inches, is black to dark reddish brown and is economical method generally is to improve only the flat-
weakly cemented. The Pompano soils are in the sloughs wood areas and to use the hanunocks to provide shade
and depressions and are slightly acid. Their surface layer and shelter for the cattle. If intensive measures for water
is dark gray and grayish brown and sandy. The underly- control are used, the soils in this association are well
ing material also is sandy and is grayish to brownish suited to truck crops and citrus fruits. Only a small
in color, acreage, however, is used for citrus.
Most of this association remains in native vegetation This association provides good feeding, shelter, and
consisting of saw-palmetto, scattered stands of slash pine, nesting areas for many kinds of wildlife.
gallberry, fetterbush, runner oak, and grasses. Many
large areas are cleared and used as open range or as im- 5. Placid-Pamlico-Delray Association
proved pasture. Tomatoes and watermelons are grown
prior to the establishment of improved pasture. Some Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are sandy to
small areas are planted to citrus fruits, a depth of more than 40 inches and organic soils; in
If surface drainage is provided, the soils in this as- swamps and heavily wooded drainageways
sociation are well suited to improved pasture. Intensive In this association are deep, very strongly acid to
measures for water control are needed for good growth mildly alkaline, sandy soils and acid muck and peat soils.
of truck crops and special crops, but citrus crops grow All of these soils are nearly level and are very poorly
poorly. If managed well, areas of this association make drained. The landscape is one of heavily wooded swamps
good range and are moderately well suited to pine trees, and cypress trees along the courses of sluggish natural
This association is the natural habitat for many kinds drainageways (fig. 3). Shallow, slow-moving water covers
of wildlife. the areas most of the time. The largest areas of this as-
sociation are in the eastern part of the county where
4. Parkwood-Bradenton-Wabasso Association natural drainage is better developed.
Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have' a
loamy or marly layer at a depth of less than 40 inches;
on palm hammocks and the interspersed pine /latwoods
This association consists of nearly level, neutral to
mildly alkaline, poorly drained, sandy soils that are
shallow to calcareous material and of slightly acid to very
strongly acid, sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil. The
landscape is one of palm hammocks interspersed with
pine flatwoods and a few ponds. The water table is nor-
mally at a depth of 15 to 30 inches, but during wet sea-
sons it rises to near the surface.
This association makes up about 1 percent of the
county. About 35 percent of the association is Parkwood
soil, 25 percent is Bradenton soil, 25 percent is Wabasso
soil, and the remaining 15 percent is Delray, Felda, Ft.
Drum, Manatee, Myakka, Pompano, and other minor
soils.
The Parkwood soils are on the palm hammocks. They
have a dark-colored, sandy surface layer underlain by
calcareous, marly material at a depth of 9 to 18 inches.
The Bradenton soils occur in both the palm hammock
and pine flatwood areas. They have a medium acid to
neutral, sandy surface layer that overlies a loamy subsoil
and a calcareous substratum. The W*abasso soils are in
the pine flatwoods. These soils have a very strongly acid,
sandy surface layer and a neutral to mildly alkaline,
loamy subsoil. An organic pan occurs at a depth of 12 to
30 inches.
Most of this association is used for native range. In
the palm hammock areas the vegetation is mainly
cabbage-palm, but oak and pine grow in some areas. The Figure 3.-Typical landscape in the Placid-Pamlico-Delray
undergrowth consists of sparse stands of grasses, shrubs, association.







OIEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

About 5 percent of the county is in this association. brighter colored, brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown,,
'he Placid soils make up about 40 percent of the associ- sandy subsoil. Delray soils occupy depressions and ponds
bion; the Pamlico soil, about 20 percent; the Delray soils, and have a thick, dark-colored sandy surface layer and
3 percent; arid the Basinger, Felda, Okeelanta, Pom- a loamy subsoil at a depth of 40 to 60 inches. The Im-
ano, and other minor soils, the remaining 20 percent. mokalee soils are on small islands and ridges scattered
The Placid soils are very strongly acid, deep, sandy throughout the association. They are very strongly acid
)ils that have a thick, dark-colored surface layer. The and sandy and have an organic pan at a depth below 30
'amlico soils consist of layers of very strongly acid, inches.
lack muck 12 to 36 inches thick. This muck overlies Most areas of this association are used for native
mndy material and contains some small areas of acid range. The vegetation consists of grasses and many
eat. The Delray soils are similar to the Placid soils but grasslike sedges and rushes.
re slightly acid to mildly alkaline. They have a subsoil If surface drainage is provided, the soils in this asso-
f fine sandy loam at a depth between 40 and 60 inches. citation are well suited to improved pasture. As much as
Most areas of this association have a dense cover of 25 percent of the association has been developed for
,etland hardwood trees, such as sweetbay, sweetgum, such use. Intensive measures for water control are needed
wamp maple, cypress, and water oak, and a dense under- for growth of cultivated crops. Then if other good man-
rowth of ferns, vines, and shrubs. In small open areas agement is provided, these soils are fairly well suited to
re sawgrass and other marsh grasses, pickerelweed, truck crops.
dishes, and other aquatic plants. Pure stands of cypress The native vegetation in this association makes good
re also common, range and is a natural habitat for many kinds of
The heavily wooded swamps generally are not feasible wildlife.
Clear and drain for farming. These areas are more
useful if left in native vegetation and used for trees 7. Manatee-Delray-Okeelanta Association
ad as wildlife habitat. Some marsh areas provide ex-
llent grazing if used as rangeland. Nearly level, very poorly drained, sandy soils that in
This association provides good natural habitat for most places have a loamy layer at a depth of less than 40
tany kinds of wildlife. inches and organic soils; on flood plains of major streams
A few marsh areas in this association have adequate and other lowlands
drainage outlets and can be developed for improved pas- In this association are nearly level, slightly acid to
ire. Such areas also are well suited to truck crops if neutral, very poorly drained, sandy soils and organic
itensive measures for water control are practiced. After soils. The sandy soils have a dark-colored surface layer
ie organic soils of this association are drained and re- and a neutral to calcareous loamy subsoil. Interspersed
aimed, subsidence and oxidation are constant hazards. within areas of these sandy soils are small- to medium-
sized areas of slightly acid to neutral organic soils. This
Pompano-Charlotte-Delray-Immokalee association generally is on bottom lands in the flood
Association plains of the Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek and in
lowlands adjacent to Lake Okeechobee. The flood plains
early level, mainly poorly drained soils that are sandy are dissected by many old stream meanders, oxbows, and
) a depth of more than 40 inches; in broad grassy discontinuous natural dikes. Major drainage and water
oughs and depressions and on small scattered palmetto control works recently have been established on most
ats soils in this association, and only small areas or depres-
In this association are nearly level, poorly drained, sions now are subject to frequent flooding.
medium acid to neutral, deep, sandy soils and similar Ths assocaton makes up about 6 percent of the
s tt are very poorly drained and have a dark sur- county. About 45 percent of the association is Manatee
ils that are very poorly drained and have a dark sur- soils, 25 percent is Delray soils, and 15 percent is Okee-
ece layer and a loamy subsoil. The landscape is one of lanta soils. The remaining 15 percent is made up of
:oad grassy sloughs and many shallow depressions and such minor soils as the Chobee, Felda, and Pompano, and
itermittent ponds, as well as small scattered palmetto of alluvial soils, old stream channels, and open areas of
ats with clumps of palms. For short periods during the water.
et season, shallow water covers much of this associa- The Manatee soils have a thick, black loamy fine sand
on. The depressions and intermittent ponds are covered surface layer and a dark-colored fine sandy loam subsoil.
ith shallow water most of the time. Calcareous underlying material is at a depth of about 36
This association makes up about 12 percent of the inches. The Delray soils have a thick, black sandy sur-
)unty. About 40 percent of the association is Pompano face layer and a thick, gray sandy subsurface layer. A
)ils; about 20 percent is Charlotte soils; and about 30 mildly alkaline loamy subsoil is at a depth between 40
recentt is Delray and Immokalee soils, in equal parts. and 60 inches. The Okeelanta soils are slightly acid to
he remaining 10 percent consists of such minor soils as neutral, black to very dark brown peat underlain by
,lred, Felda, and Ft. Drum. sandy material at a depth of less than 36 inches.
Pompano soils are poorly drained, deep, light-colored Most areas of this association are on flood plains of the
ad sandy and! occur in sloughs and depressions. The Kissimmee River and of Taylor Creek. They have a
harlotte soils also occur in sloughs and depressions and cover of native vegetation that consists mainly of black
7e similar to Pompano soils, except that they have a willow, sawgrass, flags, and of grasses that tolerate wet-







OIEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 5

About 5 percent of the county is in this association. brighter colored, brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown,,
'he Placid soils make up about 40 percent of the associ- sandy subsoil. Delray soils occupy depressions and ponds
bion; the Pamlico soil, about 20 percent; the Delray soils, and have a thick, dark-colored sandy surface layer and
3 percent; arid the Basinger, Felda, Okeelanta, Pom- a loamy subsoil at a depth of 40 to 60 inches. The Im-
ano, and other minor soils, the remaining 20 percent. mokalee soils are on small islands and ridges scattered
The Placid soils are very strongly acid, deep, sandy throughout the association. They are very strongly acid
)ils that have a thick, dark-colored surface layer. The and sandy and have an organic pan at a depth below 30
'amlico soils consist of layers of very strongly acid, inches.
lack muck 12 to 36 inches thick. This muck overlies Most areas of this association are used for native
mndy material and contains some small areas of acid range. The vegetation consists of grasses and many
eat. The Delray soils are similar to the Placid soils but grasslike sedges and rushes.
re slightly acid to mildly alkaline. They have a subsoil If surface drainage is provided, the soils in this asso-
f fine sandy loam at a depth between 40 and 60 inches. citation are well suited to improved pasture. As much as
Most areas of this association have a dense cover of 25 percent of the association has been developed for
,etland hardwood trees, such as sweetbay, sweetgum, such use. Intensive measures for water control are needed
wamp maple, cypress, and water oak, and a dense under- for growth of cultivated crops. Then if other good man-
rowth of ferns, vines, and shrubs. In small open areas agement is provided, these soils are fairly well suited to
re sawgrass and other marsh grasses, pickerelweed, truck crops.
dishes, and other aquatic plants. Pure stands of cypress The native vegetation in this association makes good
re also common, range and is a natural habitat for many kinds of
The heavily wooded swamps generally are not feasible wildlife.
Clear and drain for farming. These areas are more
useful if left in native vegetation and used for trees 7. Manatee-Delray-Okeelanta Association
ad as wildlife habitat. Some marsh areas provide ex-
llent grazing if used as rangeland. Nearly level, very poorly drained, sandy soils that in
This association provides good natural habitat for most places have a loamy layer at a depth of less than 40
tany kinds of wildlife. inches and organic soils; on flood plains of major streams
A few marsh areas in this association have adequate and other lowlands
drainage outlets and can be developed for improved pas- In this association are nearly level, slightly acid to
ire. Such areas also are well suited to truck crops if neutral, very poorly drained, sandy soils and organic
itensive measures for water control are practiced. After soils. The sandy soils have a dark-colored surface layer
ie organic soils of this association are drained and re- and a neutral to calcareous loamy subsoil. Interspersed
aimed, subsidence and oxidation are constant hazards. within areas of these sandy soils are small- to medium-
sized areas of slightly acid to neutral organic soils. This
Pompano-Charlotte-Delray-Immokalee association generally is on bottom lands in the flood
Association plains of the Kissimmee River and Taylor Creek and in
lowlands adjacent to Lake Okeechobee. The flood plains
early level, mainly poorly drained soils that are sandy are dissected by many old stream meanders, oxbows, and
) a depth of more than 40 inches; in broad grassy discontinuous natural dikes. Major drainage and water
oughs and depressions and on small scattered palmetto control works recently have been established on most
ats soils in this association, and only small areas or depres-
In this association are nearly level, poorly drained, sions now are subject to frequent flooding.
medium acid to neutral, deep, sandy soils and similar Ths assocaton makes up about 6 percent of the
s tt are very poorly drained and have a dark sur- county. About 45 percent of the association is Manatee
ils that are very poorly drained and have a dark sur- soils, 25 percent is Delray soils, and 15 percent is Okee-
ece layer and a loamy subsoil. The landscape is one of lanta soils. The remaining 15 percent is made up of
:oad grassy sloughs and many shallow depressions and such minor soils as the Chobee, Felda, and Pompano, and
itermittent ponds, as well as small scattered palmetto of alluvial soils, old stream channels, and open areas of
ats with clumps of palms. For short periods during the water.
et season, shallow water covers much of this associa- The Manatee soils have a thick, black loamy fine sand
on. The depressions and intermittent ponds are covered surface layer and a dark-colored fine sandy loam subsoil.
ith shallow water most of the time. Calcareous underlying material is at a depth of about 36
This association makes up about 12 percent of the inches. The Delray soils have a thick, black sandy sur-
)unty. About 40 percent of the association is Pompano face layer and a thick, gray sandy subsurface layer. A
)ils; about 20 percent is Charlotte soils; and about 30 mildly alkaline loamy subsoil is at a depth between 40
recentt is Delray and Immokalee soils, in equal parts. and 60 inches. The Okeelanta soils are slightly acid to
he remaining 10 percent consists of such minor soils as neutral, black to very dark brown peat underlain by
,lred, Felda, and Ft. Drum. sandy material at a depth of less than 36 inches.
Pompano soils are poorly drained, deep, light-colored Most areas of this association are on flood plains of the
ad sandy and! occur in sloughs and depressions. The Kissimmee River and of Taylor Creek. They have a
harlotte soils also occur in sloughs and depressions and cover of native vegetation that consists mainly of black
7e similar to Pompano soils, except that they have a willow, sawgrass, flags, and of grasses that tolerate wet-







6 SOIL SURVEY

ness. In a few areas, however, clumps of cypress trees If managed well, native range on these soils produces
and cabbage-palms grow. good forage. If surface drainage is provided, most of
The soils in this association are used mainly for na- these soils are suitable for improved pasture. Intensive
tive range and for wildlife, though some fringe areas measures for water control are needed before these soils
are in semi-improved pasture. Most of the lowlands near can be used for cultivated crops. Then if management
Lake Okeechobee have been drained and are used for otherwise is good, citrus fruits and truck crops can be
improved pasture. grown.
Although most areas of this association are now pro- This association provides good natural feeding and
tected from flooding, further water control is needed nesting grounds for many kinds of wildlife.
for most kinds of farming. Much of the acreage is well
suited to improved pasture. Under good management 9. Felda-Pompano-Parkwood Association
that includes drainage and other water control meas-
ures, truck crops and special crops grow well, but citrus Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have a
crops grow poorly. If managed well, areas of this as- loamy subsoil and deep sands, in sloughs and marshes;
sociation make good range. interspersed with poorly drained sandy soils that are
The densely vegetated flood plains of this association shallow to marl and are on palm hammocks
are a good natural habitat for many kinds of wildlife. In this association are nearly level, poorly drained,
sandy soils. Some of these soils are strongly acid to
8. Felda-Wabasso Association neutral; others are slightly acid to mildly alkaline and
Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that hae a are shallow to calcareous material (marl). Some of the
eloa ay level, poory driless than 0 inches; in grassy a strongly acid to neutral soils have a neutral to mildly
loy laughs and depr sessions and on scattered, slightly ee- alkaline subsoil. The landscape is one of broad grassy
sloughed islands depressions and o scattered, slightly ee marshes; shallow intermittent ponds; and small to large,
Slightly elevated palm hammocks. Shallow water covers
This association consists of poorly drained soils in much of this association during the wet season, and the
nearly level, low, broad, grassy sloughs and shallow de- deep depressions for most of the year. The largest areas
pressions, and on scattered flatwood islands and small of this association are in the north-central part of the
palm hammocks. The soils in the sloughs have a strongly county.
acid to slightly acid sandy surface layer underlain by a This association makes up about 2 percent of the
neutral to mildly alkaline, loamy subsoil. The soils of county. About 40 percent is Felda soils, 30 percent is
the flatwoods have strongly acid to very strongly acid, Pompano soils, and 15 percent is Parkwood soil. The re-
sandy surface layers. Below is an organic pan and a manning 15 percent consists of Bradenton, Charlotte,
neutral to mildly alkaline, loamy subsoil. Shallow water Delray, Ft. Drum, Manatee, Okeelanta, and other minor
covers the sloughs only during the wet seasons, but the soils.
depressions are under water for most of the year. This The Felda soils are in marshy areas and sloughs. They
association occupies several small areas in the county, have a sandy surface layer and a loamy subsoil. The
but the major area is in the northeastern corner.
but the major area is in the northeastern corner. Pompano soils are similar to the Felda soils but lack the
This association makes up about 5 percent of the Pomp
county. About 45 percent of the association is the Felda loamy subsoil typical of the Felda soils. They occur
soils, 30 percent is the Wabasso soil, and the remaining mainly around the edges of the marshy areas and also
25 percent is made up of such minor soils as the Char- in some shallow ponds. The Parkwood soils occur in the
lotte, Delray, Elred, and Pompano in slough areas, and hammock areas. They have a dark-colored, sandy surface
the Bradenton, Immokalee, and Myakka in flatwoods layer that is underlain by calcareous material at a depth
and hammock areas. between 10 and 18 inches.
The Felda soils are in sloughs. They have a thin sur- Much of this association is undeveloped and used for
face layer of dark-colored fine sand underlain by a sub- native range and as wildlife habitat. Some areas in the
surface layer of grayish-brown to light-gray fine sand. wetlands are in improved pasture, and one small area
The subsoil is gray fine sandy loam to dark-gray loamy is used for citrus crops. In the wetlands the native vege-
fine sand and has yellowish mottles. The Wabasso soils station consists of maidencane, sawgrass, and other
are in the flatwoods. They have a thin surface layer of grasses and plants that tolerate wetness. In the ham-
dark-colored fine sand underlain by a subsurface layer mocks the native vegetation consists of cabbage-palms,
of gray fine sand. An organic pan is at a depth of about oaks, and an undergrowth of various kinds of shrubs,
12 to 30 inches. Below are thi, sandy layers underlain and an e of various minds of shrubs,
by mottled, light-gray to yellowish-brown fine sandy vines, and grasses.
loam. Where drainage is feasible, much of the acreage of
Most areas of this association remain in native this association is well suited to improved pasture. The
vegetation and are used as range. In the sloughs and hammocks generally provide shelter for cattle that graze
depressions, the vegetation consists of St. Johnswort, in adjacent pastures. Intensive measures for water con-
maidencane, pickerelweed, grasses, and sedges. In the trol are needed before the soils in this association can be
flatwoods, the native vegetation consists of saw-palmetto, used for cultivated crops. Then if other good manage-
gallberry, runner oak, scattered pine trees, and clumps of ment also is used, most areas are well suited to truck
cabbage-palm. Some large areas are in improved pasture, crops and to citrus fruits. The native grasses on the wet-
and a few small areas are used for citrus, land soils provide good grazing when used for range.







6 SOIL SURVEY

ness. In a few areas, however, clumps of cypress trees If managed well, native range on these soils produces
and cabbage-palms grow. good forage. If surface drainage is provided, most of
The soils in this association are used mainly for na- these soils are suitable for improved pasture. Intensive
tive range and for wildlife, though some fringe areas measures for water control are needed before these soils
are in semi-improved pasture. Most of the lowlands near can be used for cultivated crops. Then if management
Lake Okeechobee have been drained and are used for otherwise is good, citrus fruits and truck crops can be
improved pasture. grown.
Although most areas of this association are now pro- This association provides good natural feeding and
tected from flooding, further water control is needed nesting grounds for many kinds of wildlife.
for most kinds of farming. Much of the acreage is well
suited to improved pasture. Under good management 9. Felda-Pompano-Parkwood Association
that includes drainage and other water control meas-
ures, truck crops and special crops grow well, but citrus Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have a
crops grow poorly. If managed well, areas of this as- loamy subsoil and deep sands, in sloughs and marshes;
sociation make good range. interspersed with poorly drained sandy soils that are
The densely vegetated flood plains of this association shallow to marl and are on palm hammocks
are a good natural habitat for many kinds of wildlife. In this association are nearly level, poorly drained,
sandy soils. Some of these soils are strongly acid to
8. Felda-Wabasso Association neutral; others are slightly acid to mildly alkaline and
Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that hae a are shallow to calcareous material (marl). Some of the
eloa ay level, poory driless than 0 inches; in grassy a strongly acid to neutral soils have a neutral to mildly
loy laughs and depr sessions and on scattered, slightly ee- alkaline subsoil. The landscape is one of broad grassy
sloughed islands depressions and o scattered, slightly ee marshes; shallow intermittent ponds; and small to large,
Slightly elevated palm hammocks. Shallow water covers
This association consists of poorly drained soils in much of this association during the wet season, and the
nearly level, low, broad, grassy sloughs and shallow de- deep depressions for most of the year. The largest areas
pressions, and on scattered flatwood islands and small of this association are in the north-central part of the
palm hammocks. The soils in the sloughs have a strongly county.
acid to slightly acid sandy surface layer underlain by a This association makes up about 2 percent of the
neutral to mildly alkaline, loamy subsoil. The soils of county. About 40 percent is Felda soils, 30 percent is
the flatwoods have strongly acid to very strongly acid, Pompano soils, and 15 percent is Parkwood soil. The re-
sandy surface layers. Below is an organic pan and a manning 15 percent consists of Bradenton, Charlotte,
neutral to mildly alkaline, loamy subsoil. Shallow water Delray, Ft. Drum, Manatee, Okeelanta, and other minor
covers the sloughs only during the wet seasons, but the soils.
depressions are under water for most of the year. This The Felda soils are in marshy areas and sloughs. They
association occupies several small areas in the county, have a sandy surface layer and a loamy subsoil. The
but the major area is in the northeastern corner.
but the major area is in the northeastern corner. Pompano soils are similar to the Felda soils but lack the
This association makes up about 5 percent of the Pomp
county. About 45 percent of the association is the Felda loamy subsoil typical of the Felda soils. They occur
soils, 30 percent is the Wabasso soil, and the remaining mainly around the edges of the marshy areas and also
25 percent is made up of such minor soils as the Char- in some shallow ponds. The Parkwood soils occur in the
lotte, Delray, Elred, and Pompano in slough areas, and hammock areas. They have a dark-colored, sandy surface
the Bradenton, Immokalee, and Myakka in flatwoods layer that is underlain by calcareous material at a depth
and hammock areas. between 10 and 18 inches.
The Felda soils are in sloughs. They have a thin sur- Much of this association is undeveloped and used for
face layer of dark-colored fine sand underlain by a sub- native range and as wildlife habitat. Some areas in the
surface layer of grayish-brown to light-gray fine sand. wetlands are in improved pasture, and one small area
The subsoil is gray fine sandy loam to dark-gray loamy is used for citrus crops. In the wetlands the native vege-
fine sand and has yellowish mottles. The Wabasso soils station consists of maidencane, sawgrass, and other
are in the flatwoods. They have a thin surface layer of grasses and plants that tolerate wetness. In the ham-
dark-colored fine sand underlain by a subsurface layer mocks the native vegetation consists of cabbage-palms,
of gray fine sand. An organic pan is at a depth of about oaks, and an undergrowth of various kinds of shrubs,
12 to 30 inches. Below are thi, sandy layers underlain and an e of various minds of shrubs,
by mottled, light-gray to yellowish-brown fine sandy vines, and grasses.
loam. Where drainage is feasible, much of the acreage of
Most areas of this association remain in native this association is well suited to improved pasture. The
vegetation and are used as range. In the sloughs and hammocks generally provide shelter for cattle that graze
depressions, the vegetation consists of St. Johnswort, in adjacent pastures. Intensive measures for water con-
maidencane, pickerelweed, grasses, and sedges. In the trol are needed before the soils in this association can be
flatwoods, the native vegetation consists of saw-palmetto, used for cultivated crops. Then if other good manage-
gallberry, runner oak, scattered pine trees, and clumps of ment also is used, most areas are well suited to truck
cabbage-palm. Some large areas are in improved pasture, crops and to citrus fruits. The native grasses on the wet-
and a few small areas are used for citrus, land soils provide good grazing when used for range.








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

.0. Okeelanta-Delray-Pompano Association in which the mapping unit has been placed. The "Guide
to Mapping Units" at the back of this survey lists the
Early level, very poorly drained organic soils in broad pages where each of these groups and the mapping units
awgrass marshes and the adjacent wet sandy soils are described. Many terms used in the soil descriptions
In this association are nearly level, very poorly are defined in the Glossary and in the Soil Survey Man-
trained organic soils and adjacent wet sandy soils. The ual (6).2 The acreage and the proportionate extent of the
,rganic soils are slightly acid to mildly alkaline, and the mapping units are shown in table 1.
andy soils are light colored to dark colored and medium Adamsville fine sand (Ad).-This somewhat poorly
,cid to mildly alkaline. The landscape is one of large drained, nearly level, deep, sandy soil is along the fringes
awgrass marshes and adjacent grassy sloughs. Shallow of flatwoods areas that border sloughs and ponds. The
vater covers the marshes for most of the year and most areas are small and occur throughout much of the
if the sloughs during the wet season. The association county.
)ccurs primarily near Yates Marsh, Dark Hammock, in In a typical profile the surface layer is fine sand about
Lreas 4 to 6 miles northeast of the city of Okeechobee, 12 inches thick. It is dark gray in the upper part and
Ind along the northern and eastern borders of Lake dark grayish brown in the lower part. The next layer is
)keechobee. grayish-brown fine sand about 10 inches thick. Belov- a
This association makes up about 2 percent of the depth of about 22 inches is lighter colored fine sand. The
county About 40 percent is Okeelanta soils, 20 percent water table normally is at a depth of about 30 inclhs.
s Delray soils, and 15 percent is Pompano soils. The re- Typical profile of Adamsville fine sand (directly south
naming 25 percent consists of Felda, Manatee, Placid, of Old Dixie Highway, about 11/2 miles southwest of the
[erra Ceia, and other minor soils. Along the eastern center of Okeechobee):
)order of Lake Okeechobee the proportion of Delray
soils is larger1 and the proportion of Okeelanta soils is A11-0 to 6 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak,
r tn in mst o a s o ts asso fine, crumb structure; very friable; has a salt-and-
imaller than in most other areas of this association, pepper appearance in places because of mixing of
The Okeelanta soils consist of layers of black to organic matter and light-gray sand; many fine, medi-
rery dark brown, fibrous peat, 12 to 36 inches thick, un-
lerlain by neutral sand. The Delray soils have a thick, Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literatrlre Cited, p. 59.
lack, sandy surface layer, a thick gray subsurface layer,
nd a loamy layer in the subsoil at a depth of 40 to 60
.nches. The Pompano soils have a thin surface layer of TABLE 1.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent
lark-gray fine sand. Below is light-colored fine sand to of soils
i depth of 72 inches or more. t
In the marshes the native vegetation consists mainly Soil Area Etet
)f sawgrass, but pickerelweed and a few scattered cypress Acres Percent
trees grow in some places. On the adjacent wetlands, Adamsville fine sand----- ------------- 8, 000 1. 6
:he native vegetation consists of pickerelweed and of Basinger fine sand----------------------- 16, 000 3. 2
grasses and other plants that tolerate wetness. Basinger-Placid complex ----- ---- ---. 5,000 1.0
rse an e.s a t e s Basinger and Pompano fine sands, ponded--- 10, 000 2. 0
Where drainage is feasible, the soils of the marshes are Borrow pits -------------------------- 200 (1)
well suited to truck crops or to improved pasture. After Bradenton fine sand------------------ 3,000 .6
drainage, however, subsidence and oxidation are constant Charlotte fine sand----------------------- 10, 000 2. 0
hazards. The soils in the sandy wetlands adjacent to the Chobee fine sandy loam ...--------- ----- 1 000 .2
Delray fine sand -------------------------- 12, 000 2.4
marshes are well suited to truck crops and are especially Delray fine sand, thin solum variat -------- 2, 500 .5
well suited to improved pasture. Before any of the soils Elred fine sand ------------.-- ---------- 3, 000 .6
in this association can be used for cultivated crops, in- Felda fine sand-- -----------.--------- 8, 000 6
ensive measures are needed for water control. Felda, Pompano, and Placid soils, ponded--- 10, 000 2. 0
Ft. Drum fine sand ----.------------------ 2, 000 .4
About two-thirds of the acreage of this association is Immokalee fine sand -- -------------- 130, 000 26. 0
in improved pasture. The remaining acreage is in native Made land ---------------------------- 1, 400 .3
vegetation and makes fair range. It also serves as natural Manatee loamy fine sand ----------------- 3,000 6
Manatee, Delray, and Okeelanta soils ------- 15, 000 3. 0
habitat for many kinds of wildlife. Myakka fine sand i -------------- 156,500 31.4
Okeelanta peat-------.- ----------------- 3, 200 .6
Pamlico muck --------------------------- 6,800 1.4
s of the Soils aola fine sand ---------------------------- 2, 000 .4
Descriptions of the Soils Parkwood fine sand-------------------- 4, 000 8
Placid fine sand-.--...-------------------- 12,000 2. 4
In this section the soils and land types of Okeechobee Placid, Pamlico, and Delr'.y soils, ponded__-. 15, 000 3. O
County are described. Following the name of each soil Pomello fine sand --- ---- ---------- 10, 000 2.0
Pompano fine sand .. ------- 32, 000 6. 4
and land type is the symbol that identifies that unit on eeee fine sand ----------- -- -- 600 4
the detailed soil map at the back of this publication. For Spoil banks --------- ------------------- 3, 000 6
each kind of soil there is a short description of a typical St. Johns sand------------ --------- ----- 3, 000 .6
soil profile and a much more detailed description of the Terra Ceia peat ------ ------------ 2,000 .4
Wabasso fine sand ------------------ ---- 9, 000 18
same profile that scientists, engineers, and others can use asso ne san --- "-, 00
in making highly technical interpretations. Total --------------------------- 499, 200 100. 0
Listed at the end of a mapping unit are the capability
unit, the range site, and the woodland suitability group 1Less than 0.05 percent. .L
381-603-71----2








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 7

.0. Okeelanta-Delray-Pompano Association in which the mapping unit has been placed. The "Guide
to Mapping Units" at the back of this survey lists the
Early level, very poorly drained organic soils in broad pages where each of these groups and the mapping units
awgrass marshes and the adjacent wet sandy soils are described. Many terms used in the soil descriptions
In this association are nearly level, very poorly are defined in the Glossary and in the Soil Survey Man-
trained organic soils and adjacent wet sandy soils. The ual (6).2 The acreage and the proportionate extent of the
,rganic soils are slightly acid to mildly alkaline, and the mapping units are shown in table 1.
andy soils are light colored to dark colored and medium Adamsville fine sand (Ad).-This somewhat poorly
,cid to mildly alkaline. The landscape is one of large drained, nearly level, deep, sandy soil is along the fringes
awgrass marshes and adjacent grassy sloughs. Shallow of flatwoods areas that border sloughs and ponds. The
vater covers the marshes for most of the year and most areas are small and occur throughout much of the
if the sloughs during the wet season. The association county.
)ccurs primarily near Yates Marsh, Dark Hammock, in In a typical profile the surface layer is fine sand about
Lreas 4 to 6 miles northeast of the city of Okeechobee, 12 inches thick. It is dark gray in the upper part and
Ind along the northern and eastern borders of Lake dark grayish brown in the lower part. The next layer is
)keechobee. grayish-brown fine sand about 10 inches thick. Belov- a
This association makes up about 2 percent of the depth of about 22 inches is lighter colored fine sand. The
county About 40 percent is Okeelanta soils, 20 percent water table normally is at a depth of about 30 inclhs.
s Delray soils, and 15 percent is Pompano soils. The re- Typical profile of Adamsville fine sand (directly south
naming 25 percent consists of Felda, Manatee, Placid, of Old Dixie Highway, about 11/2 miles southwest of the
[erra Ceia, and other minor soils. Along the eastern center of Okeechobee):
)order of Lake Okeechobee the proportion of Delray
soils is larger1 and the proportion of Okeelanta soils is A11-0 to 6 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak,
r tn in mst o a s o ts asso fine, crumb structure; very friable; has a salt-and-
imaller than in most other areas of this association, pepper appearance in places because of mixing of
The Okeelanta soils consist of layers of black to organic matter and light-gray sand; many fine, medi-
rery dark brown, fibrous peat, 12 to 36 inches thick, un-
lerlain by neutral sand. The Delray soils have a thick, Italic numbers in parentheses refer to Literatrlre Cited, p. 59.
lack, sandy surface layer, a thick gray subsurface layer,
nd a loamy layer in the subsoil at a depth of 40 to 60
.nches. The Pompano soils have a thin surface layer of TABLE 1.-Approximate acreage and proportionate extent
lark-gray fine sand. Below is light-colored fine sand to of soils
i depth of 72 inches or more. t
In the marshes the native vegetation consists mainly Soil Area Etet
)f sawgrass, but pickerelweed and a few scattered cypress Acres Percent
trees grow in some places. On the adjacent wetlands, Adamsville fine sand----- ------------- 8, 000 1. 6
:he native vegetation consists of pickerelweed and of Basinger fine sand----------------------- 16, 000 3. 2
grasses and other plants that tolerate wetness. Basinger-Placid complex ----- ---- ---. 5,000 1.0
rse an e.s a t e s Basinger and Pompano fine sands, ponded--- 10, 000 2. 0
Where drainage is feasible, the soils of the marshes are Borrow pits -------------------------- 200 (1)
well suited to truck crops or to improved pasture. After Bradenton fine sand------------------ 3,000 .6
drainage, however, subsidence and oxidation are constant Charlotte fine sand----------------------- 10, 000 2. 0
hazards. The soils in the sandy wetlands adjacent to the Chobee fine sandy loam ...--------- ----- 1 000 .2
Delray fine sand -------------------------- 12, 000 2.4
marshes are well suited to truck crops and are especially Delray fine sand, thin solum variat -------- 2, 500 .5
well suited to improved pasture. Before any of the soils Elred fine sand ------------.-- ---------- 3, 000 .6
in this association can be used for cultivated crops, in- Felda fine sand-- -----------.--------- 8, 000 6
ensive measures are needed for water control. Felda, Pompano, and Placid soils, ponded--- 10, 000 2. 0
Ft. Drum fine sand ----.------------------ 2, 000 .4
About two-thirds of the acreage of this association is Immokalee fine sand -- -------------- 130, 000 26. 0
in improved pasture. The remaining acreage is in native Made land ---------------------------- 1, 400 .3
vegetation and makes fair range. It also serves as natural Manatee loamy fine sand ----------------- 3,000 6
Manatee, Delray, and Okeelanta soils ------- 15, 000 3. 0
habitat for many kinds of wildlife. Myakka fine sand i -------------- 156,500 31.4
Okeelanta peat-------.- ----------------- 3, 200 .6
Pamlico muck --------------------------- 6,800 1.4
s of the Soils aola fine sand ---------------------------- 2, 000 .4
Descriptions of the Soils Parkwood fine sand-------------------- 4, 000 8
Placid fine sand-.--...-------------------- 12,000 2. 4
In this section the soils and land types of Okeechobee Placid, Pamlico, and Delr'.y soils, ponded__-. 15, 000 3. O
County are described. Following the name of each soil Pomello fine sand --- ---- ---------- 10, 000 2.0
Pompano fine sand .. ------- 32, 000 6. 4
and land type is the symbol that identifies that unit on eeee fine sand ----------- -- -- 600 4
the detailed soil map at the back of this publication. For Spoil banks --------- ------------------- 3, 000 6
each kind of soil there is a short description of a typical St. Johns sand------------ --------- ----- 3, 000 .6
soil profile and a much more detailed description of the Terra Ceia peat ------ ------------ 2,000 .4
Wabasso fine sand ------------------ ---- 9, 000 18
same profile that scientists, engineers, and others can use asso ne san --- "-, 00
in making highly technical interpretations. Total --------------------------- 499, 200 100. 0
Listed at the end of a mapping unit are the capability
unit, the range site, and the woodland suitability group 1Less than 0.05 percent. .L
381-603-71----2








8 SOIL SURVEY

um, and coarse roots; medium acid; clear, smooth of Jim Durrance Road and 41/2 miles northeast of
boundary. Basinger) :
A12-6 to 12 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine B
sand; single grain; loose; common, fine, medium, and Al-0 to 2 inches, fine sand that is very dark gray (10YR
coarse roots; medium acid; gradual, wavy boundary. 3/1) when rubbed; weak, fine, crumb structure; very
C1-12 to 22 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; friable; many fine roots; many, clean, light-gray sand
many, fine and medium, distinct, dark grayish-brown grains; strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
(10YR 4/2) and very dark grayish-brown (10YR A2-2 to 18 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; single
3/2) mottles; common, medium, faint, light brownish- grain; loose; a few, fine and medium roots; very
gray (10YR 6/2) and pale-brown (10YR 6/3) mottles; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
and a few, fine and medium, yellowish-red (5YR 4/6) C&Bh-18 to 36 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) and
mottles; single grain; loose; common fine roots; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; a few, fine, faint,
slightly acid; gradual, wavy boundary. yellowish-brown mottles; single grain; loose; common
C2-22 to 28 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) fine sand; weakly cemented fragments; a few, fine and medium
common, medium and coarse, brownish-yellow (10YR roots; many clean sand grains; strongly acid; gradual,
6/8) mottles; single grain; loose; olive-brown iron wavy boundary.
concretions; a few fine roots; slightly acid; gradual, C-36 to 60 inches +, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine
wavy boundary. sand; single grain; loose; strongly acid.
C3-28 to 42 inches, white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; a few, fine The texture is fine sand to a depth of more than 72 inches,
and medium, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4) mottles; and the reaction ranges from strongly acid to very strongly
single grain; compact in place, loose when crushed; a acid throughout the soil. The Al horizon ranges from gray
S few, large pockets of olive-brown loamy fine sand in the to black and is 2 to 8 inches thick. It is less than 6 inches
S lower 1 to 2 inches; mildly 'alkaline; clear, smooth thick in most places where it is very dark gray or black.
S boundary. The A2 horizon ranges from gray to white and is 6 to 20
C4-42 to 70 inches +, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; a few, inches thick. Narrow, grayish-brown to very dark gray stains
S medium, faint, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) and occur in root channels that extend into the A2 horizon. The
grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) mottles; single grain; C&Bh horizon is 6 to 30 inches thick. Its fine sand is brownish
loose; mildly alkaline, and the weakly cemented fragments in it are darker brown.
The soil texture is fine sand to a depth of more than 72 The mottles in this horizon are few to many, fine to medium,
inches. Reaction in the A horizon ranges from medium acid and of lighter or darker brown than the matrix material. In
to neutral, and in the C horizon it ranges from slightly acid to a few places, iron concretions are in this horizon. The C
mildly alkaline. The All horizon ranges from gray to very horizon is brown to light-gray sand or fine sand that is mottled
dark gray and is 4 to 8 inches thick. The A12 horizon ranges in places. The water table is at a depth of 0 to 15 inches for
from dark gray and dark grayish brown to light gray, and it 2 to 6 months of the year. A few inches of water covers the
is 4 to 12 inches thick. The C1 and C2 horizons are grayish surface during wet seasons.
brown to very pale brown. These horizons are generally Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of the
mottled with brownish yellow, and some iron concretions are Immokalee, Myakka, Placid, and Pompano soils. Basinger fine
also present. 'he C3 and 04 horizons are white to light gray sand has a much thinner Al horizon than Placid soils. It lacks
and are mottled in places. The water table is at a depth of the well-developed organic pan that typifies Myakka and
15 to 30 inches for 2 to 6 months of the year. It rises above Immokalee soils. It is similar to Pompano soils but has a
15 inches for short periods during the wet season and drops C&Bh horizon with weakly cemented fragments, and it also
below 30 inches (luring the dry season. has a much thinner Al horizon.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Although Basinger fine sand is wet for long periods, it is
Charlotte, Pompano, Ft. Drum, Elred, and Immokalee soils, rapidly permeable and responds readily to simple drainage
This soil has better drainage than the Charlotte and Pompano practices. If it is deeply drained, this soil is drought during
soils, but it lacks the fine sandy loam Bca layer of the Ft. dry periods because its available water capacity is low. It
Drum soil and the loamy subsoil of the Elred soil. It is less leaches rapidly. Fertility and content of organic matter are
acid than the Immokalee soil and lacks an organic pan typical low.
of that soil. Most areas of Basinger fine sand are in native grasses and
Adamsville fine sand is rapidly permeable and responds well small shrubs. Waxmyrtle, cypress, and scattered pine trees
to simple drainage practices. Available water capacity is low, grow in some areas. This soil is suited to improved pastures
and the soil is likely to be drought when drained. Fertility if a drainage system is provided that removes excess surface
and content of organic matter are low. water rapidly. Tomatoes and watermelons grow in a small
The native vegetation consists of pine trees, saw-palmetto, acreage that has been ditched, pumped, and bedded. This soil
many kinds of native grasses knd shrubs, and a few cabbage- is poorly suited to citrus. Capability unit IVw-3; Slough
palms. In some areas the pine trees have been removed or range site; woodland group 7.
thinned. Most other areas remain in native vegetation and Basinger-Placid complex (Bc).-The soils in this com-
are used for range, to which they are well suited. This soil is
also well suited to improved pasture if a drainage system is plex occur together in low places in wide sloughs and in
provided that removes excess surface water. If complete water isolated depressions in acid flatwoods areas. Most areas
control is provided, this soil is well suited to truck and special are covered with shallow water throughout the year.
crops and is moderately well suited to citrus. Capability unit
IVw-1; Sweet Flatwoods range site,; woodland group 2. Most of this complex is in the eastern half of the
Basinger fine sand (Ba).-Thi deep, poorly drained county. The Basinger soils are similar to Basinger fine
nearly level, sandy soil is in grassy sloughs. Though sand except that water covers the surface most of the
areas are generally small, they ocyur in all parts of the time. The Placid soils are similar to Placid fine sand but
county. normally are ponded for longer periods.
In a typical profile the surface layer is strongly acid, In most areas the Basinger soils are near the perimeter
very dark gray fine sand-about inches thick. The sub- of the depressions, where ponding is shallowest; the
surface layer is light-gray fine saniM about 16 inches thick. Placid soils are in the center, where ponding is deepest
The next layer is light brownish- ray and brown fine and persists the longest. Small pockets of organic soils
sand that contains dark-er brown, wEakly cemented frag- occur near the center of some depressions. Basinger soils
ments. Below is light-colored sand. The water table nor- make up 50 to 75 percent of most areas. The rest is made
mally is at a depth of ab out 20 ihches. up almost entirely of Placid soils.
Typical profile of BasLnuger ',ne sand (250 feet west These soils generally are not suitable for most culti-








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 9

ited crops. Most areas are small and lack natural drain- level soil is in low flatlands and hammock areas that
le outlets. Drainage and development of such areas for border sloughs, ponds, and marshes.
ltivated crops generally is not feasible. The native In a typical profile the surface layer is medium acid,
*asses on these soils are excellent for grazing and grow very dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The sub-
ll under good range management. surface layer is grayish-brown fine sand about 6 inches
The native vegetation is mainly maidencane, St. Johns- thick. The subsoil is dark-gray to gray fine sandy loam
)rt, and grasses that tolerate wetness. Many areas that is mottled with yellowish brown and olive brown.
would be kept lin their native state and used as feeding It is about 16 inches thick and is mildly alkaline in the
.ounds for waterfowl and as ponds for watering live- lower part. Below are layers of white and light brownish-
3ck. If excess water is removed, these soils are suited gray calcareous fine sandy loam that extends to a depth
pine trees. Capability unit Vw-1; Sand Pond range of more than 70 inches. The water table normally is at a
;e; woodland group 7. depth of 15 to 30 inches.
Basinger and Pompano fine sands, ponded (Bm).-This Typical profile of Bradenton fine sand (in a hammock
[differentiated unit consists of deep, nearly level, sandy area, 21/2 miles west of U.S. Highway No. 441 and 8 miles
ils that are poorly drained. These soils occur through- north of the center of Okeechobee):
it the county in low places in sloughs and in isolated A--0 to 4 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
pressions in the flatwoods. Most areas mapped are weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; has a salt-
;her Basinger fine sand or Pompano fine sand, but these and-pepper appearance in places because of mixing
~0 soils rarely are together in the same mapped area. A of organic matter and light-gray sand; many fine
70 sos rarely are ogeer in e same mappe area.and medium roots; medium acid; clear, smooth
pical profile of each of these soils is described in the boundary.
apping units Basinger fine sand and Pompano fine A2-4 to 10 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
nd. The two soils differ in acidity, but accurate reac- single grain; loose; many fine, medium, and coarse
n is dificultto obtain because the soil is covered by roots; medium acid; abrupt, smooth boundary.
n is difficult obtain because the soil is covered by B2ltg-l1 to 19 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy
ater most of the year. loam; many, fine and medium, distinct, yellowish-
Included in mapping with this unit where Basinger brown (10YR 5/6, 5/8) mottles; weak, medium, sub-
ils are dominant are small areas of such soils as the angular blocky structure; friable, slightly sticky;
amokalee, Myakka, and Placid. Basinger soils lack the common fine and medium roots and many coarse
roots; a few, thin, discontinuous clay films on ped
all-developed organic pan typical of Immokalee and faces and in root channels; clay bridging of sand
yakka soils and have a thinner, lighter colored surface grains; slightly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
yer than Placid soils. B22tg-19 to 26 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sandy loam; a
few, fine, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) and
Where Pompano soils are dominant, Delray and Felda olive-brown (2.5Y 4/4) mottles; weak subangular
ils are included with this unit in mapping. Pompano blocky structure; slightly sticky, friable; a few medi-
.ils typically lack the thick, black surface layer and um and coarse roots; sand grains coated with clay;
amy subsoil of the Delray soils and the loamy subsoil common, fine, white marl nodules or small pockets of
amy subsoil oi the Delray soils and tr e loany subsoils marl in lower 4 inches; mildly alkaline; gradual,
: the Felda soils. A few small areas of organic soils in wavy boundary.
sep pockets are also included in mapping. Clca-26 to 34 inches, white (N 8/0) fine sandy loam (marl);
Most areas of these soils are small and lack drainage massive; nonsticky, slightly plastic; common streaks
itlets. They therefore are undeveloped and are used as gain pocke o wayish-bwn; alca ny loa; wavy
itive range. The native vegetation consists mainly of boundary.
aidencane, St. Johnswort, water lilies, and grasses, C2ca-34 to 70 inches -, light brownish-gray (2.5Y 6/2) fine
ckerelweed, and other plants that tolerate wetness. sandy loam; common, medium, distinct, light olive-
brown (2.5Y 5/6) mottles and a few, fine, distinct,
Complete water control measures normally are difficult olive-brown (2.5Y 4/4) mottles; massive; slightly
provide, and most areas generally are not suited to sticky, slightly plastic; many small pockets and
iltivated crops. Under good management native grasses nodules of semihard white marl; some sand grains
open range provide good grazing for cattle. Most cemented with marl; calcareous.
*eas, however, ]are used to provide watering places for The gray to black Al horizon is 4 to 8 inches thick. If this
vestock and feeding areas for waterfowl. Capability layer is black or very dark gray it generally is less than 6
inches thick. The A2 horizon is grayish brown to light gray
lit Vw-1; Sand Pond range site; woodland group 7. and is 4 to 10 inches thick. Reaction in the A horizon ranges
Borrow pits (Bo).-This land type consists of manmade from medium acid to neutral. The B horizon is slightly acid
:cavations from which the soil material has been re- to mildly alkaline, mottled dark-gray to light-gray fine sandy
.oved for use in road construction. It includes waste loam. Depth to the B horizon ranges from 10 to 18 inches.
material that is piled along the sides of te pits. Te The Cca horizon ranges from gray to white. The water table
aterial that is piled along the sides of the pits. The is at a depth of 0 to 15 inches for 1 or 2 months during the
*eas occur along most major roads in the county and wet season.
"e mostly 5 acres or less in size. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Wa-
Most areas of this land type have been excavated below basso, Felda, Parkwood, and Ft. Drum soils. This soil lacks
ie normal water table and are pounded for 9 months or the well-developed organic pan typical of the Wabasso soil
and the thick loamy subsoil typical of the Felda soil. Depth
.ore each year.; Many of the areas are within improved to the Cca, or marl layer, in the Bradenton soil is greater than
isture andran anand serve as stockwater ponds. Ponded in the Parkwood and Ft. Drum soils.
'eas of this unit are used by wading birds and water- Although Bradenton fine sand is periodically wet, it is mod-
)wl. Many of these ponds can be stocked with fish. Not erately to rapidly permeable and responds readily to simple
laced in a capability unit, range site, or woodland drainage practices. Available water capacity is low in the
Sandy surface layer but is more favorable in the loamy sub-
roup. soil. Fertility is low to moderate, and content of organic
Bradenton fine sand (Br).--This poorly drained, nearly matter is low.









