• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 Summary of tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Orange County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025733/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Orange County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 175 p., 85 folded p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1989]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Orange County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Orange County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 105-106).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 89-817-P.
General Note: "Issued August 1989"--P. iii.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025733
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001527003
notis - AHE0310
oclc - 20881672
lccn - 90600092

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    Summary of tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    How this survey was made
        Page 7
        Map unit composition
            Page 8
        Use of the ground-penetrating radar
            Page 8
        Confidence limits of soil survey information
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
    General soil map units
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 67
        Crops and pasture
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 70
            Page 71
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 72
        Recreation
            Page 72
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 73
        Engineering
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
    Soil properties
        Page 79
        Engineering index properties
            Page 79
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 80
        Soil and water features
            Page 81
            Page 82
    Classification of the soils
        Page 83
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Formation of the soils
        Page 103
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 103
            Page 104
    References
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Glossary
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Tables
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    General soil map
        Page 176
    Index to map sheets
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
Full Text

United States In cooperation with
Department of University of Florida, l rv
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Soil Agricultural Experiment
Conservation Stations and Soil Science O range
Service Department, and
Florida Department of F lorida
Agriculture and
Consumer Services







































I ILI















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can -
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas. -- -


IKok mo ,
To find information about. ,
your area of interest, 1 4
locate that area on the, MAPSH
Index to Map Sheets, 13 MAP SHEET
which precedes the soil
maps. Note the number of 16 1 .8 I q __2 .
the map sheet, and turn to -
that sheet. INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
that sheet.

WaF
Locate your area of 7 Fa\ a
interest on the map BaC AsB
sheet. Note the map unit I Bac/
symbols that are in that 4 I
area. Turn to the Index I
to Map Units (see Con- AREA OF INTEREST
tents), which lists the map NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
enits, w ic iss e m p survey may consist only ot numbers or
units by symbol and leers, or they may be a combination
name and shows the ot numbers and letters.
page where each map MAP SHEET
unit is described.

The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1956. Unless otherwise
indicated, statements in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in
1983. This soil survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation
Service, the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical
assistance furnished to the Orange County Soil and Water Conservation
District. The Orange County Board of Commissioners contributed financially to
the acceleration of the survey.
Some of the boundaries on the soil maps of Orange County do not match
those on the soil maps of adjacent counties, and some of the soil names and
descriptions do not fully agree. The differences are the result of improvements
in the classification of soils, particularly modification or refinements in soil
series concepts. Also, there may be differences in the intensity of mapping or
in the extent of the soils within the county.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.
This survey supersedes the soil survey of Orange County published in 1960
(25).
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: By its name, Orange County symbolizes the agricultural prominence of its principal
crop. This grove is in an area of Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.












ii

















Contents


Index to map units ...................................................... iv Recreation.................................................................... 72
Summary of tables................................................... v W wildlife habitat .......................................................... 73
Foreword .............................................................. ..... vii Engineering .................................................................. 74
General nature of the county.............................. ........... 1 Soil properties ............................................................. 79
How this survey was made............................................ 7 Engineering index properties...................................... 79
Map unit composition............................................. 8 Physical and chemical properties.............................. 80
Use of the ground-penetrating radar....................... 8 Soil and water features..................................... 81
Confidence limits of soil survey information............. 8 Classification of the soils.......................................... 83
General soil map units................................................. 11 Soil series and their morphology................................... 83
Detailed soil map units................................................ 21 Formation of the soils................................................ 103
Use and management of the soils............................ 67 Factors of soil formation............................................. 103
Crops and pasture ................................................ 67 References ..................................................................... 105
Woodland management and productivity................. 70 Glossary........................................................................ 107
Windbreaks and environmental plantings................. 72 Tables ............................................................................ 115


Soil Series

Apopka series ........................................................... 83 Okeelanta series....................................................... 93
Archbold series ........................................ ................... 84 Ona series ........................................................................ 93
Basinger series ........................ ........................................ 84 Pineda series ................................................................... 94
Candler series........................................................... 85 Pinellas series .......................................... .......... 95
Canova series ................................................ ............. 85 Pomello series ................................................................. 95
Chobee series.............. ...................................... 86 Pompano series............................... 96
Emerald series..................................... ............... 87 Samsula series ............................................... 96
a series ................................ ........................ Sanibel series.............. 97
Florahome series.............................................................fne 8..........................
Floridana series............................................. .......... .. 88 Seffner seres.................................. 97
Gator series .................................................................... 89 Smyrna series.................................................................. 97
Holopaw series ................................................................ 89 St. Johns series ......................................................... 98
Hontoon series ........................................ ..... ............. 90 St. Lucie series ............................................................... 98
Immokalee series ............................................................ 90 Tavares series ................................................................ 99
Lake series................................................................ 91 Terra Ceia series ............................................................. 99
Lochloosa series ........................................................ 91 Wabasso series ............................................................... 100
Malabar series .......................................................... 92 Wauberg series................................................................ 100
Millhopper series ...................................................... 92 Zolfo series ...................................................................... 101
Issued August 1989












iii

















Index to Map Units


1-Arents, nearly level............................................. 21 29-Florahome-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
2-Archbold fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 22 slopes................................. ............... ............ 44
3-Basinger fine sand, depressional .......................... 23 30-Pineda fine sand...................................................... 45
4-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 23 31-Pineda fine sand, frequently flooded............... 46
5-Candler fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes......... 24 32-Pinellas fine sand............................................... 47
6-Candler-Apopka fine sands, 5 to 12 percent 33-Pits.................................................................. 47
slopes........................................................................ 25 34-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 48
7-Candler-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent 35-Pomello-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
slopes.................................................................... 26 slopes...................................... .................................. 49
8-Candler-Urban land complex, 5 to 12 percent 36-Pompano fine sand............................................ 49
slopes....................................................................... 27 37-St. Johns fine sand ................................................. 50
9-Canova muck......................................................... 28 38-St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 51
10-Chobee fine sandy loam, frequently flooded....... 29 39-St. Lucie-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
11-Floridana and Chobee soils, frequently flooded.. 30 slopes................................................................... 51
12-Emeralda and Holopaw fine sands, frequently 40-Samsula muck.................................................... 52
flooded .................................................................... 31 41 -Samsula-Hontoon-Basinger association,
13- Felda fine sand................................................... 32 depressional ............................................................. 53
14-Felda fine sand, occasionally flooded ................. 32 42-Sanibel muck ...................................................... 54
15-Felda fine sand, frequently flooded ..................... 33 43-Seffner fine sand................................................ 55
16-Floridana fine sand, frequently flooded............... 34 44-Smyrna fine sand............................................... 56
17-Floridana mucky fine sand, depressional .......... 35 45-Smyrna-Urban land complex ................................. 57
18-Gator muck......................................................... 36 46-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............ 57
19-Hontoon muck....................................................... 36 47-Tavares-Millhopper fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
20- Im m okalee fine sand ............................................ 37 slopes........................................................................ 58
21-Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 38 48-Tavares-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
22- Lochloosa fine sand.......................................... 39 slopes........................................................................ 59
23-Malabar fine sand .............................................. 40 49-Terra Ceia muck................................................. 60
24-Millhopper-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent 50-Urban land........................................ ........... 61
slopes ................ .......................................... 40 51-Wabasso fine sand ................................................. 61
25-Okeelanta muck ................................................. 41 52-Wabasso-Urban land complex............................... 62
26-Ona fine sand ........................................................ 42 53-Wauberg fine sand ................................................ 63
27-Ona-Urban land complex ..................................... 43 54-Zolfo fine sand.................................. ............ 63
28-Florahome fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........ 43 55-Zolfo-Urban land complex...................................... 64

















iv
















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)......................................................... 116
Freeze data (table 2) ......................................................................................... 116
Freeze threshold temperature. Mean date of last spring
occurrence. Mean date of first fall occurrence. Mean
number of days between dates. Years of record-spring.
Number of occurrences in spring. Years of record-fall.
Number of occurrences in fall.
Average composition of selected map units (table 3).................................. 117
Transects. Soils. Composition. Confidence interval.
Confidence level. Dissimilar soils. Composition.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4).............................. 120
Acres. Percent.
Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table
5 ) ....................................................................................................................... 12 1
Land capability. Corn. Cabbage. Carrots. Grapefruit.
Bahiagrass. Grass-clover. Oranges.
Woodland management and productivity (table 6)........................................ 125
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 7)................................................................ 130
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 8) ..................................................................................... 135
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 9) ................................................................ 139
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 10) ............................................................................... 144
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 11).................................................................... 150
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel Topsoil.
Water management (table 12)........................................................................... 154
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Grassed waterways.




v




















Engineering index properties (table 13) ......................................................... 159
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Percentage passing sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid
limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 14) .............................. 166
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.
Soil and water features (table 15)................................... 171
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.
Classification of the soils (table 16)..................................... ..... 175
Family or higher taxonomic class.






























vi
















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Orange County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected
land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the
soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are too unstable to be
used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are poorly
suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil
poorly suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service














vii



































































Location of Orange County in Florida.













Soil Survey of

Orange County, Florida


By James A. Doolittle and Gregg Schellentrager, Soil Conservation Service


Soils recorrelated by Thomas E. Calhoun, James A. Doolittle,
Adam G. Hyde, and Robert W. Johnson, Soil Conservation Service


Soils surveyed by R.E. Leighty, D.T. Brewer, and W.R. Smith,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station; and R. Baldwin,
R.M. Craig, O.E. Cruz, W.G. Diamond, G.H. Evenson,
E.D. Matthews, F. Matanzo, D.S. Taylor, and H.O. White,
Soil Conservation Service


United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department,
and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




ORANGE COUNTY is in the north-central part of Climate
peninsular Florida. It extends about 48 miles from east to
west and a maximum of 30 miles from north to south. The climate of Orange County is subtropical. The
Orange County is bounded on the north by Seminole and temperatures are modified greatly by winds that sweep
Lake Counties, on the west by Lake County, on the across the peninsula from the Atlantic Ocean and the
south by Osceola County, and on the east by the St. Gulf of Mexico. The summers are long, warm, and
Johns River, which separates Orange County from humid, but thundershowers that occur almost every
Brevard County. The county is somewhat rectangular. afternoon prevent temperatures from becoming
Orlando, the county seat, is in the north-central part of extremely high (38). Winters are short and mild; many of
the county. the days are bright and sunny, and there is little
The total land area is 910 square miles, or 582,713 precipitation. Cold spells accompanied by cold winds can
acres. In addition, about 33,578 acres is covered by the be expected only a few times during the year and last
many lakes in the county, only a few days. Occasionally, thin ice forms. Generally,
the cold spells are preceded by rain.
General Nature of the County Data on climate of Orange County are given in tables
1 and 2. This information was compiled from records at
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that the Weather Service Office, Orlando Jetport at McCoy
affect the use and management of the soils in Orange International Airport (37, 38, 39, 40).
County are discussed. These factors are climate; history The average annual temperature is 71.8 degrees F.
and development; geology, physiography, and ground (Fahrenheit). In winter the average temperature is 61.1
water; land use; and recreation. degrees, and in summer it is 81.1 degrees. The







2 Soil Survey



temperature rarely exceeds 95 degrees, but a reading of In 1820, the area was ceded to the United States. In
102 degrees has been recorded. Killing frosts have March 1821, General Andrew Jackson became
occurred as late as March 23 and as early as November Provisional Governor of Florida. During the first
10. The average frost-free season lasts for 314 days, or legislative council, which was held in 1824, four new
from February 3 to December 14. The most recent counties, including one named Mosquito County, were
lowest temperature recorded in Orlando was 20 degrees formed. At that time, Mosquito County included all of the
on December 26, 1983, but a reading of 19 degrees was area from near St. Augustine southward to Monroe
recorded in Zellwood in February 1947. Generally, the County and westward to Alachua County (3, 13, 16).
temperature drops to below freezing for only a few hours About 700 residents populated this vast region. In 1843,
before dawn. the county seat of Mosquito County was located at
Many kinds of vegetables can be grown during fall and Enterprise (presently Benson Springs). On January 30,
winter, but tender vegetables and some fruits may be 1845, an Act was approved to change the name of
damaged by frosts that occur about every other year. Mosquito County to Orange County because of the
Because of the differences in elevation, the temperature prevalence of orange trees. Orange County passed
varies a few degrees in places that are not far apart. through numerous territorial changes before being
Sometimes cold air settles in depressions or in flat areas reduced to its present area.
and damages or kills citrus trees or other crops. In the During the period of 1824 to 1846, 10 forts were
winters of 1894-95 and 1983-84 most of the citrus trees established to protect the settlers. These forts were
were killed by a severe frost. mostly stockades and were built along the St. Johns
Cattle and other animals graze on the native and River. The Indians used the river as a thoroughfare for
improved pastures throughout the year. It is not their canoes.
necessary to build shelters for livestock if vegetative Most of the early settlers were cattlemen. Cattle
shelter areas are available. raising was the principal industry in Orange County until
Rainfall is fairly abundant. The rainy season extends it was replaced by the citrus industry. The citrus industry
from June through September. About 57 percent of the actually began in 1875 with the development of the first
precipitation falls during that period. During the rest of citrus nursery and commercial grove. Other agricultural
the year, the rainfall is distributed fairly uniformly. Most of industries in Orange County include ornamental plants,
the precipitation occurs in summer. During this season, vegetables, dairy, and poultry. In 1982, Orange County
the precipitation comes mainly in the form of ranked fourth in the State for total market value of
thunderstorms that occur on the average of every other agricultural products sold (11).
day and generally last for only 1 or 2 hours. Moderately In 1856, the county seat was moved from Enterprise
high winds, which occasionally accompany the to Orlando, which was named in honor of one of the
thunderstorms, occur for short periods, early settlers, Orlando Reeves (3, 13, 16). At that time,
Between August and November, tropical storms the population of the county was about 650. In 1920, the
occasionally sweep across the county. Most of these population was 19,890 as compared to 114,950 in 1950.
develop over the Caribbean Sea near the West Indies. The urban population accelerated when a major aircraft
The heavy rains that accompany such storms are company opened a plant in Orlando, and in 1965 when
generally more damaging to crops than the wind, but the construction of one of the world's largest entertainment
wind may destroy buildings, tall vegetation, and the fruit complexes started near Orlando. In 1973, Orange
on citrus trees. Generally, the damage is confined to a County ranked 7th in the State with a population of
storm path that is between 40 and 75 miles wide. 408,361. By 1983, the population of the county had
increased to 507,572 (11, 41, 42).
History and Development Throughout its history, the development of the county
story has depended on three major elements: a pleasant
About 400 years ago, the area that now makes up climate, employment opportunities, and recreational
Orange County was inhabited by the Muskogan, opportunities.
Tomokan, Caloosa, Creek, and Seminole Indians (3, 13).
They were nonagricultural people who supported Geology, Physiography, and Ground Water
themselves mainly by hunting and fishing. Several large
towns in central Florida, particularly along the St. Johns T.M. Scott, geologist, Department of Natural Resources, Florida
River, were inhabited by the Indians. Most of these tribes Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology, helped to prepare this section.
disappeared from this area between 1700 and 1760. Orange County is located in the north-central part of
They were decimated by disease, and the tribes also peninsular Florida, east and southeast of the crest of the
were reduced in number by successive raids of Spanish Ocala Uplift, or the Ocala High (9). The area is underlain
and English explorers and settlers. From 1780 to 1820, by extensive deposits of Eocene age carbonates
the tribes were further diminished by the second rule of covered by younger dolomite, limestone, sand, clay, and
the area under the Spanish flag (3, 16). shell beds. The dissolution of limestone and the marine






Orange County, Florida 3


processes are the dominant forces responsible for the some roadcuts and in borrow pits in the western part of
development of the surface features observed in the the county. This clayey sand sediment has been called
county. unnamed coarse clastics, Miocene coarse clastics,
Two major, generalized physiographic divisions occur Citronelle Formation, and Fort Preston Formation. The
in Orange County (19). They are the Central Highlands formational identity of the unit or units is still uncertain.
and the Coastal Lowlands. The Central Highlands form Unconsolidated sand blankets the county. This sand
the western one-third of the county, and the Coastal consists of medium to fine sand and silt and does not
Lowlands form the eastern two-thirds. The highland area contain clay or shell fragments. The surface expression
includes such physiographic features as the Marion of this lithologic type is generally flat to slightly
Upland; the Mount Dora Ridge, the Lake Wales Ridge, undulating except in areas of dune formation where the
and the Orlando Ridge; and the Central Valley. The relief may be more pronounced. Formational equivalents
Coastal Lowlands include the Eastern Valley, the Wekiva of the sand have not been resolved. Puri and Vernon's
Plain, and the Osceola Plain. geologic map shows them as marine and estuarine
terrace deposits (19). They are underlain in some areas
Geology by a shelly sand and clay, in other areas by the
Orange County is underlain by Upper Eocene Hawthorn Group, and in a few scattered areas by
limestone units of the Ocala Group (5, 43). These limestone of Eocene age.
sedimentary deposits are very fine or fine grained, are Shell beds of Miocene age through Pleistocene age
chalky and porous, and have a cream color. These are in the eastern part of the county. They represent
limestone units contain many large foraminifera and ancient lagoonal and estuarine environments and
abundant mollusks. The surface of the limestone contain a highly variable association of lithologies. The
generally dips eastward from the outcrop area west of lithologies included in this unit are coquina, shelly sands,
Orange County under an increasing thickness of younger shelly clays, and sands and clays. This shell lithologic
materials. The surface is irregular because of the unit is generally below an elevation of 35 feet above
dissolution of the limestone. This is graphically illustrated mean sea level and forms most of the Coastal Lowlands.
on the cross section A-A' and B-B' of Orange County The shell lithology is under the medium to fine sand
(fig. 1). lithologic unit. It pinches out westward toward the
The sedimentary deposits that are immediately highlands under the sand. The shell lithologic unit is
underlain by the upper Eocene limestone units are of the mined in some areas for road material and is commonly
Hawthorn Group. The highly variable, diverse, lithologic used for surfacing semi-improved roads.
character of the Hawthorn Group includes interbedded The surface expression of this lithologic type is
and interfingering sand, clayey sand, sandy clay, generally a low-lying, nearly flat, occasionally swampy
phosphatic sediment, dolomite, and limestone. The terrain that has many small, shallow, karst depressions.
carbonate part generally occurs in the lower Hawthorn Cabbage palms are very abundant in areas where this
Group and contains highly variable amounts of sand, unit is at or very near the surface.
clay, and phosphorite or sand and clay. Phosphorite can Most peat deposits in Orange County are relatively
also be present. Sedimentary deposits of the Hawthorn small. One of the larger deposits adjoins Lake Apopka.
Group underlie the entire area except in scattered areas Other smaller deposits are scattered throughout the
where these deposits have been removed by erosion county. The thickness of these deposits in Orange
prior to deposition of younger units. Scattered outcrops County is 1 foot or more.
of sandy, phosphatic carbonates of the Hawthorn Group Soil suitability for various uses is normally based on
occur in springs on the Wekiva Plain northwest of evaluations of properties of the soil alone. Interpretations
Orlando. in this soil survey are made to determine what effects
Dolomite commonly occurs in the Eocene age units these properties will have on use. Many geologic
and in the Hawthorn Group. The Eocene dolomites are features that are not expressed in the soil can
in shades of brown, are porous to dense, and are hard significantly affect the suitability of a site for a particular
and crystalline. The dolomites of the Hawthorn Group use. Individual sites should be evaluated by onsite
are a buff color and crystalline. These dolomites, which examination and testing. In many cases, special
consist of varying amounts of sand, clay, and planning, design, and construction techniques can be
phosphorite, are impure. used to overcome geologic problems if they are
Clayey sand covers large areas of western Orange identified and evaluated.
County and is under much of the higher areas of the
Central Highlands (elevations up to 310 feet near Lake Physiography
Apopka). Lithologically, the clayey sand contains silt, fine
to coarse sand, and gravel bound by a matrix of clay. W.A. White has divided Florida into three geomorphic
Color of the clayey sand varies from green and gray to zones (9, 43). These zones are the northern, or proximal
orange and red. Outcrops of this material can be seen in zone; the central, or midpeninsular zone; and the








4 Soil Survey





WEST EAST
A A'
250" WOr-22S-27E-20ob 61
j| WOr-22S-28E-19dr, [
200- O -200
WLk-22S-26E-15 WOr-22S-28E-23ob WOr-22S-31E-19 2

150- ECONLOCKHATCHEE R. .150
-' nyOT22E3CE- I \//F /WOr-22S-30E-l I--I
IW-r~ -2-0- j WOr-22S-32E-28
100- WOr-22S-32E-26oc 100
SUNDIFFE RENT IATED
50 WOr-22S-33E-27o 50
HAWTHORN WBy-22S-35E-5ob
HA OO UNDIFFERE NTIATED W- -35E-5
MSL .. -OMSL

-0 OCALA GROUP HAWTHORN -50



AVON PARK LIMESTONE OCALA GROUP
-150-O -150




B i10 0
B'
50
N i

S-- J 0 5 10 MILES



LOCATION OF CROSS SECTIONS



SOUTH OSCEOLA CO. ORANGE CO. NORTH
B iwOr-23S-31E-22 B
WOr23S-3_1E.-31oc ORANGE CO. SEMINOLECO.
0 O WOr-22S-31E-28 WSe-21S-30E-9
100- WOs-25S-31E-8 I

50- ,50
UNDIFFERENTIATED

MSL O 0 MSL
i HAWTHO RN GROUP
o -50 -50
OCALA GROUP
-100. -100

150-AVON PARK LIMESTONE
-150 -150




L-
A I 50


\ B 0 5 10 MILES


LOCATION OF CROSS SECTIONS


Figure 1.-Geological cross sections A-A' and B-B' in Orange County. Numbers preceded by a "W" are well numbers.







Orange County, Florida 5



southern, or distal zone. Orange County is in the central, The Osceola Plain is generally nearly level. There are
or midpeninsular zone. This zone is characterized as a few very gently sloping, low ridges; but over large
having discontinuous highlands that form subparallel areas, the changes in elevation are so gradual as to be
ridges. The ridges roughly parallel the present coastline barely perceptible. The Osceola Plain has many
(fig. 2), as depicted by W.A. White (43), and are intermittent ponds, swamps, and marshes, and a few
separated by broad valleys or plains, permanent lakes. Most of the areas are connected by
In the eastern part of Orange County, the Eastern sluggish streams or by wide, shallow sloughs. Those in
Valley forms a broad, level area that is occupied by the the eastern part of the plain drain into the
St. Johns River flood plain. Some believe that the Econlockhatchee River or into Tootoosahatchee Creek,
Eastern Valley represents an ancient lagoon; however, James Creek, and Taylor Creek, or into the other
according to White (43), part of the Eastern Valley tributaries of the St. Johns River, which flows northward
represents a beach ridge plain, which has been lowered along the eastern boundary of the county. The flood
by dissolution of carbonate (shell) deposits. plains of these streams are only a few feet below the







\V




S )

4 t4 HAR S





APPo RIDGE T SHAL








0 22 Or ML
I of
S 0

,RIDGE HILL 0



WINT
LAKELAN OHAVE 0 z
RIDGE RID fn



0 10 20 MILES

APPROXIMATE SCALE
Figure 2.-Physiographic map of Central Florida, Orange County, Florida, and the surrounding area.







6 Soil Survey



adjoining uplands. The south-central part of the plain nonartesian aquifers. In Orange County, secondary
drains into the canals and other tributaries of the artesian aquifers provide water that is less mineralized
Kissimmee River, which flows southward from the county than that of the Floridan Aquifer but provide water that is
into Lake Okeechobee. more mineralized than that of the nonartesian aquifers.
North and west of the Osceola Plain are the nearly The quality of the water varies with depth, location, and
level to rolling Marion Upland, Mount Dora Ridge, local geologic and hydrologic conditions. The secondary
Orlando Ridge, and Lake Wales Ridge. Most soils in this artesian aquifers are the least likely to be polluted
part of the county have slopes that are between 0 and 8 because the overlying, somewhat impervious beds
percent, but in some areas that are near sinkholes, the protect them from surface pollution.
soils have slopes of nearly 25 percent. The Floridan Aquifer underlies all of Florida. In Orange
The ridges may represent erosional remnants of the County, the Floridan Aquifer includes the Lake City
"Hawthorn Delta." The elevation of the ridge areas Limestone, the Avon Park Limestone, the Ocala Group,
ranges from 50 feet to 310 feet (12). These ridges and parts of the Hawthorn Group. The aquifer consists
represent a relatively mature karst surface that has a of alternating layers of limestone and dolomite or
wide range in elevation, has numerous lakes, but has dolomitic limestone. It is one of the most productive
only a few continuous streams. Most of the drainage aquifers in the world.
water seeps into the lakes. Rock Springs and Wekiva Numerous solution cavities and solution channels are
Springs, in the northwestern part of the county, form the in the Floridan Aquifer. Some of the cavities can be quite
source of one branch of the Wekiva River, a tributary of large. A well in Orlando intersected a 90 foot cavern.
the St. Johns River. Lake Apopka, which lies along the These caverns and cavities are often interconnected and
western boundary of the county, drains into a branch of water flows through them.
the Ocklawaha River, which is also a tributary of the St. The major part of the ground water recharge in
Johns River. Orange County comes from annual rainfall. However,
The Central Valley lies west of the Mount Dora Ridge. some water enters the Floridan Aquifer by underground
White (43) refers to the Central Valley as an elongated flow from outside the region. Discharge of ground water
lowland that is parallel with the ridges that bound it and from the Floridan Aquifer occurs by spring outflow,
the length of the peninsula. He further states that it seepage into the St. Johns River systems, by outflow to
represents an unprotected soluble area that has been other areas, and by pumping in the area.
reduced to its present elevation. In Orange County, the The quality of water in the Floridan Aquifer varies
Central Valley is occupied by Lake Apopka. Extensive greatly throughout the area. Geology is the major factor
peat deposits are near Lake Apopka. influencing the water quality, but poor quality water is
often introduced into the Floridan Aquifer through
Ground Water drainage wells, which are common in Orange County.
The ground water of Orange County occurs under two Saltwater is in some parts of the St. Johns River Valley
conditions: artesian and nonartesian. Artesian conditions because it has not been flushed out of the aquifer since
exist wherever the water is confined below an the last encroachment of the sea.
impermeable layer. Under artesian conditions, Water will Yields of up to several thousand gallons per minute
rise above the point at which it is first encountered. from the Floridan Aquifer have been measured; however,
Nonartesian conditions exist wherever the water is lower yield figures are more common. The Floridan
unconfined; therefore, it is not under pressure. Aquifer does produce more potable water than the
In Orange County, the nonartesian aquifer is nonartesian or secondary artesian aquifers. Most of the
composed mainly of sand and shells with varying domestic and commercial supplies in the county are
amounts of clay. This aquifer provides only limited drawn from the Floridan Aquifer.
quantities of water. Wells developed in this aquifer are
used mainly to water lawns and livestock and for limited Land Use
domestic supplies. The quality of water varies greatly,
depending on the chemical composition of the aquifer; Celeste Botha, soil conservationist, Soil Conservation Service,
and the water may be soft or hard, depending on the helped to prepare this section.
content of calcium carbonate. Iron content may be high. Rapid changes in land use characterize Orange
The pH is variable, which often makes the water County. By 1984, about 20 percent of the county, or
corrosive. 123,247 acres, had been converted to urban use, and
Two types of artesian aquifers are in Orange County: this trend appears to be increasing. The urbanized area
secondary artesian aquifers and the Floridan Aquifer. extends outward from Orlando along major
Secondary artesian aquifers are in the undifferentiated transportation arteries. Patches of urbanized land
sediments and more extensively in the Hawthorn Group. surround other cities and towns, including Apopka,
Generally, secondary artesian aquifers yield less water Zellwood, Plymouth, Winter Garden, Ocoee, and
than the Floridan Aquifer but yield more water than the Clarcona on the west; Bithlo, Christmas, and the







Orange County, Florida 7



unincorporated area known as Cape Orlando on the The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern
east; and around the entertainment complexes south of that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief,
Orlando. Residential and tourist-related developments climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each
are the dominant urban use. kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
Urbanization is increasing, particularly in the areas landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
west and north of Orlando, resulting in pressure to observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
develop lands that are presently used for citrus, position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
However, extensive areas of citrus remain in general soil scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
map units 1 and 3, described in the section "General were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
Soil Map Units." The remaining agricultural areas are the the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy
"mucklands," which are north of Lake Apopka, and the the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
flatwoods, which are in eastern Orange County. The Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
eastern one-third of the county is mostly used as into one another as their characteristics gradually
pasture. change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil
Riparian corridors along the St. Johns, Wekiva, and scientists must determine the boundaries between the
Econlockhatchee Rivers provide valuable habitat for soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
wildlife and recreational opportunities. profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented
by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
Recreation are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in
an area and to determine the boundaries.
Celeste Botha, soil conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, So scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
helped to prepare this section. Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
Orange County is one of the most well known and size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
varied recreation and entertainment centers in the rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and
Nation. More than 7.5 million visitors are attracted to the other features that enable them to identify soils. After
area each year. describing the soils in the survey area and determining
Activities range from commercial tourist attractions to their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
sports attractions. Major theme parks and many other taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
attractions are located in the county. Several excellent concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
golf courses are in the area. characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
Water sports facilities are available and plentiful on are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
many of the more than 1,100 lakes in the county. Within systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
Orange County are 13 county parks, 85 city parks, the (32) used in the United States is based mainly on the
Wekiwa Springs State Park, the Rock Springs Run State kind and character of soil properties and the
Reserve, the Tosahatchee State Preserve, and several arrangement of horizons within the profile. After the soil
historical parks or attractions. A major league baseball scientists classified and named the soils in the survey
team conducts its spring training here. The Orange area, they compared the individual soils with similar soils
County Civic Center hosts many cultural events, and the in the same taxonomic class in other areas so that they
area is an active participant in the arts. could confirm data and assemble additional data based
on experience and research.
How This Survey Was Made While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of
the soils in the area are generally collected for laboratory
This survey was made to provide information about the analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists
soils in the survey area. The information includes a interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as
description of the soils and their location and a well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils
of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils
the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general were field tested through observation of the soils in
pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants different uses under different levels of management.
growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
profile extends from the surface down into the sources, such as research information, production
unconsolidated material from which the soil formed. The records, and field experience of specialists. For example,
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other data on crop yields under defined levels of management
living organisms and has not been changed by other were assembled from farm records and from field or plot
biological activity, experiments on the same kinds of soil.







8 Soil Survey


Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a landscape into segments that have similar use and
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have management requirements. The delineation of such
a high water table within certain depths in most years, landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
but they cannot assure that a high water table will information for the development of resource plans, but
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
date. in small areas.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they Use of the Ground-Penetrating Radar
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit. A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system (7, 8, 15,
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, 21) was used to document the type and variability of
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries soils that occur in the detailed soil map units. The GPR
accurately. system was successfully used on all soils to detect the
presence, determine the variability, and measure the
depth to major soil horizons or other soil features. About
Map Unit Composition 518 random transects were made with the GPR in
S. Orange County. Information from notes and ground-truth
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an observations made in the field was used along with radar
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area data from this study to classify the soils and to
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is determine the composition of map units. The map units,
identified and named according to the taxonomic as described in the section entitled "Detailed Soil Map
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a Units," are based on this data and on data in the
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the previous survey.
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural .
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties Information
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if probability that the composition of a map unit or a
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes. In data to determine confidence limits, the natural variability
the detailed soil map units, these latter soils are called of soils and the way soil surveys are made must be
inclusions or included soils. In the general soil map units, considered. The composition of map units and other
they are called soils of minor extent, information is derived largely from extrapolations made
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral from a small sample. The map units contain dissimilar
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in inclusions. Also, information about the soils does not
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and extend below a depth of about 6 feet. The information
management. These are called similar inclusions. They presented in the soil survey is not meant to be used as a
may or may not be mentioned in the map unit substitute for onsite investigations. Soil survey
descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have properties information can be used to select alternative practices or
and behavior different enough to affect use or require general designs that may be needed to minimize the
different management. These are dissimilar inclusions, possibility of soil-related failures. It cannot be used to
They generally occupy small areas and cannot be shown interpret specific points on the landscape.
separately on the soil maps because of the scale used in Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
mapping. The inclusions of dissimilar soils are mentioned units in Orange County were determined by random
in the map unit descriptions. A few inclusions may not transects made with the GPR across mapped areas. The
have been observed, and consequently are not data are presented in the description of each soil under
mentioned in the descriptions, especially where the soil "Detailed Soil Map Units" and summarized in table 3.
pattern was so complex that it was impractical to make Soil scientists made enough transects and took enough
enough observations to identify all of the kinds of soils samples to characterize each map unit at a specific
on the landscape. confidence level. For example, map unit 34 was







8 Soil Survey


Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a landscape into segments that have similar use and
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have management requirements. The delineation of such
a high water table within certain depths in most years, landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
but they cannot assure that a high water table will information for the development of resource plans, but
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
date. in small areas.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they Use of the Ground-Penetrating Radar
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit. A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system (7, 8, 15,
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, 21) was used to document the type and variability of
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries soils that occur in the detailed soil map units. The GPR
accurately. system was successfully used on all soils to detect the
presence, determine the variability, and measure the
depth to major soil horizons or other soil features. About
Map Unit Composition 518 random transects were made with the GPR in
S. Orange County. Information from notes and ground-truth
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an observations made in the field was used along with radar
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area data from this study to classify the soils and to
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is determine the composition of map units. The map units,
identified and named according to the taxonomic as described in the section entitled "Detailed Soil Map
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a Units," are based on this data and on data in the
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the previous survey.
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural .
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties Information
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if probability that the composition of a map unit or a
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes. In data to determine confidence limits, the natural variability
the detailed soil map units, these latter soils are called of soils and the way soil surveys are made must be
inclusions or included soils. In the general soil map units, considered. The composition of map units and other
they are called soils of minor extent, information is derived largely from extrapolations made
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral from a small sample. The map units contain dissimilar
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in inclusions. Also, information about the soils does not
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and extend below a depth of about 6 feet. The information
management. These are called similar inclusions. They presented in the soil survey is not meant to be used as a
may or may not be mentioned in the map unit substitute for onsite investigations. Soil survey
descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have properties information can be used to select alternative practices or
and behavior different enough to affect use or require general designs that may be needed to minimize the
different management. These are dissimilar inclusions, possibility of soil-related failures. It cannot be used to
They generally occupy small areas and cannot be shown interpret specific points on the landscape.
separately on the soil maps because of the scale used in Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
mapping. The inclusions of dissimilar soils are mentioned units in Orange County were determined by random
in the map unit descriptions. A few inclusions may not transects made with the GPR across mapped areas. The
have been observed, and consequently are not data are presented in the description of each soil under
mentioned in the descriptions, especially where the soil "Detailed Soil Map Units" and summarized in table 3.
pattern was so complex that it was impractical to make Soil scientists made enough transects and took enough
enough observations to identify all of the kinds of soils samples to characterize each map unit at a specific
on the landscape. confidence level. For example, map unit 34 was







8 Soil Survey


Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a landscape into segments that have similar use and
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have management requirements. The delineation of such
a high water table within certain depths in most years, landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
but they cannot assure that a high water table will information for the development of resource plans, but
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
date. in small areas.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they Use of the Ground-Penetrating Radar
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit. A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system (7, 8, 15,
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads, 21) was used to document the type and variability of
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries soils that occur in the detailed soil map units. The GPR
accurately. system was successfully used on all soils to detect the
presence, determine the variability, and measure the
depth to major soil horizons or other soil features. About
Map Unit Composition 518 random transects were made with the GPR in
S. Orange County. Information from notes and ground-truth
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an observations made in the field was used along with radar
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area data from this study to classify the soils and to
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is determine the composition of map units. The map units,
identified and named according to the taxonomic as described in the section entitled "Detailed Soil Map
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a Units," are based on this data and on data in the
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the previous survey.
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural .
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their Confidence Limits of Soil Survey
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties Information
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic Confidence limits are statistical expressions of the
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if probability that the composition of a map unit or a
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of property of the soil will vary within prescribed limits.
other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit Confidence limits can be assigned numerical values
is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and based on a random sample. In the absence of specific
some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes. In data to determine confidence limits, the natural variability
the detailed soil map units, these latter soils are called of soils and the way soil surveys are made must be
inclusions or included soils. In the general soil map units, considered. The composition of map units and other
they are called soils of minor extent, information is derived largely from extrapolations made
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral from a small sample. The map units contain dissimilar
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in inclusions. Also, information about the soils does not
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and extend below a depth of about 6 feet. The information
management. These are called similar inclusions. They presented in the soil survey is not meant to be used as a
may or may not be mentioned in the map unit substitute for onsite investigations. Soil survey
descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have properties information can be used to select alternative practices or
and behavior different enough to affect use or require general designs that may be needed to minimize the
different management. These are dissimilar inclusions, possibility of soil-related failures. It cannot be used to
They generally occupy small areas and cannot be shown interpret specific points on the landscape.
separately on the soil maps because of the scale used in Specific confidence limits for the composition of map
mapping. The inclusions of dissimilar soils are mentioned units in Orange County were determined by random
in the map unit descriptions. A few inclusions may not transects made with the GPR across mapped areas. The
have been observed, and consequently are not data are presented in the description of each soil under
mentioned in the descriptions, especially where the soil "Detailed Soil Map Units" and summarized in table 3.
pattern was so complex that it was impractical to make Soil scientists made enough transects and took enough
enough observations to identify all of the kinds of soils samples to characterize each map unit at a specific
on the landscape. confidence level. For example, map unit 34 was







Orange County, Florida 9



characterized at an 80 percent confidence level based composition will fall within the given range. The map unit
on the transect data. The resulting composition would is named for the taxon of the dominant soil or soils. The
read: In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Pomello fine proportion of similar and dissimilar soils is also given.
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Pomello soil and similar Each soil listed by name in the table is described in the
soils make up 78 to 94 percent of the delineation. In the section "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
remaining 20 percent of the areas of this map unit, the The percent composition of the map units is given in
percentage of Pomello soil and similar soils may be table 3. Those taxonomic units (soil series) identified on
higher than 94 percent or lower than 78 percent. the transects of the selected map units are divided into
Inversely, dissimilar soils make up 6 to 22 percent of two categories: named soils and similar soils and
most mapped areas. dissimilar soils. The soils listed in the named soils and
The composition of miscellaneous areas and urban similar soils column are in the same soil management
map units was based on the judgment of the soil group. The soils listed in the dissimilar soils column are
scientist and was not determined by a statistical different in use and management from the named and
procedure. similar soils of the map unit. Each soil listed in the table
Table 3 presents the average composition of the map is described in the section "Soil Series and Their
units and expresses the probability that the average Morphology."



