10 SOIL SURVEY

Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation that Most areas of this soil remain in undeveloped sloughs that
consists of open pinewoods and an understory of saw-palmettos, have a cover of native grasses and are used as range. Some
native grasses, and shrubs. Individual cabbage-palms and areas are in improved pasture that provides excellent grazing.
small palm hammocks are common and are used primarily A small acreage is used for tomatoes and citrus. These crops
for native range. When properly managed for range, native require complete water control and other good management.
grasses grow well in open areas of pinewoods. The hammock Capability unit IVw-3; Slough range site; woodland group
areas provide shelter and limited browse. Under good manage- 7.
ment that includes measures for water control, this soil is san lam ( v
well suited to citrus, to improved pasture, and to special truck Chobee fine sandy loam (Co).-This very poorly
crops. Crops on this soil respond well if fertilizer is added, drained, nearly level soil is in depressions and drainage-
Capability unit IIIw-1, Sweet Flatwoods and Hammock range ways. It occurs primarily in the south-central part of the
sites; woodland group 3. county near Taylor Creek.
Charlotte fine sand (Ch).-This deep, poorly drained, In a typical profile the surface layer is slightly acid,
nearly level, sandy soil is in low, grassy sloughs. It occurs black fine sandy loam about 7 inches thick. The subsoil
in all parts of the county but is most extensive in the is mildly alkaline, black sandy clay loam in the upper 15
northwestern part. inches. Below is very dark gray and dark-gray sandy
In a typical profile the surface layer is slightly acid, clay loam that has many specks of white marl. At a depth
very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The sub- of about 63 inches is gray loamy fine sand. The water
surface layer is neutral, grayish-brown fine sand about 13 table is near or above the surface most of the year.
inches thick. The subsoil is brownish-yellow and Typical profile of Chobee fine sandy loam (about 61/2
yellowish-brown fine sand about 27 inches thick. The miles northeast of the center of Okeechobee and 21/4
underlying material, to a depth of 75 inches or more, is miles east of U.S. Highway No. 441) :
white fine sand. The water table normally is at a depth Ap-0 to 7 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy loam; moder-
of about 24 inches. ate, medium, granular structure; friable; many, fine
Typical profile of Charlotte fine sand (8 miles south- and medium grass roots; content of organic matter
typical profile of Charlotte fine sand (81/ miles south- is 10 to 15 percent; a few, small, gray sand pockets;
west of Fort Drum and 21/2 miles north of Eagle Island many clean sand grains; slightly acid; clear, smooth
Road) : boundary.
B21t-7 to 22 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sandy clay loam;
Ap-0 to 6 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) crushed fine weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure; sticky
sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; and plastic; clay bridging of sandy grains; a few,
many fine grass roots; slightly acid; clear, smooth patchy clay films in root channels; common gray
boundary, sand pockets; common, fine and medium roots; mildly
A2-6 to 19 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; alkaline; gradual, wavy boundary.
single grain; loose; many clean sand grains; many B22tca-22 to 38 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy
fine grass roots; neutral; clear, wavy boundary. clay loam; weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure;
B2ir-19 to 30 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) fine sand; sticky and plastic; many, fine to coarse, soft to
single grain; loose; a few fine roots; yellowish coat- semihard, white marl nodules; a few, fine roots;
ings on sand grains; mildly alkaline; gradual, wavy calcareous; gradual, wavy boundary.
boundary. B23tca-38 to 63 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
B3ir-30 to 46 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand; loam (marl) ; many, coarse, faint tongues and pock-
a few, coarse, distinct, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) ets that are very dark gray (10YR 3/1) ; a few, fine,
mottles and common, medium, distinct, dark grayish- distinct, yellowish-brown and strong-brown mottles;
brown (10YR 4/2) and dark yellowish-brown (10YR many small pockets of grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine
4/4) mottles; single grain; nonsticky; many clean sand; weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure;
sand grains; a few fine roots; a few iron concretions sticky and plastic; many, fine and medium nodules
1 centimeter or less in size; mildly alkaline; clear, of marl; calcareous; gradual, irregular boundary.
wavy boundary. Cg-63 to 75 inches +, gray (10YR 5/1) loamy fine sand;
C-46 to 75 inches +, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single many, fine to coarse, faint to distinct, dark grayish-
grain; nonstick; mildly alkaline. brown (10YR 4/2) mottles; massive; slightly sticky;
many medium pockets of gray to white (N 5/0 to 8/0)
The Ap horizon is gray to black and is 2 to 8 inches thick. fine sand and many, fine and medium pockets of very
The A2 horizon is gray to grayish brown and light gray and dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy loam; a few, small,
is 6 to 20 inches thick. Depth to the brighter colored Bir ho- white marl nodules; weakly calcareous.
rizon is as little as 8 inches or as much as 30 inches. This hori-
zon ranges from yellowish brown to yellow and is 8 to 36 ,The A horizon is very dark gray or black and is 6 to 10
zon ranges from yellowish brown to yellow and is 8 to 36 inches thick. In this horizon the content of organic matter
inches thick. The C horizon is yellowish brown to white fine ranges from 5 to 18 percent. The B21t horizon is very dark
sand that has brownish mottles and contains small iron con- gray to black and is 14 to 30 inches thick. It is sticky and
cretions. Reaction is medium acid to neutral in the A hori- plastic when wet and contains streaks and pockets of gray
zon and neutral to mildly alkaline in the Bir and C horizon, fine sand. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to neutral in
The water table drops to a depth of about 48 inches during the A horizon and from neutral to mildly alkaline in the B21t
prolonged dry periods but rises to a few inches above the horizon. The horizons below the B21t horizon range from very
surface for short periods in the wet season, dark gray to light gray, are sandy clay loam or fine sandy
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Pom- loam, and contain marl lenses and sand pockets. The water
pano, Immokalee, and Delray soils. This soil contains a table is above the surface or is at a depth of 0 to 15 inches.
brownish-yellow subsoil (Bir horizon) that is lacking in the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pompano soil. It lacks the thick, black surface layer of the Manatee and Felda soils, which have a coarser textured sur-
Delray soil and the well developed organic pan that is below a face layer than that in this soil. Also included are small areas
Delray soil and the well developed organic pan that is below a of a soil that has an organic surface layer more than 12 inches
depth of 30 inches in the Immokalee soil. thickga su more
Charlotte fine sand is rapidly permeable, and if fertilizer is This soil is slowly permeable and has high available water
applied, it leaches out rapidly. If this soil is deeply drained, capacity. Fertility is moderately high, and content of organic
it is drought during dry seasons because its available water matter is high.
capacity is low. Fertility and content of organic matter also Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation. The
are low. vegetation generally is pickerelweed, water lilies, sawgrass,








OKEECIIOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 11

and scattered shrubby swamp maples, though ash, gum, maple, that depth. If drainage outlets are available, this soil can
and cabbage-palms grow in a few areas. A few other areas be drained without difficulty. Available water capacity is
are used for improved pasture, and the pasture is of high moderate, especially in the highly organic surface layer.
quality. Complete water control is needed for improved pas- Fertility is moderate, and the content of organic matter is
ture or for cultivated crops. Drainage is not feasible, however, high.
in a few small areas because adequate outlets are lacking. Most areas of this soil are used primarily as native range
Capability unit IIIw-4; Sand Pond range site; woodland and are either in grassy sloughs or in intermittent ponds. The
group 5. vegetation consists chiefly of waxmyrtle, pickerelweed, sedges,
reeds, and grasses that tolerate wetness, but cypress, sweet-
Delray fine sand (De).-This very poorly drained, nearly bay, and sweetgum trees grow in placescypress sweet-
vel, sandy soil is in depressions and drainageways. It This soil is well suited to improved pasture if a drainage
curs in most parts of the county, especially in areas system is provided that removes excess surface water. Under
[jacent to Lake Okeechobee. good management that includes complete water control, truck
In a typical profile the surface layer is slightly acid, crops, sugarcane, and special crops are well suited. Except in
n a typical profile the surface layer is slightly acid, areas where deep drainage has been established, this soil is
ack fine sand about 18 inches thick. It has a high con- poorly suited to citrus. Crops on this soil respond well if
at of organic matter. The subsurface layer, about 28 fertilizer is added. Many areas of this soil are best left in
ches thick, is neutral, gray fine sand that has many native vegetation for use as range and as wildlife habitat.
C apability unit IIIw-5; Sand Pond and Slough range sites;
Lrker colored streaks and pockets. At a depth of about woodland group 7.
inches is mildly alkaline, dark grayish-brown fine Delray fine sand, thin solum variant (Dt).-This very
ndy loam. Below a depth of about 60 inches is grayish- poorly drained, nearly level, sandy soil is in broad low
own loamy fine sand. Areas in depressions are covered areas near Lake Okeechobee.
Sweater most of the time. Other areas normally have a In a typical profile the surface layer is slightly acid,
iter table within a depth of 15 inches. black fine sand about 12 inches thick that has a high
Typical profile of Delray fine sand (7/s mile west of content of organic matter. The subsurface layer is mildly
ter.S. Highway 441 and about 2 miles south of the alkaline, grayish-brown fine sand that has darker colored
er of keechobee streaks and pockets. This layer is about 19 inches thick.
Ap-0 to 8 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, coarse, At a depth of about 31 inches is a 4-inch layer of gray
crumb structure; friable; a few, coarse, faint, dark- fine sandy loam that overlies a thick layer of light-gray
gray sand pockets; content of organic matter is 5
to 10 percent; many fine roots; slightly acid; clear, fine sandy loam (marl). The water table normally is at
smooth boundary, a depth of about 15 inches.
A12-8 to 18 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; many, Typical profile of Delray fine sand, thin solum variant
medium and coarse, faint, dark-gray and very dark (in an improved pasture one-fourth mile west of U.S.
gray streaks and mottles; weak, fine, crumb struc-
ture; very friable; content of organic matter is less Highway No. 441 and 2 miles south of the center of
than 5 percent; many fine roots; slightly acid; grad- Okeechobee) :
ual, wavy boundary.
A2-18 to 46 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grain; Ap-0 to 6 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; moderate,
loose; common, fine and medium, faint, dark-gray medium, granular structure; friable; content of or-
and very dark gray streaks; a few, fine roots; ganic matter is about 15 percent; many fine roots;
number of roots decrease with depth; neutral; slightly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
abrupt, wavy boundary. A12-6 to 12 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine,
B2tg-46 to 60 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine crumb structure; very friable; many fine roots;
sandy loam; massive; nonsticky, nonplastic; sand mixing of black organic matter and gray fine sand in
grains are coated and bridged with clay; mildly al- places; slightly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
kaline; gradual, irregular boundary. A2-12 to 31 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
B3g-60 to 75 inches +, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) loamy fine single grain; loose; common fine roots; narrow, ver-
sand;ja few, medium, distinct, light olive-brown and tical streaks of dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and
brownish-yellow mottles; massive; nonsticky, non- very dark gray (10YR 3/1); mildly alkaline; clear,
plastic; common pockets of light-gray fine sand and wavy boundary.
gray to dark-gray fine sandy loam; sand grains are Btg-31 to 35 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sandy loam; com-
coated and bridged with clay; mildly alkaline. mon, medium, distinct, very pale brown (10YR 7/3),
The Al horizon is very dark gray to black and is 10 to 24 strong-brown (7.5R 5/8), and light brownish-gray
inches thick. The Ap horizon, and the All horizon, where (10YR 6/2) mottles; massive when wet, but weak,
present, have a higher organic-matter content than the A12 subangular blocky structure when moist; slightly
horizon. Reaction in the Al horizon ranges from medium sticky, slightly plastic a few, fine ; a few, fne
acid to neutral. The A2 horizon is grayish brown to white marl flecks or nodules; sand grains are bridged with
and contains many darker colored streaks and mottles. This clay; moderately alkaline; clear, wavy boundary.
layer is 20 to 36 inches thick and is slightly acid to mildly Cca-35 to 48 inches +, light-gray (10YR 6/1) fine sandy
alkaline. Depth to the B2t horizon is between 40 and 60 inches. loam (marl) that is mixed with shell fragments;
This layer is dark grayish-brown to light-gray fine sandy massive; friable, slightly sticky; calcareous.
loam or sandy clay loam that is 6 inches or more thick and The Ap horizon is black fine sand and has 5 to 18 percent
is mottled in places. In this horizon reaction ranges from organic matter. The A12 horizon is very dark gray to black
slightly acid to mildly alkaline. The water table normally is fine sand. Thickness of these two horizons ranges from 10 to
at a depth between 0 to 15 inches, but it rises above the sur- 24 inches. The A2 horizon is dark gray to light gray and has
face for short periods and forms shallow ponds. grayish-brown to black vertical streaks and pockets. This
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Pom- horizon is 12 to 24 inches thick. Depth to the mottled, grayish-
pano and Manatee soils. Also included are areas of organic to brownish-colored Bt horizon is 30 to 40 inches. It is 2 to
soils and of soils that are similar to this soil but lack a loamy 8 inches thick, and in some places it has pockets or lenses of
subsoil within 'a depth of 60 inches. Delray fine sand has a sandier material. This layer overlies marl, shell, sand, or
thicker, darker colored surface layer than the Pompano soil limerock. The reaction in all horizons above the Cca horizon
and contains more organic matter. It is similar to the Manatee (marl) ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline. Ex-
soil but has a loamy subsoil at a depth of 40 inches or more. cept where it is artificially drained, this soil has a water table
Delray fine sand normally is wet, but it is rapidly perme- at a depth of 0 to 15 inches for a period of 2 to 6 months
able in the upper 46 inches and moderately permeable below each year.








12 SOIL SURVEY

Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of the The All horizon is dark gray to black and is 2 to 6 inches
Delray, Manatee, and Okeelanta soils. Also included are small thick. The A12 and A2 horizons range from dark grayish
areas of soils that are similar to Delray fine sand, thin solum brown to light gray, brown, and pale brown, and together
variant, but have limerock at a depth of less than 30 inches are 10 to 24 inches thick. One or more of these horizons may
and spots where rocks crop out. Delray fine sand, thin solum be absent in some areas. Depth to the Bir horizon is 12
variant, is not so deep to loamy material as Delray fine sand. to 30 inches. This horizon ranges from yellowish brown to
Its subsoil is not so thick as that of the Manatee soil, and it brownish yellow and is 6 to 24 inches thick. Reaction in
lacks the thick surface layer of peat common in the Okeelanta these sandy layers ranges from medium acid to mildly alka-
soil. line. The Bt horizon is mottled, light-gray to dark-gray sandy
Delray fine sand, thin solum variant, normally has a water loam to sandy clay loam. This horizon is 6 to 24 inches thick
table at a shallow depth. It typically is rapidly permeable, and ranges from slightly acid to mildly alkaline. Depth to
however, in the upper 30 inches and moderately permeable the water table ranges from near the surface for a period of
below that depth and can be drained with little difficulty. 1 to 2 months during the wet season to about 30 inches during
Available water capacity is moderate, especially in the sur- the dry season.
face layer. Fertility is moderate, and content of organic Included with Elred fine sand in mapping are small areas
matter is high. of Felda, Pompano, Charlotte, and Wabasso soils. Elred fine
On this soil the native vegetation consists of waxmyrtle, sand has a brownish-yellow horizon, which the Felda soils
pickerelweed, sedges, reeds, and grasses that tolerate wet- lack. It has a sandy loam subsoil which is lacking in the
ness. Most areas have been drained and are used for im- Pompano and Charlotte soils. It is similar to Bradenton and
proved pasture, to which they are well suited. Under good Wabasso soils, but it lacks the marl substratum below a
management that includes complete water control, this soil loamy layer, typical of the Bradenton soil, and lacks the
is also well suited to sugarcane and to truck and special organic pan above a loamy layer, typical of the Wabasso
crops. Except where deep drainage has been established, this soil.
soil is poorly suited to citrus. Crops on this soil respond well Although Elred fine sand is seasonally wet, it is moderately
if fertilizer is applied. Capability unit IIIw-5; Slough range to rapidly permeable and responds well to simple drainage
site; woodland group 7. practices. Available water capacity is low in the sandy surface
layer, but it is high in the loamy subsoil. Fertility is moder-
Elred fine sand (Ef).-This poorly drained, nearly level, ately low, and content of organic matter is low.
sandy soil is in low flatwoods and grassy sloughs. It Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation. The
occurs in many parts of the county in small areas. plant cover generally is scattered pines and cabbage-palms
that have an understory of saw-palmettos and native grasses.
In a typical profile the surface layer is slightly acid Some areas, however, are treeless, grassy sloughs that are
to neutral, very dark gray and dark grayish-brown fine used chiefly for native range.
sand about 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer is Under good management native grasses on this soil pro-
vide good grazing. This soil is well suited to improved pas-
neutral, brown and pale-brown fine sand about 12 inches ture if a simple drainage system is provided that removes
thick. Below is a bright-colored layer of neutral excess water. If complete water control is provided and other
brownish-yellow fine sand. Beginning at a depth of 36 good management is used, this soil is well suited to citrus
and to special truck crops. Crops on this soil respond well to
inches is mildly alkaline, dark-gray fine sandy loam. fertilizer. Capability unit IIIw-4; Slough range site; wood-
Below a depth of 48 inches is mildly alkaline, light land group 7.
brownish-gray fine sand. The water table normally is at Felda fine sand (Ff).-This poorly drained, nearly level,
a depth of about 20 inches, sandy soil is in depressions and grassy sloughs in many
Typical profile of Elred fine sand (about one mile parts of the county.
north of the headquarters of the Griffith Ranch and 3 In a typical profile the surface layer is strongly acid,
miles north of Eagle Island Road) : black fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
All-0 to 5 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; is slightly acid, grayish-brown and light-gray fine sand
weak, fine, crumb structure; friable; many fine roots; about 18 inches thick. The subsoil, about 20 inches thick,
has a salt-and-pepper appearance in places because consists of neutral to mildly alkaline, mottled gray fine
of mixing of organic matter and light-gray sand; cons trial to mildly alkaline, mottled gray fine
slightly acid; clear, smooth boundary. sandy loam in the upper part and mildly alkaline, dark-
A12-5 to 12 inches, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine gray loamy fine sand in the lower part. The underlying
sand; single grain; loose; many medium and coarse material to a depth of 60 inches or more, is white fine
roots; neutral; gradual, smooth boundary.es or more
A21-12 to 18 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; common, sand. The water table normally is at a depth of 20 inches,
coarse, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; but a few small areas are covered by water most of the
single grain; loose; a few medium roots; neutral;
gradual, wavy boundary. year.
A22-18 to 24 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; many, Typical profile of Felda fine sand (about 1 mile north
medium and coarse, distinct, brownish-yellow (10YR of Basinger in a slough just south of the road entering
6/6) and yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; single the Emenargee Ranch) :
grain; loose; a few medium roots; neutral; gradual,
wavy boundary. Al-0 to 4 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine,
Bir-24 to 36 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) fine sand; crumb structure; friable; many fine and medium
many, medium, faint, yellow mottles; single grain; roots; in places has a salt-and-pepper appearance
loose, nonstick; a few, clean sand grains; neutral; because of mixing of black organic matter and light-
clear, wavy boundary, gray sand; strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
Btg--6 to 48 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy loam; A21-4 to 8 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
many, fine to coarse, distinct, dark grayish-brown many, fine, faint, dark-gray, very dark gray, and
(10YR 4/2) and yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) mot- brown streaks and mottles; single grain; loose; many
tles; massive when wet, weak, subangular blocky fine roots; slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
structure when moist; slightly sticky; mildly alka- A22-8 to 22 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; single
line; clear, wavy boundary, grain; loose; a few fine and medium roots; slightly
C-48 to 66 inches, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine sand; acid; clear, smooth boundary.
common, coarse, faint, grayish-brown and brown B2tg-22 to 32 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sandy loam;
splotches; single grain; nonstick; mildly alkaline, many, medium and coarse, yellowish-red (5YR 5/8)








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 13

and brownish-yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; massive this mapping unit and occurring throughout the entire
when wet but weak, coarse, subangular blocky struc- unit are small areas of organic soils in deep pockets.
ture' when moist; friable, slightly sticky and slightlyom w r control mesur
plastic when wet; a few fine roots; some clay bridging Drainage and complete water control measures are
between sand grains; a few patchy clay films on needed before these soils can be used for farm crops.
ped faces; a few medium root channels; neutral; Simple surface drainage and fertilization are needed for
clear, irregular boundary. improved pastures. Before these soils can be cultivated
B3g-32 to 42 inches, dark-gray (N 4/0) loamy fine sand;
a few, coarse, distinct, brown (10YR 4/3) mottlesa safely, they require a water management plan that is
single grain; nonstick; many pockets and discontinu- carefully designed and intensively applied. Many areas
ous lenses of fine sandy loam; mildly alkaline; clear, of this unit are small and are far from drainage outlets.
wavy boundary. Development of such areas for crops generally is not
Cg-42 to 60 inches +, white (N 8/0) fine sand; single grain; feasible.
nonsticky; thin lenses and small pockets of gray leasiblDe.
fine sandy loam; mildly alkaline. The native vegetation on these soils consists mainly of
The Al horizon is strongly acid to slightly acid, is gray to maidencane, pickerelweed, St. Johnswort, and other
black, and is 2 to 12 inches thick. If this horizon is black or aquatic plants. Many areas probably should be kept in
very dark gray, it generally is less than 6 inches thick. The their native state and used as ponds for watering live-
A2 horizon is slightly acid to neutral. The A21 horizon is dark stock and as feeding grounds for water fowl. Capability
gray to grayish brown and is 3 to 8 inches thick. The A22
horizon is gray to white or pale brown and is 14 to 26 inches unit IIIw-4; Sand Pond range site; woodland group 7.
thick. Depth to the B2tg horizon is 20 to 36 inches. This Ft. Drum fine sand (Fr).-This somewhat poorly
horizon is mottled and is mainly fine sandy loam, but it con- drained, nearly level soil is in flatwoods and hammock
tains sandy pockets and lenses. It is neutral to mildly alka- oion
line and 6 to 24 inches thick. The water table is at a depth areas that border sloughs and depressions. The areas are
of 0 to 15 inches for short periods in the wet seasons but small and occur in many parts of the county.
may drop to 40 inches in a prolonged dry season. In a typical profile the surface layer is fine sand about
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 17 inches thick. It is strongly acid and very dark
Pompano, Delray, Elred, and Manatee soils. This soil has a
oamy subsoil, hich is l asking in the PompanoThis soil. It has gray to dark gray in the upper part and brown, slightly
a thinner Al horizon than that in the Delray and lManatee acid, and mottled in the lower part. The subsoil is cal-
soils. It is similar to the Elred soil, but it is grayer than that careous, white fine sandy loam about 8 inches thick. The
soil. next layer is neutral, brownish-yellow fine sand about 13
Although Felda fine sand is wet most of the time, it is laer nr
moderately to rapidly permeable and responds readily to inches thick. Grayish-brown and gray fine sand extends
drainage. The available water capacity is low in the sandy below this to a depth of 70 inches or more. The water
surface layer, but it is high in the loamy subsoil. Fertility table is at a depth of about 30 inches.
is moderately low, and content of organic matter is low. Typical profile of Ft. Drum fine sand (200 feet west
Many areas of this soil remain in native vegetation typical Of Jim Durrance Road, 1/4 mile south of Eagle Island
of grassy sloughs. Few good drainage outlets are available, R
and the areas are used chiefly for native range and as wild- Road and about 51/2 miles northeast of Basinger):
life habitat. Where drainage is feasible, this soil is well suited All-0 to 3 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
to improved pasture. Under good management that includes weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable, nonstick;
complete water control, this soil is well suited to citrus and common fine and medium roots; many, clean, light-
to adapted cultivated crops. Crops on this soil respond well gray sand grains; strongly acid; gradual, smooth
if fertilizer is applied. Capability unit IIIw-4; Slough range boundary.
site; woodland group 7. A12-3 to 5 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
grain; loose, nonsticky; common fine and medium
Felda, Pompano, and Placid soils, pounded (Fp).-This roots; common, clean sand grains; strongly acid;
differentiated unit consists of nearly level, sandy soils gradual, wavy boundary.
;hat are very poorly drained. These soils occur through- A13-5 to 17 inches, brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; a few, fine,
)ut the county in depressions that are covered by water faint, yellowish-brown mottles and common, medium,
i faint, very pale brown mottles; single grain; loose,
most of each year. One or more of the named soils is nonsticky; a few, fine and medium roots; slightly
dominant in any mapped area, but these three soils rarely acid; abrupt, wavy boundary.
tre together in one mapped area. Where soils are over- Bca-17 to 25 inches, white (N 8/0) fine sandy loam (marl);
ying neutral to calcareous material, the Felda and common, fine and medium, distinct, brownish-yellow
Pompano soilsare dominant. Where areas of acid soils (10YR 6/6) and yellow (10YR 8/6) mottles; weak
Pompano subangular blocky structure that breaks to moder-
accur, the Placid soil is dominant. A typical profile of ate, fine, granular; friable; common medium and
-ach of these Isoils is described in the mapping units coarse roots; calcareous; gradual, smooth boundary.
Felda fine sand, Pomano fine sand, and Placid fine sand. c1-25 to 38 inches, brownish-yellow (10YR 6/6) fine sand;
Included in mapping with this unit where Felda and many, coarse, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6)
mottles; a few, coarse, distinct, light-gray (10YR 7/2)
Pompano soils are dominant are small areas of such soils and very pale brown (10YR 7/3) mottles; and a few,
is the Charlotte, Delray, and Manatee. The Felda and coarse, distinct, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) mottles;
Pompano soils' lack the bright-colored sandy layer that single grain; loose; a few roots; neutral; gradual,
occurs at a depth between 8 and 30 inches in the Char- 2-38 boundarayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine sand;
C2-38 to 56 inches, grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine sand;
lotte soil, and they lack the thicker black surface layer many, medium, distinct, dark yellowish-brown (10YR
common in the Delray and Manatee soils. 4/4) and yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; single
Where the Placid soil is dominant, areas of the Basinger grain; loose, nonstick; slightly acid; gradual, wavy
soil are included with this unit in mapping. The Placid 0- boundary.
oil has a thicker, dark-colored surface layer (A C3-56 to 70 inches +, gray (5Y 6/1) fine sand; single grain;
soil has a thicker, dark-colored surface layer (Al hori- loose, nonstick; a few, fine, marl nodules; mildly
son) than that' in the Basinger soil. Also included with alkaline,








14 SOIL SURVEY

The All horizon ranges from gray to very dark gray and B22h---43 to 54 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3) fine
is 2 to 6 inches thick. Reaction in this layer is medium sand; single grain; loose; common, fine and medium,
acid to strongly acid. The A12 horizon is light gray to dark dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) mottles; weakly
gray and is 2 to 6 inches thick. The A13 horizon is dark grayish cemented; a few, fine and medium roots; strongly
brown to pale brown or yellowish brown. It is slightly acid acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
to neutral and is 8 to 14 inches thick. The Bca horizon is C-54 to 72 inches +, brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; a few,
at a depth of 12 to 20 inches. It ranges from yellowish brown fine, faint, light-gray, dark-brown, and pale-brown
to white in color and from fine sandy loam to loamy fine sand mottles; single grain; loose; strongly acid.
in texture. This layer is 6 to 15 inches thick and is highly This soil is fine sand to a depth of 72 inches or more, and
calcareous. Below are layers of slightly acid to mildly alka- in all layers the reaction is strongly acid to very strongly
line, grayish to yellowish fine sand. Depth to the water table acid. The Al horizon is gray to black and 2 to 8 inches
ranges from near the surface for short periods in the wet sea- thick. The A2 horizon is light gray to white and 22 to 40
son to 48 inches or more in an extended dry season. inches thick. The organic pan (B21h horizon) occurs at a
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of the depth between 30 and 48 inches and commonly consists of
Charlotte, Pompano, Myakka, and Immokalee soils. Ft. Drum two parts. The upper part is black to dark reddish brown, is
fine sand is not so poorly drained as the Charlotte and Pom- weakly cemented, and ranges from about 2 to 10 inches in
pano soils and has a calcareous loamy subsoil that these soils thickness. The lower part is very dark brown to dark reddish
lack. It is less acid throughout than the Myakka and Immoka- brown and is mottled. It generally is thicker and less cemented
lee soils and lacks the well-developed organic pan typical of than the upper part. Brownish- to grayish-colored layers occur
these soils. below the pan. During the wet season the water table rises
The sandy surface layer in this soil is rapidly permeable, to near the surface for short periods, but it recedes to a
and the loamy marl layer is moderately to rapidly permeable. depth of 48 inches or more during the dry season.
Although it is periodically wet, this soil is drought during Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
dry periods because its available water capacity is very low. Myakka, Pomello, St. Johns, Basinger, and Placid soils. This
Fertility and content of organic matter are low. soil is similar to the Myakka soil, but depth to the organic
Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation that con- pan is greater. It is not so well drained as the Pomello soil.
sists of an open growth of pine trees and scattered cabbage- Its surface layer (Al horizon) is thinner than that in the St.
palms that have an understory of saw-palmettos and native Johns soil, and depth to the organic pan is greater. Unlike
grasses. A few small areas consist of palm hammocks that the Basinger and Placid soils, Immokalee fine sand has an
are used chiefly for native range. This soil is suited to im- organic pan.
proved pasture if simple surface drainage is provided. The Although Immokalee fine sand is periodically wet, it is
hammock areas provide shelter and limited browse for wild- rapidly permeable and responds readily to simple drainage
life. Under good management and proper water control that practices. It is drought during dry periods because its avail-
includes drainage and irrigation, this soil is suited to citrus able water capacity is low. Fertility and content of organic
and a few special crops. Capability unit IVw-l; Sweet Flat- matter are low.
woods range site and Hammock range site; woodland group 2. Most areas of this soil remain in the native flatwoods and
Immokalee fine sand (Im).-This deep, poorly drained, are used for range. The vegetation consists chiefly of saw-
nearly level, sandy soil is in broad fatwoods areas i all palmettos and grasses but includes scattered pines. Many
nearly level, sandy soil is in broad flatwoods areas in all areas are in improved pastures of high quality. Such crops
parts of the county. -as tomatoes and watermelons are grown on a small acreage
In a typical profile the surface layer is very strongly under a high level of management that includes complete
acid, very dark gray fie sand ab t ines tli. Te water control. This soil is poorly suited to citrus. Capability
acid, very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The unit IVw-2; Acid Flatwoods range site; woodland group 4.
subsurface layer is light-gray to white fine sand about Made land (Ma).-This land type consists of sandy
29 inches thick. An organic pan layer, about 20 inches material and of several other kinds of soil and geologic
thick, is at a depth of about 35 inches. The upper part of materials, including shells, that have been reworked by
this pan is weakly cemented, black fine sand, and the soil-moving equipment. The areas have been built up
lower part is mottled dark reddish-brown fine sand. above wet ground by using soil material that was brought
Below is strongly acid, brown fine sand. The water table in by truck or by dredging. Smoothing and leveling have
normally is at a depth of about 30 inches. made the areas suitable for use as building sites, high-
Typical profile of Immokalee fine sand (along Spicy ways, recreational areas, or for other purposes. Made
Island Road, 300 feet west of U.S. Highway No. 441, and land occurs primarily in or near the city of Okeechobee.
about 71/2 miles north of the center of Okeechobee): The Florida School for Boys and the Okeechobee
Al-0 to 6 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; County Airport occupy large areas of Made land. Also,
weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; many fine much of the subdivision on the eastern side of Taylor
and medium roots; has a salt-and-pepper appearance Creek is built on spoil material removed from Taylor
in places because of mixing of organic matter and Creek during channel excavation. In other parts of the
light-gray sand; very strongly acid; clear, smooth county, small areas of Made land consist of spoil material
boundary.
A21-6 to 12 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; many, that has been spread over soils adjacent to Borrow pits.
coarse, faint, gray mottles and a few, coarse, distinct, Because of the wide range of soil characteristics, most
dark-gray mottles; single grain; loose; common, fine, of them unfavorable, this land type is generally not
medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual, wavy suited to cultivated crops. If smoothed and managed
boundary.
A22-12 to 35 inches, white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single properly, a few small areas scattered throughout the
grain; loose; a few, fine, very dark gray streaks in county can be used for improved pasture. Most areas,
root channels; a few, fine, medium and coarse roots; however, are used for urban construction. Not placed in
very strongly acid; % to 1 inch transitional layer
that has a wavy boundary, a capability unit, range site, or woodland group.
B21h-35 to 43 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; massive Manatee loamy fine sand (Mc).-This very poorly
in place, but crushes to weak, fine, crumb structure; drained, nearly level soil is in shallow depressions in many
firm and weakly cemented, but friable when crushed; parts of the county.
lower 2 inches grades to dark reddish brown (5YR
2/2); c common fine and medium reddoots; very strongly In a typical profile the surface layer is neutral, black
acid; clear, wavy boundary. loamy fine sand about 18 inches thick. The subsoil is fine








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 15

.andy loam about 30 inches thick. It is mildly alkaline good management that includes a properly designed and in-
d rk grayish brown in the upper pat dark stalled water control system, some of the larger areas are
d very dark yish brown in te upper part, well suited to cultivated crops and to citrus. Capability unit
pray with brownish-colored mottles in the middle part, IIIw-4, Sand Pond range site; woodland group 5.
,nd calcareous and dark gray with many specks of white Manatee, Delray, and Okeelanta soils (Mo).-This un-
narl in the lower part. Below is light-gray fine sandy differentiated unit consists of nearly level soils that are
oam. Most of the year the water table is within a depth very poorly drained. These soils are on marshy flood
,f 0 to 15 inches. For periods of more than 6 months each plains of the Kissimmee River and of Taylor Creek.
,ear this soil normally is pounded. Most areas are inaccessible because of wetness, dense
Typical profile of Manatee loamy fine sand (on the vegetation, and old stream channels. The areas of this
illiamson Ranch, 1 mile east of U.S. Highway No. 441 unit were dry enough, however, to determine the domi-
d about 6 miles north of the center of Okeechobee) : nant soils. A typical profile of each dominant soil is
Ap-0 to 12 inches, black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; moder- described under the mapping units Manatee loamy fine
ate, medium, granular structure; friable; many fine sand, Delray fine sand, and Okeelanta peat.
and medium roots; content of organic matter is 10 to an, y f s a
15 percent; neutral; gradual, wavy boundary. Included with this unit in mapping are small areas
A12-12 to 18 inches, black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; of the Chobee and Felda soils and ponded areas of the
weak, fine, granular structure; friable; many fine Polmpano soil. Also included are soils similar to Okee-
and medium roots; many granules of mucky fine sand; lanta peat, but that have a surface layer of organic mate-
neutral; gradual, wavy boundary.
B21t-18 to 24 inches, very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2) rial that is more than 36 inches thick.
fine sandy loam; a few, thin, light-gray (10YR 7/1) The soils in this unit have a thicker surface layer (Al
streaks and small pockets of sand; weak, coarse, horizon) than the Felda and Pompano soils. They lack
subangular blocky structure that breaks to moderate, the sandy clay loam subsoil common in the Chobee soil.
medium, granular; friable, nonplastic; many fine and
a few medium roots; mildly alkaline; clear, wavy Most of these soils remain in native marsh vegetation
boundary. that consists of a dense growth of pickerelweed, iris,
B22tg-24 to 36 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy loam; smartweed, maidencane, black willow, and other aquatic
a few, fine, faint, brown and olive-brown mottles; shrubs and grasses. These areas are well suited to use as
weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure; friable,
nonplastic; common fine and medium roots; mildly native range and as wildlife habitat. Major structures to
alkaline; gradual, wavy boundary. control flooding have been installed on both the Kissim-
B3cag-36 to 48 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy inee River and Taylor Creek. Some areas of these soils
loam; many, medium, faint, grayish-brown (10YR
5/2) mottles; weak, medium, subangular blocky now protected from flooding can be used for improved
structure; friable; slightly sticky, slightly plastic; pasture and for cultivated crops.
common fine and medium roots in upper part of hori- Drainage and continual water management are needed
zon; many, fine, soft and semihard white carbonate if these soils are used for any farm crop. Simple surface
nodules; calcareous; gradual, wavy boundary.
Ccag-48 to 60 inches +, light-gray (5Y 6/1) fine sandy loam; drainage is needed if the areas are used for improved
common, coarse, distinct, greenish-gray (5G 5/1) and pasture. Under management that includes a system for
bluish-gray (5B 6/1) mottles; massive; slightly water control that is carefully designed and is properly
plastic, slightly sticky; many, soft white, carbonate applied, these soils are well suited to truck and special
nodules; calcareous. crops. Many areas should be kept in their native state
The A horizon is 10 to 20 inches thick, is 5 to 18 percent and used as wildlife habitat and as nesting and feeding
organic matter in the upper part, and ranges from slightly
acid to mildly alkaline. A thin layer of peat or muck is at grounds for waterfowl. Capability unit IIIw-4; Fresh
the surface in some areas. The B2 horizon is neutral to Marsh range site; woodland group 5.
mildly alkaline fine sandy loam and contains small sand Myakka fine sand (My).-This deep, poorly drained,
pockets in places. This layer is 10 to 34 inches thick and e sandy soil is i broad la ood area
ranges from very dark grayish brown to gray in color and nearly level, sandy soil is in broad flatwood areas
has some mottles. At a depth between 24 and 40 inches is throughout the county.
the B3ca horizon, a marly fine sandy loam or loamy fine sand. I a typical profile the surface layer is very strongly
This layer is calcareous, is gray to dark gray, and contains acid, dark-gray fine sand about 6 inches thick The sub-
many nodules of white marl. Layers of shelly material occur acid, dark-gray fne sand about 6 inches tck. The sub-
below a depth of 40 inches in some areas. The water table surface layer is light-gray fine sand about 18 inches thick.
is either above the surface or is within a depth of 15 inches. At a depth of about 24 inches is a well-developed organic
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of the pa This pan is very strongly acid, weakly cemented,
Chobee, Delray, and Felda soils. Also included are small areas dark reish-bwn fine sand abot i nches thick. Jst
of similar soils that lack a calcareous subsoil and spots of a dark reddish-brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. Just
soil that has an organic surface layer. Manatee loamy fine below is a layer of dark-brown fine sand about 10 inches
sand has a fine sandy loam subsoil, which is at a depth of thick. The underlying material consists of layers of pale-
more than 40 inches in the Delray soil. It has a thicker dark-ght brownish-gray fne sand that extend to
colored surface layer (Al horizon) than that in the Feldaand light brownish-gray fine sand that extend to
soil. The Chobee soil has a sandy clay loam subsoil within a a depth of more than 66 inches. The water table normally
depth of 20 inches, is at a depth of about 30 inches.
Manatee loamy fine sand is rapidly permeable in the sur- Typical profile of Myakka fine sand (about two-thirds
face layer and moderately permeable in the subsoil Available
water capacity is high. Fertility and content of organic matter mile west of U.S. Highway No. 441 and 1 mile southwest
also are high. of Fort Drum):
Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation. The
vegetation generally is maidencane, sedges, and other plants A1--0 to 6 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak,
that tolerate wetness, but cypress and other wetland hard- fine, crumb structure; very friable; has a salt-and-
woods grow in some places. The treeless marsh areas make pepper appearance in places because of mixing of
good native range, organic matter and light-gray sand; many fine and
This soil is well suited to improved pasture if a drainage medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual, smooth
system is provided that removes excess water rapidly. Under boundary.