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication Lake County line to just south of the city of Lake Apopka
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of and south of Johns Lake to the Osecola County line.
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general The natural vegetation is bluejack oak, live oak, and
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map turkey oak. The understory includes chalky bluestem,
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor lopsided indiangrass, hairy panicum, and pineland
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up threeawn.
one unit can occur in other units but in a different This map unit makes up about 9 percent of Orange
pattern. County. It is about 70 percent Candler soils and 30
The general soil map can be used to compare the percent soils of minor extent.
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of Typically, Candler soils have a surface layer of very
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, dark grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for 30 inches, is yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part,
planning the management of a farm or field or for to a depth of about 74 inches, is brownish yellow fine
selecting a site for a road or a building or other structure. sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is yellow
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place fine sand that has strong brown loamy sand lamellae.
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that The lamellae are about one-sixteenth to a quarter of an
affect management. inch thick and from 2 to 6 inches long.
A few of the boundaries on the general soil maps of Of minor extent in this map unit are Apopka, Lake,
Orange County do not match those on the general soil Lochloosa, Millhopper, Tavares, and St. Lucie soils.
maps of adjacent counties, and some of the named soils Most soils in this map unit are used for citrus crops. In
and descriptions do not fully agree. The differences are some areas, they are used for improved pasture or for
the result of improvements in the classification of soils, homesite and urban development.
particularly modification or refinements in soil series
concepts. Also, there may be differences in the intensity 2. Candler-Urban land-Tavares
of mapping or in the extent of the soils within the survey
area. Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained and
moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout;
Soils of the Uplands and Low Ridges many areas have been modified for urban use
This group consists of nearly level to strongly sloping, The soils in this map unit are in broad upland areas
excessively drained, moderately well drained, and and on ridges. Lakes, ponds, and sinkholes are common
somewhat poorly drained soils. These soils are on the in some areas. These soils are scattered in the western
uplands, on low ridges and knolls on the uplands, and on half of Orange County on the Mount Dora Ridge and the
low ridges adjacent to the flatwoods. Most areas have Orlando Ridge. Candler soils are nearly level to strongly
been modified for urban use or for growing citrus crops. sloping and are excessively drained. Tavares soils are
These soils are scattered throughout the western half of nearly level to gently sloping and are moderately well
the county. Four general soil map units are in this group. drained.
The existing natural vegetation is bluejack oak, live
1. Candler oak, and turkey oak. The understory consists of chalky
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, hairy panicum, pineland
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained soils threeawn, and annual forbs.
that are sandy throughout This map unit makes up about 2 percent of Orange
The soils in this map unit are in broad upland areas County. It is about 32 percent Candler soils, 26 percent
and on ridges. Lakes, ponds, and sinkholes are common Urban land, 19 percent Tavares soils, and 23 percent
in some areas. These soils are extensive in the soils of minor extent.
northwest part of Orange County on the Mount Dora Typically, Candler soils have a surface layer of very
Ridge and the Lake Wales Ridge. They extend from the dark grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The







12 Soil Survey



subsurface layer, to a depth of about 67 inches, is very Most of the acreage in this map unit is used for
pale brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 80 houses, large buildings, shopping centers, golf courses,
inches is very pale brown fine sand that has thin, and related urban uses (fig. 3). Part of the cities of
continuous yellowish brown loamy sand lamellae. The Apopka and Orlando have been developed on the soils
lamellae are about one-sixteenth to a quarter of an inch in this map unit. Natural vegetation thrives only in small
thick and from 2 to 35 inches long. areas scattered throughout the map unit. Farming is of
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by little importance because of the extensive urban
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces development. Numerous nurseries produce plants for
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification landscaping.
is not feasible.
Typically, Tavares soils have a surface layer of dark 3. Tavares-Zolfo-Millhopper
gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
the underlying material, to a depth of about 10 inches, is and somewhat poorly drained soils; some are sandy
grayish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of throughout and do not have a subsoil; some are sandy
about 48 inches, is pale brown fine sand. The lower part throughout and have an organic-stained subsoil; some
to a depth of about 80 inches is very pale brown fine are sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches and are
sand that has common dark brown mottles. loamy below
Of minor extent in this map unit are Apopka, Lake, The soils in this map unit are on low ridges and knolls
Lochloosa, Millhopper, and St. Lucie soils. in the upland areas and on the flatwoods, and they are



































Figure 3.-This housing development is in an area of the Candler-Urban land-Tavares map unit.







Orange County, Florida 13


in slightly higher areas adjacent to the flatwoods. 4. Urban land-Tavares-Pomello
Scattered sinkholes and numerous lakes and ponds are
in this map unit. These soils are extensive in the western Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
half of Orange County on the Mount Dora Ridge, the soils that are sandy throughout; some have an organic-
Orlando Ridge, and Lake Wales Ridge and in scattered stained subsoil at a depth of 30 to 50 inches; most areas
areas of the Osceola Plain. Tavares and Millhopper soils have been modified for urban use
are nearly level to gently sloping and are moderately well The soils in this map unit are on low ridges and knolls
drained. Tavares soils are on low ridges and knolls in in the upland areas and on the flatwoods. A few short,
upland areas. Millhopper soils are on low ridges and steep slopes are near scattered sinkholes and numerous
knolls on the flatwoods. Zolfo soils are nearly level and lakes, ponds, and wet areas. These soils are in the
are somewhat poorly drained. They are in broad, slightly north-central part of Orange County on the Orlando
higher areas adjacent to the flatwoods. Ridge. Several small areas of these soils are scattered
The natural vegetation is bluejack oak, turkey oak, live on the Lake Wales Ridge and Osceola Plain in the
oak, water oak, laurel oak, slash pine, and longleaf pine. western part of Orange County.
The understory includes creeping bluestem, lopsided The existing natural vegetation is slash pine, bluejack
indiangrass, grassleaf goldaster, and pineland threeawn.
This map unit makes up about 12 percent of Orange oak, turkey oak, live oak, scattered san pine, and
County. It is about 37 percent Tavares soils and similar longleaf pine. The understory includes saw palmetto,
soils, 22 percent Zolfo soils and similar soils, 12 percent creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, grassleaf
Millhopper soils and similar soils, and 29 percent soils of goldaster, and pineland threeawn.
minor extent. This map unit makes up about 6 percent of Orange
Typically, Tavares soils have a surface layer of very County. It is about 40 percent Urban land, 26 percent
dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part Tavares soils and similar soils, 16 percent Pomello soils
of the underlying material, to a depth of about 16 inches, and similar soils, and 18 percent soils of minor extent.
is brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of about The Urban land part of this complex is covered by
41 inches, is pale brown fine sand. The lower part to a concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces
depth of about 80 inches or more is white fine sand. that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification
Soils similar to Tavares soils are Archbold and is not feasible.
Florahome soils. Typically, Tavares soils have a surface layer of dark
Typically, Zolfo soils have a surface layer of dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of
grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The upper the underlying material, to a depth of about 10 inches, is
part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 23 grayish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of
inches, is grayish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a about 48 inches, is pale brown fine sand. The lower part
depth of 38 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The to a depth of about 80 inches is very pale brown fine
lower part, to a depth of about 55 inches, is very pale sand. Soils similar to Tavares soils are Florahome and
brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a Seffner soils.
depth of about 71 inches, is brown fine sand. The lower Typically, Pomello soils have a surface layer of dark
part to a depth of about 80 inches or more is dark brown gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
fine sand. Soils similar to Zolfo soils are Pomello soils layer, to a depth of about 42 inches, is white fine sand.
that are moderately well drained. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 48
Typically, Millhopper soils have a surface layer of dark inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The lower part,
grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper to a depth of about 54 inches, is dark brown fine sand.
part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 42 to a depth of about 54 inches, is dark brown fine sand.light
inches, is light yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part, The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is light
to a depth of about 66 inches, is very pale brown fine gray fine sand. Soils similar to Pomello soils are Zolfo
sand that has yellowish brown mottles. The upper part of soils.
the subsoil, to a depth of about 78 inches, is brownish Of minor extent are Archbold, Basinger, Candler,
yellow sandy loam. The lower part to a depth of about Lochloosa, Millhopper, and Smyrna soils.
80 inches or more is light gray sandy clay loam that has Most of the acreage in this map unit is used for
yellowish brown and yellowish red mottles. Soils similar houses, large buildings, shopping centers, golf courses,
to Millhopper soils are Apopka and Lochloosa soils. and related urban uses. Natural vegetation thrives only in
Of minor extent in this map unit are Basinger, Candler, a few areas in this map unit. Farming is of little
and Smyrna soils, importance because of the extensive urban
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are used for development. Numerous nurseries produce plants for
citrus crops (fig. 4) or pasture or for homesite and urban landscaping. Part of the cities of Orlando, Maitland, and
development. In some areas, these soils are used for Ocoee have been developed on these soils.
cultivated crops.







14 Soil Survey




































Figure 4.-Oranges are being harvested in an area of the Tavares-Zolfo-Millhopper map unit.



Soils of the Flatwoods, Low Ridges, and The soils in this map unit are in the broad flatwood
Knolls areas interspersed with low ridges and knolls. Shallow
depressions and poorly defined drainageways are
This group consists of nearly level to gently sloping, scattered throughout some areas. These soils are
poorly drained, moderately well drained, and very poorly scattered throughout the county but are most extensive
drained soils. They are on the flatwoods and on low on the Osceola Plain in an area south and east of Union
ridges and knolls on the flatwoods. These soils are Park, in an area south of Lake Pickett, and in the area of
scattered throughout the county, but they are most Christmas extending north to the Seminole County line.
extensive in the eastern half of the county. Four general Smyrna and Immokalee soils are nearly level and are
soil map units are in this group. poorly drained. They are on broad flatwoods. Pomello
soils are nearly level to gently sloping and are
5. Smyrna-Pomello-Immokalee moderately well drained. They are on low ridges and
.knolls on the flatwoods.
Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained and knolrs o S andmmokalee te enatural

some have an organic-stained subsoil at a depth of less vegetateon is longleaf pine and slash pine. The
than 30 inches; some have an organic-stained subsoil at understory includes saw palmetto, pineland threeawn,
a death of 0 to inches nkberry, and runnn oak. In areas of Pomello soils the
-.





-








1-




Figure 4O--Oranges are being harvested in an area of the Tavares-Zolfo-Millhopper map unit.



Soils of the Flatwoods, Low Ridges, and The soils in this map unit are in the broad flatwood
Knolls areas interspersed with low ridges and knolls. Shallow
depressions and poorly defined drainageways are
This group consists of nearly level to gently sloping, scattered throughout some areas. These soils are
poorly drained, moderately well drained, and very poorly scattered throughout the county but are most extensive
drained soils. They are on the flatwoods and on low on the Osceola Plain in an area south and east of Union
ridges and knolls on the flatwoods. These soils are Park, in an area south of Lake Pickett, and in the area of
scattered throughout the county, but they are most Christmas extending north to the Seminole County line.
extensive in the eastern half of the county. Four general Smyrna and Immokalee soils are nearly level and are
soil map units are in this group, poorly drained. They are on broad flatwoods. Pomello
soils are nearly level to gently sloping and are
5. Smyrna-Pomello-lmmokalee moderately well drained. They are on low ridges and
knolls on the flatwoods.
Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained and In areas of Smyrna and Immokalee soils, the natural
moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout;
some have an organic-stained subsoil at a depth of less vegetation is Iongleaf pine and slash pine. The
than 30 inches; some have an organic-stained subsoil at understory includes saw palmetto, pineland threeawn,
a depth of 30 to 50 inches inkberry, and running oak. In areas of Pomello soils, the







Orange County, Florida 15



natural vegetation is mostly longleaf pine, sand pine, and threeawn, bluestem, inkberry, and running oak. In areas
slash pine. The understory includes waxmyrtle, saw of Basinger soils, the natural vegetation consists of
palmetto, fetterbush, creeping bluestem, chalky mixed stands of pondcypress, sweetgum, scattered pond
bluestem, pineland threeawn, and running oak. pine, and black tupelo. The understory includes blue
This map unit makes up about 12 percent of Orange maidencane, chalky bluestem, and other water-tolerant
County. It is about 42 percent Smyrna soils, 22 percent grasses and sedges.
Pomello soils, 18 percent Immokalee soils, and 18 This map unit makes up about 31 percent of Orange
percent soils of minor extent. County. It is 44 percent Smyrna soils, 12 percent
Typically, Smyrna soils have a surface layer of black Basinger soils, 12 percent St. Johns soils, and 32
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to percent soils of minor extent.
a depth of about 17 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper Typically, Smyrna soils have a surface layer of black
part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 22 inches, is fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
black fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 27 a depth of about 17 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper
inches, is dark brown fine sand. The upper part of the part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 22 inches, is
substratum, to a depth of about 53 inches, is pale brown black fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 27
fine sand. The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches inches, is dark brown fine sand. The upper part of the
is light gray fine sand. substratum, to a depth of about 53 inches, is pale brown
Typically, Pomello soils have a surface layer of gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is light
fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to gray fine sand.
depth of about 40 inches, is white fine sand. The upper Typically, Basinger soils have a surface layer of black
part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 48 inches, is fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
black fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 55 a depth of 32 inches, is gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a
inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The substratum depth of about 47 inches, is dark brown and light
to a depth of about 80 inches is pale brown fine sand. brownish gray fine sand. The substratum to a depth of
Typically, Immokalee soils have a surface layer of about 80 inches is pale brown fine sand.
black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The upper part of Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of St.
the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 18 inches, is Johns soils is black fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of lower part, to a depth of 12 inches, is very dark gray fine
about 35 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part sand. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 24
of the subsoil, to a depth of about 41 inches, is black inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil,
fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of 48 inches, is to a depth of about 30 inches, is black fine sand. The
dark brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of middle part, to a depth of about 36 inches, is dark
about 67 inches, is brown fine sand. The substratum to a reddish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of
depth of about 80 inches is light brownish gray fine sand. about 44 inches, is brown fine sand. The upper part of
Of minor extent in this map unit are Archbold, the substratum, to a depth of about 58 inches, is light
Basinger, Ona, Pineda, Pompano, Samsula, Tavares, gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of about 80
and Wabasso soils. inches is pale brown fine sand.
In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left Of minor extent in this map unit are Hontoon,
in native vegetation. A few areas are used for cultivated Immokalee, Ona, Pomello, Samsula, St. Lucie, Wabasso,
crops, improved pasture, or citrus crops or for homesite and Zolfo soils.
and urban development.
and urban development. In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left
6. Smyrna-Basinger-St. Johns in native vegetation (fig. 5). Some areas are used for
native pasture, and a few areas are used for improved
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained soils pasture grasses.
that are sandy throughout; some have an organic-stained
subsoil at a depth of less than 30 inches 7. Urban land-Smyrna-Pomello
The soils in this map unit are in broad, flatwood areas
interspersed with many broad sloughs, depressions, and Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained and
poorly defined drainageways. These soils are extensive moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout;
on the Osceola Plain. Smyrna and St. Johns soils are some have an organic-stained subsoil at a depth of less
poorly drained. These soils are on the broad flatwoods. than 30 inches; some have an organic-stained subsoil at
Basinger soils are very poorly drained. They are in a depth of 30 to 50 inches; most areas have been
depressions and sloughs and along the edges of modified for urban use
freshwater marshes and swamps. The soils in this map unit are in broad, flatwood areas
In areas of Smyrna and St. Johns soils, the natural interspersed with low ridges and knolls. Shallow
vegetation is longleaf pine and slash pine. The depressions and poorly defined drainageways are
understory includes waxmyrtle, saw palmetto, pineland scattered throughout some areas. These soils are







16 Soil Survey



































Figure 5.-The soils in the Smyrna-Basinger-St. Johns map unit are mainly used as pasture. Smyrna and St. Johns soils are in the broad
flatwood areas, and Basinger soils are in the pounded depressions



scattered throughout the western half of the county on that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification
the Osceola Plain. Smyrna soils are nearly level and are is not feasible.
poorly drained. They are on the broad flatwoods. Typically, Smyrna soils have a surface layer of black
Pomello soils are nearly level to gently sloping and are fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
moderately well drained. They are on low ridges and a depth of about 18 inches, is light gray fine sand. The
knolls on the flatwoods. upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 22 inches,
The existing natural vegetation is longleaf pine and is black fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 28
slash pine. The understory includes saw palmetto, inches, is dark brown fine sand. The upper part of the
lopsided indiangrass, creeping bluestem, pineland substratum, to a depth of about 50 inches, is grayish
threeawn, inkberry, and running oak. brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of about 80
This map unit makes up about 7 percent of Orange inches is pale brown fine sand.
County. It is about 33 percent Urban land, 28 percent Typically, Pomello soils have a surface layer of dark
Smyrna soils, 10 percent Pomello soils, and 29 percent gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
soils of minor extent. layer, to a depth of about 42 inches, is white fine sand.
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 48
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The lower part,
to a depth of about 54 inches is dark brown fine sand.
e 7 -LI 4














Fi-.gure ..oitJ s p i r a y e s s. John soil'-s in. the-_ roa







the Osceola Plain. Smyrna soils are nearly level and are is not feasible.
poorly drained. They are on the broad flatwoods. Typically, Smyna soils have a surface layer of black










soils of minor extent. layer, to a depth of about 42 inches, is white fine sand.
the Urban land part of this complex is covered by The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 48
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The lower part,
to a depth of about 54 inches, is dark brown fine sand.







Orange County, Florida 17



The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is light 8. Malabar-Felda
gray fine sand.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Archbold, Nearly level, poorly drained soils; some are sandy to a
Basinger, Ona, Pompano, Samsula, Tavares, Wabasso, depth of more than 40 inches and are loamy below;
and Zolfo soils. some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and are
Most of the acreage in this map unit is used for loamy below
houses, large buildings, shopping centers, and related The soils in this map unit are in low, broad to narrow,
urban uses (fig. 6). Most of the natural vegetation has poorly defined drainageways on the flatwoods that are
been removed. Farming is of little importance because of interspersed with sloughs and broad flats. These soils
the extensive urban development. are dominantly in the eastern part of the county adjacent
to the St. Johns River flood plain. Malabar soils are in
low, narrow to broad sloughs and poorly defined










































Figure 6.-The diversified recreational facilities and an ideal climate have promoted urban development throughout the county. This
development is in an area of the Urban land-Smyrna-Pomello map unit.
development is in an area of the Urban land-Smyrna-Pomello map unit.







18 Soil Survey



drainageways on the flatwoods. Felda soils are in low, The natural vegetation consists of mixed stands of
broad, poorly defined drainageways on the flatwoods. cypress, red maple, sweetgum, and black tupelo. The
The natural vegetation is slash pine and cabbage understory includes cutgrass, maidencane, Jamaica
palm. The understory includes saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, sawgrass, sedges, ferns, and other water-tolerant
pineland threeawn, sand cordgrass, blue maidencane, grasses.
bluestem, low panicum, and weeds and grasses. This map unit makes up about 7 percent of Orange
This map unit makes up about 5 percent of Orange County. It is about 45 percent Samsula soils, 26 percent
County. It is about 74 percent Malabar soils, 10 percent Hontoon soils, 10 percent Basinger soils, and about 19
Felda soils, and 16 percent soils of minor extent. percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, Malabar soils have a surface layer of black Typically, Samsula soils have a surface layer of black
fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to and dark reddish brown muck about 34 inches thick. The
a depth of about 18 inches, is grayish brown fine sand. next layer, to a depth of about 40 inches, is black fine
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 30 inches, is sand. The underlying material to a depth of about 80
light yellowish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a inches is light gray fine sand.
depth of about 42 inches, is light gray fine sand. The Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of
lower part, to a depth of about 58 inches, is gray fine Hontoon soil is black muck about 16 inches thick. The
sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of about 80 lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is very dark
inches is gray loamy sand. brown muck.
Typically, Felda soils have a surface layer of black fine Typically, Basinger soils have a surface layer of black
sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of the fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 10 inches, is a depth of about 25 inches, is gray fine sand. The
grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of subsoil, to a depth of about 35 inches, is dark reddish
about 22 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The brown and grayish brown fine sand. The substratum to a
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 31 inches, depth of about 80 inches is light gray fine sand.
is gray sandy loam. The lower part, to a depth of about Of minor extent in this map unit are Holopaw,
53 inches, is gray sandy clay loam. The substratum to a Immokalee, Ona, St. Johns, Sanibel, and Smyrna soils.
depth of about 80 inches is greenish gray loamy sand. In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left
Of minor extent in this map unit are Floridana, in natural vegetation. Some areas have been drained
Holopaw, Pineda, and Wabasso soils. and are used for improved pasture. In other areas, fill
In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left material has been added and the areas are used for
in natural vegetation. A few areas are used for improved homesite and urban development.
pasture or cultivated crops or for homesite and urban
development. 10. Gator-Terra Ceia

Soils of the Swamps, Sloughs, and Flood Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are subject to
Plains ponding; in some soils, the organic material is 16 to 51
inches thick underlain by loamy material; in some, the
This group consists of nearly level, poorly drained and organic material is more than 51 inches thick; some
very poorly drained soils. They are on flood plains and in areas are drained by ditches and canals equipped with
poorly defined drainageways, freshwater swamps, and water control structures
depressions. These soils are scattered throughout the The soils in this map unit are in freshwater swamps
county. Three general soil map units are in this group. and marshes. Large ditches and canals are common in
most areas. Water control structures have been installed
9. Samsula-Hontoon-Basinger in these ditches and canals. These soils are north of
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are subject to Lake Apopka in the Central Valley, which is in the
ponding; in some soils, the organic material is 16 to 51 western part of Orange County.
inches thick underlain by sandy material; in some, the The existing natural vegetation is buttonbush, Carolina
organic material is more than 51 inches thick; some are willow, primrose willow, common cattail, maidencane,
sandy throughout Jamaica sawgrass, and other water-tolerant grasses.
The soils in this map unit are in freshwater swamps, This map unit makes up about 2 percent of Orange
depressions, sloughs, and broad, poorly defined County. It is about 46 percent Gator soils, 36 percent
drainageways on the flatwoods. Lakes and ponds are Terra Ceia soils, and 18 percent soils of minor extent.
common in some areas. These soils are scattered Typically, Gator soils have a surface layer of black
throughout the county, but they are most extensive on muck about 28 inches thick. The upper part of the
the Osceola Plain south of the Bee Line Expressway, in underlying material, to a depth of about 37 inches, is
the Lake Hart and Lake Mary Jane areas, and adjacent dark olive gray fine sandy loam. The lower part to a
to Lake Apopka, Bay Lake, and Lake Sheen. depth of 80 inches or more is light gray sandy clay loam







Orange County, Florida 19



that has few to common light gray calcium carbonate have a loamy subsoil; some are loamy throughout; most
accumulations. areas are subject to frequent flooding
Typically, Terra Ceia soils have a surface layer of The soils in this map unit are on the flood plains of the
black muck about 9 inches thick. Below that layer, to a St. Johns and Wekiva Rivers and their major tributaries.
depth of about 74 inches, is dark brown muck. The Many areas are isolated by meandering stream
underlying material to a depth of about 80 inches is light channels. Excess water ponds in low-lying areas for very
gray sandy clay loam. long periods after heavy rains. Floridana and Chobee
Of minor extent in this map unit are Canova, Felda, ol erpooy raine Feda a poorly
and Okeelanta soils. soils are very poorly drained, and Felda soils are poorly
In most areas, the soils in this map unit that have drained.
been artificially drained are used for cultivated crops, The natural vegetation is baldcypress, water oak,
been artificially drainedCoastal Plain willow, red maple, sweetgum, and
mainly cabbage, celery, endives (fig. 7), lettuce, and Coastal Plain wllowred maple, sweetgum, and
radishes. In other areas, fill material has been added and scattered cabbage palm. The understory includes
these areas are used for urban development. In some buttonbush, maidencane, sawgrass, smartweed, sedges,
areas, the soils have been left in native vegetation, and other water-tolerant plants.
This map unit makes up about 7 percent of Orange
11. Floridana-Felda-Chobee County. It is about 39 percent Floridana soils, 28 percent
Felda soils, 16 percent Chobee soils, and 17 percent
Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained soils of minor extent.
soils; some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and









-- .
--. -" ",." "-..b -~L ~





















Figure 7.-The soils in the Gator-Terra Ceia map unit are used mainly for cultivated crops, such as this crop of endives that is being
harvested.







20



Typically, Floridana soils have a surface layer of black sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of about 80
fine sand about 14 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to inches is light gray fine sand.
a depth of 28 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of Typically, Chobee soils have a surface layer of black
the subsoil, to a depth of about 41 inches, is dark gray fine sandy loam about 12 inches thick. The upper part of
sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a depth of about 53 the subsoil, to a depth of about 38 inches, is dark gray
inches, is grayish brown sandy clay loam. The sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a depth of about 56
substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray inches, is grayish brown sandy clay loam. The
loamy fine sand. substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray
Typically, Felda soils have a surface layer of very dark fine sand.
gray fine sand about 3 inches thick. The upper part of Of minor extent in this map unit are Emeralda, Gator,
the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 10 inches, is
dark gray fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 24 Holopaw, Pineda, and Pompano soils.
inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left
to a depth of 36 inches, is gray sandy clay loam. The in natural vegetation. A few areas are used for improved
lower part, to a depth of 47 inches, is grayish brown fine pasture.







21








Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of uses in the survey area, it was not considered practical
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. Table or necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern
3 gives the average composition of selected map units and relative proportion of the soils are somewhat similar.
as determined by the Ground-Penetrating Radar and Samsula-Hontoon-Basinger association, depressional, is
other transect methods. The map units in this section an example.
are based on this data and on data in the previous An undifferentiated group is made up of two or more
survey. The map unit descriptions in this section, along soils that could be mapped individually but are mapped
with the soil maps, can be used to determine the as one unit because similar interpretations can be made
suitability and potential of a soil for specific uses. They for use and management. The pattern and proportion of
also can be used to plan the management needed for the soils in a mapped area are not uniform. An area can
those uses. More information on each map unit, or soil, be made up of only one of the major soils, or it can be
is given under "Use and Management of the Soils." made up of all of them. Floridana and Chobee soils,
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an frequently flooded, is an undifferentiated group in this
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils survey area.
for which the unit is named. Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes of these included soils have properties that differ
general facts about the soil and gives the principal substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for differences could significantly affect use and
specific uses. management of the soils in the map unit. The included
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of a special symbol on the soil maps.
a series have major horizons that are similar in This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
composition, thickness, and arrangement, have little or no soil material and support little or no
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface vegetation. Urban land is an example. Miscellaneous
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
slope, wetness, degree of erosion, and other small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
characteristics that affect their use. On the basis of such the soil maps.
differences, a soil series is divided into soilphases. Most Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
of the areas shown on the detailed soil maps are phases each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
of soil series. The name of a soil phase commonly give properties of the soils and the limitations,
indicates a feature that affects use or management. For capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
example, Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
one of several phases in the Candler series. A few of the boundaries on the soil maps of Orange
Some map units are made up of two or more major County do not match those on the soil maps of adjacent
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, soil counties, and some of the soil names and descriptions
associations, or undifferentiated groups. do not fully agree. The differences are the result of
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such improvements in the classification of soils, particularly
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they modification or refinements in soil series concepts. Also,
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The there may be differences in the intensity of mapping or in
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar the extent of the soils within the survey area.
in all areas. Candler-Apopka fine sands, 5 to 12 percent
slopes, is an example. 1-Arents, nearly level. Arents consists of material
A soil association is made up of two or more dug from several areas that have different kinds of soil.
geographically associated soils that are shown as one This fill material is the result of earth moving operations.
unit on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil This soil is used to fill such areas as sloughs, marshes,







22 Soil Survey



shallow depressions, swamps, and other low-lying areas Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine
above their natural ground levels during land-leveling sand about 2 inches thick. The underlying material to a
operations; or it is used as a cover for sanitary landfills. depth of about 80 inches is white fine sand. In the
The slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to mapped areas are similar soils, but they have light
2 percent, yellowish brown, pale brown, or brown sand or fine sand
In many areas, this soil has a surface layer about 30 in the underlying material.
to 50 inches thick. It is very dark gray, dark gray, dark Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Pomello soils
grayish brown, and yellowish brown fine sand or sand in small areas. Also included are some dissimilar soils
mixed with discontinuous grayish brown and light that have a subsoil within 30 inches of the surface.
brownish gray loamy-textured fragments. Fragments and In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a
thin discontinuous lenses of a dark color sandy subsoil depth of 42 to 60 inches for about 6 months, and it
are also scattered throughout the matrix. Below that recedes to a depth of 60 to 80 inches for the rest of the
layer is undisturbed soil that extends to a depth of 80 year. It is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for about 1
inches. The upper part of the undisturbed soil, to a depth month to 4 months during wet periods. It recedes to a
of 52 inches, is generally black fine sand. The middle depth of more than 80 inches during extended dry
part, to a depth of 72 inches, is light gray or gray fine periods. The permeability is very rapid throughout. The
sand. The lower part is black or very dark brown sand. available water capacity is very low. Natural fertility and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of the organic matter content are very low.
soils that are similar to Arents soil except they have In most areas, this Archbold soil has been left in
slopes of more than 2 percent, which is a result of natural vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for improved
pasture or for homesite and urban development. The
stockpiling. Also included are areas that are used as pasture or for homesite and urban development. The
sanitary landfills and contain up to 50 percent solid natural vegetation is scattered slash pine, sand pine, and
waste materials stratified with layers of soil material sand live oak. The understory includes pineland
threeawn, pricklypear cactus, saw palmetto, and various
These areas are delineated as "Sanitary landfill" on the rawn rlaalmetto, an various
soil map. In some areas, the fill material contains In its natural state, this soil is poorly suited to most
ragmens of shells whole shells, and aIn its natural state, this soil is poorly suited to most
fragments of shells, whole shells, and a few rock cultivated crops. It is fairly well suited to citrus crops in
fragments. The included soils make up less than 10 areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures
percent of the map unit. and where intensive management practices are used.
Most soil properties are variable. A seasonal high Management practices should include the installation of
water table varies with the amount of fill material and an irrigation system and regular applications of fertilizer
artificial drainage in any mapped area. In most years, a and lime. A close-growing cover crop between tree rows
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 24 to 36 is needed to protect the soil from blowing. Soil-improving
inches for 2 to 4 months. It recedes to a depth of about crops and crop residue should be used to control
60 inches or more during extended dry periods. Soil erosion and maintain the content of organic matter in the
reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline. soil. It is generally feasible to irrigate crops if water is
Onsite investigation is recommended for all uses. readily available.
The soil in this map unit is used mainly for urban This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture grasses.
development. In a few areas, it is used for improved Intensive management practices are needed to
pasture. The existing vegetation is slash pine and overcome soil limitations, which include droughtiness
various scattered weeds. Some small areas have natural and low fertility. Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal
vegetation consisting of cabbage palm, saw palmetto, bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are better
waxmyrtle, Brazilian pepper, greenbrier, and various adapted to this soil than most other grasses.
weeds and grasses. The suitability of the soil in this map Management practices should include regular
unit varies according to the individual site. applications of fertilizer and lime, proper stocking, and
Arents has not been assigned to a capability subclass pasture rotation.
or to a woodland group. The potential of this soil for the production of pine
trees is moderately high. Seedling mortality and
2-Archbold fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This equipment use are the main concerns in management.
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well Sand pine and slash pine are adapted trees to plant on
drained. It is on low ridges and knolls on the flatwoods. this soil.
The slopes are smooth to convex. This soil is well suited to dwellings without basements,
In 90 percent of areas mapped as Archbold fine sand, small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
0 to 5 percent slopes, Archbold soil and similar soils No corrective measures are needed.
make up 83 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. This soil has severe limitations for septic tank
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 17 percent of the mapped absorption fields and for recreational uses. Water control
areas. measures should be used for septic tank absorption







Orange County, Florida 23



fields. When installing a septic tank absorption field on Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to most
this soil, the proximity to a stream or canal should be cultivated crops or pasture because of ponding. In most
considered to prevent lateral seepage and ground water areas, a drainage system is difficult to establish because
pollution. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a suitable drainage outlets are not available. However, this
community sewage system can help prevent soil is moderately suited to vegetable crops if a water
contamination of the water supplies. The sandy surface control system is installed to remove excess water
layer should be stabilized for recreational uses. rapidly and if soil-improving measures and other
This soil has severe limitations for sewage lagoons, management practices, such as crop rotation and
trench sanitary landfills, and shallow excavations. The seedbed preparation, are used. Seedbed preparation
sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon or trench sanitary should include the bedding of rows. Soil-improving cover
landfill with impervious soil material can reduce crops and crop residue should be used to protect the
excessive seepage. The sidewalls of shallow soil from wind erosion and maintain the content of
excavations should be shored. organic matter. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
This Archbold soil is in capability subclass Vis. The according to the need of the crop.
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 3S. Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to citrus
trees. It is poorly suited to this use even if intensive
3-Basinger fine sand, depressional. This soil is management practices are used and if the water control
nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in shallow system is adequate.
depressions and sloughs and along the edges of This soil is fairly suited to improved pasture grasses if
freshwater marshes and swamps. Undrained areas are intensive management practices and soil-improving
ponded for 6 to 9 months or more each year. The slopes measures are used and if a water control system is
are concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. installed. Pangolagrass and improved bahiagrass grow
In 90 percent of areas mapped as Basinger fine sand, well if properly managed. Water control measures are
depressional, Basinger soil and similar soils make up 73 needed to remove the excess surface water after heavy
to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
up 1 to 27 percent of the mapped areas. needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine vigor.
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a The potential of this soil for the production of pine
depth of 32 inches, is gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a trees is low. Slash pine and pond pine are adapted trees
depth of about 47 inches, is dark brown and light to plant on this soil. A water control system should be
brownish gray fine sand. The substratum to a depth of installed before trees are planted. Equipment use,
about 80 inches is pale brown fine sand. In the mapped seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main
areas are similar soils, but they have a surface layer concerns in management.
more than 7 inches thick. In some places are similar This soil has severe limitations for building site
soils, but they have a surface layer of muck or mucky development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.
fine sand less than 16 inches thick, and some have Water control measures should be used to minimize the
loamy fine sand in the lower part of the underlying excessive wetness limitation. The sealing or lining of a
material. sewage lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Floridana, soil material can reduce excessive seepage. To raise the
Samsula, and Smyrna soils in small areas. level of the land surface for septic tank absorption fields,
Under natural conditions, the water table is above the local roads and streets, small commercial buildings, and
surface for 6 to 9 months or more each year and is playground use, fill material should be added. The
within 12 inches of the surface for the rest of the year. sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
The permeability is rapid throughout. The available water Mounding of the septic tank absorption field may be
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and needed.
in the substratum and it is medium in the subsoil. Natural This Basinger soil is in capability subclass Vllw. The
fertility and the organic matter content are low. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2W.
In most areas, this Basinger soil has been left in
natural vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for improved 4-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
pasture, vegetable crops, and citrus crops. In other areas soil is nearly level to gently sloping and excessively
where fill material has been applied, the soil is used for drained. It is on the uplands. The slopes are nearly
homesite and urban development. The natural vegetation smooth to convex.
is mixed stands of pondcypress, sweetgum, and In 95 percent of areas mapped as Candler fine sand, 0
scattered pond pine. The understory includes chalky to 5 percent slopes, Candler soil and similar soils make
bluestem, blue maidencane, sedges, and other water- up 81 to 97 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar
tolerant grasses, soils make up 3 to 19 percent of the mapped areas.