16 SOIL SURVEY

A2-6 to 24 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single is black to dark reddish brown, is 6 to 18 inches thick, and is
grain (structureless) ; loose; a few vertical streaks weakly cemented by organic matter. The B3 horizon ranges
of dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; common coarse from dark brown to reddish brown. The water table fluctuates
pockets of light-gray (10YR 7/1) and white (10YR from a depth of 0 to 15 inches for 1 to 2 months during the
8/1) fine sand; common, fine, medium, and coarse wet season. It drops to a depth of 48 inches or more in the
roots; very strongly acid; % to 1 inch transitional dry season.
layer that has a wavy boundary. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
B2h-24 to 30 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) fine Basinger, Placid, Immokalee, Pomello, and St. Johns soils.
sand; a few, medium, distinct, brown (7.5YR 4/4) Myakka fine sand has an organic pan, which is lacking in
mottles and streaks of black (10YR 2/1) ; massive, the Basinger and Placid soils. Depth to this pan is less than
but crushes to weak, fine, crumb structure; friable; in the Immokalee soil. This soil has poorer drainage and is
weakly cemented; a few fine pockets of gray fine less drought than the Pomello soil. It has a thinner surface
sand; many fine and medium roots and a few coarse layer than the St. Johns soil.
roots; very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary. Although Myakka fine sand is periodically wet, it is rapidly
B3-30 to 40 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4) fine sand; permeable and responds readily to simple drainage practices.
medium, coarse, distinct, dark-brown mottles; single This soil is drought during dry seasons, and available water
grain; loose; many fine and medium roots and a capacity is low. Fertility and content of organic matter are
few coarse roots; very strongly acid; clear, wavy low.
boundary. Most areas of this soil remain in native pine trees that
C1-40 to 56 inches, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand; a have an undergrowth of saw-palmettos, runner oak, gallberry,
few, medium, faint, dark grayish-brown and brown and many kinds of native grasses. The pine trees have been
mottles; single grain; loose; a few fine roots; strongly cleared from many areas and the remaining understory used
acid; gradual, wavy boundary. as range. Many other areas are in improved pasture of high
C2-56 to 66 inches +, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) fine quality. A small acreage is used for tomatoes and water-
sand; common, fine and medium, faint mottles of melons each year, and some areas are suited to citrus. These
dark gray, light gray, and white; single grain; crops require a high level of management that includes com-
loose; strongly acid. plete water control. Capability unit IVw-2; Acid Flatwoods
This soil is fine sand to a depth of 72 inches or more, and range site; woodland group 4.
it is very strongly acid to strongly acid throughout. The Al Okeelanta peat (Oe).-This very poorly drained, nearly
horizon is gray to black and is 2 to 8 inches thick. The A2 level, organic soil is in depressions and broad marshes.
horizon is gray to white and is 2 to 24 inches thick. Depth e aea r ll r f th nt
to the organic pan (B2h horizon) ranges from 10 to 30 The areas occur in all parts of the county.
inches. The upper boundary of the pan may be uniformly In a typical profile the upper 3 inches is slightly acid,
smooth or may be irregular and have tongues and pockets black, granular peat. The next layer, to a depth of about
of light-colored sand from the A2 horizon (fig. 4). The pan 24 inches, is slightly acid, very dark brown, fibrous peat
that contains pockets and lenses of black muck. Below
is a 4-inch layer of similar material that contains lenses
of peat and much sand. Neutral gray sand occurs below
the organic layers. The water table is near or above the
surface at all times.
Typical profile of Okeelanta peat (on the Williamson
Ranch about 4 miles northeast of the center of Okeecho-
bee and 21/2 miles east of U.S. Highway No. 441) :
1-0 to 3 inches, black (10YR 2/1) peat; moderate, medium,
granular structure; friable; coatings of colloidal
organic matter on all ped faces; small amount of
'. gray sand washed into the surface; many fine roots;
slightly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
2-3 to 24 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fibrous peat;
.. weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure; coatings
of colloidal organic matter on many ped faces, espe-
cially in the upper half of the horizon; has a soft,
smooth feel; common, coarse pockets and lenses of
black muck; many fine roots; slightly acid; gradual,
smooth boundary.
3-24 to 28 inches, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) fibrous peat;
massive; many balls or lenses of dark-brown (10YR
3/3) and dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3) peat; con-
tains little or no colloidal peat; up to 50 percent
sand in pockets or mixed into the horizon; many
fine roots; slightly acid; gradual, smooth boundary.
Cb-28 to 48 inches +-, gray (10YR 5/1) sand; many, coarse,
faint, light-gray (10YR 6/1) mottles and a few,
coarse, faint, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) mottles; single
grain; a few balls of gray loamy fine sand; many
fine roots in upper 5 inches; neutral.
This soil has 12 to 36 inches of slightly acid to neutral
organic material, mostly peat, overlying neutral sand. The
surface layer is black to very dark brown peat or muck and
is 3 to 12 inches thick. The next layer is very dark brown
to dark reddish-brown fibrous peat and is 12 to 30 inches
thick. This layer has pockets and lenses of black muck. Below
Figure 4.-A drainage ditch dug through large areas of Myakka this is a thin layer of similar organic material that has a
fine sand and showing an organic pan (black area) that is often high content of sand. The underlying sand commonly has a
highly irregular and has many tongues and pockets of white sand thin, dark-colored upper part and a thick, grayish-colored
from the subsurface layer. lower part.









OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 17

Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Terra Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of soils
Ceia, Delray, and Manatee soils, that consist of peaty material instead of muck and soils that
Okeelanta peat is similar to the Terra Ceia soil but lacks have layers of muck extending to a depth of more than 36
the thick layer of muck common in the Terra Ceia soil and is inches. Also included are small areas of the Placid soil, which
shallower to underlying sand. It has a thick organic surface lack the thick organic surface layer of the Pamlico soils.
layer, which is lacking in the Delray and Manatee soils. The content of nitrogen is high, but the content of other
This soil is covered with water most of the time. Drainage plant nutrients is low. Available water capacity is high. Be-
outlets generally are far away and small areas therefore cause this soil occupies lowest areas in the landscape, drain-
are not feasible to drain. Where drainage is feasible, the age outlets generally are far away. If outlets are available,
larger areas can be drained and cultivated. After this soil is this soil can be drained and used for improved pasture and
reclaimed, subsidence through oxidation is a continuous cultivated crops. After the soil is reclaimed, subsidence
hazard, through oxidation is a continuous hazard.
Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation that Most areas of this soil have a dense cover of native
consists of sawgrass, lilies, sedges, reeds, a few scattered vegetation made up of sweetbay, sweetgum, cypress, ferns,
cypress trees, and other aquatic plants. The areas are used sawgrass, and other aquatic plants. The areas are used pri-
for native range and as wildlife habitat. This soil is well marily for native range and as habitat for wildlife. If the
suited to improved pasture if a drainage system is provided trees are removed and a drainage system that removes excess
that removes excess surface water rapidly. Under management surface water is provided, the areas can be used for improved
that includes intensive water control, this soil is well suited pasture of high quality. Under a high level of management
to special truck crops. Citrus is not suited. Capability unit that includes complete water control, this soil is well suited
IIIw-G; Everglades Marsh range site; woodland group 8. to special truck crops. Citrus is not suited. Large amounts
Sof lime and fertilizer are needed for pastures and cultivated
Pamlico muck (Pa).-This very strongly acid, nearly crops. Capability unit IIIw-6; Swamp range site; woodland
level, organic soil is very poorly drained. It is in depres- group 8.
sions, marshes, and swamps, mainly in the eastern half Paola fine sand (Pd).-This moderately well drained,
of the county. deep, nearly level, sandy soil is on low knolls and ridges.
In a typical profile the surface layer commonly is a It occurs primarily in the northern part of the county
thin layer of loose black muck that contains masses of near Fort Drum. The areas are slightly elevated and are
living and dead roots and partly decomposed plants. The a few hundred acres each in size.
next layer is compact black muck about 24 inches thick In a typical profile the surface layer is dark-gray fine
that has a smooth, slick feel. In this layer are a few sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer slight
pockets or lenses of dark-brown fibrous peat. At a depth gray and is about 8 inches thick. Just below is a dark
of about 30 inches is a layer of very strongly acid, black reddish-brown layer that contains a few darker colored,
sand that overlies dark-gray sand which extends to a weakly cemented lumps of fine sand. At a depth below
depth of morethan 60 inches. A few inches of water 14 inches are layers of brown, very pale brown, and light-
cover this soil most of the time. gray fine sand. The water table normally is at a depth of
Typical profile of Pamlico muck (at the southern tip about 60 inches.
of a swampy area, two-thirds of a mile southwest of the Typical profile of Paola fine sand (100 feet west of
headquarters of Dark Hammock Ranch, and about 91/2 U.S. Highway No. 441, one-fourth mile north of the
miles northeast of the center of Okeechobee) : Fort Drum store):
1-0 to 6 inches, black (10YR 2/1) muck; loose mass of liv-
ing and dead roots and of partly decomposed plant re- Ap-0 to 4 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak,
mains and well-decomposed organic material; smooth fine, crumb structure; very friable; has a salt-and-
and slick when crushed; pockets or lenses of very pepper appearance in places because of mixing of
dark brown (10YR 2/2) fibrous peat; very strongly organic matter and light-gray fine sand; many fine
acid; clear, smooth boundary. roots; very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
2-6 to 30 inches, black (10YR 2/1) muck; massive when A2-4 to 12 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; single
wet, weak, coarse, subangular blocky structure when grain; loose; a few, fine roots; a few, narrow tongues
moist; weak vertical and horizontal cleavage; ped of dark gray (10YR 4/1) extend downward into the
faces coated with colloidal organic matter; compact; horizon for several inches; very strongly acid; abrupt,
smooth, slick feel; a few lenses and small pockets of irregular boundary.
dark-brown (10YR 2/2) fibrous peat; many fine roots; C&Bh-12 to 14 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3) fine
very strongly acid; gradual, irregular boundary. sand; weak, fine, crumb structure; friable; a few,
Ab-30 to 42 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; single grain; darker colored, weakly cemented fragments; a few to
loose; tongues and pockets of black muck in upper 6 common streaks or pockets of yellowish-brown and
inches; common pockets and streaks of very dark pale-brown fine sand; a few, fine roots; very strongly
gray sand; lower few inches of horizon grades to acid; clear, irregular boundary.
very dark gray sand; a few, fine roots; very strongly C1-14 to 24 inches, brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand splotched
acid; gradual, smooth boundary. with pale brown (10YR 6/3), light yellowish brown
C-42 to 60 inches +, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single (10YR 6/4), and strong brown (7.5YR 5/8); single
grain; loose; horizon grades to gray (10YR 5/1) with grain; loose; strongly acid; gradual, irregular
depth; very strongly acid. boundary.
.C2-24 to 45 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand;
This soil has 12 to 36 inches of strongly acid to extremely -24 to 45 inches, prominent brown ish-yellow, yelloish-and;
acid, well-decomposed, organic material over sand, The sur- a few, fine, prominent, brownish-yellow, yellowish-
acid, well-decomposed, organic material over sand. The sur- red, and light-gray mottles; single grain; loose;
face layer is black to dark-brown muck or peat 4 to 12 inches strongly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
thick. Below is a dense layer of black to very dark brown
muck that contains some pockets or lenses of brownish-colored, C3-45 to 66 inches light-gray (10 7/1) fine sand; ela
fibrous peat. This layer ranges from 12 to 30 inches in thick- few, fine, faint motes of brownish yellow and yel-
ness, but it is seldom less than 18 inches thick. At a depth of low; single grain; loose; strongly acid.
less than 36 inches is a layer of black to very dark gray sand The Ap horizon ranges from gray to dark gray and is 2 to
that is 2 to 12 inches thick. The content of organic matter in 8 inches thick. The A2 horizon is gray to white and is 2 to 20
this layer ranges from 1 to 10 percent. Dark-gray to light-gray inches thick. Depth to the C&Bh horizon is 12 to 30 inches.
sand is at a depth between 42 and 60 inches or more. The This layer is quite variable in color, consistence, and thick-
water table drops a few inches below the surface for short ness. Much of it is brown to dark reddish brown and friable,
periods during an unusually dry season. but some is pale brown. Darker brown, weakly cemented frag-








18 SOIL SURVEY

ments are present in this layer in many places. The layer nor- mildly alkaline, very dark gray to black fine sand about
mally is 2 to 12 inches thick, but in places it is absent. The 9 inches thick. Below is a thick layer of gray fine sandy
C horizon is brown to white, loose fine sand that is splotched lm ( Uin l o c
and streaked with pale brown. Reaction in all layers ranges loam (marl). Underlying layers of calcareous, mottled,
from very strongly acid to strongly acid. The water table is gray and light-gray loamy fine sand extend to a depth
at a depth of about 48 inches for short periods during the of 70 inches or more. The water table normally is at a
wet season and recedes to a depth of about 72 inches in the depth of about 24 inches.
dry season.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Typical profile of Parkwood fine sand (in a hammock
Pomello, Immokalee, and Myakka soils. Paola fine sand lacks area about one-fourth mile east of U.S. Highway No. 98
the well-developed organic pan present in the Pomnello soil and 3 miles northwest of the center of Okeechobee):
and the poorly drained Iinmokalee soil at a depth of more
than 30 inches and in the Myakka soil at a depth of less than All-0 to 6 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) line sand
30 inches. when crushed; weak, fine, crumb structure; friable;
This soil is rapidly permeable, and fertilizer leaches out many fine and coarse roots; has a salt-and-pepper
readily. Available water capacity is low, and the soil is too appearance in places because of mixing of organic
drought for shallow-rooted crops. Depth to the water table matter and gray sand; neutral; gradual, wavy
is a few feet from the surface, but soil properties permitt rise boundary.
of water through capillary action to provide sufficient moisture A12-6 to 9 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak, fine,
for deep-rooted crops. Fertility and content of organic matter crumb structure; friable; nonstick; many fine and
are low. coarse roots; mildly alkaline; clear, wavy boundary.
Most areas of this soil are used for range; only a few areas B21tca-- to 22 inches, gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam (marl) ;
are cultivated. Sand pine and scrub oaks that have an under- a few, fine, faint, yellowish-brown mottles; massive
growth of cacti and sparse stands of grasses make up the in place, but breaks to weak granular structure; fri-
native vegetation. This soil is moderately well suited to im- able; nonstick ; a few to many fine and coarse roots;
proved pasture of deep-rooted grasses, but it is poorly suited sand grains are coated and bridged with clay-size
to most cultivated crops. A few areas are planted to citrus, carbonates; calcareous; gradual, wavy boundary.
to which this soil is moderately well suited. Because it is B22tca-22 to 39 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) loamy fine sand
higher and drier than surrounding wet soils, this soil was (marl) ; many, coarse, distinct, yellowish-brown
chosen by early settlers for use as homesites. Limitations for (10YR 5/6 and 5/8) mottles; weak, medium, granu-
use as homesites are few. Capability unit IIIs-1; Sand Scrub lar structure; friable; sand grains coated and bridged
range site; woodland group 1. with clay-size carbonates; a few, fine roots; many
roots channels filled with white (N 8/0) marl; lower
Parkwood fine sand (Pe).-This poorly drained, nearly part of horizon has thin pockets or lenses of white
level soil is in palm hammocks along sloughs and depres- (N 8/0) fragmented marl; calcareous; gradual, wavy
sions (fig 5) It generally occurs small areas through- boundary.
sions (fig. 5). It generally occurs in small areas through B3ca-39 to 52 inches, gray (10YR 6/1) loamy fine sand
out the county. (marl) ; many, coarse, distinct, brownish-yellow
In a typical profile the surface layer is neutral to (10YR 6/8) mottles; massive in place when wet, but
weak, fine, granular structure when moist; friable; a
few, fine roots; root channels filled with marl;
calcareous; gradual, wavy boundary.
Cg-52 to 70 inches +, light-gray (N 7/0) loamy fine sand; a
few, fine, distinct, yellowish-brown mottles; single
grain; loose; a few, small, semihard marl nodules;
calcareous.
The A horizon is 6 to 10 inches thick. It is neutral to
mildly alkaline, and in a few places it is calcareous in the
lower few inches. The content of organic matter in this layer
ranges from 1 to 15 percent. The upper marl layer (B21tca
horizon) is gray to light-gray fine sandy loam that is 10 to 30
inches thick. It is either uniformly smooth marl or loamy
material that has many gritty marl nodules. It begins at a
depth between 10 and 18 inches. The layers below are grayish-
colored fine sandy loam to fine sand. These layers generally
are highly mottled with brownish and yellowish colors and
contain nodules or flecks of marl. Reaction of these marl lay-
ers ranges from neutral to calcareous. The water table ranges
from near the surface for short periods during the wet season
to a depth of more than 30 inches during the dry season.
Included with Parkwood fine sand in mapping are small
areas of the Ft. Drum soil, which has a lighter colored sur-
face layer than this soil. Also included are some soils that are
similar to Parkwood fine sand but have a marl layer at a
depth of more than 18 inches. Other included areas consist
of several large areas of soil that has marly material through-
out and of small areas of soils that have a few limerock
boulders at a shallow depth.
Although the water table is near the surface in the wet
season, this soil has low available water capacity and is
drought in the dry season. Permeability is rapid in the sur-
face layer and moderately rapid in the marl layers. Content
of organic matter is low to high, and fertility is moderately
low.
This soil has a dense cover of hammock vegetation that con-
sists mainly of cabbage-palms, though oaks and other hard-
woods grow in some places. The understory consists of shrubs,
Figure 5.--Palm hammock on Parkwood fine sand along a grassy vines, and grasses. The hammock areas produce little forage,
slough. but they provide desirable shelter areas within areas of open








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 19

range for both cattle and wildlife. For this reason, and because pasture and rangeland are best kept in their natural state and
the cost of clearing is high, most areas remain in native used as ponds for watering livestock and as habitat for wild-
vegetation. life. Capability unit IIIw-5; Sand Pond range site; woodland
If simple surface drainage is provided, this soil is well group 7.
suited to improved pasture. Under good management that acid Pm and D ra s s n (Ph Th
includes a complete water control system, which provides for Placid, Pamlico, and Deiray soils, pounded (Ph).-This
both drainage and irrigation, this soil is also well suited to undifferentiated unit consists of nearly level soils that
special crops and to citrus. Capability unit IIIw-2; Hammock are very poorly drained. These soils occur throughout
range site;, woodland group 6. the county in swamps and along heavily wooded drain-
Placid fine sand (Pf).-This very poorly drained, dark- ageways. Most areas are in the eastern part of the county
colored, nearly level, sandy soil is in low areas through- on narrow bottom lands along streams. All of the areas
out the county. are covered by water most of the time or are subject to
In a typical profile the surface layer is very strongly frequent flooding.
acid, black to very dark gray fine sand about 20 inches Most areas mapped are dominated by Placid fine sand.
thick. The upper part has a high content of organic Other areas are dominated by either Pamlico muck or
matter, and the lower part has streaks and pockets of Delray fine sand. No mapped areas contain all of these
grayish-colored sand. Below are layers of strongly acid, soils because of differences in acidity. A typical profile
gray and grayish-brown fine sand that have dark-colored of each soil is described in the mapping units Placid fine
mottles. The; water table is near or above the surface sand, Pamlico muck, and Delray fine sand.
most of the time. Included in mapping with these soils in most areas
Typical profile of Placid fine sand (in a flag pond where the Placid soil is dominant are areas of acid flat-
about one-half mile south of State Route 68 and 21/2 woods soils. Where the Pamlico soil is dominant, the
miles west of U.S. Highway No. 441) : Placid soil is included. Where the Delray soil is domi-
All-0 to 10 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; moderate, nant, small areas of the Pompano and Okeelanta soils are
medium, crumb structure; friable; a few, small included.
pockets of dark-gray (10YR 4/1) and gray (10YR Most areas of this unit are heavily wooded and occupy
5/1) fine sand; many fine and medium roots; organic- the lowest areas in the landscape Only a few drainage
matter content is about 14 percent; very strongly the lowest areas in the landscape. Only a ew drainage
acid; gradual, smooth boundary. outlets are present. The content of organic matter is
A12-10 to! 20 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; high, but the content of most plant nutrients is low.
weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; many fine These soils are mostly in heavily wooded swamps
and medium roots; lower part of this horizon has T
narrow tongues and pockets of black (10YR 2/1), under native vegetation. The plant cover consists of
dark gray (10YR 4/1), and very dark grayish brown sweetbay, sweetgum, cypress, brackenfern, sawgrass, and
(10YR 3/2); very strongly acid; clear, wavy other plants that tolerate wetness. Because of the dense
boundary.
C1-20 to 30 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; a few, fine, cover of woodland vegetation and lack of adequate drain-
faint, dark-gray and very dark gray mottles; single age outlets, reclamation generally is not feasible. Drain-
grain; loose; a few fine roots; strongly acid; gradual age outlets are accessible in a few areas, and these areas
wavy boundary.
C2-30 to 48 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; can be protected from floods and reclaimed. Then they
common, medium, faint, very dark gray and very dark can be used the same as soils in capability subclass IIIw.
grayish-brown mottles; single grain; loose; strongly Most areas of this unit are best left in their native state
acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
C3-48 to 75 inches +, dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2) fine and used for timber production and as wildlife habitat.
sand; a few, fine, faint, very dark gray mottles; sin- Capability unit VIIw-1; Swamp range site; woodland
gle grain; loose; strongly acid. group 7
This soillis fine sand to a depth of 75 inches or more. Reac- Pomello fine sand (Pm).-This deep, moderately well
tion throughout the soil profile ranges from extremely acid to .
strongly acid. Some areas have a thin surface layer of peat drained, nearly level, sandy soil is on low ridges and
or muck. In most areas the soil has a black All horizon that knolls in the flatwoods area. It occurs in many parts of
is 5 to 18 percent organic matter. The A12 horizon is very the county, but most areas are in the eastern part.
dark gray to black and contains less organic matter than the
All horizon. Total thickness of the dark-colored Al horizon In a typical profile the surface layer is very strongly
ranges from 10 to 24 inches. The underlying layers are dark acid, gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
grayish brown to light gray and have a few to many mottles. layer is thick, white fine sand. At a depth of about 42
Most areas of this soil are ponded for more than 6 months inches is a dark reddish-brown organic pan of fine sand.
each year.
Included with this soil in mapping are ponded areas of Below a depth of about 54 inches is dark reddish-brown
Basinger soil and spots of St. Johns soil along the edges of this and brown fine sand. The water table normally is at a
soil. Also included are small areas of Pamlico soils in the depth of 48 to 60 inches.
deeper centers of some ponds. Typical profile of Pomello fine sand (next to State
Although this soil is normally wet, it is rapidly permeable,
and can bei drained readily if outlets are available. Available Route 68, 21/ miles west of U.S. Highway No. 441 and
water capacity is moderate, especially in the surface layer. 10 miles north of the center of Okeechobee);
Content of organic matter is high, but natural fertility is low. Al-0 to 4 inches, gray (N 6/0) fine sand; weak, fine, crumb
This soil is used primarily as native range. Most areas con- structure; very friable; many, fine and medium roots;
sist of shallow ponds or small grassy sloughs that have a cover very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
of pickerelweed and maidencane. If a drainage system is pro- A2-4 to 42 inches, white (N 8/0) fine sand; single grain;
vided that removes excess surface water, this soil is well loose; common fine and medium roots and a few
suited to improved pasture. Under good management that coarse roots; a few thin streaks of dark gray in old
includes a complete water control system, this soil is also root channels; very strongly acid; 1 to 2 inches
well suited to truck and special crops. Ponded areas within transitional layer that has a wavy boundary.








20 SOIL SURVEY

B2h-42 to 47 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) fine (5YR 6/8) mottles; single grain; loose; a few fine
sand that has pockets of dark reddish brown (2.5YR roots; slightly acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
3/4) and black (5YR 2/1); massive in place, but C2-30 to 75 inches +, light-gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
crushes to weak, fine, crumb structure; friable; single grain; loose; slightly acid.
weakly cemented; common fine and medium roots; a This soil is fine sand texture to a depth of 72 inches or more.
few small pockets of light-gray fine sand; very Reaction in the A horizon ranges from medium acid to slightly
sBtrongly acid; clear, wavy boundary acid and in the underlying layers from slightly acid to mildly
B3&Bh-47 to 54 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/3) fine alkaline. The All horizon is gray to black and is 2 to 8
sand; a few, coarse, dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2) mottles, inches thick. This layer generally is thinner where the colors
massive, crushes to weak, fine, crumb structure; are A12 horizon is dark gray to light gray and
cem foagwar dish n are darker. The A12 horizon is dark gray to light gray and
early cemented fragments of dark reddish brown grayish brown and is 3 to 13 inches thick. The C1 horizon is
(5YR 2/2) ; a few medium roots; very strongly acid; within a depth of 30 inches and is light brownish in color. It
clear, wavy boundary. is 10 to 30 inches thick. The C2 horizon is gray to white sand.
C-54 to 66 inches +, brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; common, The water table is at a depth of 0 to 15 inches for a period of
medium, faint, dark-brown mottles; single grain; 2 to 6 months each year. A few inches of water covers the
loose; very strongly acid. surface for short periods during the wet season.
This soil is fine sand to a depth of 72 inches or more. Reac- Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of the
tion throughout the profile ranges from strongly acid to very Charlotte, Felda, Delray, and Immokalee soils. Ponded areas
strongly acid. The Al horizon is gray or light gray and is of this soil are also included, and these make up about 10
1 to 6 inches thick. The A2 horizon ranges from light gray to percent of each mapped area. This soil is similar to the Char-
white and is 30 to 56 inches thick. The organic pan layer lotte soil, but it lacks the bright colored subsoil (Bir horizon)
(B2h horizon) is black to dark reddish brown, and in some typical of that soil. It also lacks the loamy subsoil horizons of
places it has pockets and tongues of light gray from the A2 the Felda and Delray soils and the organic pan of the
horizon. It is 2 to 6 inches thick and is weakly cemented in the Immokalee soil.
upper part. It overlies a dark reddish-brown to reddish-brown Although this soil normally is wet, it is rapidly permeable
layer that contains darker colored, weakly cemented fragments and responds readily to simple drainage practices. Available
from the B2h horizon. Below is brownish-colored, loose sandy water capacity is low, however, and when this soil is drained,
material that contains some mottles or small iron concretions. it is drought during dry periods. Content of organic matter
Depth to the water table ranges from 30 to 75 inches between and fertility are low.
wet and dry seasons. Most areas of this soil are in grassy sloughs and are used
Included with Pomello fine sand in mapping are small areas for range to which this soil is well suited. If simple drainage
of similar soils that have an organic pan at a shallower depth practices are applied, this soil is well suited to improved
and some wet soils that have no pan layer within a depth of pasture and a large acreage is in this use. Under a high level
72 inches. Also included are small areas of the Immokalee of management that includes complete water control, this
soil, which is darker colored and more poorly drained than soil is suited for tomatoes, other truck crops, and special
this soil. crops. It is poorly suited to citrus. Capability unit IVw-3;
Pomello fine sand is rapidly permeable, has low available Slough range site; woodland group 7.
water capacity, and is drought most of the time. Content of Seewee fine sand (Se).-This deep, moderately well
organic matter and natural fertility are very low.
Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation and are drained to somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to
used for range and wildlife. The plant cover consists of gently sloping, sandy soil overlies a dark-colored buried
scrub oaks, saw-palmettos, woody shrubs, many kinds of soil. It occupies a long, narrow, wooded ridge that paral-
grasses, and scattered stands of slash pine. lels the shoreline of Lake Okeechobee.
This soil is very poorly suited to cultivated crops or citrus.
If intensive management is used, however, improved pastures In a typical profile the surface layer is dark-gray fine
made up of deep-rooted grasses that resist drought provide sand about 5 inches thick. Just below is a thick layer of
fairly good grazing. The areas make desirable homesites white sand. At a depth of about 36 inches is black mucky
because they are slightly elevated above the adjacent flatwoods sand that is te surface layer of an old buried soil and
and are dry. Capability unit VIs-1; Sand Scrub range site; san tat s t ace ayr an o e so
woodland group 1. is about 17 inches thick. Light brownish-gray sand occurs
Pompano fine sand (Pn).-This deep, poorly drained, below this layer. The water table normally is at a depth
nearly level soil is in grassy sloughs and depressions. It of 48 to 60 inches.
occurs in all parts of the county. Typical profile of Seewee fine sand (near U.S. High-
In a typical profile the surface layer is dark-gray to way No. 441 and about 9 miles southeast of the center of
grayish-brown fine sand about 16 inches thick. Below, to Okeecobee):
a depth of about 30 inches, is very pale brown fine sand Ap-0 to 5 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak,
that has a few to many mottles. Light-gray fine sand fine, crumb structure; very friable; many fine roots;
slightly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
extends below this layer to a depth of 75 inches or more. c1-5 to 36 inches, white (10YR 8/2) sand; single grain;
The water table normally is at a depth of about 20 inches. loose; a few fine and coarse roots; slightly acid;
Typical profile of Pompano fine sand (in a slough just clear, wavy boundary.
south of a graded road, 11/2 miles west of Trice Dairy, Ab-36 to 53 inches, black (10YR 2/1) mucky sand; moderate,
medium, granular structure; friable; many, small,
and about 31/2 miles southwest of Fort Drum) : white (10YR 8/2) sand pockets; many fine roots;
All--0 to 5 inches, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak. neutral; gradual, wavy boundary.
fine, crumb structure; very friable; many fine roots; C2-53 to 63 inches +, light brownish-gray (10YR 6/2) sand;
in places has a salt-and-pepper appearance when dry single grain; loose; neutral.
because of mixing of organic matter and light-gray This soil is sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. Reaction
sand; medium acid; gradual, smooth boundary. in the Ap and 01 horizon ranges from medium acid to neutral
A12-5 to 16 inches, grayish-brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; a and in the buried layer' (Ab horizon) from slightly acid to
few, fine, distinct, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles; mildly alkaline. Color of the Ap horizon ranges from gray to
single grain; loose; many fine roots; common, fine, black. This layer is 2 to 6 inches thick. The C1 horizon ranges
dark grayish-brown streaks in root channels; slightly from grayish brown to white. Thickness of this layer ranges
acid; gradual, wavy boundary. from 2 to 42 inches, depending upon the position of the soil
01-16 to 30 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand; on the ridge. The Ab horizon is black mucky sand or sand
a few, coarse, faint, pale-brown mottles and a few, and is 5 to 25 percent organic matter. It is 4 to 20 inches
fine, distinct, yellow (10YR 7/6) and reddish-yellow thick. Color of the C2 horizon is dark grayish brown to









OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 21

white. In some places pockets or lenses of shells occur in one 13/4 miles north of State Route 68 and about 4 miles
or more layers of this soil. The water table rises to a depth southeast of Fort Drum) :
of about 30'inches for a short time during a wet season and
may drop below a depth of 60 inches during a dry season. All-0 to 10 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak, fine,
Included with Seewee fine sand in mapping are small areas crumb structure; friable; many fine, medium, and
of Pompano soil and of other similar soils. Seewee fine sand coarse roots; many, clean, light-gray sand grains;
is similar to the Pompano soil in the horizons above the buried about 15 percent is organic matter; very strongly
soil, but it is better drained. In the southeastern corner of the acid; clear, smooth boundary.
county is a soil that has an old buried surface layer (Ab A12-10 to 14 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; single
horizon) that has a higher organic-matter content than this grain; loose; common fine roots; very strongly acid;
soil and in some areas approaches peat or muck. Other gradual, smooth boundary.
included small areas of soils have a buried layer (Ab horizon) A2-14 to 22 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single grain;
at a depth of more than 40 inches or have several, thin buried loose; a few fine and medium roots; very strongly
layers and intervening layers of light-colored sandy material, acid; % to 1 inch transitional layer that has a wavy
This soil is rapidly permeable and highly leached. Because boundary.
the available water capacity is low, this soil is drought dur- B21h-22 to 34 inches, black (10YR 2/1) sand; massive; firm;
ing the dry season. Fertility and content of organic matter are weakly cemented; common fine, medium, and coarse
low in the surface layer. roots; very strongly acid; clear, wavy boundary.
The native vegetation on this soil is primarily cabbage- B22h-34 to 42 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) sand;
palms, cypress, oaks, and other hardwoods that have an under- massive; friable; very weakly cemented; common
story of various kinds of shrubs and grasses. In places the pockets of very dark brown (10YR 2/2) ; a few,
understory has been cleared and the areas are used as pasture small, black (10YR 2/1) concretions or firm, weakly
and to provide shelter for livestock. Because of its location cemented fragments; a few fine roots; very strongly
and small acreage, this soil seldom is used for cultivated acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
crops. It is well suited to small plantings of citrus and to use B3-42 to 60 inches, dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand; common,
as homesites. Capability unit IIIs-1; Hammock range site; medium, faint, very dark brown, dark grayish-brown,
woodland group 1. and dark yellowish-brown mottles; single grain;
loose; nonstick; a few, fine roots; very strongly
Spoil banks (Sp).-This land type consists of a mixture acid; gradual, wavy boundary.
of sandy and loamy materials and shell fragments. These C-GO to 72 inches +, pale-brown (10YR 6/3) sand; single
materials were removed by dragline or were pumped grain; loose; nonsticky; very strongly acid.
liydraulically Ifrom the new channel of the Kissimmee This soil is strongly acid to very strongly acid throughout.
River and from the edges of Lake Okeechobee. Around It is sand to a depth of more than 72 inches. The Al horizon
is black to very dark gray and is 8 to 18 inches thick. In the
the lake the spoil materials were used to form a levee. upper part the organic-matter content ranges from 3 to 15
Along the Kissimmee River the materials were deposited percent. The A2 horizon is gray to white sand and is 6 to 18
as spoil banks along the channel or were pumped into inches thick. An organic pan layer (B2h horizon) occurs
large areas surrounded by dikes. The spoil ranges from within a depth of 30 inches. The upper part of this layer is
weakly cemented, black to very dark brown sand 2 to 12
3 inches to about 20 feet in thickness. inches thick. The lower part is very dark brown to dark
The spoil material consists of gray to white sand that reddish brown and may be weakly cemented or may contain
-ontains shells and lumps of gray, greenish-gray, or darker colored, weakly cemented fragments. Layers of
bluish-gry sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Interspersed brownish- and grayish-colored sand that is mottled in places
bluish-gay sandy loam or sandy clay loam.occur below the organic pan. During a wet season the water
layers of sandy, loamy, and shelly materials occur in the table is within 0 to 15 inches of the surface for a period of
;poil but not in any consistent order. In places along the 2 to 6 months and the soil may be covered by a few inches of
Channel of the Kiissimmee River where the spoil materials water for brief periods. In a dry season the water table
vere removed from areas of organic soils, they contain ecedes toa depth of about 0 inches. re sma areas of
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
sockets of organic material. Myakka, Immokalee, and Placid soils. Also included are small
Spoil banks is poorly suited to plants. Most areas con- areas of soils that are similar to St. Johns sand but have an
sist of infertile and erodible geologic materials from the organic pan directly below the surface layer (Al horizon).
St. Johns sand has a thicker surface layer (Al horizon) than
bottom of channels. These materials generally have a low the Myakka and Immokalee soils. Unlike the Placid soil, it
.ontent of organic matter. Available water capacity is has an organic pan layer.
variable. Except where the spoil material can be used to Although this soil is seasonally wet, it is rapidly permeable
and can be drained with little difficulty. Available water
build levees or dikes, it has little use other than for wild- capacity is low. Fertility is low, and content of organic matter
life habitat. Not placed in a capability unit, range site, is medium.
3r woodland group. Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation and are
used for range and wildlife, to which the soil is well suited.
St. Johns sand (St).-This deep, poorly drained, nearly The plant cover is mainly a dense growth of saw-palmettos,
evel, sandy soil occupies narrow areas in low flatwoods but grasses, woody shrubs, and a few scattered pine trees
;hat border wetter areas. It occurs throughout the county, grow in some areas.
If a simple drainage system that removes excess surface
3ut most areas are in the eastern half. water is provided, this soil is well suited to improved pasture.
In a typical profile the surface layer is black to very Under a complete water control system, this soil also is well
lark gray sand about 14 inches thick. The subsurface suited to truck crops and cut flowers. Some areas are well
suited to citrus, but intensive water control measures and
layer is light-gray sand about 8 inches thick. At a depth other good management practices are needed. Capability unit
3f about 22 inches is a thick, sandy, weakly cemented IIIw-3; Acid Flatwoods range site; woodland group 4.
)rganic pan that is black in the upper part and dark Terra Ceia peat (Tc).-This very poorly drained, nearly
reddish brown in the lower part. Below a depth of 42 level, organic soil is in depressions and broad marshes.
inches is darkl-brown sand that extends to a depth of It occurs primarily in a few areas in the south-central
nore than 60 inches. The water table normally is at a part of the county.
lepth of about 20 inches. In a typical profile the surface layer is dark reddish-
Typical profile of St. Johns sand (near Hilolo Road, brown fibrous peat about 8 inches thick. Just below is a








22 SOIL SURVEY

very thick layer of black muck. At a depth of about 48 which overlies a thin layer of very pale brown fine sand.
inches is a layer of black sand that overlies lighter Below a depth of about 32 inches is a thin layer of neu-
colored sand. This soil is either flooded or the water table tral, mottled, light-gray heavy fine sandy loam. This is
is near the surface most of the time. underlain by a thick layer of mildly alkaline, mottled,
Typical profile of Terra Ceia peat (on the King Ranch yellowish-brown fine sandy loam that is underlain by
about three-fourths mile south of State Route 70 and 11/ light-gray and gray sandy materials. The water table
miles southeast of the center of Okeechobee): normally is at a depth of about 30 inches.
1-0 to 8 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) fibrous peat; Typical profile of Wabasso fine sand (near U.S. High-
moderate, coarse, subangular blocky structure, but way No. 98 and Airport Road and about 21/2 miles north-
crushes to fine and medium, granular; friable; many west of the center of Okeechobee):
fine and medium roots form a partial root mat; many
black granules of muck; slightly acid; clear, wavy A1-0 to 4 inches, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
boundary. weak, fine, crumb structure; very friable; has a salt-
2-8 to 48 inches, black (10YR 2/1) muck; weak, coarse, sub- and-pepper appearance because of mixing of organic
angular blocky structure, but crushes to medium and matter and light-gray sand; many fine and medium
coarse, granular; friable; many small pockets and roots; very strongly acid; clear, smooth boundary.
thin lenses of dark-brown fibrous peat; many fine A2-4 to 16 inches, gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grain;
and medium grass roots; neutral; gradual, wavy loose; common fine and medium roots; transitional
boundary. layer 1/ to 1 inch thick that has a wavy boundary;
Ab---48 to 54 inches, black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; single grain; strongly acid.
loose; nonsticky; many streaks and pockets of light- Bh-16 to 28 inches, dark reddish-brown (5YR 2/2) fine
gray fine sand; common tongues and small pockets sand; massive in place, but crushes to moderate, fine,
of black muck; common fine roots; neutral; gradual, crumb structure; weakly cemented; very friable;
smooth boundary. common fine and medium roots; strongly acid; grad-
C-54 to 60 inches +, dark-gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; many, ual, smooth boundary.
fine and medium, faint, black and very dark gray A'2-28 to 32 inches, very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand;
mottles or streaks in old root channels; single grain; single grain; loose; common fine and medium roots;
loose; nonstick; neutral. neutral; clear, wavy boundary.
B'21t-32 to 36 inches, light-gray (10YR 6/1) heavy fine
The surface layer is black to dark reddish-brown fibrous sandy loam; many, medium, distinct, brownish-yellow
peat or granular muck and is 6 to 15 inches thick. The next (10YR 6/8) mottles; weak, coarse, subangular blocky
layer is black to very dark brown muck or peaty muck with structure; slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common
pockets and thin lenses of fibrous peat. This layer is 24 to 48 fine and medium roots; a few, small iron concretions;
inches thick and extends below a depth of 36 inches. At a neutral; gradual, wavy boundary.
depth of about 48 inches is a thin layer of black sand that is B'22t-36 to 48 inches, yellowish-brown (10YR 5/8) fine sandy
about 1 to 15 percent organic matter. The sand below this loam; many, coarse, distinct mottles and pockets of
depth is dark gray to light gray or grayish brown and extends light gray (10YR 6/1) ; weak, medium, subangular
to a depth of more than 60 inches. Reaction ranges from blocky structure; slightly sticky, slightly plastic; a
medium acid to neutral in the surface layer and from slightly few, fine and medium roots; streaks of white marl
acid to mildly alkaline in the underlying organic and sandy in root channels; mildly alkaline; gradual, wavy
layers. boundary.
Included with Terra Ceia peat in mapping are small areas C'1g-48 to 60 inches, light-gray (10YR 7/1) loamy fine sand;
of Okeelanta soil and a few small areas in the southern part many, medium and coarse, brownish-yellow (10YR
of the county that are underlain by limerock or shell. Unlike 6/6) mottles; massive; friable; strong-brown iron
the Okeelanta soil Terra Ceia peat has a thin layer of peat concretions; a few fine and medium roots; mildly
that overlies a thick layer of muck. Also included are small alkaline; gradual, wavy boundary.
areas of Terra Ceia soils that have a surface layer of muck C'2g-60 to 75 inches +, gray (N 6/0) fine sand; common,
or that have less than 36 inches of muck over a sandy subsoil, medium and coarse, light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/6)
Other included small areas consist of stratified layers of peat mottles; single grain; loose; mildly alkaline.
and muck.
This soil is covered by water most of the time and many The Al horizon is dark-gray to black fine sand 4 to 8 inches
areas lack adequate drainage outlets. In areas where drainage thick. The A2 horizon is gray or grayish-brown to white fine
outlets are available, this soil can be drained and cultivated. sand 8 to 22 inches thick. The organic pan layer (Bh horizon)
After it is reclaimed, however, subsidence by oxidation is a occurs within a depth of 12 to 30 inches. This layer is black
continuous hazard. Available water capacity is high, and per- to very dark brown or dark reddish-brown fine sand, and it is
meability is rapid. Content of nitrogen is high, but content of weakly cemented with organic matter. It is 4 to 14 inches
other plant nutrients is low. thick. A thin, grayish or brownish A'2 horizon occurs in some
Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation and are places. At a depth ranging from 20 to 36 inches are layers of
used primarily for native range and as wildlife habitat. The highly mottled, grayish and brownish heavy fine sandy loam
plant cover consists mostly of sawgrass and other aquatic to sandy loam. These layers range from 6 to 24 inches in
plants but includes a few scattered cypress trees, thickness and in some places have a few white marl nodules
If a drainage system is provided that removes excess sur- in the lower part (fig. 6). Reaction in the Al horizon and
face water, this soil is well suited to improved pasture. Under through the organic pan layer (Bh horizon) ranges from
a high level of management that includes a complete water strongly acid to very strongly acid. In all layers below the
control system, the soil is also well suited to truck crops and organic pan, reaction ranges from medium acid to mildly
sugarcane, but it is not suited to citrus. Capability unit alkaline. The sandier substratum is gray to white and extends
IIIw-6; Everglades Marsh range site; woodland group 8. to a depth below 75 inches. The water table is at a depth of
Wabasso fine sand (Wa).-This poorly drained, nearly 0 to 15 inches for a period of 1 to 2 months during the wet
level, sandy soil is in the flatwoods. The areas are small season b may recede to a depth of more than 30 inches in
and occur throughout the county. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of the
In a typical profile the surface layer is very strongly Bradenton, Myakka, and Immokalee soils. Also included are
acid, very dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The soils that are similar to Wabasso fine sand but have a thick,
subsurface layer is gray fine sand about 12 inches ticksurface layersrfa or a more acid, loamy subsoil. Wabasso
fine sand is similar to the Bradenton soil but has an organic
At a depth of about 16 inches is a dark reddish-brown, pan. Unlike the Myakka and Immokalee soils, Wabasso fine
weakly cemented organic pan about 12 inches thick, sand has a loamy subsoil below the pan.