24 Soil Survey



Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark to this soil, but yields are reduced by periodic
grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The upper droughtiness. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 30 are needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain
inches, is yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a plant vigor. Irrigation improves the quality of pasture and
depth of about 74 inches, is brownish yellow fine sand. hay.
The subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is yellow fine The potential of this soil for the production of pine
sand that has strong brown loamy sand lamellae about trees is moderate. Seedling mortality, equipment use,
one-sixteenth to a quarter of an inch thick and 2 to 6 and plant competition are the main concerns in
inches long. Similar soils are in the mapped areas, but management. The very low available water capacity
these soils do not have lamellae. In some places are adversely affects seedling survival in areas where
similar soils, but they have 5 to 10 percent silt and clay understory plants are numerous. The sandy surface
in the subsurface layer. Similar soils are also in lower texture limits the use of equipment. Sand pine, slash
positions on the landscape, but these soils are well pine, and longleaf pine are adapted trees to plant on this
drained, soil.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Apopka and This soil has slight limitations for septic tank
Millhopper soils in small areas. Also included are some absorption fields, dwellings without basements, and local
dissimilar soils on the upper side slopes that have a roads and streets. No corrective measures are needed.
sandy clay loam subsoil within 20 to 40 inches of the When installing a septic tank absorption field on this soil,
surface. the proximity to a stream or canal should be considered
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than to prevent lateral seepage and ground water pollution. If
80 inches. The permeability is rapid in the surface and the density of housing is moderate to high, a community
subsurface layers, and it is rapid to moderately rapid in sewage system can help prevent contamination of the
the subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in water supplies.
the surface and subsurface layers and low in the subsoil. This soil has slight limitations for small commercial
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are low. buildings, and land shaping may be needed in the more
In most areas, this Candler soil is used for citrus sloping areas.
crops. In a few areas, it is used for improved pasture or This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses,
for homesite and urban development. The natural trench sanitary landfills, sewage lagoons, and shallow
vegetation is scattered slash pine, sand pine, longleaf excavations. The sandy surface layer should be
pine, bluejack oak, Chapman oak, scrub live oak, and stabilized for recreational uses, and land shaping may be
turkey oak. The understory includes indiangrass, chalky needed in the more sloping areas. The sealing or lining
bluestem, hairy panicum, pineland threeawn, and annual of a trench sanitary landfill or sewage lagoon with
forbs. impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage.
The sandy texture and droughtiness of this soil are The sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
very severe limitations to use for cultivated crops. The proximity to a stream or aquifer recharge area
Intensive management practices are needed if cultivated should be considered in the placement of a trench
crops are to be grown on this soil. Droughtiness and sanitary landfill or sewage lagoon to prevent
rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of plants contamination of the water supplies.
that can be grown and reduce the potential yield of This Candler soil is in capability subclass IVs. The
crops. A crop-rotation system is needed to keep close- woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S.
growing cover crops on the soil at least three-fourths of
the time. Soil-improving crops and crop residue should 5-Candler fine sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This
be used to control erosion and maintain the content of soil is sloping and strongly sloping and excessively
organic matter in the soil. Optimum yields can be drained. It is on the uplands.
obtained from only a few crops without an irrigation In 95 percent of areas mapped as Candler fine sand, 5
system. It is generally feasible to irrigate crops if water is to 12 percent slopes, Candler soil and similar soils make
readily available. up 88 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar
This soil is suited to citrus trees in areas that are soils make up 1 to 12 percent of the mapped areas.
relatively free of freezing temperatures. A ground cover Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark grayish
of close-growing plants between the tree rows is needed brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of
to protect the soil from blowing. Optimum yields can be the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 25 inches, is
obtained in some years without irrigation, but a specially pale brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of
designed irrigation system, which maintains optimum soil about 61 inches, is yellow fine sand. The subsoil to a
moisture, is needed to obtain maximum yields. depth of about 80 inches is very pale brown fine sand
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture that has strong brown loamy sand lamellae about one-
grasses. Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal sixteenth of an inch thick and 2 to 4 inches long. In the
bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are well suited mapped areas are some similar soils, but these soils







Orange County, Florida 25



have lamellae at a depth of more than 80 inches. In ground water pollution. If the density of housing is
some places are similar soils, but they have 5 to 10 moderate to high, a community sewage system can help
percent silt and clay in the subsurface layer. In some prevent contamination of the water supplies.
parts of the landscape are some similar soils, but they This soil has severe limitations for sewage lagoons,
are well drained. trench sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, small
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Apopka, commercial buildings, and recreational uses because of
Millhopper, and Tavares soils in small areas. Also slope, seepage, and sandy texture of the soil. The
included are some dissimilar soils on the upper side sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon or trench sanitary
slopes that have a sandy clay loam subsoil within 20 to landfill with impervious soil material can reduce
40 inches of the surface. excessive seepage. The proximity to a stream or aquifer
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than recharge area should be considered in the placement of
80 inches. The permeability is rapid in the surface and a trench sanitary landfill or sewage lagoon to prevent
subsurface layers, and it is rapid to moderately rapid in contamination of the water supplies. The sidewalls of
the subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in shallow excavations should be shored. The sandy
the surface and subsurface layers, and it is low in the surface layer should be stabilized for recreational uses
subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter content and for small commercial buildings. Land shaping is
are low. needed in the more sloping areas.
In most areas, this Candler soil is used for citrus This Candler soil is in capability subclass VIs. The
crops. In a few areas, it is used for improved pasture or woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S.
for homesite and urban development. The natural
vegetation is scattered slash pine, sand pine, longleaf 6-Candler-Apopka fine sands, 5 to 12 percent
pine, bluejack oak, Chapman oak, scrub live oak, and slopes. The soils in this map unit are sloping and
turkey oak. The understory includes indiangrass, chalky strongly sloping and excessively drained and well
bluestem, hairy panicum, pineland threeawn, and annual drained. These soils are on the uplands. They occur in a
forbs. regular repeating pattern. Candler soil is sloping and
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to most excessively drained. It is on summits and lower side
cultivated crops because of droughtiness, rapid leaching slopes. Apopka soil is strongly sloping and well drained.
of plant nutrients, and steepness of slope. This soil is It is on the upper side slopes.
suited to citrus trees in areas that are relatively free of In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Candler-
freezing temperatures. A ground cover of close-growing Apopka fine sands, 5 to 12 percent slopes, and similar
plants between tree rows is needed to protect the soil soils make up 92 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
from blowing. A specially designed and properly Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 8 percent of the mapped
managed irrigation system helps to maintain optimum areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of about 66
soil moisture and thus ensure maximum yields. percent Candler soil and similar soils and 31 percent
This soil is moderately suited to improved pasture Apopka soil and similar soils. The individual areas of the
grasses. Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal soils in this map unit are too mixed or too small to map
bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are well suited separately at the scale used for the maps in the back of
to this soil, but yields are reduced by periodic this publication. The proportions and patterns of Candler,
droughtiness. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime Apopka, and similar soils, however, are relatively
are needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain consistent in most delineations of the map unit.
plant vigor. Irrigation improves the quality of pasture and Typically, the surface layer of Candler soil is very dark
hay. grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper
The potential of this soil for the production of pine part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 38
trees is moderate. Seedling mortality, equipment use, inches, is yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a
and plant competition are the main concerns in depth of about 69 inches, is pale brown fine sand. The
management. The very low available water capacity subsoil to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray fine
adversely affects seedling survival in areas where sand that has thin, discontinuous strong brown loamy
understory plants are numerous. The sandy surface sand lamellae. The lamellae are about one thirty-second
texture and slope limit the use of equipment. Sand pine, to one-sixteenth of an inch thick and are 2 to 39 inches
slash pine, and longleaf pine are adapted trees to plant long. In the mapped areas are some similar soils, but
on this soil. they do not have lamellae. Also, in some places are
This soil has moderate limitations for septic tank similar soils, but they have 5 to 10 percent silt and clay
absorption fields, dwellings without basements, and local in the subsurface layer. In some of the lower parts of the
roads and streets. Land shaping is needed in the more landscape are similar soils, but they are well drained.
sloping areas. When installing a septic tank absorption Typically, the surface layer of Apopka soil is dark
field on this soil, the proximity to a stream or canal grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The
should be considered to prevent lateral seepage and subsurface layer, to a depth of about 69 inches, is very







26 Soil Survey



pale brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 80 texture and slope limit the use of equipment. Sand pine,
inches is reddish yellow sandy clay loam. In some of the slash pine, and longleaf pine are adapted trees to plant
lower parts of the landscape are similar soils, but they on Candler soil. Slash pine and loblolly pine are adapted
are moderately well drained. In the mapped areas are trees to plant on Apopka soil.
some similar soils, but they have a subsoil within 40 The soils in this map unit have moderate limitations for
inches of the surface, and in some places are similar septic tank absorption fields, dwellings without
soils, but they have 5 to 10 percent silt and clay in the basements, and local roads and streets because of
subsurface layer. slope. When installing a septic tank absorption field on
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Lochloosa and these soils, the proximity to a stream or canal should be
Tavares soils in small areas. considered to prevent lateral seepage and ground water
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than pollution. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a
72 inches in Apopka soil and at a depth of more than 80 community sewage system can help prevent
inches in Candler soil. The permeability of Candler soil is contamination of the water supplies. Land shaping may
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, and it is rapid be needed in the more sloping areas.
to moderately rapid in the subsoil. The permeability of These soils have severe limitations for sewage
Apopka soil is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, lagoons, trench sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
and it is moderate in the subsoil. The available water small commercial buildings, and recreational uses
capacity of Candler soil is very low in the surface and because of slope, seepage, and sandy texture. The
subsurface layers, and it is low in the subsoil. The sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon or trench sanitary
available water capacity of Apopka soil is very low in the landfill with impervious soil material can reduce
surface and subsurface layers, and it is medium to high excessive seepage. The proximity to a stream or aquifer
in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter recharge area should be considered in the placement of
content are low in Candler and Apopka soils, a trench sanitary landfill or sewage lagoon to prevent
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are used for contamination of the water supplies. The sidewalls of
citrus crops. In a few areas, they are used for improved
pasture or for homesite and urban development. The
pasture or o oesite and ban deepen he surface layer should be stabilized for recreational uses
natural vegetation is scattered sand pine, slash pine, and small commercial buildings. Land shaping is needed
longleaf pine, bluejack oak, Chapman oak, live oak, and and small commercial buildings. Land shaping is needed
turkey oak. In addition, scattered loblolly pine is on in the more slop ing areas.
Apopka soil. The understory includes grassleaf goldaster, Candler soil is in capability subclass Vis. The
eastern bracken, lopsided indiangrass, dwarf woodland ordination symbol for Candler soil is 8S.
huckleberry, creeping bluestem, pineland threeawn, and Apopka soil is in capability subclass IVs. The woodland
various weeds and grasses. ordination symbol for Apopka soil is 10S.
The soils in this map unit are generally not suited to-U l c ,
most cultivated crops because of droughtiness, rapid 7-Candler-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
leaching of plant nutrients, and steep slopes. These soils slopes. This complex consists of Candler soil that is
are suited to citrus trees in areas that are relatively free nearly level to gently sloping and excessively drained
of freezing temperatures. A ground cover of close- and of areas of Urban land. This complex is in the
growing plants between tree rows is needed to protect upland areas.
the soil from blowing. A specially designed and properly This map unit consists of about 53 percent Candler
managed irrigation system helps to maintain optimum soil and about 40 percent Urban land. The included soils
soil moisture and thus ensure maximum yields. Frequent make up about 7 percent of the map unit. The
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, proportions and the patterns of Candler soil and Urban
The soils in this map unit are moderately suited to land are relatively consistent in most delineations of the
improved pasture grasses. Deep-rooted plants, such as map unit. The individual areas of the soils in this map
Coastal bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are unit are too mixed or too small to map separately at the
well suited to these soils, but yields are reduced by scale used for the maps in the back of this publication.
periodic droughtiness. Regular applications of fertilizer Typically, the surface layer of Candler soil is very dark
and lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The
maintain plant vigor. Irrigation improves the quality of subsurface layer, to a depth of about 67 inches, is very
pasture and hay. pale brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 80
The potential of these soils for the production of pine inches is very pale brown fine sand that has thin,
trees is moderate. Seedling mortality, equipment use, discontinuous yellowish brown loamy sand lamellae. The
and plant competition are the main concerns in lamellae are about one-sixteenth to a quarter of an inch
management. The very low available water capacity thick and from 2 to 35 inches long.
adversely affects seedling survival in areas where The Urban land part of this complex is covered by
understory plants are numerous. The sandy surface concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces







Orange County, Florida 27



that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification 8-Candler-Urban land complex, 5 to 12 percent
is not feasible. slopes. This complex consists of Candler soil that is
Included in mapping are small areas of Millhopper and sloping and strongly sloping and excessively drained and
Tavares soils. Also included are some soils that are of areas of Urban land. This complex is in the upland
similar to Candler soil but do not have lamellae within 80 areas.
inches, have a subsurface layer that is 5 to 10 percent This map unit consists of about 53 percent Candler
silt and clay, and are well drained in some of the lower soil and about 40 percent Urban land. The included soils
parts of the landscape. make up about 7 percent of the map unit. The
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than proportions and the patterns of Candler soil and Urban
80 inches. The permeability of Candler soil is rapid in the land are relatively consistent in most delineations of the
surface and subsurface layers, and it is rapid to map unit. The individual areas of the soils in this map
moderately rapid in the subsoil. The available water unit are too mixed or too small to map separately at the
moderately rapid in the su e aer scale used for the maps in the back of this publication.
capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers Typically, the surface layer of Candler soil is light gray
and is low in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
matter content are low. a depth of about 52 inches, is yellow and very pale
The soils in this map unit are not used for cultivated brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 80
crops, citrus crops, improved pasture, or commercial inches is very pale brown fine sand that has thin,
trees. Candler soil in the Urban land part of this complex discontinuous yellowish brown loamy sand lamellae. The
is used for lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds, or it is left lamellae are about one-sixteenth to a quarter of an inch
as open space. The Urban land part of this complex is thick and from 2 to 35 inches long.
used mostly for houses, streets, driveways, buildings, The Urban land part of this complex is covered by
parking lots, or other similar uses. concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces
The soils in this map unit have slight limitations for that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification
septic tank absorption fields and for dwellings without is not feasible.
basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads Included in mapping are small areas of Apopka,
and streets. No corrective measures are needed. When Millhopper, and Tavares soils. Also included are some
a septic tank absorption field is installed on these soils, soils that are similar to Candler soil but do not have
the proximity to a stream or canal should be considered lamellae within 80 inches, have a subsurface layer that is
to prevent lateral seepage and ground water pollution. If 5 to 10 percent silt and clay, and are well drained in
the density of housing is moderate to high, a community some of the lower parts of the landscape.
sewage system can help prevent contamination of the A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than
water supplies. 80 inches. The permeability of Candler soil is rapid in the
The soils in this map unit have slight limitations for surface and subsurface layers and is rapid to moderately
small commercial buildings. Land shaping may be rapid in the subsoil. The available water capacity is very
needed in the more sloping areas. low in the surface and subsurface layers and is low in
These soils have severe limitations for recreational the subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter
content are low.
uses, sewage lagoons, trench sanitary landfills, and c e l l
shallow excavations. The sandy surface layer should be The soils in this map unit are not used for cultivated
shallow excavations. The sandy surface layer should be crops, citrus crops, improved pasture, or commercial
stabilized for recreational uses, and land shaping may be trees. Candler soil in the Urban land part of this complex
needed in the more sloping areas. Droughtiness is a is used for lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds, or it is left
problem during extended dry periods. The selection of as open space. The Urban land part of this complex is
drought-tolerant vegetation is critical for the used mostly for houses, streets, driveways, buildings,
establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable parking lots, and other similar uses.
gardens. The soils need to be mulched, irrigated, and The soils in this map unit have moderate limitations for
fertilized and limed to establish and maintain lawn septic tank absorption fields and for dwellings without
grasses and other landscape vegetation. The sealing or basements and local roads and streets because of
lining of a sewage lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with slope. When a septic tank absorption field is installed on
impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage. these soils, the proximity to a stream or canal should be
The proximity to a stream or aquifer recharge area considered to prevent lateral seepage and ground water
should be considered in the placement of a trench pollution. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a
sanitary landfill or sewage lagoon to prevent community sewage system can help prevent
contamination of the water supplies. The sidewalls of contamination of the water supplies. Land shaping is
shallow excavations should be shored. needed in the more sloping areas.
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for
capability subclass or to a woodland group. sewage lagoons, trench sanitary landfills, shallow







28 Soil Survey



excavations, small commercial buildings, and areas, the soil in this map unit is artificially drained by tile
recreational uses because of slope, seepage, and sandy drains and surface ditches. In drained areas, the water
texture of the soils. The sealing or lining of a sewage table is controlled at a depth of 10 to 36 inches, or
lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious soil according to the need of the crop. The water table is at
material can reduce excessive seepage. The proximity to or above the surface for short periods after heavy rains.
a stream or aquifer recharge area should be considered If drained, the organic material, when dry, subsides to
in the placement of a trench sanitary landfill or sewage about half the original thickness. It subsides further as a
lagoon to prevent contamination of the water supplies, result of compaction and oxidation. The loss of the
The sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored, organic material is more rapid during the first 2 years
The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for after the soil has been artificially drained. If the soil is
recreational uses and for small commercial buildings. intensively cultivated, the organic material continues to
Land shaping is needed in the more sloping areas. subside at the rate of about 1 inch per year. The lower
Droughtiness is a problem during extended dry periods, the water table, the more rapid the loss of the organic
The selection of drought-tolerant vegetation is critical for material. The permeability is rapid in the surface and
the establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable subsurface layers, and it is moderate to moderately rapid
gardens. The soils need to be mulched, irrigated, and in the subsoil and substratum. The available water
fertilized and limed to establish and maintain lawn capacity is medium to high in the surface layer, very low
grasses and other landscape vegetation, in the sandy subsurface layer, and medium in the subsoil
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a and substratum. Natural fertility is medium. The organic
capability subclass or to a woodland group. matter content is high.
In most areas, this Canova soil is used mainly for
9-Canova muck. This soil is nearly level and very cultivated crops, such as lettuce, endive, celery,
poorly drained. It is in freshwater swamps and marshes cabbage, and radishes. In a few areas, it is used for
that are mainly north of Lake Apopka. Large ditches and improved pasture. The natural vegetation is scattered
canals equipped with water control structures dissect the pondcypress, blackgum, red maple, buttonbush, cattail,
map unit in most places. Undrained areas are ponded for blue maidencane, and Jamaica sawgrass. The natural
6 to 9 months or more each year. The slopes are areas provide cover for deer and excellent habitat for
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 1 percent, wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Canova muck, Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
Canova soil and similar soils make up 75 to 96 percent cultivated crops. However, this soil is suited to most
of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 4 to 25 cultivated crops if a water control system is installed and
percent of the mapped areas. maintained and intensive management practices and
Typically, this soil has an organic layer of black muck soil-improving measures are used. A specially designed
about 6 inches thick. The surface layer, to a depth of water control system is needed to remove excess water
about 9 inches, is very dark gray fine sand. The rapidly when crops are on the soil and to maintain the
subsurface layer, to a depth of 16 inches, is gray fine water table near the surface to reduce the subsidence of
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about organic material and obtain optimum crop and pasture
22 inches, is dark gray sandy clay loam that has about yields. Proper management practices include seedbed
16 percent tongues of dark gray fine sand 2 to 4 inches preparation and crop rotation. Soil-improving crops and
long and 1/2 inch to 2 inches wide that extend from the crop residue should be used to protect the soil from wind
subsurface layer. The lower part, to a depth of about 37 erosion and to maintain the content of organic matter.
inches, is gray sandy clay loam that has brownish yellow Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
mottles. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more need of the crop.
is light gray sandy clay loam that has many light gray, In its natural state, this soil is not suited to citrus trees.
soft, calcium carbonate accumulations. In the mapped However, it is fairly suited to citrus trees if intensive
areas are some similar soils, but they have a surface management practices and soil-improving measures are
layer of mucky fine sand. Also, in some areas are similar used, including incorporating the organic material and
soils, but they have a subsoil at a depth of more than 20 the sandy mineral material or removing and backfilling
inches. In places are similar soils, but they have a with a suitable soil material. A water control system is
substratum of fine sand and sandy loam, or both. In a needed to remove excess water rapidly and maintain
few places are other similar soils, but these soils have a good drainage to a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the
substratum that has a thin, discontinuous layer of trees on beds lowers the effective depth of the water
limestone at a depth of more than 60 inches, table. A close-growing cover crop between tree rows is
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Gator and needed to protect the soil from blowing. Regular
Okeelanta soils in small areas. applications of fertilizer are needed.
Under natural conditions, the water table is above the In its natural state, this soil is not suited to improved
surface for 6 to 9 months or more each year. In most pasture grasses. However, if a water control system is






Orange County, Florida 29



installed to remove excess surface water after heavy the intensity and frequency of the rains. Flooding
rains, suitability is good. Improved pangolagrass, normally lasts from 1 month to 4 months. The
bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and
managed. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are substratum, and it is slow to very slow in the subsoil. The
needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant available water capacity is medium in the surface layer,
vigor, high in the subsoil, and low in the substratum. Natural
The potential of this soil for the production of pine fertility and the content of organic matter are medium.
trees is high in areas that have adequate surface In most areas, this Chobee soil has been left in natural
drainage. A water control system should be installed vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for improved
before trees are planted. Equipment use and seedling pasture. The natural vegetation is baldcypress, Coastal
mortality are the main concerns in management. Bedding Plain willow, red maple, and sweetgum. The understory
of rows helps to minimize the excessive wetness includes buttonbush, maidencane, sawgrass, smartweed,
limitation. Slash pine is an adapted tree to plant on this sedges, and other water-tolerant grasses.
soil. Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
This soil has severe limitations for building site cultivated crops and citrus crops because it is subject to
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses frequent flooding and is very poorly drained. However, if
because of ponding and excess humus. Water control intensive management practices and soil-improving
measures should be used to minimize the wetness measures are used and a water control system is
limitation. Organic material should be removed and installed to remove excess water rapidly, this soil is fairly
backfilled with a soil material suitable for urban use. The suited to many vegetable crops. Proper management
sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon or trench sanitary practices include seedbed preparation and crop rotation.
landfill with impervious soil material can reduce Seedbed preparation should include the bedding of rows.
excessive seepage. The sidewalls of shallow Soil-improving cover crops and crop residue should be
excavations should be shored, and water control used to protect the soil from wind erosion and maintain
measures should be used. Mounding of the septic tank the content of organic matter. Fertilizer and lime should
absorption field may be needed. be applied according to the need of the crop.
This Canova soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2W. improved pasture grasses. However, if a water control
system is installed to remove excess surface water after
10-Chobee fine sandy loam, frequently flooded, heavy rains, suitability is good. Pangolagrass and
This soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is on improved bahiagrass grow well if properly managed.
the flood plains of the St. Johns River and its major Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
tributaries. This soil is flooded for very long periods Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant vigor.
following prolonged, intense rains. The slopes are The potential of this soil for the production of pine
smooth to concave. They are dominantly less than 1 trees is high. A water control system is needed to
percent but range to 2 percent, remove excess surface water for the production potential
In 90 percent of areas mapped as Chobee fine sandy to be realized. Equipment use and seedling mortality are
loam, frequently flooded, Chobee soil and similar soils the main concerns in management. Slash pine is an
make up 86 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. adapted tree to plant on this soil. In addition, this soil is
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 14 percent of the mapped suited to baldcypress and hardwoods. Harvesting and
areas, planting operations should be scheduled during dry
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine periods.
sandy loam about 7 inches thick. The upper part of the This soil is well suited to habitat for wetland and
subsoil, to a depth of about 17 inches, is very dark gray woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily
sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a depth of about 50 developed, and the vegetation provides abundant food
inches, is dark gray sandy clay loam. The substratum to and shelter for wildlife, which add to the recreational use
a depth of 80 inches or more is gray and light gray of these soils.
loamy fine sand. In the mapped areas are similar soils, This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities,
but they have a surface layer of mucky fine sand. In building site development, and recreational uses
some places are similar soils, but they have a subsoil at because of flooding and wetness. Major flood control
a depth of more than 20 inches, structures and extensive local drainage systems are
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Gator soils in needed to control flooding. The limitations of this soil for
small areas. septic tank absorption fields are severe. The installing of
In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10 a water control system, adding fill material, and
inches of the surface for more than 6 months. Flooding mounding the septic tank absorption field can help to
occurs frequently during rainy periods. The duration and minimize the excessive wetness limitation. The proximity
extent of flooding are variable and are related directly to to a stream or aquifer recharge area should be







30 Soil Survey



considered in the placement of sanitary facilities to occurs frequently during rainy periods. The duration and
prevent contamination of the water supplies. Fill material extent of flooding are variable and are related directly to
is needed for local roads and streets, small commercial the intensity and frequency of rainfall. Flooding normally
buildings, and playgrounds. lasts from 1 month to 4 months. The permeability of
This Chobee soil is in capability subclass Vw. The Floridana soil is rapid in the surface and subsurface
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 6W. layers, slow in the subsoil, and moderate in the
substratum. The permeability of Chobee soil is
11-Floridana and Chobee soils, frequently moderately rapid in the surface layer and in the
flooded. The soils in this map unit are nearly level and substratum and slow or very slow in the subsoil. The
very poorly drained. These soils are on the flood plains available water capacity of Floridana soil is medium in
of the St. Johns River and its major tributaries. They do the surface layer and in the subsoil and low in the
not occur in a regular repeating pattern. These soils are substratum. The available water capacity of Chobee soil
flooded for very long periods following heavy, intense is medium in the surface layer, high in the subsoil, and
rains. Many areas are isolated by meandering stream low in the substratum. Natural fertility and organic matter
channels. Excess water ponds in low-lying areas for very content of Floridana and Chobee soils are medium.
long periods after heavy rains. The slopes are smooth to In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. in natural vegetation. In a few areas, these soils have
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Floridana been drained and are used for improved pasture. The
and Chobee soils, frequently flooded, and similar soils natural vegetation is baldcypress, scattered cabbage
make up 86 to 99 percent of the mapped areas, palm, laurel oak, water oak, blackgum, Coastal Plain
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 14 percent of the mapped willow, red maple, and sweetgum. The understory
areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of about 74 includes buttonbush, maidencane, sawgrass, smartweed,
percent Floridana soil and similar soils and about 24 sedges, and other water-tolerant grasses.
percent Chobee soil. Some areas are made up of Under natural conditions, the soils in this map unit are
Floridana soil and similar soils, some are Chobee soil, not suited to cultivated crops and citrus crops because
and some are Floridana and Chobee soils. Each of the they are subject to frequent flooding and are very poorly
soils need not be present in every mapped area. The drained. However, if intensive management practices
relative proportion of combinations of the soils varies, and soil-improving measures are used and a water
The individual soils are generally large enough areas to control system is installed to remove excess water
be mapped separately, but in considering the present rapidly, these soils are fairly suited to many vegetable
and predicted use, they were mapped as one unit. crops. Proper management practices include seedbed
Typically, the surface layer of Floridana soil is black preparation and crop rotation. Seedbed preparation
fine sand about 14 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to should include the bedding of rows. Soil-improving cover
a depth of 28 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of crops and crop residue should be used to control
the subsoil, to a depth of about 41 inches, is dark gray erosion and maintain the content of organic matter in the
sandy clay loam that has pale brown mottles. The lower soil. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to
part, to a depth of 53 inches, is grayish brown sandy the need of the crop.
clay loam that has light gray mottles. The substratum to In their natural state, the soils in this map unit are
a depth of 80 inches is light gray loamy fine sand that poorly suited to improved pasture. If an adequate water
has grayish brown mottles. In the mapped areas are control system is installed to remove excess surface
similar soils, but they have a surface layer of mucky fine water after heavy rains, suitability is fair. Pangolagrass
sand. In other places are similar soils, but they have a and improved bahiagrass grow well if properly managed.
subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches. In a few Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
places are similar soils, but these soils are slightly saline. Controlled grazing is necessary.
Typically, the surface layer of Chobee soil is black fine The potential of these soils for the production of pine
sandy loam about 12 inches thick. The upper part of the trees is moderately high or high. Equipment use, plant
subsoil, to a depth of about 38 inches, is dark gray competition, and seedling mortality are the main
sandy clay loam that has light gray mottles. The lower concerns in management. A water control system is
part, to a depth of 56 inches, is grayish brown sandy needed to remove excess surface water for the
clay loam that has dark brown and light gray mottles. production potential to be realized. Slash pine is an
The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is light adapted tree to plant on these soils. In addition,
gray fine sand. In a few places in the mapped areas are baldcypress and hardwoods are also suitable trees to
similar soils, but they are slightly saline, plant. Harvesting and planting operations should be
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Gator soils in scheduled during dry periods.
small areas. The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for
A seasonal high water table is within 10 inches of the sanitary facilities, building site development, and
surface for more than 6 months in most years. Flooding recreational uses because of flooding and wetness.







Orange County, Florida 31



Major flood control structures and extensive local about 51 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of the
drainage systems are needed to control flooding. The subsoil, to a depth of about 65 inches, is dark gray
sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon or trench sanitary sandy clay loam that has dark brown mottles. The lower
landfill with impervious soil material can reduce part, to a depth of about 71 inches, is gray sandy loam
excessive seepage in areas of Floridana soil. Also, the that has dark grayish brown mottles. The substratum to
sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored on a depth of 80 inches is light gray loamy sand that has
Floridana soil. The installing of a water control system, dark yellowish brown mottles. In the mapped areas are
adding fill material, and mounding the septic tank similar soils, but they have a subsoil within 40 inches of
absorption fields can help minimize the excessive the surface. In some places are other similar soils, but
wetness limitation. The proximity to a stream or aquifer they have a thick, dark surface layer that has a high
recharge area should be considered in the placement of content of organic matter.
sanitary facilities to prevent contamination of the water Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Gator and
supplies. Fill material is needed for local roads and Pompano soils in small areas.
streets, small commercial buildings, and playgrounds. In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10
Floridana and Chobee soils are in capability subclass inches of the surface for 6 to 9 months in Emeralda soil
Vw. The woodland ordination symbol for these soils is and for 2 to 6 months in Holopaw soil. The permeability
6W. of Emeralda soil is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and slow in the subsoil and substratum. The
12-Emeralda and Holopaw fine sands, frequently permeability of Holopaw soil is rapid in the surface and
flooded. The soils in this map unit are nearly level and subsurface layers and in the substratum and moderate in
poorly drained. These soils are on the flood plains of the the subsoil. The available water capacity of Emeralda
Wekiva River and its major tributaries. They do not occur soil is medium in the surface layer, low in the subsurface
in a regular repeating pattern. These soils are flooded for layer, and medium to high in the subsoil and substratum.
very long periods following prolonged, heavy, intense The available water capacity of Holopaw soil is very low
rains. Excess water ponds in low-lying areas for very in the surface and subsurface layers, moderate in the
long periods after heavy rains. The slopes are smooth to subsoil, and low in the substratum. Natural fertility and
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent, organic matter content are low in Emeralda and Holopaw
In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit, Emeralda soils.
and Holopaw fine sands, frequently flooded, and similar In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left
soils make up 76 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. in natural vegetation. In a few areas, these soils are
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 24 percent of the mapped used for improved pasture. The natural vegetation is
areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of about 54 baldcypress, red maple, laurel oak, water oak,
percent Emeralda soil and similar soils and about 35 sweetgum, cabbage palm, and Coastal Plain willow. The
percent Holopaw soil and similar soils. Some areas are understory includes sand cordgrass, cutgrass, inkberry,
made up of Emeralda and Holopaw soils. Each of the cinnamon fern, beaked panicum, waxmyrtle, and other
soils need not be present in every mapped area. The water-tolerant grasses.
relative proportion of combinations of the soils varies. Under natural conditions, the soils in this map unit are
The individual soils are generally large enough areas to not suited to cultivated crops, citrus crops, or improved
be mapped separately, but in considering the present pasture. However, if a water control system is installed
and predicted use, they were mapped as one unit. to reduce the hazard of flooding, these soils are fairly
Typically, the surface layer of Emeralda soil is black suited to some vegetable crops and improved pasture.
fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to The water control system should remove excess water
a depth of about 12 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper rapidly and provide subsurface irrigation during the
part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 25 inches, is gray growing season. Soil-improving crops and crop residue
sandy clay that has brown mottles. The lower part, to a should be used to control erosion and maintain the
depth of about 42 inches, is light gray sandy clay that content of organic matter in the soil. Seedbed
has brown mottles. The substratum to a depth of 80 preparation should include the bedding of rows. Fertilizer
inches is light gray sandy clay that has yellowish brown and lime should be applied according to the need of the
mottles and about 15 percent white calcium carbonate crop. Improved bahiagrass grows well if properly
concretions. In the mapped areas are similar soils, but managed. Management practices should include
they have a surface layer of fine sandy loam 2 to 4 controlled grazing.
inches thick. In places are similar soils, but these soils The potential of these soils for the production of pine
have a sandy clay loam or sandy loam subsoil. trees is high. Equipment use and seedling mortality are
Typically, the surface layer of Holopaw soil is black the main concerns in management. Water control
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the measures are necessary to remove excess surface water
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 25 inches, is and reduce the hazard of flooding. Bedding of rows
grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of helps to minimize the wetness limitation. Slash pine is an







32 Soil Survey



adapted tree to plant on these soils. In addition, sand cordgrass, blue maidencane, low panicum, and
baldcypress and hardwoods are also suitable trees to various weeds and grasses.
plant. Harvesting and planting operations should be Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
scheduled during dry periods, cultivated crops. However, it is fairly suited to vegetable
The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for crops if a water control system is installed to remove
building site development, sanitary facilities, and excess water rapidly and to provide for subsurface
recreational uses because of flooding and wetness, irrigation. Soil-improving crops and crop residue should
Major flood control structures and extensive local be used to control erosion and maintain the content of
drainage systems are needed to control flooding. Fill organic matter in the soil. Seedbed preparation should
material is needed for local roads and streets, small include the bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be applied
commercial buildings, septic tank absorption fields, and according to the need of the crop.
playgrounds. The sidewalls of shallow excavations The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good in
should be shored. The mounding of septic tank areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures
absorption fields may be necessary to minimize the and if a water control system is installed to maintain the
wetness limitation. water table at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees on
Emeralda and Holopaw soils are in capability subclass beds provides good surface drainage. A close-growing
VIw. The woodland ordination symbol for Emeralda soil cover crop between tree rows is needed to protect the
is 11W, and for Holopaw soil it is 10W. soil from blowing. Regular applications of fertilizer are
needed.
13-Felda fine sand. This soil is nearly level and Under natural conditions, this soil is fairly suited to
poorly drained. It is in low, broad, poorly defined improved pasture grasses because of wetness. However,
drainageways on the flatwoods. The water table is above the suitability is good if a water control system is
the surface for brief periods in low-lying areas after a installed to remove excess surface water after heavy
heavy rain. The slopes are smooth to concave and rains. Improved bahiagrass and clover grow well if
range from 0 to 2 percent, properly managed. Management practices should include
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Felda fine sand, controlled grazing and regular applications of fertilizer.
Felda soil and similar soils make up 90 to 99 percent of The potential of this soil for the production of pine
the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 10 trees is moderately high. A water control system is
percent of the mapped areas, needed to remove excess surface water. Equipment use
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine and seedling mortality are the main concerns in
sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of the management. Slash pine is an adapted tree to plant.
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 10 inches, is This soil has severe limitations for building site
grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.
about 22 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The Water control measures should be used to minimize the
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 31 inches, excessive wetness limitation in undrained areas. The
is gray sandy loam that has brownish yellow mottles. sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon or trench sanitary
The lower part, to a depth of about 53 inches, is gray landfill with impervious soil material can reduce
sandy clay loam that has yellowish brown mottles. The excessive seepage. Mounding of the septic tank
substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is greenish absorption field can help to minimize excessive wetness.
gray loamy sand. In the mapped areas are similar soils, The sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored,
but they have a subsoil within 20 inches of the surface. and water control measures should be used. The sandy
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Holopaw soils surface layer should be stabilized for recreational uses.
in small areas. This Felda soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10 woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W.
inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months. The permeability
is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and in the 14-Felda fine sand, occasionally flooded. This soil
substratum, and it is moderate to moderately rapid in the is nearly level and poorly drained. It is on the flood plain
subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in the e of the Wekiva River and its major tributaries. This soil is
surface and subsurface layers, low to moderate in the flooded for brief periods following prolonged, intense
subsoil, and low in the substratum. Natural fertility and rains. The slopes are nearly smooth to slightly concave
the organic matter content are low. and range from 0 to 2 percent.
In most areas, this Felda soil has been left in natural In 80 percent of areas mapped as Felda fine sand,
vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for improved occasionally flooded, Felda soil and similar soils make
pasture or for homesite and urban development. The up 79 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar
natural vegetation is cabbage palm, scattered slash pine, soils make up 1 to 21 percent of the mapped areas.
waxmyrtle, and laurel oak. The understory includes Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
scattered saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, bluestem, fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to