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 23

i life, and for building highwaays, farm ponds, irrigation
systems and other engineering structures.

General Management for Cultivated Crops
and Pasture
Most of the soils in Okeechobee County have serious
limitations or hazards that must be overcome before
cultivated crops can be grown successfully or the areas
can be used for improved pasture. In a good manage-
ment plan, these limitations or hazards are considered
and adequate measures are provided to correct or elimi-
nate them.
Most of the soils in this county are affected by a high
water table, either continuously or seasonally. At certain
times of the year, many of the soils have excess water in
the root zone that is harmful to crops. In dry seasons
crops grown on some of these same soils may be damaged
by a shortage of water. A combined drainage and irriga-
tion system provides a high degree of water control by
removing excess water in wet seasons and by supplying
water to the soils in dry seasons. A subsurface irrigation
system like that briefly described in the section "Engi-
neering Uses of the Soils" is the standard means of
Accomplishing good water control in this county.
SErosion is not a serious problem in this county, be-
cause most of the soils are highly permeable and are
Nearly level. Along ditchbanks and dikes, however, ero-
sion does occur, if protection is not provided. Most of
Figure 6-Typical profile of Wabasso fine sand showing the the soils are deep, but they are primarily sandy and have
lark organic pan and the underlying fine sandy loam. White marl lo water-holding capacity and low capacity to hold
nodules are in the bottom of the hole on the right. plant nutrients. These poor soil qualities can be improved
somewhat if grasses, such as hairy indigo, are grown in
the periods between harvested crops. Turning under all
The surface layer of Wabasso fine sand is rapidly permeable plant residues le in cultivated fields also helps to i
and has low available water capacity. The subsoil is oder- plant dues left in cultivated fields also helps to
ately permeable and has moderate available water capacity. prove the soil.
Although this soil is seasonally wet, it responds well to drain- Most of the soils of the county are highly leached of
age and good management. Fertility is low to moderate, and important plant nutrients. Their natural fertility, there-
content of organic matter is low. fore, generally is low. The response to fertilizer varies,
Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation and are
used for range, to which the soil is well suited. The plant depending on the kinds of soils and the type of manage-
cover consists mainly of pine trees, saw-palmettos, woody ment used, but large amounts of fertilizer are needed on
shrubs, and grasses, but cabbage-palms grow in scattered most soils. Even though intensive management is needed
areas.
If simple drainage practices are applied, Wabasso fine sand to overcome the generally poor soil qualities, the favor-
is well suited to improved pasture. Under good management able climate makes such management practical.
that includes complete water control measures, this soil is Tomatoes and watermelons are the only special crops
also well suited to truck and special crops. Where water grown on a commercial scale in this county. They are
management practices are carefully designed and properly
maintained, this soil is one of the best in the county for grown on poorly drained, nonacid soils in sloughs and
citrus. Capability unit IIIw-1; Sweet Flatwoods range site; on flatwoods soils. All of these soils need a complete
woodland group 3. water control system to maintain a uniform supply of
moisture. Such a system should include carefully de-
signed ditches, dikes, and pumps that remove excess
Use and Management of the Soils" water in wet seasons and supply water through subsurface
irrigation in dry seasons. Large amounts of lime and
The soils in Okeechobee County are used mostly for fertilizer are needed.
pasture, range, and woodland, though some special culti- The hammock areas generally are not used for tomatoes
vated crops and citrus are grown. This section explains and watermelons. The soils in these areas are shallow and
how the soils can be managed for these main uses. It also difficult to manage. Also, the cost of clearing is high.
explains the capability classification system, describes the Use of moderately well drained soils for these crops is
capability units, and gives the estimated yields of the limited because of droughtiness and the difficulty of
principal crops grown. In addition, it explains how the maintaining a uniform supply of moisture. The soils
soils can be managed for range, for woodland, for wild- near Lake Okeechobee are not used for tomatoes, mainly
SROBERT M. CRAIG, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation because of their high content of organic matter and the
Service, assisted in the preparation of this section. difficulty of controlling the release of nitrogen.








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 23

i life, and for building highwaays, farm ponds, irrigation
systems and other engineering structures.

General Management for Cultivated Crops
and Pasture
Most of the soils in Okeechobee County have serious
limitations or hazards that must be overcome before
cultivated crops can be grown successfully or the areas
can be used for improved pasture. In a good manage-
ment plan, these limitations or hazards are considered
and adequate measures are provided to correct or elimi-
nate them.
Most of the soils in this county are affected by a high
water table, either continuously or seasonally. At certain
times of the year, many of the soils have excess water in
the root zone that is harmful to crops. In dry seasons
crops grown on some of these same soils may be damaged
by a shortage of water. A combined drainage and irriga-
tion system provides a high degree of water control by
removing excess water in wet seasons and by supplying
water to the soils in dry seasons. A subsurface irrigation
system like that briefly described in the section "Engi-
neering Uses of the Soils" is the standard means of
Accomplishing good water control in this county.
SErosion is not a serious problem in this county, be-
cause most of the soils are highly permeable and are
Nearly level. Along ditchbanks and dikes, however, ero-
sion does occur, if protection is not provided. Most of
Figure 6-Typical profile of Wabasso fine sand showing the the soils are deep, but they are primarily sandy and have
lark organic pan and the underlying fine sandy loam. White marl lo water-holding capacity and low capacity to hold
nodules are in the bottom of the hole on the right. plant nutrients. These poor soil qualities can be improved
somewhat if grasses, such as hairy indigo, are grown in
the periods between harvested crops. Turning under all
The surface layer of Wabasso fine sand is rapidly permeable plant residues le in cultivated fields also helps to i
and has low available water capacity. The subsoil is oder- plant dues left in cultivated fields also helps to
ately permeable and has moderate available water capacity. prove the soil.
Although this soil is seasonally wet, it responds well to drain- Most of the soils of the county are highly leached of
age and good management. Fertility is low to moderate, and important plant nutrients. Their natural fertility, there-
content of organic matter is low. fore, generally is low. The response to fertilizer varies,
Most areas of this soil remain in native vegetation and are
used for range, to which the soil is well suited. The plant depending on the kinds of soils and the type of manage-
cover consists mainly of pine trees, saw-palmettos, woody ment used, but large amounts of fertilizer are needed on
shrubs, and grasses, but cabbage-palms grow in scattered most soils. Even though intensive management is needed
areas.
If simple drainage practices are applied, Wabasso fine sand to overcome the generally poor soil qualities, the favor-
is well suited to improved pasture. Under good management able climate makes such management practical.
that includes complete water control measures, this soil is Tomatoes and watermelons are the only special crops
also well suited to truck and special crops. Where water grown on a commercial scale in this county. They are
management practices are carefully designed and properly
maintained, this soil is one of the best in the county for grown on poorly drained, nonacid soils in sloughs and
citrus. Capability unit IIIw-1; Sweet Flatwoods range site; on flatwoods soils. All of these soils need a complete
woodland group 3. water control system to maintain a uniform supply of
moisture. Such a system should include carefully de-
signed ditches, dikes, and pumps that remove excess
Use and Management of the Soils" water in wet seasons and supply water through subsurface
irrigation in dry seasons. Large amounts of lime and
The soils in Okeechobee County are used mostly for fertilizer are needed.
pasture, range, and woodland, though some special culti- The hammock areas generally are not used for tomatoes
vated crops and citrus are grown. This section explains and watermelons. The soils in these areas are shallow and
how the soils can be managed for these main uses. It also difficult to manage. Also, the cost of clearing is high.
explains the capability classification system, describes the Use of moderately well drained soils for these crops is
capability units, and gives the estimated yields of the limited because of droughtiness and the difficulty of
principal crops grown. In addition, it explains how the maintaining a uniform supply of moisture. The soils
soils can be managed for range, for woodland, for wild- near Lake Okeechobee are not used for tomatoes, mainly
SROBERT M. CRAIG, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation because of their high content of organic matter and the
Service, assisted in the preparation of this section. difficulty of controlling the release of nitrogen.







24 SOIL SURVEY

Tomatoes commonly are grown only once in the same
field. In this way soil-borne diseases, viruses, nematodes,
and insects that appear or intensify after the first crop
are avoided. Using a rotation that includes 3 or 4 years
of pangolagrass between tomato crops also reduces or
eliminates these problems.
Where watermelons are grown, strips of sunflowers or
sorghum are needed to protect the soils and young plants
from wind damage.
Most citrus crops are grown on the more alkaline soils,
such as the Parkwood, Bradenton, Felda, Wabasso, and
Adamsville (fig. 7). Citrus is also grown, however, on
some areas of acid flatwoods soils. On all of these soils
management that includes deep drainage, bedding, and a
either subsurface or sprinkler irrigation is needed. Fer- -- t -- e per-
tilizers also are needed and pests should be controlled. '--s
A small acreage of citrus is planted on the moderately of
well drained Paola soil which does not need drainage
but does require irrigation. A cover crop is needed in all Mi"
newly bedded groves to protect the soil from blowing
and to prevent wind damage to the young trees.
Improved pastures have been established in the county
on most kinds of soils. A system for water control that
removes excess surface water is needed. Also needed are Figure 8.-Improved pasture of grass and clover on Myakka fine
proper amounts of fertilizer and lime and other good sand. The structures for control of water provide surface drainage
prope amo t in wet seasons and irrigation in dry seasons.
management. Subsurface irrigation is used in some areas
to provide adequate moisture for growth of clover in
winter. Pangolagrass and bahiagrass are suitable pasture General management practices are not discussed in
grasses. TWhite clover, Hubam clover, and mixtures of detail in this survey but are outlined briefly in each
clover and grass can be grown for winter grazing if irri- capability unit. Management practices suggested for
nation facilities are available (fig. 8). A good pasture different crops on different soils change as more and
serves other purposes beside supplying forage for live- better information is gained from the experience of
stock. It protects the soils from erosion by wind and workers at the experiment stations and from the experi-
water and improves the quality of the soils by adding ence of farmers and ranchers. Current information re-
organic matter, making a better environment for micro- garding kinds of crops, improved varieties of plants,
organisms, and improving tilth. specific management practices, and other information
can be obtained from a local representative of the Soil
Conservation Service, the University of Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations or the County Extension
Service.

Management of the Soils by Capability Units
In this subsection the system of capability grouping
is explained, the soils of the county are placed in capabil-
ity units, and use and management is suggested for the
soils of each unit. In planning management of the soils,
the factors that affect the use of the soils for cultivated
crops and pastures need to be considered. Those factors
are described in the preceding section.
Capability grouping
Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the suit-
ability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The groups
are made according to the limitations of the soils when
used for field crops, the risk of damage when they are
used, and the way they respond to treatment. The group-
ing does not take into account major and generally ex-
.. pensive landforming that would change slope, depth, or
other characteristics of the soils; does not take into con-
Figure 7.-Young orange grove planted on Bradenton, Felda, and sideration possible but unlikely major reclamation proj-
Adamsville soils under a water control system that includes ects; and does not apply to rice, cranberries, horticultural
bedding, lateral ditches, perimeter canals, and reversible pumping
stations. crops, or other crops requiring special management.







24 SOIL SURVEY

Tomatoes commonly are grown only once in the same
field. In this way soil-borne diseases, viruses, nematodes,
and insects that appear or intensify after the first crop
are avoided. Using a rotation that includes 3 or 4 years
of pangolagrass between tomato crops also reduces or
eliminates these problems.
Where watermelons are grown, strips of sunflowers or
sorghum are needed to protect the soils and young plants
from wind damage.
Most citrus crops are grown on the more alkaline soils,
such as the Parkwood, Bradenton, Felda, Wabasso, and
Adamsville (fig. 7). Citrus is also grown, however, on
some areas of acid flatwoods soils. On all of these soils
management that includes deep drainage, bedding, and a
either subsurface or sprinkler irrigation is needed. Fer- -- t -- e per-
tilizers also are needed and pests should be controlled. '--s
A small acreage of citrus is planted on the moderately of
well drained Paola soil which does not need drainage
but does require irrigation. A cover crop is needed in all Mi"
newly bedded groves to protect the soil from blowing
and to prevent wind damage to the young trees.
Improved pastures have been established in the county
on most kinds of soils. A system for water control that
removes excess surface water is needed. Also needed are Figure 8.-Improved pasture of grass and clover on Myakka fine
proper amounts of fertilizer and lime and other good sand. The structures for control of water provide surface drainage
prope amo t in wet seasons and irrigation in dry seasons.
management. Subsurface irrigation is used in some areas
to provide adequate moisture for growth of clover in
winter. Pangolagrass and bahiagrass are suitable pasture General management practices are not discussed in
grasses. TWhite clover, Hubam clover, and mixtures of detail in this survey but are outlined briefly in each
clover and grass can be grown for winter grazing if irri- capability unit. Management practices suggested for
nation facilities are available (fig. 8). A good pasture different crops on different soils change as more and
serves other purposes beside supplying forage for live- better information is gained from the experience of
stock. It protects the soils from erosion by wind and workers at the experiment stations and from the experi-
water and improves the quality of the soils by adding ence of farmers and ranchers. Current information re-
organic matter, making a better environment for micro- garding kinds of crops, improved varieties of plants,
organisms, and improving tilth. specific management practices, and other information
can be obtained from a local representative of the Soil
Conservation Service, the University of Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations or the County Extension
Service.

Management of the Soils by Capability Units
In this subsection the system of capability grouping
is explained, the soils of the county are placed in capabil-
ity units, and use and management is suggested for the
soils of each unit. In planning management of the soils,
the factors that affect the use of the soils for cultivated
crops and pastures need to be considered. Those factors
are described in the preceding section.
Capability grouping
Capability grouping shows, in a general way, the suit-
ability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The groups
are made according to the limitations of the soils when
used for field crops, the risk of damage when they are
used, and the way they respond to treatment. The group-
ing does not take into account major and generally ex-
.. pensive landforming that would change slope, depth, or
other characteristics of the soils; does not take into con-
Figure 7.-Young orange grove planted on Bradenton, Felda, and sideration possible but unlikely major reclamation proj-
Adamsville soils under a water control system that includes ects; and does not apply to rice, cranberries, horticultural
bedding, lateral ditches, perimeter canals, and reversible pumping
stations. crops, or other crops requiring special management.







OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 25

Those familiar with the capability classification can CAPABILITY UNITS are soil groups within the subclasses.
infer from it much about the behavior of soils when used The soils in one capability unit are enough alike to be
for other purposes, but this classification is not a substi- suited to the same crops and pasture plants, to require
tute for interpretations designed to show suitability and similar management, and to have similar productivity
limitations of groups of soils for range, for forest trees, and other responses to management. Thus, the capability
or engineering, unit is a convenient grouping for making many state-
In the capability system, all kinds of soils are grouped ments about management of soils. Capability units are
at three levels, the capability class, subclass, and unit. generally designated by adding an Arabic numeral to
These are discussed in the following paragraphs. the subclass symbol, for example, IIIw-2 or IVw-3.
CAPABILITY CLASSEs, the broadest groups, are desig- Thus, in one symbol, the Roman numeral designates the
nated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals capability class, or degree of limitation, and the small
indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower letter indicates the subclass, or kind of limitation, as
choices for practical use, defined as follows: defined in the foregoing paragraph. The Arabic numeral
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their specifically identifies the capability unit within each
lass soils have ew mutations that restrict their subclass.
use. (None in Okeechobee County.) In the following pages the capability units in Okee-
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce chobee County are described and suggestions for the use
the choice of plants or that require moderate and management of the soils are given.
conservation practices. (None in Okeechobee
County.) CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-1
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce In this capability unit are nearly level, poorly drained
the choice of plants, require special conservation fine sands that have a loamy subsoil. These soils are in
practices, or both. hammocks and flatwoods. In some areas the thin, dark-
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that re- colored, medium acid to neutral surface layer is under-
duce the choice of plants, require very careful lain by thick layers of slightly acid to mildly alkaline
management, or both. and calcareous sandy loam. In other areas the soil has a
Class VI soils are not likely to erode but have other strongly acid to very strongly acid sandy surface layer
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit underlain by an organic pan and a neutral to mildly
their use largely to pasture, range, woodland, or alkaline loamy subsoil.
wildlife food and cover. Available water capacity is low in the surface layer
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make of these soils, but it is moderate in the subsoil. The water
them generally unsuited to cultivation and limit table normally is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches but rises
their use largely to pasture or range, woodland, to near the surface for short periods during wet seasons.
or wildlife food and cover. Permeability is moderate to rapid. The response to
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that simple drainage practices is good. The content of organic
make them unsuited to cultivation and that re- matter is low, and natural fertility is low to moderate.
strict their use largely to pasture or range, The native vegetation in the hammock areas consists
woodland, or wildlife. mostly of cabbage-palms but includes some pines and
Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that oaks. In the flatwoods the vegetation consists of saw-
preclude their use for commercial plants and palmettos, scattered cabbage-palms, and various shrubs
restrict their use to recreation, wildlife, or water and grasses. Most areas remain in native vegetation.
supply, or to esthetic purposes. (None in Okee- If these soils are managed properly, they are some of
chobee County.) the best in the county for farming. A system that pro-
CAPABILITY SUBCLASSES are soil groups within one vides drainage and irrigation by controlling the water
class; they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, table is needed. Then special truck and flower crops can
s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, IIIw. The be grown. Citrus fruits also can be grown, but the areas
letter e shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion will require bedding. Crops grown on these soils respond
unless close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows well if fertilizer and lime are applied. If citrus fruits
that water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth are grown, fertilizer must be applied frequently.
or cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly High quality pastures consisting of improved grasses
corrected byartificial drainage); shows that the soil is or of mixtures of grasses and clover can be produced
corrected bay artificial drainage); sos hat the soil is under good management. A drainage system is needed
limited mainly because it is shallow, droughty, or stony; for removing excess surface water, and subsurface irri-
and c, used in only some parts of the United States, but nation is required for pastures that include clover.
not in Okeechobee County, shows that the chief limita- Liberal applications of fertilizer are needed, and oc-
tion is climate that is too cold or too dry. casionally lime should be applied. In addition grazing
In class I !there are no subclasses, because the soils of must be controlled.
this class have few limitations. Class V can contain, at
the most, only the subclasses indicated by w, s, and c, CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-2
because the soils in class V are subject to little or no ero- Parkwood fine sand is the only soil in this capability
sion, though they have other limitations that restrict unit. It is a nearly level, poorly drained, calcareous soil
their use largely to pasture, range, woodland, wildlife, on hammocks. This sandy soil has thick layers of loamy,
or recreation, calcareous material (marl) within a depth of 18 inches.







26 SOIL SURVEY

As a result, the availability of water and some plant under good management. A drainage system is needed
nutrients for plant growth are lowered, for removing excess surface water. Large amounts of
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer of this soil fertilizer and lime also are needed. In addition grazing
and moderately rapid in the underlying loamy layers. must be controlled.
The content of organic matter is low to high. Natural
fertility is moderately low. CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-4
Areas of this soil support a dense growth of vegetation In this capability unit are nearly level, poorly drained
that consists mainly of cabbage-palms but includes some to very poorly drained soils that are slightly acid to
pines and several kinds of oak and other hardwoods. The alkaline. These soils are in depressions and sloughs and
understory is made up of shrubs, vines, and grasses. in the broad flatwoods. They have a gray to black sur-
Most areas remain in native vegetation. Where develop- face layer of fine sand, loamy fine sand, or fine sandy
ment is feasible, however, the soil is suited to special loam. The subsoil, at a depth of 10 to 40 inches, is loamy
cultivated crops and to pasture. and is neutral to calcareous.
Because this soil is wet and shallow to marl, it is Available water capacity is moderately high in these
severely limited for cultivated crops. In cleared areas, a soils. Normally these soils are saturated with water for
system that provides drainage and irrigation by con- long periods, but if outlets are available, they can be
trolling the water table is needed. Then special truck readily drained. Permeability is moderate to rapid. The
and flower crops can be grown. Sufficient fertilizer to content of organic matter is low to high, and base satu-
meet the needs of the crop is required. Lime is not ration is moderately low to high.
needed, and the naturally high content of lime in this The native vegetation on these soils consists of wax-
soil may be harmful to some crops, myrtle, pickerelweed, maidencane, St. Johnswort, many
This soil is moderately well suited to citrus. Spots of wetland grasses, and other plants. Much of the acreage
hard marl and limerock are near the surface in some remains in native vegetation, but a few large areas are
places. Areas used for citrus require bedding, complete used for improved pasture.
water control measures that include deep drainage, and Excessive wetness severely limits use of these soils for
adequate amounts of fertilizer, cultivated crops. A system that removes excess surface
Improved pastures of excellent quality can be grown water and regulates internal water is needed. Then spe-
on this soil. A drainage system is needed that removes cial truck and flower crops can be grown. Citrus can be
excess surface water. Adequate amounts of fertilizer grown in areas of suitable size that are feasible to drain,
should be applied. In addition grazing must be but bedding is needed. In all cultivated areas cover crops
controlled, are needed to improve the soil and provide protection
CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-3 from soil blowing and water erosion. All crops on these
St. Johns sand is the only soil in this capability unit. soils respond well if fertilizer and lime are applied in
It is a nearly level, poorly drained soil that is strongly proper amounts.
acid. This soil has a dark-colored sandy surface layer. High quality pastures consisting of improved grasses
The subsurface layer is light-colored, highly leached or of mixtures of grasses and clover can be produced
sand. Within a depth of 30 inches is a dark-colored under good management. A drainage system is needed
organic pan underlain by acid sand. that removes excess surface water and provides subsur-
Available water capacity is low in this soil. The water face irrigation. Also needed are large amounts of fer-
table normally is at a depth of 15 to 30 inches, but it tilizer and small amounts of lime. In addition grazing
rises to near the surface during the wet season. Permea- must be controlled.
ability is rapid, and this soil normally can be drained Some areas of these soils lack suitable drainage out-
without difficulty. The content of organic matter is lets. Others are near major streams and have a serious
medium. Natural fertility is low. and frequent hazard of flooding. The soils in such areas
The native vegetation consists mainly of saw- normally have capabilities of soils in capability subclass
palmettos, slash pines, and many shrubs and grasses. Vw.
Many areas of this soil remain in native vegetation. CAPABILITY UNIT IIIw-5
Because of periodic wetness and other poor soil prop- In this capability unit are nearly level, very poorly
erties, such as low fertility, this soil is severely limited drained, deep, dark-colored soils. These sandy soils are in
for cultivated crops. Water control structures that are depressions, in broad lowlands, and along drainageways.
well designed, constructed, and maintained are needed to They have a thick, dark-colored surface layer of fine
retain the water at a desired depth. Also needed is a sand. The subsurface layer is light-colored fine sand, and
cropping system that protects and improves the soil and the subsoil is loamy or sandy and is at a depth below 40
adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime. inches.
If intensive management practices are applied, this; Available water capacity is moderate in these sandy
soil is suited to citrus. Areas used for citrus require soils because of the content of organic matter in the sur-
bedding and drainage. Also needed is a water control face layer. In their natural state these soils are either
system that provides deep drainage, control of the water ponded or have a water table within a depth of 15 inches
table, and irrigation. Grass or cover crops should be most of the year. The content of organic matter is high,
grown to protect the beds, and large amounts of fertil- and natural fertility is moderate to low.
izer and lime should be applied frequently. The native vegetation in the depressions and broad
High quality pastures consisting of improved grasses lowlands is mainly pickerelweed, St. Johnswort, maid-
or of mixtures of grasses and clover can be produced encane, sawgrass, and other grasses. It is bay, gum,







OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 27

cypress, and other hardwoods that tolerate wetness in or of mixtures of grasses and clover can be produced
some of the drainageways. Large areas near Lake Okee- under intensive management. A drainage system is
chobee have been in pasture for many years. Most of needed for removing excess surface water and for main-
these larger areas are suited to special cultivated crops, training the water table at a shallow depth. Fertilizer
but none are now used for this purpose. and lime should be applied where needed. In addition
Excessive wetness severely limits use of these soils for grazing must be controlled.
cultivated crops. The high content of organic matter These soils were placed in this capability unit on the
makes control of nitrogen difficult. A system that pro- assumption that drainage outlets were available and
vides drainage and irrigation and that is well designed, reclamation was feasible. Small isolated areas of these
constructed, and maintained is needed. Then these soils soils in dense woods and remote areas where no drainage
are well suited to leafy truck crops and flowers. A suit- outlets are available generally are placed in capability
able cropping system is one that alternates cultivated subclass VIIw.
crops with close-growing crops that protect and improve CAPABILTY UNrIT mI-
the soil. Adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime are also This capability unit consists of nearly level to gently
needed. The soils in this unit generally are not suited to sloping, moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
citrus. The deep drainage and water control practices drained soils on low knolls and ridges in the flatwoods.
needed for citrus are difficult to establish and maintain The surface layer is thin, dark-gray fine sand. In some
on these soils. areas the soils have a brownish layer underlain at a
Excellent pastures of improved grasses or of mixtures shallow depth by a light-colored sandy substratum. In
of grasses and clover can be produced on these soils other areas the soils have a white sandy subsoil under-
under good management. A drainage system is needed lain by black mucky sand at a depth of about 36 inches.
that removes excess surface water and provides subsur- These soils have low available water capacity, are
face irrigation. Lime and fertilizer must be applied rapidly permeable, and are highly leached. The water
frequently, and grazing must be carefully controlled. table is normally at a depth between 48 and 60 inches,
These soils were placed in this capability unit on the though it fluctuates between a depth of 30 and 72 inches.
assumption that drainage outlets were available and that The content of organic matter is low, and natural fer-
the soils could be drained readily. Soils that lack suitable utility also is low.
outlets and would not be feasible to drain generally are The native vegetation consists of slash pines, sand
placed in capability subclass Vw. pines, saw-palmettos, several kinds of oak, and many
woody shrubs and grasses. Most of the acreage in this
CAPABILITY UNIT lw-4 unit remains in native vegetation.
In this capability unit are nearly level, very poorly Poor soil properties make these soils severely limited
drained organic soils that are in depressions, swamps, for growing cultivated crops. Under intensive manage-
and marshes. These organic soils are dark colored and ment that includes sprinkler irrigation, a few special
have thin to thick layers of fibrous peat or muck under- crops can be grown, and some small areas are in citrus
lain by sandy material, fruits and improved pastures. The cropping system
Available water capacity is high in these soils, and should include soil building crops or pasture grasses for
permeability is rapid. These highly organic soils nor- 2 out of 3 years. Large amounts of fertilizer and lime
mally are covered with water. The content of nitrogen are also needed and should be applied frequently.
is high, but the supply of other plant nutrients is low. Because these soils have adequate natural drainage,
The native vegetation in most areas consists of saw- they are well suited to citrus fruits (fig. 9). Sprinkler
grass, but pickerelweed, maidencane, and other aquatic irrigation is needed, especially for newly established
grasses and plants grow in places. Also, cypress and groves, but bedding is not required. Keeping cover
swamp hardwoods grow in some areas. Most areas re- crops or grass on the areas improves the surface soil
main in native vegetation, but some are used for im- and protects it from soil blowing. Frequent applications
proved pasture. of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Excessive wetness severely limits use of these soils for Improved pasture consisting of deep-rooted grasses
cultivated crops. If these soils are properly drained, can be produced on these soils because such grasses can
however, and if proper water control measures are use the available moisture in the subsoil. Growth of
applied, they are well suited to special cultivated crops. pasture plants is good if they are properly established
After drainage and the initial subsidence caused by and if sufficient fertilizer and lime are applied. In addi-
compaction, subsidence by oxidation is a continual haz- tion, grazing must be controlled.
ard. Structures therefore are needed that hold the water
level at the proper depth for crops and that permit CAPABIITY UNIT Ivw-1
flooding the soils when left idle. Cover crops also should In this capability unit are nearly level, somewhat
be grown. In addition large amounts of fertilizer that poorly drained soils that are medium acid to neutral.
is high in all plant nutrients except nitrogen should be These soils are in the flatwoods. The surface layer is
applied frequently. Lime is needed on the more acid soils. thin, dark-colored fine sand, and the subsurface layer is
These soils are not suited to citrus. They have many light-colored fine sand. The subsoil is either loamy and
soil properties unfavorable to citrus trees, and the calcareous marl or is deep sand.
drainage requirements of this crop cause rapid soil These soils have low available water capacity. The
deterioration, water table normally is at a depth of about 30 inches,
High quality pastures consisting of improved grasses but it rises to the surface for brief periods during the







28 SOIL SURVEY

natural state these soils are drought in the dry season
and saturated with water in the wet season. If mineral
fertilizer is applied, it leaches out rapidly. Content of
-. organic matter and natural fertility are low.
.The native vegetation consists of pines that have an
'. understory of saw-palmettos and of many kinds of native
grasses and shrubs. Most areas of these soils are used
Y-n for improved pasture. Pine trees have been harvested on
most other areas and the remaining vegetation is chiefly
palmettos and grasses, but a few pines are scattered
over the areas.
Use of these soils for cultivated crops is very severely
limited by periodic wetness and other poor soil qualities.
Certain truck and flower crops can be grown, however,
under intensive management. A system that provides
drainage and irrigation by controlling the water table
sis needed. Grasses or other crops that protect and im-
prove the soil should be grown three-fourths of the time.
In addition large amounts of lime and fertilizer must
.x be applied frequently.
Figure 9.-Young orange grove planted on soils in capability unit These soils are severely limited for citrus. Adequate
IIIs-1. measures for control of water are difficult to maintain
because the water table fluctuates widely between the
wet and dry seasons. Fertility also is difficult to maintain
wet season. During the dry season the soils are drought. because these soils are very sandy.
Mineral fertilizers leach rapidly from these soils. The High quality pastures consisting of improved grasses
cowntbut toe organi mwtllr renturel berdinfltyvared lotnHigh quality pastures consisting of improved grasses
content of organic matter and natural fertility are low. or of mixtures of grasses and clover can be produced
The native vegetation consists of saw-palmettos, under intensive management. A system is needed for
scattered pines and cabbage-palms, and various kinds of water control that is similar to that needed for cultivated
grasses. Hardwoods are dominant in small areas near crops, but not so intensive. Large amounts of fertilizer
Lake Okeechobee. Most areas of these soils remain in and lime also are needed. Grazing must be carefully
native vegetation. controlled.
Because of periodic wetness and other poor soil quali- cAABLIrrY UNIT IVw-3
ties, these soils are very severely limited for cultivated In this capability unit are nearly level, poorly drained
crops. A system that provides drainage and irrigation soils that are very strongly acid to neutral. These soils
by controlling the water table is needed. Then special are in grassy sloughs. The surface layer is thin, dark-
truck and flower crops can be grown. Citrus also can be colored fine sand. It overlies light-colored fine sand that
grown, but the areas will require bedding. If cultivated extends to a depth of more than 60 inches.
crops are grown, the cropping system should include Although these soils are seasonally wet, available
sod crops and crops that improve the soil 3 years out of water capacity is low and the sols are drought during
4. If citrus is grown, cover crops are needed to protect dry seasons. The water table normally is at a depth of
the beds and improve the soil. Both cultivated crops and about 20 inches, but it rises to the surface during wet
citrus require large amounts of a complete fertilizer. seasons. If mineral fertilizer is applied, it leaches out
Small amounts of lime are needed for cultivated crops, rapidly. Permeability is rapid. Content of organic matter
and moderate amounts are needed for citrus. and natural fertility are low.
HIigh quality pastures consisting of improved grasses The native vegetation on these soils consists chiefly of
can be produced on these soils. A drainage system is grasses, sedges, and low-growing shrubs. Most areas
needed for removing excess surface water. Large remain in native vegetation and are used for native
amounts of a complete fertilizer are needed, and moder- range. Several large areas, however, are in improved
ate amounts of lime. Pastures of grasses and clover re- pastures
quire supplemental irrigation and controlled grazing Use of these soils for cultivated crops is severely
for good growth. limited by excessive wetness and other poor soil proper-
CAPABILITY UNIT IVw-2 ties. Some truck and flower crops can be grown, however,
Under intensive management. A water control system
This capability unit consists of nearly level, poorly is needed that provides subsurface irrigation by con-
drained soils. These soils are in the flatwoods. They have trolling the water table. The cropping system used
a thin, dark-colored surface layer of fine sand and a should include crops that protect and improve the soil.
nearly white, leached subsurface layer of fine sand. A Large amounts of fertilizer and lime also are needed.
weakly cemented organic pan generally is at a depth These soils are severely limited for citrus. Their low
between 20 and 40 inches. position on the landscape and the normally high water
These soils have low available water capacity and are table make water control difficult. Also natural fertility
rapidly permeable. The water table fluctuates within the is low and fertility is difficult to maintain in these sandy
soil but rises to the surface in the wet season. In their soils.







OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 29

Good pastures consisting of improved grasses or mix- Under intensive management improved pastures of
;ures of grasses and clover can be produced under inten- fair quality can be produced on this soil. Deep-rooted
ive management. A system is needed for water control grasses that resist drought should be planted. In addi-
hat is similar to that required for cultivated crops but tion large amounts of fertilizer and lime must 'be applied
s not so intensive. Large amounts of lime and fertilizer frequently. Grazing should be delayed during initial
Llso are needed. Grazing must be carefully controlled. development, and it should be controlled carefully
These soils were placed in this capability unit on the thereafter.
assumption that drainage outlets were available and the CAPABILITY UNIT VIIw-1
;oils could be drained readily. Areas that lack suitable The one mapping unit in this capability unit is Placid,
Irainage outlets and normally are not feasible to drain Pamlico, and Delray soils, ponded. These are nearly
generally are placed in capability subclass Vw. level, very poorly drained soils in swamps and along
heavily wooded drainageways. In these areas are deep,
CAPABILITY UNIT Vw-i sandy soils that have a thick dark-colored surface layer,
In this capability unit are nearly level, very poorly and organic soils that have a muck or peat surface layer
trained, deep,' sandy soils in depressions. These soils are 12 to 36 inches thick. They are covered by water most of
coveredd with several inches of water most of the time. the time or are subject to frequent stream flooding.
Viost of these soils have a thin, light-colored surface These soils have moderate to high available water
ayer, but some have a thick, dark-colored surface layer. capacity and are rapidly permeable. They are high in
Most of these soils have low available water capacity content of organic matter and low to moderate in natural
mnd are highly leached of plant nutrients. Permeability fertility.
s rapid throughout. Content of organic matter is low. The native vegetation consists mostly of dense stands
The native vegetation consists of St. Johnswort, of sweetbay, sweetgum, cypress, and water oak that have
)ickerelweed, imaidencane, and other grasses and sedges an understory of brackenfern, sawgrass, and other plants
hat tolerate wetness. Sawgrass grows in some areas. that tolerate wetness. Most areas of this unit remain in
dost areas remain in native vegetation, native vegetation.
Because these soils are continuously wet and lack Because of wetness and the hazard of flooding, these
Adequate available drainage outlets, they are not suitable soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops and use for
.or cultivated crops. Water management is difficult to improved pasture is very limited. Clearing the land and
Ipply. In many areas these soils have physical properties providing adequate drainage and flood control generally
hat are similar to those of soils in capability units are too expensive and complex to be feasible. These
:IIw-4, IIIw-5, and IVw-3, but poor drainage makes soils are well suited to trees, and under good manage-
hem unsuitable for crops. In a few places it is feasible ment, cypress and wetland hardwoods grow well. For-
o establish adequate water control, and here manage- ested areas also provide food and shelter for many kinds
aent suitable for soils in capability units IIIw-4, of wildlife.
:IIw-5, and IVw-3 can be applied.
Most areas of this unit are used for native range. Estimated Yields
'razing must be controlled for good growth of native
grasses. Trees are not suited. Soils in this unit provide Table 2 gives the estimated average acre yields of the
. natural feeding ground for many kinds of aquatic principal crops grown in the county. These estimates are
,irds and animals. In its natural state, this unit also those that can be expected under a generally high level of
erves as watering areas for livestock, management. The land types Borrow pits (Bo), Made land
(Ma), and Spoil banks (Sp) are not listed on table 2 because
CAPABILITY UNIT VIs-1 they are too variable in characteristics to be used for
Pomello fine sand is the only soil in this capability crops.
mit. It is a deep, nearly level, moderately well drained On cropland a high level of management includes
oil that is very strongly acid. It has a thin surface layer applying adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime; con-
If gray fine sand and a thick, white, highly leached trolling insects; managing crop residues properly; sup-
absurface layer. An organic pan occurs at a depth below plying drainage where needed; controlling runoff and
.0 inches. erosion; and installing irrigation systems that are proper-
This soil has low available water capacity and is ly designed. On pastureland a high level of management
Lroughty much of the time. The water table normally is includes using adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime;
,t a depth of 48 to 60 inches, but it rises to about 30 practicing controlled grazing; rotating pasture; select-
aches during the wet season. Permeability is rapid. If ing forage varieties that are best adapted to the soils;
aineral fertilizer is applied, it leaches out rapidly. Fer- controlling undesirable plants; providing drainage to
ility and content of organic matter are very low. remove excess surface water; and providing irrigation
The native vegetation consists chiefly of saw-palmettos where feasible.
,nd woody shrubs and grasses, but includes scattered The yields in table 2 are based on information obtained
stands of slash and sand pines. Most areas remain in from observations made by members of the soil survey
.ative vegetation. party, from interviews with farmers and other workers
This soil is not suitable for cultivated crops and who have had experience with the soils and crops of the
itrus. Even under intensive management, this soil is too area, from records and experience of the local work
troughty and leaches too readily for good growth of unit conservationists, and from bulletins and other in-
hese crops. formation compiled by the University of Florida Agri-






30 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 2.-Estimated average acre yields of principal crops
[Yields are those that can be expected under a high level of management. Absence of a yield indicates that the crop is not suited to the
specified soil or generally is not grown on it]

Improved pasture
Water- Grape- ___________
Soil name Tomatoes melons Oranges fruit
Grass Grass-
clover

40-pound Animal- Animal-
boxes Pounds Boxes Boxes unit-months 1 unit-months I
Adamsville fine sand----------------------------------.------ 350 25, 000 250 350 7. 0 9. 0
Basinger fine sand-----------------------------------.------_ 250 20, 000 --------------- 6. 3 8. 5
Basinger-Placid complex----------.--------------------____ 250 ----- ------------5. 6 8. 3
Basinger and Pompano fine sands, ponded----____________ 250 ------------------------------_ 5. 6 8. 3
Bradenton fine sand------------------------------------ 350 20, 000 425 500 8. 3 9. 0
Charlotte fine sand--------- -----------------------------_ 400 25, 000 224 300 7. 0 10. 0
Chobee fine sandy loam ----._-------- -----__ ----- -----------_-------_-- _- 425 500 9. 0 10. 5
Delray fine sand---------------------------------------- 250 ---------400 450 9.0 11. 0
Delray fine sand, thin solum variant------------------------- 250-------- 400 450 9. 0 11. 0
Elred fine sand----------------------------------------- 350 22, 000 425 500 8. 3 10. 0
Felda fine sand--------------------------------------- 350 22, 000 425 500 8. 3 10. 0
Felda, Pompano, and Placid soils, ponded ------------------_ 300 _------ ---- __ 7. 0 8. 3
Ft. Drum fine sand----------------------------------------- 325 22, 000 350 450 7. 0 10. 0
Immokalee fine sand------------------------------------- 300 20, 000 240 400 7. 0 10. 0
Manatee loamy fine sand---------------------------------- 300 ----- 425 500 9. 0 11. 0
Manatee, Delray, and Okeelanta soils .------------------------- --------- ---------_----------_._ __ 9. 0 11. 0
Myakka fine sand ---------------------------- 300 20, 000 240 400 7. 0 10. 0
Okeelanta peat--------------------------- ------------------- --------- -------_ _____ 10. 0 12. 0
Paola fine sand-- -------------------------------------- 300 25, 000 400 450 7. 0
Pamlico muck--------------------------------------------- -- ---------- ------------------10. 5 12. 0
Parkwood fine sand---------------------------------------- 250 18, 000 425 500 8. 3 10. 5
Placid fine sand -------- -- -------------------------- 200 ----- -------------------___ 8. 5 10. 5
Placid, Pamlico, and Delray soils, ponded __ _____---------------------- -- -------- -- ----- 8. 3 10. 5
Pomello fine sand ---.--- .---_-- ------------------------- ----. .---------- -- ------ _-_________ 5. 6
Pompano fine sand_------------------------------------ 350 25, 000 250 300 7. 0 9. 0
Seewee fine sand-------------- ------------------------------------------- 250 350 7. 0 9. 0
St. Johns sand--------------------------------- 200 20, 000 250 400 8. 5 10. 0
Terra Ceia peat-------------..----------------_-------_-- -- ----------_ -----------------._ 10. 5 12. 0
Wabasso fine sand ----------------------------------------- 300 20, 000 350 450 8. 3 10. 0

I Animal-unit-months refers to the number of months during a normal growing season that 1 acre will provide grazing for an animal
unit (1 cow, horse, or steer; 5 hogs, or 7 sheep) without injury to the sod.

cultural Experiment Stations. They also are based on Range sites and range conditions
comparisons of yields on similar soils in other counties Rang sites are distinctive kinds of rangeland or wood-
in the southern part of Florida, and from records of wood-
in the southern part of Florida, and from records of land used for grazing; they differ from each other signif-
crop yields ket by estimates assume Croptimumeporting Sweatherv- icantly in the kinds and amounts of climax vegetation
ice. The yield estimates assume optimum weather they produce. A significant difference means one large
enough to require different management. The com-
bined effects of soil and climate result in significantly
Use of the Soils for Range different kinds and quality of vegetation. The effect of
Broad expanses of nearly level flatwoods, marshes, and shading on wooded sites is also a distinguishing factor.
sloughs cover Okeechobee County and provide grazing The vegetation that grew originally on a site is called
both for domestic livestock and wildlife. About three the climax vegetation. It is generally the most productive
oths fo r domestic livestock and wildlife. About three- and most suitable for that particular site, and it repro-
fourths of the acreage in the county produces native duces itself as long as the environment does not change.

Native grasses have been an important source of for The climax vegetation consists mainly of three kinds of
age to this area since the early days of the cattle indus- plants---decreasers, ncreasers, and invaders.
try. Today livestock on ranches still depend on native Decreasers are the most palatable climax plants, and
grasses for much of their forage. These grasses are they are eliminated rather quickly by continual heavy
readily available and can be cheaply grown. Used in a grazing. Two examples of decreasers are creeping blue-
seasonal rotation along with improved pastures and stem on the Flatwoods range site and maidencane on the
seasonal rotation along withFresh Marsh range site.
modern animal husbandry practices, native grasses are FreshMarshrangesite.
important in the total forage program. Increasers are plants that are less palatable to live-
Sstock. They increase for awhile under heavy grazing but
'LEWIS L. YARLETT, range conservationist, Soil Conservation finally go out under continual heavy use. They generally
Service, assisted in the preparation of this section. are less productive than decreasers. Broomsedge blue-






30 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 2.-Estimated average acre yields of principal crops
[Yields are those that can be expected under a high level of management. Absence of a yield indicates that the crop is not suited to the
specified soil or generally is not grown on it]

Improved pasture
Water- Grape- ___________
Soil name Tomatoes melons Oranges fruit
Grass Grass-
clover

40-pound Animal- Animal-
boxes Pounds Boxes Boxes unit-months 1 unit-months I
Adamsville fine sand----------------------------------.------ 350 25, 000 250 350 7. 0 9. 0
Basinger fine sand-----------------------------------.------_ 250 20, 000 --------------- 6. 3 8. 5
Basinger-Placid complex----------.--------------------____ 250 ----- ------------5. 6 8. 3
Basinger and Pompano fine sands, ponded----____________ 250 ------------------------------_ 5. 6 8. 3
Bradenton fine sand------------------------------------ 350 20, 000 425 500 8. 3 9. 0
Charlotte fine sand--------- -----------------------------_ 400 25, 000 224 300 7. 0 10. 0
Chobee fine sandy loam ----._-------- -----__ ----- -----------_-------_-- _- 425 500 9. 0 10. 5
Delray fine sand---------------------------------------- 250 ---------400 450 9.0 11. 0
Delray fine sand, thin solum variant------------------------- 250-------- 400 450 9. 0 11. 0
Elred fine sand----------------------------------------- 350 22, 000 425 500 8. 3 10. 0
Felda fine sand--------------------------------------- 350 22, 000 425 500 8. 3 10. 0
Felda, Pompano, and Placid soils, ponded ------------------_ 300 _------ ---- __ 7. 0 8. 3
Ft. Drum fine sand----------------------------------------- 325 22, 000 350 450 7. 0 10. 0
Immokalee fine sand------------------------------------- 300 20, 000 240 400 7. 0 10. 0
Manatee loamy fine sand---------------------------------- 300 ----- 425 500 9. 0 11. 0
Manatee, Delray, and Okeelanta soils .------------------------- --------- ---------_----------_._ __ 9. 0 11. 0
Myakka fine sand ---------------------------- 300 20, 000 240 400 7. 0 10. 0
Okeelanta peat--------------------------- ------------------- --------- -------_ _____ 10. 0 12. 0
Paola fine sand-- -------------------------------------- 300 25, 000 400 450 7. 0
Pamlico muck--------------------------------------------- -- ---------- ------------------10. 5 12. 0
Parkwood fine sand---------------------------------------- 250 18, 000 425 500 8. 3 10. 5
Placid fine sand -------- -- -------------------------- 200 ----- -------------------___ 8. 5 10. 5
Placid, Pamlico, and Delray soils, ponded __ _____---------------------- -- -------- -- ----- 8. 3 10. 5
Pomello fine sand ---.--- .---_-- ------------------------- ----. .---------- -- ------ _-_________ 5. 6
Pompano fine sand_------------------------------------ 350 25, 000 250 300 7. 0 9. 0
Seewee fine sand-------------- ------------------------------------------- 250 350 7. 0 9. 0
St. Johns sand--------------------------------- 200 20, 000 250 400 8. 5 10. 0
Terra Ceia peat-------------..----------------_-------_-- -- ----------_ -----------------._ 10. 5 12. 0
Wabasso fine sand ----------------------------------------- 300 20, 000 350 450 8. 3 10. 0

I Animal-unit-months refers to the number of months during a normal growing season that 1 acre will provide grazing for an animal
unit (1 cow, horse, or steer; 5 hogs, or 7 sheep) without injury to the sod.

cultural Experiment Stations. They also are based on Range sites and range conditions
comparisons of yields on similar soils in other counties Rang sites are distinctive kinds of rangeland or wood-
in the southern part of Florida, and from records of wood-
in the southern part of Florida, and from records of land used for grazing; they differ from each other signif-
crop yields ket by estimates assume Croptimumeporting Sweatherv- icantly in the kinds and amounts of climax vegetation
ice. The yield estimates assume optimum weather they produce. A significant difference means one large
enough to require different management. The com-
bined effects of soil and climate result in significantly
Use of the Soils for Range different kinds and quality of vegetation. The effect of
Broad expanses of nearly level flatwoods, marshes, and shading on wooded sites is also a distinguishing factor.
sloughs cover Okeechobee County and provide grazing The vegetation that grew originally on a site is called
both for domestic livestock and wildlife. About three the climax vegetation. It is generally the most productive
oths fo r domestic livestock and wildlife. About three- and most suitable for that particular site, and it repro-
fourths of the acreage in the county produces native duces itself as long as the environment does not change.

Native grasses have been an important source of for The climax vegetation consists mainly of three kinds of
age to this area since the early days of the cattle indus- plants---decreasers, ncreasers, and invaders.
try. Today livestock on ranches still depend on native Decreasers are the most palatable climax plants, and
grasses for much of their forage. These grasses are they are eliminated rather quickly by continual heavy
readily available and can be cheaply grown. Used in a grazing. Two examples of decreasers are creeping blue-
seasonal rotation along with improved pastures and stem on the Flatwoods range site and maidencane on the
seasonal rotation along withFresh Marsh range site.
modern animal husbandry practices, native grasses are FreshMarshrangesite.
important in the total forage program. Increasers are plants that are less palatable to live-
Sstock. They increase for awhile under heavy grazing but
'LEWIS L. YARLETT, range conservationist, Soil Conservation finally go out under continual heavy use. They generally
Service, assisted in the preparation of this section. are less productive than decreasers. Broomsedge blue-








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 31

an is an example of a common increase in the Flat-
)ods range site.
Invaders are plants of little value for forage, but they '
come established after the other vegetation has been
duced. They may be annuals or perennials and most
ten are unpalatable. Examples of invaders are bottle-
ush three-awn, carpetgrass, and annual "watergrasses"
the Flatwoods range site, and broadleaf carpetgrass
the Fresh Marsh range site.
Range condition is the present state of the vegetation
relation to the climax plants on the site. The purpose
the condition class is to provide an approximate
ensure of any change that has taken place in the plant
ver. Thus, the condition classes are a basis for meas-
ing production or need for conservation treatment. The
ur condition classes in Okeechobee County are excel-
it, good, fair, and poor.
A range on a woodland understory in excellent con-
tion has 76 to 100 percent, by weight, of the climax
getation; one in good condition, 51 to 75 percent; one
fair condition, 26 to 50 percent; and one in poor con-
tion, less than 25 percent.
The amount of light received during the growing season
luences both the quantity and quality of woodland
Sage. For this reason, four canopy classes have been Figure 10.-Typical open growth of young south Florida slash pine
abolished to take the light factor into account. Canopy on Myakka fine sand in the Acid Flatwoods range site. Saw-
Isses are determined by the percent of the ground shaded palmettos and many kinds of native grasses make up the dense
overstory. They are as follows:
Percent of
rha ded but they have increased and now dominate much of this
0ves ory cdanopy lasses: lu arond at
Overstory canopy classes: midday site. Desirable woody plants are tarbush, huckleberry,
Open --------------------------------------- 0 to 25 and runner oak.
Sparse_ _-- 26 to 50 The potential understory forage during dry years and
Medium ------------------------------------- 51 to 75
Dense -------------------------------------76 to 100 in years when rainfall is about average in pounds per
acre air-dried, by canopy class is:
sriptions of range sites Canopy class: Dry years years
The soils in 'Okeechobee County have been grouped Open -------------------------------- 3, 000 4, 000
to nine range sites described in the following pages. Sparse -------------------------------1, 000 3, 000
-i five of these sites the climax potential is trees. The Medium ------------------------------ 500 1, 000
scription of each range site gives the important char- Dense -------------------------------- 0 500
teristics of the soils and the names of the principal EVERGLADES MARSH RANGE SITE
asses or other forage plants.
In this range site are nearly level, slightly acid to
ACID FLATWOODS RANGE SITE mildly alkaline, shallow to deep, fibrous peats that over-
This range site consists of nearly level, strongly acid, lie sandy material. They occupy small to large, pounded
ep, sandy soils that are poorly drained. These soils shallow basins that are scattered throughout the county.
.ve a thin surface layer of dark-gray sand; subsurface The areas are covered by shallow water throughout most
yer of nearly white sand; and a dark-colored layer of the year.
Lined with organic material within a depth of 48 The soils of this site support a nearly pure stand of
ches. The water table fluctuates within the soil but sawgrass (fig. 11). This plant is a giant sedge that has
,es to the surface during wet seasons. sawtooth edges. It occurs in pure and vigorous stands
The acid flatwoods occupy a large area that originally that exclude all other kinds of plants. Little, if any,
pported an open forest of slash pine and longleaf pine., grazing is done on this plant. In some places freshly
us area was cleared and large parts are now treeless, burned sawgrass is grazed, but only as emergency
,cause the canopy of the original forest was open, the forage.
derstory consisted of range plants (fig. 10). The potential forage production was not determined
About 60 percent of the climax vegetation now is de- for these soils.
3aser and increase grasses, such as creeping bluestem, FRESH MARSH RANGE SITE
side indiangrass, chalky bluestem, blue maidencane, Only the mapping unit Manatee, Delray, and Okee-
[1 paspalum, and Florida three-awn. Desirable forbs lanta soils is in this range site. These low-lying soils are
B deertongue, swamp sunflower, grassleaf goldaster, nearly level and very poorly drained The surface layer
.lkpea, and peavine. Saw-palmettos and gallberries generally is high in content of organic matter, but it is
re part of the original understory in small quantity, less than 12 inches thick over a mineral subsoil. These
381-603-71- 3







32 SOIL SURVEY
station includes eastern gamagrass, beaked panicum, blue-
stem, longleaf uniola, and low panicum.
The potential mnderstory forage production was not
determined for this range site.
SAND POND RANGE SITE
In this range site are nearly level, strongly acid to
neutral soils that are poorly drained to very poorly
drained. Some of these soils have a sandy surface layer
underlain by finer textured material. The dominant soils,
however, consist of deep, light-colored fine sands in sand
ponds. Toward the center of areas of these sand ponds,
the soils have a thick, dark-colored, highly organic sur-
face layer and are more fertile than the lighter colored
sands. Areas of this range site occur in places throughout
both the Acid Flatwoods and Sweet Flatwoods range
sites.
Areas of this range site generally occupy basins that
range from one acre to about 50 acres in size. The origi-
nal vegetation was chiefly maidencane (fig. 12), and
because of this, local residents often refer to areas of
Figure 11.-Dense stand of sawgrass on Okeelanta peat in Ever- this site as grassy ponds.
glades Marsh range site. In the background is a dense growth of Three or four kinds of vegetation occur in the grassy
cabbage-palms on Parkwood soils in the Hammock range site. ponds in circular bands, the kind depending upon the
soils and the depth of the water. A small area of peat
soils are covered by water during wet seasons and re- may occur in the center of some ponds. The kinds of
main wet throughout the rest of the year. plants that grow vary from one pond to another, depend-
Decreasers and increases make up about 80 percent ing mostly upon the organic content of the soil and the
of the climax vegetation on this range site. This vegeta- fluctuating seasonal water level. On some of the more
tion consists of smaidencane, cutgrass, beaked panicum, sandy soils, the vegetation consists of longleaf three-awn
sand cordgrass, and perennial sedges and rushes. Invad- and broomsedge and of small amounts of maidencane.
ers that dominate under continued heavy grazing include Plants that invade if the site is overgrazed are sand
annuals, pickerelweed, redroot, smartweed, iris, and cordgrass, low panicum, carpetgrass, annual weeds, and
broadleaf carpetgrass. the woody shrub, St. Jolhnswort. The potential forage
The potential forage production, in pounds per acre production was not determined for this range site.
air-dried, ranges from 6,000 to 6,600 pounds in dry
years and from 8,000 to 8,800 pounds in wet years. SAND SCRUB RANGE SITE
In this range site are nearly level, moderately well
HAMMOCK RANGE. SITE drained, deep fine sands that are very strongly acid.
In this range site are nearly level to gently sloping, These drought soils have a thin, gray surface layer.
poorly drained to moderately well drained sandy soils
that are acid to neutral. Areas of this site that occur
in marshes, swamps, or sloughs occupy islands slightly
higher' than the surrounding areas. Areas in the flat-
woods are slightly lower than surrounding areas or are in
areas. where the soils are more fertile than those that
surround them.
The climax vegetation on this site is chiefly palms and
hardwoods. The hammocks generally are small and occur
within areas of the Acid Flatwoods, Sweet Flatwoods,
and Slough range sites. The undergrowth of shrubs and
vines is dense, and grasses cover the small open areas.
Differences in the kinds of plants and in productivity
vary only slightly from one area to another. Because
of the dense canopy in most hammock sites, the quantity
of forage produced is small, though it generally is of
high quality. This site is used mostly to provide shade,
shelter, and browse for livestock.
Dominant trees on this site include cabbage-palm, live
oak, magnolia, strangler fig, sweetbay, persimmon, and
slash pine. Major shrubs are holly, waxmyrtle, saw brier, Figure 12.-Good stand of maidencane on soils of the Basinger-
Placid complex in the Sand Pond range site. A small area of
Virginia creeper, and French mulberry. Decreaser vege- pickerelweed is in the center of the pond.








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 33

ist below is either a brown stained layer, underlain by SWEET FLATWOODS RANGE CITE
light-colored subsoil, or a nearly white layer, underlain This range site consists of nearly level, slightly acid to
r a dark-colored organic pan at a depth of more than neutral soils that are somewhat poorly drained to poorly
I inches. The water table normally is at a depth of 48 drained. These soils have a thin, dark-gray surface layer
60 inches. of fine sand; a lighter colored subsurface layer of sand;
The climax vegetation on this site consists of sand and a neutral to calcareous sandy or loamy subsoil. The
.ne, sand and scrub hickories, and scattered areas of water table fluctuates within these soils but rises to the
.rkey and bluejack oaks. Runner oak, saw-palmetto, surface during wet seasons.
icca, pricklypear, and rosemary make up the understory. Scattered cabbage-palms and live oaks are common on
rasses commoon on this site include pineland three-awn, this site (fig. 13). This site originally supported an open
'oomsedge, bluestem, and small amounts of low panicum forest of slash and longleaf pines. An open canopy per-
id dropseed. mitted growth of an understory of range plants. About
The potential understory forage production was not 70 percent of the climax vegetation now on this site is
termined for this site. such decreasers and increases as creeping bluestem,
Florida paspalum, lobsided indiangrass, switchgrass, and
SLOUGH RANGE SITE Florida three-awn. Desirable forbs are beggarweed,
This range site consists of nearly level, strongly acid grassleaf goldaster, milkpea, and peavine. Desirable
* neutral, moderately deep to deep, sandy soils that are woody shrubs are dwarf myrtle, holly, runner oak,
)orly drained. In most areas soils consist of deep, light- huckleberry, and tarbush.
lored fine sand. Small areas, however, are made up of The potential understory forage during dry years and
ils that have a thick, dark surface layer underlain by in years when rainfall is about average in pounds per
savier material within a depth of 30 inches. This site acre, air-dried, by canopy class is:
covered by a few inches of slowly moving water dur- Canopy class: Dryyears year
g wet seasons, and the soils are wet most of the year. Open...---------------------------- 4, 000 5, 000
Saw-palmettos, common to adjacent flatwoods areas, Sparse ___ 2-------------------, 000 4, 000
rely occur on this site. Many kinds of decreaser and Medium -------__ __..._...-----------_ 1, 000 2, 000
.creaser grasses are common in various stages of plant Dense-------------------------------- 0 1, 000
accession. These plants include toothachegrass, blue
aidencane, hairy bluestem, bluejoint panicum, and Use of the Soils for Woodland'
lorida and pineland three-awns. Many species of peren- This section gives suggestions about management of
Lal sedges and rushes are part of the climax vegetation. oodlnd. It also discusses the potential productivity
these include striped and globe beak-rushes, razorsedge, and limitations of the soils for wood crops.
ld whitetop sedge. About 30 percent, or 148,688 acres, of Okeechobee
The potential forage production, in pounds per acre County was in trees of commercial value in 19. Most
r-dried, ranges from 1,000 to 1,800 poun ds in dry years of this acreage was in private ownership. Pine trees
id from 1,800 to 3,500 pounds in wet years.
SBy EDWARD D. HOLCOMBE, woodland conservationist, Soil Con-
SWAMP RANGE SITE servation Service.
In this range site are nearly level, acid to neutral,
sep, dark-colored soils that are very poorly drained.
these soils occupy densely wooded depressions and
ainageways in isolated, small to large, pounded areas.
ome of the soils in this site are sandy and have a thick, 1
irk surface layer and a sandy or loamy subsoil. Others
insistt of layers of muck or peat as much as 36 inches
Lick over a sandy subsoil. The areas are under standing
very slowly moving water throughout most of the
,ar.
The swamps that make up this range site generally
tve a dense canopy of trees on them that tolerate wet-
-ss. Some of the stands are made up of one tree, such as
press, and others consist of mixtures of many kinds of
ees. The dominant trees are baldcypress, pondcypress,
id several species of gum, sweetbay, water elm, swamp
.h, and swamp maple. The undergrowth includes such
ants as pondapple, waxmyrtle, storax, lizardtail,
ckerelweed, water hyacinth, and brackenfern. Because
Sthe high water level, only small amounts of forage are
loduced in summer. In winter browse and some grass
videe grazing for livestock, especially in the borders
i the swamp.
he potential understoy for reduction was not Figure 13.-Scattered cabbage-palms within an open growth of
The potential understory forage production was not pine trees grown on Wabasso fine sand in the Sweet Flatwoods
Atermined for the soils in this site. range site.







34 SOIL SURVEY

The Florida Forest Service provides fire protection to
the entire county. Individual landowners, however, can
help by observing all rules of fire prevention. Land-
owners can also construct and maintain adequate fire-
breaks around and through their woodland. Because
these firebreaks can slow or stop a wildfire under normal
conditions, they give good protection to the woodland.
Care should be taken to provide protection against ero-
sion when constructing these firebreaks. Controlled or
prescribed burning should only be done with the ap-
proval and guidance of qualified Florida Forest Service
personnel.
Water pmanagement.-Management of water in wood-
land is an important factor in starting and maintaining
normal growth of pine trees. Most of the soils in the
county are nearly level and have a fairly high water
table. Practices therefore are needed for control of excess
surface water and an abnormally high water table. A
properly designed system of shallow ditches that removes
excess water should be installed. Such a drainage system
would tie in all pounded areas and provide a suitable out-
let. Establishing new plantings on low beds or ridges
Figure 14.-South Florida slash pine on Immokalee fine sand. above the water table help to obtain optimum root
Young trees are in the foreground and tall, mature parent trees development.
are in the background. Tree planting.-Most woodland in the county is under-
stocked. Since trees are crops, tree farming is an accepted
originally covered much of the county, but these were operation just as any other phase of farming. Trees can
cut for lumber about 50 years ago. be planted and grow well under a wide variety of soil
Much of the present woodland consists of second- conditions. In this county pine trees are particularly
growth pine (fig. 14), which is now being harvested. suited because they are native to most of the soils.
Some of the stands are dense, but most consist of Owners of idle land or of understocked woodland should
scattered trees in open areas. Hardwoods and cypress consider planting the areas to trees.
grow in places, but these trees are of poor commercial Proper cutting practices.-Regulated cutting of wood-
quality. Pulpwood cut in the pine woods is loaded on land will provide adequate protection of the soil and
flatcars at Okeechobee and shipped to mills in northern still bring economic gain to the landowner. Practices
Florida. No sawmills are in this county. needed vary as the condition of the woodland varies. The
Clear cutting, wildfire, and other factors have greatly landowner, however, can seek professional advice from
reduced the number of merchantable trees. Much of the the district conservationist of the Soil Conservation Serv-
open woodland is used for grazing cattle, which further ice or from the farm forester of the Florida Forest
limits the growth of trees. Under good management that Service.
includes control of grazing, interplanting, and control Woodland suitability groups
of fire, trees of commercial value can be encouraged to
grow in these open areas. The soils of Okeechobee County have been placed in
eight woodland groups to help landowners in planning
General woodland management the proper use and management of their woodlands.
One of the primary functions of good woodland Each group consists of soils that have about the same
management is to protect the soil. A properly managed potential productivity and that need similar manage-
stand of trees can do much to prevent soil deterioration ment. These groups are listed in table 3. The names of
and to insure proper conservation of soil and water the soils in each group can be found in the "Guide to
resources. Trees slow the force of rainfall and, thus, Mapping Units" at the back of this survey.
the surface soil is able to absorb more moisture. Litter Suitability of the soils for various kinds of trees is
from the trees also lessens the force of raindrops and based on soil characteristics that affect growth, survival,
helps to hold the soil in place. and general vigor of the trees. Among the soil features
Proper management of woodland is necessary so that considered were ability of the soil to retain moisture and
trees can do their part in conserving soil and water. The depth of the root zone. Other factors are thickness and
minimum practices are discussed in the paragraphs that texture of the surface layer, content of organic matter,
follow. depth to fine-textured material, aeration of the soil, and
Fire protection.-Wildfires destroy trees and ground depth to the water table.
cover. They lessen the ability of the soil to absorb mois- Some soils, and especially those in low areas and along
ture and consume the litter that helps to replenish the streams, are suited to hardwoods. Hardwoods are not
supply of organic matter in the soil. Fires also slow the listed in table 3, but they could be grown in many areas.
growth of trees not killed and cause wounds that provide A local forester should be consulted, however, before
an entry for insects and diseases. planting large areas to hardwoods.







34 SOIL SURVEY

The Florida Forest Service provides fire protection to
the entire county. Individual landowners, however, can
help by observing all rules of fire prevention. Land-
owners can also construct and maintain adequate fire-
breaks around and through their woodland. Because
these firebreaks can slow or stop a wildfire under normal
conditions, they give good protection to the woodland.
Care should be taken to provide protection against ero-
sion when constructing these firebreaks. Controlled or
prescribed burning should only be done with the ap-
proval and guidance of qualified Florida Forest Service
personnel.
Water pmanagement.-Management of water in wood-
land is an important factor in starting and maintaining
normal growth of pine trees. Most of the soils in the
county are nearly level and have a fairly high water
table. Practices therefore are needed for control of excess
surface water and an abnormally high water table. A
properly designed system of shallow ditches that removes
excess water should be installed. Such a drainage system
would tie in all pounded areas and provide a suitable out-
let. Establishing new plantings on low beds or ridges
Figure 14.-South Florida slash pine on Immokalee fine sand. above the water table help to obtain optimum root
Young trees are in the foreground and tall, mature parent trees development.
are in the background. Tree planting.-Most woodland in the county is under-
stocked. Since trees are crops, tree farming is an accepted
originally covered much of the county, but these were operation just as any other phase of farming. Trees can
cut for lumber about 50 years ago. be planted and grow well under a wide variety of soil
Much of the present woodland consists of second- conditions. In this county pine trees are particularly
growth pine (fig. 14), which is now being harvested. suited because they are native to most of the soils.
Some of the stands are dense, but most consist of Owners of idle land or of understocked woodland should
scattered trees in open areas. Hardwoods and cypress consider planting the areas to trees.
grow in places, but these trees are of poor commercial Proper cutting practices.-Regulated cutting of wood-
quality. Pulpwood cut in the pine woods is loaded on land will provide adequate protection of the soil and
flatcars at Okeechobee and shipped to mills in northern still bring economic gain to the landowner. Practices
Florida. No sawmills are in this county. needed vary as the condition of the woodland varies. The
Clear cutting, wildfire, and other factors have greatly landowner, however, can seek professional advice from
reduced the number of merchantable trees. Much of the the district conservationist of the Soil Conservation Serv-
open woodland is used for grazing cattle, which further ice or from the farm forester of the Florida Forest
limits the growth of trees. Under good management that Service.
includes control of grazing, interplanting, and control Woodland suitability groups
of fire, trees of commercial value can be encouraged to
grow in these open areas. The soils of Okeechobee County have been placed in
eight woodland groups to help landowners in planning
General woodland management the proper use and management of their woodlands.
One of the primary functions of good woodland Each group consists of soils that have about the same
management is to protect the soil. A properly managed potential productivity and that need similar manage-
stand of trees can do much to prevent soil deterioration ment. These groups are listed in table 3. The names of
and to insure proper conservation of soil and water the soils in each group can be found in the "Guide to
resources. Trees slow the force of rainfall and, thus, Mapping Units" at the back of this survey.
the surface soil is able to absorb more moisture. Litter Suitability of the soils for various kinds of trees is
from the trees also lessens the force of raindrops and based on soil characteristics that affect growth, survival,
helps to hold the soil in place. and general vigor of the trees. Among the soil features
Proper management of woodland is necessary so that considered were ability of the soil to retain moisture and
trees can do their part in conserving soil and water. The depth of the root zone. Other factors are thickness and
minimum practices are discussed in the paragraphs that texture of the surface layer, content of organic matter,
follow. depth to fine-textured material, aeration of the soil, and
Fire protection.-Wildfires destroy trees and ground depth to the water table.
cover. They lessen the ability of the soil to absorb mois- Some soils, and especially those in low areas and along
ture and consume the litter that helps to replenish the streams, are suited to hardwoods. Hardwoods are not
supply of organic matter in the soil. Fires also slow the listed in table 3, but they could be grown in many areas.
growth of trees not killed and cause wounds that provide A local forester should be consulted, however, before
an entry for insects and diseases. planting large areas to hardwoods.









OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 35

TABLE 3.-Woodland groups, average site indexes, and yearly growth per acre of important trees
ot included in this table because of their variable characteristics are the land types Borrow pits (Bo), Made land (Ma), and Spoil banks
(Sp)]

Woodland groups and soil Species Species to favor Average Yearly Principal hazards and
symbols preferred in existing Important trees site growth limitations
for planting stands index rate
per acre

Curds
oup 1: Moderately Slash pine Longleaf pine_-- Slash pine ---- 80 1. 5-1. 7 Release of pine seedlings
vell drained, deep sands Longleaf pine- 70 8-1. 1 from unwanted trees and
;hat have a water table shrubs may be needed to
formally at a depth of 48 assure good growth and
;o 72 inches: Pd, Pm, stand development;
se. severe dryness increases
seedling mortality.
aup 2: Somewhat poorly Slash pine._ Longleaf pine, Slash pine --. 80 1. 5-1. 7 Established pine seedlings
trained, deep, neutral to South Florida South Florida 60 .9-1. 2 must be released from
dkaline sands that have a slash pine. slash pine. unwanted vegetation;
vater table normally at a Longleaf pine.. 70 8-1. 1 high water table restricts
lepth of 12 to 36 inches: root zone; windthrow may
%d, Fr. occur following heavy
intermediate cuttings;
soil wetness may restrict
logging or planting
operations 3 to 4 months
per year.
>up 3: Poorly drained Slash pine_- Longleaf pine, Slash pine ..... 80 1. 5-1. 7 Planting or seeding can be
oils that have a sandy South Florida South Florida 60 .9-1. 2 done with reasonable
surface layer and a slash pine. slash pine. results; release from
moderately permeable, Longleaf pine. 70 .8-1.1 competing vegetation may
oamy subsoil: Br, Wa. be needed after estab-
lishment; wetness is a
hazard most of the year;
damage from compacting
may occur; drainage is
needed in places to
assure normal growth.
>up 4: Poorly drained, Slash pine_- Longleaf pine, Slash pine---... 80 1. 5-1. 7 Established pine seedlings
eep, light-colored, acid South Florida South Florida 60 .9-1. 2 must be released from
hands over an organic slash pine. slash pine. unwanted vegetation;
*an that have a water Longleaf pine.-- 60 .5-. 8 high water table restricts
able normally at a depth root zone; windthrow
*f 12 to 36 inches: Im, may occur following
o y. St. heavy intermediate
cuttings; soil wetness
may restrict logging or
planting operations 3 to
4 months per year.
up 5: Poorly drained Slash pine.. South Florida Slash pine------ 75 1. 3-1. 6 Plant competition is severe,
o very poorly drained, slash pine. South Florida 60 and site preparation is
andy to loamy soils that slash pine. needed before planting;
iave a moderately to drainage is needed for
lowly permeable, normal growth; seedling
lightly acid to alkaline mortality may be severe;
ubsoil and a calcareous root zone restricted.
ubstratum: Co, Mc, Mo.
up 6: Poorly drained, Slash pine-. South Florida Slash pine ----- 75 .9-1. 2 Site preparation is needed;
andy soils that are shallow slash pine. South Florida 60 seedling mortality is high
o marl: Pe. slash pine. in wet seasons; seasonal
flooding of soils may
occur; windthrow is a
hazard in places.
ee footnote at end of table.








36 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 3.-Woodland groups, average site indexes, and yearly growth per acre of important trees-Continued

Woodland groups and soil Species Species to favor Average Yearly Principal hazards and
symbols preferred in existing Important trees site growth limitations
for planting stands index rate
per acre

Cord,
Group 7: Poorly drained to Slash pine_- South Florida Slash pine .---. 75 1. 6-1. 8 Water control is needed for
very poorly drained, deep slash pine. South Florida 60 1. 0-1.3 best growth of pines;
sandy soils that have slash pine. high water table most of
leached, rapidly permeable the year; competition
sandy layers to more than from undesirable
20 inches deep: Ba, Bc, vegetation is severe;
Bm, Ch, De, Dt, Ef, Ff, wetness restricts use of
Fp, Pf, Ph, Pn. equipment most of the
year.
Group 8: Very poorly ----------------------------------------------------------- Permanently wet, mostly
drained organic soils: Oe, organic soils that are not
Pa, Tc. suited to pine tree
production.

i The name "slash pine" refers to slash pine (typical) (Pinus elliotii var. elliolii.).

The amount of a given wood crop that a given soil able for managing the various areas of the county for
can produce under a specified level of management is wildlife and fish. Important among these are control of
expressed as a site index. A site index is the average brush and weeds, development of the habitat for specific
height, in feet, that the best (dominant and codominant) wildlife, and controlling burning. Also important are
trees of a given species, growing on a specified soil, will development of farm ponds, control of aquatic weeds,
reach in 50 years. The site index is not a direct indicator proper stocking of the ponds with fish, and development
of potential productivity of a soil, but the higher the of wetland areas.
site index, the greater the yields of commercial timber. The district conservationist of the Soil Conservation
The site index is the criterion least affected by drought, Service maintains up-to-date technical guides on im-
fire, insects, disease, and other factors that restrict the portant kinds of wildlife and fish, as well as on plants
development and productivity of trees. suitable for food and cover. He can help the farmer
The site indexes for slash pine, longleaf pine, and plan good habitats for wildlife suited to his land.
South Florida slash pine were converted to total mer- Food and cover for wildlife
chantable volume in standard cords, in table 3. A stand- Food d cover or
ard cord is 128 cubic feet per acre. These conversions Following is a summary of the food and habitat needs
were made by reference to public research material on of the important kinds of wildlife in the county.
growth of pines (5). Turkey.-The wild turkey inhabits the Placid and
Pamlico soils in the swamps, the Myakka and Immokalee
Use of the Soils for Wildlife soils in the flatwoods, and the Parkwood soils in the
hammocks. They need water daily. In the swamps tur-
The kind and number of wildlife within an area are keys roost in the larger trees. Here choice foods are
influenced by the number of soils in the area. Basically, various kinds of tree seeds and the understory plants in
the capability of the soils to produce desirable food and small open areas. In the open flatwoods turkeys feed on
cover determines the suitability of an area for different palmettos, gallberries, grass seeds, and acorns of runner
kinds of wildlife, oak. Turkeys obtain some food and cover in the
In addition to the characteristics of the soils, topog- hammocks.
raphy, farm development, size of natural habitats, and Deer.-Deer thrive on the same soils as turkeys. They
presence of open water also determine wildlife live in hammock areas or in palmetto clumps in or near
populations. swamps. Choice foods here and in the flatwoods are the
Since Okeechobee County is still largely undeveloped, leafy parts of many of the same plants that turkeys eat.
many kinds of wildlife live in the area. Each kind of Deer also like to have a plentiful supply of water
wildlife inhabits several different soil areas in feeding, nearby.
nesting, and seeking shelter. It can therefore be assumed Bobwhite quail.-These birds thrive on all except the
that all of the soils are suited to and support one or wettest soils of the county. They feed on the same native
more kinds of wildlife. The main kinds of wildlife in the berries, seeds, and acorns that turkeys eat in areas of
county are turkey, deer, bobwhite quail, mourning doves, flatwoods soils, scrub areas of Pomello soils, and on such
gray squirrels, and wild ducks. Many raccoons and a soils as Ft. Drum, Wabasso, and Adamsville near ham-
few gray fox and wild hogs also are present. mocks and swamps. The number of bobwhite quail varies
Many soil and water conservation practices are suit- from year to year, depending on the amount of rainfall
during the spring and early in summer. Bobwhite quail
SBy HowADn R BISSLAND, biologist, Soil Conservation Service. thrive in intensively farmed areas. In recent years, how-








36 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 3.-Woodland groups, average site indexes, and yearly growth per acre of important trees-Continued

Woodland groups and soil Species Species to favor Average Yearly Principal hazards and
symbols preferred in existing Important trees site growth limitations
for planting stands index rate
per acre

Cord,
Group 7: Poorly drained to Slash pine_- South Florida Slash pine .---. 75 1. 6-1. 8 Water control is needed for
very poorly drained, deep slash pine. South Florida 60 1. 0-1.3 best growth of pines;
sandy soils that have slash pine. high water table most of
leached, rapidly permeable the year; competition
sandy layers to more than from undesirable
20 inches deep: Ba, Bc, vegetation is severe;
Bm, Ch, De, Dt, Ef, Ff, wetness restricts use of
Fp, Pf, Ph, Pn. equipment most of the
year.
Group 8: Very poorly ----------------------------------------------------------- Permanently wet, mostly
drained organic soils: Oe, organic soils that are not
Pa, Tc. suited to pine tree
production.

i The name "slash pine" refers to slash pine (typical) (Pinus elliotii var. elliolii.).

The amount of a given wood crop that a given soil able for managing the various areas of the county for
can produce under a specified level of management is wildlife and fish. Important among these are control of
expressed as a site index. A site index is the average brush and weeds, development of the habitat for specific
height, in feet, that the best (dominant and codominant) wildlife, and controlling burning. Also important are
trees of a given species, growing on a specified soil, will development of farm ponds, control of aquatic weeds,
reach in 50 years. The site index is not a direct indicator proper stocking of the ponds with fish, and development
of potential productivity of a soil, but the higher the of wetland areas.
site index, the greater the yields of commercial timber. The district conservationist of the Soil Conservation
The site index is the criterion least affected by drought, Service maintains up-to-date technical guides on im-
fire, insects, disease, and other factors that restrict the portant kinds of wildlife and fish, as well as on plants
development and productivity of trees. suitable for food and cover. He can help the farmer
The site indexes for slash pine, longleaf pine, and plan good habitats for wildlife suited to his land.
South Florida slash pine were converted to total mer- Food and cover for wildlife
chantable volume in standard cords, in table 3. A stand- Food d cover or
ard cord is 128 cubic feet per acre. These conversions Following is a summary of the food and habitat needs
were made by reference to public research material on of the important kinds of wildlife in the county.
growth of pines (5). Turkey.-The wild turkey inhabits the Placid and
Pamlico soils in the swamps, the Myakka and Immokalee
Use of the Soils for Wildlife soils in the flatwoods, and the Parkwood soils in the
hammocks. They need water daily. In the swamps tur-
The kind and number of wildlife within an area are keys roost in the larger trees. Here choice foods are
influenced by the number of soils in the area. Basically, various kinds of tree seeds and the understory plants in
the capability of the soils to produce desirable food and small open areas. In the open flatwoods turkeys feed on
cover determines the suitability of an area for different palmettos, gallberries, grass seeds, and acorns of runner
kinds of wildlife, oak. Turkeys obtain some food and cover in the
In addition to the characteristics of the soils, topog- hammocks.
raphy, farm development, size of natural habitats, and Deer.-Deer thrive on the same soils as turkeys. They
presence of open water also determine wildlife live in hammock areas or in palmetto clumps in or near
populations. swamps. Choice foods here and in the flatwoods are the
Since Okeechobee County is still largely undeveloped, leafy parts of many of the same plants that turkeys eat.
many kinds of wildlife live in the area. Each kind of Deer also like to have a plentiful supply of water
wildlife inhabits several different soil areas in feeding, nearby.
nesting, and seeking shelter. It can therefore be assumed Bobwhite quail.-These birds thrive on all except the
that all of the soils are suited to and support one or wettest soils of the county. They feed on the same native
more kinds of wildlife. The main kinds of wildlife in the berries, seeds, and acorns that turkeys eat in areas of
county are turkey, deer, bobwhite quail, mourning doves, flatwoods soils, scrub areas of Pomello soils, and on such
gray squirrels, and wild ducks. Many raccoons and a soils as Ft. Drum, Wabasso, and Adamsville near ham-
few gray fox and wild hogs also are present. mocks and swamps. The number of bobwhite quail varies
Many soil and water conservation practices are suit- from year to year, depending on the amount of rainfall
during the spring and early in summer. Bobwhite quail
SBy HowADn R BISSLAND, biologist, Soil Conservation Service. thrive in intensively farmed areas. In recent years, how-








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 37

er, their nunibers have declined in the county because cattle. They nest in trees in swamps and in thickets near
the increase in the number of large commercial ponds.
iries. Small numbers of alligators and bobcats live in the
Mourning dove.-Mourning doves prefer most of the swamps and in heavily wooded soil areas.
.me soil areas as bobwhite quail, but they are more com- Wading birds, such as snowy egrets, white and wood
on in areas of cropland, pasture, or idle land. They are ibis, little blue heron, and limpkins, were abundant at
ith resident and migratory birds. These birds also live one time but their numbers have decreased greatly in
the dry sandy scrub areas of Pomello and Paola soils, recent years. This decrease is largely because of changes
here they can pick up grit for their craw. in use in land that involve increased drainage and more
Squirrel.-The number of gray squirrel in the county intensive use of wetland soils. In areas of ponded soils,
small. Most gray squirrels live in the more heavily however, flocks of these water birds are common. They
)oded areas of flatwoods soils, on the Parkwood soils nest in bushes and trees over water. Choice foods are
hammocks, and in swamps. The number of fox squirrel snails, small fish, frogs, and insects in ponded areas and
the county was never large, and it has declined in on adjacent sloughs.
-ent years. The continuing conversion of pinewoods to
proved pasture has reduced the availability of pine Engineering Uses of the Soils
ist, which is a major food for fox squirrel.
Fox, gray.-The range of the gray fox in the county Soils engineering is well established today. It is widely
wide. These animals feed mostly on small animals used in structural engineering, for it deals with soil as
d seek them wherever they occur. The fox makes his foundation material and as structural material. Soil, to
n in hollow logs or digs it in the drier areas of such the engineer, is a natural material that varies widely
ils as the Immokalee, Paola, and Pomello. In many from place to place. The engineering properties of this
.as the fox uses gopher turtle holes as a den. The num- material also vary widely, even within the boundaries
r of fox in the county is decreasing, of a single project. Generally, soil is used in the condi-
Raccoon.-Many raccoon live in the county. They fre- tion in which it occurs in the locality. A large part of
Lent all areas, of the county, but especially the more soils engineering, however, involves selecting the best
avily wooded areas. Choice foods are native berries, possible soil or soils for each construction project. In
dents, and shellfish. They also eat field crops and citrus, doing so, engineers determine the engineering properties
Wild hog.--Aild hogs live in swamps and adjacent of the soils at a proposed site and correlate them with
.twoods where they forage for roots, berries, and acorns construction requirements.
d have a plentiful supply of water for wallowing. This soil survey contains information about the soils
tst hunting has reduced their number considerably. of Okeechobee County that will be helpful to engineers.
Ducks.-Florida mallards are wild ducks that live Emphasis in this section is placed on engineering prop-
the county all year. They like areas of open water on erties that are related to agriculture, especially prop-
,nds in areas of Delray and Placid soils and on marshes erties that affect irrigation structures, farm ponds, and
Okeelanta soils. In winter migratory wild ducks, such structures that control and conserve soil and water.
pintail, mallards, widgeon, and teal, also inhabit these The information can be used by engineers to-
nded soil areas.
F i. s in te c y ae mai in 1. Make studies that will aid in selecting and de-
FisA.-Game Ifish in the county are mainly in the veloping sites for industries, businesses, resi-
issimmee River, at the mouth of Taylor Creek, and in devices, and recreational areas.
Lke Okeechobee. No natural lakes are within the county Make es, and rereational areas. engneeng properties of
oper, and ponded soil areas are dry at times or are soils Make estimates of the engineering properties ofultural
lated from natural breeding areas. Because of the high soils for use in the plonds, of agricultural
iter table, dug ponds can be established on many soils, draiage systems, farm ponds, and irrigation
t such ponds are not locally popular for fishing. The systems and other structures for conserving soil
incipal fish caught at the mouth of Taylor Creek is and water.
eckled perch. In the Kissimmee River and in Lake 3. Make preliminary evaluations of soil and ground
reechobee the1 main fish are largemouth black bass, conditions that will aid in selecting locations for
legill bream, and shellcrackers. Channel and white highways, airports, pipelines, powerlines, and
;fish are harvested commercially in Lake Okeechobee. cables, and in planning more detailed surveys
Vongamme wildlife.--Many other kinds of wildlife oc- at the selected locations.
r in Okeechobee County. Large numbers of rabbits 4. Locate probable sources of sand, gravel, and
d armadillos frequent all soil areas. The armadillo, other materials suitable for construction needs.
Lich has only been introduced to the county in the last 5. Correlate performance of engineering structures
years, has increased rapidly and is considered a pest. with mapping units to develop information for
Large, sandhill cranes commonly are seen in twos and overall planning that will be useful in designing
trees. They feed in broad open areas of flatwoods soils and maintaining certain engineering practices
i in sloughs on such soils as the Basinger, Charlotte, and structures.
d Pompano. These birds nest in shallow ponded areas
these soils and also in such areas in the Delray, SBy ROBERT G. JESBUP, assistant State conservation engineer,
,ida, and Placid soils. Soil Conservation Service; DAVID P. POWELL, soil specialist for
Battle egrets, though not native in the county, occur interpretation, Soil Conservation Service; and Wn.LIAM A.
Wate eres not n NE, Jn., geologist, Division of Materials and Tests, Florida
great numbers and feed on insects alongside grazing Department of Transportation.