Orange County, Florida 33



a depth of about 22 inches, is light brownish gray fine Improved bahiagrass and clover grow well if properly
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about managed. Management practices should include
30 inches, is gray sandy clay loam that has common controlled grazing and regular applications of fertilizer.
dark brown mottles. The lower part, to a depth of about The potential of this soil for the production of pine
42 inches, is light gray sandy loam that has dark trees is moderately high. A water control system is
yellowish brown mottles. The substratum to a depth of needed to remove excess surface water and reduce the
about 80 inches is gray fine sand. In the mapped areas hazard of flooding. Bedding of rows helps to minimize
are some small areas of Holopaw soils that are similar to the wetness limitation. Equipment use and seedling
Felda soil. In some places are similar soils, but they mortality are the main concerns in management. Slash
have a subsoil within 20 inches of the surface, and in pine is an adapted tree to plant on this soil.
some areas are similar soils, but these soils have a This soil has severe limitations for building site
brownish yellow or yellowish brown fine sand subsoil. development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Wabasso soils because of flooding and wetness. Water control
in small areas, measures should be used and fill material is needed to
In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10 minimize the excessive wetness limitation. The sandy
inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months. Flooding is surface layer should be stabilized for recreational uses.
infrequent under normal weather conditions. Duration of The sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
flooding is about 2 to 7 days. The duration and extent of This Felda soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
flooding is directly related to the intensity and frequency woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W.
of the rains. The permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and in the substratum, and it is 15-Felda fine sand, frequently flooded. This soil is
moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil. The nearly level and poorly drained. It is on the flood plain of
available water capacity is very low in the surface and the Econlokhatchee River and of other minor streams.
subsurface layers and in the substratum, and it is Many areas are isolated by dissected or meandering
medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic stream channels. This soil is flooded for very long
matter content are low. periods following prolonged, intense rains. The slopes
In most areas, this Felda soil has been left in natural are nearly smooth or slightly concave and range from 0
vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for improved to 2 percent.
pasture. The natural vegetation is laurel oak, red maple, In 90 percent of areas mapped as Felda fine sand,
cabbage palm, slash pine, and sweetgum. The frequently flooded, Felda soil and similar soils make up
understory includes scattered saw palmetto, pineland 82 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils
threeawn, maidencane, and waxmyrtle. make up 1 to 18 percent of the mapped areas.
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
cultivated crops because of flooding and wetness. fine sand about 3 inches thick. The upper part of the
However, if a water control system is installed to reduce subsurface layer, to a depth of about 10 inches, is dark
the hazard of flooding, this soil is fairly suited to most gray fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 24
vegetable crops. The water control system is also inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil,
needed to remove excess water rapidly and to provide to a depth of about 36 inches, is gray sandy clay loam
for subsurface irrigation when crops are on the soil. Soil- that has common dark brown mottles. The lower part, to
improving crops and crop residue should be used to a depth of about 47 inches, is grayish brown fine sandy
control erosion and maintain the content of organic loam that has common dark yellowish brown mottles.
matter in the soil. Seedbed preparation should include The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is light
the bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be applied gray fine sand. In the mapped areas are similar soils, but
according to the need of the crop. they have a surface layer of loamy fine sand, fine sandy
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to citrus loam, or sandy clay loam. In some areas are similar
crops because of flooding and wetness. It is poorly soils, but they have a subsoil within 20 inches of the
suited to citrus crops if a water control system is surface, some have a subsoil at a depth of more than 40
installed to reduce the hazard of flooding. Planting the inches, and some also have a thin, dark brown fine sand
trees on beds provides good surface drainage. A close- layer at a depth of about 30 inches.
growing cover crop between tree rows is needed to Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Pompano soils
protect the soil from blowing. Regular applications of in small areas.
fertilizer are needed. In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months. Flooding occurs
improved pasture grasses because of flooding and frequently during rainy periods. The duration and extent
wetness. However, it is fairly suited if a water control of flooding are variable and are directly related to the
system is installed to reduce the hazard of flooding and intensity and frequency of the rains. Flooding normally
to remove excess surface water after heavy rains, lasts from 1 month to 4 months. The permeability is







34 Soil Survey


rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and in the 16-Floridana fine sand, frequently flooded. This
substratum, and it is moderate in the subsoil. The soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is on the
available water capacity is very low in the surface and flood plains of the St. Johns River and its major
subsurface layers and in the substratum, and is medium tributaries. This soil is flooded for very long periods
in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the organic matter following prolonged, intense rains. The slopes are
content are low. smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
In most areas, this Felda soil has been left in natural In 95 percent of areas mapped as Floridana fine sand,
vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for improved frequently flooded, Floridana soil and similar soils make
pasture. The natural vegetation is red maple, scattered up 97 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar
cabbage palm, slash pine, and sweetgum. The soils make up 1 to 3 percent of the mapped areas.
understory includes scattered saw palmetto, pineland Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of this
threeawn, blue maidencane, and waxmyrtle. soil is black fine sand about 2 inches thick. The lower
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to part, to a depth of about 17 inches, is very dark gray fine
cultivated crops, citrus crops, or improved pasture. sand. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 28
However, if a water control system is installed to reduce inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the
However, if a water control system is installed to reduce subsoil, to a depth of about 40 inches, is gray sandy clay
the hazard of flooding, this soil is fairly suited to some loam that has light gray and very dark grayish brown
vegetable crops and improved pasture. A water control mottles. The lower part, to a depth of about 51 inches, is
system is needed to remove excess water rapidly and to light gray sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of
provide for subsurface irrigation. Soil-improving crops about 80 inches or more is gray loamy sand. In the
and crop residue should be used to control erosion and mapped areas are similar soils, but these soils have a
maintain the content of organic matter in the soil. surface layer of mucky fine sand or loamy sand. In other
Seedbed preparation should include the bedding of rows. places are some similar soils, but these soils have a
Fertilizer should be applied according to the need of the subsoil within 20 inches of the surface, and some soils
crop. Improved bahiagrass is well suited to this soil if have a subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches.
properly managed. Management practices should include Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Gator soils in
controlled grazing and regular applications of fertilizer small areas.
and lime. In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10
The potential of this soil for the production of pine inches of the surface for more than 6 months. Flooding
trees is moderately high. A water control system is occurs frequently during rainy periods. The duration and
needed to remove excess surface water and reduce the extent of flooding are variable and are directly related to
hazard of flooding. Bedding of rows helps to minimize the intensity and frequency of the rains. Flooding
the wetness limitation. Equipment use and seedling normally lasts from 1 month to 4 months. The
mortality are the main concerns in management. Slash permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
pine is an adapted tree to plant. layers, slow in the subsoil, and moderate in the
This soil is well suited to habitat for wetland and substratum. The available water capacity is medium in
woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily the surface layer and subsoil and is low in the
developed, and the vegetation provides abundant food subsurface layer and substratum. Natural fertility and the
and shelter for wildlife, which add to the recreational use organic matter content are medium.
of these soils. In most areas, this Floridana soil has been left in
This soil has severe limitations for building site natural vegetation. In some areas, it has been drained
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses is used for improved pasture. The natural vegetation
is baldcypress, red maple, sweetgum, laurel oak, water
because of flooding and wetness. Major flood control oak, and Coastal Plain willow. The understory includes
structures and extensive local drainage systems are buttonbush, maidencane, sawgrass, smartweed, sedges,
needed to control flooding. The limitations of this soil for and other water-tolerant grasses.
septic tank absorption fields are severe. The installing of Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
a water control system, adding fill material, and cultivated crops and citrus crops because it is subject to
mounding the septic tank absorption field can help frequent flooding and is very poorly drained. However, if
minimize the excessive wetness limitation. The proximity intensive management practices and soil-improving
to a stream or aquifer recharge area should be measures are used and a water control system is
considered in the placement of sanitary facilities to installed to remove excess water rapidly, this soil is fairly
prevent contamination of the water supplies. Fill material suited to many vegetable crops. Proper management
is needed for local roads and streets, small commercial practices include seedbed preparation and crop rotation.
buildings, and playgrounds. Seedbed preparation should include the bedding of rows.
This Felda soil is in capability subclass Vw. The Soil-improving cover crops and crop residue should be
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. used to control erosion and maintain the content of







Orange County, Florida 35



organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer and lime should be loam that has common light olive brown mottles. The
applied according to the need of the crop. lower part, to a depth of about 64 inches, is gray sandy
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to clay loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or
improved pasture grasses. However, if a water control more is gray sandy loam. In the mapped areas are
system is installed to remove excess surface water after similar soils, but they have a subsoil within 20 inches of
heavy rains, suitability is good. Pangolagrass and the surface. In some places are similar soils, but these
improved bahiagrass grow well if properly managed. soils have a subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches,
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. and some have a surface layer of fine sand.
Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant vigor. Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Felda soils in
The potential of this soil for the production of pine small areas.
trees is moderately high. A water control system is Under natural conditions, this soil is ponded for 6 to 9
needed to remove excess surface water for the months or more each year. In most years, a seasonal
production potential to be realized. Equipment use, plant high water table is within 10 inches of the surface for
competition, and seedling mortality are the main more than 9 months. The permeability is rapid in the
concerns in management. Slash pine is an adapted tree surface and subsurface layers, and it is slow in the
to plant on this soil. In addition, baldcypress and subsoil and substratum. The available water capacity is
hardwoods are also suitable trees to plant. Harvesting medium to high in the surface layer, subsoil, and
and planting operations should be scheduled during dry substratum, and it is low in the subsurface layer. Natural
periods, fertility is medium. The organic matter content is high.
This soil is well suited to wetland and woodland In most areas, this Floridana soil has been left in
wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily developed, and natural vegetation. In some areas, it has been drained
the vegetation provides abundant food and shelter for and is used for improved pasture or for homesite and
wildlife, which add to the recreational use of these soils. urban development. The natural vegetation is
This soil has severe limitations for building site pondcypress, Carolina ash, blackgum, water oak, red
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses maple, sweetbay, scattered pond pine, and Coastal Plain
because of flooding and wetness. Major flood control willow. The understory includes buttonbush, maidencane,
structures and extensive local drainage systems are sawgrass, smartweed, sedges, and other water-tolerant
needed to control flooding. The limitations of this soil for grasses.
septic tank absorption fields are severe. The installing of Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
a water control system, adding fill material, and cultivated crops, citrus crops, and improved pasture
mounding the septic tank absorption field can help because of ponding and excessive wetness. However, if
minimize the excessive wetness limitation. The proximity intensive management practices and soil-improving
to a stream or aquifer recharge area should be measures are used and a water control system is
considered in the placement of sanitary facilities to installed to remove excess water rapidly, this soil is fairly
prevent contamination of the water supplies. Fill material suited to many vegetable crops. Proper management
is needed for local roads and streets, small commercial practices include seedbed preparation and crop rotation.
buildings, and playgrounds. Seedbed preparation should include the bedding of rows.
This Floridana soil is in capability subclass Vw. The Soil-improving cover crops and crop residue should be
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 6W. used to control erosion and maintain the content of
organic matter in the soil.
17-Floridana mucky fine sand, depressional. This Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in improved pasture. However, if a water control system is
depressions and poorly defined drainageways. Undrained installed to remove excess surface water after heavy
areas are ponded for 6 to 9 months or more each year. rains, suitability is fair. Pangolagrass and improved
The slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to bahiagrass grow well if properly managed. Regular
2 percent. applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
In 90 percent of areas mapped as Floridana mucky should be controlled to maintain plant vigor.
fine sand, depressional, Floridana soil and similar soils The potential of this soil for the production of pine
make up 84 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. trees is moderately high. Slash pine is an adapted tree
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 16 percent of the mapped to plant on this soil. A water control system is needed
areas. before trees are planted. Equipment use and seedling
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of this mortality are the main concerns in management.
soil is black mucky fine sand about 10 inches thick. The This soil has severe limitations for building site
lower part, to a depth of about 20 inches, is very dark development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.
gray fine sand. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about Water control measures should be used to minimize the
28 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the excessive wetness limitation. Fill material is needed for
subsoil, to a depth of about 55 inches, is gray sandy clay septic tank absorption fields, local roads and streets,







36 Soil Survey



small commercial buildings, and playgrounds. The Carolina willow, primrose willow, cattail, maidencane,
sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored. Jamaica sawgrass, and other water-tolerant grasses. The
Mounding of the septic tank absorption field may be natural areas provide cover for deer and excellent
needed. habitat for wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
This Floridana soil is in capability subclass Vllw. The Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 2W. cultivated crops or citrus crops. However, if intensive
management practices and soil-improving measures are
18-Gator muck. This soil is nearly level and very used and a water control system is installed to remove
poorly drained. It is in freshwater swamps that are mainly excess surface water rapidly, this soil is well suited to
north of Lake Apopka. Large ditches and canals many vegetable crops. A specially designed water
equipped with water control structures dissect the map control system is needed to remove excess water when
unit in most places. Undrained areas are ponded for 6 to crops are on the soil, to maintain the water table near
9 months or more each year. The slopes are smooth the surface, to reduce the subsidence of organic
and are less than 1 percent. material, and to obtain optimum crop and pasture yields.
In 90 percent of areas mapped as Gator muck, Gator Proper management practices include seedbed
soil and similar soils make up 82 to 98 percent of the preparation and crop rotation. Soil-improving crops and
mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 2 to 18 percent crop residue should be used to control erosion and to
of the mapped areas. maintain the content of organic matter in the soil.
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black muck Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
about 28 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying need of the crop.
material, to a depth of about 37 inches, is dark olive gray In its natural state, this soil is not suited to improved
fine sandy loam. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches pasture grasses. However, if a water control system is
or more is light gray sandy clay loam that has few to installed to remove excess surface water after heavy
common light gray calcium carbonate accumulations. In rains, suitability is good. Pangolagrass, improved
the mapped areas are similar soils, but they have bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly
underlying material of loamy fine sand or fine sand, or managed. The water control system should maintain the
both. In other places are similar soils, but these soils water table near the surface to prevent excess
have thin, discontinuous layers of limestone in the subsidence of the organic material. Regular applications
underlying material, of fertilizer and lime are needed, and grazing should be
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Canova and controlled to maintain plant vigor.
Terra Ceia soils in small areas. This soil is not suited to pine trees.
Under natural conditions, the water table is at or This soil has severe limitations for building site
above the surface for most of the year except during development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses
extended dry periods. In most areas, the soil in this map because of ponding and excess humus. Water control
unit is artificially drained by tile drains and surface measures should be used to minimize the excessive
ditches. In drained areas, the water table is controlled at wetness limitation. Organic material, which has low soil
a depth of 10 to 36 inches or according to the need of strength, should be removed and backfilled with a soil
the crop. The water table is at or above the surface for material suitable for urban uses. Constructing buildings
short periods after heavy rains. If drained, the organic on pilings can help prevent structural damage that is
material, when dry, subsides to about half the original caused by soil subsidence. The sealing or lining of a
thickness. It subsides further as a result of compaction sewage lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious
and oxidation. The loss of the organic material is more soil material can reduce excessive seepage. The
rapid during the first 2 years after the soil has been sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored, and
artificially drained. If the soil is intensively cultivated, the water control measures should be used. Mounding of the
organic material continues to subside at the rate of septic tank absorption field may be needed.
about 1 inch per year. The lower the water table, the This Gator soil is in capability subclass IIIw, but it has
more rapid the loss of the organic material. The not been assigned to a woodland group.
permeability is rapid in the surface layer, and it is
moderately slow to slow in the underlying material. The 19-Hontoon muck. This soil is nearly level and very
available water capacity is very high in the organic poorly drained. It is in freshwater swamps and in
surface layer and is medium in the underlying material, marshes. Undrained areas are ponded for 6 to 9 months
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are high. or more each year. The slopes are smooth and less than
In most areas, this Gator soil is used mainly for 1 percent.
cultivated crops, such as lettuce, endives, celery, In 95 percent of areas mapped as Hontoon muck,
cabbage, and radishes. In a few areas where fill material Hontoon soil and similar soils make up 94 to 99 percent
has been applied, the soil is used for urban of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 6
development. The natural vegetation is buttonbush, percent of the mapped areas.







Orange County, Florida 37



Typically, the upper part of the organic layer of this installed to remove excess surface water after heavy
soil is black muck about 20 inches thick. The middle rains, suitability is good. Pangolagrass, improved
part, to a depth of about 49 inches, is dark reddish bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly
brown muck. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or managed. The water control system should maintain the
more is very dark brown muck. In the mapped areas are water table near the surface to prevent excess
similar soils, but they have an organic surface layer that subsidence of the organic material. Regular applications
is less than 51 inches thick; and in the lower part of the of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be
profile, the texture is fine sand, loamy fine sand, sandy controlled to maintain plant vigor.
loam, or sandy clay loam. This soil is not suited to pine trees.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Basinger and This soil has severe limitations for building site
Sanibel soils in small areas. development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses
Under natural conditions, this soil is ponded for 6 to 9 because of ponding and excess humus. Water control
months or more each year. In most years, a seasonal measures should be used to minimize the excessive
high water table is within 10 inches of the surface. In wetness limitation. Organic material, which has low soil
drained areas, the water table is controlled at a depth of strength, should be removed and backfilled with a soil
10 to 36 inches or according to the need of the crop. material suitable for urban use. Constructing buildings on
The water table is at or above the surface for short pilings can help prevent structural damage that is caused
periods after heavy rains. If drained, the organic material, by soil subsidence. The sealing or lining of a sewage
hen dry, subsides to about half the original thickness. It lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious soil
then subsides further as a result of compaction and material can reduce excessive seepage. The sidewalls of
oxidation. The loss of the organic material is more rapid shallow excavations should be shored, and water control
during the first 2 years after the soil has been artificially measures should be used. Mounding of the septic tank
drained. If the soil is intensively cultivated, the organic absorption field may be needed.
material continues to subside at the rate of about 1 inch absorption l i i capably bla
per year. The lower the water table, the more rapid the Ths onoon soil is in capability subclass Vw, but it
loss of the organic material. The permeability is rapid has not been assigned to a woodland group.
throughout. The available water capacity is very high.m e fe s i n
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are high. 20-Immokalee fine sand. This soil is nearly level
In most areas, this Hontoon soil has been left in and poorly drained. It is on broad flatwoods. The slopes
natural vegetation. In some areas, it has been drained are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
and is used for improved pasture. In other areas where In 70 percent of areas mapped as Immokalee fine
fill material has been applied, this soil is used for sand, Immokalee soil and similar soils make up 85 to 99
homesite and urban development. The natural vegetation percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1
is mixed stands of pondcypress, red maple, sweetgum, to 15 percent of the mapped areas.
and black tupelo. The understory includes cattail, Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
cutgrass, maidencane, Jamaica sawgrass, and other sand about 5 inches thick. The upper part of the
water-tolerant grasses. The natural areas provide cover subsurface layer, to a depth of about 18 inches, is
for deer and excellent habitat for wading birds and other grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of
wetland wildlife, about 35 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to of the subsoil, to a depth of about 41 inches, is black
cultivated crops or citrus crops because of ponding and fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of about 48
excessive wetness. However, if intensive management inches, is dark brown fine sand. The lower part, to a
practices and soil-improving measures are used and a depth of about 67 inches, is brown fine sand. The
water control system is installed to remove excess water substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is light
rapidly, this soil is well suited to many vegetable crops. A brownish gray fine sand. In the mapped areas are similar
specially designed water control system is needed to soils, but they have a subsoil at a depth of more than 50
remove the excess water when crops are on the soil, to inches. In other areas are similar soils, but these soils
maintain the water table near the surface, to reduce the have a subsoil within 30 inches of the surface.
subsidence of organic material, and to obtain optimum Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Pineda and
crop and pasture yields. Good management practices Wabasso soils in small areas.
include seedbed preparation and crop rotation. Soil- In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10
improving crops and crop residue should be used to inches of the surface for 1 month to 3 months, and it
control erosion and to maintain organic matter content. recedes to a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the months. The permeability is rapid in the surface and
need of the crop. subsurface layers and in the substratum, and it is
In its natural state, this soil is not suited to improved moderate in the subsoil. The available water capacity is
pasture grasses. However, if a water control system is very low in the surface and subsurface layers and in the







38 Soil Survey



substratum, and is medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility This Immokalee soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
and the organic matter content are low. woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W.
In most areas, this Immokalee soil has been left in
natural vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for 21-Lake fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil
cultivated crops, improved pasture, or citrus crops or for is nearly level to gently sloping and excessively drained.
homesite and urban development. The natural vegetation It is on the uplands. The slopes are nearly smooth to
is slash pine. The understory is saw palmetto, running convex.
oak, inkberry, fetterbush, creeping bluestem, lopsided In 95 percent of areas mapped as Lake fine sand, 0 to
indiangrass, pineland threeawn, chalky bluestem, and 5 percent slopes, Lake soil and similar soils make up 93
waxmyrtle. to 99 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to up 1 to 7 percent of the mapped areas.
cultivated crops because of wetness and the sandy Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
texture in the root zone. However, if a water control fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of the
system is installed and soil-improving measures are underlying material, to a depth of about 35 inches, is
used, this soil is fairly suited to many vegetable crops. A yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of
water control system is needed to remove excess water 80 inches or more is brownish yellow fine sand. In the
in wet periods and to provide for subsurface irrigation in mapped areas are similar soils, but they have less than 5
dry periods. Soil-improving crops and crop residue percent silt and clay in the underlying material. In lower
should be used to control erosion and maintain the positions on the landscape are other similar soils, but
content of organic matter in the soil. Other management these soils are well drained.
practices include seedbed preparation and regular Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Tavares soils
applications of fertilizer and lime. Seedbed preparation in small areas.
should include the bedding of rows. A seasonal high water table is at a depth of more than
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good in 72 inches. The permeability is rapid. The available water
areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures capacity is very low to low. Natural fertility and the
and if a water control system is installed to maintain the organic matter content are low.
water table at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees In most areas, this Lake soil is used for citrus crops. In
on beds lowers the effective depth of the water table. A a few areas, it is used for improved pasture or for
close-growing cover crop between tree rows is needed homesite and urban development. The natural vegetation
to protect the soil from blowing. Regular applications of is slash pine, longleaf pine, bluejack oak, Chapman oak,
lime and fertilizers are needed. scrub live oak, live oak, and turkey oak. The understory
This soil has good suitability for improved pasture includes scattered saw palmetto, running oak, lopsided
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white indiangrass, pineland threeawn, bluestem, and paspalum.
clover grow well if properly managed. Water control The sandy texture and droughtiness of this soil are
measures should be used to remove the excess surface severe limitations for cultivated crops. Intensive
water after heavy rains. Regular applications of lime and management practices are needed if cultivated crops are
fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should be prevented, to be grown on this soil. Droughtiness and rapid leaching
The potential of this soil for the production of pine of plant nutrients limit the choice of plants that can be
trees is moderate. Equipment use, seedling mortality, grown and reduce the potential yield of crops. A crop-
and plant competition are the main concerns in rotation system is needed to keep close-growing cover
management. Slash pine is an adapted tree to plant on crops on the soil at least three-fourths of the time. Soil-
this soil. improving crops and crop residue should be used to
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities, control erosion and maintain the content of organic
building site development, and recreational uses. Water matter in the soil. Optimum yields can be obtained from
control measures should be used to minimize the only a few crops without an irrigation system. It is
excessive wetness limitation. The sealing or lining of a generally feasible to irrigate crops if water is readily
sewage lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious available.
soil material can reduce excessive seepage. Septic tank This soil is suited to citrus trees in areas that are
absorption fields may need to be enlarged because of relatively free of freezing temperatures. A ground cover
wetness. The proximity to a stream or aquifer recharge of close-growing plants between the tree rows is needed
area should be considered in the placement of sanitary to protect the soil from blowing. Optimum yields can be
facilities to prevent contamination of the water supplies, obtained in some years without irrigation, but a specially
Fill material is needed for local roads and streets, small designed irrigation system that maintains optimum soil
commercial buildings, and playgrounds. The sidewalls of moisture that is needed to obtain maximum yields.
shallow excavations should be shored, and water control This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture
measures should be used. The sandy surface layer grasses. Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal
should be stabilized for recreational uses. bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well suited to this







Orange County, Florida 39



soil, but yields are reduced by periodic droughtiness. the surface. In some places are similar soils, but these
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. soils have a subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches,
Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant vigor, and some that are in higher positions on the landscape
Irrigation improves the quality of pasture and hay. are moderately well drained.
The potential of this soil for the production of pine Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Wabasso soils
trees is moderate. Seedling mortality, equipment use, in small areas.
and plant competition are the main concerns in In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 30
management. The low available water capacity adversely to 60 inches of the surface for 1 month to 4 months. It is
affects seedling survival in areas where understory at a depth of about 15 inches for 1 week to 3 weeks
plants are numerous. The sandy surface texture limits during periods of heavy rains. It recedes to a depth of
the use of equipment. Slash pine is an adapted tree to more than 60 inches during prolonged dry periods. The
plant on this soil. permeability is moderately rapid to rapid in the surface
This soil has slight limitations for septic tank and subsurface layers, moderate to moderately slow in
absorption fields, dwellings without basements, and local the subsoil, and slow to moderately slow in the
roads and streets. No corrective measures are needed. substratum. The available water capacity is low in the
When installing a septic tank absorption field on this soil, surface and subsurface layers and is medium to high in
the proximity to a stream or canal should be considered the subsoil and substratum. Natural fertility and the
to prevent lateral seepage and ground water pollution. If organic matter content are moderate to moderately low.
the density of housing is moderate to high, a community In most areas, this Lochloosa soil is used for citrus
sewage system can help prevent contamination of the crops or for homesite and urban development. In a few
water supplies. areas, it is used for cultivated crops or improved pasture,
This soil has slight limitations for small commercial or it has been left in natural vegetation. The natural
buildings. Land shaping may be needed in the more vegetation is live oak, water oak, and slash pine. The
sloping areas. understory includes chalky bluestem, lopsided
This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses, indiangrass, panicum, pineland threeawn, and waxmyrtle.
trench sanitary landfills, sewage lagoons, and shallow Under natural conditions, this soil is moderately suited
excavations. The sandy surface layer should be to cultivated crops because of wetness. However, if a
stabilized for recreational uses, and land shaping may be water control system is installed and maintained and
needed in the more sloping areas. The sealing or lining soil-improving measures are used, this soil is well suited
of a trench sanitary landfill or sewage lagoon with to most cultivated crops. A water control system is
impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage. needed to remove excess water in wet periods and to
The sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored, provide for subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Soil-
The proximity to a stream or aquifer recharge area improving crops and crop residue should be used to
should be considered in the placement of sanitary control erosion and maintain the content of organic
facilities to prevent contamination of the water supplies, matter in the soil. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
This Lake soil is in capability subclass IVs. The according to the need of the crop.
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10S. This soil is moderately suited to citrus trees in areas
that are relatively free of freezing temperatures. A water
22-Lochloosa fine sand. This soil is nearly level and control system is necessary to maintain the water table
somewhat poorly drained. It is in the slightly high at a depth of about 4 feet during wet periods. Optimum
positions on the flatwoods. The slopes are smooth to yields of citrus generally can be obtained without
convex and range from 0 to 2 percent, irrigation. Irrigating during periods of low rainfall produces
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Lochloosa fine maximum yields. Regular applications of fertilizer and
sand, Lochloosa soil and similar soils make up 91 to 99 lime help to obtain maximum yields. A close-growing
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 cover crop between tree rows is needed to protect the
to 9 percent of the mapped areas. soil from blowing.
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine This soil has good suitability for improved pasture
sand about 7 inches thick. The upper part of the grasses. Coastal bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass
subsurface layer, to a depth of about 23 inches, is light grow well if properly managed. Regular applications of
brownish gray fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of lime and fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should be
about 29 inches, is light gray fine sand that has strong prevented.
brown mottles. The subsoil, to a depth of about 64 The potential of this soil for the production of pine
inches, is light gray sandy clay loam that has strong trees is high. This soil has few limitations for woodland
brown and yellowish red mottles. The substratum to a use and management. Slash pine is an adapted tree to
depth of about 80 inches is gray sandy clay loam that plant on this soil.
has yellowish red mottles. In the mapped areas are This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities
similar soils, but they have a subsoil within 20 inches of and recreational uses. It has slight limitations for







40 Soil Survey


dwellings without basements, small commercial panicum, maidencane, and other various sedges and
buildings, and local roads and streets. Water control grasses.
measures should be used to minimize the wetness Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
limitation. Mounding or enlarging the septic tank cultivated crops. However, it is moderately well suited to
absorption field may be needed because of wetness. vegetable crops if a water control system is installed to
The sandy sidewalls must be sealed or lined if this soil is remove excess surface water rapidly and to provide for
used as a sewage lagoon. Water control measures subsurface irrigation. Soil-improving crops and crop
should be used for trench sanitary landfills during wet residue should be used to control erosion and maintain
periods. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for the content of organic matter in the soil. Seedbed
recreational uses. The sidewalls of shallow excavation preparation should include the bedding of rows. Fertilizer
should be shored. should be applied according to the need of the crop.
This Lochloosa soil is in capability subclass llw. The The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good in
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11A. areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures
and if a water control system is installed to maintain the
23-Malabar fine sand. This soil is nearly level and water table at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees
poorly drained. It is in low, narrow to broad sloughs and on beds provides good surface drainage. A close-
poorly defined drainageways. The slopes are smooth to growing cover crop between tree rows is needed to
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. protect the soil from blowing. Regular applications of
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Malabar fine sand, fertilizer are needed.
Malabar soil and similar soils make up 90 to 99 percent The suitability of this soil for pasture and hay crops is
of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 10 good. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and clover
percent of the mapped areas. grow well if properly managed. Management practices
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine should include a water control system to remove excess
sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a surface water after heavy rains, regular applications of
depth of about 18 inches, is grayish brown fine sand. fertilizer and lime, and controlled grazing.
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 30 The potential of this soil for the production of pine
inches, is light yellowish brown fine sand. The next layer, trees is moderately high. Slash pine is an adapted tree
to a depth of about 42 inches, is light gray fine sand. to plant on this soil. A water control system is needed to
Sinhes, is a remove excess surface water. Equipment use and
The lower part, to a depth of about 58 inches, is gray
fine sandy loam that has pale brown and brownish
yellow mottles. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches management.
yellow mottles The substratum to a depth of 80 ihes This soil has severe limitations for building site
or more is gray loamy sand. In the mapped areas are development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.
similar soils in which the lower part of the subsoil is Water control measures should be used and fill material
within 40 inches of the surface, or they have a brown to is needed to minimize the excessive wetness limitation.
dark brown weakly stained layer above the lower part of The sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon or trench
the loamy subsoil. sanitary landfill with impervious soil material can reduce
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Wabasso soils excessive seepage. Mounding of the septic tank
in small areas. absorption field may be needed. The proximity to a
In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10 stream or aquifer recharge area should be considered in
inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months and between the placement of sanitary facilities to prevent
depths of 10 and 40 inches for most of the year. The contamination of the water supplies. Fill material is
permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers needed for local roads and streets, small commercial
and in the upper part of the subsoil, slow to very slow in buildings, and playgrounds. The sidewalls of shallow
the loamy part of the subsoil, and moderately rapid in excavations should be shored, and water control
the substratum. The available water capacity is low to measures should be used. The sandy surface layer
very low in the surface and subsurface layers and in the should be stabilized for recreational uses.
upper part of the subsoil, moderate in the lower part of This Malabar soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
the subsoil, and low in the substratum. Natural fertility woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W.
and the organic matter content are low.
In most areas, this Malabar soil has been left in 24-Millhopper-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
natural vegetation. In some areas, it has been drained slopes. This complex consists of Millhopper soil that is
and is used for cultivated crops or improved pasture or nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well
for homesite and urban development. The natural drained and of areas of Urban land. This complex is in
vegetation is slash pine, longleaf pine, cabbage palm, the upland areas.
and laurel oak. The understory includes scattered saw This map unit consists of about 53 percent Millhopper
palmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, pineland threeawn, soil and about 40 percent Urban land. The included soils







Orange County, Florida 41



make up about 7 percent of the map unit. The lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable gardens. The soils
proportions and the patterns of the Millhopper soil and need to be mulched, irrigated, fertilized, and limed to
Urban land are relatively consistent in most delineations establish and maintain lawn grasses and other
of the map unit. The individual areas of the soils in this landscape vegetation.
map unit are too mixed or too small to map separately at The soils in this map unit have moderate limitations for
the scale used for the maps in the back of this septic tank absorption fields because of the depth of the
publication, water table during wet periods. If the density of housing
Typically, the surface layer of Millhopper soil is dark is moderate to high, a community sewage system can
gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The upper part of help prevent contamination of the water supplies. The
the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 20 inches, is proximity to a stream or aquifer recharge area should be
pale brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of considered in the placement of sanitary facilities to
about 42 inches, is very pale brown fine sand. The lower prevent contamination of the water supplies.
part, to a depth of about 65 inches, is very pale brown The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
fine sand that has yellowish brown mottles. The subsoil capability subclass or to a woodland group.
to a depth of about 80 inches is brown sandy clay loam
that has yellowish brown and yellowish red mottles. 25-Okeelanta muck. This soil is nearly level and
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by very poorly drained. It is in freshwater swamps and in
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces drained areas north of Lake Apopka. Large ditches and
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification canals equipped with water control structures dissect the
is not feasible. map unit in most places. Undrained areas are ponded for
Included in mapping are small areas of Seffner and 6 to 9 months or more each year. The slopes are
Tavares soils. Also included are some soils that are smooth and are less than 1 percent.
similar to Millhopper soil but are somewhat poorly In 95 percent of areas mapped as Okeelanta muck,
drained in the lower parts of the landscape and are well Okeelanta soil and similar soils make up 86 to 99
drained in the higher parts of the landscape. These percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1
similar included soils have a subsoil within 40 inches of to 14 percent of the mapped areas.
the surface. Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of this
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 soil is black muck about 9 inches thick. The lower part,
inches for 1 month to 4 months, and it recedes to a to a depth of about 25 inches, is dark brown muck. The
depth of 60 to 72 inches for 2 to 4 months during most upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of about
years. The permeability of Millhopper soil is rapid in the 62 inches, is light gray fine sand that has dark gray
surface and subsurface layers, and it is slow to moderate mottles. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more
in the subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the is grayish brown loamy sand. In the mapped areas are
surface and subsurface layers and is low to medium in similar soils, but they have underlying material of sandy
the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. The organic matter clay loam or sandy loam, or both, and they have
content is low to moderately low. accumulations of soft calcium carbonate masses. In
The soils in this map unit are not used for cultivated other places are similar soils, but these soils have thin,
crops, citrus crops, improved pasture, or commercial discontinuous layers of limestone in the underlying
trees. Millhopper soil in the Urban land part of this material.
complex is used for lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds, Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Sanibel and
or it is left as open space. The Urban land part of this Terra Ceia soils in small areas.
complex is used mostly for houses, streets, driveways, Under natural conditions, this soil is ponded for 6 to 9
buildings, parking lots, and other similar uses. months or more each year. In most years, a seasonal
The soils in this map unit have slight limitations for high water table is at or near the surface. In most areas,
dwellings without basements, small commercial the soil in this map unit is artificially drained by tile drains
buildings, and local roads and streets. Land shaping may and surface ditches. In drained areas, the water table is
be needed in the more sloping areas. controlled at a depth of 10 to 36 inches, or according to
These soils have severe limitations for trench sanitary the need of the crop. The water table is at or above the
landfills, sewage lagoons, and shallow excavations. The surface for short periods after heavy rains. If drained, the
sealing or lining of a trench sanitary landfill or sewage organic material, when dry, subsides to about half the
lagoon with impervious soil material reduces excessive original thickness. It subsides further as a result of
seepage. The sidewalls of shallow excavations should compaction and oxidation. The loss of the organic
be shored. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized material is more rapid during the first 2 years after the
for recreational uses. Land shaping may be needed in soil has been artificially drained. If the soil is intensively
the more sloping areas. Droughtiness is a problem cultivated, the organic material continues to subside at
during extended dry periods. The selection of drought- the rate of about 1 inch per year. The lower the water
tolerant vegetation is critical for the establishment of table, the more rapid the loss of the organic material.