38 SOIL SURVEY

6. Determine the suitability of soils for cross- eliminate the need for sampling and testing at the site of
country movement of vehicles and construction specific engineering works involving heavy loads or
equipment, where the excavations are deeper than the depths of
7. Supplement information obtained from other layers here reported. Also, engineers should not apply
published maps and reports and aerial photo- specific values to the estimates for bearing capacity given
graphs, for the purpose of making soil maps and in this survey. Even in these situations, however, the
reports that can be used readily by engineers, interpretations and the soil map are useful in planning
8. Develop other preliminary estimates for con- more detailed field investigations and suggesting the
struction purposes pertinent to the particular kinds of problems that can be expected.
area. The soil mapping units shown on the maps in this sur-
Used with the soil map to identify the soils, the infor- vey may include small areas of a different soil material.
mation in this survey can be useful for many purposes. These included soils may be as much as 2 acres in size.
It should be emphasized that the interpretations do not They are too small to be mapped separately and gen-


TABLE 4.-Engineering
[Tests performed by Florida Department of Transportation (DOT) in accordance

Mechanical analysis
DOT
Soil name and location Lab. Depth Percentage passing sieve-
No.
4816-S
No. 10 No. 40 No. 200
(2.0 mm.) (0.42 mm.) (0.074 mm.)

Basinger fine sand: Inches
Along Eagle Island Rd., 5 mi. W. of U.S. Highway No. 441, 33 9-19 100 98 7
SW3iSWC4 sec. 35, T. 34 S., R. 34 E. (Modal). 34 38-60 100 96 10
300 ft. W. of Jim Durrance Rd. and 1 3o mi. S. of Eagle Island 92 16-21 100 96 7
Rd. NENE/4 sec. 10, T. 35 S., R. 33 E. (Modal). 93 21-50 100 96 12
Charlotte fine sand:
2/ mi. N. of Eagle Island Rd., % mi. NE. of Griffith Ranch 99 19-30 100 98 13
Headquarters, SEhNEi~ sec. 20, T. 34 S., R. 34 E. (Modal). 100 30-46 100 98 11
Chobee fine sandy loam:
2 mi. E. of U.S. Highway No. 441, SE/4NWN sec. 24, T. 36 S., 27 7-22 100 99 42
R. 35 E. (Modal). 28 22-38 100 99 44
29 38-63 100 99 40
Delray fine sand:
/io mi. W. of U.S. Highway No. 441, 200 ft. S. of Durrance 81 18-46 100 99 10
Rd., NW/CNW sec. 33, T. 37 S., R. 35 E. (Modal). 82 46-60 100 99 25
Felda fine sand:
1 mi. N. and Y mi. W. of Basinger, NW1:NW/4 sec. 28, T. 35 87 8-22 100 99 12
S., R. 33 E. (Modal). 88 22-32 100 99 25
89 42-60 100 99 9
Immokalee fine sand:
300 ft. W. of U.S. Highway No. 441, just S. of Spicy Island Rd., 97 35-43 100 99 21
SW1/SW4 sec. 10, T. 36 S., R. 35 E. (Modal). 98 43-54 100 99 17
Myakka fine sand:
% mi. W. of U.S. Highway No. 441, 150 ft. S. of Trice Dairy 19 6-24 100 92 5
Rd., NE/aSWJN sec. 1, T. 34 S., R. 35 E. (Modal). 20 24-30 100 92 13
21 30-58 100 91 15
Paola fine sand:
100 yds. E. of Fort Drum Station, SW/4 sec. 11, T. 34 S., R. 1 0-8 100 96 5
35 E. (Modal). 2 11-17 100 96 8
3 27-66 100 96 4
Parkwood fine sand:
Hammock N. of Basswoods Estates office, %o mi. E. of U.S. 58 9-20 97 95 25
Highway No. 98, NWISE/4 sec. 6, T. 37 S., R. 35 E. (Modal). 59 20-39 5 92 88 19
60 39-50 89 85 19
Placid fine sand:
1 mi. E. of U.S. Highway No. 441, 300 yds. N. of State Route 46 0-11 100 97 18
68, SENSE.4, sec. 2, T. 35 S., R. 35 E. (Modal). 47 24-48 100 95 6
%o mi. N. of State Route 68 on Flying B Ranch, SE(4SE3 sec. 50 9-23 100 98 17
28, T. 35 S., R. 34 E. (Btg horizon at a depth of 47 inches). 51 47-60+ 100 97 17
See footnotes at end of table.









OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 39

-rally are not significant to the agriculture in the area county. Most of the information in this section is given
out may be important in engineering planning. in tables 4, 5, and 6.
Some of the terms used by the soil scientist may be Engineering classification systems
unfamiliar to the engineer, and some words-for ex-
imple, soil, clay, silt, sand, and aggregate-have special Soil scientists of the U.S. Department of Agriculture
meaning in soil science. These terms, as well as other classify soils according to texture (6). In some ways this
special terms that are used in the soil survey, are defined system of naming textural classes is comparable to the
in the Glossary at the back of this survey. systems most commonly used by engineers for classifying
The engineering interpretations are based on data ob- soils; that is, the system of the American Association of
gained by taking samples from a number of soil profiles State Highway Officials (AASHO) (1) and the Unified
in this county and testing them in the Soils Laboratory, system (8) used by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Department of Transportation. They were also based on Most highway engineers classify soil material accord-
lata obtained from testing similar soils outside the ing to the AASHO system. In this system soil materials


est data
vith standard procedures of American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO)]

Mechanical analysis '-Continued Moisture density Classification

Percentage smaller than- Liquid Plasticity
limit index Maximum Optimum
dry moisture AASHO 2 Unified 3
0.05 mm. 0.02 mm. 0.005 mm. 0.002 mm. density



5 3 0 0 NP < NP 104. 5 14. 4 A-3(0) SP-SM
10 9 7 6 NP NP 109. 1 13. 2 A-3(0) SP-SM
5 3 2 1 NP NP 103. 0 15. 0 A-3(0) SP-SM
9 4 1 0 NP NP 103. 0 14. 2 A-2-4(0) SP-SM

9 2 2 1 NP NP 100. 0 15. 5 A-2-4(0) SM
9 7 6 5 NP NP 106. 5 13. 8 A-2-4(0) SP-SM

38 31 28 26 42 21 101. 7 19. 5 A-7(4) SC
41 35 28 26 41 25 105. 8 16. 6 A-7(6) SC
37 32 26 25 37 23 107. 7 16. 4 A-6(4) SC
8 3 1 0 NP NP 98. 6 17. 1 A-3(0) SP-SM
21 14 12 12 NP NP 110. 1 14. 1 A-2-4(0) SM

9 3 1 0 NP NP 97. 4 17. 6 A-2-4(0) SP-SM
22 17 14 14 23 8 110. 3 14. 5 A-2-4(0) SC
8 5 3 2 NP NP 100. 9 13. 6 A-3(0) SP-SM
18 12 8 5 NP NP 103. 0 15. 0 A-2-4(0) SM
14 8 7 5 NP NP 104. 1 13. 8 A-2-4(0) SM

5 5 2 1 NP NP 99. 6 15. 7 A-3(0) SP-SM
11 7 3 2 NP NP 94. 3 17. 7 A-2-4(0) SM
5 4 0 0 NP NP 104. 0 14. 0 A-2-4(0) SM
4 3 1 1 NP NP 98. 9 16. 8 A-3(0) SP-SM
7 5 3 1 NP NP 101. 2 15. 6 A-3(0) SP-SM
4 3 1 1 NP NP 102. 3 16. 3 A-3(0) SP
22 17 14 12 NP NP 110. 8 15. 0 A-2-4(0) SM
17 14 11 11 NP NP 110. 7 14. 0 A-2-4(0) SM
16 12 11 10 NP NP 112. 3 13.2 A-2-4(0) SM
15 11 4 2 NP NP 85. 0 25. 8 A-2-4(0) SM
5 3 1 1 NP NP 100. 1 16. 3 A-3(0) SP-SM
13 7 3 2 NP NP 100. 8 18. 0 A-2-4(0) SM
15 13 10 9 NP NP 113. 2 11.4 A-2-4(0) SM


381-603-71---4









40 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 4.-Engineering

Mechanical analysis 1
DOT
Soil name and location Lab. Depth Percentage passing sieve-
No.
4816-S
No. 10 No. 40 No. 200
(2.0 mm.) (0.42 mm.) (0.074 mm.)

Inches
Pomello fine sand:
Along State Route 68, just inside SW corner of sec. 29, T. 35 S., 6 6-42 100 96 7
R. 35 E. (Modal). 7 42-45 100 96 10
8 51-66 100 96 9
Pompano fine sand:
1,1 mi. W. of Trice Dairy and 800 ft. S. of grade, NE3iNEf sec. 22 16-30 100 99 4
19, T. 34 S., R. 35 E. (Modal). 23 30-57 100 99 7
Wabasso fine sand:
14 mi. N. of old railroad grade on Williamson Ranch, SW1SE, 44 17-26 100 99 11
sec. 24, T. 36 S., R. 35 E. (Modal). 45 34-60 100 99 26
1!/ mi. E. of Jim Durrance Rd., %o mi. S. of Eagle Island Rd., 74 21-27 100 96- 10
SE3(SW% sec. 1, T. 35 S., R. 33 E. (Modal). 75 27-35 100 98. 24
76 35-52 100 97- 23

1 Mechanical analyses according to AASHO Designation: T 88-57 (1). Results by this procedure frequently may differ somewhat from
results obtained by the soil survey procedure of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS). In the AASHO procedure, the fine material is analyzed
by the hydrometer method and the various grain-size fractions are calculated on the basis of all the material, including that coarser than
2.0 millimeters in diameter. In the SCS soil survey procedure, the fine material is analyzed by the pipette method and the material coarser
than 2.0 millimeters in diameter is excluded from calculations of grain-size fractions. The mechanical analyses used in this table are not
suitable for use in naming textural classes for soils.


TABLE 5.-Estimated
[Not included in this table, because their 'characteristics are too variable for engineering use, are the land types Borrow pits (Bo), Made
applicable. > =more

Depth
Map Soil Flooding hazard Depth to seasonal high from
symbol water table surface



Inches
Ad Adamsville fine sand--------------------------------- Every 1 to 5 years for 0 to 15 inches for 1 to 2 0-70
2 to 7 days.' months.
Ba Basinger fine sand---------------.--------- .-------- Every year for 1 to 6 0 to 15 inches for 2 to 6 0-60
months.' months.
Bc Basinger-Placid complex ---..--------------.--------- Every year for more 0 to 15 inches con- --------
(For properties of the Basinger and Placid parts of than 6 months.' tinuously.
this unit, refer to Basinger fine sand and Placid
fine sand, respectively, in this table.)
Bm Basinger and Pompano fine sands, ponded------------- Every year for more 0 to 15 inches con- ----------
(For properties of the Basinger and Pompano parts than 6 months.2 tinuously.
of this unit, refer to Basinger fine sand and Pom-
pano fine sand, respectively, in this table.)
Br Bradenton fine sand-----__--- .----_---_------------. Every 1 to 5 years for 0 to 15 inches for 1 to 2 0-10
7 to 30 days.' months. 10-26
26-70
Ch Charlotte fine sand ----...-------.--- ....------------. Every year for 1 to 6 0 to 15 inches for 2 to 6 0-75
months.' months.
Co Chobee fine sandy loam.. --------------------------. Every year for more 0 to 15 inches for 6 to 0-7
than 6 months.2 12 months. 7-22
22-63
See footnotes at end of table.









OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 41

,t data-Continued

Mechanical analysis 1-Continued Moisture density Classification

Percentage smaller than- Liquid Plasticity.
limit index Maximum
dry Optimum
05 mm. 0.02 mm. 0.005 mm. 0.002 mm. density moisture AASHO 2 Unified 3




5 2 0 0 NP NP 96. 8 17. 2 A-3(0) SP-SM
9 6 2 1 NP NP 99. 0 16. 6 A-3(0) SP-SM
7 4 2 1 NP NP 102. 5 15. 0 A-3(0) SP-SM
3 2 0 0 NP NP 100.0 17. 0 A-3(0) SP
6 4 2 2 NP NP 101. O 15. 3 A-3(0) SP-SM

8 2 0 0 NP NP 101.5 15.4 A-2-4(0) SP-SM
24 21 19 17 27 10 111. 2 13. 5 A-2-4(0) SC

8 5 2 1 NP NP 105. 7 13. 6 A-3(0) SP-SM
22 20 17 17 26 12 109. 1 14. 8 A-2-6(4) SC
22 20 17 16 23 9 113. 4 13. 4 A-2-4(0) SC

2 Based on AASHO Designation: M 145-49 (1).
3 Based on the Unified Soil Classification System (8). SCS and BPR have agreed that all soils having a plasticity index within two points
om A-line are to be given a borderline classification. An example of a borderline classification is SP-SM.
4 Nonplastic.
5 Percentage larger than 2.0 millimeters consists of cemented marl concretions formed in old root channels.



,operties
nd (Ma), and Spoil banks (Sp). Absence of an entry in a column indicates a determination was not made or that it would not be
ian, and <=less than]

Classification Percentage Available
_passing No. Permea- water Reaction Shrink-swell
200 sieve ability capacity potential
USDA Unified AASHO (0.074 mm.)

Inches per inch
Inches per hour of soil
Fine sand-.----.. ---- SP or SP-SM A-3 or A-2 3-12 >6. 3 <0. 05 5. 6-7. 3 Low.

Fine sand------ ---- SP-SM A-3 or A-2 5-12 >6. 3 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.

---------------'---- ---------------- --------------- ---'--------- --'---------- ------------ ----------



--------------t------ --------------- ---------------- ------------ ----------- ------------ ----------



Fine sand------ ---- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2 5-15 >6. 3 0. 05-0. 10 5.6-6.5 Low.
Fine sandy loam ..--- SM or SC A-2-4 25-35 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 6. 6-7. 3 Low to moderate.
Fine sandy loam ---- SM or SC A-2-4 25-35 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 7.4-8. 0 Low to moderate.
Fine sand.---------- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2 5-15 >6. 3 0. 05 5.6-7.5 Low.

Fine sandy loam .--. SC A-6 or A-7 40-50 0. 20-0. 63 0. 15-0. 20 6.1-7.0 Moderate.
Sandy clay loam------ SC A-6 or A-7 40-50 0. 06-0. 20 0. 10-0. 15 6. 6-7. 3 Moderate to high.
Sandy clay loam---... SC A-6 or A-7 40-50 0. 06-0. 20 0. 10-0. 15 7. 4-8. 0 Moderate to high.









42 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 5.-Estimated

Depth
Map Soil Flooding hazard Depth to seasonal high from
symbol water table surface


De Delray fine sand--------...-- --------------------- Every year for more 0 to 15 inches for 6 to 0-18
than 6 months.2 12 months. 18-46
46-60
Dt Delray fine sand, thin solum variant3----------------- Every year for 7 to 30 0 to 15 inches for 2 to 6 0-12
days.' months. 12-30
30-48
Ef Elred fine sand----------------------------------Every 1 to 5 years for 5 0 to 15 inches for 1 to 2 0-36
years for 7 to 30 months. 36-48
days.2 48-66
Ff Felda fine sand--..-----.--.--_------------_---_-- Every year for 1 to 6 0 to 15 inches for 2 to 0-22
months.'. 2 6 months. 22-32
32-60

Fp Felda, Pompano, and Placid soils, ponded-------------Every year for more 0 to 15 inches con-
(For properties of the Felda, Pompano, and Placid than 6 months.2 tinuously.
parts of this unit, refer to Felda fine sand, Pompano
fine sand, and Placid fine sand, respectively, in this
table.)
Fr Ft. Drum fine sand_ ------------------------------ Every 1 to 5 years for 0 to 15 inches for 1 to 0-17
2 to 7 days.1 2 months. 17-25
25-70
Im Immokalee fine sand ------------------------------ Every 1 to 5 years for 0 to 15 inches for 1 to 0-35
2 to 7 days.' 2 months. 35-43
43-72
Mc Manatee loamy fine sand --------------------------- Every year for more 0 to 15 inches for 6 to 0-18
than 6 months.2 12 months.

18-36
36-60
Mo Manatee, Delray, and Okleelanta soils-----------------. Every year for more 0 to 15 inches con- ----
(For properties of the Manatee, Delray, and Okee- than 6 months.4 tinuously.
lanta parts of this unit, refer to Manatee loamy
fine sand, Delray fine sand, and Okeelanta peat,
respectively, in this table.)
My Myakka fine sand--__----------------------------_ Every 1 to 5 years for 0 to 15 inches for 1 to 0-24
2 to 7 days.' 2 months. 24-30
30-66
Oe Okeelanta peat .--.--....------- -------------------- Every year for more 0 to 15 inches con- 0-28
than 6 months.2 tinuously. 28-48
Pa Pamlico muck...-----.. --------------------------. Every year for more 0 to 15 inches con- 0-30
than 6 months.2 tinuously. 30-60
Pd Paola fine sand----------...------------....---...-- None---.------.. ------ 40 to 60 inches for 1 to 0-66
2 months.
Pe Parkwood fine sand -_-.---------. -------------------- Every year for 7 to 30 0 to 15 inches for 2 to 0-9
days.1 6 inches. 9-22
22-70
Pf Placid fine sand -------------------.......... ..-- -- Every year for more 0 to 15 inches for 6 to 0-20
than 6 months.2 12 months. 20-75
Ph Placid, Pamlico, and Delray soils, ponded-------------- Every year for more 0 to 15 inches con-
(For properties of the Placid, Pamlico, and Delray than 6 months.4 tinuously.
parts of this unit, refer to Placid fine sand, Pamlico
fine sand, and Delray fine sand, respectively, in
this table.)
Pm Pomello fine sand _--------------------------------. None----------------- 30 to 60 inches for 2 to 0-42
6 months. 42-47
47-66
See footnotes at end of table.









OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 43

properties-Continued

Classification Percentage Available
passing No. Permea- water Reaction Shrink-swell
200 sieve ability capacity potential
USDA Unified AASHO (0.074 mm.)

Fine sand- ------- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 >0. 20 5. 6-7. 0 Low.
Fine sand ------- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 0. 05-0. 10 6. 1-7. 3 Low.
Fine sandy loam ----. SM or SM-SC A-2-4 20-30 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 6. 5-7. 5 Low to moderate.
Fine sand ..----------SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 >0. 20 6. 1-7. 3 Low.
Fine sand----------- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 0. 05-0. 10 6. 1-7. 3 Low.
Fine sandy loam------ SM or SM-SC A-2-4 20-30 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 7. 0-8. 0 Low to moderate.

Fine sand- ...------ SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2 5-15 >6. 3 <0. 05 5. 6-7. 3 Low.
Fine sandy, loam ---. SM-SC or SC A-2-4 20-35 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 6. 1-7. 3 Low to moderate.
Fine sand--. .---- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2 5-15 >6. 3 <0. 05 6. 6-7. 5 Low.

Fine sand -------- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 <0. 05 5. 5-6. 5 Low.
Fine sandy loam..---. SM-SC or SC A-2-4 20-35 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 6. 6-7. 3 Low to moderate.
Fine sand and loamy SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 0. 05-0. 10 6. 6-7. 3 Low.
fine sand.






Fine sand ..-------. SP-SM or SM A-3 5-15 >6. 3 <0. 05 5. 1-6. 5 Low.
Fine sandy loam----. SM-SC or SC A-2-4 15-35 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 7. 4-8. 0 Low.
Fine sand---------- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-20 >6. 3 <0. 05 6. 5-7. 5 Low.

Fine sand --------- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
Fine sand-..----- -- SP-SM or SM A-2-4 10-20 2. 0-6. 3 0. 05-0. 10 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
Fine sand --------- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
Loamy fine sand or SM A-2-4 12-20 >6. 3 >0. 20 6. 1-7. 5 Low.
mucky loamy fine
sand.
Fine sandy loam------ SM or SC A-2 20-35 0.63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 6. 6-7. 5 Low tormoderate.
Fine sandy loam----. SM or SC A-2 20-35 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 7.4-8. 0 Low to moderate.






Fine sand-----------. SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
Fine sand----------- SP-SM or SM A-2-4 10-20 2. 0-6. 3 0. 05-0. 10 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
Fine sand---------- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.

Peat ..--..--- Pt ----------------- >6.3 >0.20 6.1-7.3 High.
Fine sand or sand ..- SP or SP-SM A-3 3-12 >6. 3 <0. 05 6. 1-7. 3 Low.
Muck ------------- Pt ------------------ ---- >6.3 >2. 0 4.0-5.5 High.
Sand or fine sand---- SP or SP-SM A-3 3-12 >6. 3 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.

Fine sand---------- SP or SP-SM A-3 4-10 >6. 3 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.

Fine sand..--------- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 <0. 05 6. 1-7. 3 Low.
Fine sandy loam------ SM or SC A-2-4 20-35 0. 63-2. 0 0. 05-0. 10 7.4-8.0 Low.
Loamy fine sand ---- SM or SC A-2-4 15-30 2. 0-6. 3 0. 05-0. 10 7. 4-8. 0 Low.

Fine sand- -------. SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 0. 15-0. 20 4. 0-5. 5 Low.
Fine sand----------- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.

----------------------------------------




Fine sand--------- SP or SP-SM A-3 3-12 >6. 3 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
Fine sand----------- SP-SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 2. 0-6. 3 0. 05-0. 10 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
Fine sand---------- SP or SP-SM A-3 3-12 >6. 3 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low.









44 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 5.-Estimated

Depth
Map Soil Flooding hazard Depth to seasonal high from
symbol water table surface


Pn Pompano fine sand -------------------------------- Every year for 1 to 6 0 to 15 inches for 2 to 0-75
months.' 6 months.
Se Seewee fine sand ----------------------------- -- None--- ------------- 30 to 60 inches for 6 0-36
to 12 months. 36-53
53-63
St St. Johns sand. -------------------------------- Every year for 7 to 0 to 15 inches for 2 0-22
30 days.1 to 6 months. 22-42
42-72
Tc Terra Ceia peat ------------------------------------ Every year for more 0 to 15 inches 0-48
than 6 months.2 continuously. 48-60
Wa Wabasso fine sand ----------- ---------------- Every 1 to 5 years for 0 to 15 inches for 1 0-16
2 to 7 days.' to 2 months. 16-30
30-48
48-75


1 Result of slow runoff on nearly level areas.
2 In ponded depressions.
3 Twenty percent of this mapping unit has limerock within a depth of 30 inches and rock crops out in places.

TABLE 6.-Engineering
[Interpretations for engineering uses were not made for Borrow pits (Bo), Made land (Ma), or

Suitability as a source of- Soil features affecting-
Map Soil name
symbols
Topsoil Road fill Highway location Dikes and levees

Ad Adamsville fine sand--- Poor--------- Fair to good.- Periodic high water table and Rapid permeability ..------_--
flooding.
Ba Basinger fine sand----. Poor--------- Fair to good. High water table; low position; Rapid permeability--......----
periodic flooding.
Bc Basinger-Placid Poor--------- Poor to fair.__ High water table, low position; Rapid permeability -----------
complex. frequent flooding; mucky
surface layer in some places.
Bm Basinger and Pompano Poor--------- Fair------- ... High water table; low position; Rapid permeability-....--.....
fine sands, ponded. frequent flooding.
Br Bradenton fine sand-... Fair--------- Poor to fair__ High water table-------------- None --------

Ch Charlotte fine sand--.... Poor.-------- Fair -------- High water table; low position; Rapid permeability...--------
periodic flooding.
Co Chobee fine sandy Fair to good.- Poor-------- .High water table; low position; Plastic, clayey material.---..-.
loam. frequent flooding; high con-
tent of organic matter;
clayey subsoil.
De Delray fine sand------ Good-.--..--. Poor to fair.- High water table; low position; High content of organic matter
frequent flooding; mucky in surface layer in most
surface layer in some places, places; rapid permeability.
Dt Delray fine sand, thin Good----......-- Poor to fair_-- High water table; low position; High content of organic matter
solum variant. periodic flooding; mucky in surface layer; rapid per-
surface layer. meability in upper 234 feet;
rock in some places.
Ef Elred fine sand ---.......--- Poor.----... Fair------....... Periodic high water table and None..........------------
flooding.
See footnote at end of table.








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 45

properties--Continued

Classification Percentage Available
passing No. Permea- water Reaction Shrink-swell
200 sieve ability capacity potential
USDA Unified AASHO (0.074 mm.)

Fine sand --------- SP or SP-SM A-3 or A-2-4 3-12 >6. 3 <0. 05 5. 6-7.3 Low.

Fine sand, ---------SP or SP-SM A-3 3-12 >6. 3 <0. 05 5. 6-7. 0 Low.
Sand or mucky sand__ SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 >0. 20 5. 6-7. 3 Low to moderate.
Sand -------------SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2 5-15 >6. 3 <0. 05 5. 6-7. 3 Low.
Sand ------------. SP--SM or SM A-3 or A-2 5-15 >6. 3 0. 05-0. 10 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
Sand -------------- SP-SM or SM A-2-4 10-20 2 0-6. 3 0. 05-0. 10 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
Sand-------------- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2 5-15 >6. 3 <0. 05 4. 5-5. 5 Low;
Peat over muck------ Pt _-----. _.- ----------- .> 6. 3 > 2. 0 6. 1-7.5 High.
Fine sand ----------SP or SP-SM A-3 3-12 >6. 3 <0. 05 6. 1-7. 5 Low.
Fine sand ---------- SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-15 >6. 3 <0. 05 4.5-5. 5 Low.
Fine sand ---------. SP-SM or SM A-2-4 10-20 2. 0-6. 3 0.05-0. 10 4. 5-5. 5 Low.
Fine sandy loam-..-- SM or SC A-2-4 or A-2-6 20-35 0. 63-2. 0 0. 10-0. 15 5. 6-7. 5 Low to moderate.
Fine sand or loamy SP-SM or SM A-3 or A-2-4 5-25 > 6.! 3 <0. 05 5. 6-7. 5 Low.
fine sand.

4 Applies to areas where no works of improvement have Ieen-installed. Flood plains subject to periodic flooding each year. Old stream
channels flooded more than 6 months each year.


interpretations
Spoil banks'(Sp) although in places Spoil banks is a fair to good source of material for road fill]:

Soil features affecting-Continued ..


Excavated farm ponds Agriculture drainage" Sprinkler irrigation 1 Subsurface irrigation

Unstable side slopes ------------Unstable side slopes----------- Low available water capacity_-- None.

Unstable side slopes ------------Low position; poor natural out- Low available water capacity_ Low position; pler6idic flood-
lets; unstable side'slopes. ing.

Unstable side slopes ----------- Low position; pdor natural out- Low available water capacity Low-position; frequent flood-
lets; unstable side slopes.. ing.

Unstable side slopes------------ Lowposition; poor natural out-: LoV available water capacity___ Low position, frequent flood-
lets; unstable side slopes., ing.

Moderately permeable subsoil_ Moderately permeable subsoil_. Low available water capacity in Moderately permeable sub-
S sandy surface layer. -soil.

Unstable side slopes------------ Low position; poor natural out-: Low available water capacity,- Low position; periodic flood-
lets; unstable side slopes. ing.
Slow permeability; poor work- Low position; pior natural out- ---------------------------_- Low position; frequent flood-
ability; high content of lets; slowly permeable ing; slowly permeable subsoil.
organic matter in surface subsoil.
layer.
High content of organic matter Low position; poor natural out- --------------------------- Low position; frequent flood-
in surface layer; unstable lets; unstable side slopes. ing.
side slopes.
High content of organic matter Low position; poor natural out- -------------------------- Low position; periodic flood-
in surface layer; unstable side lets; rock crops out in places; ing.
slopes, unstable side slopes.

Unstable side slopes; moderate -. Moderately permeable subsoil--. Low available water capacity Moderately permeable sub-
permeability in subsoil. .in sandy surface layer. soil.








46 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 6.-Engineering

Suitability as a source of- Soil features affecting-
Map Soil name ___________________ _____________
symbols
Topsoil Road fill Highway location Dikes and levees

Ff Felda fine sand------- Poor ..- ----- Poor to fair___ High water table; low position; None ..-_------------_-
frequent flooding.

Fp Felda, Pompano, and Poor to fair Poor to fair-_ High water table; low position; Rapid permeability ------
Placid soils, ponded. frequent flooding.

Fr Ft. Drum fine sand.... Poor -------- Fair to good-- Periodic high water table------- Rapid permeability--------_-

Im Immokalee fine sand_--- Poor --------- Fair to good-- Periodic high water table and Rapid permeability---
flooding.
Mc Manatee loamy fine Good-------- Poor-------- High water table; high content High content of organic matter
sand. of organic matter in surface in surface layer.
layer; frequent flooding; low
position.
Mo Manatee, Delray, and Good ------- Poor -------- High water table; low position; High content of organic matter_
Okeelanta soils. frequent flooding; high con-
tent of organic matter.
My Myakka fine sand-.... Poor--------- Fair to good-- Periodic water table and Rapid permeability _-----
flooding.
Oe Okeelanta peat------- Goodif mixed Not suitable-- High water table; low position; High shrink-swell potential;
with min- thick organic layer, subsidence and oxidation.
eral soil.

Pa Pamlico muck-------- Goodif mixed Not suitable-- High water table; low position; High shrink-swell potential;
with min- frequent flooding; organic subsidence and oxidation.
eral soil. soil.
Pd Paola fine sand-----.. Poor -..----. Good-------- Deep, loose sand --...--.. ...- Loose sand; rapid permeability_-


Pe Parkwood fine sand---- Good-------- Fair--------- High water table; occasional None ..--------------.
flooding.
Pf Placid fine sand------- Good-------- Poor to fair_.. High water table; low position; High content of organic matter
frequent flooding; some in surface layer; rapid
mucky surface layer in places. permeability.
Ph Placid, Pamlico, and Poor to fair..- Not suitable_ High water table; low position; High content of organic matter_
Delray soils, frequent flooding; high con-
ponded. tent or organic matter.
Pm Pomello fine sand.---- Poor ----..-- Good- ------ Loose sand; difficult to estab- Loose sand; rapid permeability_
lish protective cover.

Pn Pompano fine sand...--- Poor ----..- Fair ------ High water table; low position; Rapid permeability_-.........
periodic flooding.

Se Seewee fine sand ------ Poor- ..------ Fair -------- Mucky substratum at a depth Rapid permeability; mucky
below 3 feet. subsoil.

St St. Johns sand-------- Good-------- Fair ---___. High water table; periodic Rapid permeability _.........
flooding.

Tc Terra Ceia peat.------ Goodif mixed Not suitable-_ High water table; low position; High shrink-swell potential;
with min- frequent flooding; organic subsidence and oxidation.
eral soil. soil.

Wa Wabasso fine sand----- Poor -------- Fair.------ --High water table .-----....... None -------.--___--....__


1 Where no adverse features are indicated, the soils generally are irrigated by flooding or manipulation of the water table.








OKEECHIOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 47

interpretations-Continued

Soil features affecting-Continued

Excavated farm ponds Agriculture drainage Sprinkler irrigation 1 Subsurface irrigation

Unstable side slopes; moderately Low position; poor natural out- Low available water capacity Low position; frequent flood-
permeable subsoil. lets; moderately permeable in sandy surface layer. ing; moderately permeable
subsoil, subsoil.

Unstable side slopes; moderately Low position; poor natural out- -----------------------------Low position; frequent
permeable subsoil in some lets; moderately permeable flooding.
places. subsoil; unstable side slopes.
Unstable side slopes------------ Moderately permeable subsoil; Low available water capacity_-- Moderately permeable subsoil.
unstable side slopes.

Unstable side slopes------------Unstable side slopes---------- Low available water capacity___ None.

Moderate permeability ------- Moderately permeable subsoil-- ---------------------------- Low position; frequent flood-
ing; moderately permeable
subsoil.


High content of organic matter Subject to overflow; moderately -----------------------------Low position; frequent flood-
in surface layer; moderately permeable subsoil; low ing; moderately permeable
permeable subsoil in places. position. subsoil in places.
Unstable side slopes_---------- -Unstable side slopes ----------- Low available water capacity None.

Pond borders have low bearing Low position; poor natural out- ----------------------------- Low position; frequent flood-
value. lets; subsidence and oxida- ing.
tion.

Pond borders have low bearing Low position; poor natural out- -----------------------------Low position; frequent flood-
value. lets; subsidence and oxida- ing.
tion.

Deep to water table; rapid None---------------------- Low available water capacity--_ Deep to water table; rapid
permeability; loose sand; permeability.
unstable side slopes.
Moderately permeable subsoil--- Moderately permeable subsoil-- ---------------------------Moderately permeable subsoil.

High content of organic matter Low position; poor natural out- -----------------------------Low position; frequent flood-
in surface layer; unstable side lets; unstable side slopes, ing.
slopes; poor natural outlets.
High content of organic matter Low position; poor natural out- -----------------------------Low position; frequent flood-
in surface layer. lets. ing.

Low water table; rapidly perme- Unstable side slopes----------- Low available water capacity; Not applicable.
able; loose sand; unstable side deep to water table.
slopes.
Unstable side slopes ----------- Low position; poor natural out- Low available water capacity -_ Low position; periodic
lets; unstable side slopes, flooding.

Unstable side slopes------------ Unstable side slopes---------- Low available water capacity -- Not applicable.

Unstable side slopes ----------- Low position; unstable side Low available water capacity_ Periodic flooding.
slopes.

Pond borders have low bearing Low position; poor outlets; -------------------------Low position;frequent
value, subsidence and oxidation. flooding.

Unstable side slopes: moderately Moderately permeable subsoil_.- Low available water capacity in Moderately permeable sub-
permeable subsoil, sandy surface layer. soil.







48 SOIL SURVEY

are classified in seven principal groups. The groups range Engineering properties
from A-1 (gravelly soils having high bearing capacity, Table 5 lists the mapping units in the county, the map
the best soils for subgrade) to A-7 clayeyy soils having symbols for each, and gives estimates of soil properties
low strength when wet, the poorest soils for subgrade). significant to some engineering work. Borrow pits, Made
Within each group the relative engineering value of the land, and Spoil banks, however, are not listed in the
soil material is indicated by a group index number, table. These land types are too variable in characteristics
Group index numbers range from 0 for the best materials to be rated or otherwise are not suitable for engineering
to 20 for the poorest. The group index number for the use. The estimates are based on soil test data in table 4,
tested soils is shown in parentheses after the soil group on information in the rest of the survey, and on experi-
symbol in table 4. ence with similar soils in this and other counties. The
Some engineers prefer to use the Unified Soil Classifi- estimates apply only to the soils of Okeechobee County.
cation System. In this system soil materials are identified Because bedrock is at a great depth in the county and is
as coarse grained, 8 classes; fine grained, 6 classes; or not significant to engineering, it is not mentioned in
highly organic. Table 4 gives the classification of the table 5.
tested soils, according to the Unified System. The column that shows permeability in table 5 gives
Engineering test data the estimated rate at which water moves through a soil
that is not compacted. The rate is expressed in inches
Soil samples from some important series in Okeecho- per hour.
bee County were tested by standard procedures to help The available water capacity, measured in inches per
evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The tests inch of soil, is an approximation of the amount of capil-
were performed by the Florida Department of Transpor- lary water in the soil that is available to plants when
station. The samples were taken in representative sites, the downward flow caused by gravity has practically
and only selected layers of each soil were sampled. All stopped. The following terms are used to express avail-
samples were obtained at a depth of less than 7 feet. The able water capacity: Less than 0.05, very low; 0.05 to
test data therefore may not be adequate for estimating 0.10, low; 0.10 to 0.15, medium; 0.15 to 0.20, high; and
the characteristics of soil material at a greater depth. more than 0.20, very high.
Tests made were for grain-size distribution, liquid limit, Reaction refers to the acidity or alkalinity of the soils.
plastic limit, and moisture-density relationships. The It is the estimated range in pH values for each major
results of the tests and the classification of each sample, horizon as determined in the field. A pH of 7, for exam-
according to both the AASHO and Unified systems, are ple, indicates a neutral soil; a lower pH value indicates
given in table 4. acidity, and a higher value indicates alkalinity.
The engineering classifications in table 4 are based on Shrink-swell potential refers to the change in volume
data obtained by mechanical analysis and by tests to of the soil that results from a change in moisture connt.
determine liquid limits and plastic limits. The mechani- It is estimated on the basis of the amount and type of
cal analysis was made by combined sieve and hydrometer clay in the soil layers. In general, soils classified as OH
methods. in the Unified system or A-7 in the AASHO system have
The tests for liquid limit and plastic limit measure high shrink-swell potential. Clean sand and gravel and
the effect of water on consistence of the soil material. As soils that contain only a small amount of nonplastic to
the moisture content of a clayey soil increases from a slightly plastic soil material have low shrink-swell
very dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to potential.
a plastic state. As the moisture content is further in-
creased, the material changes from a plastic to a liquid Engineering interpretations
state. The plastic limit is the moisture content at which Table 6 rates the soils according to their suitability as
the soil material passes from a semisolid to a plastic state, a source of topsoil and road fill. It also gives facts that
The liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil would affect use of the soils as sites for highways, for
material passes from a plastic to a liquid state. The farm ponds, and for irrigation systems. The soil features
plasticity index is the numerical difference between listed are those that are unfavorable for construction,
liquid limit and plastic limit. It indicates the range in operation, or maintenance of the structure or practice
moisture content within which a soil material is in a shown. They should be taken into account in considering
plastic condition, a soil for the stated use. Borrow pits, Made land, and
In the moisture density, or compaction test, a sample Spoil banks are not listed in the table. These land types
of the soil material is compacted several times with a are too variable in characteristics to be rated or otherwise
constant compactive effort, each time at a successively are not suitable for engineering.
higher moisture content. The density or unit weight of The suitability of a soil for topsoil depends mainly on
the soil material increases until the optimum moisture the fertility of the soil material and content of organic
content is reached. After that the density decreases with matter. The .suitability of a soil, for road fill depends
increase in moisture contend. The highest density ob- largely on the texture of the soil, and on the consistence
trained in the compaction test is termed "maximum and natural content of water.
density." Moisture-density data are important in con- Choosing a location for a highway calls for careful
struction, for as a rule, optimuin stability is obtained if consideration as to the kind 6T soi material and the need
the soil is compacted to about the maximum dry density for drainage. In some soils of this county, a high water
when it is at approximately the optimum, moisture table, flooding, seepage, or the presence of plastic clay or
content. of highly erodible sand in cut sections has to be con-







48 SOIL SURVEY

are classified in seven principal groups. The groups range Engineering properties
from A-1 (gravelly soils having high bearing capacity, Table 5 lists the mapping units in the county, the map
the best soils for subgrade) to A-7 clayeyy soils having symbols for each, and gives estimates of soil properties
low strength when wet, the poorest soils for subgrade). significant to some engineering work. Borrow pits, Made
Within each group the relative engineering value of the land, and Spoil banks, however, are not listed in the
soil material is indicated by a group index number, table. These land types are too variable in characteristics
Group index numbers range from 0 for the best materials to be rated or otherwise are not suitable for engineering
to 20 for the poorest. The group index number for the use. The estimates are based on soil test data in table 4,
tested soils is shown in parentheses after the soil group on information in the rest of the survey, and on experi-
symbol in table 4. ence with similar soils in this and other counties. The
Some engineers prefer to use the Unified Soil Classifi- estimates apply only to the soils of Okeechobee County.
cation System. In this system soil materials are identified Because bedrock is at a great depth in the county and is
as coarse grained, 8 classes; fine grained, 6 classes; or not significant to engineering, it is not mentioned in
highly organic. Table 4 gives the classification of the table 5.
tested soils, according to the Unified System. The column that shows permeability in table 5 gives
Engineering test data the estimated rate at which water moves through a soil
that is not compacted. The rate is expressed in inches
Soil samples from some important series in Okeecho- per hour.
bee County were tested by standard procedures to help The available water capacity, measured in inches per
evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The tests inch of soil, is an approximation of the amount of capil-
were performed by the Florida Department of Transpor- lary water in the soil that is available to plants when
station. The samples were taken in representative sites, the downward flow caused by gravity has practically
and only selected layers of each soil were sampled. All stopped. The following terms are used to express avail-
samples were obtained at a depth of less than 7 feet. The able water capacity: Less than 0.05, very low; 0.05 to
test data therefore may not be adequate for estimating 0.10, low; 0.10 to 0.15, medium; 0.15 to 0.20, high; and
the characteristics of soil material at a greater depth. more than 0.20, very high.
Tests made were for grain-size distribution, liquid limit, Reaction refers to the acidity or alkalinity of the soils.
plastic limit, and moisture-density relationships. The It is the estimated range in pH values for each major
results of the tests and the classification of each sample, horizon as determined in the field. A pH of 7, for exam-
according to both the AASHO and Unified systems, are ple, indicates a neutral soil; a lower pH value indicates
given in table 4. acidity, and a higher value indicates alkalinity.
The engineering classifications in table 4 are based on Shrink-swell potential refers to the change in volume
data obtained by mechanical analysis and by tests to of the soil that results from a change in moisture connt.
determine liquid limits and plastic limits. The mechani- It is estimated on the basis of the amount and type of
cal analysis was made by combined sieve and hydrometer clay in the soil layers. In general, soils classified as OH
methods. in the Unified system or A-7 in the AASHO system have
The tests for liquid limit and plastic limit measure high shrink-swell potential. Clean sand and gravel and
the effect of water on consistence of the soil material. As soils that contain only a small amount of nonplastic to
the moisture content of a clayey soil increases from a slightly plastic soil material have low shrink-swell
very dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to potential.
a plastic state. As the moisture content is further in-
creased, the material changes from a plastic to a liquid Engineering interpretations
state. The plastic limit is the moisture content at which Table 6 rates the soils according to their suitability as
the soil material passes from a semisolid to a plastic state, a source of topsoil and road fill. It also gives facts that
The liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil would affect use of the soils as sites for highways, for
material passes from a plastic to a liquid state. The farm ponds, and for irrigation systems. The soil features
plasticity index is the numerical difference between listed are those that are unfavorable for construction,
liquid limit and plastic limit. It indicates the range in operation, or maintenance of the structure or practice
moisture content within which a soil material is in a shown. They should be taken into account in considering
plastic condition, a soil for the stated use. Borrow pits, Made land, and
In the moisture density, or compaction test, a sample Spoil banks are not listed in the table. These land types
of the soil material is compacted several times with a are too variable in characteristics to be rated or otherwise
constant compactive effort, each time at a successively are not suitable for engineering.
higher moisture content. The density or unit weight of The suitability of a soil for topsoil depends mainly on
the soil material increases until the optimum moisture the fertility of the soil material and content of organic
content is reached. After that the density decreases with matter. The .suitability of a soil, for road fill depends
increase in moisture contend. The highest density ob- largely on the texture of the soil, and on the consistence
trained in the compaction test is termed "maximum and natural content of water.
density." Moisture-density data are important in con- Choosing a location for a highway calls for careful
struction, for as a rule, optimuin stability is obtained if consideration as to the kind 6T soi material and the need
the soil is compacted to about the maximum dry density for drainage. In some soils of this county, a high water
when it is at approximately the optimum, moisture table, flooding, seepage, or the presence of plastic clay or
content. of highly erodible sand in cut sections has to be con-







48 SOIL SURVEY

are classified in seven principal groups. The groups range Engineering properties
from A-1 (gravelly soils having high bearing capacity, Table 5 lists the mapping units in the county, the map
the best soils for subgrade) to A-7 clayeyy soils having symbols for each, and gives estimates of soil properties
low strength when wet, the poorest soils for subgrade). significant to some engineering work. Borrow pits, Made
Within each group the relative engineering value of the land, and Spoil banks, however, are not listed in the
soil material is indicated by a group index number, table. These land types are too variable in characteristics
Group index numbers range from 0 for the best materials to be rated or otherwise are not suitable for engineering
to 20 for the poorest. The group index number for the use. The estimates are based on soil test data in table 4,
tested soils is shown in parentheses after the soil group on information in the rest of the survey, and on experi-
symbol in table 4. ence with similar soils in this and other counties. The
Some engineers prefer to use the Unified Soil Classifi- estimates apply only to the soils of Okeechobee County.
cation System. In this system soil materials are identified Because bedrock is at a great depth in the county and is
as coarse grained, 8 classes; fine grained, 6 classes; or not significant to engineering, it is not mentioned in
highly organic. Table 4 gives the classification of the table 5.
tested soils, according to the Unified System. The column that shows permeability in table 5 gives
Engineering test data the estimated rate at which water moves through a soil
that is not compacted. The rate is expressed in inches
Soil samples from some important series in Okeecho- per hour.
bee County were tested by standard procedures to help The available water capacity, measured in inches per
evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The tests inch of soil, is an approximation of the amount of capil-
were performed by the Florida Department of Transpor- lary water in the soil that is available to plants when
station. The samples were taken in representative sites, the downward flow caused by gravity has practically
and only selected layers of each soil were sampled. All stopped. The following terms are used to express avail-
samples were obtained at a depth of less than 7 feet. The able water capacity: Less than 0.05, very low; 0.05 to
test data therefore may not be adequate for estimating 0.10, low; 0.10 to 0.15, medium; 0.15 to 0.20, high; and
the characteristics of soil material at a greater depth. more than 0.20, very high.
Tests made were for grain-size distribution, liquid limit, Reaction refers to the acidity or alkalinity of the soils.
plastic limit, and moisture-density relationships. The It is the estimated range in pH values for each major
results of the tests and the classification of each sample, horizon as determined in the field. A pH of 7, for exam-
according to both the AASHO and Unified systems, are ple, indicates a neutral soil; a lower pH value indicates
given in table 4. acidity, and a higher value indicates alkalinity.
The engineering classifications in table 4 are based on Shrink-swell potential refers to the change in volume
data obtained by mechanical analysis and by tests to of the soil that results from a change in moisture connt.
determine liquid limits and plastic limits. The mechani- It is estimated on the basis of the amount and type of
cal analysis was made by combined sieve and hydrometer clay in the soil layers. In general, soils classified as OH
methods. in the Unified system or A-7 in the AASHO system have
The tests for liquid limit and plastic limit measure high shrink-swell potential. Clean sand and gravel and
the effect of water on consistence of the soil material. As soils that contain only a small amount of nonplastic to
the moisture content of a clayey soil increases from a slightly plastic soil material have low shrink-swell
very dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to potential.
a plastic state. As the moisture content is further in-
creased, the material changes from a plastic to a liquid Engineering interpretations
state. The plastic limit is the moisture content at which Table 6 rates the soils according to their suitability as
the soil material passes from a semisolid to a plastic state, a source of topsoil and road fill. It also gives facts that
The liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil would affect use of the soils as sites for highways, for
material passes from a plastic to a liquid state. The farm ponds, and for irrigation systems. The soil features
plasticity index is the numerical difference between listed are those that are unfavorable for construction,
liquid limit and plastic limit. It indicates the range in operation, or maintenance of the structure or practice
moisture content within which a soil material is in a shown. They should be taken into account in considering
plastic condition, a soil for the stated use. Borrow pits, Made land, and
In the moisture density, or compaction test, a sample Spoil banks are not listed in the table. These land types
of the soil material is compacted several times with a are too variable in characteristics to be rated or otherwise
constant compactive effort, each time at a successively are not suitable for engineering.
higher moisture content. The density or unit weight of The suitability of a soil for topsoil depends mainly on
the soil material increases until the optimum moisture the fertility of the soil material and content of organic
content is reached. After that the density decreases with matter. The .suitability of a soil, for road fill depends
increase in moisture contend. The highest density ob- largely on the texture of the soil, and on the consistence
trained in the compaction test is termed "maximum and natural content of water.
density." Moisture-density data are important in con- Choosing a location for a highway calls for careful
struction, for as a rule, optimuin stability is obtained if consideration as to the kind 6T soi material and the need
the soil is compacted to about the maximum dry density for drainage. In some soils of this county, a high water
when it is at approximately the optimum, moisture table, flooding, seepage, or the presence of plastic clay or
content. of highly erodible sand in cut sections has to be con-








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 49

sidered in determining the location of a proposed in the interior part of the State where the growth is not
highway. so rapid as in the Coastal areas, but it is near enough to
Dikes and levees are low embankments that are con- these areas to be affected by their development. Expan-
structed to protect land against overflow. For larger sion of industry, transportation, and recreational facili-
structures, more intensive investigations and designs are ties are making increasing demands for changes in use
needed. Features listed in this column are those that of the soils. Although farming continues to be the fore-
adversely affect the suitability of soil materials for con- most enterprise in the county, more and more land is
structing dikes and levees, being diverted to nonfarm uses.
Farm ponds in this county are constructed by exca- An additional increase in population will require more
vating to a depth of several feet below the normal water homesites; more land for highways, streets, and parking
table. Ground water fills the excavation, and the water areas; more space for businesses, industrial plants,
level at any time depends upon the height of the seasonal schools, and churches; and additional sites for play-
water table. Features listed in table 6 that adversely grounds, parks, and recreational areas. The kind of soils
affect the suitability of soils for excavated ponds are in an area has an important bearing on these uses, just
mainly those that affect the seepage rate and the stability as it has for farming. Many factors other than the kind
of banks and side slopes. and relative suitability of the soils for specific uses must
The factors considered for agricultural drainage are be considered in determining changes in land use, but
those properties of the soil that affect the installing of the properties of the soils are important. Knowledge of
surface and subsurface drainage systems and their per- the soils is needed for making wise decisions about alter-
formance. Features listed in this column are primarily native uses and for determining the kind and degree of
elevation of one soil in relation to adjacent soils, avail- problems related to the soils that must be overcome
ability of drainage outlets, and permeability of the least before the site can be used for a specific purpose. Careful
permeable layers. consideration of the soil properties during the early
Table 6 also gives features that affect the use of the stages of urban development can prevent costly mistakes
soils for two main kinds of irrigation used in the that are difficult to correct later (fig. 15).
county-sprinkler irrigation and subsurface irrigation. This section gives limitations for a number of impor-
The total rainfall generally is adequate for farming, but tant nonfarm uses of the soils, and other parts of the
irrigation is often needed because rainfall is poorly dis- soil survey give information needed for planning non-
tributed. At times, the moisture required for the best farm uses. Table 7 groups the soils according to their
growth of crops must be maintained by irrigation. limitations when they are used for the construction of
Sprinkler irrigation is not widely used in the county, buildings, for landscaping, sanitation, transportation,
but its use is increasing. Under this kind of irrigation, recreational purposes, and cemeteries. It also names the
water is pumped through pipes and is applied to the soil chief limiting properties for the soils of each group. The
through sprinklers in a way that simulates rain. Sprin- degree of limitation is indicated by the ratings slight,
kler irrigation is normally used on well-drained soils, but moderate, severe, and very severe. The names of the soils
in this county it is used principally to supplement the
moisture in soils that have been drained. Water is ob-
tained from wells, ditches, or irrigation pits. Ditches or
irrigation pits must have a storage capacity large enough
to meet the needs of crops during the irrigation season.
The content of salt in the irrigation water must be deter-
mined before the water is used for sprinkler irrigation.
Most of the soils in the county are nearly level and
have a water table near the surface, and subsurface irri-
gation therefore is widely used for both crops and
pastures. This method of irrigation maintains the water
table within controlled limits. It permits adequate capil-
lary movement of water from the water table into the
root zone. A system of open ditches is used, because
open ditches are comparatively inexpensive and operate
satisfactorily.
Features that may adversely affect the suitability of
soils for irrigation are texture, depth to the water table,
available water capacity, permeability, position on the
landscape, major surface irregularities, and susceptibility
to flooding.

Nonfarm Uses of the Soils'
Okeechobee County is in the south-central part of
Florida where the population is rapidly increasing. It is
Figure 15.-Okeechobee, a growing community, occupies nearly
8 DAVID P. POWELL, soil specialist for interpretation, Soil Con- level, sandy soils in low areas, where careful planning is needed
servation Service, assisted in the preparation of this section. to provide complete water control.








50 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 7.-Degree of soil limitation for selected
[Not included in this table because of their variable characteristic

Sanitation
Group number and map Building construction Landscaping
symbol Septic tanks and Sanitary landfill
filter fields


Group 1: Pd, Pm----.------_ Slight.......--------- Severe: Low avail- Slight --_____------ Moderate: Water
able water capac- table at:a depth of
ity; low to very 30 to 60 inches.
low natural fer-
tility.

Group 2: Ad, Fr, Se .-..---- Moderate: High water Moderate: Low Severe: High water Severe: High water
table, available water table. table.
capacity; low
natural fertility.
Group 3: Im, My, St-------- Moderate: High water Moderate: High Severe: High water Severe: High water
table; periodic water table. table; periodic table; periodic
flooding.1 flooding, flooding.

Group 4: Br, Ef, Pe, Wa-.... Moderate: High water Moderate: High Severe: High water Severe: High water
table; periodic water table; table; periodic table; periodic
flooding, periodic flooding, flooding; moderate flooding.
to rapid permea-
bility.

Group 5: Ba, Bc, Bm, Ch, Severe: High water Severe: High water Severe: High water Severe: High water
De, Dt, Pf, Pn. table; frequent table; frequent table; frequent table; frequent
flooding.2 flooding. flooding, flooding.

Group 6: Co, Ff, Fp, Me, Severe: Frequent Severe: Frequent Severe: Frequent Severe: Frequent
Mo. flooding; high water flooding; high flooding; high flooding; high
table; low bearing water table, water table; moder- water table.
capacity; high shrink- ate permeability.
swell potential in a
few areas.
Group 7: Oe, Pa. Ph, Tc-... Very severe: Frequent Very severe: Fre- Very severe: Fre- Very severe: Fre-
flooding; high water quent flooding; quent flooding; quent flooding;
table; high shrink- high water table. high water table, high water table.
swell potential in
most areas; low
bearing capacity.

I Periodic flooding refers to occasional flooding that occurs for short periods during the wet season.


in each group can be found in the "Guide to Mapping tant to most uses, but productivity affects only those uses
Units" at the back of this survey, that involve growing plants. In rating the soils for each
The terms used to indicate degree of limitation do not use shown in table 7, all of the soil properties considered
indicate suitability, because suitability involves more to be important to that particular use were rated. Only
than the soil properties. Most soils can be made suitable the most limiting soil properties are shown, however,
for many uses if they are managed so that the limitations and these determine the rating for degree of soil limita-
or hazards are overcome. The ratings do show the degree tion. The other limiting properties are significant and
of intensity of the problems that must be overcome if must be considered, but their effect is not so great. The
the soils are used for the purpose indicated. Soils may following paragraphs discuss some of the main nonfarm
have severe limitations for a specified use; they can be uses of the soils of this county.
made suitable for that use, however, if it is feasible to Building construction.-Table 7 indicates the degree of
apply the intensive treatment needed to overcome the soil limitation for soils used for the construction of
limitations. foundations for buildings. It gives ratings where the
Some properties of soils are significant to only one or soils are to be used for footings and foundations for
two uses; others are significant to a number of uses. Wet- buildings. The buildings referred to here include dwell-
ness and the hazard of flooding, for example, are impor- ings, churches, individual stores of one story in shopping









OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 51

nonfarm uses and the chief limiting properties
are the land types Borrow pits (Bo), Made land (Ma), and Spoil banks (Sp)]

Transportation Recreation
Cemeteries
Highways, airports, Farm roads, streets, Campsites and picnic
and large parking lots and small parking areas Playgrounds Golf courses
areas

Slight ------------- Severe: Poor Severe: Poor Severe: Poor Severe: Poor Moderate: Water
trafficability. trafficability; low trafficability. trafficability; low table at a depth
to very low na- available water of 30 to 60
tural fertility, capacity; low to inches.
very low natural
fertility.
Moderate: High Moderate: High Slight-------------- Slight------------.. Slight --------------Severe: High wa-
water table. water table. ter table.


Moderate: High Moderate: High Moderate: High Moderate: High Moderate: High Severe: High
water table; water table; water table; water table; water table; water table;
periodic flooding. periodic flooding; periodic flooding, periodic flooding, periodic flooding, periodic flooding.
fair trafficability.
Moderate: i High Moderate: High Moderate: High Moderate: High Moderate: High Severe: High
water table; water table; water table; water table; water table; water table;
periodic flooding; periodic flooding; periodic flooding, periodic flooding, periodic flooding, periodic flooding.
fair traffic- fair trafficability
supporting
capacity.
Severe: High water Severe: High water Severe: High water Severe: High water Severe: High water Severe: High
table; frequent table; frequent table; frequent table; frequent table; frequent water table;
flooding. flooding; poor flooding; poor flooding; poor flooding; poor frequent
trafficability. trafficability. trafficability. trafficability. flooding.
Severe: Frequent Severe: High water Severe: Frequent Severe: Frequent Severe: Frequent Severe: Frequent
flooding; |high table; frequent flooding; high flooding; high flooding; high flooding; high
water table; flooding; poor water table; poor water table; poor water table; poor water table.
moderate traffic- trafficability. trafficability. trafficability. trafficability.
supporting
capacity.
Very severe: Fre- Very severe: Fre- Very severe: Fre- Very severe: Fre- Very severe: Fre- Very severe:
quent flooding; quent flooding; quent flooding; quent flooding; quent flooding; Frequent
high water table; high water table; high water table; high water table; high water table; flooding; high
low traffic- poor traffic- poor traffic- poor traffic- poor traffic- water table.
supporting ability, ability. ability, ability.
capacity.

2 Frequent flooding refers to flooding that occurs for long periods or continuously.


centers, filling stations, and motels. They also include support the various kinds of plants used in landscaping.
light industrial plants where the buildings are no more Lawns and ornamental shrubs are vital to most landscap-
than two stories high and where no heavy machinery is ing efforts. The ability of the soils to support grass as
to be installed. All of these structures require stable well as ornamental trees and shrubs, is especially impor-
foundations and must also be placed on a site that is tant for homesites and for many suburban business
reasonably free from the hazards of flooding, establishments. It also has significance for highway
Footings and foundations for buildings must rest on beautification and for most recreational uses. Although
soils that are strong enough to hold the weight of the there is a wide range in the kinds of adapted plants
building. The bearing capacity, that is, the ability of a available for landscaping, local variations in the soils
soil to support a dead weight without settling, is most limit, to some extent, the kinds that can be grown in a
important in designing and constructing foundations for specific area. Properties of soils that most affect land-
buildings. The bearing capacity of a soil varies in scaping are available water capacity, depth to the water
accordance' with differences in such soil properties as table, productivity, effective root depth, and suscepti-
texture, consistence, shrink-swell potential, wetness, and ability to flooding.
the degree I of compaction. Sanitation.-Soils properties are important in provid-
Landscaping.-Soils differ widely in their ability to ing public sanitation. Because of the problems in providing







52 SOIL SURVEY

sanitary facilities, wet, marshy soils generally are less erty of soils for this use, refers to the ease with which
healthful areas for man than well-drained soils on ridges, people can move about over the soil on foot, on horse-
Septic tanks are a common means of disposing of back, or in a small vehicle, such as a golf cart. It also
sewage. They are used for isolated homes in rural areas indicates the ability of the soil to support cross-country
and in some subdivisions where rapidly expanding resi- movement of larger vehicles, such as trucks and tractors.
dential areas have outgrown the existing sewer lines. Recreation.-In community planning, adequate provi-
For septic tanks to function properly, they must be sions should be made for recreational areas. Three broad
installed where the soils have adequate absorptive capac- recreational uses are considered in table 7. These are
ity and are not affected by a high water table. Many soils campsites and picnic areas, playgrounds, and golf
in this county are highly permeable and absorb water courses.
rapidly when drained, but they normally have a high Although the interpretations given in table 7 are con-
water table that makes them poorly suited as filter fields cerned with the limitations of soils for recreational uses,
for septic tanks. Septic tanks installed in such soils may an important corollary to use of the soils for some recre-
function well in dry seasons, but they fail to function national purposes is the existence of an attraction that
when the water table rises in wet seasons. The soil prop- will cause people to choose the site for recreation. Large
erties that most affect the use of soils as filter fields for hammocks near streams or lakes, for instance, make the
septic tanks are wetness, permeability, and susceptibility hammocks desirable for picnic areas even though the
to flooding, soils have some limitations.
Sanitary landfill refers to areas used for disposing of Campsites are small areas suitable for setting up tents
refuse collected in urban areas. The refuse is placed in and for doing the accompanying tasks required for out-
open pits and covered by a layer of soil. Not all soils are. door living over a period of several days. The selection
suitable for this purpose. Because oxygen is available, of a campsite commonly is limited by factors other than
decomposition of waste material takes place rapidly in soil properties. Attractions, such as beautiful scenery,
porous, sandy soils that are free of flooding and that do good hunting, fishing, or swimming, are required to
not have a high water table. In soils that have a high interest campers. Accessibility and comfort of a campsite
water table and are wet, however, decomposition is slow. I depend greatly on such soil features as wetness, suscepti-
Organisms in water seeping from these wet areas are ability to flooding, and trafficability.
likely to pollute nearby surface water or ground water Playgrounds, as considered in table 7, include city
supplies, parks, football and baseball fields, tracks, and other
Transportation.-Highways, airports, and parking small areas where competitive sports are played outdoors.
areas for large shopping centers require a strong founda- They must be level or nearly level, free from flooding or
tion and nearly level soils. Soils differ widely in their excessive wetness, easy to walk over, and suitable for
ability to support a heavy mobile load and in the prop- growing sod and ornamental plants. The main qualities
erties they exhibit when they are graded to prepare a uni- that limit use of the soils for playgrounds are wetness,
form, nearly level bed. susceptibility to flooding, trafficability, and productivity.
Some soils do not require much alteration to provide Golf courses can be established on sites where the soils
a good foundation. Others are totally unsuitable for vary widely, if the site has a good balance between fair-
foundations; they must be replaced by better material if ways and rough areas, or hazards. The requirements for
a road is to be built on the site. The kinds of soils and fairways are affected most by the kinds of soils. The
the degree of slope greatly influence the difficulty and ratings in table 7 are based on the suitability of the soils
cost of preparing a foundation adequate for bearing a for fairways. A fairway requires well-drained soils,
heavy traffic load. gentle slopes, and a good cover of grass. Also, people
Soil properties that most affect use of the soils for must be able to move over the fairway with ease on foot
paved highways, airports, and large parking areas are or in a golf cart or other light motor vehicle. The main
depth to the water table, traffic-supporting capacity, qualities that limit use of the soils for fairways for golf
erodibility, wetness, shrink-swell potential, depth to courses are susceptibility to flooding, depth to the water
bedrock, slope, and susceptibility to flooding. Traffic- table, productivity, trafficability, and slope.
supporting capacity refers to the ability of the undis- Cemeteries.-Cemeteries should be located on well-
turbed soil to support a moving load. drained soils that are capable of growing lawn grasses
Farm roads, streets, and small parking areas that are and ornamental plants for landscaping. The water table
not paved carry a lighter load than main highways and should be at a depth below 6 feet throughout the year.
larger parking lots, but they are also strongly affected by In all soils in Okeechobee County, the water table is
the soils on which they are located. The ratings in table higher than this. As a result, the soils are wet, and sites
7 deal with the limitations of the soils for supporting selected for this use must be artificially drained. Soil
movement of traffic over unpaved or surface-treated properties that most affect the use of soils for cemeteries
roads. The soil properties that affect these uses, however, are wetness, susceptibility to flooding, and productivity.
are not necessarily the same as those considered for
heavier traffic; nor are they given equal weight in each
proposed use, even where they apply to both. The quali- Formation, Morphology, and
ties of soils that affect unpaved roads, streets, and small Classification of Soils
parking areas are susceptibility to flooding, depth to the
water table, erodibility, trafficability, wetness, permeabil- In this section the factors that affect the formation and
ity, and slope. Trafficability, the major limiting prop- the morphology of the soils in Okeechobee County are








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 53

discussed. Then the current system of soil classification in organic matter, and those formed under grass and
is explained and the soils are placed in higher categories aquatic plants in depressions and marshes, which gen-
of this system, erally are high in organic matter.
Relief.- Relief has affected the formation of soils in this
Formation of Soils county, primarily through its influence on soil-water
relationships. Other factors of soil formation normally
Soil is formed by weathering and other processes that associated with relief, such as erosion, temperature, and
act on the; parent material. The characteristics of the plant cover, are of minor importance.
soil at anyl given point are determined by parent mate- The county is mainly a nearly level plain that rises
rial, climate, plants, and animals, relief, and time. from about 15 feet above sea level on the shores of Lake
Climate and plants and animals are the active forces Okeechobee to about 75 feet above sea level in the north-
of soil formation. They act on the parent material that central part of the county.
has accumulated through the weathering of rocks and Three general areas-flatwoods, slightly elevated
slowly change it into soil. All five factors come into play knolls and ridges, and flood plains-are in the county.
in the formation of every soil. The relative importance In each of these general areas, differences among the
of each differs from place to place; sometimes one is soils, which all formed in similar sandy material, are
more important and sometimes another. In extreme cases directly related to relief.
one factor may dominate in the formation of a soil and In the flatwoods the water table is at a shallow depth
fix most of its properties. In general, however, it is the and the soils are periodically wet to the surface. The
combined action of the five factors that determines the soils therefore are not so highly leached as those in less
present character of each soil. wet areas, and their content of organic matter is low to
Parent material.-Parent material is the unconsolidated medium. An example is the Myakka soil. In such soils
mass from' which a soil is formed. It determines the as the Pomello, however, which are on slightly elevated
limits of the chemical and mineralogical composition of knolls and ridges, depth to the water table is greater.
the soil. These soils are highly leached and are low in organic
All of the soils in Okeechobee County formed in mate- matter. In contrast, the Placid soil, in depressions and
rial of marine origin. In places the material consists of on flood plains where the water table normally is high,
thick deposits of sand, such as those near Fort Drum. is medium to high in organic matter.
In other places the deposits are thinner and consist of Time.-Time is an important factor in the formation of
sand over sandy loam and sandy clay loam, such as those soils. Normally, a long time is required for formation of
near Taylor Creek and in the extreme northeast corner soils that have distinct horizons. The difference in length
of the county. Also, in some parts of the county, the of time that parent materials have been in place com-
marine deposits are interbedded with fresh water marl. only is reflected in the degree of development of the
In addition, many depressions in the county also contain soil.
organic material from decomposed plant remains. A thin Some basic minerals from which soils are formed
bed of limestone lies near the surface in places in the weather fairly rapidly, but other minerals change slowly,
southern parts of the county, but it is not the parent even though weathering has taken place over a long
material of any of the soils. period of time. The translocation of fine particles within
COimate.-Okeechobee County has a subtropical, humid the soils to form the various horizons varies under dif-
climate that presumably has not changed significantly ferent conditions. All of the soil-forming processes,
during the period of soil formation. The relatively high however, require a relatively long period of time. Almost
year-round. temperature and large amount of rainfall pure quartz sand that is highly resistant to weathering
have hastened soil development. Because the abundant is the dominant geologic material in Okeechobee County.
rainfall continuously leaches and translocates soluble The finer textured materials, silts and clays, are the end
minerals, the soils contain only small amounts of organic product of earlier weathering.
matter andi of soluble plant nutrients. In addition, many In terms of geologic time, the soil material that makes
of the sandy soils are strongly acid. The climate is rela- up most of the soils of this county is young. Not enough
tively uniform throughout the county and causes few time has elapsed since the material was laid down or
differences among the soils. emerged from the sea for pronounced genetic horizons
Plants and animals.-Plants have been the principal bio- to have developed. Some thin clayey horizons have
logical factor in the formation of soils in this county, formed in place through the processes of weathering, but
but animals, insects, bacteria, and fungi also have been most horizons classified as argillic are composed of loamy
important. Two of the chief functions of plant and ani- marine deposits little altered by weathering. Distinct
mal life are to furnish organic matter and to bring plant genetic horizons, such as spodic and mollic, have formed
nutrients from the lower to the upper horizons. Differ- in certain soils in the county, however, since the time
ences in the amount of organic matter, nitrogen, and required for their development is relatively short.
plant nutrients in the soils and differences in soil struc-
ture and porosity are among those caused by plants and Morphology of Soils
animals.
The greatest differences among the soils in the county Soil morphology refers to the processes involved in the
are caused by vegetation. An example is the contrast be- formation of soil horizons, or horizon differentiation.
tween soils formed chiefly under pines and palmettos in The differentiation of horizons in soils of the county is
the broad flatwoods, which generally are medium to low the result of accumulation of organic matter, the leach-








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 53

discussed. Then the current system of soil classification in organic matter, and those formed under grass and
is explained and the soils are placed in higher categories aquatic plants in depressions and marshes, which gen-
of this system, erally are high in organic matter.
Relief.- Relief has affected the formation of soils in this
Formation of Soils county, primarily through its influence on soil-water
relationships. Other factors of soil formation normally
Soil is formed by weathering and other processes that associated with relief, such as erosion, temperature, and
act on the; parent material. The characteristics of the plant cover, are of minor importance.
soil at anyl given point are determined by parent mate- The county is mainly a nearly level plain that rises
rial, climate, plants, and animals, relief, and time. from about 15 feet above sea level on the shores of Lake
Climate and plants and animals are the active forces Okeechobee to about 75 feet above sea level in the north-
of soil formation. They act on the parent material that central part of the county.
has accumulated through the weathering of rocks and Three general areas-flatwoods, slightly elevated
slowly change it into soil. All five factors come into play knolls and ridges, and flood plains-are in the county.
in the formation of every soil. The relative importance In each of these general areas, differences among the
of each differs from place to place; sometimes one is soils, which all formed in similar sandy material, are
more important and sometimes another. In extreme cases directly related to relief.
one factor may dominate in the formation of a soil and In the flatwoods the water table is at a shallow depth
fix most of its properties. In general, however, it is the and the soils are periodically wet to the surface. The
combined action of the five factors that determines the soils therefore are not so highly leached as those in less
present character of each soil. wet areas, and their content of organic matter is low to
Parent material.-Parent material is the unconsolidated medium. An example is the Myakka soil. In such soils
mass from' which a soil is formed. It determines the as the Pomello, however, which are on slightly elevated
limits of the chemical and mineralogical composition of knolls and ridges, depth to the water table is greater.
the soil. These soils are highly leached and are low in organic
All of the soils in Okeechobee County formed in mate- matter. In contrast, the Placid soil, in depressions and
rial of marine origin. In places the material consists of on flood plains where the water table normally is high,
thick deposits of sand, such as those near Fort Drum. is medium to high in organic matter.
In other places the deposits are thinner and consist of Time.-Time is an important factor in the formation of
sand over sandy loam and sandy clay loam, such as those soils. Normally, a long time is required for formation of
near Taylor Creek and in the extreme northeast corner soils that have distinct horizons. The difference in length
of the county. Also, in some parts of the county, the of time that parent materials have been in place com-
marine deposits are interbedded with fresh water marl. only is reflected in the degree of development of the
In addition, many depressions in the county also contain soil.
organic material from decomposed plant remains. A thin Some basic minerals from which soils are formed
bed of limestone lies near the surface in places in the weather fairly rapidly, but other minerals change slowly,
southern parts of the county, but it is not the parent even though weathering has taken place over a long
material of any of the soils. period of time. The translocation of fine particles within
COimate.-Okeechobee County has a subtropical, humid the soils to form the various horizons varies under dif-
climate that presumably has not changed significantly ferent conditions. All of the soil-forming processes,
during the period of soil formation. The relatively high however, require a relatively long period of time. Almost
year-round. temperature and large amount of rainfall pure quartz sand that is highly resistant to weathering
have hastened soil development. Because the abundant is the dominant geologic material in Okeechobee County.
rainfall continuously leaches and translocates soluble The finer textured materials, silts and clays, are the end
minerals, the soils contain only small amounts of organic product of earlier weathering.
matter andi of soluble plant nutrients. In addition, many In terms of geologic time, the soil material that makes
of the sandy soils are strongly acid. The climate is rela- up most of the soils of this county is young. Not enough
tively uniform throughout the county and causes few time has elapsed since the material was laid down or
differences among the soils. emerged from the sea for pronounced genetic horizons
Plants and animals.-Plants have been the principal bio- to have developed. Some thin clayey horizons have
logical factor in the formation of soils in this county, formed in place through the processes of weathering, but
but animals, insects, bacteria, and fungi also have been most horizons classified as argillic are composed of loamy
important. Two of the chief functions of plant and ani- marine deposits little altered by weathering. Distinct
mal life are to furnish organic matter and to bring plant genetic horizons, such as spodic and mollic, have formed
nutrients from the lower to the upper horizons. Differ- in certain soils in the county, however, since the time
ences in the amount of organic matter, nitrogen, and required for their development is relatively short.
plant nutrients in the soils and differences in soil struc-
ture and porosity are among those caused by plants and Morphology of Soils
animals.
The greatest differences among the soils in the county Soil morphology refers to the processes involved in the
are caused by vegetation. An example is the contrast be- formation of soil horizons, or horizon differentiation.
tween soils formed chiefly under pines and palmettos in The differentiation of horizons in soils of the county is
the broad flatwoods, which generally are medium to low the result of accumulation of organic matter, the leach-








54 SOIL SURVEY

ing of carbonates, the reduction and transfer of iron, the us to assemble knowledge about the soils, to see their
accumulation of silicate clay minerals, or of more than relationship to one another and to the whole environ-
one of these processes. ment, and to develop principles that help us to under-
Some organic matter has accumulated in the upper stand their behavior and their response to manipulation.
layers of most of the soils to form an Al horizon. The First through classification, and then through use of soil
quantity of organic matter is small in some of the soils maps, we can apply our knowledge of soils to specific
but fairly large in others. fields and other tracts of land.
Leaching of carbonates and salts has occurred in Thus in classification, soils are placed in narrow cate-
nearly all of the soils. The effects of leaching have been gories that are used in detailed soil surveys so that
indirect, in that the leaching permitted the subsequent knowledge about the soils can be organized and used in
translocation of silicate clay materials in some soils. Most managing farms, fields, and woodland; in developing
of the soils of the county are leached to varying degrees, rural areas; in engineering works; and in many other
The reduction and transfer of iron has occurred in ways. Soils are placed in broad classes to facilitate study
most soils of the county. In these naturally wet soils, this and comparison in large areas, such as countries and
process, called gleying, is important in the differentiation continents.
of horizons. The gray colors in the deeper horizons of Two systems of classification have been used in the
wet soils indicate the reduction and loss of iron oxides. United States in recent years. The older system was
In some of the wet soils, iron has been segregated within adopted in 1938 (2) and later revised (4). The system
the deeper horizons to form reddish-brown mottles and currently used was adopted for general use by the
concretions. National Cooperative Soil Survey in 1965. The current
In some of the soils in this county the translocation of system is under continual study (3, 7). Therefore,
clay has contributed to the development of horizons, readers interested in developments of the current system
Some soils show evidence of weathering and clay move- should search the latest literature available. In table 8
ment, or alteration, in the form of a light-colored, the soil series of Okeechobee County are placed in some
leached, A2 horizon; a loamy Bt horizon that has sand categories of the current system.
grains coated and bridged by clay materials; and patchy The current system of classification has six categories.
clay films on ped faces and in root channels. In a few Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
soils a thin B1 horizon that is intermediate in texture order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
between the A2 and the B2t horizons is also present. series. In this system the criteria used as a basis for
classification are soil properties that are observable and
Classification of Soils measurable. The properties are chosen, however, so that
soils of similar origin are grouped together. The classes
Soils are classified so that we can more easily remem- of the current system are briefly defined in the para-
ber their significant characteristics. Classification enables graphs that follow.


TABLE 8.-Classification of soils

Series Family Subgroup Order

Adamsville--------------- Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated --------------- Aquic Quartzipsamments ------ Entisols.
Basinger ---------------Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated --_ -------------Aquodic Quartzipsamments-- -- Entisols.
Bradenton--------------- Coarse-loamy, mixed, hyperthermic .------------- Typic Ochraqualfs ------------ Alfisols.
Charlotte ---------------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic --------------------- Entic Sideraquods------------ Spodosols.
Chobee --------------- Fine-loamy, mixed, noncalcareous, hyperthermic------ Typic Argiaquolls------------ Mollisols.
Delray _----------------- Loamy, mixed, noncalcareous, hyperthermic---------- Grossarenic Argiaquolls ------- Mollisols.
Elred ------------------ Sandy over loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic------------Alfic Sideraquods------------- Spodosols.
Felda------------------- Loamy, mixed, hyperthermic--------------------_ Arenic Ochraqualfs------------ Alfisols.
Ft. Drum ----------------Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic--------------------- Aeric Haplaquepts ------------ Inceptisols.
Immokalee--------------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic --------------------- Arenic Haplaquods------------ Spodosols.
Manatee -----------------Coarse-loamy, mixed, noncalcareous, hyperthermic___ Typic Argiaquolls----------- Mollisols.
Myakka------------------ Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic--------------------- Aeric Haplaquods------------- Spodosols.
Okeelanta---------------- Sandy, siliceous, euic, hyperthermic----------------- Terric Medihemists ----------- Histosols.
Pamlico 1---------------- Sandy, siliceous, dysic, thermic ------------------- Terric Medisaprists----------- Histosols.
Paola------------------ Siliceous, hyperthermic, uncoated ----------------- Spodic Quartzipsamments------ Entisols.
Parkwood---------------- Coarse-loamy, mixed, hyperthermic----------------- Mollic Ochraqualfs------------ Alfisols.
Placid ------------------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic ---------------- Typic Humaquepts----------- Inceptisols.
Pomello----------------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic--------------------- Typic Haplohumods----------- Spodosols.
Pompano---------------- Siliceous, hyperthermic ------_------------------ Typic Psammaquents---------- Entisols.
Seewee ------------------ Mixed, thermic --_------.------_---------------- Aquic Udipsamments--------- Entisols.
St. Johns---------------- Sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic ---------------------Typic Haplaquods------------ Spodosols.
Terra Ceia-----.------- Euic, hyperthermic--------------------. ----_- Typic Medisaprists ------------Histosols.
Wabasso----------------- Sandy over loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic----------- Alfic Haplaquods ------------Spodosols.

SThese soils are taxadjuncts of the Pamlico and Seewee soils because of soil temperature. The average annual soil temperature is about
20 F. warmer than the limit for thermic soils.








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 55

ORDERs.-Ten soil orders are recognized. They are of the group but have one or more properties of another
Entisols, Vertisols, Inceptisols, Aridisols, Mollisols, great group, suborder, or order and these are called
Spodosols, Alfisols, Ultisols, Oxisols, and Histosols. The intergrades. The names of subgroups are formed by
properties used to differentiate these soil orders are those placing one or more adjectives before the name of the
that tend to give broad climatic groupings of soils. Two great group. An example is Spodic Quartzipsamment.
exceptions, the Entisols and Histosols, occur in many FAMILES.-Families are separated within a subgroup,
different kinds of climates. The six orders in Okeechobee primarily on the basis of properties that are important
County are Alfisols, Entisols, Histosols, Inceptisols, Mol- to the growth of plants or to the behavior of soils used
lisols, and Spodosols. for engineering. The main properties considered are
Alfisols lare soils that have a clay-enriched B horizon texture, mineralogy, reaction, soil temperature, perme-
that has high base saturation. These soils formed in ability, thickness of horizons, and consistence. The names
materials that were little affected by weathering, of families consist of a series of adjectives that precede
Entisols are young mineral soils that do not have the name of the subgroup. The adjectives are the class
genetic horizons or have only the beginning of such names for texture, mineralogy, and so on, (see table 8).
horizons. An example is the siliceous, hyperthermic family of
Histosols are highly organic soils that formed in Typic Psammaquents.
marshes and swamps where organic matter from decay- SERIEs.-The series consists of a group of soils that
ing plants accumulated. formed from a particular kind of parent material and
Inceptisols are mineral soils in which horizons have that have genetic horizons that, except for texture of
definitely started to develop. They generally are on the surface layer, are similar in differentiating character-
young, but not recent, land surfaces. istics and in arrangement in the profile. Among these
Mollisols have a thick, friable, dark-colored surface characteristics are color, structure, reaction, consistence,
and mineralogical and chemical composition.
layer. Base saturation is more than 50 percent. New soil series must be established and conc
Spodosols are mineral soils in which organic colloids New sol series be especially older ones that hae
and iron and aluminum compounds have accumulated in some established series, especially older ones that have
some part' of the B horizon, been used little in recent years, must be revised in the
s ome o the B horder is subdivided into course of the soil survey program across the country. A
(suRD.Each orde) tat arer is subdivided into groupacteristics proposed new series has tentative status until review of
(suborders) that are based mostly on soil characteristics the series concept at State, regional, and national levels
that seem to produce classes having the greatest Su si- of responsibility for soil classification results in a judg-
larity from the standpoint of their geneses Suborders ment that the new series should be established. Most of
narrow the broad climatic range that are in the orders. the soil series described in this publication have been
Soil characteristics used to separate suborders mainly established earlier.
reflect either the presence or absence of waterlogging or
soil differences produced through the effects of climate
or vegetation. The names of suborders have two syllables, General Nature of the County
the last syllable of which indicates the order. An example
is Psamments (Psamm, from psammes meaning sandy, In this section the geology and climate of the county
and ent, from Entisol). are discussed. Then basic facts about the farming are
GREAT GROUPS.-Soil suborders are separated into great given.
groups on the basis of uniformity in the kinds and The first permanent settlements in the county were
sequence of all major soil horizons and other features. established in the late 1800's. These were the communities
The horizons used as a basis for distinguishing between of Basinger, near the Kissimmee River, and Fort Drum,
great groups are those in which (1) clay, iron, or humus in the northeastern part of the county. The community
has accumulated; (2) a pan has formed that interferes of Tantie, later called Okeechobee, was established near
with growth of roots; movement of water, or both; or, Lake Okeechobee in the early 1900's.
(3) a thick, dark-colored surface layer has formed. The The area was established as Okeechobee County in
other features commonly used are the self-mulching 1917 from parts of Osceola, St. Lucie, and Palm Beach
properties of clay, temperature of the soil, major differ- Counties. Following devastating hurricanes in 1926 and
ences in chemical composition (mainly the bases calcium, 1928, Hoover Dike was constructed around parts of Lake
magnesium, sodium, and potassium) or the dark-red or Okeechobee to keep the lake from flooding parts of the
dark-brown colors associated with soils formed in mate- county. The dike provides protection for most of the
rial weathered from basic rocks, southern part of the county. As a result, many more
Names of the great groups have three or four syllables. people settled in the county. Most of the population now
They are made by adding a prefix to the name of the lives in or near the city of Okeechobee, and the Florida
suborder. An example is Quartzipsamment (Quartz, State School for Boys is about 3 miles north of this city.
meaning silica; psammes, for sandy; and ent, from Enti- Most early transportation in the county was by way
sol). The great group is not shown separately in table 8, of the Kissimmee River. Railroads soon gave the county
because it is the last word in the name of the subgroup. access to markets both to the north and to the south. Now
SuBGRours.-Great soil groups are subdivided into the county also is served by Federal and State highways.
subgroups. One of these represents the central, or typic, Most of the industry is related to farming, though there
segment of the group. Other subgroups have properties is considerable seasonal tourist business.








56 SOIL SURVEY

Geology 9 down at three different sea levels. It is made up of alter-
nate beds of fresh-water marl and marine shells. This
Four main geologic formations are in Okeechobee bedding can be correlated with the glacial and intergla-
County (fig. 16). These are, from the oldest to cial periods with which the terraces of ice age are
the youngest, the Caloosahatchee formation of early associated. Lake Okeechobee is in a basin in the Fort
Pleistocene age, the Fort Thompson formation of late Thompson formation.
Pleistocene age, terraces of ice age of the same time, and Material laid down during the ice age forms four
deposits of Recent age. terraces that are in Pleistocene time and rest upon the
The Caloosahatchee formation consists primarily of Caloosahatchee and Fort Thompson formations (fig.
shells and sand, but it includes small amounts of silt 17). The Pamlico terrace ranges from 0 to 25 feet above
and clay. It is of marine origin and is as much as 50 sea level; the Talbot, from 25 to 42 feet; the Penholoway,
feet thick. In places the formation is capped by more from 42 to 70 feet; and the Wicomico, the highest eleva-
recent material laid down in alkaline fresh water. In tion in the county, from 70 to 75 feet. The terraces
many places 50 to 75 percent of the Caloosahatchee formed during the period of interglacial submergence.
formation, by volume, is loose shells and shell fragments. Scattered pockets of muck and peat in many depressions
The formation underlies the entire county at a depth of and along some of the streams on these upland terraces
3 to 40 feet. It is near enough to the surface to influence are of Recent age.
soil development only in a narrow area around the The Pamlico terrace occupies about 10 percent of the
northern edge of Lake Okeechobee and in the northeast- county. It consists mostly of sand and ranges from less
ern corner of the county. In this material formed such than 1 foot to about 10 feet in thickness. In many places
soils as the Chobee, Delray, Manatee, and Parkwood. the deposits are only 1 to 3 feet thick and rest uncon-
The Fort Thompson formation extends only a few formably upon the Fort Thompson and Caloosahatchee
miles north of Lake Okeechobee. It is 4 to 10 feet thick, formations. Because it is in close contact with these
Much of this formation is near enough to the surface formations, more of the soils on the Pamlico terrace are
to have influenced soil development. Some areas, how- nonacid than are those on the other terraces. Common
ever, have a thin capping of stratified sand of the Pam- on this terrace are such soils as the Adamsville, Braden-
lico terrace. The Fort Thompson formation was laid ton, Charlotte, Felda, and Pompano. Also common are
such soils as the Wabasso, which has an upper layer of
SL. ORLANDO ROWLAND, geologist, and DAVID P. POWELL, soil acid sand and a subsoil of nonacid loamy material.
specialist for interpretation, Soil Conservation Service, assisted of i m al
in preparation of this section. About 32 percent of the county is on the Talbot ter-
race. This terrace consists chiefly of medium sand, and
it is no more than 15 feet thick. Many soils of the Talbot
terrace appear to be alkaline soils that are transitional
------- between marine and fresh water soils. The important
N nonacid soils on this terrace are the Bradenton, Felda,
Parkwood, and Wabasso. The Myakka and Immokalee
are the dominant acid soils on this terrace.
I
S- The Penholoway terrace covers about 50 percent of


LEGEND
PLEISTOCENE TERRACES
Wicomico












w Fort Thompson Formationh
E) P-bolFowoy
Talbot "
i Pomlico 2




LEGEND
SPleistocene and Recent

TIT Fort Thompson Formation o

SColoosahatchee Formation

Figure 17.-Location of Pleistocene terraces in Okeechobee
Figure 16.-Geological map of Okeechobee County. County.








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 57

the county. It consists chiefly of medium sand. Thickness Climate 10
of this terrace ranges from 10 to 20 feet. In some places
the sand rests on the Caloosahatchee formation. Most of Okeechobee County has long, warm, relatively humid
the soils that formed on the Penholoway terrace are acid summers and mild, dry winters. The average annual
in reaction. Evidence indicates this acidity was caused by rainfall is about 50 inches and the average annual tem-
the decay of large amounts of organic matter, high in perature is about 730 F. Rainfall is seasonally dis-
sulphur and sulphides, that had accumulated in large tribute; about 60 percent of the average total falls in
shallow salt marshes that remained on the terrace after the summer rainy season, which extends from June
the sea subsided. Alkaline soils are also on this terrace. through September. The Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico,
They occur mainly in or near shallow depressions where and Lake Okeechobee all have a moderating effect on
fresh-water marl has accumulated. the extreme temperatures of both summer and winter.
The Wicomico terrace is in the north-central part of The temperature in summer varies little from day to
the county and occupies only about 8 percent of it. day, and a temperature as high as 1000 is rare. In winter
Unlike thel Penholoway and Talbot terraces only a part the minimum temperature varies considerably from day
of the Wicomico terrace remains, possibly no more than to day, largely because of periodic invasions of cold, dry
3 to 5 feet. The dominant soils are acid. Examples are the air from Canada. Facts about temperature and precipita-
Paola, Pomello, and Myakka. Many shallow depressions tion in the county, taken from records at Okeechobee and
occur in this formation where fresh water marl has Fort Drum, are given in table 9.
accumulated. Alkaline soils that formed in these deposits The farming areas in the colder parts of the county
include the Delray, Felda, Parkwood, and Pompano. can expect freezing temperatures at least once in almost
The mapping of individual soils was not confined to every winter. In an average winter freezing temperatures
a particular geologic formation or marine terrace, occur on about 6 days, and the temperature drops to 28
because of the geologic sediment and other factors affecting or lower at least once or twice. Winter cold spells gen-
soil formation are similar so far as can be determined rally last for only 2 or 3 days at a time. Variations in
in the field. For example, Parkwood soils mapped in the local climate around the county are of greater sig-
fresh-water alkaline deposits on the upland terraces are nificance to the growing of winter truck crops or citrus
very similar to Parkwood soils mapped in alkaline than are general cold spells. Pockets or depressions in
marine sediment of the Caloosahatchee formation. Vari- the landscape that lack air drainage are called "cold
nations in characteristics were recognized in the field, but spots." Cold air that settles in such areas nightly for
they were not considered significant to final correlation, several hours can seriously damage tender vegetable
An understanding of the geology of the county and its crops and citrus.
effects on soil formation, however, is helpful in explain- Table 10 gives probabilities of the occurrence of temn-
ing the wide ranges of certain soil characteristics. It peratures of 280, 32, 340, 380, and 420 after stated dates
also explains some of the complex soil patterns that By JACK E. MIOCELSON, State climatologist, Florida Weather
occur in many parts of the county. Bureau, ESSA, U.S. Department of Commerce.

TABLE 9.-Temperature and precipitation
[Based on data recorded at Okeechobee and Fort Drum, Fla.]

Temperature Precipitation

1 year in 10 will Average number of
Month Average Average Average have- days with rainfall
daily Average monthly monthly Average of-
maximum daily highest lowest monthly
minimum maximum minimum total
Less More 0.10 0.50
than- than- inch inch

F F. F. F. o F. Inches Inches Inches Number Number
January---- -----------. 74 50 84 29 1. 5 0. 1 4. 8 4 1
February ------- 76 53 85 35 2.0 .2 4.3 6 2
March --------- ---------- 79 56 88 38 3.5 .3 5.9 5 2
April---------- --------- 84 58 91 45 3. 3 .6 7.3 4 2
May----------------------- 88 63 95 52 4.3 .7 7.5 6 2
June ------------------- 90 68 95 61 7. 0 2. 3 11.5 10 5
July -------------------- --- 92 70 97 67 7.0 2.9 10.1 10 4
August ------------------ 92 71 96 66 6.4 2.5 10.5 11 5
September .--------------- 90 70 94 65 7. 3 3. 7 15. 3 8 4
October ------------------- 85 64 92 50 4.9 .7 10. 3 7 3
November ---------------- 80 57 86 42 1.6 .2 3.6 3 1
December------ ------ 74 50 84 31 1. 5 1 4. 5 3 1
Year---------- -----84 61 1 98 2 26 50. 3 36. 0 63. 4 77 32

1 Average annual highest maximum.
2 Average annual lowest minimum.







58 SOIL SURVEY

TABLE 10.-Probabilities of last freezing temperatures in spring and first in fall
[Based on records at the ESSA Weather Bureau station about 5 miles northwest of Fort Drum]

Dates for given probability and temperature-
Probability
280 F. 320 F. 340 F. 380 F. 420 F.
or lower or lower or lower or lower or lower

Spring:
1 year in 10 later than----------------------- January 31 March 6 March 6 April 14 May 1
2 years in 10 later than ----------------------. January 29 February 26 February 26 March 23 April 17
5 years in 10 later than---------------------- January 13 January 24 February 1 March 9 March 22
Fall:
1 year in 10 earlier than ---------------------- December 12 November 30 November 30 November 4 November 4
2 years in 10 earlier than---------------------- December 13 December 11 November 30 November 30 November 5
5 years in 10 earlier than --------------------- December 15 December 25 December 14 December 2 November 29


in spring and before stated dates in fall. The table shows, Farming
for example, that a temperature of 32 or lower will
occur on March 6th in 1 year out of 10 and that the Farming started in Okeechobee County fairly recently.
probability of a temperature of 280 or lower after this The first orange groves were set out on a few homesteads
date is almost negligible. near Fort Drum in the late 1800's. A severe freeze in
Rainfall in summer comes mostly from showers and 1895, however, killed most of the orange trees in these
thundershowers of short duration that occur in the after- groves, and no replanting was done. The early settlers
noon or in the evening. The showers are sometimes grew truck crops in small patches near Lake Okeechobee,
heavy, and 2 or 3 inches of rain is likely to fall in an hour mainly for local use. Until about 1945 the only important
or two. Rains that last all day are rare in summer; when enterprises in the county were the raising of cattle and
they occur, they are almost always associated with a the harvesting of native timber. Cattle were grazed on
tropical storm. Rains in winter and spring generally are native range and little was done to upgrade either the
not so intense as in summer. Almost 8 inches of rain cattle or the range. Most of the original stands of timber
can be expected in 24 hours at some time during the were harvested before 1930.
year in only about 1 year in 10. After World War II the number of farms in the coun-
Hail falls occasionally during a thundershower. The ty rapidly increased. Many of the local people who were
hail generally is small, however, and seldom causes much employed in ranching, fishing, or lumbering turned to
damage. Snow has never been recorded in Okeechobee farming. The nearly level soils were easy to clear, and
County. the mild winter climate favored use of the area for truck
Tropical storms, which are likely to occur in the county farming.
from early in June through the middle of November, Tomatoes and watermelons are now the main culti-
are the main cause of excessive rain and flooding. Since vated crops, and they have been grown commercially
these storms diminish in force as they move inland, since about 1948. Tomatoes are grown both in fall and
winds of hurricane force (74 miles per hour or greater) in spring. They are marketed at Ft. Pierce in adjacent
seldom occur in this county. When these storms and the St. Lucie County. Watermelons are grown only in spring
associated copious rains do occur, flooding may cause and are sold to buyers who ship them to markets in the
considerable damage to the crops and to the soils. northern part of the country.
Extended dry periods may occur during any season Tomatoes are subject to many soil-borne diseases and
but are most common during winter and spring. Novem- to nematodes, all of which are easier to move away from
ber generally is the driest month, though November than to control. They therefore are not planted succes-
through February is considered the dry season. Because sively on the same piece of land. A good arrangement
the soils in this county generally are sandy and have between growers and landowners has developed. The
low water-holding capacity, these dry periods can cause grower leases the land with the agreement that he will
serious hazards in farming areas that are not properly plant improved grasses after the crop is harvested and
irrigated. Generally dry periods in April and May do before the land is returned to the owner. In this way the
not last so long as those in fall and winter, but they could grower can produce a crop of tomatoes each year on
affect crops. Because they are accompanied by high tem- different land and not have to own it, and the landowner
perature, dry periods in spring are as serious as those can get additional acreage of improved pasture each
that occur at other times. year at little cost.
Prevailing winds in this county generally are from the Citrus is now grown on a considerable acreage in the
southeast in spring and summer and from the north in county, and most of the acreage is in orange trees (fig.
fall and winter. The speed of the wind generally ranges 18). Much of the acreage in citrus is on nonacid soils,
from 8 to 15 miles per hour during the day; it generally such as the Bradenton and Parkwood. Less than 300
drops to less than 5 miles per hour at night. acres is on the better drained, acid Paola soil near Fort








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 59









7, 1








Figure 18.-Young orange trees planted in beds on Bradenton and -4 I
Wabasso soils; the grassed waterways between the beds help to --. ...-. .
protect the soils from erosion by wind and water. Figure 20.-Dairy cattle grazing improved pasture on Myakka and
Immokalee soils in the flatwoods.
Drum, Osowaw Junction, and Basinger. Only a few
Drum, Osowaw Junction, and Basinger. Only a few the county, and they occupied about 30,000 acres. The
groves are now on soils in the acid flatwoods, but the e outy, ad they occupied about 0,000 e e
number is increasing average size of each dairy farm was about 1,500 acres,
ber is o l inc t b t though the size ranged from 184 to about 12,600 acres.
The raising of livestock continues to be the chief farm Most of the dairy farms are on large areas of soils in the
enterprise. Some of the livestock farms are as small as a flatwoods. Here pastures can be established readily under
few hundred acres, and others are as large as 61,000 a highlevelof management (fig. 20).
acres. In 1967, according to local sources, about 121,000
acres of improved pasture were in the county (fig. 19).
The same year about 174,780 acres of native range and Literature Cited
154,000 acres of woodland were also grazed. Many of the
native plants best suited to grazing have disappeared (1) AMSEIAN AS S ETIN F STATS E HIG Y OFFICALS.TERIALS
1961. STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY MATERIALS
because of overgrazing and frequent burning. The more AND METHODS OF SAMPLING AND TESTING. Ed. 8,
desirable forage plants can be encouraged if brush is 2 v., Washington, D.C.
controlled and if grazing is deferred for a full season. (2) BALDWIN, MARK, KELLOGG, CHARLES E., and THORP, JAMES.
1938. soIL CLASSIFICATION. Soils and Men, U.S. Dept. Agr.
The livestock generally is sold at the market in Ybk. 979-1001.
Okeechobee, the largest in the State. This market was (3) SIMONSON, ROY W.
built to handle 1,500 head of livestock per week, but the 1962. SOIL CLASSIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES. Sci.
137: 1027-1034.
number marketed often is as high as 2,500 per week. (4) ITHO, JAMES, and SMITH, GUY D.
Dairy farming has increased in the county in recent 1949. HIGHER CATEGORIES OF SOIL CLASSIFICATION: ORDER,
years. Many of the operators came to the county from SUBORDER, AND GREAT SOIL GROUPS. Soil Sci.
67: 117-126.
the lower part of the east coast in the 1950's because (5) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
land could be purchased at a more favorable price. In 1929. VOLUME, YIELD, AND STAND TABLES FOR SECOND-GROWTH
1967, according to local sources, 22 dairy farms were in SOUTHERN PINES. Misc. Pub. No. 50, 202 pp., illus.
(Out of print.)
(6)
1951. SOIL SURVEY MANUAL. U.S. Dept. Agr. Handbook No.
18, 503 pp., illus.
(7) -
1960. SOIL CLASSIFICATION, A COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM, 7TH
APPROXIMATION. 265 pp., illus. [Supplement issued
in March 1967]
(8) WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION, U.S. CORPS OF ENGINEERS.
1953. THE UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM. Tech.
-Memo. 3-357, 2 v., and appendix.

Glossary
Aggregate, soil. Many fine particles held in a single mass or cluster.
Natural soil aggregates such as crumbs, blocks, or prisms, are
called peds. Clods are aggregates produced by tillage or
logging.
Available moisture capacity. The capacity of a soil to hold water in
a form available to plants. Amount of moisture held in soil
between field capacity, or about one-third atmosphere of ten-
Figure 19.-Beef cattle grazing on improved pasture of irrigated sion, and the wilting coefficient, or about 15 atmospheres of
pangolagrass. tension.








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 59









7, 1








Figure 18.-Young orange trees planted in beds on Bradenton and -4 I
Wabasso soils; the grassed waterways between the beds help to --. ...-. .
protect the soils from erosion by wind and water. Figure 20.-Dairy cattle grazing improved pasture on Myakka and
Immokalee soils in the flatwoods.
Drum, Osowaw Junction, and Basinger. Only a few
Drum, Osowaw Junction, and Basinger. Only a few the county, and they occupied about 30,000 acres. The
groves are now on soils in the acid flatwoods, but the e outy, ad they occupied about 0,000 e e
number is increasing average size of each dairy farm was about 1,500 acres,
ber is o l inc t b t though the size ranged from 184 to about 12,600 acres.
The raising of livestock continues to be the chief farm Most of the dairy farms are on large areas of soils in the
enterprise. Some of the livestock farms are as small as a flatwoods. Here pastures can be established readily under
few hundred acres, and others are as large as 61,000 a highlevelof management (fig. 20).
acres. In 1967, according to local sources, about 121,000
acres of improved pasture were in the county (fig. 19).
The same year about 174,780 acres of native range and Literature Cited
154,000 acres of woodland were also grazed. Many of the
native plants best suited to grazing have disappeared (1) AMSEIAN AS S ETIN F STATS E HIG Y OFFICALS.TERIALS
1961. STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY MATERIALS
because of overgrazing and frequent burning. The more AND METHODS OF SAMPLING AND TESTING. Ed. 8,
desirable forage plants can be encouraged if brush is 2 v., Washington, D.C.
controlled and if grazing is deferred for a full season. (2) BALDWIN, MARK, KELLOGG, CHARLES E., and THORP, JAMES.
1938. soIL CLASSIFICATION. Soils and Men, U.S. Dept. Agr.
The livestock generally is sold at the market in Ybk. 979-1001.
Okeechobee, the largest in the State. This market was (3) SIMONSON, ROY W.
built to handle 1,500 head of livestock per week, but the 1962. SOIL CLASSIFICATION IN THE UNITED STATES. Sci.
137: 1027-1034.
number marketed often is as high as 2,500 per week. (4) ITHO, JAMES, and SMITH, GUY D.
Dairy farming has increased in the county in recent 1949. HIGHER CATEGORIES OF SOIL CLASSIFICATION: ORDER,
years. Many of the operators came to the county from SUBORDER, AND GREAT SOIL GROUPS. Soil Sci.
67: 117-126.
the lower part of the east coast in the 1950's because (5) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
land could be purchased at a more favorable price. In 1929. VOLUME, YIELD, AND STAND TABLES FOR SECOND-GROWTH
1967, according to local sources, 22 dairy farms were in SOUTHERN PINES. Misc. Pub. No. 50, 202 pp., illus.
(Out of print.)
(6)
1951. SOIL SURVEY MANUAL. U.S. Dept. Agr. Handbook No.
18, 503 pp., illus.
(7) -
1960. SOIL CLASSIFICATION, A COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM, 7TH
APPROXIMATION. 265 pp., illus. [Supplement issued
in March 1967]
(8) WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION, U.S. CORPS OF ENGINEERS.
1953. THE UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM. Tech.
-Memo. 3-357, 2 v., and appendix.

Glossary
Aggregate, soil. Many fine particles held in a single mass or cluster.
Natural soil aggregates such as crumbs, blocks, or prisms, are
called peds. Clods are aggregates produced by tillage or
logging.
Available moisture capacity. The capacity of a soil to hold water in
a form available to plants. Amount of moisture held in soil
between field capacity, or about one-third atmosphere of ten-
Figure 19.-Beef cattle grazing on improved pasture of irrigated sion, and the wilting coefficient, or about 15 atmospheres of
pangolagrass. tension.








60 SOIL SURVEY

Clay. As a soil separate, the mineral soil particles less than 0.002 Morphology, soil. The physical makeup of the soil, including the
millimeter in diameter. As a soil textural class, soil material texture, structure, porosity, consistence, color, and other physi-
that is 40 percent or more clay, less than 45 percent sand, and cal, mineralogical, and biological properties of the various
less than 40 percent silt. horizons, and their thickness and arrangement in the soil
Consistence, soil. The feel of the soil and the ease with which a profile.
lump can be crushed by the fingers. Terms commonly used to Mottled. Irregularly marked with spots of different colors that
describe consistence are- vary in number and size. Mottling in soils usually indicates
Loosc.-Noncoherent; does not hold together in a mass. poor aeration and lack of drainage. Descriptive terms are as
Friablc.--When moist, crushes easily under gentle pressure follows: Abundance--few, common, and many; size--fine,
between thumb and forefinger and can be pressed together medium, and coarse; and contrast-faint, distinct, and pronmi
into a lump. neat. The size measurements are these: fine, less than 5
Firn.-When moist, crushes under moderate pressure between millimeters (about 0.2 inch) in diameter along the greatest
thumb and forefinger, but resistance is distinctly noticeable. dimension; medium, ranging from 5 millimeters to 15 milli-
Plastic.-When wet, readily deformed by moderate pressure but meters (about 0.2 to 0.0 inch) in diameter along the greatest
can be pressed into a lump; will form a "wire" when rolled dimension; and coarse, more than 15 millimeters boutt 0.0
between thumb and forefinger. inch) in diameter along the greatest dimension.
SticLky.- hen wet, adheres to other material, and tends to Natural soil drainage. Refers to the conditions of frequency and
stretch somewhat and pull apart, rather than to pull free duration of periods of saturation or partial saturation that
from other material existed during the development of the soil, as opposed to
Hard.-When dry, moderately resistant to pressure; can be altered drainage, which is commonly the result of artificial
broken with difficulty between thumb and forefinger. drainage or irrigation but may be caused the sudden
oft.--When dry, breaks into powder or individual grains under deepening of channels or the blocking of drainage outlets.
very slight pressure. Seven different classes of natural drainage are recognized.
Ceintcd.--Hard and brittle; little affected by moistening. E:ecssively drained soils are commonly very porous and rapidly
Erosion. The wearing away of the land surface by wind (sand- permeable and have a low water-holding capacity.
blast), running water, and other geological agents. Somewhat excessively drained soils are also very permeable and
Gleization. The reduction, translocation, and segregation of soil are free from mottling throughout their profile.
compounds, notably of iron, usually in the lower horizons, as Well-drained soils are nearly free from mottling and are com-
a result of waterlogging with poor aeration and drainage; only of intermediate texture.
expressed in the soil by mottled colors dominated by gray. Moderatly well drained soils commonly have a slowly perme-
The soil-forming processes leading to the development of a able layer in or immediately beneath the solum. They have
gley soil. uniform color in the A and upper B horizons and have
Horizon, soil A layer of soil, approximately parallel to the surface, mottling in the lower B and uthe C horizons.d have
that has distinct characteristics produced by soil-forming Imperfectly or somewhat poorly drained soils are wet for signifi-
processes. These are the major horizons: cant periods but not all the time, and in Podzolic soils
0 horizon.-The layer of organic matter on the surface of a commonly have mottlings below 6 to 16 inches, in the lower
mineral soil. This layer consists of decaying plant residues. A horizon and in the B and C horizons.
A horizon.-The mineral horizon at the surface or just below Poorly drained soils are wet for long periods and are light gray
an 0 horizon. This horizon is the one in which living and generally mottled from the surface downward, although
organisms are most active and therefore is marked by the mottling may be absent or nearly so in some soils.
accumulation of humus. The horizon may have lost one or Very poorly drained soils are wet nearly all the time. They have
more of soluble salts, clay, and sesquioxides (iron and a dark-gray or black surface layer and are gray light
aluminum oxides). a dark-gray or black surface layer and are gray or light
B orion.-The mineral horizon below an A horizon. The B gray, with or without mottling, in the deeper parts of the
B horizon.--The mineral horizon below an A horizon. The B profile.
horizon is in part a layer of change from the overlying A Parent material (soil). The horizon of weathered rock or partly
to the underlying C horizon. The B horizon also has dis- weathered soil material from which soil has formed; horizon
tinctive characteristics caused by (1) accumulation of clay, C in the soil profile.
sesquioxides, humus, or some combination of these; (2) by Permeability. The quality of a soil horizon that enables water or
prismatic or blocky structure; (3) by redder or strongeraiy. e ua a soi ri t ebes er r
colors than the A horizon; or (4) by some combination of air to move through it. Terms used to describe permeability
1, 2, or 3. Combined A and B horizons are usually called are as follows: very slow, slow, moderately alow, moderate,
the solum, or true soil If a soil lacks a B horizon, the A moderately rapid, rapid, and very rapid.
horizon alone is the solum. pH value. A numerical means for designating relatively weak
C horizon.-The weathered rock material immediately beneath acidity and alkalinity in soils. A pH value of 7.0 indicates
the solum. In most soils this material is presumed to be precise neutrality; a higher value alkalinity; and a lower
like that from which the overlying horizons were formed. value, acidity.
If the material is known to be different from that in the Poorly graded. A soil material consisting mainly of particles of
solum, a Roman numeral precedes the letter C. nearly the same size. Because there is little difference in
R layer.-Consolidated rock beneath the soil. The rock usually size of the particles in poorly graded soil material, density
underlies a C horizon but may be immediately beneath an can be increased only slightly by compaction.
A or B horizon. Profile, soil. A vertical section of the soil through all its horizons
Internal drainage. The downward movement of water through the and extending into the parent material.
soil profile. The rate of movement is determined by the tex- Range condition. The state of health or productivity of both soil
tandre, structure, and other characteristics of the soil profile and forage in a given range, in terms of what productivity
than underlying layers, and by the heiht o the water table could or should be under normal climate and the best practical
either permanent or perched.
Relative terms for expressing internal drainage are none, management. Condition classes generally recognized are-
very slow, slow, medium, rapid, and very rapid. excellent, good, fair, and poor. The classification is based on
Leaching. The removal of soluble materials from soils or other the percentage of original, or climax, vegetation on the site, as
material by percolating water. compared to what ought to grow on it if management were
Miscellaneous land type. A mapping unit for areas of sand that good.
have little or no natural soil; or that are too nearly inaccessi- Range site. An area of range where climate, soil, and relief are
ble for orderly examination; or that occur where, for other sufficiently uniform to produce a distinct kind of climax
reasons, it is not feasible to classify the soiL vegetation.








OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA 61

Reaction, soil. The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a soil, ex- Soil variant. A soil having properties sufficiently different from
pressed in pH values. A soil that tests to pH 7.0 is precisely those other known soils to suggest establishing a new soil
neutral in reaction because it is neither acid nor alkaline. An series, but a soil of such limited known area that creation of
acid, o1 "sour," soil is one that gives an acid reaction; an a new series is not believed to be justified.
alkaline soil is one that is alkaline in reaction. In words, the Solum. The upper part of a soil profile, above the parent material,
degrees of acidity or alkalinity are expressed thus: in which the processes of soil formation are active. The solum
in mature soil includes the A and B horizons. Generally, the
xtreely Neutral----------- .6 to 7.3 characteristics of the material in these horizons are unlike
acid -------Below 4.5 Mildly alkaline---- 7.4 to 7.8 those of the underlying material. The living roots and other
Very strongly Moderately alkaline. 7.9 to .4 plant and animal life characteristic of the soil are largely
acid---------4.5 to 5.0 Strongly alkaline----- 8.5 to 9.0 confined to the solum.
Strongly acid-5.1 to 5.5 Very strongly lStructure, soil. The arrangement of primary soil particles into
Medium acid .5.6 to 6.0 alkaline -- 9.1 and higher compound particles or clusters that are separated from ad-
Slightly acid __6.1 to 6.5 joining aggregates and have properties unlike those of an
equal mass of unaggregated primary soil particles. The princi-
Relief. The elevations or inequalities of a land surface, considered pal forms of soil structure are-platy (laminated), prismatic
collectively. (vertical axis of aggregates longer than horizontal), columnar
Sand. Individual rock or mineral fragments in soils having diam- (prisms with rounded tops), blocky (angular or subangular),
eters ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 millimeters. Most sand grains and granular. Structureless soils are (1) single grain (each
consist of quartz, but they may be any mineral composition, grain by itself, as in dune sand) or (2) massive (the particles
The textural class name of any soil that contains 85 percent adhering together without any regular cleavage, as in many
or more sand and not more than 10 percent clay. claypans and hardpans).
Series, soil. A group of soils developed from a particular type of Subsoil. Technically, the B horizon; roughly, the part of the solum
parent material and having genetic horizons that, except for below plow depth.
texture !of the surface layer, are similar in differentiating Substratum. Technically the part of the soil below the solum.
characteristics and in arrangement in the profile. Surface layer. A term used in nontechnical soil descriptions for
Silt. Individual mineral particles in a soil that range in diameter one or more layers above the subsoil. Includes the A horizon
from the upper limit of clay (0.002 millimeter) to the lower and part of the B horizon; has no depth limit.
limit of very fine sand (0.05 millimeter). Soil of the silt tex- Surface soil. The soil ordinarily moved in tillage, or its equivalent
tural class is 80 percent or more silt and less than 12 percent in uncultivated soil, about 5 to 8 inches in thickness. The
clay. plowed layer.
Site index. A numerical means of expressing the quality of a forest Terrace (geological). An old alluvial plain, ordinarily flat or
site that is based on the height of the dominant stand at an undulating, bordering a river, lake, or the sea. Stream ter-
arbitrarily chosen age; for example, the average height races are frequently called second bottoms, as contrasted to
attainedby dominant and codominant trees in a fully stocked flood plains, and are seldom subject to overflow. Marine
stand atb, the age of 50 years terraces were deposited by the sea and are generally wide.
Soil. A natural, three-dimensional body on the earth's surface that Texture, soil. The relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay
supports plants and that has properties resulting from the particles in a mass of soil. The basic textural classes, in order
integrated effect of climate and living matter acting on earthy of increasing proportion of fine particles, are sand, loamy
parent material, as conditioned by relief over periods of time. sand, sandy loam, loam, silt loam, silt, sandy clay loam, clay
Soil separate. Mineral particles, less than 2 millimerers in e v- loam, silty clay loam, sandy clay, silty clay, and clay. The
Soil separates. Mineral articles less than millimeters in equ sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam classes may be further
talent diameter and ranging between specified size limits. The divided by specifying "coarse," "fine," or "very fine."
names and sizes of separates recognized in the United States Water table. he highest part of the soil or underlying rock ma-
are as follows: Very coarse sand (2.0 to 1.0 millimeter) ; ater ighest part o underlying rock ma-
areas follos Vr coarse sand (0 to 0 15 millimeter) e n0.25 trial that is wholly saturated with water. In some places an
coarse sand (1.0 to 0.5 millimeter) ; medium sand (0.5 upper, or perched, water table may be separated from a lower
millimeter) ; fine sand (0.25 to 0.10 millimeter) ; very fine one by a dry zone.
sand (0.10 to 0.05 millimeter) ; silt (0.05 to 0.002 millimeter) ; Well-graded soil. A soil or soil material consisting of particles that
and clay (less than 0.002 millimeter). The separates recog- are well distributed over a wide range in size or diameter.
nized by the International Society of Soil Science are as Such a soil normally can be easily increased in density and
follows: II (2.0 to 0.2 millimeter) ; II (0.2 to 0.02 millimeter) ; bearing properties by compaction. Contrasts with poorly
III (0.02 to 0.002 millimeter) ; IV (less than 0.002 millimeter). graded soil.
























U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1970








62

GUIDE TO MAPPING UNITS

For a full description of a mapping unit, read both the description of the mapping unit and that of the soil
series to which the mapping unit belongs. In referring to a capability unit or range site, read the intro-
duction to the section it is in for general information about its management.
In the;columns listing capability units, range sites, woodland groups, and nonfarm groups, dashes mean that
the particular mapping unit is not placed in a group.- Other information is given in tables as follows:

Acreage and extent, table 1, p. 7. Engineering uses of the soils, tables 4, 5,
Predicted yields, table 2, p. 30. and 6, pp. 38 through 47.
Woodland, table 3, p. 35. Nonfarm uses, table 7, p. 50.

Woodland Nonfarm
Capability unit Range site group group
Map
symbol Mapping unit Page Symbol Page Name Page Number Number

Ad Adamsville fine sand--------------- 7 IVw-1 27 Sweet Flatwoods 1/ 33 2 2
Ba Basinger fine sand----------------- 8 IVw-3 28 Slough 33 7 5
Bc Basinger-Placid complex------------ 8 Vw-l 29 Sand Pond 32 7 5
Bm Basinger and Pompano fine sands,
ponded--------------------------- 9 Vw-l 29 Sand Pond 32 7 5
Bo Borrow pits-------------------------------- 9 ---- -------.--- --
Br Bradenton fine sand---------------- 9 IIIw-1 25 Sweet Flatwoods 1/ 33 3 4
Hammock 1/ 32
Ch Charlotte fine sand---------------- 10 IVw-3 28 Slough 33 7 5
Co Chobee fine sandy loam------------- 10 IIIw-4 26 Sand Pond 32 5 6
De Delray fine sand------------------- 11 IIIw-5 26 Sand Pond 32 7 5
Slough 33
Dt Delray fine sand, thin solum
variant-------------------------- 11 IIIw-5 26 Slough 33 7 5
Ef Elred fine sand-------------------- 12 IIIw-4 26 Slough 33 7 4
Ff Felda fine sand-------------------- 12 IIIw-4 26 Slough 33 7 6
Fp Felda, Pompano, and Placid soils,
ponded--------------------------- 13 IIIw-4 26 Sand Pond 32 7 6
Fr Ft. Drum fine sand----------------- 13 IVw-1 27 Sweet Flatwoods 1/ 33 2 2
Hammock 1/ 32
Im Immokalee fine sand---------------- 14 IVw-2 28 Acid Flatwoods 1/ 31 4 3
Ma Made land------------------------- 14 -------- -- ----------- ----- -
Mc Manatee loamy fine sand---------- 14 IIIw-4 26 Sand Pond 32 5 6
Mo Manatee, Delray, and Okeelanta
soils---------------------------- 15 IIIw-4 26 Fresh Marsh 31 5 6
My Myakka fine sand------------------- 15 IVw-2 28 Acid Flatwoods 1/ 31 4 3
Oe Okeelanta peat--------------------- 16 IIIw-6 27 Everglades Marsh 31 8 7
Pa Pamlico muck----------------------- 17 IIIw-6 27 Swamp 1/ 33 8 7
Pd Paola fine sand-------------------- 17 IIIs-1 27 Sand Scrub 1/ 32 1 1
Pe Parkwood fine sand----------------- 18 IIIw-2 25 Hammock 1/ 32 6 4
Pf Placid fine sand------------------- 19 IIIw-5 26 Sand Pond 32 7 5
Ph Placid, Pamlico, and Delray soils,
ponded--------------------------- 19 VIIw-1 29 Swamp 1/ 33 7 7
Pm Pomello fine sand------------------ 19 VIs-1 29 Sand Scrub 1/ 32 1 1
Pn Pompano fine sand------------------ 20 IVw-3 28 Slough 33 7 5
Se Seewee fine sand------------------- 20 Ills-1 27 Hammock 1/ 32 1 2
Sp Spoil banks------------------------ 1 ------ -----------
St St. Johns sand--------------------- 21 IIIw-3 26 Acid Flatwoods 1/ 31 4 3
Tc Terra Ceia peat-------------------- 21 IIIw-6 27 Everglades Marsh 31 8 7
Wa Wabasso fine sand------------------ 22 IIIw-1 25 Sweet Flatwoods 1/ 33 3 4



1/
The climax potential of this site is trees.







POLK I
COUNTY --F OSCEOLA r CONTY



-E U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
13



6 3. =;_ SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
6 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
1. AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS


SOUNT GENERAL SOIL MAP

3 a OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA
3 66 3 g s

81 gt a et1 0 1 2 3 4Miles
9 9 I 1 i I i I i
2703 3T 4Scale 1:253,440
d e T 34 S.

SOIL ASSOCIATIONS
m ePomello-Paola association: Nearly level, moderately well drained
S1 ~ 6 soils that are sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches; on low
---- knolls and ridges.
c BI 6 2 1 Myakka-Basinger association: Nearly level, poorly drained soils
S. ---- 35 S. that are sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches and have an
2 8 organic pan at a depth of 10 to 30 inches; on broad flatwoods
and open prairies and in scattered grassy sloughs and isolated
Pa k, depressions,
1_ Immokalee-Pompano association: Nearly level, poorly drained soils
n 5 that are sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches; organic pan at
S361 a depth of 30 to 48 inches in most places; on broad flatwoods
r o and i scattered grassy sloughs and depressions.
SParkwood-Bradenton-Wabasso association: Nearly level, poorly
f4 -drained, sandy soils that have a loamy or marly layer at a depth
I of less than 40 inches; on palm hammocks and the interspersed
S2 i.36S pine flatwoods.
r, r 2 Placid-Pamlico-Delray association: Nearly level, very poorly drained
l-.. soils that are sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches and
a organic soils; in swamps and heavily wooded drainageways.
N i Pompano-Charlotte-Delray-immokalee association: Nearly level,
33 d mainly poorly drained soils that are sandy to a depth of more than
6 3 3 5 40 inches; in broad grassy sloughs and depressions and on small
S- scattered palmetto flats.
i0 Manatee-Delray-Okeelanta association: Nearly level, very poorly
6 drained, sandy soils that in most places have a loamy layer at a
37 S. depth of less than 40 inches and organic soils; on flood plains of
3 OKC E 2 major streams and other lowlands.
i Felda-Wabasso association: Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy
S2 soils that have a loamy layer at a depth of less than 40 inches; in
Len \6 grassy sloughs and depressions and on scattered, slightly elevated
3-. 10 36 Islands of flatwoods.
S. Felda-Pompano-Parkwood association: Nearly level, poorly drained,
,/-' -- sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil and deep sands, in sloughs
'"t*// S C9' I and marshes; interspersed with poorly drained sandy soils that are
S'A' Li.L ,, T shallow to marl and are on palm hammocks.
". 38 S
9 Okeelanta-Delray-Pompano association: Nearly level, very poorly
J/ "- r Irf 7 I /" I drained organic soils in broad sawgrass marshes and the adjacent
NOTE- '/H L wet sandy soils.
This map is intended lor general planning. N o"v
Each delineation moa conrarn ;Eo;l ho.,ng ror. 2 November 1970
ings different from those shown on the map.
Use detailed soil maps for operational planning.





U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE OKEECHOBEE COUNTY, FLORIDA UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS



CONVENTIONAL SIGNS

SOIL LEGEND
WORKS AND STRUCTURES BOUNDARIES SOIL SURVEY DATA


SYMBOL NAME Highways and roads National or state .............. Soil boundary

Ad Adamsville fine sand Dual ................. .County ........... ...... and sym bol ......

Ba Basinger fine sand Good motor ................ Reservation .................... Gravel............
Be Basinger-Plocid complex .............
Bm Basinger and Pompano fine sands, ponded Land grant ...
Bo Borrow pits Poor m otor ....... ..................... tony .............
Br Bradenton fine sand Stoniness b
Trail ......................... _.._-....__ Small park, cemetery, airport .. -- ... -Very stony .........
Ch Charlotte fine sand
Co Chobee fine sandy loam Highway markers I Land survey division corners ... I Rock outcrops ............

De Delray fine sand
Dt Delray fine sand, thin solum variant National Interstate ........ Chert fragments ................ ,
Ef E red fine sand U. S ............ .......... Clay spot .....................
Ef Eired fine sand S Cla spot

Ff Felda fine sand
Fp Felda, Pompano, and Placid soils, pounded State or county .......... DRAINAGE Sand spot ................
Fr Ft. Drum fine sand
Railroads Streams, double-line Gumbo or scabby spot ........
Im Immokalee fine sand

Ma Made land Single track ................ __ Perennial Made land .....
Mc Manatee loamy fine sand
Mo Manatee, Delroy, and Okeelanta soils Multiple track ............... ...... Intermittent .. Severely eroded spot ..........
My Myakka fine sand

Oe Okeelanta peat Abandoned................. -- -. .- Streams, single-line Blowout, wind erosion ........

Pa Pamlico muck Bridges and crossings Perennial ...... .. ... .... Gully .................. ......... ..
Pd Poola fine sand
Pe Parkwood fine sand Road .................. Intermittent Indian mound .
Pf Placid fine sand ......... ...
Ph Placid, Pamlico, and Delray soils, ponded Crossable with tillage
Pm Pomello fine sand Trail ..................... .. ._ implements.............. ..
Pn Pompano fine sand Not crossable with tillage
Railroad ............im plem ents ................
Se Seewee fine sand
Sp Spoil banks Ferry .................... .... FY Unclassified ........... .- -
St St. Johns sand
CANAL
Tc Terra Ceia peat Ford ....................... Canals and ditches............

Wa Wabasso fine sand Grade .................... Lakes and ponds

R. R. ver ....... ......... Perennial .................... ...

R. R. under ...............Interm ittent ......

Tunnel ......... .......... = Spring ..............

Buildings ........... .... Marsh or swam p ...............

School .. .. W et spot .......................

Church .....................Alluvial fan ........... ..

Mine and quarry .............. Drainage end ................ ..... .

Gravel pit ...................... W ell, irrigation ................. ell

Power line .................. .. ... ........... Well, artesian ............... ...

Pipeline ........................ -

Cemetery ...................... RELIEF

Dams ................ ....... d" l Escarpments

Levee ............... ........... ,, ,,,. ,, ,,.. Bedrock ...... .......... vv v v v v

Tanks ............. ...... ... .... Other .. ......... .... r,"" '"". ,,,,lrn

W ell, oil or gas ..... ..... .. Prom inent peak ...............
Soil map constructed 1969 by Cartographic Division,
Forest fire or lookout station Soil Conservation Service, USDA, from 1962 aerial
photographs. Controlled mosaic based on Florida
p plane coordinate symbol, south zone, transverse
Windmill ........................ Mercator projection, 1927 North American datum.







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