42 Soil Survey


The permeability is rapid in the organic layers, and it is This Okeelanta soil is in capability subclass IIIw, but it
moderately rapid to moderately slow in the underlying has not been assigned to a woodland group.
material. The available water capacity is very high in the
organic layers and is very low to medium in the 26-Ona fine sand. This soil is nearly level and poorly
underlying material. Natural fertility and the organic drained. It is in broad areas on the flatwoods. The slopes
matter content are high. are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent.
In most areas, this Okeelanta soil is used mainly for In 95 percent of areas mapped as Ona fine sand, Ona
cultivated crops, such as lettuce, endives, corn, celery, soil and similar soils make up 84 to 99 percent of the
cabbage, and radishes. In a few areas where fill material mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 16 percent
has been applied, this soil is used for urban of the mapped areas.
development. The natural vegetation is buttonbush, Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
Carolina willow, primrose willow, cattail, maidencane, sand about 6 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of
Jamaica sawgrass, and other water-tolerant grasses. The about 15 inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The
natural areas provide cover for deer and excellent upper part of the substratum, to a depth of about 42
habitat for wading birds and other wetland wildlife, inches, is grayish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to depth of about 60 inches, is light gray fine sand. The
cultivated crops or citrus crops. However, if intensive lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is very pale
management practices and soil-improving measures are brown fine sand. In the mapped areas are similar soils,
used and a water control system is installed to remove but they have a gray or dark gray subsurface layer. In
excess surface water rapidly, this soil is well suited to some places are similar soils, but these soils have a
many vegetable crops. A specially designed water subsoil at a depth of more than 10 inches.
control system is needed to remove excess water when Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Immokalee
crops are on the soil and to maintain the water table soils in small areas.
ar the s the In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10
near the surface to reduce the subsidence of organic inches of the surface for 1 month to 2 months. It
material and obtain optimum crop and pasture yields. recedes to a depth of 10 to 40 inches for periods of 6
Proper management practices include seedbed oof 10 to 40 inches for periods of 6
Proper management practices include seedbed months or more. The permeability is rapid in the surface
preparation and crop rotation. Soil-improving crops and and subsurface layers, and it is moderate in the subsoil.
crop residue should be used to control erosion and to The available water capacity is medium in the surface
maintain the content of organic matter in the soil. layer and subsoil and is low in the substratum.
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the In most areas, this Ona soil has been left in natural
need of the crop. vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for cultivated crops,
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to improved pasture, or citrus crops or for homesite and
improved pasture grasses. However, if a water control urban development. The natural vegetation is longleaf
system is installed to remove excess surface water after pine and slash pine. The understory includes inkberry,
heavy rains, suitability is good. Pangolagrass, improved running oak, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, fetterbush,
bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly pineland threeawn, bluestem, panicum, and other
managed. The water control system should maintain the grasses.
water table near the surface to prevent excess Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
subsidence of the organic material. Regular applications cultivated crops because of wetness and the sandy
of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be texture in the root zone. However, if a water control
controlled to maintain plant vigor, system is installed and soil-improving measures are
This soil is not suited to pine trees. used, this soil is fairly suited to many vegetable crops. A
This soil has severe limitations for building site water control system is needed to remove excess water
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses in wet periods and to provide for subsurface irrigation in
because of ponding and excess humus. Water control dry periods. Soil-improving crops and crop residue
measures should be used to minimize the excessive should be used to control erosion and maintain the
wetness limitation. Organic material, which has low soil content of organic matter in the soil. Other management
strength, should be removed and backfilled with a soil practices include seedbed preparation and regular
material suitable for urban use. Constructing buildings on applications of fertilizer and lime. Seedbed preparation
pilings can help prevent structural damage that is caused should include the bedding of rows.
by soil subsidence. The sealing or lining of a sewage The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good in
lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious soil areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures
material can reduce excessive seepage. The sidewalls of and if a water control system is installed to maintain the
shallow excavations should be shored, and water control water table at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees
measures should be used. Mounding of septic tank on beds lowers the effective depth of the water table.
absorption fields may be needed. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are needed.







Orange County, Florida 43



This soil has good suitability for improved pasture seasonal high water table is within 10 inches of the
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white surface for 1 month to 2 months. Drainage systems have
clover grow well if properly managed. Water control been established in most areas. Depth to the high water
measures should be used to remove the excess water table is dependent upon the functioning of the drainage
after heavy rains. Regular applications of lime and system. The permeability of Ona soil is rapid in the
fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should be prevented, surface layer and in the substratum and is moderate in
The potential of this soil for the production of pine the subsoil. The available water capacity is moderate in
trees is moderately high. Equipment use, seedling the surface layer and in the subsoil and is low in the
mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns in substratum.
management. Bedding of rows helps to minimize the The soils in this map unit are not used for cultivated
wetness limitation. Slash pine is an adapted tree to plant crops, citrus crops, improved pasture, or commercial
on this soil. trees. Ona soil in the Urban land part of this complex is
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities, used for lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds, or it is left as
building site development, and recreational uses. Water open space. The Urban land part of this complex is used
control measures should be used to minimize the mostly for houses, streets, driveways, parking lots, or
excessive wetness limitation. Septic tank absorption other similar uses.
fields may need to be enlarged because of wetness. If The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for
the density of housing is moderate to high, a community sanitary facilities and shallow excavations. Water control
sewage system can help prevent contamination of the measures should be used to minimize the excessive
water supplies. The sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon wetness limitations for these uses. Septic tank
or trench sanitary landfill with impervious soil material absorption fields may need to be enlarged because of
can reduce excessive seepage. The sandy surface layer wetness. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a
should be stabilized for recreational uses. The sidewalls community sewage system can help prevent
of shallow excavations should be shored. contamination of the water supplies. The sealing or lining
This Ona soil is in capability subclass Illw. The of a sewage lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage.
The sidewalls of the shallow excavations should be
27-Ona-Urban land complex. This complex consists shored.
of Ona soil that is nearly level and poorly drained and of These soils have moderate limitations for dwellings
areas of Urban land. This complex is on the flatwoods. without basements, small commercial buildings, and
The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. recreational uses. Many of these areas have been
This map unit consists of about 53 percent Ona soil previously drained or modified by grading and shaping.
and about 40 percent Urban land. The included soils For dwellings without basements and small commercial
make up about 7 percent of the map unit. The buildings, some water control measures should be used.
proportions and the patterns of Ona soil and Urban land Measures include adding fill material, land leveling, and
are relatively consistent in most delineations of the map installing a drainage system to remove excessive surface
unit. The individual areas of the soils in this map unit are water after heavy rains. The sandy surface layer should
too mixed or too small to map separately at the scale be stabilized for recreational uses.
used for the maps in the back of this publication. The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
Typically, the surface layer of Ona soil is black fine capability subclass or to a woodland group.
sand about 3 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of
about 16 inches, is dark reddish brown fine sand. The 28-Florahome fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
upper part of the substratum, to a depth of about 31 This soil is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately
inches, is gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of well drained. It is on the uplands. The slopes are smooth
about 80 inches or more is light gray fine sand. to convex.
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by In 95 percent of areas mapped as Florahome fine
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Florahome soil and similar
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification soils make up 82 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
is not feasible. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 18 percent of the mapped
Included in mapping are small areas of Immokalee areas.
soils. Also included are some soils that are similar to Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of this
Ona soil but have a gray or dark gray subsurface layer or soil is very dark gray fine sand about 10 inches thick.
have a subsoil at a depth of about 20 to 30 inches. The middle part, to a depth of about 19 inches, is very
Some areas of Ona-Urban land complex have been dark grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth
modified by grading and shaping. The sandy material of about 38 inches, is dark gray fine sand. The upper
from drainage ditches or fill material that is hauled in are part of the underlying material, to a depth of about 48
often used to fill low areas. In undrained areas, a inches, is brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of







44 Soil Survey



about 80 inches is light yellowish brown fine sand. In the This soil has severe limitations for sewage lagoons,
mapped areas are similar soils that have a weakly sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and recreational
cemented subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches. In uses. Water control measures should be used to
some places are similar soils that have a surface layer minimize the wetness limitation in undrained areas. In
that is less than 10 inches thick and some similar soils addition, the sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon or
in higher positions on the landscape that are well trench sanitary landfill with impervious soil material can
drained, reduce excessive seepage. Water control measures
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Candler and should be used to minimize the excessive wetness
Seffner soils in small areas. limitation. The sidewalls of shallow excavations should
In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a be shored. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized
depth of 48 to 72 inches for 4 to 6 months and recedes for recreational uses. Droughtiness is a problem during
to a depth of 72 inches or more during extended dry extended dry periods. The selection of drought-tolerant
periods. It is within 30 to 48 inches of the surface for up vegetation is critical for the establishment of lawns,
to 2 weeks during periods of heavy rains. The shrubs, trees, and vegetable gardens. Regular
permeability is rapid throughout. The available water applications of fertilizer and lime are needed to maintain
capacity is low in the upper part of the surface layer. It is lawns and landscape vegetation.
very low in the lower part and in the underlying material. This soil has moderate limitations for septic tank
Natural fertility is low. The organic matter content is absorption fields. Septic tank absorption fields may need
moderate to moderately low. to be enlarged because of wetness. The rapid
In most areas, this Florahome soil is used for citrus permeability of this soil can cause ground water pollution
crops or for homesite and urban development. In a few in areas of septic tank absorption fields. If the density of
areas, it is used for improved pasture or cultivated crops. housing is moderate to high, a community sewage
The natural vegetation includes live oak, turkey oak, system can help prevent contamination of the water
longleaf pine, and slash pine. The understory consists of supplies.
saw palmetto, wild grape, bluestem, paspalum, This soil has slight limitations for dwellings without
switchgrass, lopsided indiangrass, panicum, and pineland basements and small commercial buildings and for local
threeawn. roads and streets.
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to This Florahome soil is in capability subclass Ills. The
most cultivated crops. It is well suited to citrus crops in woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10S.
areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures. A
close-growing cover crop between tree rows is needed 29-Florahome-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
to protect the soil from blowing. Optimum yields of citrus slopes. This complex consists of Florahome soil that is
crops can be obtained in most years without irrigation, nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well
but a specially designed irrigation system that maintains drained and of areas of Urban land. This complex is in
optimum soil moisture, is needed to obtain maximum the upland areas.
yields. Intensive soil management practices are needed This map unit consists of about 53 percent Florahome
if cultivated crops are to be grown on this soil. soil and about 40 percent Urban land. The included soils
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit make up about 7 percent of the map unit. The
the choice of plants that can be grown and reduce the proportions and the patterns of Florahome soil and
potential yield of crops. A specially designed and Urban land are relatively consistent in most delineations
properly managed irrigation system helps to maintain of the map unit. The individual areas of the soils in this
optimum soil moisture and thus ensure maximum yields. map unit are too mixed or too small to map separately at
Soil-improving crops and crop residue should be used to the scale used for the maps in the back of this
control erosion and maintain the content of organic publication.
matter in this soil. Regular applications of fertilizer and Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of
lime are needed. Florahome soil is black fine sand about 17 inches thick.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses. The lower part, to a depth of about 22 inches, is very
Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and dark gray fine sand. The next layer, to a depth of about
bahiagrass, are well suited to this soil, but yields are 35 inches, is dark gray fine sand. The upper part of the
reduced by periodic droughtiness. Regular applications underlying material, to a depth of 62 inches, is grayish
of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be brown fine sand that has common dark brown mottles.
controlled to maintain plant vigor. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is pale brown fine
The potential of this soil for the production of pine sand.
trees is moderate. Seedling mortality, equipment use, The Urban land part of this complex is covered by
and plant competition are the main concerns in concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces
management. Slash pine is an adapted tree to plant on that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification
this soil. is not feasible.







Orange County, Florida 45



Included in mapping are small areas of Candler and The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
Seffner soils. Also included are some soils that are capability subclass or to a woodland group.
similar to Florahome soil but have a weakly cemented,
dark brown fine sandy layer at a depth of more than 40 30-Pineda fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
inches, some similar soils that have a surface layer that poorly drained. It is on low hammocks, in broad, poorly
is less than 10 inches thick, and some similar soils that defined drainageways, and in sloughs. The slopes are
are in some of the higher parts of the landscape and are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
well drained. In 80 percent of areas mapped as Pineda fine sand,
In most areas of Florahome-Urban land complex, Pineda soil and similar soils make up 87 to 99 percent of
drainage systems have been established. The depth to the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 13
the seasonal high water table is dependent upon the percent of the mapped areas.
functioning of the drainage system. In areas without Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
drainage systems, a seasonal high water table is at a sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
depth of 48 to 72 inches for 4 to 6 months, and it depth of about 25 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper
recedes to a depth of 72 inches or more during part of the subsoil, to a depth of 29 inches, is strong
extended dry periods. The permeability of Florahome soil brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of about 37
is rapid throughout. The available water capacity is low in inches, is dark yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part,
the surface layer and very low in the underlying material. to a depth of about 55 inches, is dark gray sandy loam
Natural fertility is low. The organic matter content is that has about 20 percent tongues of light gray fine sand
moderate to moderately low. about 3 to 7 inches long and half an inch to 2 inches
The soils in this map unit are not used for cultivated wide. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is
crops, citrus crops, improved pasture, or commercial greenish gray sandy loam mixed with shell fragments. In
trees. Florahome soil in the Urban land part of this the mapped areas are similar soils, but they have a
complex is used for lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds, subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches.
or it is left as open space. The Urban land part of this Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Malabar and
complex is used mostly for houses, streets, driveways, Wabasso soils in small areas.
buildings, parking lots, or other similar uses.
Thuildings, ing this mp ut have severe l ns fr In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10
The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for inches of the surface for 1 month to 6 months. It
sewage lagoons, trench sanitary landfills, shallows
excavations, and recreational uses. Water control recedes to a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6
measures should be used to minimize the wetness months. The water table is above the surface for a short
limitation for these uses. The sealing or lining of a period after heavy rains. The permeability is rapid in the
sewage lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious surface and subsurface layers and in the upper part of
soil material can reduce excessive seepage. The the subsoil, and it is moderately slow in the lower part of
proximity to a stream or aquifer recharge area should be the subsoil and substratum. The available water capacity
considered in the placement of a trench sanitary landfill is very low in the surface and subsurface layers and in
or sewage lagoon to prevent contamination of the water the upper part of the subsoil, and it is medium in the
supplies. The sidewalls of shallow excavations should be lower part of the subsoil and substratum. Natural fertility
shored. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for and the organic matter content are low.
recreational uses. Droughtiness is a problem during In most areas, this Pineda soil has been left in natural
extended dry periods. The selection of drought-tolerant vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for improved
vegetation is critical for the establishment of lawns, pasture or for homesite and urban development. The
shrubs, trees, and vegetable gardens. Regular natural vegetation is cabbage palm, scattered longleaf
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed to maintain pine, and slash pine. The understory includes waxmyrtle,
lawn grasses and landscape vegetation, blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, bluejoint panicum,
The soils in this map unit have moderate limitations for scattered saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, and various
septic tank absorption fields. Water control measures weeds and grasses.
should be used to minimize the wetness limitation. Septic Under natural conditions, this soil has severe
tank absorption fields may need to be enlarged because limitations for cultivated crops. However, this soil is fairly
of wetness. The rapid permeability of the soils in this suited to use for many vegetable crops if a water control
map unit can cause ground water pollution in areas of system is installed to remove excess water rapidly and
septic tank absorption fields. If the density of housing is to provide for subsurface irrigation. Soil-improving crops
moderate to high, a community sewage system can help and crop residue should be used to control erosion and
prevent contamination of the water supplies, maintain the content of organic matter in the soil.
These soils have slight limitations for dwellings without Seedbed preparation should include the bedding of rows.
basements and small commercial buildings and for local Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
roads and streets. need of the crop.







46 Soil Survey



The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good in inches or more is light gray fine sandy loam. In the
areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures mapped areas are similar soils, but they have a subsoil
and if a water control system is installed to maintain the within 20 inches of the surface, and the lower part of the
water table at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees subsoil of some similar soils is at a depth of more than
on beds lowers the effective depth of the water table. A 40 inches.
close-growing cover crop between the tree rows is Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Floridana and
needed to protect the soil from blowing. Regular Wabasso soils in small areas.
applications of fertilizer are needed. In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10
This soil has good suitability for improved pasture inches of the surface for 1 month to 6 months. Flooding
grasses and hay crops. Pangolagrass, improved occurs frequently during rainy periods. The duration and
bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly extent of flooding are variable and are related directly to
managed. A water control system is needed to remove the intensity and frequency of rains. Flooding normally
excess surface water after heavy rains. Management lasts from 1 month to 4 months. The permeability is
practices should include controlled grazing and regular rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and in the
applications of fertilizer and lime. upper part of the subsoil, and it is moderately slow to
The potential of this soil for the production of pine slow in the lower part of the subsoil and substratum. The
trees is moderately high. A water control system is available water capacity is very low in the surface and
needed to remove excess surface water. Equipment use subsurface layers and in the upper part of the subsoil,
and seedling mortality are the main concerns in and it is medium in the lower part of the subsoil and
management. Bedding of rows helps to minimize the substratum. Natural fertility and the organic matter
wetness limitation. Slash pine is an adapted tree to plant content are low.
on this soil. In most areas, this Pineda soil has been left in natural
This soil has severe limitations for building site vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for improved
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses. pasture. The natural vegetation is cabbage palm, water
Water control measures should be used to minimize the oa, sas ure. The natural vegetain i understory includes
excessive wetness limitation. The sealing or lining of a oak, slash pine, and laurel oak. The understory includes
excessive wetness limitation. The sealing or lining of a waxmyrtle, blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, bluejoint
sewage lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious waxmyrtle, blue maidencane, chalky bluestem, bluejoint
sewage lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious panicum, scattered saw palmetto, sedges, and various
soil material can reduce excessive seepage. Mounding weeds and raises.
of septic tank absorption fields may be needed. If the weeds and grasses.
density of housing is moderate to high, a community Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
sewage system can help prevent contamination of the cultivated crops, citrus crops, or improved pasture.
water supplies. The sandy surface layer should be However, if a water control system is installed to reduce
stabilized for recreational uses. The sidewalls of shallow the hazard of flooding, this soil has fair suitability for
excavations should be shored. some vegetable crops and improved pasture. A water
This Pineda soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The control system is also needed to remove excess water
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. rapidly and to provide for subsurface irrigation when
crops are on the soil. Soil-improving crops and crop
31-Pineda fine sand, frequently flooded. This soil residue should be used to control erosion and maintain
is nearly level and poorly drained. It is on the flood the content of organic matter in the soil. Seedbed
plains. Many areas are isolated by dissected or preparation should include the bedding of rows. Fertilizer
meandering stream channels. This soil is flooded for should be applied according to the need of the crop.
long periods following prolonged, intense rains. The Improved bahiagrass grows well if properly managed.
slopes are nearly smooth to slightly concave and range For improved pasture, management practices should
from 0 to 2 percent. include controlled grazing.
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Pineda fine sand, The potential of this soil for the production of pine
frequently flooded, Pineda soil and similar soils make up trees is moderately high. A water control system is
90 to 98 percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils needed to remove excess surface water and reduce the
make up 2 to 10 percent of the mapped areas. hazard of flooding. Bedding the tree rows helps to
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine minimize the wetness limitation. Equipment use and
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a seedling mortality are the main concerns in
depth of about 24 inches, is grayish brown fine sand. management. Slash pine is an adapted tree to plant on
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 36 this soil.
inches, is brownish yellow fine sand. The lower part, to a This soil is well suited to habitat for wetland and
depth of about 50 inches, is gray sandy clay loam that woodland wildlife. Shallow water areas are easily
has few white mottles and about 25 percent tongues of developed, and the vegetation provides abundant food
light gray fine sand about 3 to 6 inches long and half an and shelter for wildlife, which add to the recreational use
inch to 3 inches wide. The substratum to a depth of 80 of these soils.







Orange County, Florida 47



This soil has severe limitations for building site inkberry, hairy panicum, pineland threeawn, and
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses waxmyrtle.
because of flooding and wetness. Major flood control Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
structures and extensive local drainage systems are vegetable crops because of wetness. However, if a
needed to control flooding. The limitations of this soil for water control system is installed to remove excess
septic tank absorption fields are severe. The installing of surface water rapidly and to provide for subsurface
a water control system, adding fill material, and irrigation, this soil is well suited to most vegetable crops.
mounding the septic tank absorption field can help to Soil-improving crops and crop residue should be used to
minimize the excessive wetness limitation. The proximity control erosion and maintain the content of organic
to a stream or aquifer recharge area should be matter in the soil. Seedbed preparation should include
considered in the placement of sanitary facilities to the bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be applied
prevent contamination of the water supplies. Fill material according to the need of the crop.
is needed for local roads and streets, small commercial The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good in
buildings, and playgrounds. areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures
This Pineda soil is in capability subclass Vw. The and if a water control system is installed to maintain the
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. water table at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees
on beds provides good surface drainage. A close-
32-Pinellas fine sand. This soil is nearly level and growing cover crop between tree rows is needed to
poorly drained. It is in areas that border sloughs and protect the soil from blowing. Regular applications of
shallow depressions. The slopes are smooth to slightly fertilizer are needed.
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. The suitability of this soil for improved pasture grasses
In 90 percent of areas mapped as Pinellas fine sand, and hay crops is good. Pangolagrass, improved
Pinellas soil and similar soils make up 89 to 99 percent bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly
of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 11 managed. Management practices should include a water
percent of the mapped areas, control system to remove excess surface water after
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine heavy rains, regular applications of fertilizer, and
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a controlled grazing.
depth of about 18 inches, is light gray fine sand. The The potential of this soil for the production of pine
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 34 inches, trees is moderate. A water control system is needed to
is light gray fine sand that has common brownish yellow remove excess surface water. Planting the trees on beds
mottles and accumulations of carbonate coatings on helps to minimize the excessive wetness limitation.
sand grains and in interspaces between sand grains. The Equipment use and seedling mortality are the main
lower part, to a depth of about 46 inches, is grayish concerns in management. Slash pine is an adapted tree
brown fine sandy loam that has few dark brown mottles, to plant on this soil.
The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is light This soil has severe limitations for building site
olive brown fine sand mixed with shell fragments. In the development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.
mapped areas are soils similar to Pinellas soil, but the Water control measures should be used and fill material
lower part of the subsoil is at a depth of more than 40 is needed to minimize the excessive wetness limitation.
inches. The sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon or trench
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Wabasso soils sanitary landfill with impervious soil material can reduce
in small areas. excessive seepage. Mounding of septic tank absorption
In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10 fields may be needed. The sandy surface layer should
inches of the surface for 1 month to 3 months and be stabilized for recreational uses. The sidewalls of
between depths of 10 and 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. shallow excavations should be shored. The proximity to
In dry periods, it recedes to a depth of more than 40 a stream or aquifer recharge area should be considered
inches. The permeability is rapid in the surface and in the placement of sanitary facilities to prevent
subsurface layers, the upper part of the subsoil, and contamination of the water supplies.
substratum, and it is moderate in the lower part of the This Pinellas soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
subsoil. The available water capacity is very low in the woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W.
surface layer and substratum and is medium in the
subsoil. 33-Pits. This map unit consists of excavated areas of
In most areas, this Pinellas soil has been left in natural unconsolidated or heterogeneous soil and geologic
vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for improved materials which have been removed primarily for use in
pasture. The natural vegetation is cabbage palm, road construction or as fill material for low areas and for
longleaf pine, and slash pine. The understory includes building foundations. Areas of this map unit consist of a
scattered saw palmetto, lopsided indiangrass, chalky pit or depressed area, which is surrounded by sidewalls
bluestem, broomsedge bluestem, creeping bluestem, of variable steepness. Included with Pits in mapping are







48 Soil Survey



small areas of spoil or stockpiles of variable soil and sand pine, and slash pine. The understory includes
geologic material around the edges of the pits. Pits, creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, running oak,
locally called borrow pits, are from 5 to 40 feet deep. saw palmetto, and pineland threeawn.
Some of the pit bottoms are seasonally ponded. Other This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops, but if
areas are filled with water year round and are shown as intensive management practices are used, a few special
water on the soil map. crops can be grown. The adapted crops that can be
In most areas, Pits remain idle. Smoothing, shaping, grown are limited. For maximum yields, an irrigation
and filling with heavy machinery is necessary for any system is needed and fertilizer and lime should be
agricultural or urban use. These areas have a high applied according to the need of the crop. Soil-improving
potential for wildlife habitat if they are reshaped and crops and crop residue should be used to control
revegetated to conform with existing landscapes. Areas erosion and maintain the content of organic matter in the
that are filled with water have a high potential for fish if soil.
they are stocked and managed properly. Onsite This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees. Only fair yields
investigation is necessary to determine the potential for can be obtained if the level of management is high. A
any use. water control system is necessary to maintain the water
Pits has not been assigned to a capability subclass or table at a depth of about 4 feet during wet periods and
to a woodland group, to provide water for irrigation during periods of low
rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
34-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This needed to obtain maximum yields. A suitable cover crop
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well should be maintained between tree rows to protect the
drained. It is on low ridges and knolls on the flatwoods. soil from blowing.
The slopes are smooth to convex. The suitability of this soil for improved pasture grasses
In 80 percent of areas mapped as Pomello fine sand, is fair. Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal
0 to 5 percent slopes, Pomello soil and similar soils bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are better suited to this
make up 78 to 94 percent of the mapped areas. soil than other grasses. Droughtiness is the main
Dissimilar soils make up 6 to 22 percent of the mapped limitation except during wet periods. Regular applications
areas. of lime and fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should be
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of gray fine sand prevented.
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of The potential of this soil for the production of pine
about 40 inches, is white fine sand. The upper part of trees is moderate. Seedling mortality, plant competition,
the subsoil, to a depth of about 48 inches, is black fine and equipment use are the main concerns in
sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 55 inches, is management. Slash pine and sand pine are adapted
dark reddish brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth trees to plant.
of about 80 inches is pale brown fine sand. In the This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities,
mapped areas are similar soils, but they have a subsoil building site development, and recreational uses. It has
within 30 inches of the surface. In some places are moderate limitations for dwellings without basements
similar soils, but they have a subsoil at a depth of more and small commercial buildings. Water control measures
than 50 inches, and in lower positions on the landscape should be used to minimize the excessive wetness
are similar soils, but they are somewhat poorly drained, limitation. Septic tank absorption fields may need to be
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Archbold, enlarged because of wetness. The rapid permeability of
Pompano, and Smyrna soils in small areas. Also this soil can cause ground water pollution in areas of
included are some soils that have a subsoil within 30 septic tank absorption fields. If the density of housing is
inches of the surface, moderate to high, a community sewage system can help
In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a prevent contamination of the water supplies. Water
depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1 month to 4 months and control measures should be used to minimize the
recedes to a depth of 40 to 60 inches during dry periods, wetness limitation. In addition, the sealing or lining of a
The permeability is very rapid in the surface and sewage lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious
subsurface layers, moderately rapid in the subsoil, and soil material can reduce excessive seepage. The sandy
rapid in the substratum. The available water capacity is surface layer should be stabilized for recreational uses.
very low in the surface and subsurface layers and in the Water control measures should be used for shallow
substratum, and it is medium in the subsoil. Natural excavations. The sidewalls of shallow excavations
fertility and the organic matter content are very low. should be shored. The proximity to a stream or aquifer
In most areas, this Pomello soil is used for native recharge area should be considered in the placement of
range, or it has been left in natural vegetation. In a few sanitary facilities to prevent contamination of the water
areas, this soil is used for citrus crops, cultivated crops, supplies.
or improved pasture or for homesite and urban This Pomello soil is in capability subclass VIs. The
development. The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8S.







Orange County, Florida 49



35-Pomello-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent absorption fields may need to be enlarged because of
slopes. This complex consists of Pomello soil that is wetness. The rapid permeability of the soils in this map
nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well unit can cause ground water pollution in areas of septic
drained and of areas of Urban land. This complex is on tank absorption fields. If the density of housing is
low ridges and knolls on the flatwoods. moderate to high, a community sewage system can help
This map unit consists of about 53 percent Pomello prevent contamination of the water supplies. Water
soil and about 40 percent Urban land. The included soils control measures should be used to minimize the
make up about 7 percent of this map unit. The wetness limitation. In addition, the sealing or lining of a
proportions and the patterns of Pomello soil and Urban sewage lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious
land are relatively consistent in most delineations of the soil material can reduce excessive seepage. The
map unit. The individual areas of the soils in this map proximity to a stream or aquifer recharge area should be
unit are too mixed or too small to map separately at the considered in the placement of sanitary facilities to
scale used for the maps in the back of this publication, prevent contamination of water supplies. The sandy
Typically, the surface layer of Pomello soil is dark gray surface layer should be stabilized for recreational uses.
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to Droughtiness is a problem during extended dry periods.
a depth of about 42 inches, is white fine sand. The upper The selection of drought-tolerant vegetation is critical for
part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 48 inches, is dark the establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable
reddish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of gardens. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed to
about 54 inches, is dark brown fine sand. The maintain lawn grasses and landscape vegetation. For
substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is light gray shallow excavations, water control measures should be
fine sand. used to minimize wetness. The sidewalls of shallow
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by excavations should be shored.
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification capability subclass or to a woodland group.
is not feasible.
Included in mapping are small areas of Archbold, 36-Pompano fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
Pompano, and Smyrna soils. Also included are some poorly drained. It is on broad, low flats and in poorly
soils that are similar to Pomello soil but have a subsoil defined drainageways on the flatwoods. The slopes are
within 30 inches of the surface, some soils that have a smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
subsoil at a depth of more than 50 inches, and some In 80 percent of areas mapped as Pompano fine sand,
soils that are somewhat poorly drained in some of the Pompano soil makes up 77 to 95 percent of the mapped
lower parts of the landscape. areas. Dissimilar soils make up 5 to 23 percent of the
In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a mapped areas.
depth of 24 to 40 inches for 1 month to 4 months and Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine
recedes to a depth of 40 to 60 inches during dry periods, sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of the
Where drainage systems have been established, depth underlying material, to a depth of about 21 inches, is
to the high water table is dependent upon the grayish brown fine sand that has common dark brown
functioning of the drainage system. The permeability of splotches. The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches
Pomello soil is very rapid in the surface and subsurface is light gray fine sand.
layers, moderately rapid in the subsoil, and rapid in the Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Immokalee
substratum. The available water capacity is very low in and Smyrna soils in small areas.
the surface and subsurface layers and in the substratum, In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10
and it is medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility and the inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months. During dry
organic matter content are very low. periods, it is at a depth of 30 inches for more than 9
The soils in this map unit are not used for cultivated months each year. The permeability is rapid. The
crops, citrus crops, improved pasture, or commercial available water capacity is very low. Natural fertility and
trees. Pomello soil in the Urban land part of this complex the organic matter content are low.
is used for lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds, or it is left In most areas, this Pompano soil has been left in
as open space. The Urban land part of this complex is natural vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for
used mostly for houses, streets, driveways, buildings, cultivated crops, improved pasture, or citrus crops or for
parking lots, or other similar uses. homesite and urban development. The natural vegetation
The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for is longleaf pine, slash pine, and laurel oak. The
sanitary facilities, building site development, and understory includes waxmyrtle, inkberry, scattered saw
recreational uses. They have moderate limitations for palmetto, blue maidencane, pineland threeawn, sand
dwellings without basements and small commercial cordgrass, low panicum, and various weeds and grasses.
buildings. Water control measures should be used to Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
minimize the excessive wetness limitation. Septic tank cultivated crops because of wetness and the sandy







50 Soil Survey



texture. Adapted crops that can be grown on this soil are In 80 percent of areas mapped as St. Johns fine sand,
limited if very intensive management practices are not St. Johns soil and similar soils make up 81 to 99 percent
used. If proper management practices are used, this soil of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 19
is fairly suited to cropland. A water control system to percent of the mapped areas.
remove excess water rapidly and to provide for Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of this
subsurface irrigation is necessary. Soil-improving crops soil is black fine sand about 7 inches thick. The lower
and crop residue should be used to control erosion and part, to a depth of about 12 inches, is very dark gray fine
maintain the content of organic matter in the soil. sand. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 24
Seedbed preparation should include the bedding of rows. inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil,
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the to a depth of about 30 inches, is black fine sand. The
need of the crop. middle part, to a depth of about 36 inches, is dark
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is fair in areas reddish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of
that are relatively free of freezing temperatures and if a about 44 inches, is brown fine sand. The upper part of
specially designed water control system is installed to the substratum, to a depth of about 58 inches, is light
maintain the water table at a depth of about 4 feet. gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of about 80
Planting the trees on beds provides good surface inches is pale brown fine sand. In the mapped areas are
drainage. A close-growing cover crop between tree rows similar soils, but they have a surface layer that is less
is needed to protect the soil from blowing. Regular than 10 inches thick. In some places are similar soils,
applications of lime and fertilizers are needed. but they do not have a subsurface layer.
This soil has good suitability for improved pasture Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Immokalee
grasses and hay crops. Pangolagrass, improved and Wabasso soils in small areas.
bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10
managed. Management practices should include a water inches of the surface for 6 to 12 months and between
control system to remove excess surface water after depths of 10 and 40 inches for more than 6 months. In
heavy rains, regular applications of fertilizer and lime, rainy periods, it rises to the surface for brief periods. The
and controlled grazing. permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
The potential of this soil for the production of pine and in the substratum, and it is moderately slow to
trees is moderate. Equipment use and seedling mortality moderate in the subsoil. The available water capacity is
are the main concerns in management. A water control medium in the surface layer, very low to low in the
system is needed to remove excess surface water. subsurface layer and substratum, and medium to very
Bedding the tree rows helps to minimize the wetness high in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. The organic
limitation. Slash pine is an adapted tree to plant on this matter content is moderate.
soil. In most areas, this St. Johns soil has been left in
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities, natural vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for
building site development, and recreational uses. Water cultivated crops, improved pasture, or citrus crops or for
control measures should be used to minimize the homesite and urban development. The natural vegetation
excessive wetness limitation. Septic tank absorption includes longleaf pine, slash pine, and laurel oak. The
fields may need to be enlarged because of wetness. The understory is waxmyrtle, inkberry, saw palmetto, pineland
rapid permeability of this soil can cause ground water threeawn, bluestem, and various weeds and grasses.
pollution in areas of septic tank absorption fields. If the Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
density of housing is moderate to high, a community cultivated crops or citrus crops because of wetness.
sewage system can help prevent contamination of the However, if a water control system is installed and soil-
water supplies. Water control measures should be used improving measures are used, this soil is well suited to
to minimize the excessive wetness limitation. In addition, most cultivated crops. The suitability of this soil for citrus
the sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon or trench trees is fair in areas that are relatively free of freezing
sanitary landfill with impervious soil material can reduce temperatures and if a specially designed water control
excessive seepage. The sandy surface layer should be system is installed to maintain the water table at a depth
stabilized for recreational uses. Water control measures of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds provides
should be used for shallow excavations. The sidewalls of good surface drainage. A close-growing cover crop
shallow excavations should be shored. between tree rows is needed to protect the soil from
This Pompano soil is in capability subclass IVw. The blowing. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 8W. needed. A water control system for cultivated crops is
needed to remove excess surface water in wet periods
37-St. Johns fine sand. This soil is nearly level and and to provide for subsurface irrigation in dry periods.
poorly drained. It is on broad flats on the flatwoods. The Soil-improving crops and crop residue should be used to
slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 control erosion and maintain the content of organic
percent, matter in the soil. Seedbed preparation should include







Orange County, Florida 51



the bedding of rows. Fertilizer and lime should be In most areas, this St. Lucie soil has been left in
applied according to the need of the crop. natural vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for improved
This soil has good suitability for improved pasture pasture or for homesite and urban development. The
grasses and hay crops. Pangolagrass, improved natural vegetation includes sand pine, Chapman oak,
bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly scrub live oak, and sand live oak. The understory is
managed. Management practices should include a water scattered saw palmetto, pricklypear cactus, goldleaf
control system to remove excess water after heavy rains, goldaster, deermoss, bluestem, and pineland threeawn.
regular applications of fertilizer and lime, and controlled Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
grazing, cultivated crops, citrus crops, or improved pasture
The potential of this soil for the production of pine because it is very drought and has low natural fertility.
trees is moderately high. Equipment use and seedling Response to fertilizer is low. Irrigation water moves
mortality are the main concerns in management. A water rapidly through the soil, and little moisture is retained for
control system is needed to remove excess surface plant use.
water. Bedding the tree rows helps to minimize the The potential of this soil for the production of pine
wetness limitation. Slash pine is an adapted tree to trees is low. Equipment use and seedling mortality are
plant, the main concerns in management. Sand pine is an
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities, adapted tree to plant on this soil.
building site development, and recreational uses. Water This soil has slight limitations for septic tank
control measures should be used to minimize the absorption fields, for dwellings without basements, and
excessive wetness limitation. Septic tank absorption for local roads and streets. No corrective measures are.
fields may need to be enlarged because of wetness. The needed. When installing a septic tank absorption field on
rapid permeability of this soil can cause ground water this soil, the proximity to a stream or canal should be
pollution in areas of septic tank absorption fields. If the considered to prevent lateral seepage and ground water
density of housing is moderate to high, a community pollution. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a
sewage system can help prevent contamination of the community sewage system can help prevent
water supplies. Water control measures should be used contamination of the water supplies.
and sewage lagoons and trench sanitary landfills should This soil has slight limitations for small commercial
be sealed or lined with impervious soil material to reduce buildings. Land shaping may be needed in the more
excessive seepage. The sandy surface layer should be sloping areas.
stabilized for recreational uses. Water control measures This soil has severe limitations for recreational uses,
should be used for shallow excavations. The sidewalls of trench sanitary landfills, sewage lagoons, and shallow
shallow excavations should be shored. excavations. The sandy surface layer should be
This St. Johns soil is in capability subclass Illw. The stabilized for recreational uses, and land shaping may be
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. needed in the more sloping areas. Droughtiness is a
problem during extended dry periods. Selection of
38-St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This drought-tolerant vegetation is critical for the
soil is deep, nearly level to gently sloping, and establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable
excessively drained. It is on the uplands. The slopes gardens. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed to
generally are uniform and range from 0 to 5 percent, establish and maintain lawn grasses and other
In 95 percent of areas mapped as St. Lucie fine sand, landscape vegetation. The sealing or lining of a trench
0 to 5 percent slopes, St. Lucie soil and similar soils sanitary landfill or sewage lagoon with impervious soil
make up 94 to 99 percent of the mapped areas. material can reduce excessive seepage. The sidewalls
Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 6 percent of the mapped for shallow excavations should be shored.
areas. This St. Lucie soil is in capability subclass VIIs. The
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of gray fine sand woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 3S.
about 2 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying
material, to a depth of about 6 inches, is light gray fine 39-St. Lucie-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
sand. The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches or slopes. This complex consists of St. Lucie soil that is
more is white fine sand. In the mapped areas are similar nearly level to gently sloping and excessively drained
soils, but they have brownish yellow or yellowish brown and of areas of Urban land. This complex is in the
fine sand in the lower part of the underlying material, upland areas.
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Archbold soils This map unit consists of about 53 percent St. Lucie
in small areas. soil and about 40 percent Urban land. The included soils
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 72 inches make up about 7 percent of the map unit. The
or more. The permeability is very rapid. The available proportions and the patterns of St. Lucie soil and Urban
water capacity is very low. Natural fertility and the land are relatively consistent in most delineations of the
organic matter content are very low. map unit. The individual areas of the soils in this map







52 Soil Survey



unit are too mixed or too small to map separately at the Undrained areas are ponded for 6 to 9 months or more
scale used for the maps in the back of this publication, each year. The slopes are smooth and are less than 1
Typically, the surface layer of St. Lucie soil is gray fine percent.
sand about 3 inches thick. The upper part of the In 70 percent of areas mapped as Samsula muck,
underlying material, to a depth of about 20 inches, is Samsula soil and similar soils make up 79 to 95 percent
light gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of about of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 5 to 21
80 inches or more is white fine sand. percent of the mapped areas.
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by Typically, the upper part of the organic surface layer of
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces this soil is black muck about 8 inches thick. The lower
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification part, to a depth of about 40 inches, is dark reddish
is not feasible. brown muck. The upper part of the underlying material,
Included in mapping are small areas of Archbold soils. to a depth of about 44 inches, is very dark gray fine
Also included are some soils that are similar to St. Lucie sand. The lower part to a depth of about 80 inches is
soil but are brownish yellow or yellowish brown in the light gray fine sand. In the mapped areas are similar
lower part of the underlying material, soils, but they have fine sandy loam in the underlying
A seasonal high water table is at a depth of 72 inches material. In some places are similar soils, but they have
or more. The permeability of St. Lucie soil is very rapid. a surface layer of muck that is more than 51 inches
The available water capacity is very low. Natural fertility thick.
and the organic matter content are very low. Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Basinger and
The soils in this map unit are not used for cultivated Sanibel soils in small areas.
crops, citrus crops, improved pasture, or commercial In most years, undrained areas of this soil are ponded
trees. St. Lucie soil in the Urban land part of this for 6 to 9 months or more except during extended dry
complex is used for lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds, periods. A seasonal high water table fluctuates between
or it is left as open space. The Urban land part of this depths of about 10 inches and the surface. If drained,
complex is used mostly for houses, streets, driveways, the organic material, when dry, subsides to about half
buildings, parking lots, or other similar uses. the original thickness. It subsides further as a result of
The soils in this map unit have slight limitations for compaction and oxidation. The loss of the organic
septic tank absorption fields, dwellings without material is more rapid during the first 2 years after the
basements, and local roads and streets. No corrective soil has been artificially drained. If the soil is intensively
measures are needed. When a septic tank absorption cultivated, the organic material continues to subside at
field is installed on these soils, the proximity to a stream the rate of about 1 inch per year. The lower the water
or canal should be considered to prevent lateral seepage table, the more rapid the loss of the organic material.
and ground water pollution. If the density of housing is The permeability is rapid throughout. Internal drainage is
moderate to high, a community sewage system can help slow and is inhibited by the water table. The available
prevent contamination of the water supplies, water capacity is very high in the organic material and is
The soils in this map unit have slight limitations for very low in the underlying sandy material. Natural fertility
small commercial buildings. Land shaping may be is medium. The organic matter content is very high.
needed in the more sloping areas. In most areas, this Samsula soil has been left in
These soils have severe limitations for recreational natural vegetation. In some areas, it has been drained
uses, trench sanitary landfills, sewage lagoons, and and is used for improved pasture or cultivated crops. In a
shallow excavations. The sandy surface layer should be few areas where fill material has been applied, this soil is
stabilized for recreational uses, and land shaping may be used for homesite and urban development. The natural
needed in the more sloping areas. Droughtiness is a vegetation is mixed stands of pondcypress, red maple,
problem during extended dry periods. The selection of sweetgum, and black tupelo. The understory includes
drought-tolerant vegetation is critical for the cattail, St. Johnswort, pickerelweed, sawgrass,
establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable maidencane, ferns, sedges, and other water-tolerant
gardens. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed to grasses. The natural areas provide cover for deer and
maintain lawn grasses and landscape vegetation. The excellent habitat for wading birds and other wetland
sealing or lining of a trench sanitary landfill or sewage wildlife.
lagoon with impervious soil material can reduce Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
excessive seepage. The sidewalls for shallow cultivated crops because of ponding. In most areas, an
excavations should be shored, adequate drainage system is difficult to establish
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a because suitable drainage outlets are not available.
capability subclass or to a woodland group. However, this soil is fairly suited to some vegetable
crops if intensive management practices and soil-
40-Samsula muck. This soil is nearly level and very improving measures are used and if a water control
poorly drained. It is in freshwater marshes and swamps. system is installed to remove excess water rapidly. A







Orange County, Florida 53



specially designed and properly maintained water control In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit, Samsula-
system will remove the excess water when crops are on Hontoon-Basinger association, depressional, and similar
the soil and will keep the soil saturated at all other times. soils make up 84 to 99 percent of the mapped areas.
Proper management practices include seedbed Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 16 percent of the mapped
preparation and crop rotation. Soil-improving crops and areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of about 47
crop residue should be used to control erosion and percent Samsula soil and similar soils, 31 percent
maintain the content of organic matter in the soil. Hontoon soil, and 14 percent Basinger soil and similar
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the soils. The relative proportions of these soils may differ
need of the crop. appreciably from one delineated body to another. The
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to citrus individual soils are generally large enough areas to be
trees. It is poorly suited even if intensive management mapped separately, but in considering the present and
practices, such as bedding of rows, are used and the predicted use, they were mapped as one unit.
water control system is adequate. Typically, the surface layer of Samsula soil is black
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to and dark reddish brown muck about 34 inches thick. The
improved pasture grasses; however, if a water control next layer, to a depth of about 40 inches, is black fine
system is installed to remove excess surface water after sand. The underlying material to a depth of about 80
heavy rains, suitability is fair. Pangolagrass, improved inches is light gray fine sand. In the mapped areas are
bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly similar soils, but they have underlying material of fine
managed. The water control system should maintain the sandy loam at a depth of 60 inches or more.
water table near the surface to prevent excess Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of
subsidence of the organic material. Regular applications Hontoon soil is black muck about 16 inches thick. The
of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be lower part to a depth of 80 inches is very dark brown
controlled to maintain plant vigor. muck.
ed to Typically, the surface layer of Basinger soil is black
This soil is not suited to pine trees, fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
This soil has severe limitations for building site a depth of about 25 inches, is gray fine sand. The
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses subsoil, to a depth of about 35 inches, is dark reddish
because of ponding and excess humus. Water control brown and grayish brown fine sand that has common
measures should be used to minimize the excessive dark reddish brown mottles. The substratum to a depth
wetness limitation. Organic material should be removed of about 80 inches is light gray fine sand. In the mapped
and backfilled with a soil material suitable for urban use. areas are similar soils, but they have a surface layer of
The sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon or trench muck or mucky fine sand, or the soils are similar but
sanitary landfill with impervious soil material can reduce have a surface layer that is more than 6 inches thick, or
excessive seepage. The sidewalls of shallow the soils are similar but have a substratum of loamy fine
excavations should be shored and water control sand at a depth of 60 inches or more.
measures should be used to minimize the wetness Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Holopaw and
limitation. Mounding of septic tank absorption fields may Ona soils in small areas.
be needed. In most years, undrained areas of this map unit are
This Samsula soil is in capability subclass Vllw but has ponded for 6 to 9 months or more except during
not been assigned to a woodland group. extended dry periods. The water table fluctuates
between depths of about 10 inches and the surface for
41-Samsula-Hontoon-Basinger association, the remainder of the year. If drained, the organic material
depressional. The soils in this map unit are nearly level of the Samsula and Hontoon soils, when dry, subsides to
and very poorly drained. These soils are in freshwater about half the original thickness. It then subsides further
swamps, depressions, sloughs, and broad, poorly as a result of compaction and oxidation. The loss of the
defined drainageways. They are in a regular repeating organic material is more rapid during the first 2 years. If
pattern. Generally, Samsula soil is in the exterior areas the soil is intensively cultivated, the organic material
of freshwater swamps and depressions that have a continues to subside at the rate of about 1 inch per year.
thinner accumulation of organic material. Hontoon soil is The lower the water table, the more rapid the loss of
in the interior areas of freshwater swamps and organic material. The permeability is rapid in Samsula
depressions that have a thicker accumulation of organic and Hontoon soils and very rapid in Basinger soil. The
material. Basinger soil is along the outer rims of available water capacity is very high in the organic
depressions and in sloughs and poorly defined material of Samsula and Hontoon soils and very low in
drainageways adjacent to freshwater swamps. Undrained the sandy part of Samsula soil. The available water
areas are ponded for 6 to 9 months or more each year. capacity of Basinger soil is very low to low in the surface
The slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to and subsurface layers, medium in the subsoil, and low in
1 percent. the substratum. Natural fertility is medium in Samsula








54 Soil Survey



and Hontoon soils and low in Basinger soil. The organic The soils in this association are in capability subclass
matter content is very high in Samsula and Hontoon VIIw. They have not been assigned to a woodland group.
soils and low in Basinger soil.
In most areas, the soils in this map unit have been left 42-Sanibel muck. This soil is nearly level and very
in natural vegetation. In some areas, the soils have been poorly drained. It is in depressions, freshwater swamps
drained and are used for improved pasture. In other and marshes, and in poorly defined drainageways.
areas, they have been filled and are used for homesite Undrained areas are ponded for 6 to 9 months or more
and urban development. The natural vegetation is mixed each year. The slopes are concave and are less than 1
stands of pondcypress, red maple, sweetgum, cabbage percent.
palm, scattered pond pine, and black tupelo. The In 80 percent of areas mapped as Sanibel muck,
understory includes cutgrass, maidencane, Jamaica Sanibel soil and similar soils make up 81 to 95 percent
sawgrass, sedges, ferns, and other water-tolerant of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 5 to 19
grasses. In some areas, these soils provide cover for percent of the mapped areas.
deer and excellent habitat for wading birds and other Typically, this soil has an organic surface layer of
wetland wildlife. black muck about 11 inches thick. Below that layer, to a
Under natural conditions, the Samsula, Hontoon, and depth of about 15 inches, is black fine sand. The upper
Basinger soils are not suited to most cultivated crops part of the underlying material, to a depth of about 28
and citrus crops because of ponding and excessive inches, is gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80
wetness. In most areas, an adequate drainage system is inches or more is light gray fine sand that has common
difficult to establish because suitable drainage outlets brown mottles. In the mapped areas are similar soils, but
are not available. However, this soil is fairly suited to they have a surface layer of mucky fine sand. In places
some vegetable crops if intensive management practices are similar soils, but they are loamy fine sand in the
and soil-improving measures are used and if a water lower part of the underlying material.
control system is installed to remove excess water Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Hontoon and
rapidly. A specially designed and properly maintained Samsula soils in small areas.
water control system will remove excess water when In most years, undrained areas of this soil are ponded
crops are on the soil and will keep the soil saturated at for 6 to 9 months or more except during extended dry
all other times. Proper management practices include periods. The water table fluctuates between depths of
seedbed preparation and crop rotation. Soil-improving about 10 inches and the surface for 2 to 6 months. If
crops and crop residue should be used to control drained, the organic material, when dry, subsides to
erosion and maintain the content of organic matter in the about half the original thickness. It subsides further as a
soil. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to result of compaction and oxidation. The loss of the
the need of the crop. organic material is more rapid during the first 2 years
Under natural conditions, the soils in this map unit are after the soil has been artificially drained. If the soil is
poorly suited to improved pasture grasses; however, if a intensively cultivated, the organic material continues to
water control system is installed to remove excess subside at the rate of about 1 inch per year. The lower
surface water after heavy rains, suitability is fair. the water table, the more rapid the loss of organic
Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover material. The permeability is rapid throughout. Internal
grow well if properly managed. The water control system drainage is low and is inhibited by the shallow water
should maintain the water table near the surface to table. The available water capacity is very high in the
prevent excess subsidence of the organic material, organic material and is medium to low in the underlying
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. sandy material. Natural fertility is medium. The organic
Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant vigoi. matter content is very high.
The soils in this map unit are not suited to pine trees. In most areas, this Sanibel soil has been left in natural
The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for vegetation. In some areas, it has been drained and is
building site development, sanitary facilities, and used for improved pasture or cultivated crops. In a few
recreational uses because of ponding and excess areas where fill material has been applied, the soil is
humus. Water control measures are needed to minimize used for homesite and urban development. The natural
the excessive wetness limitation. Organic materials vegetation is mixed stands of baldcypress, red maple,
should be removed and backfilled with a fill material sweetgum, and black tupelo. The understory includes
suitable for urban use. The sealing or lining of a sewage cattail, St. Johnswort, pickerelweed, sawgrass,
lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious soil maidencane, ferns, sedges, and other water-tolerant
material can reduce excessive seepage. The sidewalls of grasses. The natural areas provide cover for deer and
shallow excavations should be shored, and water control excellent habitat for wading birds and other wetland
measures should be used to minimize the wetness wildlife.
limitation. The mounding of septic tank absorption fields Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
may be necessary. cultivated crops because of ponding. In most areas, an







Orange County, Florida 55



adequate drainage system is difficult to establish sand. The upper part of the underlying material, to a
because suitable drainage outlets are not available, depth of about 36 inches, is grayish brown fine sand.
However, if intensive management practices and soil- The middle part, to a depth of about 52 inches, is light
improving measures are used and if a water control gray fine sand that has common dark brown mottles.
system is installed to remove excess water rapidly, this The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is white
soil is fairly suited to some vegetable crops. A specially fine sand that has common brown mottles. In the
designed and maintained water control system will mapped areas are similar soils, but they have a surface
remove excess water when crops are on the soil and will layer that is less than 10 inches thick. In places are
keep the soil saturated at all other times. Proper similar soils, but they have a surface layer that is more
management practices include seedbed preparation and than 24 inches thick. In some higher positions on the
crop rotation. Soil-improving crops and crop residue landscape are similar soils, but they are moderately well
should be used to control erosion and maintain the drained.
content of organic matter in the soil. Fertilizer and lime Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Basinger and
should be applied according to the need of the crop. Ona soils in small areas.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to citrus In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 18
trees. It is poorly suited even if intensive management to 40 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months and
practices, such as bedding of rows, are used and if the between depths of 10 to 20 inches for periods of up to 2
water control system is adequate. weeks during wet periods. It recedes to a depth of less
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to than 60 inches during extended dry periods. The
improved pasture grasses; however, if a water control permeability is rapid throughout. The available water
system is installed to remove excess surface water after capacity is medium in the surface layer, and it is low to
heavy rains, suitability is fair. Pangolagrass, improved very low in the underlying material. Natural fertility is
bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly medium. The organic matter content is moderate to
managed. The water control system should maintain the moderately low.
water table near the surface to prevent excess In most areas, this Seffner soil is used for citrus crops
subsidence of the organic material. Regular applications or improved pasture or for homesite and urban
of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be development. In a few areas, it is used for cultivated
controlled to maintain plant vigor, crops. The natural vegetation is longleaf pine, slash pine,
This soil is not suited to pine trees. live oak, and laurel oak. The understory includes
This soil has severe limitations for building site waxmyrtle, fetterbush lyonia, creeping bluestem,
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses broomsedge bluestem, grassleaf goldaster, lopsided
because of ponding and excess humus. Water control indiangrass, saw palmetto, panicum, and pineland
measures should be used to minimize the excessive threeawn.
wetness limitation. Organic material should be removed Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
and backfilled with a soil material suitable for urban use. most cultivated crops. The number of adapted crops that
The sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon or trench can be grown is limited unless intensive management
sanitary landfill with impervious soil material can reduce practices are used. A water control system is needed to
excessive seepage. The sidewalls of shallow remove excess water in wet periods and to provide for
excavations should be shored, and water control subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Soil-improving crops
measures should be used to minimize the wetness and crop residue should be used to control erosion and
limitation. Mounding of septic tank absorption fields may maintain the content of organic matter in the soil.
be needed. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
This Sanibel soil is in capability subclass Vllw but has need of the crop.
not been assigned to a woodland group. The suitability of this soil for citrus crops is fair in
areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures
43-Seffner fine sand. This soil is nearly level and and if proper management practices are used. A close-
somewhat poorly drained. It is on the rims of growing cover crop between trees is needed to protect
depressions and on broad, low ridges on the flatwoods. the soil from blowing. A water control system is
The slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to necessary to maintain the water table at a depth of
2 percent, about 4 feet during wet periods. A specially designed
In 90 percent of areas mapped as Seffner fine sand, and properly managed irrigation system helps to maintain
Seffner soil and similar soils make up 85 to 99 percent optimum soil moisture and obtain maximum yields.
of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 15 Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
percent of the mapped areas. The suitability of this soil for improved pasture grasses
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is black is fair. Pangolagrass and improved bahiagrass grow well
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The lower part, to a if properly managed. Regular applications of lime and
depth of about 19 inches, is very dark grayish brown fine fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should be prevented.







56 Soil Survey



The potential of this soil for the production of pine months. The permeability is rapid in the surface and
trees is moderately high. Equipment use, seedling subsurface layers and in the substratum, and it is
mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns in moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil. The
management. Slash pine is an adapted tree to plant on available water capacity is low to very low in the surface
this soil. and subsurface layers and in the substratum, and it is
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities, medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. The organic
shallow excavations, and recreational uses. It has matter content is moderate to moderately low.
moderate limitations for dwellings without basements, In most areas, this Smyrna soil has been left in natural
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets. vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for cultivated crops,
Water control measures should be used to minimize the improved pasture, or citrus crops or for homesite and
excessive wetness limitation. Septic tank absorption urban development. The natural vegetation is longleaf
fields may need to be enlarged because of wetness. The pine and slash pine. The understory includes lopsided
rapid permeability of this soil can cause ground water indiangrass, inkberry, saw palmetto, pineland threeawn,
pollution in areas of septic tank absorption fields. If the waxmyrtle, bluestem, panicum, and other grasses.
density of housing is moderate to high, a community Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
sewage system can help prevent contamination of the cultivated crops because of wetness and the sandy
water supplies. The sidewalls for shallow excavations texture in the root zone. However, if a water control
should be shored. The sealing or lining of a sewage system is installed and soil-improving measures are
lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious soil used, this soil is fairly suited to many vegetable crops. A
material can reduce excessive seepage. The sandy water control system is needed to remove excess water
surface layer should be stabilized for recreational uses. in wet periods and to provide for subsurface irrigation in
Droughtiness is a problem during extended dry periods, dry periods. Soil-improving crops and crop residue
Regular applications of fertilizer are needed to maintain should be used to control erosion and to maintain the
lawns and landscape vegetation. The proximity to a content of organic matter in the soil. Seedbed
stream or aquifer recharge area should be considered in preparation should include the bedding of rows. Fertilizer
the placement of sanitary facilities to prevent and lime should be applied according to the need of the
contamination of the water supplies, crop.
This Seffner soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good in
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures
and if a water control system is installed to maintain the
44-Smyrna fine sand. This soil is nearly level and water table at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees on
poorly drained. It is on broad flatwoods. The slopes are beds lowers the effective depth of the water table. A
smooth and range from 0 to 2 percent. close-growing cover crop between tree rows is needed
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Smyrna fine sand, to protect the soil from blowing. Regular applications of
Smyrna soil and similar soils make up 90 to 99 percent lime and fertilizer are needed.
of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 10 This soil has good suitability for improved pasture
percent of the mapped areas. grasses and hay crops. Pangolagrass, improved
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a managed. A water control system is needed to remove
depth of about 17 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper the excess surface water after heavy rains. Regular
part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 22 inches, is applications of fertilizer and lime should be applied
black fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 27 according to the need of the crop. Overgrazing should
inches, is dark brown fine sand. The upper part of the be prevented.
substratum, to a depth of about 53 inches, is pale brown The potential of this soil for the production of pine
fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or trees is moderately high. Equipment use, seedling
more is light gray fine sand. In the mapped areas are mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns in
similar soils, but they have a surface layer that is more management. Slash pine is an adapted tree to plant on
than 8 inches thick. In places are similar soils, but they this soil.
do not have a subsurface layer, and in other places are This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities,
similar soils, but they have a subsoil at a depth of more building site development, and recreational uses. Water
than 20 inches. control measures should be used to minimize the
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Wabasso soils excessive wetness limitation. The sealing or lining of a
in small areas. In some areas, reaction in the loamy sewage lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious
subsoil layer of the Wabasso soils is very strongly acid. soil material can reduce excessive seepage. Septic tank
In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 10 absorption fields may need to be enlarged because of
inches of the surface for 1 month to 4 months. It wetness. The proximity to a stream or aquifer recharge
recedes to a depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6 area should be considered in the placement of sanitary







Orange County, Florida 57



facilities to prevent contamination of the water supplies, low. The organic matter content is moderate to
Fill material is needed for local roads and streets, small moderately low.
commercial buildings, and playgrounds. The sidewalls of The soils in this map unit are not used for cultivated
shallow excavations should be shored, and water control crops, citrus crops, improved pasture, or commercial
measures should be used to minimize the wetness trees. Smyrna soil in the Urban land part of this complex
limitation. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized is used for lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds, or it is left
for recreational uses. as open space. The Urban land part of this complex is
This Smyrna soil is in capability subclass IVw. The used mostly for houses, streets, driveways, buildings,
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. parking lots, or other similar uses.
The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for
45-Smyrna-Urban land complex. This complex sanitary facilities and shallow excavations. Water control
consists of Smyrna soil that is nearly level and poorly measures should be used to minimize the excessive
drained and of areas of Urban land. This complex is on wetness limitations for these uses. Septic tank
the flatwoods. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 absorption fields may need to be enlarged because of
to 2 percent. wetness. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a
This map unit consists of about 53 percent Smyrna community sewage system can help prevent
soil and about 40 percent Urban land. The included soils contamination of the water supplies. The sealing or lining
make up about 7 percent of the map unit. The of a sewage lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with
proportions and the patterns of Smyrna soil and Urban impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage.
land are relatively consistent in most delineations of the The sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
map unit. The individual areas of the soils in this map The soils in this map unit have moderate limitations for
unit are too mixed or too small to map separately at the dwellings without basements, small commercial
scale used for the maps in the back of this publication, buildings, and recreational uses. Many of these areas
Typically, the surface layer of Smyrna soil is black fine have been previously drained or modified by grading and
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a shaping. Some water control measures should be used,
depth of 18 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper fill material added, land leveled, and a drainage system
part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 22 inches, is installed to remove excess surface water after heavy
black fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of about 28 rains to minimize the wetness limitations. The sandy
inches, is dark brown fine sand. The upper part of the surface layer should be stabilized for recreational uses.
substratum, to a depth of about 50 inches, is grayish The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of about 80 capability subclass or to a woodland group.
inches is pale brown fine sand.
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by 46-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces soil is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification drained. It is on low ridges and knolls on the uplands
is not feasible, throughout the county. The slopes are smooth to
Included in mapping are small areas of Wabasso soils. concave.
In some areas, the argillic horizon of Wabasso soils is In 90 percent of areas mapped as Tavares fine sand,
very strongly acid. Also included are some soils that are 0 to 5 percent slopes, Tavares soil and similar soils
similar to Smyrna soils but have a surface layer that is make up 78 to 92 percent of the mapped areas.
more than 8 inches thick, do not have a subsurface Dissimilar soils make up 8 to 22 percent of the mapped
layer, and have a subsoil at a depth of 20 inches or areas.
more. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
Some areas of Smyrna-Urban land complex have been fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
modified by grading and shaping. The sandy material underlying material, to a depth of about 16 inches, is
from drainage ditches or fill material that is hauled in are brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of about 41
often used to fill the low areas. In undrained areas, a inches, is pale brown fine sand. The lower part to a
seasonal high water table is within 10 inches of the depth of 80 inches is white fine sand. In the mapped
surface for 1 month to 4 months. Drainage systems have areas are similar soils, but they have a surface layer that
been established in most areas. Depth to the high water is more than 9 inches thick. In some areas are other
table is dependent upon the functioning of the drainage similar soils, but the underlying material of these soils is
system. The permeability of Smyrna soil is rapid in the brown to dark brown sand or fine sand. In some parts of
surface and subsurface layers and in the substratum. It the landscape are similar soils, but they are somewhat
is moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil. The poorly drained; and in other parts of the landscape are
available water capacity of Smyrna soil is low to very low similar soils, but they are well drained.
in the surface and subsurface layers and in the Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Apopka,
substratum. It is medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility is Candler, Millhopper, and Pomello soils in small areas.








58 Soil Survey



In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a This Tavares soil is in capability subclass Ills. The
depth of 40 to 80 inches for more than 6 months, and it woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10S.
recedes to a depth of more than 80 inches during
extended dry periods. The permeability is very rapid 47-Tavares-Millhopper fine sands, 0 to 5 percent
throughout. The available water capacity is very low. slopes. The soils in this map unit are nearly level to
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are very gently sloping and moderately well drained. These soils
low. are on low ridges and knolls on the uplands and on the
In most areas, this Tavares soil is used for citrus crops flatwoods. They occur in a regular repeating pattern. The
or for homesite and urban development. In a few areas, slopes are nearly smooth to slightly convex.
it is used for improved pasture or cultivated crops; or it In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit, Tavares-
has been left in natural vegetation. The natural Millhopper fine sands, 0 to 5 percent slopes, and similar
vegetation is water oak, laurel oak, live oak, turkey oak, soils make up 94 to 98 percent of the mapped areas,
slash pine, and longleaf pine. The understory includes and dissimilar soils make up 2 to 6 percent of the
creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and pineland mapped areas. Generally, the mapped areas consist of
threeawn. about 68 percent Tavares soil and similar soils and
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to about 28 percent Millhopper soil and similar soils. The
cultivated crops. It is fairly well suited to citrus crops in individual areas of the soils in this map unit are too
areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures mixed or too small to map separately at the scale used
and if good management practices are used. for the maps in the back of this publication. The
Management practices include irrigation and regular proportions and patterns of Tavares, Millhopper, and
applications of fertilizer and lime. A close-growing cover similar soils, however, are relatively consistent in most
crop between tree rows is needed to protect the soil delineations of the map unit.
from blowing. Soil-improving crops and crop residue Typically, the surface layer of Tavares soil is dark
should be used to control erosion and maintain the grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper
organic matter content in the soil. part of the underlying material, to a depth of about 21
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to inches, is pale brown fine sand. The middle part, to a
improved pasture grasses. Intensive management depth of about 60 inches, is very pale brown fine sand.
practices are needed to minimize soil limitations, which The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is white fine sand
include droughtiness and low fertility. Deep-rooted that has common very pale brown mottles. In the
plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and improved mapped areas are similar soils, but they have a surface
bahiagrass, are more drought tolerant. Regular layer that is more than 9 inches thick. In some places
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, are similar soils, but the lower part of the underlying
Management practices should include controlled grazing, material of these soils is brown or dark brown fine sand.
The potential of this soil for the production of pine In some parts of the landscape are similar soils, but they
trees is moderately high. Seedling mortality and are somewhat poorly drained or well drained.
equipment use are the main concerns in management. Typically, the surface layer of Millhopper soil is dark
Slash pine and South Florida slash pine are the grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper
recommended trees to plant. part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 40
This soil is well suited to dwellings without basements, inches, is light yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets. to a depth of about 64 inches, is very pale brown fine
No corrective measures are needed. sand that has few yellowish brown mottles. The upper
This soil has moderate limitations for septic tank part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 76 inches, is
absorption fields, and water control measures should be brownish yellow sandy loam. The lower part to a depth
used. When installing a septic tank absorption field on of more than 80 inches is light gray sandy clay loam that
this soil, the proximity to a stream or canal should be has common yellowish brown and yellowish red mottles.
considered to prevent lateral seepage and ground water In the mapped areas are similar soils, but they have a
pollution. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a subsoil within 40 inches of the surface. In some parts of
community sewage system can help prevent the landscape are similar soils, but they are well drained.
contamination of the water supplies. Dissimilar soils included in mapping are small areas of
This soil has severe limitations for sewage lagoons, Candler soils.
sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and recreational A seasonal high water table in Tavares soil is at a
uses. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for depth of 40 to 72 inches for more than 6 months, and it
recreational uses. The sidewalls of shallow excavations recedes to a depth of more than 80 inches during
should be shored. The sealing or lining of a trench extended dry periods. A seasonal high water table in
sanitary landfill or sewage lagoon with impervious soil Millhopper soil is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1
material can reduce excessive seepage. Water control month to 4 months, and it recedes to a depth of 60 to
measures should be used for trench sanitary landfills. 72 inches for 2 to 4 months. During periods of high








Orange County, Florida 59



rainfall, the water table is at a depth of 30 to 40 inches of housing is moderate to high, a community sewage
for cumulative periods of 1 week to 3 weeks. The system can help prevent contamination of the water
permeability of Tavares soil is very rapid. The supplies.
permeability of Millhopper soil is rapid in the surface and These soils have severe limitations for sewage
subsurface layers and moderately rapid or moderate in lagoons, trench sanitary landfills, shallow excavations,
the subsoil. The available water capacity of Tavares soil and recreational uses. The sealing or lining of a sewage
is very low. The available water capacity of Millhopper lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious soil
soil is low in the surface and subsurface layers and material can reduce excessive seepage. Water control
medium in the subsoil. Natural fertility is very low in measures should be used for trench sanitary landfills.
Tavares soil and low in Millhopper soil. Organic matter The sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
content is very low in Tavares soil and low or moderately The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for
low in Millhopper soil. recreational uses.
In most areas, the soils in this map unit are used for The soils in this map unit are in capability subclass Ills.
citrus crops or improved pasture or for homesite and The woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10S.
urban development. In a few areas, they are used for
cultivated crops. The natural vegetation is water oak, 48-Tavares-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
laurel oak, turkey oak, live oak, slash pine, and longleaf slopes. This complex consists of Tavares soil that is
pine. The understory includes creeping bluestem, nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well
lopsided indiangrass, panicum, and pineland threeawn. drained and of areas of Urban land. This complex is on
The soils in this map unit are well suited to citrus trees low ridges and knolls on the uplands and on the
in areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures flatwoods.
and if proper management practices are used. This map unit consists of about 50 percent Tavares
Management practices should include irrigation and soil and about 40 percent Urban land. The included soils
regular applications of fertilizer and lime. A close-growing make up about 10 percent of the map unit. The
cover crop between tree rows is needed to protect the


limitations. Management practices should include u are p too amxed or too smat to Tava sepaoil ad attUne
irrigation and regular applications of fertilizer and lime. scale used for the maps in the back of this publication.
Soil-improving crops and crop residue should be used to Typically, the surface layer of Tavares soil is dark gray
control erosion and maintain the content of organic fne sand about 6 inches th i ck The upper part of the
matter in the soil. underlying material, to a depth of about 10 inches, is
Under natural conditions, the soils in this map unit are grayish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of
poorly suited to improved pasture. Intensive about 48 inches, is pale brown fine sand. The lower part
management practices are needed to minimize soil to a depth of about 80 inches is very pale brown fine
limitations, including droughtiness and low natural sand that has common dark brown mottles.
fertility. Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal The Urban land part of this complex is covered by
bermudagrass and improved bahiagrass, are more concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces

lime are needed. Management practices should include is not feasible.
controlled grazing. Included in mapping are small areas of Apopka,
The potential of these soils for the production of pine Candler, Millhopper, and Pomello soils. Also included are
trees is moderately high. Seedling mortality, equipment some soils that are similar to Tavares soil but have a
use, and plant competition are the main concerns in surface layer that is more than 9 inches thick, have
management. Slash pine and longleaf pine are adapted brown or dark brown sand or fine sand in the lower part
trees to plant. of the underlying material, and are somewhat poorly
The soils in this map unit have slight limitations for drained or well drained in some parts of the landscape.
dwellings without basements, small commercial In most areas, the soils in this map unit are artificially
buildings, and local roads and streets. Land shaping may drained by established drainage systems. However, the
be needed in the more sloping areas depth to the water table is dependent upon the
These soils have moderate limitations for septic tank functioning of the drainage system. In undrained areas, a
absorption fields. Water control measures should be seasonal high water table is at a depth of 40 to 80
used for septic tank absorption fields. When installing a inches for more than 6 months, and it recedes to a
septic tank absorption field on these soils, the proximity depth of more than 80 inches during extended dry
to a stream or canal should be considered to prevent periods. The permeability of Tavares soil is very rapid
lateral seepage and ground water pollution. If the density throughout. The available water capacity is very low.
lateral snnonne and around water Dollution. If the density throughout. The available water capacity is very low.








60 Soil Survey


Natural fertility and the organic matter content are very similar soils, but they have thin layers of fibers from
low. woody plants at a depth of 31 to 51 inches.
The soils in this map unit are not used for cultivated Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Gator and
crops, citrus crops, improved pasture, or commercial Okeelanta soils in small areas.
trees. Tavares soil in the Urban land part of this complex Under natural conditions, the water table is at or
is used for lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds, or it is left above the surface for most of the year except during
as open space. The Urban land part of this complex is extended dry periods. In most areas, the soil in this map
used mostly for houses, streets, driveways, buildings, unit is artificially drained by tile drains and surface
parking lots, or other similar uses. ditches. In drained areas, the water table is controlled at
The soils in this map unit are well suited to dwellings a depth of 10 to 36 inches, or according to the need of
without basements, small commercial buildings, and local the crop. The water table is at or above the surface for
roads and streets. Land shaping may be needed in the short periods after heavy rains. If drained, the organic
more sloping areas, material, when dry, subsides to about half the original
These soils have moderate limitations for septic tank thickness. It subsides further as a result of compaction
absorption fields. Water control measures should be and oxidation. The loss of the organic material is more
used to minimize the excessive wetness limitation. The rapid during the first 2 years after the soil has been
rapid permeability of the soils in this map unit can cause artificially drained. If the soil is intensively cultivated, the
ground water pollution in areas of septic tank absorption organic material continues to subside at the rate of
fields. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a about 1 inch per year. The lower the water table, the
community sewage system can help prevent more rapid the loss of organic material. The permeability
contamination of the water supplies. is rapid throughout. Internal drainage is impeded by the
shallow water table. The available water capacity is very
The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for
high throughout. The natural fertility is high. The organic
sewage lagoons, trench sanitary landfills, shallow matter content is very high.
excavations, and recreational uses. For these uses, this erra Ceia soil is used mainly for
In most areas, this Terra Ceia soil is used mainly for
water control measures should be used to minimize the cultivated crops, such as cabbage, celery, endives,
wetness limitation. The sealing or lining of a sewage lettuce, and radishes. In a few areas, where fill material
lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious soil has been applied, this soil is used for urban
material can reduce excessive seepage. Land shaping development. The natural vegetation is Carolina willow,
may be needed in the more sloping areas. The sidewalls water primrose, waxmyrtle, pickerelweed, sawgrass,
of shallow excavations should be shored. The sandy cattail, buttonbush, arrowhead, maidencane, ferns, and
surface layer should be stabilized for recreational uses. other water-tolerant grasses. The natural areas provide
Droughtiness is a problem during extended dry periods, cover for deer and are excellent habitat for wading birds
The selection of drought-tolerant vegetation is critical for and other wetland wildlife.
the establishment of lawns, shrubs, trees, and vegetable Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
gardens. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed to cultivated crops. However, if intensive management
maintain lawn grasses and landscape vegetation, practices and soil-improving measures are used and if a
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a water control system is installed to remove excess water
capability subclass or to a woodland group, rapidly, this soil has good suitability for many vegetable
crops. A specially designed water control system should
49-Terra Ceia muck. This soil is nearly level and be installed and maintained to remove the excess water
very poorly drained. It is in freshwater swamps and when crops are on the soil and to keep the soil
marshes that are mainly north of Lake Apopka. Large saturated at all other times. Proper management
ditches and canals equipped with water control practices include seedbed preparation and crop rotation.
structures dissect the map unit in most places. Soil-improving crops and crop residue should be used to
Undrained areas are ponded for 6 to 9 months or more control erosion and maintain the content of organic
each year. The slopes are smooth and are less than 1 matter in the soil. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
percent. according to the need of the crop.
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Terra Ceia muck, Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to citrus
Terra Ceia soil and similar soils make up 85 to 99 trees. It is poorly suited to this use even if intensive
percent of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 management practices, such as bedding of rows, are
to 15 percent of the mapped areas. used and the water control system is adequate.
Typically, this soil has an organic layer of black muck Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
about 9 inches thick. Below that layer, to a depth of improved pasture grasses; however, if a water control
about 74 inches or more, is dark brown muck. The system is installed to remove excess surface water after
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is heavy rains, suitability is good. Pangolagrass, improved
light gray sandy clay loam. In the mapped areas are bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly







Orange County, Florida 61



managed. The water control system should maintain the In 90 percent of areas mapped as Wabasso fine sand,
water table near the surface to prevent excess Wabasso soil and similar soils make up 96 to 99 percent
subsidence of the organic material. Regular applications of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 4
of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be percent of the mapped areas.
controlled to maintain plant vigor. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
This soil is not suited to pine trees, sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
This soil has severe limitations for building site depth of about 18 inches, is light brownish gray fine
development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about
because of ponding and excess humus. Water control 21 inches, is black fine sand. The middle part, to a depth
measures should be used to minimize the excessive of about 45 inches, is very pale brown sandy clay loam
wetness limitation. Organic material, which has low soil that has common yellowish brown mottles. The lower
strength, should be removed and backfilled with a soil part, to a depth of 70 inches, is light gray sandy clay
material suitable for urban use. Constructing buildings on loam that has common yellowish brown mottles. The
pilings can help prevent structural damage that is caused substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is light
by soil subsidence. The sealing or lining of a sewage brownish gray loamy sand. In the mapped areas are
lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with impervious soil similar soils, but some of these soils have a subsoil at a
material can reduce excessive seepage. The sidewalls of depth of 30 inches, in some soils the lower part of the
shallow excavations should be shored. Water control subsoil is at a depth of more than 40 inches, and in
measures should be used to minimize the excessive some the upper part of the subsoil is weakly coated with
wetness limitation. Mounding of septic tank absorption colloidal organic matter.
fields may be needed. Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Immokalee
This Terra Ceia soil is in capability subclass IIIw and and Smyrna soils in small areas.
in most years, a seasonal high water table is at a
has not been assigned to a woodland group, depth of less than 10 inches for 1 month to 5 months. It
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
50-Urban land. This miscellaneous area is covered reede to deph o than 40 inchs durin
by such urban facilities as shopping.centers, parking extended dry periods. The permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and in the substratum. It
lots, industrial buildings, houses, streets, sidewalks, is moderate in the sandy part of the subsoil and slow or
airports, and related urban structures. The natural soil The available water capacity
very slow in the loamy part. The available water capacity
cannot be observed. The slopes are dominantly less is very low in the surface and subsurface layers, medium
than 2 percent but range to 5 percent. in the subsoil, and low in the substratum. Natural fertility
In areas mapped as Urban land, 85 percent or more of is low. The organic matter content is moderate to
the surface is covered by asphalt, concrete, buildings, moderately low.
and other impervious surfaces that obscure or alter the In most areas, this Wabasso soil has been left in
soils so that their identification is not feasible. natural vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for
Included in this map unit are moderately urbanized cultivated crops, improved pasture, or citrus crops or for
areas where structures cover 50 to 85 percent of the homesite and urban development. The natural vegetation
surface. Candler, Florahome, Millhopper, Ona, Pomello, is longleaf pine and slash pine. The understory includes
St. Lucie, Smyrna, Tavares, and Wabasso soils mostly lopsided indiangrass, inkberry, saw palmetto, pineland
are used for lawns, playgrounds, parks, and open areas, threeawn, waxmyrtle, bluestem, panicum, and other
These soils generally have been altered by grading and grasses.
shaping or have been covered by about 12 inches of fill This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
material. This fill material consists of sandy and loamy crops because of wetness and the sandy texture in the
material that may contain fragments of limestone and root zone. However, if a water control system is installed
shell. The individual areas of soils in this map unit are and soil-improving measures are used, this soil is fairly
too small to map separately at the scale used for the suited to many vegetable crops. A water control system
maps in the back of this publication, is needed to remove excess water in wet periods and to
Drainage systems have been established in most provide for subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Soil-
areas of Urban land. Depth to the seasonal high water improving crops and crop residue should be used to
table is dependent upon the functioning of the drainage control erosion and to maintain the content of organic
system. matter in the soil. Seedbed preparation should include
Urban land has not been assigned to a capability the bedding of rows. Fertilizer and lime should be
subclass or to a woodland group, applied according to the need of the crop.
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is good in
51-Wabasso fine sand. This soil is nearly level and areas that are relatively free of freezing temperatures
poorly drained. It is on broad flatwoods. The slopes are and if a water control system is installed to maintain the
smooth to slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 percent, water table at a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees on







62 Soil Survey



beds lowers the effective depth of the water table. A that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification
close-growing cover crop between tree rows is needed is not feasible.
to protect the soil from blowing. Regular applications of Included in mapping are small areas of Immokalee,
lime and fertilizer are needed. Pineda, and Smyrna soils. Also included are some soils
This soil has good suitability for improved pasture that are similar to Wabasso soil, but in some of these
grasses and hay crops. Pangolagrass, improved soils, the upper part of the subsoil extends to a depth of
bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly more than 30 inches, in some the lower part of the
managed. Water control measures should be used to subsoil extends to a depth of more than 40 inches, and
remove the excess surface water after heavy rains, in some the upper part of the subsoil is weakly coated
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, with colloidal organic matter.
Overgrazing should be prevented. Some areas of Wabasso-Urban land complex have
The potential of this soil for the production of pine been modified by grading and shaping. The sandy and
trees is moderately high. Equipment use, seedling loamy material from drainage ditches or fill material that
mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns in is hauled in is often used to fill the low areas. In
management. Slash pine is an adapted tree to plant on undrained areas, a seasonal high water table is at a
this soil. depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6 months and at
This soil has severe limitations for dwellings without a depth of less than 10 inches for 1 month to 2 months.
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during
streets, sewage lagoons, trench sanitary landfills, septic extended dry periods. Drainage systems have been
tank absorption fields, recreational areas, and shallow established in most areas. Depth to the high water table
excavations. Water control measures should be used to is dependent upon the functioning of the drainage
minimize the excessive wetness limitation. Septic tank system. The permeability of Wabasso soil is rapid in the
absorption fields may need to be enlarged because of surface and subsurface layers and in the substratum. It
wetness. The sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon or is moderate in the sandy part of the subsoil and slow or
trench sanitary landfill can reduce excessive seepage. very slow in the loamy part. The available water capacity
The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for is very low in the surface and subsurface layers and in
recreational uses. The sidewalls of shallow excavations the substratum. It is medium in the subsoil. Natural
should be shored fertility is low. The organic matter content is moderate to
This Wabasso soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The moderately low.
woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W. modat ow
The soils in this map unit are not used for cultivated
52-Wabasso-Urban land complex. This complex crops, citrus crops, improved pasture, or commercial
consists of Wabasso soil that is nearly level and poorly trees. Wabasso soil in the Urban land part of this
drained and of areas of Urban land. This complex is on complex is used for lawns, vacant lots, or playgrounds,
the flatwoods. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 or it is left as open space. The Urban land part of this
to 2 percent, complex is used mostly for houses, streets, driveways,
This map unit consists of about 57 percent Wabasso buildings, parking lots, or other similar uses.
soil and about 40 percent Urban land. The included soils The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for
make up about 3 percent of the map unit. The sanitary facilities, shallow excavations, building site
proportions and the patterns of Wabasso soil and Urban development, and recreational uses. Water control
land are relatively consistent in most delineations of the measures should be used to minimize the excessive
map unit. The individual areas of the soils in this map wetness limitation for these uses. Septic tank absorption
unit are too mixed or too small to map separately at the fields may need to be enlarged because of wetness and
scale used for the maps in the back of this publication, slow permeability. If the density of housing is moderate
Typically, the surface layer of Wabasso soil is dark to high, a community sewage system can help prevent
gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface contamination of the water supplies. The sealing or lining
layer, to a depth of about 16 inches, is gray fine sand. of a sewage lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with
The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 25 impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage.
inches, is black and dark brown fine sand. The middle The sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
part, to a depth of about 35 inches, is gray sandy clay Many of these areas have been previously drained or
loam that has common dark yellowish brown mottles. modified by grading and shaping. For building site
The lower part, to a depth of about 42 inches, is grayish development, some water control measures may be
brown sandy clay loam that has common brownish needed. Such measures include the addition of fill
yellow mottles. The substratum to a depth of about 80 material, land leveling, and installation of a drainage
inches or more is gray fine sand. system to remove excess surface water after heavy
The Urban land part of this complex is covered by rains. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces recreational uses.







Orange County, Florida 63



The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a organic matter in the soil. Seedbed preparation should
capability subclass or to a woodland group. include the bedding of rows. Fertilizer should be applied
according to the need of the crop.
53-Wauberg fine sand. This soil is nearly level and Suitability of this soil for citrus trees is fair in areas that
poorly drained. It is in low areas on the flatwoods. The are relatively free of freezing temperatures and if a water
slopes are nearly smooth to slightly concave and range control system is installed to maintain the water table at
from 0 to 2 percent. a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees on beds provides
In 95 percent of areas mapped as Wauberg fine sand, good surface drainage. A close-growing cover crop
Wauberg soil and similar soils make up 87 to 99 percent between tree rows is needed to protect the soil from
of the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 1 to 13 blowing. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
percent of the mapped areas. This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses.
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of this Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover
soil is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The lower grow well if properly managed. Management practices
part, to a depth of about 8 inches, is very dark gray fine should include a water control system to remove excess
sand. The subsurface layer, to a depth of about 28 surface water after heavy rains, regular applications of
inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, fertilizer, and controlled grazing.
to a depth of about 52 inches, is dark gray sandy clay The potential of this soil for the production of pine
loam that has common dark brown mottles. The lower trees is high. Water control measures are necessary to
part, to a depth of about 60 inches, is gray sandy clay remove excess surface water. Bedding the tree rows
loam that has common white mottles. The substratum to helps to minimize the wetness limitation. Wetness, slow
a depth of about 80 inches or more is light gray sandy internal drainage, seedling mortality, and plant
clay. In the mapped areas are similar soils, but they have competition are the main concerns in management.
a surface layer that is more than 9 inches thick. In some Slash pine is an adapted tree to plant on this soil.
places are similar soils, but they have a surface layer of This soil has severe limitations for building site
mucky fine sand, and also other similar soils, but these development, sanitary facilities, and recreational uses.
soils have a subsoil within 20 inches of the surface. Water control measures should be used to minimize the
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Wabasso soils excessive wetness limitation. Fill material is needed in
in small areas. Also included are areas of soils that have most areas for building site development. Mounding of
a subsoil at a depth of more than 40 inches. Other the septic tank absorption field can help to minimize the
dissimilar soils included in the mapped areas have a excessive wetness limitation. Increasing the size of the
thick, dark surface layer. These soils are in depressions. absorption field can minimize the limitation caused by
In most years, a seasonal high water table is within 12 the slow permeability or very slow permeability of the
inches of the surface for a period of about 6 months, subsoil and substratum. The sandy surface layer should
and it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during be stabilized for recreational uses. The sidewalls of
extended dry periods. The water table is above the shallow excavations should be shored. Water control
surface for short periods after heavy rains. The measures should be used to minimize the wetness
permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface limitation.
layers, very slow in the upper part of the subsoil and the This Wauberg soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
substratum, and moderately slow in the lower part of the woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 11W.
subsoil. The available water capacity is low to medium in
the surface layer, subsoil, and substratum. It is very low 54-Zolfo fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
to low in the subsurface layer. Natural fertility is low. The somewhat poorly drained. It is in broad, slightly higher
organic matter content is moderately low to moderate, positions adjacent to the flatwoods. The slopes are
In most areas, this Wauberg soil has been left in smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
natural vegetation. In a few areas, it is used for improved In 90 percent of areas mapped as Zolfo fine sand,
pasture or cultivated crops. The natural vegetation is Zolfo soil and similar soils make up 77 to 93 percent of
mixed stands of pondcypress, red maple, laurel oak, the mapped areas. Dissimilar soils make up 7 to 23
sweetgum, slash pine, and longleaf pine. The understory percent of the mapped areas.
includes bulrush, waxmyrtle, sand cordgrass, creeping Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark grayish
bluestem, chalky bluestem, maidencane, panicum, and brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The upper part of
various other weeds and grasses, the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 23 inches, is
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to grayish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of
cultivated crops. However, it is well suited to vegetable about 38 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand that has
crops if a water control system is installed to remove common brownish yellow mottles. The lower part, to a
excess water rapidly and to provide for subsurface depth of about 55 inches, is very pale brown fine sand
irrigation. Soil-improving crops and crop residue should that has common brownish yellow mottles. The upper
be used to control erosion and to maintain the content of part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 71 inches, is







64 Soil Survey



brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches and streets. Water control measures should be used to
or more is dark brown fine sand. In the mapped areas minimize the excessive wetness limitation. Septic tank
are similar soils, but they have a subsoil at a depth of absorption fields may need to be enlarged because of
more than 80 inches. In some parts of the landscape are wetness. The rapid permeability of this soil can cause
other similar soils, but they are moderately well drained, ground water pollution in areas of septic tank absorption
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Lochloosa, fields. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a
Millhopper, Pomello, and Smyrna soils in small areas, community sewage system can help prevent
In most years, a seasonal high water table is at a contamination of the water supplies. Water control
depth of 24 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. It is at a measures should be used to minimize the wetness
depth of 10 to 24 inches during periods of heavy rains. It limitation, and the sealing or lining of a sewage lagoon or
recedes to a depth of about 60 inches during extended trench sanitary landfill with impervious soil material can
dry periods. The permeability is rapid in the surface and reduce excessive seepage. The sandy surface layer
subsurface layers, and it is moderate in the subsoil. The should be stabilized for recreational uses. Water control
available water capacity is low in the surface and measures should be used, and the sidewalls of shallow
subsurface layers and is medium in the subsoil. Natural excavations should be shored. The proximity of a stream
fertility and the organic matter content are low. or aquifer recharge area should be considered in the
In most areas, this Zolfo soil is used for citrus crops or placement of sanitary facilities to prevent contamination
improved pasture or for homesite and urban of the water supplies.
development. In a few areas, it is used for cultivated This Zolfo soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
crops. The natural vegetation is water oak, live oak, woodland ordination symbol for this soil is 10W.
laurel oak, turkey oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine. The
understory includes broomsedge bluestem, chalky 55-Zolfo-Urban land complex. This complex
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, saw palmetto, pineland consists of Zolfo soil that is nearly level and somewhat
threeawn, and other perennial grasses, poorly drained and of areas of Urban land. This complex
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to is in broad, slightly higher positions adjacent to the
cultivated crops because of periodic wetness and flatwoods. The slopes are smooth and range from 0 to 2
droughtiness as a result of the low available water percent.
capacity. However, if adequate water control and soil- This map unit consists of about 50 percent Zolfo soil
improving measures are used, this soil is well suited to and about 40 percent Urban land. The included soils
some vegetable crops. A water control system is needed make up about 10 percent of the map unit. The
to remove excess water in wet periods and to provide for proportions and the patterns of Zolfo soil and Urban land
subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Soil-improving crops are relatively consistent in most delineations of the map
and crop residue should be used to control erosion and unit. The individual areas of the soils in this map unit are
to maintain the content of organic matter in the soil. too mixed or too small to map separately at the scale
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the used for the maps in the back of this publication.
need of the crop. Typically, the surface layer of Zolfo soil is very dark
The suitability of this soil for citrus trees is fair in areas grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper
that are relatively free of freezing temperatures and if part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of about 18
proper management practices are used. A water control inches, is brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth
system is needed to maintain the water table at a depth of about 42 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The
of about 4 feet during the wet periods and to provide for lower part, to a depth of about 64 inches, is very pale
subsurface irrigation during periods of low rainfall, brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime help to obtain depth of about 72 inches, is brown fine sand. The lower
optimum yields. A suitable cover crop between tree rows part to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark brown fine
should be maintained to protect the soil from blowing, sand.
This soil is fairly suited to improved pasture grasses. The Urban land part of this complex is covered by
Bahiagrass and pangolagrass are better suited to this concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces
soil than other grasses. Regular applications of lime and that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification
fertilizer are needed. Overgrazing should be prevented, is not feasible.
The potential of this soil for the production of pine Included in mapping are small areas of Lochloosa,
trees is moderately high. Seedling mortality is the main Millhopper, Pomello, and Smyrna soils. Also included are
concern in management. Slash pine and longleaf pine some soils that are similar to Zolfo soil, but the upper
are adapted trees to plant, part of the subsoil extends to a depth of more than 80
This soil has severe limitations for sanitary facilities, inches, and in some parts of the landscape they are
most building site development, and recreational uses. It moderately well drained.
has moderate limitations for dwellings without Most areas of the soils in this map unit are artificially
basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads drained by established drainage systems. However, the







Orange County, Florida 65



depth to the water table is dependent upon the The soils in this map unit have severe limitations for
functioning of the drainage system. In undrained areas, a sanitary facilities, shallow excavations, and recreational
seasonal high water table is at a depth of 24 to 40 uses. Water control measures should be used to
inches for 2 to 6 months and is at a depth of 10 to 24 minimize the excessive wetness limitations for these
inches during periods of high rainfall. It recedes to a uses. The rapid permeability of the soils can cause
depth of about 60 inches during extended dry periods, ground water pollution in areas of septic tank absorption
The permeability of Zolfo soil is rapid in the surface and fields. If the density of housing is moderate to high, a
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. The community sewage system can help prevent
available water capacity is low in the surface and contamination of the water supplies. The sealing or lining
subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Natural of a sewage lagoon or trench sanitary landfill with
fertility and the organic matter content are low. impervious soil material can reduce excessive seepage.
ei nd the organic matter content ae The proximity to a stream or aquifer recharge area
The soils in this map unit are not used for cultivated should be considered in the placement of sanitary
crops, improved pasture, or commercial trees. Zolfo soil facilities to prevent contamination of the water supplies.
in the Urban land part of this complex is used for lawns, The sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
vacant lots, or playgrounds, or it is left as open space. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for
The Urban land part of this complex is used mostly for recreational uses. Droughtiness is a problem during
houses, streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, or extended dry periods. The selection of drought-tolerant
other similar uses. vegetation is critical for the establishment of lawns,
The soils in this map unit are well suited to dwellings shrubs, trees, and vegetable gardens. Regular
without basements, small commercial buildings, and local applications of fertilizer are needed to maintain lawns
roads and streets. Water control measures should be and landscape vegetation.
used to minimize the excessive wetness in undrained The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
areas. capability subclass or to a woodland group.










67








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural No soils in Orange County meet the requirements for
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid prime farmland.
soil-related failures in land uses. Planners of management systems for individual fields
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, or farms should consider the detailed information given
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses Cooperative Extension Service.
and management. Field experience and collected data Orange County is experiencing rapid urbanization.
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis Acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has gradually
for predicting soil behavior. decreased as more and more land is used for urban
Information in this section can be used to plan the use development. However, large areas of productive land
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as remain in agricultural use. It is expected that the
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary urbanization pressures will continue for some time, and
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and the amount of land devoted to agriculture will continue to
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife decline. Natural disasters, such as the severe Christmas
habitat. It can be used to identify the suitability potentials freeze of 1983 (table 2), will also contribute to the
and limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to decline of agricultural land.
help prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable Some of the agricultural land in Orange County is
soil properties. classified as unique and special. Soils, such as the
Planners and others using soil survey information can Gator, Okeelanta, and Terra Ceia soils that occur north
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity of Lake Apopka, have severe limitations for urban uses.
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. These soils on agricultural land will be protected from
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a the pressures of urbanization by the nature of their
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature. limitations. The citrus-growing areas and pasturelands
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of will come under the most severe urbanization pressure.
sand, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to identify All forms of water and wind erosion occur in Orange
areas where wetness or very firm soil layers can cause County. Soils on which erosion is a problem are
difficulty in excavation. scattered throughout the county. A recent increase in the
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and practice of planting grasses between the rows of citrus
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can has helped to decrease both wind and water erosion in
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate the citrus groves. Vegetables are grown chiefly on the
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, nearly level areas which are not subject to intensive
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs, water erosion, but the fields are left without vegetation
cover at certain times of the year and this contributes to
Crops and Pasture wind erosion. The most serious erosion problems in
Orange County occur on unprotected soils on
Jack Creighton, soil conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, construction sites. When preparing building sites, the soil
helped to prepare this section. is generally stripped of all vegetation and subjected to
General management needed for crops and pasture is the unrelenting forces of wind and water for 3 months or
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants more.
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly Loss of soil by erosion reduces crop production and
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of increases pollution. Productivity is reduced as the
land capability classification used by the Soil surface layer is lost, and organic matter is reduced as
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated part of the subsoil is incorporated into the plow layer. If







67








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural No soils in Orange County meet the requirements for
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid prime farmland.
soil-related failures in land uses. Planners of management systems for individual fields
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, or farms should consider the detailed information given
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses Cooperative Extension Service.
and management. Field experience and collected data Orange County is experiencing rapid urbanization.
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis Acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has gradually
for predicting soil behavior. decreased as more and more land is used for urban
Information in this section can be used to plan the use development. However, large areas of productive land
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as remain in agricultural use. It is expected that the
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary urbanization pressures will continue for some time, and
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and the amount of land devoted to agriculture will continue to
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife decline. Natural disasters, such as the severe Christmas
habitat. It can be used to identify the suitability potentials freeze of 1983 (table 2), will also contribute to the
and limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to decline of agricultural land.
help prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable Some of the agricultural land in Orange County is
soil properties. classified as unique and special. Soils, such as the
Planners and others using soil survey information can Gator, Okeelanta, and Terra Ceia soils that occur north
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity of Lake Apopka, have severe limitations for urban uses.
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. These soils on agricultural land will be protected from
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a the pressures of urbanization by the nature of their
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature. limitations. The citrus-growing areas and pasturelands
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of will come under the most severe urbanization pressure.
sand, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to identify All forms of water and wind erosion occur in Orange
areas where wetness or very firm soil layers can cause County. Soils on which erosion is a problem are
difficulty in excavation. scattered throughout the county. A recent increase in the
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and practice of planting grasses between the rows of citrus
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can has helped to decrease both wind and water erosion in
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate the citrus groves. Vegetables are grown chiefly on the
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, nearly level areas which are not subject to intensive
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs, water erosion, but the fields are left without vegetation
cover at certain times of the year and this contributes to
Crops and Pasture wind erosion. The most serious erosion problems in
Orange County occur on unprotected soils on
Jack Creighton, soil conservationist, Soil Conservation Service, construction sites. When preparing building sites, the soil
helped to prepare this section. is generally stripped of all vegetation and subjected to
General management needed for crops and pasture is the unrelenting forces of wind and water for 3 months or
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants more.
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly Loss of soil by erosion reduces crop production and
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of increases pollution. Productivity is reduced as the
land capability classification used by the Soil surface layer is lost, and organic matter is reduced as
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated part of the subsoil is incorporated into the plow layer. If







68 Soil Survey



erosion is controlled, the pollution of streams by Chobee, Floridana, Hontoon, and Samsula soils that are
sediment can be reduced and the quality of water for very poorly drained, are naturally wet and restrict
municipal use, for recreation, and for fish and wildlife can production of many crops common to the area.
be improved. During rainy periods in most years, excessive wetness
Water erosion is not a major problem in Orange causes damage in the root zone of some of the
County. The soils are sandy and are mostly nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soils unless the soils are
Erosion is caused by rapid runoff, which takes place only artificially drained. Examples are Lochloosa and Zolfo
during heavy rains on unprotected soils that have short, soils. Also, excessive wetness causes some damage to
steep slopes. Examples are Candler and Lake soils that pasture plants during rainy periods in most of the poorly
are excessively drained and Tavares soils that are drained soils if these soils are not artificially drained.
moderately well drained and have slopes of more than 2 Examples are mainly Immokalee, Malabar, Ona, St.
percent. Johns, Smyrna, and Wabasso soils. These poorly
Conservation practices, such as maintaining a drained soils also have a low available water capacity
vegetation cover on the surface layer, reducing runoff, and are drought during dry periods. It is generally
and increasing infiltration, will help control erosion. A necessary to subsurface irrigate these soils to ensure
cropping system that maintains a grassed vegetation quality pasture plants and obtain maximum yields.
cover between the rows of citrus can hold soil erosion The very poorly drained soils, such as Canova, Gator,
losses to amounts that do not reduce the productive Okeelanta, and Terra Ceia soils, are very wet during
capacity of the soils. On livestock farms, legume and rainy periods. Water stands on the surface in most
grass forage crops should be included in the cropping areas, and the production of speciality crops or good
system to reduce erosion on sloping land, provide quality pasture plants on these soils is not possible
nitrogen, and improve tilth for the next crop. unless the soils are artificially drained.
Conservation tillage leaves crop residue on the
Conservation tillage leaves crop residue on the The kind of surface drainage system and subsurface
surface, increases infiltration, and reduces runoff andneeded varies with the kind of soil and
subsequent erosion. This practice can be adapted to rraton system needed vare th the soil and
most soils in the county, the grasses to be grown on the soil A combination of
Wind erosion is a major hazard on the sandy and surface drains and subsurface irrigation systems is
organic soils. It can damage soils and tender crops in a needed for intensive pasture production. Information on
few hours in open, unprotected areas if the winds are drainage and irrigation systems needed for each soil in
strong and the soil is dry and left without a vegetation the county is available in the local offices of the Soil
cover or surface mulch. Keeping a vegetation cover and Conservation Service.
surface mulch on the soil reduces wind erosion. Soil fertility is naturally low in most of the sandy soils
Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It in the county. Most of the soils are strongly acid if they
reduces soil fertility by removing the finer soil particles have not been limed. Chobee and Floridana are soils
and the organic matter; damages or destroys crops by that have a thick surface layer and have a high content
sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and weed of organic matter. They are less acid and are higher in
seeds; and creates health hazards and cleaning natural fertility than most soils in Orange County.
problems. Control of wind erosion reduces duststorm Available phosphorus and potash levels are naturally low
damage and improves the quality of the air for healthier in most of these soils. Kinds and amounts of lime and
living conditions, fertilizer added to the soils should be based on the result
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such as of soil tests, on the needs of the crops, and on the
cherry laurel, slash pine, southern redcedar, and expected yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can
Japanese privet and strips of small grain crops are help in determining the proper application of fertilizer and
effective in reducing wind erosion and crop damage. lime.
Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow plantings Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
made at a right angle to the prevailing wind and at seeds, root development, and infiltration of water into the
specific intervals across the field. The intervals depend soil. Soils that have good tilth are porous and have a
on the erodibility of the soil and the susceptibility of the good granular structure.
crop to damage from sandblasting. Most soils in Orange County have a sandy surface
Information about conservation practices to control layer that has poor tilth. Generally, the structure of the
erosion on each kind of the soils in the county is surface layer of most soils in the county is weak. The
available in the local offices of the Soil Conservation content of organic matter is low to moderate in most
Service. areas. A slight crust can form on the surface of these
Soil drainage is a major concern in management on soils upon drying after heavy rains. Regular additions of
about 75 percent of the acreage used for crops and crop residue and other organic material in and on the
pasture in Orange County. Some soils, such as Emeralda soil improve tilth, increase fertility, and reduce crust
and Holopaw soils that are poorly drained and Basinger, formation.







Orange County, Florida 69



Citrus used for vegetable crops. Immokalee, Ona, Pompano, and
Wabasso soils are sandy soils that are suited to sweet
Citrus crops are grown mainly in the western part of corn, Chinese cabbage, and broccoli. Smaller acreages of
Orange County, most of which is in high recharge areas many other truck crops are grown on a wide variety of
for the Floridan aquifer. In 1982, approximately 48,547 soils. Cantaloupe and watermelon are grown on Lake and
acres of citrus crops were grown (10). The overall citrus Tavares soils. Tomatoes and blackeyed peas are grown
acreage in the county is expected to decline as a result on Immokalee, Ona, Lake, and Tavares soils. Many
of the severe damage many groves sustained in the vegetables, including beans, cabbage, cauliflower,
Christmas freeze of 1983 and because of urbanization cucumbers, onions, peppers, and squash, are grown on
pressures. Immokalee, Smyrna, and other soils on the flatwoods.
Citrus is grown on a wide variety of soils in the county.
The soils on which citrus is grown range from the Pastureland
excessively drained Candler and Lake soils to the poorly
drained Immokalee and Smyrna soils. Supplemental Pastures in the survey area are used to produce
irrigation improves production on the drought soils, forage and hay for beef and dairy cattle. The sale of
Conservation practices to control water are needed on beef cattle in cow-calf operations is a major livestock
most poorly drained soils. enterprise. Bahiagrass is the main pasture plant grown in
Some soils that are used for citrus crops are in low the county. It is adapted to a wide range of soil types
areas that have poor air drainage and frequent frost and is conducive to low, annual fertility programs.
pockets. These areas are generally poorly suited to Bermudagrass, limpograss, and pangolagrass are other
citrus crops. Grasses or legumes planted between the improved pasture grasses grown in the survey area.
citrus rows help to minimize the damage caused by wind These grasses require higher annual pasture
erosion in young groves and in groves that have been maintenance and fertilizer inputs than bahiagrass
severely pruned back because of freeze damage. pastures; therefore, they are better reserved for hay
Most soils on which citrus is grown are low in natural crops or for grazing livestock that require a higher level
fertility and must be supplemented with fertilizer and lime of nutrition than is required for mature cows or bulls.
to ensure optimum yields. Pasture yields are directly correlated to fertilizer inputs,
Vegetables mainly nitrogen, and the amount of grazing management
applied. Continuous grazing produces the lowest yields
Vegetables are grown extensively in the organic soils, from any pasture and contributes to the invasion of
also called mucklands, on the north shore of Lake weeds. Legumes, such as American jointvetch, white
Apopka. With an adequate water control system, Terra clover, perennial peanut, and hairy indigo help reduce
Ceia, Gator, and Okeelanta soils are well suited to high- costly nitrogen fertilization needed for optimum pasture
value vegetable crops. When these soils are drained, the productivity. The use of legumes can be extremely
organic material oxidizes and subsides at a rate of about advantageous; however, increased grazing management
1 inch per year. Flooding during periods when crops are is required to maintain legumes with mixed perennial
not being grown is a practice used to reduce the rate of grass pastures.
subsidence. Flooding also helps to control certain
insects and disease-carrying pests.
These organic soils are highly susceptible to wind Yields Per Acre
erosion. Crop residue is generally left on the surface The average yields per acre that can be expected of
when no water or crops are on the soil to minimize the the principal crops under a high level of management
soil blowing hazard. are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be
About 11,000 acres near Zellwood is used for growing higher or lower than those indicated in the table because
vegetables. However, this acreage is responsible for a of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
larger harvested acreage because of the practice of
multiple cropping. Vegetable farming on mineral soils The yields are based mainly on the experience and
accounts for an additional 4,000 acres. In 1982-83, the records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
most important crops in terms of acreage were sweet agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
corn (10,500 acres), carrots (8,500 acres), radish (6,684 results of field trails and demonstrations are also
acres), endive (1,300 acres) and additional large considered.
acreages of lettuce, cabbage, and celery (10, 42). The The management needed to obtain the indicated
combined value for all vegetable crops grown in Orange yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
County in 1982-83 was more than 48 million dollars (42). and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion
Most soils used to produce vegetables are irrigated, control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
Irrigation systems include subirrigation, drip, and and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
sprinkler. If an adequate water control system is appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
maintained, most of the soils on the flatwoods can be diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction







70 Soil Survey



and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
residue, barnyard manure, and green manure crops; and use.
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss. Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the generally unsuitable for cultivation.
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly them unsuitable for cultivation.
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum. Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely crop production. There are no class VIII soils in Orange
to increase as new production technology is developed. County.
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
other soils, however, is not likely to change. They are designated by adding a small letter, w or s, to
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in the class numeral, for example, IIIw. The letter w shows
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed that water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the corrected by artificial drainage); and s shows that the soil
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony.
about the management and productivity of the soils for There are no subclasses in class I because the soils
those crops. of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V are
subject to little or no erosion, but they have other
Land Capability Classification limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland,
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V contains
Land capability classification (28) shows, in a general only the subclasses indicated by w or s.
way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops The capability classification of each map unit is given
that require special management are excluded. The soils in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
are grouped according to their limitations for field crops,
the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the
way they respond to management. The criteria used in Woodland Management and Productivity
grouping the soils do not include major, and generally John Koehler, Orange County forester, Division of Forestry, Florida
expensive, landforming that would change slope, depth, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service, helped to prepare
or other characteristics of the soils, nor do they include this section.
possible but unlikely major reclamation projects. According to the latest statistics, approximately
Capability classification is not a substitute for 179,500 acres in Orange County is commercial forest
interpretations designed to show suitability and land (27, 34, 42). This represents about 29 percent of
limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for woodland, the county. Grazing is the main use of these woodlands,
and for engineering purposes, and timber management is a secondary, less intensive
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at use. Countywide, native grasses are productive because
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only of low tree densities per acre. The cattle industry thrives
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels as a result.
are defined in the following paragraphs. The forest resources of the county are well distributed.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are A heavy concentration of hardwoods and cypress is in
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The the low areas of east Orange County and on the flood
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and plains of the Wekiva and St. Johns Rivers. The pine
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are flatwoods and sandhills of central and west Orange
defined as follows: County have a lower tree concentration. The largest
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. concentration of woodlands are in general soil map units
There are no Class I soils in Orange County. 6, 8, 9, and 11, which are described in the section
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the "General Soil Map Units."
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation Since the clearcut practices of the 1920's, when much
practices. of the longleaf pine in the county was cut, slash pine has
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the become the dominant commercial tree. Because of
choice of plants or that require special conservation its tolerance to controlled burning and ease of planting,
practices, or both. slash pine is the dominant tree on the pine flatwoods.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce The swamps in central and eastern Orange County
the choice of plants or that require very careful contain a mixture of trees. The various trees include
management, or both. cypress, blackgum, sweetgum, elm, hickory, magnolia,







Orange County, Florida 71



red maple, sweetbay, and loblolly bay (6, 22, 36). productivity is based on the site index and the point
Occasionally, live oak, water oak, and laurel oak will where mean annual increment is the greatest.
grow on the fringes. Sound forest management practices The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
that include hardwood management will produce trees of indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and
suitable size, quantity, and quality for timber production, management. The letter W indicates a soil in which
The excessively drained and well drained soils on the excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes a
uplands, such as Apopka, Candler, and Lake, support significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry, sandy
sand pine, longleaf pine, and turkey oak. Bluejack oak, soil. The letter A indicates a soil that has no significant
post oak, and Chapman oak also grow on these soils. In restrictions or limitations for forest use and management.
many of these areas, the trees were removed and the If a soil has more than one limitation, the priority is as
soils are now used for improved pasture and citrus follows: W and S.
crops. Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability
Timber management in Orange County can be that damage may occur if site preparation activities or
increased by combining resource management practices harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is slight if
to create multiple products rather than single products. no particular preventive measures are needed under
Many of the same management practices that are used ordinary conditions.
in the cattle industry are also used in forest Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the
management. The use of controlled burning, chopping, use of forest management equipment, year-round or
and disking are examples of the practices that can be seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope,
combined to manage both timber and cattle on the same wetness, stoniness, or susceptibility of the surface layer
property (4, 20, 30, 31, 33). to compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it
More detailed information and assistance in forest becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On
management can be obtained through the local offices the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be used. On
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Florida Division the steepest slopes, even tracked equipment cannot
of Forestry. operate; more sophisticated systems are needed. The
rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by soil
Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth, rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by soil
y wetness for less than 2 months and if special equipment
fertility, texture, and the availablewtcpy wetness for less than 2 months and if specaap cipme
fertility, texture, and the available water capacity is not needed. The rating is moderate if slopes are steep
influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate
enough that wheeled equipment cannot be operated
determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site. safely across the slope, if soil wetness restricts
Available water capacity and depth of the root zone are equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, if stoniness
equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, if stoniness
major influences of tree growth. restricts ground-based equipment, or if special
This soil survey can be used by woodland managers equipment is needed to avoid or reduce soil compaction.
planning ways to increase the productivity of forest land. The rating is severe if slopes are steep enough that
Some soils respond better to fertilization than others, tracked equipment cannot be operated safely across the
and some are more susceptible to erosion after roads slope, if soil wetness restricts equipment use for more
are built and timber is harvested. Some soils require than 6 months per year, if stoniness restricts ground-
special efforts to reforest. In the section "Detailed Soil based equipment, or if special equipment is needed to
Map Units," each map unit in the survey area suitable for avoid or reduce soil compaction. Ratings of moderate or
producing timber presents information about productivity, severe indicate a need to choose the most suitable
limitations for harvesting timber, and management equipment and to carefully plan the timing of harvesting
concerns for producing timber. The common forest and other management operations.
understory plants are also listed. Table 6 summarizes Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
this forestry information and rates the soils for a number death of naturally occurring or properly planted seedlings
of factors to be considered in management. Slight, of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as influenced
moderate, and severe are used to indicate the degree of by kinds of soil or topographic features. Seedling
the major soil limitations to be considered in forest mortality is caused primarily by too much water or too
management. little water. The factors used in rating a soil for seedling
The first tree listed for each soil under the column mortality are texture of the surface layer, depth and
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil. An duration of the water table, rock fragments in the surface
indicator species is a tree that is common in the area layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of the slope.
and that is generally the most productive on a given soil. Mortality generally is greatest on soils that have a sandy
Table 6 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The or clayey surface layer. The risk is slight if, after site
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates preparation, expected mortality is less than 25 percent;
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator moderate if expected mortality is between 25 and 50
species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the percent; and severe if expected mortality exceeds 50
number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential percent. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate that it







72 Soil Survey



may be necessary to use containerized or larger than cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per
usual planting stock or to make special site preparations, hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by
such as bedding, furrowing, installing surface drainage, multiplying by 14.3. In order to convert cubic feet per
or providing artificial shade for seedings. Reinforcement acre to cords per acre, divide the cubic feet by 85. It can
planting is often needed if the risk is moderate or severe, be converted to board feet by multiplying by a factor of
Ratings of windthrow hazard consider the likelihood of about 71. For example, a productivity class of 8 means
trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting the soil can be expected to produce 114 cubic feet per
depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth acre per year at the point where mean annual increment
can be restricted by a high water table, fragipan, or culminates, or about 568 board feet per acre per year.
bedrock, or by a combination of such factors as soil Trees to plant are those that are used for reforestation
wetness, texture, structure, and depth. The risk is slight if or, if suitable conditions exist, natural regeneration. They
strong winds cause trees to break but do not uproot are suited to the soils and will produce a commercial
them, and moderate if strong winds cause an occasional wood crop. Desired product, topographic position (such
tree to be blown over and many trees to break. Ratings as a low, wet area), and personal preference are three
of moderate indicate the need for care in thinning or factors of many that can influence the choice of trees to
possibly not thinning. Specialized equipment may be use for reforestation.
needed to avoid damage to shallow root systems in
partial cutting operations. A plan for periodic salvage of Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
windthrown trees and the maintenance of a road and
trail system may be needed. Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens, and
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low- and
competition becomes more severe on the more high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and shrubs
productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils provide the most protection.
having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
reduces adequate natural or artificial reforestation but across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
does not necessitate intensive site preparation and of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
undesirable plants reduces natural or artificial Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock
natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is of suitable species should be planted properly on a well
intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or prepared site and maintained in good condition.
severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to Information on planning windbreaks and screens and
ensure the development of an adequately stocked stand. on planting and caring for trees and shrubs can be
Managers must plan site preparation measures to ensure obtained from local offices of the Soil Conservation
reforestation without delays. Service or the Cooperative Extension Service, or from a

The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is nursery.
expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in
the order of their observed general occurrence. Recreation
Generally, only two or three tree species dominate.
The soils that are commonly used to produce timber In table 7, the soils of the survey area are rated
have the yield predicted in cubic meters. The yield is according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
predicted at the point where mean annual increment recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
culminates, features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
The site index is determined by taking height surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
measurements and determining the age of selected considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a specified size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
number of years. This index applies to fully stocked, vegetation, access to water, potential water
even-aged, unmanaged stands. The procedure and impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
technique for determining site index are given in the site capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
index tables used for this survey (20, 31, 33, 36). ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
The productivity class represents an expected volume important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
produced by the most important trees, expressed in recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding







72 Soil Survey



may be necessary to use containerized or larger than cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per
usual planting stock or to make special site preparations, hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by
such as bedding, furrowing, installing surface drainage, multiplying by 14.3. In order to convert cubic feet per
or providing artificial shade for seedings. Reinforcement acre to cords per acre, divide the cubic feet by 85. It can
planting is often needed if the risk is moderate or severe, be converted to board feet by multiplying by a factor of
Ratings of windthrow hazard consider the likelihood of about 71. For example, a productivity class of 8 means
trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting the soil can be expected to produce 114 cubic feet per
depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth acre per year at the point where mean annual increment
can be restricted by a high water table, fragipan, or culminates, or about 568 board feet per acre per year.
bedrock, or by a combination of such factors as soil Trees to plant are those that are used for reforestation
wetness, texture, structure, and depth. The risk is slight if or, if suitable conditions exist, natural regeneration. They
strong winds cause trees to break but do not uproot are suited to the soils and will produce a commercial
them, and moderate if strong winds cause an occasional wood crop. Desired product, topographic position (such
tree to be blown over and many trees to break. Ratings as a low, wet area), and personal preference are three
of moderate indicate the need for care in thinning or factors of many that can influence the choice of trees to
possibly not thinning. Specialized equipment may be use for reforestation.
needed to avoid damage to shallow root systems in
partial cutting operations. A plan for periodic salvage of Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings
windthrown trees and the maintenance of a road and
trail system may be needed. Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens, and
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low- and
competition becomes more severe on the more high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and shrubs
productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils provide the most protection.
having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
reduces adequate natural or artificial reforestation but across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
does not necessitate intensive site preparation and of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
undesirable plants reduces natural or artificial Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock
natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is of suitable species should be planted properly on a well
intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or prepared site and maintained in good condition.
severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to Information on planning windbreaks and screens and
ensure the development of an adequately stocked stand. on planting and caring for trees and shrubs can be
Managers must plan site preparation measures to ensure obtained from local offices of the Soil Conservation
reforestation without delays. Service or the Cooperative Extension Service, or from a

The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is nursery.
expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in
the order of their observed general occurrence. Recreation
Generally, only two or three tree species dominate.
The soils that are commonly used to produce timber In table 7, the soils of the survey area are rated
have the yield predicted in cubic meters. The yield is according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
predicted at the point where mean annual increment recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
culminates, features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
The site index is determined by taking height surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
measurements and determining the age of selected considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a specified size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
number of years. This index applies to fully stocked, vegetation, access to water, potential water
even-aged, unmanaged stands. The procedure and impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
technique for determining site index are given in the site capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
index tables used for this survey (20, 31, 33, 36). ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
The productivity class represents an expected volume important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
produced by the most important trees, expressed in recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding







Orange County, Florida 73



and the season when flooding occurs. In planning Wildlife Habitat
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential. John F. Vance, biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped to
In table 7, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as prepare this section.
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil Wildlife is a valuable resource of Orange County.
properties are generally favorable and that limitations, if Urban development, especially in the Orlando area, and
any, are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means intensive agricultural development in the Zellwood area
that limitations can be overcome or alleviated by have been detrimental to wildlife habitat, but less
planning, design, or special maintenance. Severe means developed areas still support a large variety and number
that soil properties are unfavorable and that limitations of wildlife.
can be offset only by costly soil reclamation, special The main game species include white-tailed deer,
design, intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a squirrel, turkey, feral hogs, bobwhite quail, rail, and
combination of these measures, waterfowl. Nongame species include raccoon, rabbit,
The information in table 7 can be supplemented by armadillo, opossum, skunk, bobcat, gray and red foxes,
other information in this survey, for example, otter, and a variety of songbirds, wading birds, shore
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table birds, woodpeckers, reptiles, and amphibians. A wide
interpretations for sections for dwellings without basements variety of freshwater fish provides good fishing,
10 and interpretations for dwellings without basements especially in the St. Johns River.
and for local roads and streets in table 9. especially in the St. Johns River.
Good habitat for wildlife is available in the Wekiwa
Camp areas require site preparation, such as shaping Springs State Park, Rock Springs Runs State Preserve,
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads and the Tosahatchee State Reserve, which are
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary administered by the Florida Department of Natural
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to Resources. Numerous lakes and marshes provide
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best excellent habitat for waterfowl and support good duck
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to hunting.
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs Many endangered or threatened species are in Orange
rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when County. They range from the rare red-cockaded
dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of woodpecker and indigo snake to more commonly known
constructing campsites, species, such as the alligator and bald eagle. A
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most complete list of such species with detailed information
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking on range and habitat can be obtained at the local office
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, of the Soil Conservation Service.
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
during the period of use, and do not have slopes that available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
roads and parking areas. abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not be created or improved by planting appropriate
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry. If promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
In table 8, the soils in the survey area are rated
grading is needed, the depth of the soil over a hardpan In tae the ol in te r a a ate
should be considered according to their potential for providing habitat for
shou e consider various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are
not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
not subject to flooding more than once a year during the specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
period of use, and they have moderate slopes, the intensity of management needed for each element of
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and the habitat.
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
when wet, are not dusty when dry, are not subject to kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
prolonged flooding during the period of use, and have maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
moderate slopes. The suitability of the soil for tees or and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
greens is not considered in rating the soils, indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for







74 Soil Survey



satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that and slope. Examples of wetland plants are smartweed,
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind wild millet, cordgrass, rushes, sedges, and reeds.
of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
maintained in most places, but management is difficult than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates created by dams, levees, or other water control
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be water areas are wetness, slope, and permeability.
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is Examples of shallow water areas are marshes, waterfowl
impractical or impossible. feeding areas, and ponds.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
following paragraphs. the following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
available water capacity, wetness, slope, and flood herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow,
considerations. Examples of grain and seed crops are cottontail, and red fox.
corn, soybeans, grain sorghum, and browntop millet. Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available turkey, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
water capacity, wetness, flood hazard, and slope. Soil raccoon, and deer.
temperature and soil moisture are also considerations. Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
Examples of grasses and legumes are perennial peanut, swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
bahiagrass, clover, and sesbania. attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, otter,
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally alliators
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil igo.
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface Engineering
layer, available water capacity, wetness, and flood
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also This section provides information for planning land
considerations. Examples of wild herbaceous plants are uses related to urban development and to water
bluestem, goldenrod, beggarweed, partridge pea, management, Soils are rated for various uses, and the
switchgrass, ragweed, pokeweed, and low panicums. most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts given in the following tables: Building site development,
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
properties and features that affect the growth of management. The ratings are based on observed
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
these plants are oak, wild grape, cherry, sweetgum, Information in this section is intended for land use
cabbage palm, hawthorn, dogwood, hickory, blackberry, planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
and blueberry. Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that planning site investigations prior to design and
are suitable for planting on soils rated good are wild construction. The information, however, has limitations.
plum, hawthorn, and waxmyrtle. For example, estimates and other data generally apply
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet,
properties and features that affect the growth of and because of the map scale, small areas of different
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of soils may be included within the mapped areas of a
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness. specific soil.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar, The information is not site specific and does not
and juniper. eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
Wetland plants are annual and perennial, wild for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites. design and construction of engineering works.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil State and local ordinances and regulations that restrict
properties and features affecting wetland plants are certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity, not considered in preparing the information in this







Orange County, Florida 75



section. Local ordinances and regulations must be filling, and compacting is affected by depth to a
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design. cemented pan or a very firm dense layer; soil texture;
Soil properties, site features, and observed and slope. The time of the year that excavations can be
performance were considered in determining the ratings made is affected by the depth to a seasonal high water
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, table and the susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The
determinations were made about grain-size distribution, resistance of the excavation walls or banks to sloughing
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, soil wetness, or caving is affected by soil texture and the depth to the
depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, likelihood of water table.
flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, and soil Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
density. Data were collected about kinds of clay structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
the kind of absorbed cations. Estimates were made for dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made
erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, for small commercial buildings without basements, for
available water capacity, and other behavioral dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without
characteristics affecting engineering uses. basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
This information can be used to: evaluate the potential features, and observed performance of the soils. A high
of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of layers can cause the movement of footings. Depth to a
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for high water table, depth to a cemented pan, and flooding
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground affect the ease of excavation and construction.
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills, Landscaping and grading that require cuts and fills of
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
potential sources of sand, earthfill, and topsoil; plan and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds, terraces, have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
and other structures for soil and water conservation; and gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
predict performance of proposed small structures and flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
pavements by comparing the performance of existing limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
similar structures on the same or similar soils. properties, site features, and observed performance of
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps, the soils. Depth to a cemented pan, depth to a high
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this water table, flooding, and slope affect the ease of
water table, flooding, and slope affect the ease of
survey can be used to make additional interpretations excavating and grading. Soil strength (as inferred from
excavating and grading. Soil strength (as inferred from
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a the engineering classification of the soil), shrink-swell
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the potential, and depth to a high water table affect the
potential, and depth to a high water table affect the
Glossary. traffic-supporting capacity.
Building Site Development Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and
Table 9 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil
without basements, small commercial buildings, local reaction, depth to a high water table, depth to a
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The cemented pan, the available water capacity in the upper
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site 40 inches, and the content of salts affect plant growth.
features are generally favorable for the indicated use Flooding, wetness, slope, and the amount of sand, clay,
and limitations, if any, are minor and easily overcome; or organic matter in the surface layer affect trafficability
moderate if soil properties or site features are somewhat after vegetation is established.
restrictive for the indicated use and special planning,
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or Santary Facilities
site features are so unfavorable that special design, soil Table 10 shows the degree and the kind of soil
reclamation, and possibly increased maintenance are limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
required. Special feasibility studies may be required sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
where the soil limitations are severe, are considered slight if soil properties and site features
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a are generally favorable for the indicated use and
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves, limitations, if any, are minor and easily overcome;
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The moderate if soil properties or site features are
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and moderately favorable for the indicated use and special
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging, planning, design, or maintenance is needed to overcome







76 Soil Survey



or minimize the limitations; and severe if one or more lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope and
soil property or site feature is unfavorable for the use, cemented pans can cause construction problems.
and if overcoming the unfavorable properties requires Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
special design, extra maintenance, or alteration. disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
Table 10 also shows the suitability of the soils for use landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of fair indicates that placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered
soil properties and site features are moderately favorable daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
for the use and one or more soil properties or site area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on
features make the soil less desirable than the soils rated the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted,
good; and poor indicates that one or more soil properties and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
or site features are unfavorable for the use and away from the site.
overcoming the unfavorable properties requires special Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
design, extra maintenance, or costly alteration. vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil needs to be considered.
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that The ratings in table 10 are based on soil properties,
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is site features, and observed performance of the soils.
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site Permeability, depth to a cemented pan, depth to a water
features, and observed performance of the soils. table, slope, and flooding affect both types of landfill.
Permeability, depth to a high water table, depth to a Texture, highly organic layers, soil reaction, and content
cemented pan, and flooding affect adsorption of the of salts affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise
effluent. A cemented pan interferes with installation, stated, the ratings apply only to that part of the soil
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption within a depth of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent, limitation rated slight or moderate may not be valid.
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect Onsite investigation is needed.
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
permeable sand and gravel is less than 4 feet below the to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
base of the absorption field, if slope is excessive, or if landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
the water table is near the surface. There must be to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
unsaturated soil material beneath the absorption field to Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
filter the effluent effectively. Many local ordinances affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
require that this material be of a certain thickness. during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to free of excess gravel are the best cover for a landfill.
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are difficult to
and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing.
floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of After soil material has been removed, the soil material
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly a cemented pan or the water table to permit
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a
required to minimize seepage and contamination of landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
ground water. generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
Table 10 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes and the best potential for plants. Material from the
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1 surface ayer should be stockpiled for use as the final
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are cover.
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The Mti
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and Construction Materials
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the Table 11 gives information about the soils as a source
ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high water of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
table, depth to a cemented pan, flooding, and content of good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
organic matter. They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level properties and site features that affect the removal of
of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive compaction, minor processing, and other standard
or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.







Orange County, Florida 77



Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as marl,
and used in road embankments in another place. In this are not considered to be sand and gravel.
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches
exacting in design than higher embankments. of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface the reclamation potential of the borrow area.
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading. properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
their profile. The table showing engineering index is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
properties provides detailed information about each soil texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
layer. This information can help determine the suitability of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a
in the ratings. depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features, cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
excavation is affected by large stones, a high water not so wet that excavation is difficult.
table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
after it has been compacted and drained is determined relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
by its strength (as inferred from the engineering 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential. appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable not so wet that excavation is difficult.
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the than 20 inches of suitable material, have too much
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more organic matter (humus), have slopes of more than 15
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a percent, or have a seasonal high water table at or near
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate the surface.
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet. for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
Soils rated poor are wet, and the depth to the water matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of
table is less than 1 foot. They may have a plasticity moisture and releases a variety of plant-available
index of more than 10 and a high shrink-swell potential. nutrients as it decomposes.
They may have layers of suitable material, but the
material is less than 3 feet thick. Water Management
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for Table 12 gives information on the soil properties and
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and site features that affect water management (29). The
gravel are used in many kinds of construction. degree and kind of soil limitations are given for pond
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 11, only reservoir areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and
the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is aquifer-fed ponds. The limitations are considered slight if
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific soil properties and site features are generally favorable
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect for the indicated use and limitations, if any, are minor
excavation of the material. and are easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of site features are somewhat restrictive for the indicated
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated use and special planning, design, or maintenance is
by the engineering classification of the soil), the needed to overcome or minimize the limitations; and
thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock severe if soil properties or site features are unfavorable
fragments (1, 2, 18, 26). Gradation of grain sizes is given for the indicated use so that special design, increased
in the table on engineering index properties, maintenance, or alteration of the site may be required.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean This table also gives the restrictive features that affect
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to each soil for drainage, irrigation, and grassed waterways.
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3 Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage







78



potential is determined by the permeability of the soil Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage capacity effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to a
of the reservoir area. cemented pan or to other layers that affect the rate of
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures water movement; permeability; depth to a high water
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, table or depth of standing water if the soil is subject to
constructed to impound water or to protect land against ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding; and subsidence
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of of organic layers. Excavating and grading and the
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil stability of ditchbanks are affected by depth to a
material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5 cemented pan, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks
feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed caving. The productivity of the soil after drainage is
and compacted during construction, adversely affected by extreme acidity or by toxic
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural substances in the root zone. Availability of drainage
outlets is not considered in the ratings.
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a irrigation is the controlled application of water to
depth greater than the height of the embankment can supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
affect performance and safety of the embankment. and management of an irrigation system are affected by
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
determine these properties. available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable is affected by depth to a cemented pan. The
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include performance of a system is affected by the depth of the
less than 5 feet of suitable material and too much root zone and soil reaction.
organic matter (humus). A high water table affects the Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
amount of usable material. It also affects trafficability. channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity.
extend to a ground water aquifer or to a depth below a Wetness, slope, and depth to a cemented pan affect the
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed construction of grassed waterways. A hazard of wind
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that erosion, low available water capacity, restricted rooting
impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface. depth, toxic substances, and restricted permeability
Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent adversely affect the growth and maintenance of the
water table and permeability of the aquifer, grass after construction.






79








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed (24, 35). During the survey, many shallow the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
borings are made and examined to identify and classify to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
the soils and to delineate them on the soil maps. content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
Samples are taken from some typical profiles and tested GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
in the laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
plasticity, and compaction characteristics (1, 2, 35).
plasticity, and compaction characteristics (1, 2, 35). soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
ae of sol popees ae ase groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the SM.
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of T AA o orn o
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field The prSHTO system classifies soils according to
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated those properties that affect roadway construction and
accurately by field observation, and help characterize maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
key soils. that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Engineering Index Properties If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
classification and of the range of index properties for the refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
or 6 feet. 20, or higher, for the poorest.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
properties of each layer are given for each soil series inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than estimates are based on test data from the survey area,
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier or from nearby areas, and on field examination.
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary.






79








Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed (24, 35). During the survey, many shallow the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
borings are made and examined to identify and classify to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
the soils and to delineate them on the soil maps. content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
Samples are taken from some typical profiles and tested GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
in the laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
plasticity, and compaction characteristics (1, 2, 35).
plasticity, and compaction characteristics (1, 2, 35). soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
ae of sol popees ae ase groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the SM.
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of T AA o orn o
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field The prSHTO system classifies soils according to
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated those properties that affect roadway construction and
accurately by field observation, and help characterize maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
key soils. that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
Pertinent soil and water features also are given, group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Engineering Index Properties If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Table 13 gives estimates of the engineering 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
classification and of the range of index properties for the refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
or 6 feet. 20, or higher, for the poorest.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
properties of each layer are given for each soil series inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than estimates are based on test data from the survey area,
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier or from nearby areas, and on field examination.
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary.






80 Soil Survey



Physical and Chemical Properties Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
Table 14 shows estimates of some characteristics and each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
The estimates are based on field observations and on and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
test data for these and similar soils (35). fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of corrosion.
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters 25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
in diameter. laboratory measurements at representative sites of
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink- frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earth-moving for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
operations. construction material, and the potential of the soil to
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per corrode metal and concrete.
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, measurements of similar soils.
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
movement of water through the soil when the soil is often needed.
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
construction where the rate of water movement under millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
saturated conditions affects behavior. less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The is sometimes used.
capacity for water storage in each major soil layer is Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
varies, depending on soil properties that affect the factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
retention of water and the depth of the root zone. The to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
most important properties are the content of organic and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre
matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure, per year. These estimates are based primarily on
Available water capacity is an important factor in the percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4
choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the design percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values of
and management of irrigation systems. Available water K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the
capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by
actually available to plants at any given time. water.






Orange County, Florida 81



Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that other nutrients for crops.
can occur over a sustained period without affecting crop
productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre per Soil and Water Features
year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have Table 15 gives estimates of various soil and water
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind features. The estimates are used in land use planning
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the that involves engineering considerations (23, 26, 29).
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
distinctions: groups. They are grouped according to the intake of
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. precipitation from long-duration storms.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to The four hydrologic soil groups are:
establish. Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
erosion are used. transmission.
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
control wind erosion are used. that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided transmission.
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
are used. layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
control wind erosion are used. runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and chiefly of clays that have high shrink-swell potential, soils
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and that have a permanent high water table, soils that have a
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and soils
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are that are shallow over nearly impervious material. These
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
control wind erosion are used. In table 15, some soils are assigned to two hydrologic
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and soil groups. Soils that have a seasonal high water table
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, but can be drained are assigned first to a hydrologic soil
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly group that denotes the drained condition of the soil and
erodible. Crops can easily be grown, then to a hydrologic group that denotes the undrained
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay condition, for example, B/D. Because there are different
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate. degrees of drainage and water table control, onsite
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily investigation is needed to determine the hydrologic
be grown, group of the soil in a particular location.
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject Flooding, the temporary covering of the surface by
to wind erosion. flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams or by
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the runoff from adjacent slopes. Shallow water standing or
soil at various stages of decomposition. flowing for short periods after rainfall or snowmelt is not
In table 14, the estimated content of organic matter is considered flooding. Standing water in swamps and
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil marshes or in a closed depression is considered
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. ponding.
The content of organic matter of a soil can be Table 15 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the and the time of year when flooding is most likely to
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity, occur.







82



Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence plus sign preceding the range in depth indicates that the
are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, water table is above the surface of the soil. "More than
occasional, or frequent. None means that flooding is not 6.0" indicates that the water table is below a depth of 6
probable. Occasional means that flooding occurs feet or that the water table exists for less than a month.
infrequently under normal weather conditions (there is a Cementedpans are cemented or indurated subsurface
5 to 50 percent chance of flooding in any year). layers within a depth of 5 feet. Such pans cause difficulty
Frequent means that flooding occurs often under normal in excavation. Pans are classified as thin or thick. A thin
weather conditions (there is more than a 50 percent pan is less than 3 inches thick if continuously indurated,
chance of flooding in any year). Duration is expressed as or less than 18 inches thick if discontinuous or fractured.
brief (2 to 7 days), long (7 days to 1 month), and very Excavations can be made by trenching machines,
long (more than 1 month). The time of year that floods backhoes, or small rippers. A thick pan is more than 3
are most likely to occur is expressed in months. June- inches thick if continuously indurated, or more than 18
February, for example, means that flooding can occur inches thick if discontinuous or fractured. Such a pan is
during the period June through February. About two- so thick or massive that blasting or special equipment is
thirds to three-fourths of all flooding occurs during the needed in excavation.
stated period. Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
The information on flooding is based on evidence in saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
the soil profile, namely, thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or results from either desiccation and shrinkage or oxidation
clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in of organic material, or both, following drainage.
organic matter content with increasing depth; and Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period
absence of distinctive horizons, which are characteristic of several years. Table 15 shows the expected initial
of soils that are not subject to flooding. subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage, and
Also considered are local information about the extent which usually is a result of
total subsidence, which usually is a result of oxidation
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil ons a resu o o
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the over a period of years.
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency water throughout an extensive area as a result of
levels. lowering the water table.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
soil. Indicated in table 15 are the depth to the seasonal electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
high water table; the kind of water table, that is, perched concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
or apparent; and the months of the year that the water content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil.
table commonly is highest. A water table that is Special site examination and design may be needed if
seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated in the combination of factors creates a severely corrosive
table 15. environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is of soil or within one soil layer.
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A perched For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
water table is water standing above an unsaturated low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
zone. In places an upper, or perched, water table is total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
separated from a lower one by a dry zone. electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
The two numbers in the "High water table-Depth" For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
column indicate the normal range in depth to a saturated as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot. The first acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation
numeral in the range indicates the highest water level. A extract.







83









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (32). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic
or on laboratory measurements. Table 16 shows the Typic Haplaquods.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs, horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An layer or of the substratum within a series. An example is
example is Spodosol. the St. Johns series, which is a member of the sandy,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, siliceous, hyperthermic family of Typic Haplaquods.
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the Soil Series and Their Morphology
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder In this section, each soil series recognized in the
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, meaning survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
water, plus od, from Spodosol). in alphabetic order.
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, formed are identified for each series. The soil is
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
base status. Each great group is identified by the name soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hapl, meaning follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (24). Many
minimal horizonation, plus aquod, the suborder of the of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Spodosols that has an aquic moisture regime). defined in Soil Taxonomy (32). Unless otherwise stated,
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The pedon description is the range of important
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not characteristics of the soils in the series.
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are The map units of each soil series are described in the
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate Apopka Series
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives The Apopka series consists of well drained soils that
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective formed in sandy and loamy marine sediment. These soils
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great are on the uplands. The slopes range from 5 to 12
group. An example is Typic Haplaquods. percent. Apopka soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on Grossarenic Paleudults.
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other Apopka soils are associated on the landscape with
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the Candler, Lake, Lochloosa, Millhopper, and Tavares soils.
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where Candler, Lake, and Tavares soils do not have an argillic
there is much biological activity. Among the properties horizon. Candler and Lake soils are excessively drained,







83









Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (32). mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
series. Classification is based on soil properties of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
observed in the field or inferred from those observations properties. An example is sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic
or on laboratory measurements. Table 16 shows the Typic Haplaquods.
classification of the soils in the survey area. The SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
categories are defined in the following paragraphs, horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil- chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
forming processes and the degree of soil formation. There can be some variation in the texture of the surface
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An layer or of the substratum within a series. An example is
example is Spodosol. the St. Johns series, which is a member of the sandy,
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders, siliceous, hyperthermic family of Typic Haplaquods.
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the Soil Series and Their Morphology
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder In this section, each soil series recognized in the
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, meaning survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
water, plus od, from Spodosol). in alphabetic order.
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, formed are identified for each series. The soil is
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
base status. Each great group is identified by the name soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hapl, meaning follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (24). Many
minimal horizonation, plus aquod, the suborder of the of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
Spodosols that has an aquic moisture regime). defined in Soil Taxonomy (32). Unless otherwise stated,
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup. colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The pedon description is the range of important
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not characteristics of the soils in the series.
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are The map units of each soil series are described in the
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate Apopka Series
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives The Apopka series consists of well drained soils that
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective formed in sandy and loamy marine sediment. These soils
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great are on the uplands. The slopes range from 5 to 12
group. An example is Typic Haplaquods. percent. Apopka soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on Grossarenic Paleudults.
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other Apopka soils are associated on the landscape with
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the Candler, Lake, Lochloosa, Millhopper, and Tavares soils.
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where Candler, Lake, and Tavares soils do not have an argillic
there is much biological activity. Among the properties horizon. Candler and Lake soils are excessively drained,







84 Soil Survey



and Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typical pedon of Archbold fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
Lochloosa soils are somewhat poorly drained. Millhopper slopes; in a wooded area; about 5 miles north and 2
soils are moderately well drained. miles west of Christmas, 80 feet east and 420 feet north
Typical pedon of Apopka fine sand, in an area of of the center of sec. 6, T. 22 S., R. 33 E.
Candler-Apopka fine sands, 5 to 12 percent slopes; in a
field; about 1.5 miles east of Zellwood, 920 feet north A-0 to 2 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; single
and 2,000 feet west of the southeast corner of sec. 23, grained; loose; many fine and medium roots; mixture
T. 20 S., R. 27 E. of uncoated sand grains and organic material, salt-
and-pepper appearance; strongly acid; diffuse wavy
Ap-0 to 5 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine boundary.
sand; weak fine crumb structure; few fine roots; C-2 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single
slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. grained; loose; few fine and medium roots,
E1-5 to 50 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine decreases with depth; strongly acid.
sand; single grained; loose; few fine roots; many
uncoated sand grains; medium acid; gradual wavy Reaction ranges from slightly acid to extremely acid.
boundary. The texture is sand or fine sand. The content of silt and
E2-50 to 69 inches; very pale brown (10YR 8/3) fine clay is 5 percent or less between depths of 10 and 40
sand; single grained; loose; many fine roots; many inches.
uncoated sand grains; medium acid; abrupt wavy The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6,
boundary, and chroma of 1 or 2. Many pedons have clean white
Bt-69 to 80 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) sandy sand grains interspersed with organic matter that has a
clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; salt-and-pepper appearance. The thickness of the A
firm; few fine roots; few distinct red (2.5YR 5/8) clay horizon ranges from 2 to 5 inches.
films on faces of peds; strongly acid. The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and
chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons, the C horizon has
The thickness of the solum is more than 60 inches. hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma of 1 or 2 at a
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid depth of more than 40 inches. Also in some pedons, this
except where the A horizon has been limed, horizon has stains along old root channels.
The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5,
and chroma of 2. The texture is sand or fine sand. The Basinger Series
thickness of this horizon ranges from 4 to 8 inches.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8, and The Basinger series consists of very poorly drained
chroma of 3 to 8. The texture is sand or fine sand that soils that formed in sandy marine sediment. These soils
has less than 5 percent silt and clay. The combined are in shallow depressions, swamps, and sloughs and
thickness of the El and E2 horizons ranges from 36 to along the rims of the larger depressions. The slopes
64 inches. range from 0 to 2 percent. Basinger soils are siliceous,
The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 5 or hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquents.
6, and chroma of 6 to 8. In some pedons, this horizon Basinger soils are associated on the landscape with
has mottles in shades of brown, yellow, or red. The Floridana, Hontoon, Ona, Pompano, Samsula, and
texture is sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Smyrna soils. Floridana soils have a mollic epipedon and
an argillic horizon. Hontoon and Samsula soils are
Archbold Series organic. Ona and Smyrna soils are poorly drained and
have a spodic horizon. Pompano soils are poorly
The Archbold series consists of moderately well drained.
drained, very rapidly permeable soils. They formed in Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand, in an area of
thick deposits of marine or eolian sand. These soils are Samsula-Hontoon-Basinger association, depressional; in
on elevated knolls or ridges on the flatwoods. The a swamp; about 2 miles south and 0.5 mile east of
slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. Archbold soils are Orlovista, 1,100 feet east and 800 feet south of the
hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments. northwest corner of sec. 7, T. 23 S., R. 29 E.
Archbold soils are associated on the landscape with
Candler, Pomello, St. Lucie, Tavares, and Zolfo soils. A-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine
Candler and St. Lucie soils are excessively drained, granular structure; very friable; many fine roots;
Pomello soils have a spodic horizon. Tavares soils have many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; clear
higher chromas in the underlying material than Archbold smooth boundary.
soils. Zolfo soils are somewhat poorly drained and have E-6 to 25 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
a weakly expressed spodic horizon at a depth of more grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; very
than 50 inches. strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.







Orange County, Florida 85



Bh/E-25 to 35 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) E2-30 to 74 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) fine
fine sand, (Bh); grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand, sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium
(E); single grained; nonsticky and nonplastic; roots; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. clear wavy boundary.
C-35 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; E&Bt-74 to 80 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand, (E);
single grained; nonsticky and nonplastic; strongly strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) loamy sand lamellae
acid. about 1/16 to 1/4 inch thick and 2 to 6 inches long,
Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid. (Bt); single grained; loose; few fine roots; many
Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid.
chroma of 1. The texture is fine sand, sand, or mucky The thickness of the solum is 80 or more inches.
fine sand. The thickness of this horizon ranges from 4 to Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid.
7 inches.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4,
chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons, this horizon has dark and chroma of 2 or 3. The texture is fine sand or sand.
grayish brown stains along root channels. The texture is The thickness of this horizon ranges from 4 to 8 inches.
fine sand or sand. The thickness of this horizon ranges The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
from 15 to 28 inches, chroma of 3 to 8. The texture is fine sand or sand. The
The Bh part of the Bh/E horizon has hue of 5YR, thickness of this horizon ranges from 44 to 69 inches.
value of 3, and chroma of 3 or 4; or hue of 7.5YR, value The E part of the E&Bt horizon has hue of 10YR,
of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 to 3. The texture is fine
and chroma of 2. The E part has hue of 10YR, value of sand or sand. The Bt part of this horizon has hue of
5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 2. The texture is fine sand or 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 6 to 8.
sand. The thickness of this horizon ranges from 9 to 18 The texture is fine sand to sandy loam. The individual
inches. lamellae is 1/32 to 1/2 inch thick and from 1/2 inch to
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and 35 inches long. The abundance of lamellae increases
chroma of 1 or 2. The texture is fine sand or sand. slightly with depth. Some pedons have a continuous Bt
horizon at a depth of more than 90 inches. The colors of
Candler Series this continuous Bt horizon are similar to those of the Bt
The Candler series consists of excessively drained, part of the E&Bt horizon. The texture ranges from loamy
very rapidly permeable soils. They formed in thick sand to sandy clay loam.
deposits of eolian or marine sand. These soils are on the
uplands. The slopes range from 0 to 12 percent. Candler Canova Series
soils are hyperthermic, uncoated Typic
Quartzipsamments. The Canova series consists of very poorly drained
Candler soils are associated on the landscape with soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine sediment
Apopka, Florahome, Lake, Lochloosa, Millhopper, and under conditions favorable for the accumulation of
Tavares soils. Apopka, Lochloosa, and Millhopper soils organic material. These soils are in freshwater swamps
have an argillic horizon. Apopka soils are well drained, and marshes. The slopes are 0 to 1 percent. Canova
Lochloosa soils are somewhat poorly drained, and soils are fine-loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
Millhopper soils are moderately well drained. Florahome Glossaqualfs.
and Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Canova soils are associated on the landscape with
Florahome soils have an umbric epipedon. Lake soils Felda, Gator, Okeelanta, Pompano, Sanibel, and Terra
have coated sand grains. Ceia soils. Felda soils are poorly drained and do not
Typical pedon of Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent have an organic surface layer. Gator, Okeelanta, and
slopes; in a field; about 5 miles north and 1 mile west of Terra Ceia soils are organic. Pompano and Sanibel soils
Apopka, 310 feet east and 2,580 feet south of the do not have an argillic horizon. Pompano soils are poorly
northwest corner of sec. 21, T. 20 S., R. 28 E. drained.
Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) Typical pedon of Canova muck; in a cultivated field;
fine sand; single grained; loose; few fine and about 3 miles south and 1 mile west of Zellwood, 900
medium roots; many uncoated sand grains; strongly feet west and 350 feet north of the southeast corner of
acid; clear wavy boundary. sec. 5, T. 21 S., R. 27 E.
E1-5 to 30 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few fine and medium Oap-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; massive;
roots; many uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; herbaceous fiber; slightly acid; abrupt smooth
gradual wavy boundary. boundary.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs