• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to soil map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 General nature of the survey...
 How this survey was made
 General soil map for broad land...
 Soil maps for detailed plannin...
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Soil series and morphology
 Classification of the soils
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Illustrations
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Group Title: Soil survey of Osceola County area, Florida. 1979.
Title: Soil survey of Osceola County area, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025732/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Osceola County area, Florida
Physical Description: x, 151 p., 59 folded leaves of plates : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Readle, Elmer L
Moore, Allen L
Warmack, William B
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Publisher: National Cooperative Soil Survey
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Osceola County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Osceola County   ( lcsh )
Sols -- Cartes -- Floride -- Osceola (Comté)   ( rvm )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 80).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department ; by Elmer L. Readle ; fieldwork by Elmer L. Readle, Allen L. Moore, and William B. Warmack.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025732
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001203317
notis - AFV3574
oclc - 07247640
lccn - 79602772

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ia
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to soil map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Foreword
        Page ix
        Page x
    General nature of the survey area
        Page 1
        Climate
            Page 1
        History and development
            Page 2
        Physiography, relief, and drainage
            Page 2
        Water resources
            Page 3
        Farming and ranching
            Page 3
        Transportation
            Page 3
        Recreation
            Page 4
    How this survey was made
        Page 4
    General soil map for broad land use planning
        Page 4
        Soils of the sand ridge
            Page 4
            Candler-Immokalee
                Page 5
        Soils of the low ridges, knolls, and flatwoods
            Page 5
            Immokalee-Pomello-Myakka
                Page 5
            Myakka-Tavares-Immokalee
                Page 6
        Soils of the flatwoods, generally not subject to flooding or ponding
            Page 6
            Smyrna-Myakka-Immokalee
                Page 6
            EauGallie-Smyrna-Malabar
                Page 7
            Riviera-Vero
                Page 7
        Soils of the swamps, marshes, and very wet areas, generally subject to flooding or ponding
            Page 8
            Malabar-Pompano-Delray
                Page 8
            Basinger-Placid-Samsula
                Page 8
            Kaliga-Nittaw-Gentry
                Page 9
            Hontoon-Samsula
                Page 9
            Pompano
                Page 9
    Soil maps for detailed planning
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
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        Page 21
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        Page 31
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        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 41
        Crops and pasture
            Page 41
            Yields per acre
                Page 42
            Capability classes and subclasses
                Page 43
        Range and grazeable woodland
            Page 43
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 44
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 45
        Engineering
            Page 45
            Building site development
                Page 46
            Sanitary facilities
                Page 47
            Construction materials
                Page 48
            Water management
                Page 48
        Recreation
            Page 49
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 50
            Wildlife management practices
                Page 51
    Soil properties
        Page 51
        Engineering properties
            Page 51
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 52
        Soil and water features
            Page 53
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 54
            Page 55
        Engineering test data
            Page 56
    Soil series and morphology
        Page 56
        Adamsville series
            Page 56
        Adamsville variant
            Page 57
        Ankona series
            Page 57
        Basinger series
            Page 58
        Candler
            Page 58
        Cassia series
            Page 59
        Delray series
            Page 60
        EauGallie series
            Page 60
        Floridana series
            Page 61
        Gentry series
            Page 61
        Holopaw series
            Page 62
        Hontoon series
            Page 62
        Immokalee series
            Page 63
        Kaliga series
            Page 63
        Lokosee series
            Page 64
        Malabar series
            Page 65
        Myakka series
            Page 65
        Narcoossee series
            Page 66
        Nittaw series
            Page 67
        Oldsmar series
            Page 67
        Ona series
            Page 68
        Paola series
            Page 68
        Parkwood series
            Page 69
        Pineda series
            Page 69
        Placid series
            Page 70
        Placid variant
            Page 71
        Pomello series
            Page 71
        Pomona series
            Page 72
        Pompano series
            Page 72
        Riveria series
            Page 73
        Samsula series
            Page 73
        Satellite series
            Page 74
        Smyrna series
            Page 74
        St. Lucie series
            Page 75
        Tavares series
            Page 75
        Vero series
            Page 76
        Wauchula series
            Page 77
        Winder series
            Page 77
    Classification of the soils
        Page 78
    Formation of the soils
        Page 78
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 79
            Parent material
                Page 79
            Climate
                Page 79
            Plants and animals
                Page 79
            Relief
                Page 79
            Time
                Page 79
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 80
    References
        Page 80
    Glossary
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Illustrations
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    Tables
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
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        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
    General soil map
        Page 152
    Index to map sheets
        Page 154
        Page 155
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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Full Text




Soil survey of

sceola County Area

Florida




















United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and
Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department






HOW TO US


Locate your area of interest on
S the "Index to Map Sheets" (the
last page of this publication).



Ss I I 9__
--. _\.2

ij -4--
Note the number of the map
*i_ "_ ...F.-,--*--. ---- L--- sheet and turn to that sheet.






Locate your area of interest
on the map sheet.
151C





,, ^ '! :- ,, .- ._
13434AA
56B 27C



56B I I







List the map unit symbols
4** that are in your area
Symbols

151C, 27C

134A 56B 5 6 B
S27C 131 B
56134A
131 B8B

134A/ 48A151C






uIS SOIL SURVEY



Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5 which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described. -






















See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6, Contents) for location of additional data .-- -,--
on a specific soil use.
i-
-~w r-- rr r

-0 0.--






















Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7, agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.





























This is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort
of the United States Department of Agriculture and agencies of the States,
usually the Agricultural Experiment Stations. In some surveys, other Federal
and local agencies also contribute. The Soil Conservation Service has leader-
ship for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with
Department of Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to
all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in the period 1970-76.
Soil names and descriptions were approved in 1976. Unless otherwise indicated,
statements in the publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1976.
This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department. It is part of the technical
assistance furnished to the Osceola Soil and Water Conservation District. The
Osceola County Board of Commissioners contributed financially to accelerate
the completion of fieldwork for the soil survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission, but any enlarge-
ment of these maps can cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping and
result in erroneous interpretations. Enlarged maps do not show small areas of
contrasting soils that could have been shown at a larger mapping scale.










Cover: An area of Myakka fine sand and Immokalee fine sand. The
dominant vegetation is longleaf pine, sawpalmetto, and pineland
threeawn. A few scrub live oaks are on the low ridge across the
center of the picture.



ii









Contents

Page Page
Index to soil map units................................................ iv Engineering test data ........................................... 56
Summary of tables .......................................................... v Soil series and morphology .......................................... 56
Forew ord ........................................................................ ix A dam sville series .......................................................... 56
General nature of the survey area.......................... 1 Adamsville Variant .................................................... 57
C lim ate ...................................... ................................ 1 A nkona series ............................................................... 57
History and development ..................................... 2 Basinger series ........................................................ 58
Physiography, relief, and drainage .......................... 2 Candler series .............................................................. 58
W after resources ............................................................ 3 C assia series .................................................................. 59
Farm ing and ranching ............................................... 3 Delray series ................................................................. 60
Transportation ........................... ............ .................... 3 EauGallie series ............................................................ 60
Recreation ............................... ................ .... 4 Floridana series ............................................................ 61
How this survey was made........................................ 4 Gentry series............................................................... 61
General soil map for broad land use planning........ 4 Holopaw series .......................................... .......... 62
Soils of the sand ridges............................................ 4 Hontoon series ................................................ 62
1. Candler-Immokalee ........................................ 5 Immokalee series ........................................................ 63
Soils of the low ridges, knolls, and flatwoods.......... 5 Kaliga series ....................................... ..................... 63
2. Immokalee-Pomello-Myakka ............................... 5 Lokosee series........ .................. ......................... 64
3. Myakka-Tavares-Immokalee ........................ 6 Malabar series.................................... ....................... 65
Soils of the flatwoods, generally not subject to Myakka series ............................................... ............ 65
flooding or ponding ......................................... 6 Narcoossee series .................................................... 66
4. Smyrna-Myakka-Immokalee ........................ 6 Nittaw series................................................................. 67
5. EauGallie-Smyrna-Malabar .......................... 7 Oldsmar series ................................. ....................... 67
6. Riviera-Vero.................................................. 7 Ona series .................................. ................. ... ... 68
Soils of the swamps, marshes, and very wet Paola series .............................................................. 68
areas, generally subject to flooding or Parkwood series ........................................ ......... 69
ponding ................................................................... 8 Pineda series .................................................................. 69
7. Malabar-Pompano-Delray .............................. 8 Placid series.................................................................... 70
8. Basinger-Placid-Samsula ................................ 8 Placid Variant .............................................................. 71
9. Kaliga-Nittaw-Gentry............................... 9 Pomello series ............................................................. 71
10. H ontoon-Sam sula............................................. 9 Pom ona series ........................... ............................... .... 72
11. Pom pano .... ............................................... 9 Pom pano series.............................................................. 72
Soil maps for detailed planning ............................ 9 Riviera series .............................................................. 73
Use and management of the soils .............................. 41 Samsula series................................................................ 73
Crops and pasture ........................................................ 41 Satellite series............................................................. 74
Y fields per acre ........................................................ 42 Sm yrna series ................................................................ 74
Capability classes and subclasses ........................ 43 St. Lucie series .................................................... 75
Range and grazeable woodland .................................. 43 Tavares series........................... ........................ 75
Woodland management and productivity .............. 44 Vero series...................................................... ...... 76
Windbreaks and environmental plantings................ 45 Wauchula series ......................... ........... ......... 77
E engineering .................................................................. 45 W inder series ................................................................ 77
Building site development ............................... 46 Classification of the soils............................................ 78
Sanitary facilities ......................................... 47 Formation of the soils........................................... 78
Construction materials .......................................... 48 Factors of soil formation .......................................... 79
Water management ............................................. 48 Parent material................................................................ 79
R creation ................................................................... 49 C lim ate ....................................................................... 79
W wildlife habitat .................... ........................................ 50 Plants and anim als ........................................ ........ 79
Wildlife management practices .............................. 51 Relief ........................................................... ......... 79
Soil properties ........................................ 51 Tim e ...................................................................... 79
Engineering properties .............................................. 51 Processes of soil formation........................................ 80
Physical and chemical properties .............................. 52 References............................. ..................................... 80
Soil and w after features............................. ................. 53 G lossary................................................ .............................. 80
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of Illustrations .............................................................. 85
selected soils .......................................................... 54 T ables ......................................................................... 95


Issued April 1979



iii









Index to Soil Map Units

Page Page
1-Adamsville sand ..................................................... 10 24-Narcoossee fine sand ............................................ 26
2-Adamsville Variant fine sand, 0 to 5 percent 25-Nittaw muck ................................... ............ .. 26
slopes ......... ............................................................... 11 26- Oldsm ar fine sand ................................................... 27
3-Ankona fine sand .................................................... 12 27-Ona fine sand ...................................................... 28
4-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes.................................. 12 28-Paola sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........................ 29
5-Basinger fine sand ............................................... 13 29-Parkwood loamy fine sand ...................................... 29
6-Basinger fine sand, depressional........................... 14 30-Pineda fine sand............................. ..................... 30
7-Candler sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ...................... 14 31-Pits .............................................. 31
8-Candler sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes .................. 15 32-Placid fine sand..................... .................... 31
9-Cassia fine sand ............................................ 15 33-Placid Variant fine sand ........................................ 31
10-Delray loamy fine sand ........................................ 16 34-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............... 32
11-EauGallie fine sand ................................................ 17 35-Pomona fine sand .................................................... 33
12-Floridana fine sand ............................................. 17 36-Pompano fine sand ............................................... 33
13-Gentry fine sand...................................................... 18 37-Pompano fine sand, depressional......................... 34
14-Holopaw fine sand ................................................. 19 38-Riviera fine sand ............................ .................... 35
15-Hontoon muck...... ...................... 20 39-Riviera fine sand, depressional .............................. 35
16-Immokalee fine sand ........................................... 20 40-Samsula muck ................................. ..................... 36
17- Kaliga m uck.............................................................. 21 41- Satellite sand............................................................. 36
18-Lokosee fine sand...................................................... 21 42-Smyrna fine sand .................................................... 37
19-Malabar fine sand................................................. 22 43-St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......... 38
20-Malabar fine sand, depressional ........................... 23 44-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............ 38
21-Malabar-Pineda complex .......................................... 24 45-Vero fine sand..................... ........................... 39
22-Myakka fine sand ................................................. 25 46-Wauchula fine sand ............................................. 39
23-Myakka-Urban land complex ................................. 25 47-Winder loamy fine sand ........................................ 40

































iv









Summary of Tables

Page
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (Table 4)................................ 98
Acres. Percent.
Building site development (Table 9) ................................................................ 108
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial
buildings. Local roads and streets.
Capability classes and subclasses (Table 6) .......................... ....................... 101
Class. Total acreage. Major management concerns
(Subclass)-Erosion (e), Wetness (w), Soil problem
(s), Climate (c).
Chemical properties of selected soils (Table 19)............................................. 143
Soil series and sample numbers. Depth. Horizon.
Extractable bases-Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium,
Potassium, Sum. Extractable acidity. Cation
exchange capacity. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
pH-Water (1:1), Calcium chloride 0.01M (1:2),
Potassium chloride 1N (1:1). Pyrophosphate ex-
tractable-Carbon, Iron, Aluminum.
Classification of the soils (Table 22) ................................................................ 151
Soil name. Family or higher taxonomic class.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (Table 20) .................................................. 147
Soil series and sample number. Depth. Horizon.
Percentage of clay minerals-Montmorillonite, 14
angstrom intergrade, Kaolinite, Gibbsite, Quartz.
Construction materials (Table 11) .................................................................... 115
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
Engineering properties and classifications (Table 15) .................................... 128
Depth. USDA texture. Classification- Unified,
AASHTO. Fragments greater than 3 inches. Per-
centage passing sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid
limit. Plasticity index.
Engineering test data (Table 21) ...................................................................... 148
Soil name and location. FDOT report number.
Depth. Moisture density-Maximum dry density,
Optimum moisture content. Mechanical analy-
sis-Percentage passing sieve No. 10, No. 40, No.
200; Percentage smaller than 0.05 mm, 0.02 mm,
0.005 mm, 0.002 mm. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Classification-AASHTO, Unified.






v







Summary of Tables-Continued
Page
F reeze data (T able 2) ............................................................................................ 96
Freeze threshold temperature. Mean date of last
spring occurrence. Mean date of first fall occur-
rence. Mean number of days between dates. Years of
record, spring. Number of occurrences in spring.
Years of record, fall. Number of occurrences in fall.
Physical and chemical properties of soils (Table 16) .................................. 133
Depth. Permeability. Available water capacity. Soil
reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell potential. Erosion
factors-K, T. Wind erodibility group.
Physical properties of selected soils (Table 18).............................................. 139
Soil series and sample numbers. Depth. Horizon.
Particle size distribution-Very coarse sand, Coarse
sand, Medium sand, Fine sand, -Very fine sand,
Total sand. Silt. Clay. Hydraulic conductivity
(saturated). Bulk density field moisture. Water con-
tent-1/10 bar, 1/3 bar, 15 bar.
Potential production and composition of livestock forage (Table 7)............ 102
Potential production-Kind of year, Dry weight.
Composition of forage-Grasses and grasslikes,
Forbs, Woody plants and trees.
Potentials and limitations of map units on the general soil map (Table 3) 97
Map unit. Extent of area. Community development.
Citrus. Improved pasture. Woodland.
Recreational development (Table 13) .............................................................. 122
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and
trails.
Sanitary facilities (Table 10) ........................................................ .................. 111
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill.
Daily cover for landfill.
Soil and water features (Table 17)...................................................................... 136
Hydrologic group. Flooding-Frequency, Duration,
Months. High water table-Depth, Kind, Months.
Bedrock-Depth, Hardness. Subsidence-Initial,
Total. Risk of corrosion- Uncoated steel, Concrete.
Temperature and precipitation data (Table 1).............................................. 96
Month. Temperature-Monthly normal mean; Nor-
mal daily maximum; Normal daily minimum;
Mean number of days with temperature-90 degrees
F or higher, 32 degrees F or lower. Precipita-
tion-Normal total; Maximum total; Minimum
total; Mean number of days with rainfall of-0.10
inch or more, 0.50 inch or more.
W ater management (Table 12) ............................................................................ 118
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embank-
ments, dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated
ponds. Features affecting-Drainage, Irrigation,
Terraces and diversions.


vi







Summary of Tables-Continued
Page
W wildlife habitat potentials (Table 14) ............................................................. 125
Potential for habitat elements-Grain and seed
crops, Grasses and legumes, Wild herbaceous plants,
Hardwood trees, Coniferous plants, Wetland plants,
Shallow-water areas. Potential as habitat
bfr-Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland
wildlife.
Woodland management and productivity (Table 8) ...................................... 105
Ordination symbol. Management concerns-Erosion
hazard, Equipment limitation, Seedling mortality,
Plant competition. Potential productivity-Common
trees, Site index. Trees to plant.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (Table 5)......................................... 99
Oranges. Grapefi-uit. Tomatoes. Cabbage. Water-
melons. Bahiagrass. Grass-clover.










































vii












Foreword


The Soil Survey of Osceola County Area, Florida contains much informa-
tion useful in any land-planning program. Of prime importance are the predic-
tions of soil behavior for selected land uses. Also highlighted are limitations or
hazards to land uses that are inherent in the soil, improvements needed to
overcome these limitations, and the impact that selected land uses will have on
the environment.
This soil survey has been prepared for many different users. Farmers,
ranchers, foresters, and agronomists can use it to determine the potential of
the soil and the management practices required for food and fiber production.
Planners, community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and homebuyers
can use it to plan land use, select sites for construction, develop soil resources,
or identify any special practices that may be needed to insure proper per-
formance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists in recreation,
wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use the soil sur-
vey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Many people assume that soils are all more or less alike. They are
unaware that great differences in soil properties can occur even within short
distances. Soils may be seasonally wet or subject to flooding. They may be
shallow to bedrock. They may be too unstable to be used as a foundation for
buildings or roads. Very clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to septic tank ab-
sorption fields. A high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or
underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map; the lo-
cation of each kind of soil is shown on detailed soil maps. Each kind of soil in
the survey area is described, and much information is given about each soil for
specific uses. Additional information or assistance in using this publication can
be obtained from the local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
We believe that this soil survey can help bring us a better environment
and a better life. Its widespread use can greatly assist us in the conservation,
development, and productive use of our soil, water, and other resources.







William E. Austin
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service










ix















TALLAHASEE / JACKSONVILLE











KISSIMME

TAMPA ^ oTs









FORT MYERS



MIAMI









State Agricultural Experiment Station at Tallahassee

Location of Osceola County Area in Florida.







X









SOIL SURVEY OF OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


By Elmer L. Readle, Soil Conservation Service

Fieldwork by Elmer L. Readle, Allen L. Moore, and William B. Warmack, Soil Conservation Service

Others participating in the field survey were Albert L. Furman, Gary T. Hedstrom, Walter E. Russell, Regis
L. Vialle, and Horace O. White, Soil Conservation Service, and John M. Hickey, Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department

OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA is in the central part of season, there is a 50 percent chance of measurable rain on
peninsular Florida (see map on facing page). It is bor- any given day. Warm, moist air from the Atlantic Ocean
dered on the north by Orange County, on the east by or the Gulf of Mexico covers the survey area almost con-
Brevard and Indian River Counties, on the south by tinually during summer. This air is very unstable, and
Okeechobee County, and on the west by Polk County. when it rises to great heights by convection heat from
Lake Kissimmee and the Kissimmee River form part of land surfaces, late afternoon thundershowers occur. These
the boundary between the Osceola County Area and Polk showers are usually local and of short duration, but they
County. can be very heavy; 2 to 3 inches of rain can fall in 1 or 2
The survey area, which does not include all of Osceola hours. Thunderstorms form in large numbers, vary widely
County, covers 662,500 acres, or about 1,035 square miles. in size and intensity, and move across the land with
The area not surveyed, however, is included in the aerial moderate speed. Lightning activity is usually intense in
photographs which are the base for the detailed soil maps these storms. Hail falls occasionally during thun-
at the back of this publication, derstorms, but hailstorms are usually small and seldom
The survey area is about 48 miles long; it is 48 miles cause much damage.
wide at the widest part and about 16 miles wide at the Daylong rains are uncommon. When they do occur, they
narrowest part. Kissimmee, the county seat, is in the are usually associated with a tropical storm. Rains in
northwestern part of the survey area. Approximate winter and early spring are generally not so intense as
distances by air from Kissimmee to principal cities in the summer thunderstorms. Rainfall in excess of 7 inches in a
State are shown on the map on the facing page. 24-hour period can be expected some time during the
Tourism is the largest single nonagricultural industry in year in about 1 year in 10. Summarized climatic data (9,
the survey area. The proximity of Kissimmee and the 10) based on records collected at Kissimmee are shown in
northwestern part of the area to the Walt Disney World table 1.
recreational complex brings many tourists to the survey Tropical storms can affect the survey area with their
area annually, high winds and heavy rainfall, but winds reach hurricane
force only about 1 year in 20. These storms can occur at
any time during June through mid-November but are
General nature of the survey area most common in August and September. Flooding result-
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that ing from these storms can cause considerable damage to
affect the use and management of soils in Osceola County crops, roads, and houses.
Area are discussed. These factors are climate; history and Temperatures in summer and winter are moderated
development; physiography, relief, and drainage; water somewhat by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico
resources; farming; transportation; and recreation. and by the many large lakes in the survey area. Modera-
tion caused by the lakes, however, is limited to areas near
Climate the water. This moderation is more pronounced during
winter on the southern and southeastern sides of the
The climate of Osceola County Area is characterized by lakes. The Kissimmee Park community is an example of
long, warm, humid summers and mild, dry winters, this. Several subtropical fruits and plants can be grown
Average annual rainfall is about 53 inches, here that cannot be grown in most other places in the
Rainfall is heaviest from June through September. survey area due to cold temperatures.
About 57 percent of the annual total falls during this Freezing temperatures occur when many important
period in an average year. During the summer rainy crops are growing. Citrus, vegetables, and to a small ex-
1









SOIL SURVEY OF OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


By Elmer L. Readle, Soil Conservation Service

Fieldwork by Elmer L. Readle, Allen L. Moore, and William B. Warmack, Soil Conservation Service

Others participating in the field survey were Albert L. Furman, Gary T. Hedstrom, Walter E. Russell, Regis
L. Vialle, and Horace O. White, Soil Conservation Service, and John M. Hickey, Florida Agricultural
Experiment Stations

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department

OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA is in the central part of season, there is a 50 percent chance of measurable rain on
peninsular Florida (see map on facing page). It is bor- any given day. Warm, moist air from the Atlantic Ocean
dered on the north by Orange County, on the east by or the Gulf of Mexico covers the survey area almost con-
Brevard and Indian River Counties, on the south by tinually during summer. This air is very unstable, and
Okeechobee County, and on the west by Polk County. when it rises to great heights by convection heat from
Lake Kissimmee and the Kissimmee River form part of land surfaces, late afternoon thundershowers occur. These
the boundary between the Osceola County Area and Polk showers are usually local and of short duration, but they
County. can be very heavy; 2 to 3 inches of rain can fall in 1 or 2
The survey area, which does not include all of Osceola hours. Thunderstorms form in large numbers, vary widely
County, covers 662,500 acres, or about 1,035 square miles. in size and intensity, and move across the land with
The area not surveyed, however, is included in the aerial moderate speed. Lightning activity is usually intense in
photographs which are the base for the detailed soil maps these storms. Hail falls occasionally during thun-
at the back of this publication, derstorms, but hailstorms are usually small and seldom
The survey area is about 48 miles long; it is 48 miles cause much damage.
wide at the widest part and about 16 miles wide at the Daylong rains are uncommon. When they do occur, they
narrowest part. Kissimmee, the county seat, is in the are usually associated with a tropical storm. Rains in
northwestern part of the survey area. Approximate winter and early spring are generally not so intense as
distances by air from Kissimmee to principal cities in the summer thunderstorms. Rainfall in excess of 7 inches in a
State are shown on the map on the facing page. 24-hour period can be expected some time during the
Tourism is the largest single nonagricultural industry in year in about 1 year in 10. Summarized climatic data (9,
the survey area. The proximity of Kissimmee and the 10) based on records collected at Kissimmee are shown in
northwestern part of the area to the Walt Disney World table 1.
recreational complex brings many tourists to the survey Tropical storms can affect the survey area with their
area annually, high winds and heavy rainfall, but winds reach hurricane
force only about 1 year in 20. These storms can occur at
any time during June through mid-November but are
General nature of the survey area most common in August and September. Flooding result-
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that ing from these storms can cause considerable damage to
affect the use and management of soils in Osceola County crops, roads, and houses.
Area are discussed. These factors are climate; history and Temperatures in summer and winter are moderated
development; physiography, relief, and drainage; water somewhat by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico
resources; farming; transportation; and recreation. and by the many large lakes in the survey area. Modera-
tion caused by the lakes, however, is limited to areas near
Climate the water. This moderation is more pronounced during
winter on the southern and southeastern sides of the
The climate of Osceola County Area is characterized by lakes. The Kissimmee Park community is an example of
long, warm, humid summers and mild, dry winters, this. Several subtropical fruits and plants can be grown
Average annual rainfall is about 53 inches, here that cannot be grown in most other places in the
Rainfall is heaviest from June through September. survey area due to cold temperatures.
About 57 percent of the annual total falls during this Freezing temperatures occur when many important
period in an average year. During the summer rainy crops are growing. Citrus, vegetables, and to a small ex-
1







2 SOIL SURVEY

tent, improved pasture grasses can be severely damaged ment was incorporated into the town of Kissimmee in
if periods of freezing temperatures are prolonged. Daily 1883. By 1925, the population of Kissimmee had grown to
and day-to-day temperature fluctuation during winter can 3,823.
vary considerably due to invasions of cold, dry continental In 1883, the railroad came to the area, and a depot was
air from the north. It is not uncommon for temperatures established at Kissimmee. With the railroad came an in-
to fall from a daytime high in the seventies to a nighttime creasing number of tourists, and the resulting hotel indus-
low in the thirties with the passing of a cold front, and try prospered for many years.
the coldest temperatures usually occur the second or The earliest commercial ventures in the county were
third night after a cold front passes. Freezing tempera- trading posts which bought or traded furs from Indians
tures can be expected several times during,winter. These and other hunters and supplied them with their basic
low temperatures occur at night and rarely last more than needs. From 1856 to 1865, several settlers arrived and
two or three nights in succession. Freeze data shown in began raising cattle on the broad expanses of open
table 2 were taken at Kissimmee and are representative country surrounding Kissimmee. The livestock industry
for the area. Because minimum temperatures vary con- flourished during the Civil War.
siderably from place to place in winter, freeze data for Around 1880 an enormous project of canal digging was
other points in the county may vary significantly from begun. The canals were to interconnect the major lakes
those shown in table 2. and streams with canals and eventually link the interior
* Summer temperatures vary only slightly from day to of Florida to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico
day. They are tempered by breezes and frequent forma- with navigable waterways. These waterways opened up
tion of cumulus clouds. During June, July, and August, efficient transportation routes and made possible the
the average daily maximum temperature is about 91 to 93 drainage of fertile soils that had been covered with water.
degrees F, and the average daily minimum is about 70 to Commerce and agriculture flourished. Steamboat trade
72 degrees. Although temperatures above 100 degrees and boat building in Kissimmee grew rapidly. Land
have been recorded, their occurrence is rare. In July and drained near St. Cloud was planted to sugar cane, and in
August, the temperature can be expected to be higher 1888 a large sugar mill was erected nearby. The sugar in-
than 90 degrees about 25 days of each month. dustry persisted until about 1900, when the mill ceased
Prevailing winds in Osceola County Area are generally operation and was dismantled.
southerly in spring and summer and northerly in winter. The cattle industry grew from its inception in the
Wind velocities generally range from 8 to 15 miles per 1850's to the largest agricultural industry in the county.
hour during the day but generally drop to about 5 miles Practices such as routine vat dipping of cattle and burn-
per hour at night. Windspeeds are usually highest during ing of native range to control the ticks which caused
April and lowest during August. Texas fever allowed continued expansion of this industry.
During the rise of the cattle industry, Brahman cattle
History and development (5) were introduced. The bulls of this breed, which were
highly resistant to heat and disease, were crossbred with
The early recorded history of Osceola County begins the native cows, and the hardy offspring allowed the cat-
with the Spanish explorers who traveled through the tle industry to thrive and reach the prominence it holds
area. Historians believe that Hernando de Soto landed today.
near the mouth of the Caloosahatchee River and led his When early settlers arrived in the area, they found
expedition northward, crossing the Kissimmee River into sour oranges growing in some of the hammock areas.
what is now Osceola County at a point about 5 miles They procured sweet orange seeds and cuttings to
north of the southwest corner of the county. establish citrus groves for their personal use. From these
During this early time and later, several tribes of Indi- meager beginnings, citrus has become the county's second
ans roamed the area, most recently the Seminole tribe, largest agricultural industry.
After Florida was acquired from Spain in the early 1800's
and became a territory of the United States, settlers Physiography, relief, and drainage
were encouraged to come.
The area that is now Osceola County was originally Osceola County Area can be divided into four general
surveyed by the Federal government in 1845, the year parts based on physiography. These are the Lake Wales
that Florida became a State. At that time, it was part of Ridge, the Osceola Plain, the Okeechobee Plain, and the
Orange and Mosquito Counties. Osceola County was not Eastern Valley (11).
established until 1887. The Lake Wales Ridge is in the extreme northwestern
The first settlers were cattlemen who arrived in the corner of the survey area. It is mostly west of Florida
area in 1856. In the 1870's settlers began locating at the Highway 545 and is roughly U-shaped. Elevations range
northwestern edge of Lake Tohopekaliga, which was the from about 80 feet to slightly more than 220 feet above
site of a trading post. Steadily increasing steamboat traf- sea level. The soils are dominantly excessively drained
fic on the lake gave impetus to the growth of this settle- and sandy, but a few on lower elevations are wet and
ment, and by 1880, the population was 1,086. This settle- sandy and have a subsoil that is weakly cemented with







2 SOIL SURVEY

tent, improved pasture grasses can be severely damaged ment was incorporated into the town of Kissimmee in
if periods of freezing temperatures are prolonged. Daily 1883. By 1925, the population of Kissimmee had grown to
and day-to-day temperature fluctuation during winter can 3,823.
vary considerably due to invasions of cold, dry continental In 1883, the railroad came to the area, and a depot was
air from the north. It is not uncommon for temperatures established at Kissimmee. With the railroad came an in-
to fall from a daytime high in the seventies to a nighttime creasing number of tourists, and the resulting hotel indus-
low in the thirties with the passing of a cold front, and try prospered for many years.
the coldest temperatures usually occur the second or The earliest commercial ventures in the county were
third night after a cold front passes. Freezing tempera- trading posts which bought or traded furs from Indians
tures can be expected several times during,winter. These and other hunters and supplied them with their basic
low temperatures occur at night and rarely last more than needs. From 1856 to 1865, several settlers arrived and
two or three nights in succession. Freeze data shown in began raising cattle on the broad expanses of open
table 2 were taken at Kissimmee and are representative country surrounding Kissimmee. The livestock industry
for the area. Because minimum temperatures vary con- flourished during the Civil War.
siderably from place to place in winter, freeze data for Around 1880 an enormous project of canal digging was
other points in the county may vary significantly from begun. The canals were to interconnect the major lakes
those shown in table 2. and streams with canals and eventually link the interior
* Summer temperatures vary only slightly from day to of Florida to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico
day. They are tempered by breezes and frequent forma- with navigable waterways. These waterways opened up
tion of cumulus clouds. During June, July, and August, efficient transportation routes and made possible the
the average daily maximum temperature is about 91 to 93 drainage of fertile soils that had been covered with water.
degrees F, and the average daily minimum is about 70 to Commerce and agriculture flourished. Steamboat trade
72 degrees. Although temperatures above 100 degrees and boat building in Kissimmee grew rapidly. Land
have been recorded, their occurrence is rare. In July and drained near St. Cloud was planted to sugar cane, and in
August, the temperature can be expected to be higher 1888 a large sugar mill was erected nearby. The sugar in-
than 90 degrees about 25 days of each month. dustry persisted until about 1900, when the mill ceased
Prevailing winds in Osceola County Area are generally operation and was dismantled.
southerly in spring and summer and northerly in winter. The cattle industry grew from its inception in the
Wind velocities generally range from 8 to 15 miles per 1850's to the largest agricultural industry in the county.
hour during the day but generally drop to about 5 miles Practices such as routine vat dipping of cattle and burn-
per hour at night. Windspeeds are usually highest during ing of native range to control the ticks which caused
April and lowest during August. Texas fever allowed continued expansion of this industry.
During the rise of the cattle industry, Brahman cattle
History and development (5) were introduced. The bulls of this breed, which were
highly resistant to heat and disease, were crossbred with
The early recorded history of Osceola County begins the native cows, and the hardy offspring allowed the cat-
with the Spanish explorers who traveled through the tle industry to thrive and reach the prominence it holds
area. Historians believe that Hernando de Soto landed today.
near the mouth of the Caloosahatchee River and led his When early settlers arrived in the area, they found
expedition northward, crossing the Kissimmee River into sour oranges growing in some of the hammock areas.
what is now Osceola County at a point about 5 miles They procured sweet orange seeds and cuttings to
north of the southwest corner of the county. establish citrus groves for their personal use. From these
During this early time and later, several tribes of Indi- meager beginnings, citrus has become the county's second
ans roamed the area, most recently the Seminole tribe, largest agricultural industry.
After Florida was acquired from Spain in the early 1800's
and became a territory of the United States, settlers Physiography, relief, and drainage
were encouraged to come.
The area that is now Osceola County was originally Osceola County Area can be divided into four general
surveyed by the Federal government in 1845, the year parts based on physiography. These are the Lake Wales
that Florida became a State. At that time, it was part of Ridge, the Osceola Plain, the Okeechobee Plain, and the
Orange and Mosquito Counties. Osceola County was not Eastern Valley (11).
established until 1887. The Lake Wales Ridge is in the extreme northwestern
The first settlers were cattlemen who arrived in the corner of the survey area. It is mostly west of Florida
area in 1856. In the 1870's settlers began locating at the Highway 545 and is roughly U-shaped. Elevations range
northwestern edge of Lake Tohopekaliga, which was the from about 80 feet to slightly more than 220 feet above
site of a trading post. Steadily increasing steamboat traf- sea level. The soils are dominantly excessively drained
fic on the lake gave impetus to the growth of this settle- and sandy, but a few on lower elevations are wet and
ment, and by 1880, the population was 1,086. This settle- sandy and have a subsoil that is weakly cemented with







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 3

organic matter. The natural vegetation on the excessively The Floridian Aquifer is the primary source of all
drained soils is dominantly mixed oaks and pines and on ground water in central Florida. The shallow aquifers
the wetter soils, pines and sawpalmetto. Much of the that overlie the Floridian Aquifer, including the surficial
citrus grown in the survey area is on this ridge, and in sands and the upper region of the Hawthorn Formation,
recent years, development for urban uses has increased. are secondary sources. There are many lakes scattered
The Osceola Plain lies between the Lake Wales Ridge t t
throughout the survey area. The largest of these are
and the Okeechobee Plain to the west and the Eastern a T t
Lake Kissimmee, Lake Tohopekaliga, East Lake
Valley to the east. It is by far the largest physiographic Tohopekaliga as L
region in the survey area, occupying almost all of it. It Tohopekaliga, Lake Marian, Cypress Lake, Alligator
extends the entire length of the survey area. Elevations Lake Lake Gentry and Lake Hatchneha.
range between 25 and 80 feet above sea level. The The water supply for the towns, communities, and in-
vegetation consists mostly of pine and palmetto flatwoods dividual homes within the survey area is from wells. The
with numerous large to small lakes and fewer areas of wells are dug into the underlying limestone to the aquifer
broad, grassy sloughs and depressions and poorly defined and then cased to the limestone.
drainageways. The soils are predominantly nearly level,
wet, and sandy. The sandy subsoil is weakly cemented Farming and ranching
with organic matter. Some of the soils have a loamy sub-
soil, and some are organic. Large areas of this region are Farming and ranching have always been important to
used for range and improved pasture grasses. Extensive the economy of Osceola County Area. Although the land
urban development has taken place in the Kissimmee and use patterns are changing, farmers and ranchers have
St. Cloud areas, been able to increase yields through both improving
The Okeechobee Plain is in the southwestern part of management and slightly increasing the farmed acreage.
the survey area along the Kissimmee River. It extends Beef cattle ranching is the most common farm or ranch
from the county line northward to Lake Kissimmee. activity in the survey area. Field crops are not grown ex-
Elevations range from 45 to 55 feet above sea level. The tensively. Those grown are primarily corn and sorghum
area consists mostly of hardwood and cypress flood for silage. Citrus is the most important special crop
plains. Some areas are broad, grassy flats. The soils are grown in the survey area. Some of the minor crops are
nearly level and very wet, and many have a sandy surface watermelons, hay, and seedling plants of tobacco and to-
layer and a loamy subsoil. Some are organic and are un- matoes. Many of the existing improved pastures are im-
derlain by loamy and clayey mineral material. This area portent sources of landscaping sod; bahiagrass is the most
remains mostly in native vegetation. Some areas are used common grass used for this purpose.
for range and improved pasture.
Thge Wastern ae is in te ood production is important in the survey area. Most
The Eastern Valley is in the east-central part of the
survey area. It is the smallest physiographic region in the trees, particularly slash pine and longleaf pine, are used
survey area. Elevations range from about 25 to 30 feet in the manufacture of pulp for paper. There are about
above sea level. The area consists of broad, grassy flats 365,800 acres of woodland in the survey area. Areas of
with occasional cabbage palm trees and hammocks. The this woodland have varying densities of naturally seeded
soils are predominantly nearly level and wet and have a second, third, and fourth generation trees. There are only
sandy surface layer and a loamy subsoil. Much of this a very few planted stands of trees.
area is used for range or has been planted to improved Combined value of livestock and crops produced and
pasture grasses, marketed in 1974 was about 20,000,000 dollars. Of this
Most of Osceola County Area is drained through nu- amount, about 13,000,000 dollars was derived from sale of
merous intermittent streams, creeks, closed depressions, livestock, and 7,000,000 dollars was derived from sale of
lakes, and grassy prairies. The Kissimmee River to the citrus and a few other minor crops.
west and the St. Johns River to the east are the principal
surface drainageways in the area. Several large creeks Transportation
such as Crabgrass Creek, Bull Creek, Reedy Creek, and
Canoe Creek flow into these rivers. In some areas, in- Most of Osceola County Area is served by good trans-
tricate systems of canals and ditches provide surface portation facilities. Several county, State, and Federal
drainage. highways provide ready access between population cen-
ters within the survey area and between the survey area
Water resources and the rest of the State. Several trucking firms that
The Kissimmee River is the major permanent stream in have facilities for handling interstate trade serve the sur-
the survey area. Other streams include Crabgrass Creek, vey area. Bus services are available. Scheduled airline
Bull Creek, Canoe Creek, Reedy Creek, Davenport Creek, services are not available in Osceola County Area, but
Blue Cypress Creek, and numerous small streams. airline service is readily available at the Orlando Jetport.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 3

organic matter. The natural vegetation on the excessively The Floridian Aquifer is the primary source of all
drained soils is dominantly mixed oaks and pines and on ground water in central Florida. The shallow aquifers
the wetter soils, pines and sawpalmetto. Much of the that overlie the Floridian Aquifer, including the surficial
citrus grown in the survey area is on this ridge, and in sands and the upper region of the Hawthorn Formation,
recent years, development for urban uses has increased. are secondary sources. There are many lakes scattered
The Osceola Plain lies between the Lake Wales Ridge t t
throughout the survey area. The largest of these are
and the Okeechobee Plain to the west and the Eastern a T t
Lake Kissimmee, Lake Tohopekaliga, East Lake
Valley to the east. It is by far the largest physiographic Tohopekaliga as L
region in the survey area, occupying almost all of it. It Tohopekaliga, Lake Marian, Cypress Lake, Alligator
extends the entire length of the survey area. Elevations Lake Lake Gentry and Lake Hatchneha.
range between 25 and 80 feet above sea level. The The water supply for the towns, communities, and in-
vegetation consists mostly of pine and palmetto flatwoods dividual homes within the survey area is from wells. The
with numerous large to small lakes and fewer areas of wells are dug into the underlying limestone to the aquifer
broad, grassy sloughs and depressions and poorly defined and then cased to the limestone.
drainageways. The soils are predominantly nearly level,
wet, and sandy. The sandy subsoil is weakly cemented Farming and ranching
with organic matter. Some of the soils have a loamy sub-
soil, and some are organic. Large areas of this region are Farming and ranching have always been important to
used for range and improved pasture grasses. Extensive the economy of Osceola County Area. Although the land
urban development has taken place in the Kissimmee and use patterns are changing, farmers and ranchers have
St. Cloud areas, been able to increase yields through both improving
The Okeechobee Plain is in the southwestern part of management and slightly increasing the farmed acreage.
the survey area along the Kissimmee River. It extends Beef cattle ranching is the most common farm or ranch
from the county line northward to Lake Kissimmee. activity in the survey area. Field crops are not grown ex-
Elevations range from 45 to 55 feet above sea level. The tensively. Those grown are primarily corn and sorghum
area consists mostly of hardwood and cypress flood for silage. Citrus is the most important special crop
plains. Some areas are broad, grassy flats. The soils are grown in the survey area. Some of the minor crops are
nearly level and very wet, and many have a sandy surface watermelons, hay, and seedling plants of tobacco and to-
layer and a loamy subsoil. Some are organic and are un- matoes. Many of the existing improved pastures are im-
derlain by loamy and clayey mineral material. This area portent sources of landscaping sod; bahiagrass is the most
remains mostly in native vegetation. Some areas are used common grass used for this purpose.
for range and improved pasture.
Thge Wastern ae is in te ood production is important in the survey area. Most
The Eastern Valley is in the east-central part of the
survey area. It is the smallest physiographic region in the trees, particularly slash pine and longleaf pine, are used
survey area. Elevations range from about 25 to 30 feet in the manufacture of pulp for paper. There are about
above sea level. The area consists of broad, grassy flats 365,800 acres of woodland in the survey area. Areas of
with occasional cabbage palm trees and hammocks. The this woodland have varying densities of naturally seeded
soils are predominantly nearly level and wet and have a second, third, and fourth generation trees. There are only
sandy surface layer and a loamy subsoil. Much of this a very few planted stands of trees.
area is used for range or has been planted to improved Combined value of livestock and crops produced and
pasture grasses, marketed in 1974 was about 20,000,000 dollars. Of this
Most of Osceola County Area is drained through nu- amount, about 13,000,000 dollars was derived from sale of
merous intermittent streams, creeks, closed depressions, livestock, and 7,000,000 dollars was derived from sale of
lakes, and grassy prairies. The Kissimmee River to the citrus and a few other minor crops.
west and the St. Johns River to the east are the principal
surface drainageways in the area. Several large creeks Transportation
such as Crabgrass Creek, Bull Creek, Reedy Creek, and
Canoe Creek flow into these rivers. In some areas, in- Most of Osceola County Area is served by good trans-
tricate systems of canals and ditches provide surface portation facilities. Several county, State, and Federal
drainage. highways provide ready access between population cen-
ters within the survey area and between the survey area
Water resources and the rest of the State. Several trucking firms that
The Kissimmee River is the major permanent stream in have facilities for handling interstate trade serve the sur-
the survey area. Other streams include Crabgrass Creek, vey area. Bus services are available. Scheduled airline
Bull Creek, Canoe Creek, Reedy Creek, Davenport Creek, services are not available in Osceola County Area, but
Blue Cypress Creek, and numerous small streams. airline service is readily available at the Orlando Jetport.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 3

organic matter. The natural vegetation on the excessively The Floridian Aquifer is the primary source of all
drained soils is dominantly mixed oaks and pines and on ground water in central Florida. The shallow aquifers
the wetter soils, pines and sawpalmetto. Much of the that overlie the Floridian Aquifer, including the surficial
citrus grown in the survey area is on this ridge, and in sands and the upper region of the Hawthorn Formation,
recent years, development for urban uses has increased. are secondary sources. There are many lakes scattered
The Osceola Plain lies between the Lake Wales Ridge t t
throughout the survey area. The largest of these are
and the Okeechobee Plain to the west and the Eastern a T t
Lake Kissimmee, Lake Tohopekaliga, East Lake
Valley to the east. It is by far the largest physiographic Tohopekaliga as L
region in the survey area, occupying almost all of it. It Tohopekaliga, Lake Marian, Cypress Lake, Alligator
extends the entire length of the survey area. Elevations Lake Lake Gentry and Lake Hatchneha.
range between 25 and 80 feet above sea level. The The water supply for the towns, communities, and in-
vegetation consists mostly of pine and palmetto flatwoods dividual homes within the survey area is from wells. The
with numerous large to small lakes and fewer areas of wells are dug into the underlying limestone to the aquifer
broad, grassy sloughs and depressions and poorly defined and then cased to the limestone.
drainageways. The soils are predominantly nearly level,
wet, and sandy. The sandy subsoil is weakly cemented Farming and ranching
with organic matter. Some of the soils have a loamy sub-
soil, and some are organic. Large areas of this region are Farming and ranching have always been important to
used for range and improved pasture grasses. Extensive the economy of Osceola County Area. Although the land
urban development has taken place in the Kissimmee and use patterns are changing, farmers and ranchers have
St. Cloud areas, been able to increase yields through both improving
The Okeechobee Plain is in the southwestern part of management and slightly increasing the farmed acreage.
the survey area along the Kissimmee River. It extends Beef cattle ranching is the most common farm or ranch
from the county line northward to Lake Kissimmee. activity in the survey area. Field crops are not grown ex-
Elevations range from 45 to 55 feet above sea level. The tensively. Those grown are primarily corn and sorghum
area consists mostly of hardwood and cypress flood for silage. Citrus is the most important special crop
plains. Some areas are broad, grassy flats. The soils are grown in the survey area. Some of the minor crops are
nearly level and very wet, and many have a sandy surface watermelons, hay, and seedling plants of tobacco and to-
layer and a loamy subsoil. Some are organic and are un- matoes. Many of the existing improved pastures are im-
derlain by loamy and clayey mineral material. This area portent sources of landscaping sod; bahiagrass is the most
remains mostly in native vegetation. Some areas are used common grass used for this purpose.
for range and improved pasture.
Thge Wastern ae is in te ood production is important in the survey area. Most
The Eastern Valley is in the east-central part of the
survey area. It is the smallest physiographic region in the trees, particularly slash pine and longleaf pine, are used
survey area. Elevations range from about 25 to 30 feet in the manufacture of pulp for paper. There are about
above sea level. The area consists of broad, grassy flats 365,800 acres of woodland in the survey area. Areas of
with occasional cabbage palm trees and hammocks. The this woodland have varying densities of naturally seeded
soils are predominantly nearly level and wet and have a second, third, and fourth generation trees. There are only
sandy surface layer and a loamy subsoil. Much of this a very few planted stands of trees.
area is used for range or has been planted to improved Combined value of livestock and crops produced and
pasture grasses, marketed in 1974 was about 20,000,000 dollars. Of this
Most of Osceola County Area is drained through nu- amount, about 13,000,000 dollars was derived from sale of
merous intermittent streams, creeks, closed depressions, livestock, and 7,000,000 dollars was derived from sale of
lakes, and grassy prairies. The Kissimmee River to the citrus and a few other minor crops.
west and the St. Johns River to the east are the principal
surface drainageways in the area. Several large creeks Transportation
such as Crabgrass Creek, Bull Creek, Reedy Creek, and
Canoe Creek flow into these rivers. In some areas, in- Most of Osceola County Area is served by good trans-
tricate systems of canals and ditches provide surface portation facilities. Several county, State, and Federal
drainage. highways provide ready access between population cen-
ters within the survey area and between the survey area
Water resources and the rest of the State. Several trucking firms that
The Kissimmee River is the major permanent stream in have facilities for handling interstate trade serve the sur-
the survey area. Other streams include Crabgrass Creek, vey area. Bus services are available. Scheduled airline
Bull Creek, Canoe Creek, Reedy Creek, Davenport Creek, services are not available in Osceola County Area, but
Blue Cypress Creek, and numerous small streams. airline service is readily available at the Orlando Jetport.






4 SOIL SURVEY

Recreation specialists. For example, data on crop yields under
defined practices are assembled from farm records and
Nearby Walt Disney World offers outstanding recrea- from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
tional facilities and annually brings thousands of tourists But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
and fun seekers to the survey area. In addition to Walt have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
Disney World, a variety of other recreational activities on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
are available in Osceola County Area. Fishing, hunting, other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed in-
swimming, boating, water skiing, canoeing, and horseback formation then needs to be organized so that it is readily
riding are popular. A number of parks and playgrounds available to different groups of users, among them far-
with up-to-date facilities are available for public use, and mers, managers of rangeland and woodland, engineers,
there are several private camping areas in the survey planners, developers and builders, homebuyers, and those
area (fig. 1). seeking recreation.


How this survey was made General soil map for broad land use
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of planning
soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they The general soil map at the back of this publication
can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know- shows, in color, map units that have a distinct pattern of
ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew soils and of relief and drainage. Each map unit is a unique
something about and perhaps identify some they had natural landscape. Typically, a map unit consists of one or
never seen before. They observed the steepness, length, more major soils and some minor soils. It is named for
and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general the major soils. The soils making up one unit can occur in
pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops; other units but in a different pattern.
the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They The general soil map provides a broad perspective of
dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the the soils and landscapes in the survey area. It provides a
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex- basis for comparing the potential of large areas for
tends from the surface down into the parent material, general kinds of land use. Areas that are, for the most
which has been changed very little by leaching or by the part, suited to certain kinds of farming or to other land
action of plant roots, uses can be identified on the map. Likewise, areas of soils
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the having properties that are distinctly unfavorable for cer-
profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles tain land uses can be located.
with others in counties nearby and in places more distant. Because of its small scale, the map does not show the
Thus, through correlation, they classified and named the kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for
soils according to nationwide, uniform procedures. planning the management of a farm or field or for select-
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The
worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the kinds of soil in any one map unit differ from place to
individual soils on aerial photographs. These photographs place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or other charac-
show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads, and other teristics that affect their management.
details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. The The soils in the survey area vary widely in their poten-
soil map at the back of this publication was prepared tial for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent of the
from aerial photographs, map units shown on the general soil map and gives
The areas shown on a soil map are called soil map units, general ratings of the potential of each, in relation to the
Some map units are made up of one kind of soil, others other map units, for major land uses. Soil properties that
are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and a few have pose limitations to the use are indicated. The ratings of
little or no soil material at all. Map units are discussed in soil potential are based on the assumption that practices
the sections "General soil map for broad land use in common use in the survey area are being used to over-
planning" and "Soil maps for detailed planning." come soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease of
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are overcoming the soil limitations and the probability of soil
taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for en- problems persisting after such practices are used.
gineering tests. The soils are field tested, and interpreta- Each map unit is rated for community development,
tions of their behavior are modified as necessary during citrus, improved pasture, and woodland.
the course of the survey. New interpretations are added
to meet local needs, mainly through field observations of Soils of the sand ridges
different kinds of soil in different uses under different
levels of management. Also, data are assembled from The only map unit in this group consists of nearly level
other sources, such as test results, records, field ex- to strongly sloping, excessively drained soils and poorly
perience, and information available from state and local drained, nearly level soils that are sandy throughout.






4 SOIL SURVEY

Recreation specialists. For example, data on crop yields under
defined practices are assembled from farm records and
Nearby Walt Disney World offers outstanding recrea- from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
tional facilities and annually brings thousands of tourists But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
and fun seekers to the survey area. In addition to Walt have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
Disney World, a variety of other recreational activities on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
are available in Osceola County Area. Fishing, hunting, other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed in-
swimming, boating, water skiing, canoeing, and horseback formation then needs to be organized so that it is readily
riding are popular. A number of parks and playgrounds available to different groups of users, among them far-
with up-to-date facilities are available for public use, and mers, managers of rangeland and woodland, engineers,
there are several private camping areas in the survey planners, developers and builders, homebuyers, and those
area (fig. 1). seeking recreation.


How this survey was made General soil map for broad land use
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of planning
soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they The general soil map at the back of this publication
can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know- shows, in color, map units that have a distinct pattern of
ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew soils and of relief and drainage. Each map unit is a unique
something about and perhaps identify some they had natural landscape. Typically, a map unit consists of one or
never seen before. They observed the steepness, length, more major soils and some minor soils. It is named for
and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general the major soils. The soils making up one unit can occur in
pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops; other units but in a different pattern.
the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They The general soil map provides a broad perspective of
dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the the soils and landscapes in the survey area. It provides a
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex- basis for comparing the potential of large areas for
tends from the surface down into the parent material, general kinds of land use. Areas that are, for the most
which has been changed very little by leaching or by the part, suited to certain kinds of farming or to other land
action of plant roots, uses can be identified on the map. Likewise, areas of soils
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the having properties that are distinctly unfavorable for cer-
profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles tain land uses can be located.
with others in counties nearby and in places more distant. Because of its small scale, the map does not show the
Thus, through correlation, they classified and named the kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for
soils according to nationwide, uniform procedures. planning the management of a farm or field or for select-
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The
worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the kinds of soil in any one map unit differ from place to
individual soils on aerial photographs. These photographs place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or other charac-
show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads, and other teristics that affect their management.
details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. The The soils in the survey area vary widely in their poten-
soil map at the back of this publication was prepared tial for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent of the
from aerial photographs, map units shown on the general soil map and gives
The areas shown on a soil map are called soil map units, general ratings of the potential of each, in relation to the
Some map units are made up of one kind of soil, others other map units, for major land uses. Soil properties that
are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and a few have pose limitations to the use are indicated. The ratings of
little or no soil material at all. Map units are discussed in soil potential are based on the assumption that practices
the sections "General soil map for broad land use in common use in the survey area are being used to over-
planning" and "Soil maps for detailed planning." come soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease of
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are overcoming the soil limitations and the probability of soil
taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for en- problems persisting after such practices are used.
gineering tests. The soils are field tested, and interpreta- Each map unit is rated for community development,
tions of their behavior are modified as necessary during citrus, improved pasture, and woodland.
the course of the survey. New interpretations are added
to meet local needs, mainly through field observations of Soils of the sand ridges
different kinds of soil in different uses under different
levels of management. Also, data are assembled from The only map unit in this group consists of nearly level
other sources, such as test results, records, field ex- to strongly sloping, excessively drained soils and poorly
perience, and information available from state and local drained, nearly level soils that are sandy throughout.






4 SOIL SURVEY

Recreation specialists. For example, data on crop yields under
defined practices are assembled from farm records and
Nearby Walt Disney World offers outstanding recrea- from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
tional facilities and annually brings thousands of tourists But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
and fun seekers to the survey area. In addition to Walt have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
Disney World, a variety of other recreational activities on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
are available in Osceola County Area. Fishing, hunting, other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed in-
swimming, boating, water skiing, canoeing, and horseback formation then needs to be organized so that it is readily
riding are popular. A number of parks and playgrounds available to different groups of users, among them far-
with up-to-date facilities are available for public use, and mers, managers of rangeland and woodland, engineers,
there are several private camping areas in the survey planners, developers and builders, homebuyers, and those
area (fig. 1). seeking recreation.


How this survey was made General soil map for broad land use
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of planning
soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they The general soil map at the back of this publication
can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know- shows, in color, map units that have a distinct pattern of
ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew soils and of relief and drainage. Each map unit is a unique
something about and perhaps identify some they had natural landscape. Typically, a map unit consists of one or
never seen before. They observed the steepness, length, more major soils and some minor soils. It is named for
and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general the major soils. The soils making up one unit can occur in
pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops; other units but in a different pattern.
the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They The general soil map provides a broad perspective of
dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the the soils and landscapes in the survey area. It provides a
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex- basis for comparing the potential of large areas for
tends from the surface down into the parent material, general kinds of land use. Areas that are, for the most
which has been changed very little by leaching or by the part, suited to certain kinds of farming or to other land
action of plant roots, uses can be identified on the map. Likewise, areas of soils
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the having properties that are distinctly unfavorable for cer-
profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles tain land uses can be located.
with others in counties nearby and in places more distant. Because of its small scale, the map does not show the
Thus, through correlation, they classified and named the kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for
soils according to nationwide, uniform procedures. planning the management of a farm or field or for select-
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The
worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the kinds of soil in any one map unit differ from place to
individual soils on aerial photographs. These photographs place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or other charac-
show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads, and other teristics that affect their management.
details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. The The soils in the survey area vary widely in their poten-
soil map at the back of this publication was prepared tial for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent of the
from aerial photographs, map units shown on the general soil map and gives
The areas shown on a soil map are called soil map units, general ratings of the potential of each, in relation to the
Some map units are made up of one kind of soil, others other map units, for major land uses. Soil properties that
are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and a few have pose limitations to the use are indicated. The ratings of
little or no soil material at all. Map units are discussed in soil potential are based on the assumption that practices
the sections "General soil map for broad land use in common use in the survey area are being used to over-
planning" and "Soil maps for detailed planning." come soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease of
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are overcoming the soil limitations and the probability of soil
taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for en- problems persisting after such practices are used.
gineering tests. The soils are field tested, and interpreta- Each map unit is rated for community development,
tions of their behavior are modified as necessary during citrus, improved pasture, and woodland.
the course of the survey. New interpretations are added
to meet local needs, mainly through field observations of Soils of the sand ridges
different kinds of soil in different uses under different
levels of management. Also, data are assembled from The only map unit in this group consists of nearly level
other sources, such as test results, records, field ex- to strongly sloping, excessively drained soils and poorly
perience, and information available from state and local drained, nearly level soils that are sandy throughout.






4 SOIL SURVEY

Recreation specialists. For example, data on crop yields under
defined practices are assembled from farm records and
Nearby Walt Disney World offers outstanding recrea- from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
tional facilities and annually brings thousands of tourists But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
and fun seekers to the survey area. In addition to Walt have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
Disney World, a variety of other recreational activities on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
are available in Osceola County Area. Fishing, hunting, other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed in-
swimming, boating, water skiing, canoeing, and horseback formation then needs to be organized so that it is readily
riding are popular. A number of parks and playgrounds available to different groups of users, among them far-
with up-to-date facilities are available for public use, and mers, managers of rangeland and woodland, engineers,
there are several private camping areas in the survey planners, developers and builders, homebuyers, and those
area (fig. 1). seeking recreation.


How this survey was made General soil map for broad land use
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what kinds of planning
soil are in the survey area, where they are, and how they The general soil map at the back of this publication
can be used. The soil scientists went into the area know- shows, in color, map units that have a distinct pattern of
ing they likely would locate many soils they already knew soils and of relief and drainage. Each map unit is a unique
something about and perhaps identify some they had natural landscape. Typically, a map unit consists of one or
never seen before. They observed the steepness, length, more major soils and some minor soils. It is named for
and shape of slopes; the size of streams and the general the major soils. The soils making up one unit can occur in
pattern of drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops; other units but in a different pattern.
the kinds of rock; and many facts about the soils. They The general soil map provides a broad perspective of
dug many holes to expose soil profiles. A profile is the the soils and landscapes in the survey area. It provides a
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil; it ex- basis for comparing the potential of large areas for
tends from the surface down into the parent material, general kinds of land use. Areas that are, for the most
which has been changed very little by leaching or by the part, suited to certain kinds of farming or to other land
action of plant roots, uses can be identified on the map. Likewise, areas of soils
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the having properties that are distinctly unfavorable for cer-
profiles they studied, and they compared those profiles tain land uses can be located.
with others in counties nearby and in places more distant. Because of its small scale, the map does not show the
Thus, through correlation, they classified and named the kind of soil at a specific site. Thus, it is not suitable for
soils according to nationwide, uniform procedures. planning the management of a farm or field or for select-
After a guide for classifying and naming the soils was ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The
worked out, the soil scientists drew the boundaries of the kinds of soil in any one map unit differ from place to
individual soils on aerial photographs. These photographs place in slope, depth, stoniness, drainage, or other charac-
show woodlands, buildings, field borders, roads, and other teristics that affect their management.
details that help in drawing boundaries accurately. The The soils in the survey area vary widely in their poten-
soil map at the back of this publication was prepared tial for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent of the
from aerial photographs, map units shown on the general soil map and gives
The areas shown on a soil map are called soil map units, general ratings of the potential of each, in relation to the
Some map units are made up of one kind of soil, others other map units, for major land uses. Soil properties that
are made up of two or more kinds of soil, and a few have pose limitations to the use are indicated. The ratings of
little or no soil material at all. Map units are discussed in soil potential are based on the assumption that practices
the sections "General soil map for broad land use in common use in the survey area are being used to over-
planning" and "Soil maps for detailed planning." come soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease of
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of soils are overcoming the soil limitations and the probability of soil
taken as needed for laboratory measurements and for en- problems persisting after such practices are used.
gineering tests. The soils are field tested, and interpreta- Each map unit is rated for community development,
tions of their behavior are modified as necessary during citrus, improved pasture, and woodland.
the course of the survey. New interpretations are added
to meet local needs, mainly through field observations of Soils of the sand ridges
different kinds of soil in different uses under different
levels of management. Also, data are assembled from The only map unit in this group consists of nearly level
other sources, such as test results, records, field ex- to strongly sloping, excessively drained soils and poorly
perience, and information available from state and local drained, nearly level soils that are sandy throughout.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 5

Some have thin lamellae of sandy loam at a depth of 40 to sand between depths of 30 and 50 inches. These units are
80 inches, and others have weakly cemented sand at a scattered throughout the survey area but are more com-
depth of 30 to 50 inches. This unit occurs in the mon in the northern half.
northwestern part of the survey area, generally west of
Interstate Highway 4. 2. Immokalee-Pomello-Myakka
1. Cane Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
mo ee and poorly drained sandy soils that have a weakly ce-
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained and mented sandy subsoil
poorly drained soils that are sandy throughout; some This map unit consists mostly of flatwoods interspersed
have a weakly cemented sandy subsoil at a depth of 30 to with low ridges and knolls and with shallow depressions
50 inches and poorly defined drainageways. Most areas are east of
This map unit consists mostly of broad, nearly level to East Lake Tohopekaliga and Alligator Lake and north of
gently sloping, deep, sandy soils that are intermingled Yeehaw Junction and Kenansville. The largest area is
with steeper soils on hillsides and with nearly level flat- about 7 miles long and 3 to 4 miles wide.
woods soils. These areas contain a few sand-bottom lakes. In areas of Immokalee and Myakka soils, the native
There are four areas of this unit in the survey area, all in vegetation is dominantly slash pine and longleaf pine with
the northwestern part. The largest is about 5 miles wide an understory of sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, gall-
and is mostly west of Interstate Highway 4. berry, and running oaks. Natural vegetation on the
In areas of Candler soils, the natural vegetation con- Pomello soils is mostly sand live oak and dwarf live oak,
sists of turkey oak, scrub live oak, slash pine, and longleaf sawpalmetto, and scattered longleaf pine and slash pine.
pine with an understory of dominantly creeping bluestem, Pineland threeawn is the dominant grass. Water-tolerant
lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and grassleaf trees such as baldcypress, sweetgum, and loblolly bay and
goldaster. Sand pine grows in some places. The natural a wide variety of grasses and sedges grow in the depres-
vegetation on the Immokalee soils is slash pine and lon- sions and poorly defined drainageways.
leaf pine with an understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry, This unit makes up about 39,050 acres, or about 6 per-
gleaf pine with an understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry, cent of the survey area. It is about 36 percent Immokalee
running oak, and pineland threeawn.
ruin o, man pi t a soils, 29 percent Pomello soils, 15 percent Myakka soils,
This unit makes up about 11,500 acres, or about 2 per- and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
cent of the survey area. It is about 70 percent Candler I kalee soils oo i o in boa
Immokalee soils are poorly drained and occur in broad
soils, 10 percent Immokalee soils, and 20 percent soils of f oos are Tpill y have a surface laer o
minor extent. flatwoods areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of
minor extent.
very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick and a sub-
Candler soils are excessively drained and occur on the surface layer of light gray and white fine sand that ex-
highest elevations. Typically, they are brownish and yel- tends to a depth of 37 inches. The subsoil is black and
lowish sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. Lamellae of dark reddish brown fine sand that is weakly cemented
reddish yellow loamy sand 1/16 to 1/4 inch thick are with organic matter. Dark brown and dark grayish brown
below a depth of 62 inches. fine sand extend to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Immokalee soils are poorly drained and occur on lower Pomello soils are moderately well drained and are on
elevations than Candler soils. Typically, they have a sur- the low ridges and knolls. Typically, they have a surface
face layer of very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches layer of gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsur-
thick and a subsurface layer of light gray and white fine face layer is gray and white fine sand that extends to a
sand that extends to a depth of 37 inches. The subsoil is depth of 47 inches. The subsoil is about 11 inches of black
black and dark reddish brown fine sand that is weakly ce- and dark reddish brown, weakly cemented fine sand.
mented with organic matter. Dark brown and dark gray- Below is brown and grayish brown fine sand to a depth of
ish brown fine sand extend to a depth of 80 inches or 80 inches or more.
more. Myakka soils are poorly drained and are in broad flat-
Minor soils in this unit are Adamsville, Narcoossee, woods areas similar to Immokalee soils. Typically, they
Paola, and Cassia soils. have a surface layer of very dark gray fine sand about 7
Most areas of this unit are used for citrus trees and im- inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
proved pasture grasses. Only a few areas remain in natu- that extends to a depth of 27 inches. The next layer is a
ral vegetation, weakly cemented subsoil of black and dark reddish brown
fine sand about 10 inches thick. Below is dark yellowish
Soils of the low ridges, knolls, and flatwoods brown and light yellowish brown fine sand that extends
to a depth of more than 80 inches.
The two map units in this group consist of nearly level Minor soils in this unit are Basinger, Cassia, Placid,
to gently sloping, moderately well drained soils and Pompano, St. Lucie, and Satellite soils.
nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy This unit is primarily used for range. Some areas have
throughout. Some have weakly cemented sand above a been cleared and planted to improved pasture grasses and
depth of 30 inches, and others have weakly cemented citrus trees.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 5

Some have thin lamellae of sandy loam at a depth of 40 to sand between depths of 30 and 50 inches. These units are
80 inches, and others have weakly cemented sand at a scattered throughout the survey area but are more com-
depth of 30 to 50 inches. This unit occurs in the mon in the northern half.
northwestern part of the survey area, generally west of
Interstate Highway 4. 2. Immokalee-Pomello-Myakka
1. Cane Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
mo ee and poorly drained sandy soils that have a weakly ce-
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained and mented sandy subsoil
poorly drained soils that are sandy throughout; some This map unit consists mostly of flatwoods interspersed
have a weakly cemented sandy subsoil at a depth of 30 to with low ridges and knolls and with shallow depressions
50 inches and poorly defined drainageways. Most areas are east of
This map unit consists mostly of broad, nearly level to East Lake Tohopekaliga and Alligator Lake and north of
gently sloping, deep, sandy soils that are intermingled Yeehaw Junction and Kenansville. The largest area is
with steeper soils on hillsides and with nearly level flat- about 7 miles long and 3 to 4 miles wide.
woods soils. These areas contain a few sand-bottom lakes. In areas of Immokalee and Myakka soils, the native
There are four areas of this unit in the survey area, all in vegetation is dominantly slash pine and longleaf pine with
the northwestern part. The largest is about 5 miles wide an understory of sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, gall-
and is mostly west of Interstate Highway 4. berry, and running oaks. Natural vegetation on the
In areas of Candler soils, the natural vegetation con- Pomello soils is mostly sand live oak and dwarf live oak,
sists of turkey oak, scrub live oak, slash pine, and longleaf sawpalmetto, and scattered longleaf pine and slash pine.
pine with an understory of dominantly creeping bluestem, Pineland threeawn is the dominant grass. Water-tolerant
lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and grassleaf trees such as baldcypress, sweetgum, and loblolly bay and
goldaster. Sand pine grows in some places. The natural a wide variety of grasses and sedges grow in the depres-
vegetation on the Immokalee soils is slash pine and lon- sions and poorly defined drainageways.
leaf pine with an understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry, This unit makes up about 39,050 acres, or about 6 per-
gleaf pine with an understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry, cent of the survey area. It is about 36 percent Immokalee
running oak, and pineland threeawn.
ruin o, man pi t a soils, 29 percent Pomello soils, 15 percent Myakka soils,
This unit makes up about 11,500 acres, or about 2 per- and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
cent of the survey area. It is about 70 percent Candler I kalee soils oo i o in boa
Immokalee soils are poorly drained and occur in broad
soils, 10 percent Immokalee soils, and 20 percent soils of f oos are Tpill y have a surface laer o
minor extent. flatwoods areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of
minor extent.
very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick and a sub-
Candler soils are excessively drained and occur on the surface layer of light gray and white fine sand that ex-
highest elevations. Typically, they are brownish and yel- tends to a depth of 37 inches. The subsoil is black and
lowish sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. Lamellae of dark reddish brown fine sand that is weakly cemented
reddish yellow loamy sand 1/16 to 1/4 inch thick are with organic matter. Dark brown and dark grayish brown
below a depth of 62 inches. fine sand extend to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Immokalee soils are poorly drained and occur on lower Pomello soils are moderately well drained and are on
elevations than Candler soils. Typically, they have a sur- the low ridges and knolls. Typically, they have a surface
face layer of very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches layer of gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsur-
thick and a subsurface layer of light gray and white fine face layer is gray and white fine sand that extends to a
sand that extends to a depth of 37 inches. The subsoil is depth of 47 inches. The subsoil is about 11 inches of black
black and dark reddish brown fine sand that is weakly ce- and dark reddish brown, weakly cemented fine sand.
mented with organic matter. Dark brown and dark gray- Below is brown and grayish brown fine sand to a depth of
ish brown fine sand extend to a depth of 80 inches or 80 inches or more.
more. Myakka soils are poorly drained and are in broad flat-
Minor soils in this unit are Adamsville, Narcoossee, woods areas similar to Immokalee soils. Typically, they
Paola, and Cassia soils. have a surface layer of very dark gray fine sand about 7
Most areas of this unit are used for citrus trees and im- inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
proved pasture grasses. Only a few areas remain in natu- that extends to a depth of 27 inches. The next layer is a
ral vegetation, weakly cemented subsoil of black and dark reddish brown
fine sand about 10 inches thick. Below is dark yellowish
Soils of the low ridges, knolls, and flatwoods brown and light yellowish brown fine sand that extends
to a depth of more than 80 inches.
The two map units in this group consist of nearly level Minor soils in this unit are Basinger, Cassia, Placid,
to gently sloping, moderately well drained soils and Pompano, St. Lucie, and Satellite soils.
nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy This unit is primarily used for range. Some areas have
throughout. Some have weakly cemented sand above a been cleared and planted to improved pasture grasses and
depth of 30 inches, and others have weakly cemented citrus trees.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 5

Some have thin lamellae of sandy loam at a depth of 40 to sand between depths of 30 and 50 inches. These units are
80 inches, and others have weakly cemented sand at a scattered throughout the survey area but are more com-
depth of 30 to 50 inches. This unit occurs in the mon in the northern half.
northwestern part of the survey area, generally west of
Interstate Highway 4. 2. Immokalee-Pomello-Myakka
1. Cane Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
mo ee and poorly drained sandy soils that have a weakly ce-
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained and mented sandy subsoil
poorly drained soils that are sandy throughout; some This map unit consists mostly of flatwoods interspersed
have a weakly cemented sandy subsoil at a depth of 30 to with low ridges and knolls and with shallow depressions
50 inches and poorly defined drainageways. Most areas are east of
This map unit consists mostly of broad, nearly level to East Lake Tohopekaliga and Alligator Lake and north of
gently sloping, deep, sandy soils that are intermingled Yeehaw Junction and Kenansville. The largest area is
with steeper soils on hillsides and with nearly level flat- about 7 miles long and 3 to 4 miles wide.
woods soils. These areas contain a few sand-bottom lakes. In areas of Immokalee and Myakka soils, the native
There are four areas of this unit in the survey area, all in vegetation is dominantly slash pine and longleaf pine with
the northwestern part. The largest is about 5 miles wide an understory of sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, gall-
and is mostly west of Interstate Highway 4. berry, and running oaks. Natural vegetation on the
In areas of Candler soils, the natural vegetation con- Pomello soils is mostly sand live oak and dwarf live oak,
sists of turkey oak, scrub live oak, slash pine, and longleaf sawpalmetto, and scattered longleaf pine and slash pine.
pine with an understory of dominantly creeping bluestem, Pineland threeawn is the dominant grass. Water-tolerant
lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and grassleaf trees such as baldcypress, sweetgum, and loblolly bay and
goldaster. Sand pine grows in some places. The natural a wide variety of grasses and sedges grow in the depres-
vegetation on the Immokalee soils is slash pine and lon- sions and poorly defined drainageways.
leaf pine with an understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry, This unit makes up about 39,050 acres, or about 6 per-
gleaf pine with an understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry, cent of the survey area. It is about 36 percent Immokalee
running oak, and pineland threeawn.
ruin o, man pi t a soils, 29 percent Pomello soils, 15 percent Myakka soils,
This unit makes up about 11,500 acres, or about 2 per- and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
cent of the survey area. It is about 70 percent Candler I kalee soils oo i o in boa
Immokalee soils are poorly drained and occur in broad
soils, 10 percent Immokalee soils, and 20 percent soils of f oos are Tpill y have a surface laer o
minor extent. flatwoods areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of
minor extent.
very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick and a sub-
Candler soils are excessively drained and occur on the surface layer of light gray and white fine sand that ex-
highest elevations. Typically, they are brownish and yel- tends to a depth of 37 inches. The subsoil is black and
lowish sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. Lamellae of dark reddish brown fine sand that is weakly cemented
reddish yellow loamy sand 1/16 to 1/4 inch thick are with organic matter. Dark brown and dark grayish brown
below a depth of 62 inches. fine sand extend to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Immokalee soils are poorly drained and occur on lower Pomello soils are moderately well drained and are on
elevations than Candler soils. Typically, they have a sur- the low ridges and knolls. Typically, they have a surface
face layer of very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches layer of gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsur-
thick and a subsurface layer of light gray and white fine face layer is gray and white fine sand that extends to a
sand that extends to a depth of 37 inches. The subsoil is depth of 47 inches. The subsoil is about 11 inches of black
black and dark reddish brown fine sand that is weakly ce- and dark reddish brown, weakly cemented fine sand.
mented with organic matter. Dark brown and dark gray- Below is brown and grayish brown fine sand to a depth of
ish brown fine sand extend to a depth of 80 inches or 80 inches or more.
more. Myakka soils are poorly drained and are in broad flat-
Minor soils in this unit are Adamsville, Narcoossee, woods areas similar to Immokalee soils. Typically, they
Paola, and Cassia soils. have a surface layer of very dark gray fine sand about 7
Most areas of this unit are used for citrus trees and im- inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
proved pasture grasses. Only a few areas remain in natu- that extends to a depth of 27 inches. The next layer is a
ral vegetation, weakly cemented subsoil of black and dark reddish brown
fine sand about 10 inches thick. Below is dark yellowish
Soils of the low ridges, knolls, and flatwoods brown and light yellowish brown fine sand that extends
to a depth of more than 80 inches.
The two map units in this group consist of nearly level Minor soils in this unit are Basinger, Cassia, Placid,
to gently sloping, moderately well drained soils and Pompano, St. Lucie, and Satellite soils.
nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy This unit is primarily used for range. Some areas have
throughout. Some have weakly cemented sand above a been cleared and planted to improved pasture grasses and
depth of 30 inches, and others have weakly cemented citrus trees.






6 SOIL SURVEY

3. Myakka-Tavares-Immokalee Soils of the flatwoods, generally not subject
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained to flooding or ponding
and poorly drained soils that are sandy throughout; some The three map units in this group consist of nearly
have a weakly cemented subsoil level, poorly drained soils. Some are sandy throughout
This map unit consists mostly of flatwoods and gently and have a weakly cemented, sandy subsoil; some have
rolling, moderately high ridges interspersed with shallow weakly cemented, sandy layers overlying a loamy subsoil;-
depressions and poorly defined drainageways. The largest and some have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 20
areas are east of St. Cloud and East Lake Tohopekaliga. inches. These units occur throughout the survey area ex-
Another moderate-sized area is west of Kissimmee. A few cept for the extreme northwestern corner.
small areas are scattered throughout the northern third
of the survey area. 4. Smyrna-Myakka-Immokalee
In areas of Tavares soils, the natural vegetation con- Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy
sists of turkey oak, live oak, slash pine, and longleaf pine throughout and have a weakly cemented subsoil
with an understory of creeping bluestem, lopsided indian- T m u c m
This map unit consists mostly of flatwoods and scat-
grass, pineland threeawn, and grassleaf goldaster. In termed depressions, low sloughs, and poorly defined
areas of Immokalee and Myakka soils, the native vegeta- dra ew e low dges are scattered trouho
drainageways. A few low ridges are scattered throughout
tion is dominantly slash pine and longleaf pine with an these areas. The largest areas are south of St. Cloud and
understory of sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, gallberry, generally east of the Sunshine State Parkway. Smaller
and running oaks. Water-tolerant trees such as bald- areas are east and north of Kissimmee.
cypress and loblolly bay and a wide variety of grasses Natural vegetation on the dominant soils consists of an
and sedges grow in the depressions and poorly defined open forest of slash pine and longleaf pine with an un-
drainageways. derstory of sawpalmetto, gallberry, running oak, and pine-
This unit makes up about 31,300 acres, or about 5 per- land threeawn. St. Johnswort is the common native
cent of the survey area. It is about 29 percent Myakka vegetation in the depressions; pineland threeawn and
soils, 20 percent Tavares soils, 11 percent Immokalee scattered pines, in the low sloughs; and cypress and hard-
soils, and 40 percent soils of minor extent. woods, in the poorly defined drainageways.
Myakka soils are poorly drained and are in broad flat- This unit makes up about 308,160 acres, or about 46
woods areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of very percent of the survey area. It is about 32 percent Smyrna
dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface soils, 20 percent Myakka soils, 13 percent Immokalee
layer is light gray fine sand that extends to a depth of 27 soils, and 35 percent soils of minor extent.
inches. The next layer is a weakly cemented subsoil of Smyrna soils are poorly drained and are in broad flat-
black and dark reddish brown fine sand about 10 inches woods areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of fine
thick. Below is dark yellowish brown and light yellowish sand 7 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is black, and the
brown fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or lower 3 inches is dark gray. The subsurface layer is 7
more. inches of light gray fine sand. The subsoil is fine sand
Tavares soils are moderately well drained and occur on about 6 inches thick and is weakly cemented with organic
the higher elevations. Typically, the surface layer is dark matter. The upper 3 inches is black, and the lower 3
grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The next inches is dark reddish brown. Next is 5 inches of brown
layer is grayish brown, pale brown, and very pale brown fine sand, 18 inches of light gray fine sand, and 13 inches
fine sand to a depth of about 48 inches. Below is white of grayish brown fine sand. At a depth of about 56 inches
fine sand that is mottled with brown and yellow and that is a second subsoil of dark reddish brown and black fine
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Immokalee soils are also poorly drained and occur in Myakka soils are poorly drained and are also in broad
broad flatwoods areas similar to those in which Myakka flatwoods areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of
soils occur. Typically, they have a surface layer of very very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The sub-
dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick and a subsurface surface layer is 20 inches of light gray fine sand. The sub-
layer of light gray and white fine sand that extends to a soil is 10 inches of weakly cemented fine sand. It is black
depth of 37 inches. The subsoil is black and dark reddish in the upper 6 inches and dark reddish brown and very
brown fine sand that is weakly cemented with organic dark gray in the lower 4 inches. Below is 6 inches of dark
matter. Dark brown and dark grayish brown fine sand ex- yellowish brown fine sand over 27 inches of light yel-
tend to a depth of 80 inches or more. lowish brown fine sand.
Minor soils in this unit are Adamsville, Delray, Nar- Immokalee soils are also poorly drained and occur in
coossee, Placid, Pomello, Pompano, Smyrna, and Wauchula very slightly higher flatwoods areas. Typically, they have
soils. a surface layer of very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches
Most of this unit is used for citrus trees. Some areas thick and a subsurface layer of light gray and white fine
are used as rangeland or for improved pasture grasses. sand that extends to a depth of 37 inches. The subsoil is






6 SOIL SURVEY

3. Myakka-Tavares-Immokalee Soils of the flatwoods, generally not subject
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained to flooding or ponding
and poorly drained soils that are sandy throughout; some The three map units in this group consist of nearly
have a weakly cemented subsoil level, poorly drained soils. Some are sandy throughout
This map unit consists mostly of flatwoods and gently and have a weakly cemented, sandy subsoil; some have
rolling, moderately high ridges interspersed with shallow weakly cemented, sandy layers overlying a loamy subsoil;-
depressions and poorly defined drainageways. The largest and some have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 20
areas are east of St. Cloud and East Lake Tohopekaliga. inches. These units occur throughout the survey area ex-
Another moderate-sized area is west of Kissimmee. A few cept for the extreme northwestern corner.
small areas are scattered throughout the northern third
of the survey area. 4. Smyrna-Myakka-Immokalee
In areas of Tavares soils, the natural vegetation con- Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy
sists of turkey oak, live oak, slash pine, and longleaf pine throughout and have a weakly cemented subsoil
with an understory of creeping bluestem, lopsided indian- T m u c m
This map unit consists mostly of flatwoods and scat-
grass, pineland threeawn, and grassleaf goldaster. In termed depressions, low sloughs, and poorly defined
areas of Immokalee and Myakka soils, the native vegeta- dra ew e low dges are scattered trouho
drainageways. A few low ridges are scattered throughout
tion is dominantly slash pine and longleaf pine with an these areas. The largest areas are south of St. Cloud and
understory of sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, gallberry, generally east of the Sunshine State Parkway. Smaller
and running oaks. Water-tolerant trees such as bald- areas are east and north of Kissimmee.
cypress and loblolly bay and a wide variety of grasses Natural vegetation on the dominant soils consists of an
and sedges grow in the depressions and poorly defined open forest of slash pine and longleaf pine with an un-
drainageways. derstory of sawpalmetto, gallberry, running oak, and pine-
This unit makes up about 31,300 acres, or about 5 per- land threeawn. St. Johnswort is the common native
cent of the survey area. It is about 29 percent Myakka vegetation in the depressions; pineland threeawn and
soils, 20 percent Tavares soils, 11 percent Immokalee scattered pines, in the low sloughs; and cypress and hard-
soils, and 40 percent soils of minor extent. woods, in the poorly defined drainageways.
Myakka soils are poorly drained and are in broad flat- This unit makes up about 308,160 acres, or about 46
woods areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of very percent of the survey area. It is about 32 percent Smyrna
dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface soils, 20 percent Myakka soils, 13 percent Immokalee
layer is light gray fine sand that extends to a depth of 27 soils, and 35 percent soils of minor extent.
inches. The next layer is a weakly cemented subsoil of Smyrna soils are poorly drained and are in broad flat-
black and dark reddish brown fine sand about 10 inches woods areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of fine
thick. Below is dark yellowish brown and light yellowish sand 7 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is black, and the
brown fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or lower 3 inches is dark gray. The subsurface layer is 7
more. inches of light gray fine sand. The subsoil is fine sand
Tavares soils are moderately well drained and occur on about 6 inches thick and is weakly cemented with organic
the higher elevations. Typically, the surface layer is dark matter. The upper 3 inches is black, and the lower 3
grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The next inches is dark reddish brown. Next is 5 inches of brown
layer is grayish brown, pale brown, and very pale brown fine sand, 18 inches of light gray fine sand, and 13 inches
fine sand to a depth of about 48 inches. Below is white of grayish brown fine sand. At a depth of about 56 inches
fine sand that is mottled with brown and yellow and that is a second subsoil of dark reddish brown and black fine
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Immokalee soils are also poorly drained and occur in Myakka soils are poorly drained and are also in broad
broad flatwoods areas similar to those in which Myakka flatwoods areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of
soils occur. Typically, they have a surface layer of very very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The sub-
dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick and a subsurface surface layer is 20 inches of light gray fine sand. The sub-
layer of light gray and white fine sand that extends to a soil is 10 inches of weakly cemented fine sand. It is black
depth of 37 inches. The subsoil is black and dark reddish in the upper 6 inches and dark reddish brown and very
brown fine sand that is weakly cemented with organic dark gray in the lower 4 inches. Below is 6 inches of dark
matter. Dark brown and dark grayish brown fine sand ex- yellowish brown fine sand over 27 inches of light yel-
tend to a depth of 80 inches or more. lowish brown fine sand.
Minor soils in this unit are Adamsville, Delray, Nar- Immokalee soils are also poorly drained and occur in
coossee, Placid, Pomello, Pompano, Smyrna, and Wauchula very slightly higher flatwoods areas. Typically, they have
soils. a surface layer of very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches
Most of this unit is used for citrus trees. Some areas thick and a subsurface layer of light gray and white fine
are used as rangeland or for improved pasture grasses. sand that extends to a depth of 37 inches. The subsoil is






6 SOIL SURVEY

3. Myakka-Tavares-Immokalee Soils of the flatwoods, generally not subject
Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained to flooding or ponding
and poorly drained soils that are sandy throughout; some The three map units in this group consist of nearly
have a weakly cemented subsoil level, poorly drained soils. Some are sandy throughout
This map unit consists mostly of flatwoods and gently and have a weakly cemented, sandy subsoil; some have
rolling, moderately high ridges interspersed with shallow weakly cemented, sandy layers overlying a loamy subsoil;-
depressions and poorly defined drainageways. The largest and some have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 20
areas are east of St. Cloud and East Lake Tohopekaliga. inches. These units occur throughout the survey area ex-
Another moderate-sized area is west of Kissimmee. A few cept for the extreme northwestern corner.
small areas are scattered throughout the northern third
of the survey area. 4. Smyrna-Myakka-Immokalee
In areas of Tavares soils, the natural vegetation con- Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy
sists of turkey oak, live oak, slash pine, and longleaf pine throughout and have a weakly cemented subsoil
with an understory of creeping bluestem, lopsided indian- T m u c m
This map unit consists mostly of flatwoods and scat-
grass, pineland threeawn, and grassleaf goldaster. In termed depressions, low sloughs, and poorly defined
areas of Immokalee and Myakka soils, the native vegeta- dra ew e low dges are scattered trouho
drainageways. A few low ridges are scattered throughout
tion is dominantly slash pine and longleaf pine with an these areas. The largest areas are south of St. Cloud and
understory of sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, gallberry, generally east of the Sunshine State Parkway. Smaller
and running oaks. Water-tolerant trees such as bald- areas are east and north of Kissimmee.
cypress and loblolly bay and a wide variety of grasses Natural vegetation on the dominant soils consists of an
and sedges grow in the depressions and poorly defined open forest of slash pine and longleaf pine with an un-
drainageways. derstory of sawpalmetto, gallberry, running oak, and pine-
This unit makes up about 31,300 acres, or about 5 per- land threeawn. St. Johnswort is the common native
cent of the survey area. It is about 29 percent Myakka vegetation in the depressions; pineland threeawn and
soils, 20 percent Tavares soils, 11 percent Immokalee scattered pines, in the low sloughs; and cypress and hard-
soils, and 40 percent soils of minor extent. woods, in the poorly defined drainageways.
Myakka soils are poorly drained and are in broad flat- This unit makes up about 308,160 acres, or about 46
woods areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of very percent of the survey area. It is about 32 percent Smyrna
dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface soils, 20 percent Myakka soils, 13 percent Immokalee
layer is light gray fine sand that extends to a depth of 27 soils, and 35 percent soils of minor extent.
inches. The next layer is a weakly cemented subsoil of Smyrna soils are poorly drained and are in broad flat-
black and dark reddish brown fine sand about 10 inches woods areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of fine
thick. Below is dark yellowish brown and light yellowish sand 7 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is black, and the
brown fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or lower 3 inches is dark gray. The subsurface layer is 7
more. inches of light gray fine sand. The subsoil is fine sand
Tavares soils are moderately well drained and occur on about 6 inches thick and is weakly cemented with organic
the higher elevations. Typically, the surface layer is dark matter. The upper 3 inches is black, and the lower 3
grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The next inches is dark reddish brown. Next is 5 inches of brown
layer is grayish brown, pale brown, and very pale brown fine sand, 18 inches of light gray fine sand, and 13 inches
fine sand to a depth of about 48 inches. Below is white of grayish brown fine sand. At a depth of about 56 inches
fine sand that is mottled with brown and yellow and that is a second subsoil of dark reddish brown and black fine
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Immokalee soils are also poorly drained and occur in Myakka soils are poorly drained and are also in broad
broad flatwoods areas similar to those in which Myakka flatwoods areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of
soils occur. Typically, they have a surface layer of very very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The sub-
dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick and a subsurface surface layer is 20 inches of light gray fine sand. The sub-
layer of light gray and white fine sand that extends to a soil is 10 inches of weakly cemented fine sand. It is black
depth of 37 inches. The subsoil is black and dark reddish in the upper 6 inches and dark reddish brown and very
brown fine sand that is weakly cemented with organic dark gray in the lower 4 inches. Below is 6 inches of dark
matter. Dark brown and dark grayish brown fine sand ex- yellowish brown fine sand over 27 inches of light yel-
tend to a depth of 80 inches or more. lowish brown fine sand.
Minor soils in this unit are Adamsville, Delray, Nar- Immokalee soils are also poorly drained and occur in
coossee, Placid, Pomello, Pompano, Smyrna, and Wauchula very slightly higher flatwoods areas. Typically, they have
soils. a surface layer of very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches
Most of this unit is used for citrus trees. Some areas thick and a subsurface layer of light gray and white fine
are used as rangeland or for improved pasture grasses. sand that extends to a depth of 37 inches. The subsoil is






OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 7

black and dark reddish brown fine sand that is weakly ce- fine sand. The upper subsoil is fine sand 20 inches thick.
mented with organic matter. Dark brown and dark gray- The upper 4 inches is light yellowish brown, the next 6
ish brown fine sand extend to a depth of 80 inches or inches is reddish yellow, and the lower 10 inches is yel-
more. lowish brown. Next is 12 inches of light brownish gray
Minor soils in this unit are Basinger, Placid, and Satel- fine sand that separates the upper subsoil from the lower.
lite soils. The lower subsoil is about 18 inches of olive gray sandy
Large areas of this unit are used as rangeland or graze- clay loam. Below is olive gray sandy loam with pockets of
able woodland. Other large areas are planted to improved sandy clay loam and sandy loam.
pasture grasses. Some areas are used for urban develop- Minor soils in this unit are Basinger and Placid soils.
ment. Most of this unit is used for native range. A few large
areas are planted to improved pasture grasses.
5. EauGallie-Smyrna-Malabar
Nearly level, poorly drained soils; some are sandy 6. Riviera-Vero
throughout and have a weakly cemented subsoil, some Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
have a weakly cemented sandy subsoil and are loamy depth of less than 40 inches and loamy below; some have
below, and some are sandy to a depth of more than 40 a weakly cemented sandy subsoil
inches and loamy below
This map unit consists of mostly broad, nearly level,
This map unit consists mostly of flatwoods and low, low flats interspersed with shallow depressions and scat-
broad sloughs that contain lower depressions. The largest tered "islands" of slightly higher flatwoods soils. Areas
areas are in the southern half of the county. are mostly west of the Sunshine State Parkway and north
Natural vegetation on the EauGallie and Smyrna soils of Lake Hatchineha.
consists of an open forest of slash pine and longleaf pine Natural vegetation on the broad flats consists mostly of
with an understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry, and pine- scattered slash pines, cabbage palms, sawpalmetto, gall-
land threeawn. Malabar soils, in broad sloughs, are berry, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn. In the shallow
covered mostly with maidencane, pineland threeawn, and depressions, the dominant vegetation is cypress, mixed
sand cordgrass. St. Johnswort is the most common hardwoods, and scattered cabbage palms with an un-
vegetation in the depressions.
vegetation in the depressions. derstory of greenbriers, ferns, sedges, and sand
This unit makes up about 105,300 acres, or about 16 of ferns sed and sand
percent of the survey area. It is about 38 percent EauGal- cordgrass.
This unit makes up about 22,400 acres, or about 4 per-
lie soils, 22 percent Smyrna soils, 20 percent Malabar
cent of the survey area. It is about 75 percent Riviera
soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
EauGallie soils are in broad flatwoods areas and are soils, 20 percent Vero soils, and 5 percent soils of minor
EauGallie soils are in broad flatwoods areas and are
poorly drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of extent.
black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer Riviera soils are poorly drained and occur at the lowest
is fine sand that is gray in the upper 7 inches and light elevations. Typically, the surface layer is 6 inches of black
gray in the lower 10 inches. The subsoil is black fine sand fine sand. The subsurface layer is 18 inches of white fine
11 inches thick. Below this is 15 inches of brown fine sand sand. The upper 14 inches of the subsoil is very dark
overlying 5 inches of very pale brown fine sand. Next is grayish brown sandy clay loam and has tongues of the
gray sandy clay loam that extends to a depth of more subsurface layer extending into it. The lower 11 inches is
than 80 inches. very dark grayish brown sandy clay loam. Below is 12
Smyrna soils are also poorly drained and occur in broad inches of very dark grayish brown sandy loam over dark
flatwoods areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of gray loamy sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or
fine sand about 7 inches thick. This layer is black in the more.
upper 4 inches and dark gray in the lower 3 inches. The Vero soils are also poorly drained and are on the
subsurface layer is light gray fine sand 7 inches thick, slightly higher flatwoods areas. Typically, the surface
Next is a weakly cemented, fine sand subsoil that is black layer is fine sand about 10 inches thick. The upper 7
in the upper 3 inches and dark reddish brown in the inches is black, and the lower 3 inches is dark gray. The
lower 3 inches. Next is 5 inches of brown fine sand, 18 subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about 11 inches
inches of light gray fine sand, and 13 inches of grayish thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 62 inches. It is 3
brown fine sand. Below a depth of about 56 inches is a inches of dark brown fine sand, 4 inches of black fine
second subsoil of dark reddish brown and black fine sand sand, 4 inches of brown fine sandy loam, 16 inches of light
that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. brownish gray sandy clay loam, and 14 inches of gray
Malabar soils are poorly drained and occur on lower sandy clay loam. The substratum is greenish gray fine
positions in the landscape than EauGallie and Smyrna sandy loam and loamy fine sand that extends to a depth
soils. Typically, they have a surface layer of black fine of more than 80 inches.
sand 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 6 inches of Minor soils in this unit are Wauchula, Winder, and
light brownish gray fine sand over 8 inches of pale brown Floridana soils.






OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 7

black and dark reddish brown fine sand that is weakly ce- fine sand. The upper subsoil is fine sand 20 inches thick.
mented with organic matter. Dark brown and dark gray- The upper 4 inches is light yellowish brown, the next 6
ish brown fine sand extend to a depth of 80 inches or inches is reddish yellow, and the lower 10 inches is yel-
more. lowish brown. Next is 12 inches of light brownish gray
Minor soils in this unit are Basinger, Placid, and Satel- fine sand that separates the upper subsoil from the lower.
lite soils. The lower subsoil is about 18 inches of olive gray sandy
Large areas of this unit are used as rangeland or graze- clay loam. Below is olive gray sandy loam with pockets of
able woodland. Other large areas are planted to improved sandy clay loam and sandy loam.
pasture grasses. Some areas are used for urban develop- Minor soils in this unit are Basinger and Placid soils.
ment. Most of this unit is used for native range. A few large
areas are planted to improved pasture grasses.
5. EauGallie-Smyrna-Malabar
Nearly level, poorly drained soils; some are sandy 6. Riviera-Vero
throughout and have a weakly cemented subsoil, some Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a
have a weakly cemented sandy subsoil and are loamy depth of less than 40 inches and loamy below; some have
below, and some are sandy to a depth of more than 40 a weakly cemented sandy subsoil
inches and loamy below
This map unit consists of mostly broad, nearly level,
This map unit consists mostly of flatwoods and low, low flats interspersed with shallow depressions and scat-
broad sloughs that contain lower depressions. The largest tered "islands" of slightly higher flatwoods soils. Areas
areas are in the southern half of the county. are mostly west of the Sunshine State Parkway and north
Natural vegetation on the EauGallie and Smyrna soils of Lake Hatchineha.
consists of an open forest of slash pine and longleaf pine Natural vegetation on the broad flats consists mostly of
with an understory of sawpalmetto, gallberry, and pine- scattered slash pines, cabbage palms, sawpalmetto, gall-
land threeawn. Malabar soils, in broad sloughs, are berry, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn. In the shallow
covered mostly with maidencane, pineland threeawn, and depressions, the dominant vegetation is cypress, mixed
sand cordgrass. St. Johnswort is the most common hardwoods, and scattered cabbage palms with an un-
vegetation in the depressions.
vegetation in the depressions. derstory of greenbriers, ferns, sedges, and sand
This unit makes up about 105,300 acres, or about 16 of ferns sed and sand
percent of the survey area. It is about 38 percent EauGal- cordgrass.
This unit makes up about 22,400 acres, or about 4 per-
lie soils, 22 percent Smyrna soils, 20 percent Malabar
cent of the survey area. It is about 75 percent Riviera
soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
EauGallie soils are in broad flatwoods areas and are soils, 20 percent Vero soils, and 5 percent soils of minor
EauGallie soils are in broad flatwoods areas and are
poorly drained. Typically, they have a surface layer of extent.
black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer Riviera soils are poorly drained and occur at the lowest
is fine sand that is gray in the upper 7 inches and light elevations. Typically, the surface layer is 6 inches of black
gray in the lower 10 inches. The subsoil is black fine sand fine sand. The subsurface layer is 18 inches of white fine
11 inches thick. Below this is 15 inches of brown fine sand sand. The upper 14 inches of the subsoil is very dark
overlying 5 inches of very pale brown fine sand. Next is grayish brown sandy clay loam and has tongues of the
gray sandy clay loam that extends to a depth of more subsurface layer extending into it. The lower 11 inches is
than 80 inches. very dark grayish brown sandy clay loam. Below is 12
Smyrna soils are also poorly drained and occur in broad inches of very dark grayish brown sandy loam over dark
flatwoods areas. Typically, they have a surface layer of gray loamy sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or
fine sand about 7 inches thick. This layer is black in the more.
upper 4 inches and dark gray in the lower 3 inches. The Vero soils are also poorly drained and are on the
subsurface layer is light gray fine sand 7 inches thick, slightly higher flatwoods areas. Typically, the surface
Next is a weakly cemented, fine sand subsoil that is black layer is fine sand about 10 inches thick. The upper 7
in the upper 3 inches and dark reddish brown in the inches is black, and the lower 3 inches is dark gray. The
lower 3 inches. Next is 5 inches of brown fine sand, 18 subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about 11 inches
inches of light gray fine sand, and 13 inches of grayish thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 62 inches. It is 3
brown fine sand. Below a depth of about 56 inches is a inches of dark brown fine sand, 4 inches of black fine
second subsoil of dark reddish brown and black fine sand sand, 4 inches of brown fine sandy loam, 16 inches of light
that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. brownish gray sandy clay loam, and 14 inches of gray
Malabar soils are poorly drained and occur on lower sandy clay loam. The substratum is greenish gray fine
positions in the landscape than EauGallie and Smyrna sandy loam and loamy fine sand that extends to a depth
soils. Typically, they have a surface layer of black fine of more than 80 inches.
sand 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 6 inches of Minor soils in this unit are Wauchula, Winder, and
light brownish gray fine sand over 8 inches of pale brown Floridana soils.







8 SOIL SURVEY

Some areas of this unit are used for improved pasture next 9 inches is very pale brown, and the lower 46 inches
grasses, but most areas remain in natural vegetation and is light gray.
are used for range. Delray soils are very poorly drained and occur in
depressions and at the edges of large lakes. Typically, the
Soils of the swamps, marshes, and very wet surface layer is 14 inches of black loamy fine sand. The
areas, generally subject to flooding or subsurface layer is 30 inches of gray fine sand. The sub-
ponding soil is about 18 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is dark
gray fine sandy loam, and the next 12 inches is dark gray-
The five map units in this group consist of nearly level, ish brown sandy clay loam. Below is grayish brown loamy
poorly drained and very poorly drained soils. Some are fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
sandy throughout; some have a loamy or clayey subsoil; Kaliga soils are the dominant minor soils in this unit.
some are organic and have sandy, loamy, or clayey Most areas of this unit are in native vegetation. A few
material within a depth of 51 inches; and some have or- areas have been planted to improved pasture grasses.
ganic material extending to a depth of more than 51
inches. These units occur throughout the survey area. 8. Basinger-Placid-Samsula
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
7. Malabar-Pompano-Delray soils; most are sandy throughout and some have organic
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained layers underlain by sandy layers
soils; some are sandy throughout, and some are loamy This map unit consists mostly of deep, sandy soils in
below a depth of 40 inches broad sloughs, depressions, and drainageways, and or-
This map unit consists mostly of broad, low sloughs, ganic soils in marshes and drainageways. Areas of this
depressions, and margins of large lakes. Areas of this unit unit are primarily in the north-central part of the survey
occur primarily along the west shore of Lake Kissimmee area. The largest single area is near Lake Gentry.
and southwest of Lake Marian. Most areas are long and Natural vegetation in the broad sloughs and depres-
narrow. sions is mostly scattered pond pine, cypress, gum,
In areas of Malabar and Pompano soils on broad, low maidencane, pineland threeawn, waxmyrtle, and
flats and sloughs, the natural vegetation is scattered slash pickerelweed. In drainageways, the vegetation is mostly
pine and longleaf pines, cabbage palms, sand cordgrass, cypress, gum, maple, ash, and greenbriers; and in
maidencane, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn. Delray marshes, it is mostly sawgrass, maidencane, and bullton-
soils are usually covered with scattered cypress trees, gue.
loblollybay, scattered cabbage palms, maidencane, and This unit makes up about 28,280 acres, or about 4 per-
pickerelweed. The dominant vegetation in the depressions cent of the survey area. It is about 55 percent Basinger
is St. Johnswort, and in the poorly defined drainageways, soils, 30 percent Placid soils, 10 percent Samsula soils, and
various hardwoods and cypress. 5 percent soils of minor extent.
This unit makes up about 16,700 acres, or about 2 per- Basinger soils are poorly drained and occur in broad,
cent of the survey area. It is about 45 percent Malabar low sloughs and depressions. Typically, the surface layer
soils, 30 percent Pompano soils, 15 percent Delray soils, is black and dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
and 10 percent soils of minor extent. subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about 12 inches
Malabar soils are poorly drained and occur mostly in thick. The subsoil is about 16 inches of dark brown fine
broad sloughs, but some are also in depressions. Typically, sand. Below this is 23 inches of light gray fine sand and
they have a surface layer of black fine sand about 4 22 inches or more of brown fine sand.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is 6 inches of light Placid soils are in low depressions and drainageways.
brownish gray fine sand over 8 inches of pale brown fine Typically, the surface layer is 14 inches of black fine sand
sand. The upper subsoil is fine sand 20 inches thick. The over 10 inches of very dark gray fine sand. The underly-
upper 4 inches is light yellowish brown, the next 6 inches ing layers are light brownish gray and light gray fine
is reddish yellow, and the lower 10 inches is yellowish sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
brown. Next is 12 inches of light brownish gray fine sand Samsula soils are mostly in marshes, but some areas
that separates the upper subsoil from the lower. The are in swamps. Typically, the surface layer consists of
lower subsoil is about 18 inches of olive gray sandy clay muck. The upper 8 inches is dark reddish brown, and the
loam. Below is olive gray sandy loam with pockets of lower 14 inches is black. Beneath the muck is 17 inches of
sandy clay loam and sandy loam. black fine sand. Grayish brown fine sand extends to a
Pompano soils are poorly drained and also occur in depth of 65 inches or more.
sloughs and depressions. Typically, the surface layer is 12 Minor soils in this unit are Nittaw, Kaliga, Gentry, and
inches thick. The upper 5 inches is dark gray fine sand, Floridana soils.
and the lower 7 inches is grayish brown fine sand. The Almost all of this unit is still in natural vegetation.
underlying layers are fine sand and extend to a depth of Some areas are used for range, and some have been
80 inches or more. The upper 11 inches is light gray, the planted to improved pasture grasses.







8 SOIL SURVEY

Some areas of this unit are used for improved pasture next 9 inches is very pale brown, and the lower 46 inches
grasses, but most areas remain in natural vegetation and is light gray.
are used for range. Delray soils are very poorly drained and occur in
depressions and at the edges of large lakes. Typically, the
Soils of the swamps, marshes, and very wet surface layer is 14 inches of black loamy fine sand. The
areas, generally subject to flooding or subsurface layer is 30 inches of gray fine sand. The sub-
ponding soil is about 18 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is dark
gray fine sandy loam, and the next 12 inches is dark gray-
The five map units in this group consist of nearly level, ish brown sandy clay loam. Below is grayish brown loamy
poorly drained and very poorly drained soils. Some are fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
sandy throughout; some have a loamy or clayey subsoil; Kaliga soils are the dominant minor soils in this unit.
some are organic and have sandy, loamy, or clayey Most areas of this unit are in native vegetation. A few
material within a depth of 51 inches; and some have or- areas have been planted to improved pasture grasses.
ganic material extending to a depth of more than 51
inches. These units occur throughout the survey area. 8. Basinger-Placid-Samsula
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
7. Malabar-Pompano-Delray soils; most are sandy throughout and some have organic
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained layers underlain by sandy layers
soils; some are sandy throughout, and some are loamy This map unit consists mostly of deep, sandy soils in
below a depth of 40 inches broad sloughs, depressions, and drainageways, and or-
This map unit consists mostly of broad, low sloughs, ganic soils in marshes and drainageways. Areas of this
depressions, and margins of large lakes. Areas of this unit unit are primarily in the north-central part of the survey
occur primarily along the west shore of Lake Kissimmee area. The largest single area is near Lake Gentry.
and southwest of Lake Marian. Most areas are long and Natural vegetation in the broad sloughs and depres-
narrow. sions is mostly scattered pond pine, cypress, gum,
In areas of Malabar and Pompano soils on broad, low maidencane, pineland threeawn, waxmyrtle, and
flats and sloughs, the natural vegetation is scattered slash pickerelweed. In drainageways, the vegetation is mostly
pine and longleaf pines, cabbage palms, sand cordgrass, cypress, gum, maple, ash, and greenbriers; and in
maidencane, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn. Delray marshes, it is mostly sawgrass, maidencane, and bullton-
soils are usually covered with scattered cypress trees, gue.
loblollybay, scattered cabbage palms, maidencane, and This unit makes up about 28,280 acres, or about 4 per-
pickerelweed. The dominant vegetation in the depressions cent of the survey area. It is about 55 percent Basinger
is St. Johnswort, and in the poorly defined drainageways, soils, 30 percent Placid soils, 10 percent Samsula soils, and
various hardwoods and cypress. 5 percent soils of minor extent.
This unit makes up about 16,700 acres, or about 2 per- Basinger soils are poorly drained and occur in broad,
cent of the survey area. It is about 45 percent Malabar low sloughs and depressions. Typically, the surface layer
soils, 30 percent Pompano soils, 15 percent Delray soils, is black and dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
and 10 percent soils of minor extent. subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about 12 inches
Malabar soils are poorly drained and occur mostly in thick. The subsoil is about 16 inches of dark brown fine
broad sloughs, but some are also in depressions. Typically, sand. Below this is 23 inches of light gray fine sand and
they have a surface layer of black fine sand about 4 22 inches or more of brown fine sand.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is 6 inches of light Placid soils are in low depressions and drainageways.
brownish gray fine sand over 8 inches of pale brown fine Typically, the surface layer is 14 inches of black fine sand
sand. The upper subsoil is fine sand 20 inches thick. The over 10 inches of very dark gray fine sand. The underly-
upper 4 inches is light yellowish brown, the next 6 inches ing layers are light brownish gray and light gray fine
is reddish yellow, and the lower 10 inches is yellowish sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
brown. Next is 12 inches of light brownish gray fine sand Samsula soils are mostly in marshes, but some areas
that separates the upper subsoil from the lower. The are in swamps. Typically, the surface layer consists of
lower subsoil is about 18 inches of olive gray sandy clay muck. The upper 8 inches is dark reddish brown, and the
loam. Below is olive gray sandy loam with pockets of lower 14 inches is black. Beneath the muck is 17 inches of
sandy clay loam and sandy loam. black fine sand. Grayish brown fine sand extends to a
Pompano soils are poorly drained and also occur in depth of 65 inches or more.
sloughs and depressions. Typically, the surface layer is 12 Minor soils in this unit are Nittaw, Kaliga, Gentry, and
inches thick. The upper 5 inches is dark gray fine sand, Floridana soils.
and the lower 7 inches is grayish brown fine sand. The Almost all of this unit is still in natural vegetation.
underlying layers are fine sand and extend to a depth of Some areas are used for range, and some have been
80 inches or more. The upper 11 inches is light gray, the planted to improved pasture grasses.







8 SOIL SURVEY

Some areas of this unit are used for improved pasture next 9 inches is very pale brown, and the lower 46 inches
grasses, but most areas remain in natural vegetation and is light gray.
are used for range. Delray soils are very poorly drained and occur in
depressions and at the edges of large lakes. Typically, the
Soils of the swamps, marshes, and very wet surface layer is 14 inches of black loamy fine sand. The
areas, generally subject to flooding or subsurface layer is 30 inches of gray fine sand. The sub-
ponding soil is about 18 inches thick. The upper 6 inches is dark
gray fine sandy loam, and the next 12 inches is dark gray-
The five map units in this group consist of nearly level, ish brown sandy clay loam. Below is grayish brown loamy
poorly drained and very poorly drained soils. Some are fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
sandy throughout; some have a loamy or clayey subsoil; Kaliga soils are the dominant minor soils in this unit.
some are organic and have sandy, loamy, or clayey Most areas of this unit are in native vegetation. A few
material within a depth of 51 inches; and some have or- areas have been planted to improved pasture grasses.
ganic material extending to a depth of more than 51
inches. These units occur throughout the survey area. 8. Basinger-Placid-Samsula
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
7. Malabar-Pompano-Delray soils; most are sandy throughout and some have organic
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained layers underlain by sandy layers
soils; some are sandy throughout, and some are loamy This map unit consists mostly of deep, sandy soils in
below a depth of 40 inches broad sloughs, depressions, and drainageways, and or-
This map unit consists mostly of broad, low sloughs, ganic soils in marshes and drainageways. Areas of this
depressions, and margins of large lakes. Areas of this unit unit are primarily in the north-central part of the survey
occur primarily along the west shore of Lake Kissimmee area. The largest single area is near Lake Gentry.
and southwest of Lake Marian. Most areas are long and Natural vegetation in the broad sloughs and depres-
narrow. sions is mostly scattered pond pine, cypress, gum,
In areas of Malabar and Pompano soils on broad, low maidencane, pineland threeawn, waxmyrtle, and
flats and sloughs, the natural vegetation is scattered slash pickerelweed. In drainageways, the vegetation is mostly
pine and longleaf pines, cabbage palms, sand cordgrass, cypress, gum, maple, ash, and greenbriers; and in
maidencane, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn. Delray marshes, it is mostly sawgrass, maidencane, and bullton-
soils are usually covered with scattered cypress trees, gue.
loblollybay, scattered cabbage palms, maidencane, and This unit makes up about 28,280 acres, or about 4 per-
pickerelweed. The dominant vegetation in the depressions cent of the survey area. It is about 55 percent Basinger
is St. Johnswort, and in the poorly defined drainageways, soils, 30 percent Placid soils, 10 percent Samsula soils, and
various hardwoods and cypress. 5 percent soils of minor extent.
This unit makes up about 16,700 acres, or about 2 per- Basinger soils are poorly drained and occur in broad,
cent of the survey area. It is about 45 percent Malabar low sloughs and depressions. Typically, the surface layer
soils, 30 percent Pompano soils, 15 percent Delray soils, is black and dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The
and 10 percent soils of minor extent. subsurface layer is light gray fine sand about 12 inches
Malabar soils are poorly drained and occur mostly in thick. The subsoil is about 16 inches of dark brown fine
broad sloughs, but some are also in depressions. Typically, sand. Below this is 23 inches of light gray fine sand and
they have a surface layer of black fine sand about 4 22 inches or more of brown fine sand.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is 6 inches of light Placid soils are in low depressions and drainageways.
brownish gray fine sand over 8 inches of pale brown fine Typically, the surface layer is 14 inches of black fine sand
sand. The upper subsoil is fine sand 20 inches thick. The over 10 inches of very dark gray fine sand. The underly-
upper 4 inches is light yellowish brown, the next 6 inches ing layers are light brownish gray and light gray fine
is reddish yellow, and the lower 10 inches is yellowish sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
brown. Next is 12 inches of light brownish gray fine sand Samsula soils are mostly in marshes, but some areas
that separates the upper subsoil from the lower. The are in swamps. Typically, the surface layer consists of
lower subsoil is about 18 inches of olive gray sandy clay muck. The upper 8 inches is dark reddish brown, and the
loam. Below is olive gray sandy loam with pockets of lower 14 inches is black. Beneath the muck is 17 inches of
sandy clay loam and sandy loam. black fine sand. Grayish brown fine sand extends to a
Pompano soils are poorly drained and also occur in depth of 65 inches or more.
sloughs and depressions. Typically, the surface layer is 12 Minor soils in this unit are Nittaw, Kaliga, Gentry, and
inches thick. The upper 5 inches is dark gray fine sand, Floridana soils.
and the lower 7 inches is grayish brown fine sand. The Almost all of this unit is still in natural vegetation.
underlying layers are fine sand and extend to a depth of Some areas are used for range, and some have been
80 inches or more. The upper 11 inches is light gray, the planted to improved pasture grasses.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 9

9. Kaliga-Nittaw-Gentry an understory of waxmyrtle, greenbrier, blackberry, titi,
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some are muck and osmunda fern. In marshes, natural vegetation is
over clayey material, some are clayey throughout, and maidencane, pickerelweed, bulltongue, lilies, and sawgrass.
some are sandy over loamy material This unit makes up about 40,090 acres, or about 6 per-
cent of the survey area. It is about 55 percent Hontoon
This map unit consists mostly of organic and clayey soils, 35 percent Samsula soils, and 10 percent soils of
soils in drainageways, swamps, and marshes. Most areas minor extent.
of this unit are in the eastern part of the survey area Hontoon soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
along Bull and Crabgrass Creeks, west and south of Lake surface layer is dark reddish brown muck about 5 inches
Tohopekaliga and Cypress Lake, and along the Kissimmee thick. The next layer is about 24 inches of black muck.
River. Most areas are long and narrow. Dark reddish brown muck extends to a depth of 70 inches
In drainageways and swamps, the vegetation is mostly or more.
cypress, sweetgum, maple, bay, tupelo, hickory, and Samsula soils are also very poorly drained. Typically,
cabbage palms. Some areas are almost all cypress. In the surface layer consists of muck. The upper 8 inches is
marshes and depressions, the dominant vegetation is saw- dark reddish brown, and the lower 14 inches is black.
grass, maidencane, cattails, pickerelweed, and buttonbush. Next is 17 inches of black fine sand. Grayish brown fine
This unit makes up about 40,660 acres, or about 6 per- sand extends to a depth of 65 inches or more.
cent of the survey area. It is about 24 percent Kaliga Minor soils in this unit are Placid, Kaliga, and Pompano
soils, 19 percent Nittaw soils, 8 percent Gentry soils, and soils.
49 percent soils of minor extent. Most areas of this unit remain in native vegetation. A
Kaliga soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the sur- few areas are used for improved pasture grasses.
face layer is muck about 26 inches thick. The upper 7
inches is dark brown, and the lower 19 inches is black. 11. Pompano
The underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches N d
or more. It is 6 inches of black loam, 5 inches of very throughout
dark gray loamy fine sand, 16 inches of very dark gray touhot
clay, 12 inches of very dark gray sandy clay loam, and 15 This map unit is made up of broad swamps and poorly
inches of grayish brown loamy fine sand. defined drainageways. It occurs in the southeastern part
Nittaw soils are also very poorly drained. Typically, the of the survey area along Blue Cypress Creek and Cow
surface layer is 8 inches of black muck. Below it is 13 Log Branch and in the northwestern part in Reedy Creek
inches of very dark gray sandy clay, then 24 inches of Swamp.
dark gray sandy clay, and then 19 inches of gray sandy Natural vegetation is mostly cypress, sweetgum, bay,
clay. Light gray fine sand extends to a depth of 76 inches blackgum, red maple, cabbage palm, and swamp ash with
or more. an understory mostly of greenbrier and blackberry. In a
Gentry soils are also very poorly drained. Typically, the few areas, there are maidencane and St. Johnswort.
surface layer is black fine sand 24 inches thick. The sub- This unit makes up about 19,060 acres, or about 3 per-
soil is gray fine sandy loam about 40 inches thick. The cent of the survey area. It is about 70 percent Pompano
substratum is light gray fine sand and extends to a depth soils and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
of 80 inches or more. Pompano soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
Minor soils in this unit are Placid, Floridana, Riviera, layer is 12 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is dark gray
Winder, Hontoon, and Samsula soils. fine sand, and the lower 7 inches is grayish brown fine
Many areas of this unit are still in natural vegetation, sand. The underlying layers are fine sand and extend to a
Some areas are in improved pasture grasses; and some depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 11 inches is light
areas are used for range. gray, the next 9 inches is very pale brown, and the lower
46 inches is light gray.
10. Hontoon-Samsula The minor soils in this unit are mostly Placid, Delray,
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils; some are Basinger, and Malabar soils.
organic throughout, and some are sandy within a depth Most areas of this unit are still in natural vegetation.
of 51 inches Some areas are used for range, and some are planted to
improved pasture grasses.
This map unit consists mostly of organic soils in improved pasture grasses.
swamps, and to a lesser extent, in marshes. Most areas
are in the northern third of the survey area. Large areas Soil maps for detailed planning
of this unit are in Reedy Creek, Davenport Creek, Cat
Island, Big Bend, and Jug Creek Swamps. There are also The map units shown on the detailed soil maps at the
a few other smaller areas, back of this publication represent the kinds of soil in the
Natural vegetation in the swamps is mostly cypress, survey area. They are described in this section. The
sweetgum, bay, blackgum, red maple, and swamp ash with descriptions together with the soil maps can be useful in







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 9

9. Kaliga-Nittaw-Gentry an understory of waxmyrtle, greenbrier, blackberry, titi,
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some are muck and osmunda fern. In marshes, natural vegetation is
over clayey material, some are clayey throughout, and maidencane, pickerelweed, bulltongue, lilies, and sawgrass.
some are sandy over loamy material This unit makes up about 40,090 acres, or about 6 per-
cent of the survey area. It is about 55 percent Hontoon
This map unit consists mostly of organic and clayey soils, 35 percent Samsula soils, and 10 percent soils of
soils in drainageways, swamps, and marshes. Most areas minor extent.
of this unit are in the eastern part of the survey area Hontoon soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
along Bull and Crabgrass Creeks, west and south of Lake surface layer is dark reddish brown muck about 5 inches
Tohopekaliga and Cypress Lake, and along the Kissimmee thick. The next layer is about 24 inches of black muck.
River. Most areas are long and narrow. Dark reddish brown muck extends to a depth of 70 inches
In drainageways and swamps, the vegetation is mostly or more.
cypress, sweetgum, maple, bay, tupelo, hickory, and Samsula soils are also very poorly drained. Typically,
cabbage palms. Some areas are almost all cypress. In the surface layer consists of muck. The upper 8 inches is
marshes and depressions, the dominant vegetation is saw- dark reddish brown, and the lower 14 inches is black.
grass, maidencane, cattails, pickerelweed, and buttonbush. Next is 17 inches of black fine sand. Grayish brown fine
This unit makes up about 40,660 acres, or about 6 per- sand extends to a depth of 65 inches or more.
cent of the survey area. It is about 24 percent Kaliga Minor soils in this unit are Placid, Kaliga, and Pompano
soils, 19 percent Nittaw soils, 8 percent Gentry soils, and soils.
49 percent soils of minor extent. Most areas of this unit remain in native vegetation. A
Kaliga soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the sur- few areas are used for improved pasture grasses.
face layer is muck about 26 inches thick. The upper 7
inches is dark brown, and the lower 19 inches is black. 11. Pompano
The underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches N d
or more. It is 6 inches of black loam, 5 inches of very throughout
dark gray loamy fine sand, 16 inches of very dark gray touhot
clay, 12 inches of very dark gray sandy clay loam, and 15 This map unit is made up of broad swamps and poorly
inches of grayish brown loamy fine sand. defined drainageways. It occurs in the southeastern part
Nittaw soils are also very poorly drained. Typically, the of the survey area along Blue Cypress Creek and Cow
surface layer is 8 inches of black muck. Below it is 13 Log Branch and in the northwestern part in Reedy Creek
inches of very dark gray sandy clay, then 24 inches of Swamp.
dark gray sandy clay, and then 19 inches of gray sandy Natural vegetation is mostly cypress, sweetgum, bay,
clay. Light gray fine sand extends to a depth of 76 inches blackgum, red maple, cabbage palm, and swamp ash with
or more. an understory mostly of greenbrier and blackberry. In a
Gentry soils are also very poorly drained. Typically, the few areas, there are maidencane and St. Johnswort.
surface layer is black fine sand 24 inches thick. The sub- This unit makes up about 19,060 acres, or about 3 per-
soil is gray fine sandy loam about 40 inches thick. The cent of the survey area. It is about 70 percent Pompano
substratum is light gray fine sand and extends to a depth soils and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
of 80 inches or more. Pompano soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
Minor soils in this unit are Placid, Floridana, Riviera, layer is 12 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is dark gray
Winder, Hontoon, and Samsula soils. fine sand, and the lower 7 inches is grayish brown fine
Many areas of this unit are still in natural vegetation, sand. The underlying layers are fine sand and extend to a
Some areas are in improved pasture grasses; and some depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 11 inches is light
areas are used for range. gray, the next 9 inches is very pale brown, and the lower
46 inches is light gray.
10. Hontoon-Samsula The minor soils in this unit are mostly Placid, Delray,
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils; some are Basinger, and Malabar soils.
organic throughout, and some are sandy within a depth Most areas of this unit are still in natural vegetation.
of 51 inches Some areas are used for range, and some are planted to
improved pasture grasses.
This map unit consists mostly of organic soils in improved pasture grasses.
swamps, and to a lesser extent, in marshes. Most areas
are in the northern third of the survey area. Large areas Soil maps for detailed planning
of this unit are in Reedy Creek, Davenport Creek, Cat
Island, Big Bend, and Jug Creek Swamps. There are also The map units shown on the detailed soil maps at the
a few other smaller areas, back of this publication represent the kinds of soil in the
Natural vegetation in the swamps is mostly cypress, survey area. They are described in this section. The
sweetgum, bay, blackgum, red maple, and swamp ash with descriptions together with the soil maps can be useful in







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 9

9. Kaliga-Nittaw-Gentry an understory of waxmyrtle, greenbrier, blackberry, titi,
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some are muck and osmunda fern. In marshes, natural vegetation is
over clayey material, some are clayey throughout, and maidencane, pickerelweed, bulltongue, lilies, and sawgrass.
some are sandy over loamy material This unit makes up about 40,090 acres, or about 6 per-
cent of the survey area. It is about 55 percent Hontoon
This map unit consists mostly of organic and clayey soils, 35 percent Samsula soils, and 10 percent soils of
soils in drainageways, swamps, and marshes. Most areas minor extent.
of this unit are in the eastern part of the survey area Hontoon soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
along Bull and Crabgrass Creeks, west and south of Lake surface layer is dark reddish brown muck about 5 inches
Tohopekaliga and Cypress Lake, and along the Kissimmee thick. The next layer is about 24 inches of black muck.
River. Most areas are long and narrow. Dark reddish brown muck extends to a depth of 70 inches
In drainageways and swamps, the vegetation is mostly or more.
cypress, sweetgum, maple, bay, tupelo, hickory, and Samsula soils are also very poorly drained. Typically,
cabbage palms. Some areas are almost all cypress. In the surface layer consists of muck. The upper 8 inches is
marshes and depressions, the dominant vegetation is saw- dark reddish brown, and the lower 14 inches is black.
grass, maidencane, cattails, pickerelweed, and buttonbush. Next is 17 inches of black fine sand. Grayish brown fine
This unit makes up about 40,660 acres, or about 6 per- sand extends to a depth of 65 inches or more.
cent of the survey area. It is about 24 percent Kaliga Minor soils in this unit are Placid, Kaliga, and Pompano
soils, 19 percent Nittaw soils, 8 percent Gentry soils, and soils.
49 percent soils of minor extent. Most areas of this unit remain in native vegetation. A
Kaliga soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the sur- few areas are used for improved pasture grasses.
face layer is muck about 26 inches thick. The upper 7
inches is dark brown, and the lower 19 inches is black. 11. Pompano
The underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches N d
or more. It is 6 inches of black loam, 5 inches of very throughout
dark gray loamy fine sand, 16 inches of very dark gray touhot
clay, 12 inches of very dark gray sandy clay loam, and 15 This map unit is made up of broad swamps and poorly
inches of grayish brown loamy fine sand. defined drainageways. It occurs in the southeastern part
Nittaw soils are also very poorly drained. Typically, the of the survey area along Blue Cypress Creek and Cow
surface layer is 8 inches of black muck. Below it is 13 Log Branch and in the northwestern part in Reedy Creek
inches of very dark gray sandy clay, then 24 inches of Swamp.
dark gray sandy clay, and then 19 inches of gray sandy Natural vegetation is mostly cypress, sweetgum, bay,
clay. Light gray fine sand extends to a depth of 76 inches blackgum, red maple, cabbage palm, and swamp ash with
or more. an understory mostly of greenbrier and blackberry. In a
Gentry soils are also very poorly drained. Typically, the few areas, there are maidencane and St. Johnswort.
surface layer is black fine sand 24 inches thick. The sub- This unit makes up about 19,060 acres, or about 3 per-
soil is gray fine sandy loam about 40 inches thick. The cent of the survey area. It is about 70 percent Pompano
substratum is light gray fine sand and extends to a depth soils and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
of 80 inches or more. Pompano soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
Minor soils in this unit are Placid, Floridana, Riviera, layer is 12 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is dark gray
Winder, Hontoon, and Samsula soils. fine sand, and the lower 7 inches is grayish brown fine
Many areas of this unit are still in natural vegetation, sand. The underlying layers are fine sand and extend to a
Some areas are in improved pasture grasses; and some depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 11 inches is light
areas are used for range. gray, the next 9 inches is very pale brown, and the lower
46 inches is light gray.
10. Hontoon-Samsula The minor soils in this unit are mostly Placid, Delray,
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils; some are Basinger, and Malabar soils.
organic throughout, and some are sandy within a depth Most areas of this unit are still in natural vegetation.
of 51 inches Some areas are used for range, and some are planted to
improved pasture grasses.
This map unit consists mostly of organic soils in improved pasture grasses.
swamps, and to a lesser extent, in marshes. Most areas
are in the northern third of the survey area. Large areas Soil maps for detailed planning
of this unit are in Reedy Creek, Davenport Creek, Cat
Island, Big Bend, and Jug Creek Swamps. There are also The map units shown on the detailed soil maps at the
a few other smaller areas, back of this publication represent the kinds of soil in the
Natural vegetation in the swamps is mostly cypress, survey area. They are described in this section. The
sweetgum, bay, blackgum, red maple, and swamp ash with descriptions together with the soil maps can be useful in







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 9

9. Kaliga-Nittaw-Gentry an understory of waxmyrtle, greenbrier, blackberry, titi,
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some are muck and osmunda fern. In marshes, natural vegetation is
over clayey material, some are clayey throughout, and maidencane, pickerelweed, bulltongue, lilies, and sawgrass.
some are sandy over loamy material This unit makes up about 40,090 acres, or about 6 per-
cent of the survey area. It is about 55 percent Hontoon
This map unit consists mostly of organic and clayey soils, 35 percent Samsula soils, and 10 percent soils of
soils in drainageways, swamps, and marshes. Most areas minor extent.
of this unit are in the eastern part of the survey area Hontoon soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
along Bull and Crabgrass Creeks, west and south of Lake surface layer is dark reddish brown muck about 5 inches
Tohopekaliga and Cypress Lake, and along the Kissimmee thick. The next layer is about 24 inches of black muck.
River. Most areas are long and narrow. Dark reddish brown muck extends to a depth of 70 inches
In drainageways and swamps, the vegetation is mostly or more.
cypress, sweetgum, maple, bay, tupelo, hickory, and Samsula soils are also very poorly drained. Typically,
cabbage palms. Some areas are almost all cypress. In the surface layer consists of muck. The upper 8 inches is
marshes and depressions, the dominant vegetation is saw- dark reddish brown, and the lower 14 inches is black.
grass, maidencane, cattails, pickerelweed, and buttonbush. Next is 17 inches of black fine sand. Grayish brown fine
This unit makes up about 40,660 acres, or about 6 per- sand extends to a depth of 65 inches or more.
cent of the survey area. It is about 24 percent Kaliga Minor soils in this unit are Placid, Kaliga, and Pompano
soils, 19 percent Nittaw soils, 8 percent Gentry soils, and soils.
49 percent soils of minor extent. Most areas of this unit remain in native vegetation. A
Kaliga soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the sur- few areas are used for improved pasture grasses.
face layer is muck about 26 inches thick. The upper 7
inches is dark brown, and the lower 19 inches is black. 11. Pompano
The underlying material extends to a depth of 80 inches N d
or more. It is 6 inches of black loam, 5 inches of very throughout
dark gray loamy fine sand, 16 inches of very dark gray touhot
clay, 12 inches of very dark gray sandy clay loam, and 15 This map unit is made up of broad swamps and poorly
inches of grayish brown loamy fine sand. defined drainageways. It occurs in the southeastern part
Nittaw soils are also very poorly drained. Typically, the of the survey area along Blue Cypress Creek and Cow
surface layer is 8 inches of black muck. Below it is 13 Log Branch and in the northwestern part in Reedy Creek
inches of very dark gray sandy clay, then 24 inches of Swamp.
dark gray sandy clay, and then 19 inches of gray sandy Natural vegetation is mostly cypress, sweetgum, bay,
clay. Light gray fine sand extends to a depth of 76 inches blackgum, red maple, cabbage palm, and swamp ash with
or more. an understory mostly of greenbrier and blackberry. In a
Gentry soils are also very poorly drained. Typically, the few areas, there are maidencane and St. Johnswort.
surface layer is black fine sand 24 inches thick. The sub- This unit makes up about 19,060 acres, or about 3 per-
soil is gray fine sandy loam about 40 inches thick. The cent of the survey area. It is about 70 percent Pompano
substratum is light gray fine sand and extends to a depth soils and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
of 80 inches or more. Pompano soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
Minor soils in this unit are Placid, Floridana, Riviera, layer is 12 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is dark gray
Winder, Hontoon, and Samsula soils. fine sand, and the lower 7 inches is grayish brown fine
Many areas of this unit are still in natural vegetation, sand. The underlying layers are fine sand and extend to a
Some areas are in improved pasture grasses; and some depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 11 inches is light
areas are used for range. gray, the next 9 inches is very pale brown, and the lower
46 inches is light gray.
10. Hontoon-Samsula The minor soils in this unit are mostly Placid, Delray,
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils; some are Basinger, and Malabar soils.
organic throughout, and some are sandy within a depth Most areas of this unit are still in natural vegetation.
of 51 inches Some areas are used for range, and some are planted to
improved pasture grasses.
This map unit consists mostly of organic soils in improved pasture grasses.
swamps, and to a lesser extent, in marshes. Most areas
are in the northern third of the survey area. Large areas Soil maps for detailed planning
of this unit are in Reedy Creek, Davenport Creek, Cat
Island, Big Bend, and Jug Creek Swamps. There are also The map units shown on the detailed soil maps at the
a few other smaller areas, back of this publication represent the kinds of soil in the
Natural vegetation in the swamps is mostly cypress, survey area. They are described in this section. The
sweetgum, bay, blackgum, red maple, and swamp ash with descriptions together with the soil maps can be useful in






10 SOIL SURVEY

determining the potential of a soil and in managing it for soil series commonly is named for a town or geographic
food and fiber production; in planning land use and feature near the place where a soil of that series was
developing soil resources; and in enhancing, protecting, first observed and mapped. All soils in the United States
and preserving the environment. More information for having the same series name have essentially the same
each map unit, or soil, is given in the section "Use and properties that affect their use and management.
management of the soils." Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
Preceding the name of each map unit is the symbol that layer or in the underlying substratum and in slope, ero-
identifies the soil on the detailed soil maps. Each soil sion, stoniness, salinity, wetness, or other characteristics
description includes general facts about the soil and a that affect their use. On the basis of such differences, a
brief description of the soil profile. In each description, soil series is divided into phases. The name of a soil phase
the principal hazards and limitations are indicated, and commonly indicates a feature that affects use or manage-
the management concerns and practices needed are ment. For example, Candler sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is
discussed. one of two phases within the Candler series.
The potential of a soil is the ability of that soil to Some map units are made up of two or more dominant
produce, yield, or support the given structure or activity kinds of soil and are called soil complexes. A soil complex
at a cost expressed in economic, social, or, environmental consists of areas of two or more soils that are so in-
units of value. The criteria used for rating soil potential tricately mixed or so small in size that they cannot be
include the relative difficulty or cost of overcoming soil shown separately on the soil map. Each area includes
limitations, the continuing limitations after practices in some of each of the two or more dominant soils, and the
general use in overcoming the limitations are installed, pattern and proportion are somewhat similar in all areas.
and the suitability of the soil relative to other soils in Malabar-Pineda complex is an example.
Osceola County Area. Most map units include small, scattered areas of soils
A five-class system of soil potential is used. The classes other than those that appear in the name of the map unit.
are defined as follows: Some of these soils have properties that differ substan-
Very high potential. Soil limitations are minor or are tially from those of the dominant soil or soils and thus
relatively easy to overcome. Performance for the in- could significantly affect use and management of the map
tended use is excellent. Soils having very high potential unit. These soils are described in the description of each
are the best in the survey area for the particular use. map unit. Some of the more unusual or strongly contrast-
High potential. Some soil limitations exist, but practices ing soils that are included are identified by a special sym-
necessary to overcome the limitations can be installed at bol on the soil map.
reasonable cost. Performance for the intended use is Most survey areas include places that have little or no
good. soil material and support little or no vegetation. Such
Medium potential. Soil limitations exist and can be places are called miscellaneous areas; they are delineated
overcome with recommended practices; limitations, how- on the soil map and given descriptive names. Pits is an
ever, are mostly of a continuing nature and require prac- example. Some of these areas are too small to be
tices that are more difficult or costly than average. Per- delineated and are identified by a special symbol on the
formance for the intended use ranges from fair to good. soil map.
Low potential. Serious soil limitations exist, and they The acreage and proportionate extent of each map unit
are difficult to overcome. Practices necessary to overcome are given in table 4, and additional information on proper-
the limitations are relatively costly compared to those ties, limitations, capabilities, and potentials for many soil
required for soils of higher potential. Necessary practices uses is given for each kind of soil in other tables in this
can involve environmental values and considerations. Per- survey. (See "Summary of tables.") Many of the terms
formance for the intended use is poor or unreliable, used in describing soils are defined in the Glossary.
Very low potential. Very serious soil limitations exist, 1-Adamsville sand. This is a somewhat poorly
and they are most difficult to overcome. Initial cost of drained, nearly level soil on narrow ridges adjacent to and
practices and maintenance cost are very high compared to slightly higher than sloughs, marshes, and lakes, and on
those of soils with high potential. Environmental values low knolls in the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 per-
are usually depreciated. Performance for the intended use cent.
is inadequate or below acceptable standards. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 4
The map units on the detailed soil maps represent an inches thick. Below this is sand to a depth of 80 inches or
area on the landscape made up mostly of the soil or soils more. In sequence from the top of this layer, the upper 12
for which the unit is named. Most of the delineations inches is gray and has pale brown and reddish brown
shown on the detailed soil map are phases of soil series, mottles; the next 17 inches is light brownish gray; the
Soils that have a profile that is almost alike make up a next 22 inches is white and has yellow, dark brown, and
soil series. Except for allowable differences in texture of light brownish gray mottles; and the lower 25 inches is
the surface layer or of the underlying substratum, all the white and has yellow mottles.
soils of a series have major horizons that are similar in Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
composition, thickness, and arrangement in the profile. A Narcoossee, Tavares, Parkwood, and Riviera soils and







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 11

small kitchen middens. Also included are small areas of excavations, side slopes must be shored and an adequate
soil having a 4- to 6-inch layer of very pale brown loamy water control system used.
fine sand at a depth of 20 to 40 inches, and small areas of This soil has low potential for sewage lagoon areas. To
similar soils having a layer of very dark brown to dark realize even this potential, however, the area needs to be
grayish brown fine sand at a depth of 70 to 80 inches. In- sealed and lined with impervious material and an
cluded soils make up no more than 15 percent of any adequate water control system used.
mapped area. This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or-
The water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to dination group 3w.
6 months annually. This soil has very low or low available 2-Adamsville Variant fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
water capacity throughout. Permeability is rapid slopes. This is a somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to
throughout. Natural fertility and organic matter content gently sloping, sandy soil overlying muck. It occurs on
are low. long, narrow natural dikes adjacent to and parallel to the
Native vegetation consists dominantly of large live oak shorelines of large lakes. Areas range from about 200 to
trees with laurel and water oaks and longleaf and slash 300 feet in width and as much as 5 or 6 miles in length.
pines. Sawpalmetto, sumac, American beautyberry, green- Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
briers, Virginia creeper, wild grape, and blackberry are about 5 inches thick. The next layer is fine sand about 28
common understory plants. Forbs and grasses are sparse inches thick. It is light gray and has pale brown mottles.
but include partridgeberry, bracken fern, uniolas, pineland Next is black, well decomposed muck about 16 inches
threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, and bluestem species, thick. At a depth of 49 inches is about 4 inches of black
In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for fine sand. The underlying layer, which extends to a depth
vegetables and other cultivated crops because of periodic of 80 inches or more, is gray fine sand.
wetness during the rainy season, lack of soil moisture Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
during the dry season, and low fertility. The number of Pompano, Basinger, Placid, Riviera, and Gentry soils. Also
adapted crops is very limited unless intensive water con- included is a similar soil that has another muck layer
trol measures are used. Potential for crops is low. To real- between depths of 53 and 80 inches. Included soils make
ize full potential, a water control system is required that up no more than 15 percent of any mapped area.
removes excess water in wet seasons and provides sub- This soil has a water table at a depth of 20 to 40 inches
surface irrigation in dry seasons. Plowing under soil-im- for 2 to 6 months of most years and between depths of 40
proving crops and the residues of all other crops in- and 60 inches for more than 6 months in most years. Dur-
creases organic matter content and the level of natural ing extended dry periods, the water table recedes below a
fertility. Fertilizer and lime should be added according to depth of 60 inches. In the sandy layers, available water
the need of the crop.
the need of the crop. ,capacity is very low and permeability is rapid; in the
Potential for citrus trees is high except in areas subjectity is n
to frequent freezing temperatures. Installation of a water muck layers, available water paucity is very high and
control system which removes excess water from the soil meability is moderate. Organic matter content is low
to a depth of 33 inches. Natural fertility is low.
rapidly to a depth of about 4 feet is needed if this poten-
tial is to be reached. Planting the trees on beds lowers Ntie eetato osss anl of la l a
the effective depth of the water table. The trees require trees with laurel and water oaks and longleaf and slash
regular applications of fertilizer, and highest yields pines. Sawpalmetto, sumac, American beautyberry, reen-
require irrigation in seasons of low rainfall. briers, Virginia creeper, wild grape, and blackberry are
Potential for improved pasture grasses is medium. A common understory plants. Forbs and grasses are sparse
simple water control system is needed to remove excess but include partridgeberry, bracken fern, uniolas, pineland
surface water in times of heavy rainfall. Regular use of threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, and bluestem species.
fertilizers is needed. Carefully controlled grazing helps Potential for vegetables and other cultivated crops is
maintain healthy plants for highest yields. low. In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations
This soil has medium potential for longleaf and slash for cultivated crops. It is drought and has low natural
pines. The low fertility of this sandy soil keeps it from fertility. It is often too wet to be tilled during periods of
being more productive. Slash pines are better suited than heavy rainfall. A water control system which removes ex-
other species. cess water quickly during wet seasons is needed. Irriga-
This soil has high potential for septic tank absorption tion is needed during dry seasons.
fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial Potential for citrus trees is high except in areas subject
buildings, and local roads and streets. An adequate water to frequent or prolonged freezing temperatures. Installa-
control system is needed to realize this potential. tion of a water control system which quickly removes ex-
Potential is also high for playgrounds. Surface stabiliza- cess water to a depth of about 4 feet is required. The
tion is needed. trees need regular applications of fertilizer, and for
Potential is medium for trench type sanitary landfills highest yields, irrigation is necessary during dry seasons.
and for shallow excavations. For landfills, the trench Cover crops grown between the trees prevent soil ero-
needs to be sealed or lined with impervious material; for sion.







12 SOIL SURVEY

Potential for improved pasture grasses is medium. A and moderate to moderately rapid below. Natural fertility
simple water control system is needed to remove excess and organic matter content are low.
surface water. Regular applications of fertilizer and use Native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash pines
of adapted grasses such as pangolagrass or improved with an understory of sawpalmetto, inkberry, fetterbush,
bahiagrass are required for good yields. Controlling graz- and running oak. Grasses are creeping bluestem, chalky
ing helps maintain healthy plants. bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn,
This soil has medium potential for slash pine or longleaf switchgrass, and several panicum species.
pine. Low natural fertility prevents this soil from being This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
more productive. Slash pines are better suited than other because of wetness and low fertility. Potential for several
species, adapted vegetables is medium. To realize this potential,
This soil has high potential for septic tank absorption water control measures which quickly remove excess
fields, local roads and streets, dwellings without base- water after heavy rainfall are needed. Good management
ments, and small commercial buildings. Water control practices, which include regular fertilization and irrigation
measures are needed to realize this potential. In addition, during the dry season, are also needed. Crop residues and
specially designed footings are needed for dwellings soil-improving crops should be plowed under. Seedbed
without basements and for small commercial buildings, preparation that includes bedding of rows lowers the ef-
Potential is also high for playgrounds; surface stabiliza- fective depth of the water table.
tion is needed. Native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash pines
Potential is medium for shallow excavations, sewage with an understory of sawpalmetto, inkberry, fetterbush,
lagoon areas, and trench sanitary landfills. To realize and running oak. Grasses are creeping bluestem, chalky
maximum potential, side walls of shallow excavations bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn,
need to be shored, sewage lagoon areas need to be sealed switchgrass, and several panicum species.
and shaped, and trench sanitary landfills need to be This soil has low potential for citrus trees. It is'too wet
sealed. Water control measures are also needed on land- in its natural state for this use. In order to reach its
fills. potential, installation of a water control system which
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or- lowers the seasonal high water table to a depth of at least
dination group 3w. 48 inches is needed. Planting the trees on beds lowers the
3-Ankona fine sand. This is a poorly drained, nearly effective depth of the water table, and maintaining plant
level soil on broad flats and low knolls in the flatwoods. cover between the trees reduces erosion.
Areas range from about 4 to 350 acres. Slopes are smooth Potential for improved pasture grasses is medium.
to slightly convex and range from 0 to 2 percent. Coastal bermudagrass, pangolagrass, improved
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 9 inches bahiagrass, and several legumes such as white clover are
thick. The upper 5 inches is black, and the lower 4 inches suitable for planting. Water control measures which
is dark gray. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 23 quickly remove excess surface water during the wet
inches thick. The upper 5 inches is gray and has dark season are needed. Regular applications of fertilizer and
gray and grayish brown mottles, and the lower 18 inches lime and controlled grazing help maintain satisfactory
is light gray and has very dark gray and dark gray production.
streaks along old root channels. The upper part of the Potential for pine trees is low. Slash pines are better
subsoil is loamy sand. It is black to a depth of 36 inches, suited than other species. Simple water control measures
dark reddish brown to a depth of 40 inches, and dark are needed to remove excess surface water. Planting the
brown with dark reddish brown mottles and black frag- trees on beds lowers the effective depth of the water
ments of subsoil material to a depth of 47 inches. The table.
lower part of the subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
or more. The upper 4 inches is brown fine sandy loam and tion fields, sewage lagoon areas, dwellings without base-
has grayish brown, gray, and light brownish gray mottles, ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets,
and the lower 29 inches is gray sandy clay loam and has playgrounds, trench sanitary landfills, and shallow excava-
light gray and gray mottles. tions. Adequate water control practices are needed to
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of realize this potential. In addition, mounding may be
EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, Oldsmar, and Pomona needed for septic tank absorption fields in some places;
soils. Included soils make up less than 15 percent of any sealing or lining with impervious material is needed for
mapped area. sewage lagoon areas and trench sanitary landfills; surface
This soil has a water table within a depth of 10 inches stabilization is needed for playgrounds; and shoring of
for 2 to 4 months and at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 side walls is needed for shallow excavations.
months or more during the season of low rainfall. Availa- This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland or-
ble water capacity is very low in the surface and subsur- dination group 4w.
face layers and medium in the subsoil. Permeability is 4-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes. These are somewhat
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, moderately poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping soils that
slow to very slow in the cemented portion of the subsoil, have been reworked and shaped by earthmoving equip-






OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 13

ment. Areas are throughout the county in both urban and The soil has a water table at a depth of less than 10
rural areas. Most of the areas are low and are adjacent to inches for 2 to 6 months during most years and at a depth
the ponds and canals from which the soil material was ex- of 10 to 30 inches during the dry season in most years. In
cavated. Individual areas range from about 3 to 600 acres, extended dry periods, the water table drops below a
They are circular in some areas and elongated in areas depth of 40 inches. Permeability is very rapid throughout.
adjacent to canals. Available water capacity, natural fertility, and organic
Arents have no orderly sequence of layers. They con- matter content are low to very low.
sist dominantly of sandy mineral material that contains Native vegetation consists mostly of grasses with scat-
fragments, lenses, or streaks of former subsoils. They are tered longleaf pines, sawpalmetto, and waxmyrtle.
highly variable within short distances. Depth of fill Grasses include maidencane, pineland threeawn, chalky
material ranges from 20 to more than 80 inches. The bluestem, Florida threeawn, low panicums, and sand
water table is at a depth of 20 to 60 inches. Available cordgrass.
water capacity and permeability are variable. Under natural conditions, this soil has very severe
A few areas of this soil, primarily along canal C-38, are limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness and
30 to 50 percent shells and carbonatic material. Included low fertility. The number of adapted crops is limited un-
with this soil in mapping are areas used as trench type less very intensive management practices are followed.
sanitary landfills (fig. 2). Solid waste materials such as With good water control measures and soil-improving
plastic, wood, paper, metal, or glass comprise 50 to 80 per- measures, however, this soil has medium potential for a
cent of these areas. number of vegetables. A water control system is needed
These soils vary so widely in their physical and chemi- to remove excess water in wet seasons and provide water
cal properties that their potential for cultivated crops, through subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Seedbed
citrus, or improved pasture also varies widely. Potential preparation that includes bedding of the rows lowers the
for these uses depends upon the thickness of the fill and effective depth of the water table. Fertilizer and lime
upon the source of the soil material used as fill. The should be added according to the need of the crops.
thickness of the fill material directly affects whether or This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees in its natural
not a water control system will be required. Such soil pro- condition. It has low potential for trees, and then only
perties as natural fertility and availability of soil moisture after a carefully designed water control system has been
for plant use are influenced by the kind of soil material installed to maintain the water table below depth of
used for fill. installed to maintain the water table below a depth of
used for fill. about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds lowers the effec-
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or- a t 4 eet t ee bds l th ec
donation group 4s. tive depth of the water table, and maintaining plant cover
5-Basinger fine sand. This is a poorly drained, nearly between rows reduces erosion. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed.
level soil in low, broad flats and sloughs in the flatwoods. Ptilize an lime r re a re rae a
Areas of this soil are elongated in most places and range Potential is medium for improved pasture grasses. Pan-
from about 4 to 300 acres. Slopes are smooth to concave golagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clovers grow
and range from 0 to 2 percent. well when well managed. A water control system that
Typically, the surface layer is about 4 inches of black removes excess surface water after heavy rainfall is
fine sand over 3 inches of dark gray fine sand that con- needed. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
tains gray mottles. The subsurface layer is 12 inches of needed, and controlled grazing helps prevent overgrazing
light gray fine sand that contains dark brown and light and weakening of plants.
brownish gray mottles. Next is about 16 inches of dark This soil has low potential for longleaf and slash pines.
brown fine sand that contains dark grayish brown mottles A water control system to remove excess surface water is
and black and dark reddish brown bodies of weakly ce- necessary if the potential productivity is to be realized.
mented fine sand. The substratum is fine sand to a depth Seedling mortality and equipment limitations are the
of 80 inches or more. It is light gray in the upper 23 main management concerns. Slash pines are better suited
inches and brown in the lower 22 inches and has brown than other species.
and very dark grayish brown mottles. This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
Placid, Pompano, and Smyrna soils. Also included are buildings, local roads and streets, playgrounds, and shal-
small areas of a similar soil overlain by 5 to 9 inches of low excavation. Water control measures are needed to
peat or muck. Some areas are as much as 5 percent a soil realize full potential. In addition, absorption fields need to
that is similar to Basinger soils but that has a 3- to 8-inch be mounded, the surfaces of playgrounds need to be sta-
layer of brown, iron-cemented sand containing common bilized, and side walls of excavations need to be shored.
small iron concretions. Also included are small areas of Potential is low for sanitary landfills and sewage lagoon
similar soils, some of which have a sandy loam layer at a areas. To realize even this potential, however, water con-
depth of about 45 to 55 inches, and some of which have a trol measures are needed, and areas need to be sealed or
black or dark reddish brown layer of weakly cemented lined with impervious material.
fine sand at a depth of 68 to 76 inches. Included soils This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland or-
make up less than 20 percent of any mapped area. dination group 4w.







14 SOIL SURVEY

6-Basinger fine sand, depressional. This is a poorly the water table are controlled and special equipment is
drained, nearly level soil in shallow depressions and used. Potential for shallow excavations is also very low
poorly defined drainageways in the flatwoods. Areas of even where standing surface water and the water table
this soil are circular or elongated in most places and are controlled and side walls are shored.
generally range from about 4 to 190 acres. Slopes are flat This soil is in capability subclass VIIw and woodland
to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. ordination group 4w.
Typically, the surface layer is about 4 inches of black 7-Candler sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is an ex-
fine sand over 3 inches of dark gray fine sand that con- cessively drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil on
tains gray mottles. The subsurface layer is 12 inches of uplands. Mapped areas range from about 20 to 225 acres.
light gray fine sand that contains dark brown and light Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand
brownish gray mottles. Next is about 16 inches of dark about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a
brown fine sand that contains dark grayish brown mottles depth of about 62 inches. In sequence from the top of this
and black and dark reddish brown fragments of weakly layer, the upper 3 inches is yellowish brown, the next 11
cemented fine sand. The substratum is fine sand to a inches is brownish yellow, the next 18 inches is light yel-
depth of 80 inches or more. It is light gray in the upper lowish brown, and the next 27 inches is brownish yellow.
23 inches and brown in the lower 22 inches and contains Below a depth of 62 inches is brownish yellow sand con-
brown and very dark grayish brown mottles, training lamellae of reddish yellow loamy sand about 1/16
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of to 1/4 inch thick and 2 to 6 inches long.
Myakka, Placid, Pompano, and Smyrna soils. Also included Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
is a similar soil which differs from Basinger soils by hav- Pomello, Cassia, and Tavares soils and small areas of Can-
ing 5 to 9 inches of peat or muck on the surface. Included dler soils having slopes of 5 to 12 percent. Also included
soils make up less than 20 percent of any mapped area. are similar soils that have a loamy subsoil within 80
Water stands on the surface for 6 to 12 months during inches of the surface and other soils which lack lamellae
most years. Permeability is very rapid throughout, within the same depth. Included soils make up no more
Available water capacity, natural fertility, and organic than about 15 percent of any mapped area.
matter content are low to very low. The water table in this soil is at a depth of more than
Native vegetation is dominantly water-tolerant grasses 72 inches, and no flood hazard exists. Available water
and small woody shrubs, but in some places the native capacity is very low in the upper 62 inches and low below
vegetation is swamp. In the open areas, native vegetation that depth. Permeability is very rapid in the upper 62
occurs as circular bands. The small areas of very wet soils inches and rapid below. Organic matter content and natu-
that occur within the unit generally support sawgrass, ral fertility are low.
maidencane, cutgrass, and pickerelweed. Outward from Turkey oak and longleaf pine are the major tree spe-
the center are smaller amounts of maidencane in associa- cies. Dominant native grass species include creeping
tion with St. Johnswort. Sand cordgrass, low panicum, bluestem, indiangrass, grassleaf goldaster, and pineland
stiff paspalum, and species of nut rushes are also com- threeawn. Other common plants are gopher apple,
mon. In the swamps, cypress, blackgum, tupelo gum, red- pricklypear, and a variety of legumes.
bay, loblollybay, and red maple trees are dominant. Potential for cultivated crops is very low because of
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suitable for low fertility. Intensive soil management practices are
cultivated crops or improved pastures. Potential for crops needed when the soil is cultivated. Droughtiness and
or pasture is very low because water stands on the sur- rapid leaching of plant nutrients reduce the variety of
face for long periods. An adequate drainage system is dif- adapted crops and potential yields of adapted vegetables.
ficult to establish in many places because suitable outlets Soil-improving crops and all crop residue should be left on
are not available.- In its native state, this soil provides the ground or plowed under. Although only a few crops
watering places and feeding grounds for many kinds of produce good yields without irrigation, irrigation is
wading birds and other wetland wildlife, usually feasible where water is readily available.
This soil has low potential for pine trees. A good water Potential for citrus trees is high in places relatively
control system to remove surface water is necessary if free from freezing temperatures (fig. 3). A good ground
the potential is to be realized. Pond pine is better suited cover of close-growing plants is needed between the trees
than other species, to protect the soil from blowing. Good yields can be ob-
This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption tained some years without irrigation, but a well designed
fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial irrigation system to maintain optimum moisture content
buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds. To is needed to assure best yields.
realize even this potential, however, water control mea- Potential for improved pasture grasses is very low.
sures are needed, and fill material needs to be added. In Deep-rooting plants such as Coastal bermudagrass and
addition, absorption fields need to be mounded and the bahiagrass are well adapted, but yields are reduced by
surfaces of playgrounds stabilized, periodic droughtiness. Regular fertilization and liming are
Potential is very low for trench sanitary landfills and needed. Controlled grazing permits plants to recover from
sewage lagoons even where standing surface water and grazing and to maintain vigor.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 15

Potential for commercial production of pine trees is Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrasses are best adapted.
low. Because of the sandy nature of the soil, the Clovers are not adapted. Yields are reduced by periodic
establishment of seedlings and the movement of equip- droughts. Regular fertilizing and liming are needed.
ment are concerns in managing the tree crop. Sand pine Restricting grazing permits plants to maintain vigorous
and slash pine are better suited than other species. growth for highest yields and to provide good ground
This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp- cover.
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial Potential is low for commercial production of pine
buildings, and local roads and streets. Because of exces- trees. Sand pine and slash pine are better suited than
sive permeability, however, onsite disposal of sewage can other species. Seedling mortality and limited mobility of
create a hazard of pollution of ground water around sep- equipment are the major management concerns for com-
tic tank absorption fields. No corrective measures are mercial tree production.
needed for dwellings without basements, small commer- This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp-
cial buildings, and local roads and streets, tion fields, dwellings without basements, and local roads
This soil has high potential for trench sanitary landfills, and streets. Because of excessive permeability, however,
sewage lagoon areas, and shallow excavations. To realize onsite disposal of sewage can create a hazard of pollution
maximum potential, trench sanitary landfills and sewage of ground water. To realize maximum potential, dwellings
lagoon areas need to be sealed or lined with impervious need to be designed to fit the slope. No corrective mea-
material, and side walls of shallow excavations need to be sures are needed for local roads and streets.
shored. This soil has high potential for trench sanitary landfills
Potential for playgrounds is medium. Land shaping and and for small commercial buildings. For full potential, the
surface stabilization are needed. land needs to be shaped. In addition, landfills must be
This soil is in capability subclass IVs and woodland or- sealed or lined with impervious material and buildings
dination group 4s. designed to fit the slope.
8-Candler sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes. This is an ex- Potential is medium for shallow excavations and
cessively drained, sloping to strongly sloping soil on playgrounds. To realize this potential, the land needs to
uplands. Areas range from about 20 to 175 acres, be shaped. Additionally, side walls of excavations must be
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand shored and the surfaces of playgrounds stabilized.
about 7 inches thick. It is underlain by 52 inches of sand. Potential is low for sewage lagoons. To realize even this
The upper 21 inches is pale brown, and the lower 31 potential, however, the area must be sealed or lined with
inches is yellow and contains many uncoated, white sand impervious material and the land shaped.
grains. Below a depth of 59 inches and extending to a This soil is in capability subclass VIs and woodland or-
depth of 80 inches or more is very pale brown sand that dination group 4s.
contains light gray and white mottles and lamellae of 9-Cassia fine sand. This is a somewhat poorly
brownish yellow sandy loam 1/16 to 1/4 inch thick and 1 drained, nearly level soil on low ridges in the flatwoods.
to 4 inches long. Areas range from less than 10 acres to about 185 acres.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of They are irregularly shaped, rounded to elongated. Slopes
Candler sand having slopes of 0 to 5 percent. Included range from 0 to 2 percent.
soils make up no more than 10 percent of any mapped Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
area. inches thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand
The water table is at a depth of more than 72 inches. about 17 inches thick; it has light brownish gray mottles
Available water capacity is very low in the upper 59 and streaks along root channels. The subsoil is weakly ce-
inches and low below that depth. Permeability is very mented loamy fine sand and fine sand about 8 inches
rapid in the upper 59 inches and rapid below. Organic thick. It is dark reddish brown in the upper 5 inches and
matter content and natural fertility are very low. reddish brown in the lower 3 inches. The next layer,
Turkey oak and longleaf pine are the major tree spe- between depths of 28 and 53 inches, is yellowish brown
cies. Dominant native grass species include creeping fine sand. Next is 12 inches of dark brown and dark red-
bluestem, indiangrass, grassleaf goldaster, and pineland dish gray loamy fine sand that contains weakly cemented
threeawn. Other common plants are gopher apple, bodies of black fine sand. The next layer is weakly ce-
pricklypear, and a variety of legumes. mented, black fine sand that extends to a depth of more
This soil has very low potential for cultivated crops than 80 inches.
because of droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and strong slopes. It is not suitable for most commonly Myakka and Pomello soils. Also included are small areas
grown vegetables. of similar soils that have a thin, very dark gray surface
Potential for citrus trees is medium. Good yields of layer and a few other areas which have a loamy layer
fruit can be obtained some years without irrigation, but below a depth of 40 inches. Included soils make up less
best yields are obtained in irrigated areas. than 10 percent of any mapped area.
Potential for improved pasture grasses is low even if The water table is at a depth of 15 to 40 inches for
good management practices are used. Grasses such as about 6 months in most years but drops to a depth of







16 SOIL SURVEY

more than 40 inches during dry periods. Flooding is not a grayish brown loamy fine sand mottled with brownish
hazard. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsur- yellow.
face layers, moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and rapid in the substratum. Available water capacity is Floridana, Holopaw, and Kaliga soils. Also included are
very low in the surface and subsurface layers, medium in small areas of a similar soil in which the subsoil is below
the subsoil, and low in the substratum. Natural fertility a depth of 80 inches. Included soils make up less than 15
and organic matter content are low. percent of any mapped area.
Natural vegetation consists of scattered sand pine, lon- Water stands on the surface for 2 to 6 months in most
gleaf pine, and slash pine. Sand live oaks form dense years and is within a depth of 10 inches for 6 to 9 months
thickets in many places. A few sawpalmetto are in most in most years. Available water capacity is medium in the
mapped areas. Pineland threeawn is the major grass, and surface layer, low in the subsurface layer, medium in the
creeping, bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and low subsoil, and low in the substratum. Permeability is rapid
panicums also grow in these areas. Running oak is com- in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate to
mon. moderately rapid in the subsoil and substratum. Natural
This soil has very low potential for cultivated crops fertility and organic matter content are moderate.
because of droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant Native vegetation consists mainly of maidencane, sand
nutrients. It is not suitable for most commonly grown cordgrass, pickerelweed, giant cutgrass, waxmyrtle,
vegetables. sedges, and rushes. There are scattered cypress, bay, tu-
Potential for citrus trees is low. Very low natural fer- pelo, and cabbage palm trees in many areas.
utility and droughtiness result in poor soil quality. Irriga- Under natural conditions, this soil is unsuitable for cul-
tion and regular application of fertilizer are required to tivated crops because of excessive wetness and the water
reach full potential, which stands on the surface for long periods. In most
Potential for improved pasture grasses is low even if places, suitable drainage outlets are not available. Even
good management practices are used. Grasses such as where outlets are available and water control systems
bahiagrass are best adapted. Clovers are not adapted. which remove excess water are installed, this soil has low
Yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular fertiliz- potential for vegetable crops. Seedbed preparation which
ing and liming are needed. Greatly restricting grazing includes bedding of the rows lowers the effective depth
permits plants to maintain vigorous growth for highest of the water table.
yields and to provide good ground cover. This soil is not suitable for citrus trees unless it is
Potential is low for commercial production of pine drained. Potential for this use is low. Well designed water
trees. Sand pines are better suited than other species, control systems which lower the seasonal high water
Seedling mortality, mobility of equipment, and plant com- table to a depth of about 4 feet are required to realize
petition are the major management concerns for commer- full potential. Planting the trees on beds lowers the effec-
cial tree production. tive depth of the water table. The trees need regular fer-
This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp- tilization. Areas susceptible to frequent or prolonged
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial freezing temperatures are not suitable.
buildings, and shallow excavations. Water control mea- Under natural conditions, this soil is too wet for im-
sures are needed to realize this potential. In addition, side proved pasture grasses. The water which stands on the
walls of shallow excavations need to be shored. surface much of the year severely restricts plant growth.
Potential for sewage lagoon areas and trench sanitary An adequate water control system is difficult to establish
landfills is low. To realize even this potential, however, because in most places suitable outlets are not available.
water control measures are needed, and the areas must Where such a system can be installed, however, this soil
be sealed with impervious material, has high potential for production of improved pasture
This soil is in capability subclass VIs and woodland or- grasses.
dination group 4s. Potential for pine trees is high. A good water control
10-Delray loamy fine sand. This is a very poorly system designed to remove excess surface water is
drained nearly level soil in depressions in the flatwoods needed before trees can be planted.
and at the edges of large lakes that have fluctuating This soil has low potential for sewage lagoon areas, sep-
water levels. Mapped areas range from 4 to 450 acres and tic tank absorption fields, trench sanitary landfills,
are circular to irregularly shaped. Slopes range from 0 to dwellings without basements, small commercial buildings,
2 percent. local roads and streets, and playgrounds. To realize even
Typically, the surface layer is about 14 inches of black low potential, a water control system designed to lower
loamy fine sand. The subsurface layer is 30 inches of gray the inherent high water table is needed. In addition, the
fine sand. The upper 6 inches of the subsoil is dark gray following practices are needed. For sewage lagoon areas,
fine sandy loam mottled with pale brown, and the next 12 surface water needs to be controlled. For septic tank ab-
inches is dark grayish brown sandy clay loam that has sorption fields, fill material needs to be added and the
yellowish brown mottles. Below a depth of 62 inches and field mounded. For trench sanitary landfills, surface
extending to a depth of 80 inches or more the subsoil is water needs to be controlled. For dwellings without base-







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 17

ments and small commercial buildings, fill material needs Potential for citrus trees on this soil is low, but even
to be added. For local roads and streets, fill material then only after a carefully designed water control system
needs to be added and specially designed foundations that maintains the water table below a depth of 4 feet
used. For playgrounds, fill material needs to be added and has been installed. Planting the trees on beds lowers the
the surface stabilized. effective depth of the water table, and maintaining plant
Potential is very low for shallow excavations. This cover between rows reduces erosion. Areas subject to
potential would not improve even if water control freezing temperatures in winter are not suitable for
systems were used to lower the water table and control citrus trees.
surface water and if side walls were shored. Potential for improved pasture grasses on this soil is
This soil is in capability subclass VIIw and woodland medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
ordination group 2w. clover grow well when well managed. Water control mea-
11-EauGallie fine sand. This is a poorly drained, sures are needed to remove excess surface water after
nearly level soil in the flatwoods. Areas range from about heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
5 to 850 acres and are circular to irregularly shaped, are needed, and controlled grazing helps prevent over-
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. grazing and weakening of the plants.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6 Potential for pine trees is medium. Slash pines are
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 17 better suited than other species. The main management
inches thick. It is gray in the upper 7 inches and light concerns are equipment limitations during periods of
gray in the lower 10 inches, and it contains very dark heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
gray, grayish brown, and dark reddish brown mottles. For best results, a simple water control system is needed
The upper subsoil, 11 inches thick, is black fine sand that to remove excess surface water.
is coated with organic matter and that has dark brown This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
mottles. Below this is 15 inches of brown fine sand that tion fields, sewage lagoon areas, trench sanitary landfills,
has dark brown mottles and 5 inches of very pale brown dwellings without basements, small commercial buildings,
fine sand. The lower subsoil is gray sandy clay loam that local roads and streets, shallow excavations, and
has olive gray stains along old root channels. It extends playgrounds. Adequate water control measures are
to a depth of more than 80 inches, needed to realize this potential. In addition, mounding
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of may be needed for septic tank absorption fields in some
Myakka, Vero, Smyrna, Oldsmar, Immokalee, Basinger, places; sealing or lining with impervious material, for
and Malabar soils. Included soils make up less than 15 sewage lagoon areas and trench sanitary landfills; surface
percent of any mapped area. stabilization, for playgrounds; and shoring of side walls,
This soil has a water table within 10 inches of the sur- for shallow excavations.
face for periods of 1 to 4 months and within a depth of 40 This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland or-
inches for more than 6 months. Available water capacity dination group 3w.
is very low in the surface and subsurface layers; low in 12-Floridana fine sand. This is a very poorly drained,
the upper, sandy subsoil; very low in the sandy layers nearly level soil in depressions in the flatwoods and at the
beneath the upper subsoil; and medium in the lower sub- edges of large lakes that have fluctuating water levels.
soil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface Areas range from about 4 to 250 acres and are circular to
layers; moderate to moderately rapid in the upper subsoil; irregularly elongated. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
rapid in the sandy layers beneath the upper subsoil; and Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 15 inches
moderate to moderately rapid in the lower subsoil. Natu- thick. It is black in the upper 10 inches and very dark
ral fertility and organic matter content are low. gray in the lower 5 inches. The subsurface layer, about 9
Native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash pines inches thick, is grayish brown fine sand that has brownish
with an understory of sawpalmetto, inkberry, fetterbush, yellow mottles. The subsoil is 24 inches thick. The upper 8
and running oak. Grasses on this soil are creeping inches is light brownish gray sandy clay loam that has
bluestem, chalky bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland brown and yellowish brown mottles, and the next 9 inches
threeawn, switchgrass, and several panicum species, is gray sandy clay loam that contains lenses of light gray
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated fine sand. The lower 7 inches is gray sandy loam that has
crops because of wetness and low fertility. Adapted crops dark gray and yellowish brown mottles. The substratum
are limited unless very intensive management practices is white sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or
are followed. The soil has medium potential for a number more.
of vegetables. A water control system is needed to Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
remove excess water in the wet seasons and provide Delray, Gentry, Kaliga, and Nittaw soils. Also included
water for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Crop are small areas of similar soils that have a thin, organic
residues and soil improving crops should be plowed under, surface layer and some areas of soils on low, broad flats
Seedbed preparation that includes bedding of the rows that are subject to flooding. Included soils make up less
lowers the effective depth of the water table, than 15 percent of any mapped area.







18 SOIL SURVEY

Water stands above the surface for more than 6 This soil is in capability subclass VIIw and woodland
months in most years and is within a depth of 10 inches ordination group 3w.
for 9 months or more in most years. Available water 13-Gentry fine sand. This is a very poorly drained,
capacity is medium in the surface layer, low in the sub- nearly level soil in narrow to broad drainageways, on
surface layer, medium in the subsoil, and low in the sub- flood plains, and in small depressions in the flatwoods.
stratum. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsur- Mapped areas are mostly elongated flood plains or
face layers, slow to very slow in the subsoil, and rapid in drainageways, and a few are small, circular depressions.
the substratum. Natural fertility and organic matter con- These areas range from about 3 to 100 acres. Slopes are
tent are moderate, dominantly less than 1 percent but range to 2 percent.
Native vegetation consists mainly of maidencane, sand Typically the surface layer is'black fine sand about 24
cordgrass, pickerelweed, giant cutgrass, waxmyrtle, inches thick. It has high organic matter content and con-
sedges, and rushes. There are scattered cypress, bay, tu- tains very dark gray mottles and light brownish gray
pelo, and cabbage palm trees in many areas, pockets of uncoated sand grains. The subsoil is gray fine
Under natural conditions, this soil is unsuitable for cul- sandy loam about 40 inches thick. In the upper 13 inches,
tivated crops because water stands on the surface for it contains very dark gray, gray, and yellowish brown
long periods. Drainage outlets are not available in many mottles; very dark gray tongues of fine sand; and light
places. Even where adequate outlets are available and a gray pockets of fine sand. In the lower 27 inches, it con-
water control system which quickly removes excess water tains dark gray and brownish yellow mottles and grayish
is installed, this soil has low potential for vegetables, brown and light gray pockets of fine sand. The sub-
Seedbed preparation that includes bedding of the rows stratum extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is
lowers the effective depth of the water table. light gray fine sand and has yellow and light gray mot-
This soil is too wet in its natural state for citrus trees, tles.
Potential for this use is low. A water control system Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
which lowers the water table to a depth of 4 feet is Delray, Floridana, Nittaw, Riviera, Kaliga, Winder,
required before citrus trees can be grown on this soil. Malabar, and. Pineda soils. Also included are similar soils
Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective depth of that have a mucky surface layer 2 to 6 inches thick; soils
the water table. Areas subject to frequent and prolonged which have large pockets of white carbonatic material in
freezing temperatures are not suitable for citrus, the subsoil; and soils which have a clayey subsoil. In-
Under natural conditions, this soil is unsuitable for im- cluded soils make up less than 15 percent of any mapped
proved pasture. The water table, which is above the sur- area.
face for long periods, severely restricts plant growth. The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 6
Adequate water control systems are difficult to establish months or more during most years. Flooding occurs
because in most places suitable outlets are not available, frequently during the summer rainy season. Available
If a water control system can be installed, however, the water capacity is medium in the surface layer, medium to
potential production of good quality pasture is high. high in the subsoil, and low in the substratum. Permea-
This soil has medium potential for longleaf and slash ability is moderate to moderately rapid in the surface
pines, but a water control system that removes excess layer, slow to very slow in the subsoil, and moderate in
water is needed before trees can be planted. the substratum. Natural fertility is moderate, and organic
This soil has low potential for sewage lagoon areas, sep- matter content is high.
tic tank absorption fields, trench sanitary landfills, The native vegetation on this soil is a swamp of bald-
dwellings without basements, small commercial buildings, cypress, red maple, redbay, sweetbay, sweetgum, tupelo,
local roads and streets, and playgrounds. Even this poten- water hickory, water oak, buttonbush, greenbrier, wax-
tial cannot be realized, however, until a water control myrtle, switchcane, smartweed, wild grape, lizard's tail,
system that lowers the depth of the water table is in- and a variety of sedges.
stalled. In addition, in areas used as sewage lagoons and This soil in its natural condition is too wet for cul-
trench sanitary landfills, standing water needs to be con- tivated crops. With the use of a well designed water con-
trolled. Fill material needs to be added in areas used for trol system which quickly removes excess water during
dwellings without basements and small commercial the wet season, however, this soil has high potential for
buildings. The addition of fill material and mounding are vegetables. Seedbed preparation that includes bedding of
needed in areas used as septic tank absorption fields. Fill the rows lowers the effective depth of the water table.
material needs to be added and the structural strength of Potential for citrus trees is low. In its natural state this
foundations increased in areas used for roads and streets, soil is unsuitable for this use. In order to realize full
Fill material needs to be added and the surface stabilized potential, a water control system which lowers the water
in areas used as playgrounds. table to a depth of 4 feet is required. Planting the trees
Potential is very low for shallow excavations. To reach on beds lowers the effective depth of the water table, and
even this potential, water control systems are needed to maintaining plant cover between rows reduces erosion.
remove water standing on the surface and to lower the Areas susceptible to frequent or prolonged freezing tem-
high water table, and side walls need to be shored. peratures are not suitable for citrus trees.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 19

Although this soil is unsuitable for improved pasture This soil has a water table within a depth of 10 inches
grasses in its natural state, it has high potential for this for 2 to 6 months in most years. The water table is
use if a simple water control system is installed which usually between depths of 10 and 40 inches during the
quickly removes excess surface water after heavy rains, rest of the year. It recedes, however, to a depth of more
Several adapted grasses and legumes such as pan- than 40 inches during very dry times. Available water
golagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover produce high capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers,
yields when adequately fertilized and limed, medium in the subsoil, and low in the substratum.
This soil has high potential for pine trees, but a water Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
control system which removes excess surface water is layers, moderately rapid in the subsoil, and rapid in the
required before trees can be planted. Planting the trees substratum. Natural fertility and organic matter content
in bedded rows lowers the effective depth of the water are low.
table. Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palms and scat-
This soil has low potential for sewage lagoon areas, sep- tered longleaf and slash pine trees. There are a few water
tic tank absorption fields, trench sanitary landfills, oaks, particularly in higher areas. Sawpalmetto, waxmyr-
dwellings without basements, small commercial buildings, tle, inkberry, and American beautyberry are the main
local roads and streets, and playgrounds. Even this poten- shrubs. Creeping bluestem is the dominant grass in most
tial cannot be realized, however, until a water control places, but in some areas, sand cordgrass is dominant.
system that lowers the depth of the water table is in- Other common grasses are indiangrass, chalky bluestem,
stalled. In addition, in areas used as sewage lagoons and several species of panicums, pineland threeawn, South
trench sanitary landfills, standing water needs to be con- Florida bluestem, and switchgrass. Many areas are used
trolled. Fill material needs to be added in areas used for as range.
dwellings without basements and small commercial This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
buildings. The addition of fill material and mounding are because of wetness and low fertility. Low organic matter'
needed in areas used as septic tank absorption fields. Fill content, low natural fertility, and the prolonged high
material needs to be added and the structural strength of water table limit the capability of this soil for crops. With
foundations increased in areas used for roads and streets. the use of good water control and intensive management,
Fill material needs to be added and the surface stabilized this soil has medium potential for a number of vegetable
in areas used as playgrounds. crops. A water system control which removes excess
Potential is very low for shallow excavations. To reach water and soil improving practices such as plowing under
even this potential, water control systems are needed to crop residues are required. Irrigation may be required
control water standing on the surface and the high water during extended dry seasons. Seedbed preparation that
table, and side walls need to be shored, includes bedding of rows lowers the effective depth of
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or- the water table.
dination group 2w. Potential for citrus is medium except in areas subject
14-Holopaw fine sand. This is a poorly drained, to freezing temperatures. In order to reach this potential,
nearly level soil in low, broad flats and poorly defined a well designed water control system which lowers the
drainageways in the flatwoods. Areas range from 4 to 150 seasonal high water table to a depth of 4 feet is required.
acres and are circular to irregularly elongated. Slopes Planting the trees on bedded rows lowers the effective
range from 0 to 2 percent, depth of the water table, and maintaining plant cover
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown between the rows reduces erosion.
and gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The fine sand This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
subsurface layer extends to a depth of 47 inches. The grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
upper 11 inches is light gray and has yellowish brown clover produce good yields when well managed. Water
mottles; the next 17 inches is light gray and has dark control measures which quickly remove excess surface
grayish brown and yellowish brown mottles; and the water are required. Fertilizer and lime are needed, and
lower 11 inches is grayish brown and has dark grayish controlled grazing helps maintain plant vigor.
brown mottles. The subsoil extends to a depth of 60 Potential for pine trees is medium. Equipment limita-
inches. The upper 8 inches is grayish brown sandy clay tions during periods of high rainfall, plant competition,
loam, and the lower 5 inches is dark grayish brown sandy and seedling mortality due to either excessive or insuffi-
loam that contains streaks and pockets of loamy sand and cient moisture are the primary management concerns.
sandy clay loam. The substratum is gray loamy sand that Planting the trees on bedded rows lowers the effective
contains pockets and lenses of sand. depth of the water table.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption
Riviera, Delray, Malabar, and Oldsmar soils. Also included fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
are small areas of this Holopaw soil in depressions in buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds. To
which water stands for more than 6 months in most realize this potential, water control measures must be ap-
years. Included soils make up less than 15 percent of any plied to the soil, and fill material needs to be added. In
mapped area. addition, septic tank absorption fields may need to be








20 SOIL SURVEY

mounded in places, and the structural strength of founda- control established. In addition, mounding may be needed
tions for local roads and streets needs to be increased, in some areas used as septic tank absorption fields.
Potential is low for trench sanitary landfills, sewage Potential is low for trench sanitary landfills, sewage
lagoon areas, and shallow excavations. Water control mea- lagoon areas, and shallow excavations. Water control mea-
sures are needed to reach this potential. Sewage lagoon sures are needed to realize even this potential. In addi-
areas also need to be sealed or lined with impervious tion, special equipment is needed for shallow excavations.
material, and the side walls of shallow excavations also This soil is in capability subclass IIIw. It was not as-
need to be shored, signed to a woodland ordination group.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland or- 16-Immokalee fine sand. This a poorly drained,
dination group 3w. nearly level soil in broad flatwoods areas. Areas range
15-Hontoon muck. This is a very poorly drained, from about 5 to 200 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 per-
nearly level, organic soil in depressional areas and in cent.
fresh water marshes and swamps. Slopes are less than 1 Typically, the surface layer is 7 inches of very dark
percent, gray fine sand. The fine sand subsurface layer is 30
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown muck inches thick. The upper 6 inches is light gray, and the
about 5 inches thick. The next layer is black muck about lower 24 inches is white and has faint brown mottles. The
24 inches thick. Below is dark reddish brown muck which subsoil, 10 inches thick, is fine sand weakly cemented by
extends to a depth of 70 inches or more. organic matter. The upper 4 inches is black and has very
Included with this soil in mapping are similar soils that dark brown and grayish brown mottles, and the lower 6
have, normally at a depth of 30 to 50 inches, a 3- to 5-inch inches is dark reddish brown and has reddish yellow and
layer of partially decomposed wood fragments as much as black mottles. The next layer is 18 inches of dark brown
5 inches in diameter. Also included are small areas of fine sand that has reddish yellow and dark brown mottles.
Samsula, Kaliga, and Placid soils. Included soils make up Below this is dark grayish brown fine sand which extends
about 20 percent of any mapped area. to a depth of 80 inches or more. This layer is mottled
Under natural conditions, the water table is within a with black and very dark grayish brown.
depth of 10 inches of the surface or above the surface ex- Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
cept during extended dry periods. Available water capaci- Ankona, Basinger, Myakka, Pomello, and Smyrna soils.
ty is very high. Permeability is rapid throughout. Organic Also included are small areas of similar soils in which the
matter content is very high, and natural fertility is subsoil is below a depth of 50 inches or in which texture
moderate to high. is coarse sand. These similar soils are primarily in the
Natural vegetation consists mostly of sawgrass, northwestern part of the survey area. Included soils make
maidencane, cattails, giant cutgrass, arrowheads, and a up no more than 15 percent of any mapped area.
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for
variety of sedges. In some places are thick stands of wil- 2 months in most years and within a depth of 10 to 40
2 months in most years and within a depth of 10 to 40
low, elderberry, and buttonbush, and in other places are inches for 8 months or more in most years. It is at a
inches for 8 months or more in most years. It is at a
mixed stands of cypress, red maple, loblollybay, black tu- depth of more than 40 inches during dry periods. Permea-
depth of more than 40 inches during dry periods. Permea-
pelo, and sweetgum trees with a ground cover of green- ability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers,
briers and ferns yis rapid in the surface and subsurface layers,
briers and ferns. moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil, and rapid
In its natural state, this soil is not suitable for cul- belo Availe water capaci is l i the su c
below. Available water capacity is low in the surface
tivated crops because of excessive wetness. It has high layer very low in the subsurface layer, medium in the
Slayer, very low in the subsurface layer, medium in the
potential for vegetable crops when a well designed and subsoil, and very low in the substratum. Natural fertility
well maintained water control system is used. This water and organic matter content are low.
control system removes excess water during times of Native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash pines
heavy rainfall in the growing season and keeps the soil with an understory of sawpalmetto, inkberry, fetterbush,
saturated at other times to prevent oxidation of the or- and running oak. Grasses are creeping bluestem, chalky
ganic material. Fertilization and liming are needed. bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn,
With adequate water control, this soil has high poten- switchgrass, and several panicum species.
tial for improved pasture grasses and clovers. A water This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
control system which quickly removes excess surface because of wetness during the rainy season, droughtiness
water and maintains the water table near the surface to during the dry season, and low fertility. The number of
prevent excessive oxidation of the organic soil is needed adapted crops is limited unless intensive management
to reach this potential. Fertilization is needed. Controlled practices are followed. Potential for a number of vegeta-
grazing helps maintain maximum yields. ble crops is medium. A water control system which
This soil is not suitable for citrus trees or pine trees. removes excess water during wet seasons and provides
This soil has very low potential for dwellings without water for subsurface irrigation during dry seasons is
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and needed. Because of low fertility, plowing under crop
streets, playgrounds, and septic tank absorption fields, residues and following other practices which add organic
For these uses, the organic material must be removed, matter to the soil are needed. Fertilizer and lime should
the areas backfilled with suitable soil material, and water be added according to the needs of the crops.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 21

Potential for citrus trees is low. Citrus trees can be ty is very high in the organic layers and medium to high
grown successfully on this soil only after a carefully in the mineral layers. Permeability is moderate to very
designed water control system which lowers the water rapid in the organic layers, moderate in the upper 11
table to a depth of about 4 feet has been installed. Plant- inches of the mineral layers, and slow to very slow in the
ing the trees on beds lowers the effective depth of the lower 44 inches. Natural fertility and organic matter con-
water table, and maintaining close-growing cover between tent are high.
the rows reduces erosion. Areas subject to frequent and Natural vegetation consists mostly of sawgrass,
prolonged periods of freezing temperatures are not suita- maidencane, cattails, giant cutgrass, arrowheads, and a
ble for citrus. variety of sedges. In some places are thick stands of wil-
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture low, elderberry, and buttonbush, and in other places are
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white mixed stands of cypress, red maple, loblollybay, black tu-
clover grow well with good management. Simple water pelo, and sweetgum trees with a ground cover of green-
control measures are needed to quickly remove excess briers and ferns.
surface water after heavy rains. Regular applications of In its natural state this soil is unsuitable for cultivated
fertilizer and lime are needed, and controlled grazing crops due to excessive wetness. With the use of a well
helps maintain vigorous plants. designed water control system which removes excess
Potential for pine trees is low. Slash pines are better water, however, this soil has high potential for a number
suited than other species. The main management concerns of vegetables. Saturating the soil with water when crops
are equipment limitations during wet periods, seedling are not being grown prevents oxidization of the organic
mortality, and plant competition. A simple water control matter. Fertilizers and lime need to be applied regularly.
system is needed to remove excess surface water. Plant- Crop residues and cover crops should be plowed under.
ing the trees on bedded rows lowers the effective depth Potential for improved pasture grasses is high. Pan-
of the water table. golagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow
This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp- well on this soil. A water control system is needed to
tion fields, sewage lagoon areas, dwellings without base- remove excess surface water and maintain the water
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, table near the surface to prevent oxidation of the organic
playgrounds, trench sanitary landfills, and shallow excava- soil materials. Fertilizer needs to be applied regularly,
tions. Adequate water control measures are needed to and lime is also needed. Controlled grazing helps prevent
realize this potential. In addition, mounding may be overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
needed in places for septic tank absorption fields. Sealing This soil is not suitable for citrus trees or pine trees.
or lining with impervious material is also needed for This soil has very low potential for dwellings without
sewage lagoon areas and trench sanitary landfills; surface basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
stabilization, for playgrounds; and shoring of side walls, streets, playgrounds, and septic tank absorption fields,
for shallow excavations. but the organic material needs to be removed and
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland or- backfilled with suitable soil material and water control
dination group 4w. needs to be established. Mounding of absorption fields
17-Kaliga muck. This is a very poorly drained, nearly may also be needed in places.
level, organic soil in low flats, fresh water marshes, Potential is low for trench sanitary landfills, sewage
swamps, and depressions. Areas range from about 4 to lagoon areas, and shallow excavations; water control is
750 acres and are circular to irregularly elongated. Slopes needed to realize this potential, and special equipment is
are less than 1 percent, also needed for shallow excavations.
Typically, the surface layer is muck about 26 inches This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or-
thick. The upper 7 inches is dark brown, and the lower 19 dination group 4w.
inches is black. The underlying material is mineral and 18-Lokosee fine sand. This is a poorly drained, nearly
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is 6 inches of level soil on low hammocks and in a few flatwoods areas.
black loam, 5 inches of very dark gray loamy fine sand Many areas border flood plains of streams or are next to
that contains light gray streaks, 16 inches of very dark lakes and well-defined drainageways. Areas range from
gray clay, 12 inches of very dark gray sandy clay loam about 4 to 500 acres and are circular to elongated. Slopes
that has dark gray mottles, and 15 inches of grayish range from 0 to 2 percent.
brown loamy fine sand that has dark grayish brown and Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
white mottles. about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of about 23 inches thick. It is light gray in the upper 3
Delray, Hontoon, Nittaw, Placid, and Samsula soils. Also inches and white in the lower 20 inches. The upper subsoil
included are small areas of similar soils that contain less is fine sand about 8 inches thick. It is very pale brown in
clay in the mineral layers. Included soils make up less the upper 3 inches and yellow in the lower 5 inches. The
than 15 percent of any mapped area. next layer is dark grayish brown and dark brown fine
This soil has a water table at or above the surface ex- sand about 8 inches thick. Scattered throughout this layer
cept during extended dry periods. Available water capaci- are weakly cemented fragments of very dark gray fine







22 SOIL SURVEY

sand. Next is about 6 inches of light gray fine sand. This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
Between depths of about 49 and 57 inches or more is a tion fields, sewage lagoon areas, dwellings without base-
lower subsoil of gray sandy clay loam. ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of playgrounds, trench sanitary landfills, and shallow excava-
EauGallie, Holopaw, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Riviera soils. tions. Adequate water control measures are needed to
Also included are small areas of soils that lack the layer realize this potential. In addition, mounding may be
of light gray fine sand above the lower subsoil and small needed in some places for septic tank absorption fields;
areas of soil in which the surface layer is gray or grayish sealing or lining with impervious material, for sewage
brown. Included soils make up less than 20 percent of any lagoon areas and trench sanitary landfills; and surface
mapped area. stabilization, for playgrounds. The side walls of shallow
The water table is within a depth of 10 inches of the excavations also need to be shored.
surface for 2 to 4 months of the year. It is at a depth of This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland or-
10 to 40 inches for more than 6 months and recedes to a dilation group 3w.
depth of more than 40 inches during prolonged dry 19-Malabar fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
periods. Available water capacity is very low to low to a draped soil in broad sloughs in the flatwoods. Areas
depth of 49 inches and medium below. Permeability is range from about 5 to 450 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2
moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil and rapid in percent.
Typically the surface layer is black fine sand about 4
the other layers. Organic matter content and natural fer- inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 14
utility are low. inches thick. The upper 6 inches is light brownish gray,
Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palms and scat- and the lower 8 inches is very pale brown mottled with
tered longleaf and slash pine trees. There are a few water yellowish brown. The upper subsoil is fine sand about 20
oaks, particularly in higher areas. Sawpalmetto, waxmyr- inches thick. The first 4 inches is light yellowish brown
tle, inkberry, and American beautyberry are the main and has distinct yellow mottles; the next 6 inches is red-
shrubs. Creeping bluestem is the dominant grass in most dish yellow and has light brownish gray mottles; and the
places, but in some areas, sand cordgrass is dominant, lower 10 inches is yellowish brown and has strong brown
Other common grasses are indiangrass, chalky bluestem, mottles. Next is a 12-inch layer of light brownish gray
several panicum species, pineland threeawn, South fine sand that separates the upper and lower subsoil. The
Florida bluestem, and switchgrass. Many areas are used lower subsoil extends between depths of 50 and 68 inches.
as range. It is olive gray sandy clay loam mottled with light
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops brownish gray. Below is olive gray sandy loam that con-
because of wetness and low fertility. With intensive tains light brownish gray mottles and pockets of dark
management and the use of a water control system which grayish brown sand and sandy clay loam.
removes excess water, potential for vegetables is medium. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Irrigation may be required for crops grown during the Delray, Pineda,' Riviera, Winder, and Pompano soils. Also
dry winter season. Crop residue and cover crops should included are soils that have a strongly acid surface layer
be plowed under to add organic matter to the soil and im- and strongly acid loamy layers at a depth of 20 to 40
prove fertility. Fertilizer and lime should be applied as inches. Included soils make up no more than 15 percent of
needed. Seedbed preparation that includes bedding of the any mapped area.
rows lowers the effective depth of the water table. The water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6
This soil is unsuitable in its natural state for citrus months during most years. Available water capacity is
trees, but with the use of a water control system which very low or low in the surface layer, subsurface layer,
maintains the water table at a depth of about 4 feet, and upper subsoil; medium in the lower subsoil; and low
to very low in the substratum. Permeability is rapid in
potential is medium. Planting the trees on beds lowers th l in the subsurface layer, n the upper
the effective depth of the water table, and maintaining subsoil, and in the sandy layer between the upper and
close-growing cover between the rows reduces erosion. lower subsoils; slow to very slow in the lower subsoil; and
Potential for improved pasture grasses is medium. Sim- rapid in the substratum. Organic matter content and
pie water control measures are needed to quickly remove natural fertility are low.
excess surface water after periods of heavy rainfall. Fer- Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palms and scat-
tilizer and lime should be applied as needed. Controlled tered longleaf and slash pine trees. There are a few water
grazing helps prevent overgrazing and weakening of the oaks, particularly in higher areas. Sawpalmetto, waxmyr-
plants. tle, inkberry, and American beautyberry are the main
Potential for pine trees is medium. Primary manage- shrubs. Creeping bluestem is the dominant grass in most
ment considerations are equipment limitations, seedling places, but in some areas, sand cordgrass is dominant.
mortality, and plant competition. A simple water control Other common grasses are indiangrass, chalky bluestem,
system is needed to remove excess surface water. Plant- several species of panicums, pineland threeawn, South
ing the trees on beds lowers the effective depth of the Florida bluestem, and switchgrass. Many areas are used
water table. as range.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 23

Limitations for cultivated crops are severe because of and the lower 8 inches is white and has mottles of yellow
wetness and low fertility. With the use of intensive and brownish yellow. The upper subsoil is fine sand about
management and a water control system which removes 29 inches thick. The first 9 inches is yellow and has
excess water in wet seasons, potential is medium for a distinct brownish yellow mottles, the next 10 inches is
number of adapted vegetables. Irrigation may be necessa- yellowish brown, and the lower 10 inches is light yel-
ry for best plant growth during dry seasons. Crop lowish brown. Next is a 14-inch thick layer of light
residues and soil improving cover crops should be plowed brownish gray fine sand that separates the lower and
under to add organic matter to the soil and improve fer- upper subsoil. The lower subsoil, between depths of 65
utility. Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective and 80 inches or more, is dark gray fine sandy loam that
depth of the water table. Fertilizer should be applied ac- contains pockets and lenses of grayish brown fine sand.
cording to the needs of the crop. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This soil is unsuitable in its natural state for citrus Basinger, Gentry, Holopaw, Lokosee, Riviera, Pompano,
trees. It has medium potential for this use after a well Placid, and Kaliga soils. Also included is a similar soil that
designed water control system which maintains the water lacks the lower subsoil and that is sandy to a depth of
table at a depth of about 4 feet is installed. Planting the more than 80 inches. Some areas of this soil are in poorly
trees on bedded rows lowers the effective depth of the defined drainageways through which water is channeled
water table. Maintaining close-growing cover between the by artificial drainage. These areas are subject to flooding
rows reduces erosion. Fertilizer and lime should be ap- during periods of high rainfall. Included soils make up
plied as needed. less than 20 percent of any mapped area.
Potential for improved pasture grasses is medium. Pan- Six inches to 2 feet of water stand on the surface for 6
golagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover produce to 12 months during most years. During winter and
high yields when well managed. A simple water control spring, when very little rain falls, the water table is at a
system which removes excess surface water quickly is depth of 10 to 20 inches. Available water capacity is very
needed. Fertilizer and lime need to be applied regularly, low or low in the surface layer, in the subsurface layer, in
and controlled grazing helps prevent weakening of the the upper subsoil, and in the sandy layer between the
stand. upper and lower subsoils, and medium in the lower sub-
Potential for pine trees is medium. The major manage- soil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, subsurface
ment concerns are equipment limitations during periods layer, and upper subsoil, and slow to very slow in the
of high rainfall and plant competition. Seedling mortality lower subsoil. Organic matter content and natural fertility
is usually high because of extremes in soil moisture con- are low.
tent. Planting the trees on bedded rows lowers the effec- Native vegetation often occurs as circular bands on this
tive depth of the water table. A simple water control soil. The small areas of very wet soils generally support
system needs to be installed to remove excess surface sawgrass, maidencane, cutgrass, and pickerelweed. Out-
water, ward from the center are smaller amounts of maidencane
This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption in association with St. Johnswort. Sand cordgrass, low
fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial panicum, stiff paspalum, and species of nut rushes are
buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds. To also common.
realize even this potential for all these uses, however, Under natural conditions this soil is not suitable for cul-
water control measures are needed and fill material needs tivated crops or improved pasture grasses. The potential
to be added. In addition, mounding may be needed in for vegetables or pasture is very low. Water stands on
places for septic tank absorption fields, and structural the surface for long periods. Adequate drainage is dif-
strength of foundations needs to be increased for local ficult to establish because in most places suitable outlets
roads and streets. are not available. In its native state this soil provides
Potential is also low for trench sanitary landfills, watering places and feeding grounds for many kinds of
sewage lagoon areas, and shallow excavations. Water con- wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
trol measures are needed to realize this potential. In addi- Potential for pine trees is low. Full potential can be
tion, sewage lagoon areas need to be sealed or lined with realized only after a good water control system which
impervious material, and the side walls of shallow excava- removes excess surface water is installed. Pond pines are
tions need to be shored. the best trees to plant.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland or- This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption
dination group 3w. fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
20-Malabar fine sand, depressional. This is a poorly buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds. To
drained, nearly level soil in depressions in the flatwoods realize even this potential, however, water control mea-
(fig. 4). Most areas are circular or elongated and range sures are needed and fill material needs to be added (fig.
from about 4 to 200 acres. Slopes are less than 1 percent. 5). In addition, absorption fields need to be mounded and
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand the surfaces of playgrounds stabilized.
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand Potential is very low for trench sanitary landfills and
about 18 inches thick. The upper 10 inches is light gray, sewage lagoon areas. Standing surface water and the







24 SOIL SURVEY

water table need to be controlled and special equipment upper and lower subsoils, and medium in the lower sub-
used. Potential for shallow excavations is also very low. soil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
Standing surface water and the water table need to be layers and in the upper subsoil and slow to very slow in
controlled and side walls shored, the lower subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter
This soil is in capability subclass VIIIw and woodland content are low throughout.
ordination group 3w. Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of
21-Malabar-Pineda complex. This complex consists of soils that are mostly similar to Malabar or Pineda soils.
poorly drained, nearly level Malabar and Pineda soils in Included soils make up 5 to 20 percent of this map unit.
flatwoods areas so intermingled that they could not be Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palms and scat-
separated at the scale used for mapping. Areas are broad tered longleaf and slash pine trees. There are a few water
and irregularly shaped. They range from about 4 to 1,000 oaks, particularly in higher areas. Sawpalmetto, waxmyr-
acres. The Malabar soils are in broad, poorly defined tie, inkberry, and American beautyberry are the main
sloughs and on low flats. They are interspersed with shrubs. Creeping bluestem is the dominant grass in most
slightly higher "islands" of Pineda soils. Individual areas places, but in some areas, sand cordgrass is dominant.
of each soil are about 0.25 acre to 3 acres. Slopes range Other common grasses are indiangrass, chalky bluestem,
from 0 to 2 percent. several panicum species, pineland threeawn, South
Malabar fine sand makes up about 50 to 65 percent of Florida bluestem, and switchgrass. Many areas are used
each mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is black as range.
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is These soils have medium potential for cultivated crops.
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is light Excessive wetness and low fertility are severe limita-
brownish gray, and the lower 3 inches is light gray. The tions. A water control system which removes excess
upper subsoil is fine sand about 26 inches thick. The first water is needed before vegetables can be grown. Irriga-
6 inches is yellowish brown and has distinct dark gray tion may be required for best yields when crops are
mottles, the next 10 inches is yellowish brown, and the grown during the dry winter months. Crop residues and
lower 10 inches is yellowish brown and has strong brown cover crops need to be plowed under to improve the level
mottles. Next is a 12-inch layer of light gray fine sand of fertility. Fertilizer and lime should be applied accord-
that separates the upper and lower subsoils. The lower ing to the needs of the crops. Seedbed preparation that
subsoil, between depths of 50 and 80 inches or more, is includes bedding of the rows lowers the effective depth
gray sandy clay loam that has dark yellowish brown and of the water table.
yellowish brown mottles. Potential for citrus trees is medium except in areas
Malabar soils have a water table within a depth of 10 subject to frequent freezing temperatures. A carefully
inches for 2 to 6 months during most years. Available maintains the water
water capacity is low or very low in the surface and sub- table at a depth of about 4 feet is needed before these
surface layers and in the upper subsoil, medium in the
slower subsoi and low or vuery low in the substratum soils can be used for citrus trees. Planting the trees on
lower subsoil, and low or very low in the substratum beds lowers the effective depth of the water table, and
layers, in the upper subsoil, and in the sandy layer maintaining plant cover between the rows reduces ero-
between the upper and lower subsoils; slow to very slow sion. Fertilizer and lime should be applied as needed.
in the lower subsoil; and rapid in the substratum. Organic Potential for improved pasture grasses is medium. Sim-
matter content and natural fertility are low. ple water control measures are needed to remove excess
Pineda fine sand makes up about 30 to 40 percent of surface water after heavy rains. Fertilizer and lime
each mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is fine should be applied regularly according to the needs of the
sand about 8 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is black, crop, and controlled grazing helps prevent overgrazing
and the lower 4 inches is very dark gray. The subsurface and subsequent weakening of the plants.
layer is light gray fine sand about 4 inches thick. The Potential for pine trees is medium. The main manage-
upper subsoil is fine sand about 13 inches thick. It is very meant concerns are equipment limitations during periods
pale brown in the first 7 inches and is yellowish brown of high rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
and has light brownish gray mottles in the lower 6 inches. Planting the trees on beds and simple water control mea-
Next is a 6-inch layer of light gray fine sand that sures remove excess surface water.
separates the upper and lower subsoil. The lower subsoil, This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption
between depths of 31 and 80 inches or more, is 4 inches of fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
gray sandy loam that has yellowish brown mottles and 45 buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds. To
inches of gray sandy clay loam that has light gray and realize even this potential, however, water control mea-
yellowish brown mottles. sures are needed and fill material needs to be added. In
Pineda soils have a water table at a depth of less than addition, mounding may be needed in places for septic
10 inches for 1 to 6 months annually. Available water tank absorption fields, and the structural strength of
capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers, foundations for local roads and streets needs to be in-
in the upper subsoil, and in the sandy layer between the creased.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 25

Potential is also low for trench sanitary landfills, Potential for improved pasture grasses is medium. Pan-
sewage lagoon areas, and shallow excavations. Water con- golagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow
trol measures are needed to realize this potential. In addi- well when well managed. Water control measures are
tion, sewage lagoon areas need to be sealed or lined with needed to remove excess surface water after heavy rains.
impervious material and the side walls of shallow excava- Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, and
tions need to be shored, controlled grazing helps prevent overgrazing and weaken-
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland or- ing of the plants.
dination group 3w. Potential for pine trees is low. Slash pines are better
22-Myakka fine sand. This a poorly drained, nearly suited than other species. The main management concerns
level soil in broad areas in the flatwoods. Areas range are equipment limitations during periods of heavy rain-
from about 6 to 800 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 per- fall, seedling mortality, and plant competition. Simple
cent. water control systems remove excess surface water.
Typically, Myakka soils have a surface layer of very This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface tion fields, sewage lagoon areas, dwellings without base-
layer is light gray fine sand about 20 inches thick. It has ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets,
very dark grayish brown and brown streaks along root and playgrounds. To realize this potential, however,
channels. The subsoil is fine sand that is weakly cemented adequate water control measures are needed. In addition,
with organic matter. It is black in the upper 6 inches and mounding may be needed in places for septic tank absorp-
dark reddish brown and very dark gray in the lower 4 tion fields; sealing or lining with impervious material is
inches. Next is a 6-inch layer of dark yellowish brown needed for sewage lagoon areas; and surface stabilization
fine sand that has dark reddish brown stains along root is needed for playgrounds.
channels. The next 27 inches is light yellowish brown fine Potential is also medium for trench sanitary landfills
sand. It is underlain by a layer of weakly cemented, dark and shallow excavations. Water control measures are
reddish brown fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 needed to realize this potential. In addition, landfills need
inches or more. to be sealed or lined with impervious material and the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of side walls of shallow excavations need to be shored.
Smyrna, Immokalee, Ona, Cassia, EauGallie, and Pomello This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland or-
soils. Included soils make up no more than 20 percent of dination group 4w.
any mapped area. 23-Myakka-Urban land complex. This complex con-
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for sists of Myakka fine sand and Urban land in areas so in-
1 to 4 months in most years and a depth of more than 40 termingled that they could not be separated at the scale
inches during very dry seasons. Permeability is rapid in used for mapping. Areas range from about 60 to 2,500
the surface and subsurface layers, moderate to moderate- acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
ly rapid in the subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. About 40 to 60 percent of the complex consists of
Available water capacity is very low above the subsoil, nearly level, poorly drained Myakka soils. Typically,
medium in the subsoil, and very low below the subsoil. Myakka soils have a surface layer of black fine sand
Natural fertility and organic matter content are low. about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
Native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash pines fine sand about 20 inches thick. This layer is mottled with
with an understory of sawpalmetto, inkberry, fetterbush, gray, very dark gray, and grayish brown. The subsoil is
and running oak. Grasses are creeping bluestem, chalky fine sand that is weakly cemented with organic matter. It
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland threeawn, is black in the upper 4 inches and dark reddish brown in
switchgrass, and several species of panicums. the lower 6 inches. The fine sand substratum extends to a
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops depth of 80 inches or more. The first 3 inches is dark
because of wetness and low fertility. The number of brown and has very dark brown and black mottles and
adapted crops is limited unless very intensive manage- weakly cemented bodies. The lower part is gray mottled
ment practices are followed. The soil has medium poten- with brown and grayish brown.
tial for a number of vegetables. A water control system is Myakka soils have a water table at a depth of less than
needed to remove excess water in the wetter seasons and 10 inches for 1 to 4 months in most years and at a depth
provide subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Crop of more than 40 inches during very dry seasons. Permea-
residues and soil-improving crops should be plowed under. ability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers,
Seedbed preparation that includes bedding of the rows moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil, and rapid in
lowers the effective depth of the water table. the substratum. Available water capacity is very low in
Potential for citrus trees is low, and then only after a, the surface and subsurface layers, medium in the subsoil,
carefully designed water control system has been in- and very low in the substratum. Natural fertility and or-
stalled to maintain the water table below a depth of 4 ganic matter content are low.
feet. Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective Urban land makes up 20 to 45 percent of this complex.
depth of the water table, and maintaining plant cover It is mostly covered by dwellings, streets, driveways,
between the rows reduces erosion. Areas subject to freez- buildings, parking lots, and other related construction. It
ing temperatures in winter are not suitable for citrus. is nearly level.







26 SOIL SURVEY

Unoccupied areas are mostly lawns, parks, vacant lots, are common understory plants. Forbs and grasses are
and playgrounds consisting of Myakka soils, some of sparse but include partridgeberry, bracken fern, uniolas,
which have been altered by filling and by the sandy pineland threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, and bluestem
materials which have been spread over the surface. This species.
fill has an average thickness of 15 inches but ranges from In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for
8 to 24 inches in thickness. Without the fill, this soil cultivated crops because of periodic wetness, droughti-
would be like typical Myakka soils. Fill material is nor- ness, and low fertility. The number of adapted crops is
mally obtained from excavations made for adjacent very limited unless intensive water control measures are
streets, but most low areas have been filled in with used. Potential for vegetables is low. A water control
material transported from more distant places. system that removes excess water in wet seasons and
Included in mapping are small areas of Smyrna and Im- provides subsurface irrigation in dry seasons is needed.
mokalee soils. Included soils make up less than about 15 Soil improving crops and the residues of all other crops
percent of any mapped area. should be plowed under. Fertilizer and lime should be
Present land use precludes the use of this soil for cul- added according to the need of the crop.
tivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture. It is, however, Potential for citrus trees on this soil is high if a water
well suited to lawn grasses and ornamental shrubs. Some control system is installed to remove excess water from
areas from which the surface layer has been removed or the soil rapidly to a depth of about 4 feet. A cover of
on which fill material has been spread may need to have close-growing vegetation maintained between the trees
good quality topsoil added. protects the soil from blowing in dry weather and from
This complex was not assigned to a capability subclass, erosion during heavy rains. The trees need regular appli-
The Myakka soil is in woodland ordination group 4w, and cations of fertilizer, and highest yields require irrigation
Urban land was not assigned to a woodland ordination in seasons of low rainfall. Citrus trees are not suited to
group. areas subject to frequent freezing temperatures.
24-Narcoossee fine sand. This is a moderately well Potential for improved pasture grasses on this soil is
drained, nearly level soil on low ridges and knolls in'the medium. A simple water control system is needed to
flatwoods. Areas range from about 5 to 120 acres. Slopes remove excess surface water in times of heavy rainfall.
are convex and range from 0 to 2 percent. Regular applications of fertilizers are also needed. Care-
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand fully controlled grazing helps maintain healthy plants for
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand highest yields.
about 17 inches thick. It is gray in the upper 4 inches, and This soil has medium potential for longleaf and slash
light gray in the lower 13 inches. The subsoil, dark red- pines. Low fertility keeps this soil from being more
dish brown and dark brown fine sand which is weakly ce- productive. Slash pines are better suited than other spe-
mented with organic matter, occurs between depths of 22 cies.
and 26 inches. Next is about 10 inches of yellowish brown This soil has high potential for septic tank absorption
fine sand mottled with dark yellowish brown and yel- fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
lowish brown. The substratum is fine sand to a depth of buildings, and local roads and streets. Adequate water
80 inches or more. The upper 26 inches is light gray and control measures are needed to realize this potential.
has yellowish brown and brown mottles, and the lower 18 Potential is also high for playgrounds; the surface, how-
inches is pale brown. ever, needs to be stabilized.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Potential is medium for trench type sanitary landfills
Adamsville, Myakka, Smyrna, and Tavares soils. Also in- and shallow excavations. To realize this potential for
eluded are small areas of similar soils that have a black, trench type sanitary landfills, the trench needs to be
very dark gray, or very dark grayish brown layer at a sealed or lined with impervious material; for shallow ex-
depth of 70 to 80 inches. Included soils make up less than cavations, water control measures are needed and side
15 percent of any mapped area. walls need to be shored.
This soil has a water table at a depth of 24 to 40 inches Potential is low for sewage lagoon areas. To realize
for 4 to 6 months in most years. It recedes to a depth of even this potential, however, adequate water control mea-
more than 60 inches in extended dry periods. Available sures are needed and the areas need to be sealed or lined
water capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface with impervious material.
layers, low in the subsoil, and very low in the substratum. This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or-
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface dination group 3w.
layers, moderately rapid in the subsoil, and rapid in the 25-Nittaw muck. This is a very poorly drained, nearly
substratum. Natural fertility and organic matter content level soil in drainageways, swamps, and marshes. Areas
are low. range from about 4 to 400 acres. A few areas are small,
Native vegetation consists dominantly of large live oak circular depressions, but most are long, narrow
trees (fig. 6) with laurel and water oaks and longleaf and drainageways and flood plains. Slopes are smooth to con-
slash pines. Sawpalmetto, sumac, American beautyberry, cave and are less than 1 percent in most places, but they
greenbriers, Virginia creeper, wild grape, and blackberry range from 0 to 2 percent.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 27

Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown muck Potential is low for shallow excavations, trench sanitary
about 7 inches thick. The next layer is black fine sand landfills, and septic tank absorption fields. To realize even
about 8 inches thick. The upper 13 inches of the subsoil is this potential, water control measures are needed, and in
very dark gray sandy clay; the next 24 inches is dark areas used as septic tank absorption fields, the organic
gray sandy clay that has olive gray and olive mottles; and material needs to be replaced and the area mounded.
the lower 19 inches is gray sandy clay that contains olive Potential is very low for dwellings without basements,
gray mottles and pockets of light gray fine sand. The sub- small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
stratum is light gray fine sand which extends to a depth Water control measures, replacement of the organic
of 76 inches or more. material, specially designed footings and foundations, and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of increased structural strength are needed.
Gentry, Floridana, Kaliga, and Winder soils. Also included This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or-
are similar soils which lack an organic surface layer and dination group 2w.
soils which have a sandy clay loam subsoil. Included soils 26-Oldsmar fine sand. This is a poorly drained, nearly
make up less than 15 percent of any mapped area. level soil in the flatwoods. Areas range from about 4 to 90
The water table is at or above the surface for 6 to 8 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
months in most years. Most areas are flooded during Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
summer. Available water capacity is very high in the or- inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 37
ganic surface layer, low to medium in the mineral subsur- inches thick. It is gray in the upper 5 inches and light
face layer, high in the subsoil, and low in the substratum, gray in the lower 32 inches. The upper subsoil is 11 inches
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface of weakly cemented, black loamy fine sand. It has very
layers, slow in the subsoil, and rapid in the substratum, dark gray mottles in the upper 5 inches and dark brown
Organic matter content is very high to high, and natural and dark reddish brown mottles in the lower 6 inches.
fertility is high. The next 13 inches separates the upper and lower subsoil.
The native vegetation on this soil is a swamp of bald- The upper 9 inches is dark grayish brown loamy fine sand
cypress, red maple, redbay, sweetbay, sweetgum, tupelo, that contains very dark grayish brown mottles and
water hickory, water oak, buttonbush, greenbrier, wax- weakly cemented black fragments. The next 4 inches is
myrtle, switchcane, smartweed, wild grape, lizard's tail, light brownish gray fine sand. The lower subsoil is at a
and a variety of sedges (fig. 7). depth of 67 inches and extends to a depth of 80 inches or
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops more. The upper 10 inches is dark gray sandy clay loam
because of flooding, wetness, and the slowly permeable, mottled with very dark gray and dark grayish brown. The
clayey subsoil. With the use of a well designed water con- lower 3 inches is greenish gray sandy clay loam with dark
trol system which quickly removes excess water and pro- gray and gray mottles.
tects the soil from flooding, this soil has high potential for Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
a number of vegetables. Seedbed preparation that in- Ankona, EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, and Smyrna
cludes bedding of the rows lowers the effective depth of soils. Included soils make up no more than 20 percent of
the water table. Applications of fertilizer and lime are any mapped area.
needed. This soil has a water table within a depth of 10 inches
This soil is too wet in its natural state for citrus trees, for 1 to 3 months and within a depth of 10 to 40 inches
and its potential for this use is low. Because of its loca- for 6 months or more in most years. Available water
tion in depressions and drainageways, the adequate water capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers
control necessary for citrus culture is difficult to install, and medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
The organic surface layer and the clayey subsoil are also surface and subsurface layers, moderate to moderately
severe limitations for citrus trees. This soil is generally in rapid in the sandy part of the subsoil, and slow to very
lower areas that are subject to freezing temperatures, slow in the loamy part of the subsoil. Natural fertility and
which damage citrus, organic matter content are low.
Potential for improved pasture grasses is high. A water Native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash pines
control system which quickly removes excess surface with an understory of sawpalmetto, inkberry, fetterbush,
water, however, is required to reach this potential. With and running oak. Grasses on this soil are creeping
good management, Coastal bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and bluestem, chalky bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland
white clover grow well. Fertilization and liming are threeawn, switchgrass, and several species of panicums.
required. Controlled grazing helps maintain high yields. This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
Potential for pine trees is high. A simple water control because of wetness and low fertility. With the use of in-
system which quickly removes excess surface water is tensive management practices and a water control system
required. Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective which removes excess water during wet periods, this soil
depth of the water table. has high potential for a number of vegetables. Irrigation
This soil has medium potential for sewage lagoon areas. may be necessary for crops grown during the dry season.
Water control measures are needed to realize this poten- Because of low natural fertility, regular applications of
tial. fertilizer are required. To increase organic matter content







28 SOIL SURVEY

and improve the level of fertility, all crop residues and a loamy sand layer below a depth of 60 inches. In some
soil improving crops should be plowed under. Seedbed places, a second weakly cemented subsoil is generally
preparation that includes bedding of the rows lowers the below a depth of 35 inches. Included soils make up no
effective depth of the water table, more than 25 percent of any mapped area.
Potential for citrus trees is low. The soil is poorly This soil has a water table within a depth of 10 inches
suited to citrus because of wetness. In order to grow for periods of 1 to 2 months and at a depth of 10 to 40
citrus trees on this soil, a well designed water control inches for periods of 4 to 6 months during most years.
system must be installed which lowers the water table to Available water capacity is medium in the surface layer
,a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds lowers and subsoil and very low to low in the substratum.
the effective depth of the water table, and maintaining Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, moderate in the
plant cover between the rows reduces erosion. Fertilizer subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility is
and lime are needed. medium. Organic matter content is moderate to a depth
Potential for improved pasture grasses is medium. Pan- of 15 inches and low below that.
golagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clovers grow Native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash pines
well when well managed. A simple water control system with an understory of sawpalmetto, inkberry, fetterbush,
is needed to remove excess surface water during wet and running oak. Grasses on this soil are creeping
periods. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are bluestem, chalky bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland
needed, and controlled grazing helps maintain healthy threeawn, switchgrass, and several species of panicums.
plants. Because of excessive wetness, this soil has severe
Potential for pine trees is medium. Slash pines are the limitations for cultivated crops. With the use of a water
best trees to plant. Equipment limitations during the wet control system which removes excess water during wet
season, seedling mortality, and plant competition are the seasons, potential for vegetables is high. Irrigation may
main limitations. Planting the trees on beds lowers the ef- be necessary for crops grown during the dry season. Good
fective depth of the water table, and a simple water con- management should include practices which return crop
trol system is needed to remove excess surface water. residues and close growing cover crops to the soil.
This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp- Seedbed preparation that includes bedding of the rows
tion fields, sewage lagoon areas, dwellings without base- lowers the effective depth of the water table. Applica-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, tions of fertilizer and lime should be made according to
playgrounds, trench sanitary landfills, and shallow excava- the needs of the crops.
tions. Adequate water control measures are needed to This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees because of wet-
realize this potential. In addition, mounding may be ness. Potential for this use is low. Before citrus trees can
needed in places for septic tank absorption fields; sealing be grown, a water control system which lowers the water
or lining with impervious material, for sewage lagoon table to about a depth of 4 feet is needed. Planting the
areas and trench sanitary landfills; surface stabilization, trees on bedded rows lowers the effective depth of the
for playgrounds; and shoring of side walls, for shallow ex- water table, and maintaining plant cover between the
cavations. rows reduces erosion. Applications of fertilizer and lime
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland or- are required.
dination group 3w. Potential for improved pasture grasses is high. Pan-
27-Ona fine sand. This is a poorly drained, nearly golagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow
level soil in broad, flat areas in the flatwoods between well when well managed. A simple water control system
swamps and marshes or in long, narrow bands bordering which removes excess surface water during periods of
depressions and drainageways. Areas are about 3 to 150 heavy rain is required. Regular applications of fertilizer
acres. Slopes are less than 2 percent. and lime are required. Controlled grazing helps maintain
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6 highest yields.
inches thick. The subsoil is dark reddish brown, weakly Potential for pine trees is medium. Slash pines are
cemented fine sand about 9 inches thick. Next is about 3 better suited than other species. Equipment mobility dur-
inches of dark brown fine sand with brown and pale ing wet weather, seedling mortality due to extremes in
brown mottles. The substratum is fine sand to a depth of soil moisture content, and plant competition are the main
80 inches or more. The upper 9 inches is pale brown and management concerns. A water control system which
has brown, dark brown, light gray, and brownish yellow removes excess surface water is needed. Planting the
mottles; the next 15 inches is gray and has yellowish trees on bedded rows lowers the effective depth of the
brown, brownish yellow, gray, and light gray mottles; and water table.
the lower 38 inches is grayish brown and has brownish This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
yellow and light gray mottles. tion fields, sewage lagoon areas, dwellings without base-
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets,
Basinger, EauGallie, Myakka, Placid, and Smyrna soils. In playgrounds, trench sanitary landfills, and shallow excava-
some places, an indurated ironstone layer is at a depth of tions. Adequate water control measures are needed to
about 33 inches. Also included are similar soils that have realize this potential. In addition, mounding may be







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 29

needed in places for septic tank absorption fields; sealing maximum potential, trench sanitary landfills and sewage
or lining with impervious material is needed for sewage lagoon areas need to be sealed or lined with impervious
lagoon areas and trench sanitary landfills; surface sta- material, and sewage lagoon areas need to be shaped. The
bilization is needed for playgrounds; and shoring of side side walls of shallow excavations need to be shored.
walls is needed for shallow excavations. Potential for playgrounds is medium. Land shaping and
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or- surface stabilization are needed.
dination group 3w. This soil is in capability subclass VIs and woodland or-
28-Paola sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is an ex- dination group 5s.
cessively drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil on 29-Parkwood loamy fine sand. ,This is a poorly
upland ridgetops and side slopes and on low ridges and drained nearly level soil. It occurs in long, narrow and cir-
knolls in the flatwoods. Areas range from about 5 to 45 cular hammocks bordering streams, depressions, and
acres. sloughs in the flatwoods. Areas range from about 4 to 40
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 3 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray and white Typically, the surface layer is loamy fine sand about 7
sand about 13 inches thick. The next layer is about 27 inches thick. It is very dark grayish brown in the upper 5
inches thick. It is yellow sand and has tongues of white inches and very dark gray in the lower 2 inches. The sub-
sand extending down from the layer above it, and it also soil is about 49 inches thick. The upper 14 inches is gray
contains brown, weakly cemented concretions. Below is fine sandy loam and contains white carbonate concretions,
reddish yellow sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches the next 14 inches is light brownish gray fine sandy loam
or more. that contains light gray carbonate concretions, and the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of lower 21 inches is light brownish gray loamy fine sand
Pomello, Satellite, and St. Lucie soils. Included soils make that contains light gray carbonate concretions. The sub-
up about 15 percent of any mapped area. stratum is at a depth of 56 inches. It is light gray loamy
This soil has a water table below a depth of 72 inches. fine sand and extends to a depth of 70 inches or more.
Available water capacity is very low, and permeability is Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
very rapid throughout. Natural fertility and organic Malabar, Pompano, Riviera, Wabasso, and Winder soils.
matter content are low. Also included are similar soils that have a sandy clay
Native vegetation on this soil is usually a fairly dense loam substratum. Soils that have a subsurface layer of
stand of sand pine trees with a dense woody understory weakly cemented shell and carbonate material are also in-
of myrtle oak, chapman oak, running oak, sand live oak, cluded in some places. Included soils make up no more
sawpalmetto, and rosemary. Pricklypear cactus, deermoss, than 15 percent of any mapped area.
and lichens are common. Native grasses are usually This soil has a seasonal high water table at a depth of
sparse but include pineland threeawn and grassleaf gol- less than 10 inches for a period of 2 to 4 months annually.
daster. Available water capacity is low in the surface layer, medi-
This soil has very low potential for cultivated crops due um in the subsoil, and low in the substratum. Permeabili-
to extreme droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant ty is very rapid in the surface layer, moderately rapid in
nutrients. It is not suitable for most cultivated crops. the subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility
Potential for improved grasses is very low even though is medium, and organic matter content is moderate in the
good management practices are used. Grasses such as surface layer.
pangolagrass and bahiagrass are best adapted. Clovers Natural vegetation is mostly a hammock of mixed,
are not adapted. cabbage palms, live oaks, and water oaks with scattered
This soil has low potential for citrus; yields are low magnolia and pine trees. Shrubs are mostly sawpalmetto,
even where irrigation is used. inkberry, waxmyrtle, and a variety of vines. Creeping
Potential is very low for commercial production of pine bluestem, pineland threeawn, and low panicums are the
trees. Sand pines are better suited than other species. main grasses.
Seedling mortality and mobility of equipment are the Most areas have remained in their native vegetation
major management concerns for commercial tree produc- and are used as range and natural shelter for cattle.
tion. This soil has high potential for vegetables, but a water
This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp- control system is needed to remove excess water during
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial periods of high rainfall. Irrigation may be necessary for
buildings, and local roads and streets. Because of exces- crops grown during the dry season. Good management
sive permeability, however, onsite disposal of sewage can should include returning all crop residues to the soil.
create a hazard of pollution of ground water around sep- Seedbed preparation that includes bedding of the rows
tic tank absorption fields. No corrective measures are lowers the effective depth of the water table. Fertilizer
needed for dwellings without basements, small commer- should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
cial buildings, and local roads and streets. In its natural state, this soil is unsuitable for citrus.
This soil has high potential for trench sanitary landfills, Potential for citrus is high if a water control system is in-
sewage lagoon areas, and shallow excavations. To realize stalled which maintains the water table at a depth of







30 SOIL SURVEY

about 4 feet. Planting the trees on bedded rows lowers This soil has a water table within a depth of 10 inches
the effective depth of the water table, and maintaining for 1 to 6 months annually. Available water capacity is
plant cover between the rows reduces erosion. Regular very low in the surface layer, subsurface layer, and sandy
applications of fertilizer are needed. Areas subject to part of the subsoil, and medium in the loamy part of the
freezing temperatures are not suitable for citrus no subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, subsur-
matter what corrective measures are taken, face layer, and sandy part of the subsoil, and slow to very
Potential for improved pasture grasses is high. Pan- slow in the loamy part of the subsoil. Organic matter con-
golagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover grow well on this tent and natural fertility are low.
soil. A simple water control system is required to quickly Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palms with scat-
remove excess surface water during times of high rain- tered longleaf and slash pine trees. There are a few water
fall. Regular application of fertilizers and controlled graz- oaks, particularly in higher areas. Sawpalmetto, waxmyr-
ing help maintain maximum yields. tle, inkberry, and American beautyberry are the main
Potential for pine trees is medium. Equipment mobility shrubs. Creeping bluestem is the dominant grass in most
during wet weather, seedling mortality, and plant com- places, but in some areas, sand cordgrass is dominant.
petition are the main management concerns. Planting the Other grasses that usually grow on this soil are indian-
trees on beds lowers the effective depth of the water grass, chalky bluestem, several panicum species, pineland
table. Simple water control systems can be installed to threeawn, South Florida bluestem, and switchgrass. Many
remove excess surface water, areas are used as range.
Potential is high for shallow excavations. Water control This soil has medium potential for cultivated crops.
measures are needed to realize maximum potential. Wetness and low fertility are the main limitations. The
Potential is medium for septic tank absorption fields, number of crops is limited unless very intensive manage-
sewage lagoon areas, trench sanitary landfills, dwellings ment practices are followed. With good water control
without basements, small commercial buildings, and measures and soil improving measures, a number of crops
playgrounds. Water control measures are needed to real- can be grown. A water control system is needed to
ize this potential. In addition, trench sanitary landfills remove excess water in wet seasons and provide for sub-
need to be sealed with impervious material, and mounding surface irrigation in dry seasons. Crop residues and soil
may be needed in places for septic tank absorption fields, improving crops should be plowed under. Seedbed
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or- preparation that includes bedding in rows lowers the ef-
dination group 3w. fective depth of the water table. Fertilizer and lime
should be applied according to need of the crop.
30-Pineda fine sand. This is a poorly drained, nearly should be applied according to need of the crop.
30-Pineda in n. Ti i in Potential for citrus trees on this soil is medium except
level soil on broad, low flats and in narrow hammock in areas where the temperature frequently reaches freez-
in areas where the temperature frequently reaches freez-
areas bordering drainageways and depressions. Areas control system should
ing. A carefully designed water control system should
range from about 4 to 650 acres and are irregular to elon- maintain the water table below a depth of about 4 feet.
gated. Slopes are less than 2 percent. Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective depth of
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 6 inches the water table, and maintaining plant cover between the
thick. It is very dark gray in the upper 3 inches and dark rows reduces erosion. Fertilizer and lime should be ap-
gray in the lower 3 inches. The subsurface layer is fine plied as needed.
sand about 14 inches thick. The upper 8 inches is light This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
gray and has grayish brown, light brownish gray, and grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white
light yellowish brown mottles, and the lower 6 inches is clover grow well when well managed. Water control mea-
very pale brown and has brownish yellow and yellowish sures are needed to remove excess surface water after
brown mottles. The subsoil extends between depths of 20 heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
and 60 inches. The upper 8 inches is brownish yellow fine are needed, and controlled grazing helps prevent over-
sand that has yellowish brown, strong brown, and reddish grazing and weakening of the plants.
yellow mottles; the next 7 inches is light gray sandy clay This soil has medium potential for pine trees. The
loam that has light olive brown mottles; and the lower 25 major management concerns are mobility of equipment
inches is greenish gray sandy clay loam that has olive during periods of high rainfall, and plant competition.
mottles. Gray sandy loam with dark gray and light olive Seedling mortality is usually high. Slash pines are better
gray mottles extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. suited than other species. A simple water control system
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of is needed to remove excess surface water.
Delray, Floridana, Malabar, and Riviera soils. Also in- This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption
cluded are a few small areas of a similar soil which has a fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
thick, dark colored surface layer; these areas are mostly buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds. To
in the southeastern part of the survey area. Also included realize even this potential, however, water control mea-
are some areas of soils that are subject to frequent flood- sures are needed, and fill material needs to be added. In
ing or that have water standing on the surface for 1 to 6 addition, mounding may be needed in places for septic
months in most years. Included soils make up less than 15 tank absorption fields, and structural strength of founda-
percent of any mapped area. tions needs to be increased for local roads and streets.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 31

Potential is low for trench sanitary landfills, sewage sedges, and rushes. Scattered cypress, bay, tupelo, and
lagoon areas, and shallow excavations. Water control mea- cabbage palm trees are in many areas.
sures are needed to realize maximum potential. In addi- In its natural state, this soil is unsuitable for cultivated
tion, sewage lagoon areas need to be sealed or lined with crops because water stands above the surface for long
impervious material, and the side walls of shallow excava- periods of time and drainage outlets are not available in
tions need to be shored. many places. When water outlets are available and water
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or- control systems which remove excess water are installed,
dination group 3w. this soil has medium potential for a number of vegetables.
31-Pits. Pits consist of excavations from which soil Seedbed preparation that includes bedding of the rows
and geologic material have been removed primarily for lowers the effective depth of the water table. Fertilizer
use in road and levee construction or as foundations, and lime should be applied according to the needs of the
Many of the pits have been abandoned. Included with crop.
these pits in mapping are waste materials, mostly mix- This soil is unsuitable in its natural state for citrus
tures of sand and sandy loam, piled or scattered around trees. Because of the extreme wetness and difficulty in
the edges of the pits. establishing adequate water control systems, potential for
Pits, locally called borrow pits, are mostly small, but citrus trees is very low.
there are a few large ones. Some of the largest are along Potential for improved pasture grasses is medium.
St. Johns Water Management District Levee L-73, south Where suitable outlets are available, a simple water con-
of U.S. Highway 192. The material from these pits was trol system which quickly removes excess surface water
used to construct Levee L-73. is needed. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover
Pits have little or no value for farming or for pine grow well when management includes regular application
trees. of fertilizer and lime. Controlled grazing helps maintain
This land was not assigned to a capability subclass or a healthy plants.
woodland ordination group. This soil is too wet in its natural state for pine trees. If
32-Placid fine sand. This is a very poorly drained, suitable water outlets are available which allow a simple
nearly level soil in low, wet depressions and swamps in water control system to be installed, potential for pine
the flatwoods. Areas are about 3 to 130 acres and are trees is high. Pond pines are better suited than other spe-
rounded or elongated in most places. Slopes are less than cies.
1 percent. This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 24 inches fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
thick. The upper 14 inches is black and contains pockets buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds. To
of light gray, and the lower 10 inches is very dark gray realize even this potential, however, water control mea-
and also contains pockets of light gray. The underlying sures are needed and fill material needs to be added. In
layer is fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. addition, mounding may be needed in places for septic
Between depths of 24 and 36 inches, it is light brownish tank absorption fields, and the surfaces of playgrounds
gray and has mottles and stains of dark grayish brown, need to be stabilized.
Between depths of 36 and 80 inches, it is light gray and Potential is very low for shallow excavations, trench
has mottles of gray and brown in the upper 14 inches. sanitary landfills, and sewage lagoon areas. Water control
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of measures are needed to realize even this potential. In ad-
Basinger, Delray, Gentry, Ona, Pompano, and Samsula edition, trench sanitary landfills and sewage lagoon areas
soils. Also included are small areas of a soil that has an need to be sealed or lined with impervious material and
acid sandy clay loam layer at a depth of 24 to 30 inches. the side walls of shallow excavations need to be shored.
This soil, which adjoins some large lakes, has an 8- to 12- This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or-
inch layer of muck or peat overlying the black surface dination group 3w.
layer. In a few areas about 8 inches of peat or muck and 33-Placid Variant fine sand. This is a somewhat
about 6 inches of diatomaceous earth overlie the surface poorly drained, nearly level soil in the flatwoods and ham-
layer. Some areas of Placid fine sand include soils that mocks. Areas are long and narrow and border swamps,
have a brownish layer at a depth of about 40 to 60 inches. marshes, drainageways, and some large lakes. They range
Included soils make up no more than 20 percent of any from about 20 to 80 acres. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
mapped area. Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 17 inches
Water stands on the surface for 6 to 9 months or more thick. The upper 8 inches is black, and the lower 9 inches
in most years. Available water capacity is high in the sur- is very dark gray. The underlying layers are fine sand to
face layer and low in the underlying layers. Permeability a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 16 inches is gray,
is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is moderate in the the next 12 inches is light brownish gray and has dark
surface layer and low in the underlying layers. Organic brown mottles, and the lower 35 inches is light brownish
matter content is moderate. gray that grades to light gray in the lower few inches.
Native vegetation consists mainly of maidencane, sand -Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
cordgrass, pickerelweed, giant cutgrass, waxmyrtle, Adamsville, Basinger, Ona, and Placid soils. Also included







32 SOIL SURVEY

are small areas of a similar soil that has, at a depth of 25 needed: for shallow excavations, the side walls need to be
to 60 inches, a dark brown to dark grayish brown layer shored; for sewage lagoon areas, the lagoon needs to be
containing small, weakly cemented fragments. Included sealed with impervious material and the area needs to be
soils make up less than 20 percent of any mapped area. shaped; and for trench sanitary landfills, the landfill
This soil has a water table at a depth of 20 to 40 inches needs to be sealed with impervious material and water
for 6 to 9 months in most years. During prolonged and control measures need to be used.
extremely dry periods, the water table recedes to a depth This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or-
of 50 to 60 inches. Available water capacity is high in the dination group 2w.
surface layer and low in the underlying layers. Permea- 34-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a
ability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is high. Or- moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping
ganic matter content is moderate. soil. It occurs in areas transitional between the high sand
Native vegetation consists dominantly of large live oak ridges and the flatwoods and on slight knolls and low
trees with laurel and water oaks and longleaf and slash ridges throughout the flatwoods. Areas are round to elon-
pines. Sawpalmetto, sumac, American beautyberry, green- gated and range from about 4 to 90 acres.
briers, Virginia creeper, wild grape, and blackberry are Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4
common understory plants. Forbs and grasses are sparse inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand about 43
but include partridgeberry, bracken fern, uniolas, pineland inches thick. The upper 11 inches is gray, and the lower
threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, and bluestem species. 32 inches is white and has gray and dark gray mottles.
In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for The subsoil is fine sand that is weakly cemented with or-
cultivated crops because of periodic wetness. The number ganic matter; it extends between depths of 47 and 58
of adapted crops is limited unless water control measures inches. The upper 5 inches is black, and the lower 6 inches
are used. Potential for vegetables is high if a water con- is dark reddish brown and has black, reddish brown, very
trol system is installed that will remove excess water in dark gray, and dark reddish gray mottles. The next layer
wet seasons. Irrigation may be needed in dry seasons. is brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. It is underlain by
Seedbed preparation that includes bedding of the rows grayish brown fine sand that extends to a depth of 80
lowers the effective depth of the water table. Fertilizer inches or more.
and lime should be added according to the need of the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
crop. Cassia, Immokalee, Myakka, Smyrna, and St. Lucie soils.
The potential for citrus trees on this soil is high if a Also included are small areas of soils that have a second
water control system is installed that will remove excess weakly cemented layer at a depth of more than 62 inches.
water from the soil rapidly to a depth of about 4 feet. Included soils make up less than 20 percent of any
Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective depth of mapped area.
the water table. The trees require regular applications of This soil has a water table at a depth of 24 to 40 inches
fertilizer, and highest yields require irrigation in seasons for periods of about 1 to 4 months during normal wet
of low rainfall. Areas that are subject to frequent freez- seasons. During dry seasons, the water table is at a depth
ing temperatures are not suitable for citrus, of about 40 to 60 inches. Permeability is very rapid in the
Potential for improved pasture grasses is high. A sim- surface and subsurface layers, moderately rapid in the
ple water control system is needed to remove excess sur- subsoil, and rapid to a depth of 80 inches or more. Availa-
face water in times of heavy rainfall. Regular use of fer- ble water capacity is very low in the surface and subsur-
tilizers is also needed. Careful controlled grazing helps face layers, medium in the subsoil, and very low below.
maintain healthy plants for highest yields. Organic matter content and natural fertility are very low.
This soil has high potential for longleaf and slash pines. Natural vegetation consists of scattered sand pine, lon-
The main management concerns are equipment mobility, gleaf pine, and slash pine. Sand live oaks form dense
seedling mortality, and plant competition. Planting the thickets in many places. A few sawpalmetto grow in most
trees on beds lowers the effective depth of the water areas. Pineland threeawn is the major grass, and there
table. Slash pines are better suited than other species. are also creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and low
This soil has high potential for septic tank absorption panicums. Running oak is common.
fields, local roads and streets, dwellings without base- This soil has very low potential for cultivated crops due
ments, and small commercial buildings. Water control to droughtiness, low fertility, and rapid leaching of plant
measures are needed to realize maximum potential. In ad- nutrients. It is not suitable for most commonly grown
edition, specially designed footings are needed for vegetables.
dwellings without basements and small commercial Potential for citrus trees is low. The low natural fertili-
buildings. ty and droughtiness cause the soil to be poorly produc-
Potential is also high for playgrounds; surface stabiliza- tive. Irrigation and regular application of fertilizer are
tion is needed. required to reach full potential.
Potential is medium for shallow excavations, sewage Potential for improved pasture grasses is low even if
lagoon areas, and trench sanitary landfills. To realize this good management practices are used. Grasses such as
potential, however, the following corrective measures are bahiagrass are best adapted; clovers are not adapted.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 33

Yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular fertiliz- layers beneath the upper subsoil. Natural fertility and or-
ing and liming are needed. Greatly restricted grazing per- ganic matter content are low.
mits plants to maintain vigorous growth for highest yields Native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash pines
and to provide good ground cover, with an understory of sawpalmetto, inkberry, fetterbush,
Potential is low for commercial production of pine and running oak. Grasses on this soil are creeping
trees. Sand pines are better suited than other species, bluestem, chalky bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland
Seedling mortality, mobility of equipment, and plant com- threeawn, switchgrass, and several panicum species.
petition are the major management concerns in commer- This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
cial tree production. because of excessive wetness and low fertility. With the
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without use of high level management and a water control system
basements; no special corrective measures are needed, which removes excess water during seasons of high rain-
Potential is high for septic tank absorption fields and fall, potential for adapted vegetables is medium. Irriga-
local roads and streets. Water control measures are tion may be needed when crops are grown during long
needed to realize maximum potential. Potential is also periods of low rainfall. Crop residues and soil improving
high for small commercial buildings and shallow excava- crops should be plowed under. Seedbed preparation that
tions. Land shaping is needed for small commercial includes bedding of the rows lowers the effective depth
buildings, and the side walls of shallow excavations need of the water table. Fertilizer and lime should be added ac-
to be shored. cording to the requirements of the crops.
Potential is medium for trench sanitary landfills and Potential for citrus trees on this soil is low. Before
high for sewage lagoon areas. To realize this potential, citrus can be grown, a water control system which main-
however, water control measures are needed, and the tains the water table at a depth of about 4 feet is
areas need to be sealed or lined with impervious material, required. Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective
Potential is also medium for playgrounds; land shaping depth of the water table, and maintaining close growing
and surface stabilization are needed, plant cover between the rows reduces erosion.
This soil is in capability subclass VIs and woodland or- Potential for improved pasture grasses is medium. Pan-
dination group 4s. golagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow
35-Pomona fine sand. This is a poorly drained, nearly well when well managed. Water control measures are
level soil on broad, low ridges in the flatwoods. Areas needed to remove excess surface water after heavy rains.
range from about 15 to more than 1,400 acres and are ir- Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, and
regularly shaped. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. controlled grazing helps maintain high yields.
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 9 inches Potential for pine trees is medium. Slash pines are
thick. It is very dark gray in the upper 5 inches and dark better suited than other species. Equipment mobility dur-
gray in the lower 4 inches. The subsurface layer is fine ing seasons of high rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant
sand about 15 inches thick. The upper 5 inches is light competition are the main management concerns. Planting
brownish gray and has grayish brown mottles, and the the trees on beds lowers the effective depth of the water
lower 10 inches is light gray. The upper subsoil is weakly table. A simple water control system which removes ex-
cemented fine sand between depths of 24 and 32 inches. cess surface water is also needed.
The upper 4 inches is black, and the lower 4 inches is This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
dark reddish brown. Below this to a depth of 69 inches is tion fields, sewage lhgoon areas, dwellings without base-
fine sand that separates the upper and lower subsoil. The ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets,
upper 7 inches is dark brown; the next 19 inches is playgrounds, trench sanitary landfills, and shallow excava-
brown; and the lower 11 inches is pale brown. The lower tions. Water control measures are needed to realize this
subsoil is 9 inches of gray fine sandy loam. The sub- potential. In addition, mounding may be needed in places
stratum, which extends to a depth of 80 inches or more, is for septic tank absorption fields; sealing or lining with im-
dark grayish brown fine sand. pervious material is needed for sewage lagoon areas and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of trench sanitary landfills; surface stabilization is needed
Ankona, Basinger, EauGallie, Myakka, Oldsmar, and Vero for playgrounds; and shoring of side walls is needed for
soils. Also included are similar soils in which the texture shallow excavations.
of the subsoil is loamy fine sand. Included soils make up This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland or-
less than 15 percent of any mapped area. dination group 3w.
In most years under natural conditions, the water table 36-Pompano fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3 months and nearly level soil. This soil occurs in sloughs and along
within a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more. drainageways and depressions in the flatwoods. It also oc-
Available water capacity is low or very low in the surface curs on broad flats in the St. Johns River Basin. Areas
and subsurface layers, medium in the subsoil, and low or are elongated or circular and range from about 4 to 200
very low in the sandy layers beneath the upper subsoil. acres. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface Typically, the surface layer is 12 inches thick. The
layers, moderate in the subsoil, and rapid in the sandy upper 5 inches is dark gray fine sand, and the lower 7







34 SOIL SURVEY

inches is grayish brown fine sand. The underlying layer is This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
fine sand about 68 inches thick or more. In sequence from tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
the top of this layer, the upper 13 inches is light gray and buildings, local roads and streets, playgrounds, and shal-
has brownish yellow, yellowish brown, and light yellowish low excavations. Water control measures are needed to
brown mottles; the next 9 inches is very pale brown and realize maximum potential. In addition, mounding is
has light gray, very pale brown, and brownish yellow needed for absorption fields; surface stabilization, for
mottles, and the lower 46 inches is light gray and has playgrounds; and shoring of side walls, for shallow ex-
dark gray streaks. cavations.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of Potential is low for sanitary landfills and sewage lagoon
Basinger, Holopaw, Malabar, and Riviera soils. Included areas. To realize even this potential, however, water con-
soils make up no more than 15 percent of any mapped trol measures are needed, and the areas need to be sealed
area. or lined with impervious material.
This soil has a water table at a depth of less than 10 This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland or-
inches for periods of 2 to 6 months in most years and dination group 4w.
within a depth of 30 inches for more than 9 months in 37-Pompano fine sand, depressional. This is a poorly
most years. Permeability is very rapid throughout. drained, nearly level soil in depressions and
Available water capacity is very low throughout. Natural drainageways. Most areas are circular or irregularly elon-
fertility and organic matter content are low. gated. They range from about 3 to more than 1,500 acres.
Native vegetation consists mostly of grasses with scat- Slopes are less than 1 percent.
tered longleaf pines, sawpalmetto, and waxmyrtle. Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 11 inches
Grasses include maidencane, pineland threeawn, chalky thick. It is black in the upper 5 inches and dark gray in
bluestem, Florida threeawn, low panicums, and sand the lower 6 inches. Below this to a depth of 30 inches is
cordgrass. light gray fine sand, and to a depth of 80 inches or more
Under natural conditions, this soil has very severe is grayish brown fine sand.
limitations for cultivated crops because of wetness and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
low fertility. The number of adapted crops is limited un- Basinger, Malabar, Placid, and Riviera soils. Included soils
less very intensive management practices are followed, generally make up less than 10 percent of any mapped
With good water control measures and soil improving area.
measures, however, this soil has medium potential for a This soil is covered with standing water for 6 to 12
number of vegetable crops. A water control system is months during most years. Permeability is very rapid
needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and pro- throughout, and available water capacity is very low.
vide for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Seedbed Natural fertility and organic matter content are low.
preparation that includes bedding of the rows lowers the Native vegetation is dominantly water-tolerant grasses
effective depth of the water table. Fertilizer and lime and small woody shrubs, but in some places, native
should be added according to the need of the crop. vegetation is swamp. In the open areas, native vegetation
This soil has low potential for citrus trees, but even occurs as circular bands. The small areas of very wet soils
then only after a carefully designed water control system generally support sawgrass, maidencane, cutgrass, and
has been installed that maintains the water table below a pickerelweed. Outward from the center are smaller
depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees on beds lowers amounts of maidencane in association with St. Johnswort.
the effective depth of the water table, and maintaining Sand cordgrass, low panicum, stiff paspalum, and species
plant cover between the trees reduces erosion. Regular of nut rushes are also common. In the swamps, cypress,
applications of fetilizer and lime are needed, blackgum, tupelo gum, redbay, loblollybay, and red maple
This soil has low potential for improved pasture trees are dominant.
grasses. Excessive wetness during the wetter seasons and Under natural conditions, this soil is not suitable for
low fertility severely limit plant growth. Pangolagrass, cultivated crops or improved pastures. Potential for crops
improved bahiagrass, and white clover can be grown or pasture is very low. An adequate drainage system is
when well managed. A water control system is needed to difficult to establish because, in most places, suitable out-
remove excess surface water after heavy rains and pro- lets are not available. In their native state, these soils
vide subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Regular applica- provide watering places and feeding grounds for many
tions of fertilizer and lime are needed, and controlled kinds of wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
grazing helps prevent overgrazing and weakening of the This soil has low potential for pine trees. A good water
plants. control system that removes surface water is needed if
This soil has low potential for longleaf and slash pines, even this potential is to be realized. Pond pines are better
A water control system which removes excess surface suited than other species.
water is necessary if the potential productivity is to be This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption
realized. Seedling mortality and equipment limitations are fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
the main management concerns. Slash pines are better buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds. To
suited than other species, realize even this potential, however, adequate water con-







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 35

trol measures are needed, and fill material needs to be Seedbed preparation that includes bedding of rows lowers
added. In addition, absorption fields need to be mounded the effective depth of the water table. Fertilizer and lime
and the surfaces of playgrounds stabilized, should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
Potential is very low for trench sanitary landfills, In its natural state this soil is too wet for citrus trees.
sewage lagoon areas, and shallow excavations. To realize With the use of a water control system which maintains
even very low potential, however, standing surface water the water table at a depth of about 4 feet, however,
and the water table need to be controlled. In addition, potential for citrus is medium. Planting the trees on beds
special equipment is needed in areas used as landfills and lowers the effective depth of the water table, and main-
lagoons, and the side walls of shallow excavations need to training plant cover between the rows reduces erosion.
be shored. Fertilizer and lime should be applied as needed.
This soil is in capability subclass VIIw and woodland Potential for improved grasses is medium. Pan-
ordination group 4w. golagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover produce
38-Riviera fine sand. This is a poorly drained, nearly good yields when well managed. A simple water control
level soil on broad, low flats. Areas range from about 4 to system which removes excess surface water after heavy
800 acres and are circular to irregularly shaped and long. rains is needed. Regular application of fertilizer and lime
Slopes are less than 2 percent. and controlled grazing help maintain good yields.
Typically, the surface layer is about 6 inches of black Potential for pine trees is medium. Equipment mobility
fine sand. The subsurface layer is 18 inches of white fine during periods of high rainfall, high seedling mortality,
sand and has grayish brown and strong brown mottles. and plant competition are the main management concerns.
The subsoil extends between depths of 24 and 49 inches. A simple water control system is needed to remove ex-
The upper 14 inches is very dark grayish brown sandy cess surface water.
clay loam that has dark brown and strong brown mottles This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption
and tongues of white fine sand extending into it from the fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
layer above, and the lower 11 inches is very dark grayish buildings, local roads and streets, playgrounds, trench
brown and has very dark gray mottles. The next layer is sanitary landfills, sewage lagoon areas, and shallow ex-
12 inches of very dark grayish brown sandy loam that has cavations. To realize even this potential, however, water
very dark gray mottles. The substratum, which extends control measures are needed. In addition, mounding may
to a depth of 80 inches or more, is dark gray loamy sand be needed in places for septic tank absorption fields, spe-
that contains pockets of sandy loam and sandy clay loam. cially designed foundations are needed for local roads and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of streets, sealing or lining with impervious material is
Gentry, Holopaw, Malabar, Pineda, Vero, and Winder needed for sewage lagoon areas, and the side walls of
soils. Included soils make up less than 15 percent of any shallow excavations need to be shored.
mapped area. This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or-
This soil has a water table within a depth of 10 inches dination group 3w.
for 2 to 4 months in most years and at a depth of 10 to 30 39-Riviera fine sand, depressional. This is a poorly
inches most of the rest of the year. Available water drained, nearly level soil in depressions and on the edges
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers, medi- of large lakes that have fluctuating water levels. Areas
um to high in the subsoil, and low in the substratum. range from about 4 to 1,200 acres and are circular to ir-
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface regularly elongated. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
layers, slow to very slow in the subsoil, and moderate to Typically, the surface layer is about 5 inches of black
moderately rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility and fine sand. The subsurface layer is about 18 inches of light
organic matter content are low. gray sand that has dark grayish brown mottles. The sub-
Natural vegetation consists mostly of a dense stand of soil extends between depths of 23 and 60 inches. The
cabbage palms. In some places, there are scattered pine upper 26 inches is light grayish brown and has gray and
trees. The understory is relatively open with a sparse light gray mottles. This layer has tongues of light gray
ground cover. Shrubs consist mostly of sawpalmetto, fine sand extending into it from the layer above. The
American beautyberry, and inkberry. Creeping bluestem, lower 11 inches is gray and has dark gray, light gray, and
pineland threeawn, and low panicums are the major olive yellow mottles. The substratum, between depths of
grasses. In some of the more open areas, maidencane is 60 and 80 inches or more, is light gray sandy loam that
common. has greenish gray mottles.
This soil has medium potential for vegetables. Wetness Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and low fertility are limiting factors. High level manage- Floridana, Gentry, Vero, and Winder soils. Included soils
ment and use of a water control system which removes make up less than 15 percent of any mapped area.
excess water are required to produce satisfactory yields Water stands on the surface for 6 months or more in
of vegetables. Soil improving practices such as returning most years. The water table commonly recedes to several
all crop residues to the soil and plowing under cover inches below the surface during extended dry periods.
crops should be followed. Irrigation may be needed when Available water capacity is low in the surface and subsur-
crops are grown during long periods of low rainfall, face layers, medium to high in the subsoil, and low in the







36 SOIL SURVEY

substratum. Permeability is rapid in the surface and sub- there are mixed stands of cypress, red maple, loblollybay,
surface layers, slow to very slow in the subsoil, and black tupelo, and sweetgum trees with a ground cover of
moderate to moderately rapid in the substratum. Natural greenbriers and ferns.
fertility and organic matter content are low. In its natural state, this soil is not suitable for cul-
The native vegetation on this soil is a swamp of bald- tivated crops. With an adequate water control system,
cypress, red maple, redbay, sweetbay, sweetgum, tupelo, however, it has high potential for vegetables and im-
water hickory, water oak, buttonbush, greenbrier, wax- proved pasture grasses. A well designed and well main-
myrtle, switchcane, smartweed, wild grape, lizard's tail, tained water control system that removes excess water
and a variety of sedges. when crops are on the land and keeps the soil saturated
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suitable for at other times is needed. Fertilizers and lime are needed.
cultivated crops or improved pastures. Potential for crops When the water is properly controlled, this soil has
or pasture is very low because in most places suitable high potential for improved pasture grasses and clover. A
drainage outlets are not available. In their natural state, water control system is needed to maintain the water
these soils provide watering places and feeding grounds table near the surface to prevent excessive oxidation of
for many kinds of wading birds and other wetland wil- the organic material. Fertilizers are needed. Controlled
dlife. grazing helps maintain maximum yields.
This soil has medium potential for pine trees. A good This soil is not suitable for citrus trees or pine trees.
water control system to remove surface water is needed This soil has very low potential for dwellings without
before trees can be planted. Pond pines are better suited basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
than other species. streets, playgrounds, and septic tank absorption fields. To
This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption realize even very low potential, however, the organic
fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial material needs to be removed, the area backfilled with
buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds. To suitable soil material, and water control measures
realize even this potential, however, adequate water con- established. In addition, absorption fields need to be
trol measures are needed, and fill material needs to be mounded.
added. In addition, absorption fields need to be mounded Potential is also very low for trench sanitary landfills
and the surfaces of playgrounds stabilized, and sewage lagoon areas. Areas, however, need to be
Potential is very low for trench sanitary landfills, sealed or lined with impervious material. In addition,
sewage lagoons areas, and shallow excavations. To realize water control measures are needed for trench sanitary
even very low potential, however, standing surface water landfills and special equipment is needed for sewage
and the water table need to be controlled. In addition, lagoon areas.
special equipment is needed in areas used as landfills and Potential is low for shallow excavations; water control
lagoons, and the side walls of shallow excavations need to measures and special equipment are needed.
be shored. This soil is in capability subclass IVw. It was not as-
This soil is in capability subclass VIIw and woodland signed to a woodland ordination group.
ordination group 3w. 41-Satellite sand. This is a somewhat poorly drained,
40-Samsula muck. This is a very poorly drained, nearly level soil on low ridges and knolls in the flatwoods.
nearly level, organic soil in freshwater marshes and Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Areas range from about
swamps. Slopes are 0 to 1 percent. 3 to 160 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is muck about 22 inches Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 8 inches
thick. The upper 8 inches is dark reddish brown, and the thick. The underlying layers are sand to a depth of 80
lower 14 inches is black. Beneath the muck is 17 inches of inches or more. In sequence from the top of this layer,
black fine sand that contains light gray lenses of fine the upper 12 inches is white, the next 10 inches is light
sand. Below is grayish brown fine sand that is mottled gray and has brownish gray and gray mottles; the next 18
with dark grayish brown and that extends to a depth of inches is light brownish gray and has yellowish red stains
65 inches or more. along root channels; and the lower 32 inches is light gray
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of and has dark grayish brown mottles.
Basinger, Hontoon, Placid, and Kaliga soils. Included soils Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
make up about 20 percent of any mapped area. Adamsville, Cassia, Immokalee, Myakka, Pomello, and St.
This soil has a water table at or above the surface ex- Lucie soils. Also included are soils that are similar to
cept during extended dry periods. Permeability is rapid Satellite soils except that the water table is at a depth of
throughout. Available water capacity is very high in the slightly more than 40 to 60 inches for more than 6 months
organic layers and very low below. Natural fertility is annually and recedes to below 60 inches in dry periods.
moderate to high. Organic matter content is very high. Included soils make up no more than 20 percent of any
Natural vegetation consists mostly of sawgrass, mapped area.
maidencane, cattails, giant cutgrass, arrowheads, and a This soil has a water table at a depth of 10 to 40 inches
variety of sedges. In some places there are thick stands for periods of 2 to 6 months in most years and below a
of willow, elderberry, and buttonbush, and in other places depth of 40 inches in dry seasons. Available water capaci-






OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 37

ty is very low throughout. Permeability is very rapid in Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
all layers. Natural fertility is low, and organic matter con- Basinger, EauGallie, Myakka, Immokalee, and Placid soils.
tent is very low. Included soils make up no more than 20 percent of any
Natural vegetation consists of scattered sand pine, lon- mapped area.
gleaf pine, and slash pine. Sand live oaks form dense The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for
thickets in many places. A few sawpalmetto are in most 1 to 4 months and between depths of 10 and 40 inches for
areas. Pineland threeawn is the major grass, and there more than 6 months in most years. In rainy seasons the
are also creeping bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and low water table rises above the surface briefly. Permeability
panicums. Running oak is common, is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, moderate to
This soil has very low potential for cultivated crops due moderately rapid in the upper subsoil, rapid in the next
to droughtiness, low fertility, and rapid leaching of plant layer, and moderate to moderately rapid in the lower sub-
nutrients. It is not suitable for most commonly grown soil. Available water capacity is very low to low in the
vegetables, surface and subsurface layers, medium in the upper sub-
Potential for citrus trees is low. Very low natural fer- soil, very low to low in the next layer, and medium in the
utility and droughtiness result in poor soil quality. Irriga- lower subsoil. Natural fertility is low, and organic matter
tion and regular applications of fertilizer are needed to content is moderately low or moderate.
reach full potential. Native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash pines
Potential for improved pasture grasses is low even if with an understory of sawpalmetto, inkberry, fetterbush,
good management practices are used. Grasses such as and running oak. Grasses on this soil are creeping
bahiagrass are best adapted; clovers are not adapted. bluestem, chalky bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland
Yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular fertiliz- threeawn, switchgrass, and several panicum species.
ing and liming are needed. Greatly restricted grazing This soil has severe limitations if used for cultivated
helps plants maintain vigorous growth for highest yields crops because of wetness and low fertility. Low natural
and good ground cover, fertility and susceptibility to drought require intensive
Potential is low for commercial production of pine management, including fertilization and irrigation. Poten-
trees. Sand pines are better suited than other species. tial for several adapted vegetables is medium. To realize
Seedling mortality, mobility of equipment, and plant com- this potential, water control measures which quickly
petition are the major management concerns for commer-
remove excess water after heavy rainfall are needed.
cial tree production.
cial tree pr ,Good management practices which include regular fer-
This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial tilization and irrgation during the dry season are also
buildings, and shallow excavations. Water control mea- needed. Crop residues and soil improving crops should be
sures are needed to realize this potential. In addition, the plowed under. Seedbed preparation that includes bedding
side walls of shallow excavations need to be shored. of rows lowers the effective depth of the water table.
Potential for sewage lagoon areas and trench sanitary This soil has low potential for citrus trees. It is too wet
Potential for sewage lagoon areas and tin its natural state for this use. In order to reach even
landfills is low. To realize even this potential, however, in ts natural state for this use. In order to reach even
water control measures are needed, and areas need to be low potential, however, installation of a water control
sealed with impervious material. system which lowers the seasonal high water table to a
This soil is in capability subclass VIs and woodland or- depth of at least 48 inches is needed. Planting the trees
dination group 4s. on beds lowers the effective depth of the water table, and
42-Smyrna fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly maintaining plant cover between the trees reduces ero-
drained soil in broad flat areas in the flatwoods. Areas sion.
range from 6 to 1,200 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 per- Potential for improved pasture grasses is medium.
cent. Coastal bermudagrass, pangolagrass, improved
Typically, the surface layer is 7 inches of fine sand. The bahiagrass, and several legumes such as white clover are
upper 4 inches is black, and the lower 3 inches is dark suitable for planting. Water control measures which
gray. The subsurface layer is 7 inches of light gray fine quickly remove excess surface water during the wet
sand. The upper subsoil is about 6 inches of fine sand that season are needed. Regular application of fertilizer and
is weakly cemented with organic matter. The upper 3 lime and controlled grazing help maintain high production.
inches is black, and the lower 3 inches is dark reddish Potential for pine trees is medium. Slash pines are
brown and has reddish brown and dark reddish mottles, better suited than other species. Simple water control
Next is about 5 inches of brown fine sand that contains measures are needed to remove excess surface water.
black and dark reddish brown, weakly cemented frag- Planting the.trees on beds lowers the effective depth of
ments. Next is about 18 inches of light gray fine sand and the water table. Equipment limitations due to poor mo-
13 inches of grayish brown fine sand. At a depth of 56 ability during the wetter seasons and seedling mortality
inches is a lower subsoil of fine sand which extends to a are the main management concerns.
depth of 80 inches or more. The upper 13 inches is dark This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
reddish brown, and the lower 11 inches is dark reddish tion fields, sewage lagoon areas, dwellings without base-
brown and black. ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets,







38 SOIL SURVEY

playgrounds, trench sanitary landfills, and shallow excava- lagoon areas need to be sealed or lined with impervious
tions. To realize maximum potential, water control mea- material, and the side walls of shallow excavations need
sures are needed. In addition, mounding may be needed in to be shored. In addition, areas used as sewage lagoons
places for septic tank absorption fields; sealing or lining need to be shaped.
with impervious material is needed for sewage lagoon Potential is medium for playgrounds. Land shaping and
areas and trench sanitary landfills; surface stabilization is surface stabilization are needed.
needed for playgrounds; and shoring of side walls is This soil is in capability subclass VIIs and woodland or-
needed for shallow excavations. dination group 5s.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland or- 44-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a
dination group 3w. moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping
43-St. Lucie fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is soil on low ridges in the flatwoods. Areas range from
an excessively drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil about 4 to 250 acres and are circular to irregularly elon-
on narrow, discontinuous ridges in the sandy uplands and gated.
flatwoods. Areas are long and narrow in most places and Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
range from about 4 to 100 acres. sand about 6 inches thick. Below is 12 inches of grayish
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 4 inches brown fine sand that has dark gray and pale brown mot-
thick. The next 9 inches is light gray fine sand. Below this tles; 11 inches of pale brown fine sand that has splotches
is white fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. The of light gray, uncoated sand grains; 19 inches of very pale
lower 37 inches has dark brown stains along old root brown fine sand that has pale brown mottles; and 32
channels. inches of white fine sand that has very pale brown, pale
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of brown, light grayish brown, and reddish yellow mottles.
Cassia, Immokalee, Myakka, Pomello, and Smyrna soils. A Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
few areas of soils that have a thicker surface layer are in- Adamsville and Candler soils. Also included are small
cluded. Also included are small areas of soils that are areas of poorly drained soils that have a layer of fine
similar to St. Lucie soils except that they have yellowish sand weakly cemented with organic matter at a depth of
brown fine sand at a depth of 70 to 80 inches. Included 20 to 40 inches. Small areas of a similar soil which has a
soil makes up less than 20 percent of any mapped area. layer of pinkish gray to dark gray sand at a depth of 70
This soil has a seasonal water table at a depth of 72 to to 80 inches are also included. Included soils make up less
120 inches. Permeability is very rapid throughout, and than 15 percent of any mapped area.
available water capacity is very low. Natural fertility is This soil has a water table at a depth of 40 to 60 inches
very low, and organic matter content is low. for more than 6 months in most years. The water table
Native vegetation on this soil is usually a fairly dense recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches during
stand of sand pine trees with a dense woody understory drought periods. This soil has very low available water
of myrtle oak, Chapman oak, running oak, sand live oak, capacity to a depth of more than 80 inches. Permeability
sawpalmetto, and rosemary. Pricklypear cactus, deermoss, is very rapid throughout. Natural fertility and organic
and lichens are common. Native grasses are usually matter content are low throughout.
sparse but include pineland threeawn and grassleaf gol- Turkey oak and longleaf pine are the major tree spe-
daster. cies. Dominant native grass species include creeping
Potential for cultivated crops, citrus, and improved bluestem, indiangrass, grassleaf goldaster, and pineland
pasture is very low. This soil is drought and has very threeawn. Other common plants are gopher apple,
low organic matter content and low natural fertility. pricklypear, and a variety of legumes.
These limitations make the soil unsuitable for these uses This soil has severe limitations for most cultivated
even with high-level management. crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
Potential for pine trees is very low. Equipment mobili- limit the choice of plants. The water table, fluctuating
ty on the deep, loose sand and high seedling mortality are between depths of 40 to 60 inches, supplements the very
the main management concerns. Sand pines are better low available water capacity. Management should include
suited than other species. crop rotations that include close-growing crops at least
This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp- two-thirds of the time. Fertilizer and lime should be ap-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial plied as needed.
buildings, and local roads and streets. Because of exces- Potential for citrus trees is high in places relatively
sive permeability, however, onsite disposal of sewage can free from freezing temperatures. A good ground cover of
create a hazard of pollution of ground water around sep- close growing vegetation is needed between the trees to
tic tank absorption fields. No corrective measures are reduce erosion. Citrus can normally be grown without ir-
needed for dwellings without basements, small commer- rigation, but irrigation to maintain optimum yields is
cial buildings, and local roads and streets, usually feasible where irrigation water is readily availa-
This soil has high potential for trench sanitary landfills, ble. Fertilizing and liming are needed.
sewage lagoon areas, and shallow excavations. To realize Potential for pasture grasses is medium. Pangolagrass,
maximum potential, trench sanitary landfills and sewage Coastal bermudagrass, and bahiagrasses are well adapted.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 39

These grasses produce good yields when fertilized and bluestem, chalky bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland
limed, and controlled grazing helps maintain vigorous threeawn, switchgrass, and several panicum species.
plants for maximum yields. This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
Potential for pine trees is medium. Equipment limita- because of wetness and low fertility. Adapted crops are
tions, seedling mortality, and plant competition are the limited unless very intensive management practices are
main management concerns. Slash pines are better suited followed. The soil, however, has high potential for a
than other species. number of vegetables. A water control system is needed
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without to remove water in the wetter seasons and provide sub-
basement, small commercial buildings, and local roads and surface irrigation in the dry seasons. Crop residues and
streets. No corrective measures are needed for these soil improving crops should be plowed under. Seedbed
uses. preparation that includes bedding of the rows lowers the
Potential is high for septic tank absorption fields, effective depth of the water table.
Water control measures are needed to realize this poten- Potential for citrus trees is low, and then only after a
tial. Potential is also high for playgrounds; the land, how- carefully designed water control system that maintains
ever, needs to be shaped and the surface stabilized, the water table below a depth of 4 feet has been installed.
Potential for trench sanitary landfills, shallow excava- Planting the trees on beds lowers the effective depth of
tions, and sewage lagoon areas is medium. To realize max- the water table, and maintaining plant cover between the
imum potential, water control measures are needed. In trees reduces erosion. Areas subject to freezing tempera-
addition, the side walls need to be shored for shallow ex- tures are not suitable for citrus.
cavations, and the land needs to be shaped and the areas Potential for improved pasture grasses is medium. Pan-
sealed or lined with impervious material for sewage golagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white clovers grow
lagoon areas. well when well managed. Water control measures are
This soil is in capability subclass IIIs and woodland or- needed to remove excess surface water after heavy rains.
dination group 3s. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, and
45-Vero fine sand. This is a poorly drained, nearly controlled grazing helps prevent overgrazing and weaken-
level soil that formed in sandy marine sediments over ing of the plants.
loamy materials. It is in broad areas in the flatwoods. Potential for pine trees is medium. Slash pines are
Areas range from about 7 to 164 acres. Slopes range from better suited than other species. The main management
0 to 2 percent, concerns are equipment limitations during periods of
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 10 inches heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
thick. The upper 7 inches is black, and the lower 3 inches For best results, a simple water control system which
is dark gray. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand removes excess surface water is needed.
about 11 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
62 inches. It is 3 inches of dark brown fine sand, 4 inches tion fields, sewage lagoon areas, dwellings without base-
of black fine sand, 4 inches of brown fine sandy loam, 16 ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets,
inches of light brownish gray sandy clay loam, and 14 playgrounds, trench sanitary landfills, and shallow excava-
inches of gray sandy clay loam. The upper part of the tions. To realize maximum potential, water control mea-
substratum, to a depth of 80 inches, is greenish gray fine sures are needed. In addition, mounding may be needed in
sandy loam. The lower part, to a depth of 99 inches or places for septic tank absorption fields; sealing or lining
more, is greenish gray loamy fine sand. with impervious material is needed for sewage lagoon
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of areas and trench sanitary landfills; surface stabilization is
EauGallie, Myakka, Riviera, and Wauchula soils. Also in- needed for playgrounds; and shoring of side walls is
eluded is a similar soil in which loamy fine sand underlies needed for shallow excavations.
the sandy part of the subsoil. Included soils make up no This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or-
more than 20 percent of any mapped area. dination group 3w.
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for 46-Wauchula fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
1 to 4 months in most years. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 nearly level soil in broad areas in the flatwoods. Areas
inches for 6 months or more, and in dry seasons it range from about 9 to 115 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2
recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches. Available percent.
water capacity is very low to low in the surface and sub- Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
surface layers, medium in the subsoil, and very low to low about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
in the substratum. Permeability is rapid in the surface fine sand about 20 inches thick. The upper 3 inches is
and subsurface layers, slow to very slow in the subsoil, gray and has dark gray mottles, and the lower 17 inches
and rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility and organic is light gray and has dark grayish brown mottles. The
matter content are low. upper subsoil is 9 inches of weakly cemented loamy fine
Native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash pines sand. It is black in the upper 5 inches and dark brown in
with an understory of sawpalmetto, inkberry, fetterbush, the lower 4 inches. Next is a 4-inch layer of brown fine
and running oak. Grasses on this soil are creeping sand that separates the upper and lower subsoil. The







40 SOIL SURVEY

lower subsoil is 15 inches of light brownish gray sandy with impervious material is needed for sewage lagoon
clay loam. Below it and extending to a depth of 82 inches areas and trench sanitary landfills; surface stabilization is
or more is light brownish gray fine sandy loam. needed for playgrounds; and shoring of side walls is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of needed for shallow excavations.
Vero, EauGallie, Myakka, Smyrna, and Ona soils. Included This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or-
soils make up no more than 15 percent of any mapped dination group 3w.
area. 47-Winder loamy fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
The water table is at a depth of less than 10 inches for nearly level soil on broad, low flats that border lakes and
1 to 4 months in most years. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 streams. Areas range from about 4 to 800 acres, and most
inches for about 6 months or more in most years. Permea- are irregularly shaped. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
ability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and in Typically, the surface layer is 3 inches of very dark
the layer between the upper and lower subsoils, and gray loamy fine sand. The subsurface layer is about 11
moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil. Available inches of light gray fine sand mottled with very dark
water capacity is low to medium in the surface layer, gray. The subsoil extends between depths of 14 and 34
very low in the subsurface layer, and high in the subsoil. inches. The upper 6 inches is very dark gray sandy clay
Natural fertility and organic matter content are low. loam and has vertical tongues of gray fine sand extending
Native vegetation consists of longleaf and slash pines into it from the layer above. The lower 14 inches is dark
with an understory of sawpalmetto, inkberry, fetterbush, gray sandy clay loam. The next layer is 18 inches of light
and running oak. Grasses on this soil are creeping gray fine sandy loam that has dark gray mottles. The un-
bluestem, chalky bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, pineland derlying material, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is light
threeawn, switchgrass, and several panicum species, gray loamy fine sand that has faint white mottles.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
because of wetness and low fertility. Adapted crops are Gentry, Holopaw, and Riviera soils. Also included are
limited unless very intensive management practices are small areas of a similar soil which is very poorly drained
followed. The soil has medium potential for a number of and has a mucky surface layer 3 to 10 inches thick. In-
vegetables. A water control system is needed to remove cluded soils make up less than 15 percent of any mapped
excess water in the wetter seasons and provide subsur- area.
face irrigation in dry seasons. Crop residues and soil im- This soil has a water table at a depth of 0 to 10 inches
proving crops should be plowed under. Seedbed prepara- for 2 to 6 months during most years. Some areas are sub-
tion that includes bedding of the rows lowers the effec- ject to flooding. Available water capacity is low in the
tive depth of the water table, surface and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.
Potential for citrus trees on this soil is low, and then Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
only after a carefully designed water control system that and slow to very slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility and
maintains the water table below a depth of 4 feet has organic matter content are low.
been installed. Planting the trees on beds lowers the ef- Natural vegetation consists of cabbage palms with scat-
fective depth of the water table, and maintaining plant tered longleaf and slash pine trees. There are a few water
cover between the trees reduces erosion. Areas subject to oaks, particularly in higher areas. Sawpalmetto, waxmyr-
freezing temperatures are not suitable for citrus, tie, inkberry, and American beautyberry are the main
Potential for improved pasture grasses on this soil is shrubs. Creeping bluestem is the dominant grass in most
medium. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white places, but in some areas, sand cordgrass is dominant.
clovers grow well when well managed. Water control Other common grasses are indiangrass, chalky bluestem,
measures are needed to remove excess surface water several panicum species, pineland threeawn, South
after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and Florida bluestem, and switchgrass. Many areas are used
lime are needed, and controlled grazing helps prevent as range.
overgrazing and weakening of the plants. This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
Potential for pine trees is medium. Slash pines are because of wetness and low fertility. Low organic matter
better suited than other species. The main management content, low natural fertility, and a water table that is
concerns are equipment limitations during periods of within 10 inches of the surface for long periods of time
heavy rainfall, seedling mortality, and plant competition. limit the use of this soil. With good water control and in-
For best results, a simple water control system that tensive management, this soil has medium potential for a
removes excess surface water is needed. number of vegetables. A water control system which
This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp- removes excess water and soil improving practices such
tion fields, sewage lagoon areas, dwellings without base- as plowing under crop residues are needed. Irrigation
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, may be required during the dry season. Seedbed prepara-
playgrounds, trench sanitary landfills, and shallow excava- tion that includes bedding of the rows lowers the effec-
tions. To realize maximum potential, water control mea- tive depth of the water table.
sures are needed. In addition, mounding may be needed in Potential for citrus is medium except in areas subject
places for septic tank absorption fields; sealing or lining to freezing temperatures. In order to reach this potential,







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 41

a well designed water control system that lowers the the data presented, the potential of each soil for specified
seasonal high water table to a depth of 4 feet is required, land uses can be determined, soil limitations to these land
Planting the trees on bedded rows lowers the effective uses can be identified, and costly failures in houses and
depth of the water table, and maintaining plant cover other structures, caused by unfavorable soil properties,
between the rows reduces erosion, can be avoided. A site where soil properties are favorable
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture can be selected, or practices that will overcome the soil
grasses and legumes. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, limitations can be planned.
and white clover produce good yields when well managed. Planners and others using the soil survey can evaluate
Water control measures which quickly remove excess sur- the impact of specific land uses on the overall productivi-
face water are required. Fertilizer and lime are needed, ty of the survey area or other broad planning area and on
and controlled grazing helps maintain plant vigor, the environment. Productivity and the environment are
Potential for pine trees is high. Equipment limitations closely related to the nature of the soil. Plans should
during periods of high rainfall, plant competition, and maintain or create a land-use pattern in harmony with the
seedling mortality are the primary management concerns, natural soil.
Planting the trees on bedded rows lowers the effective Contractors can find information that is useful in locat-
depth of the water table. ing sources of sand, roadfill, and topsoil. Other informa-
This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption tion indicates wetness or very firm soil horizons that
fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial cause difficulty in excavation.
buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds. To Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and many
realize even this potential, however, water control mea- other specialists also can find useful information in this
sures are needed, and fill material needs to be added. In soil survey. The safe disposal of wastes, for example, is
addition, mounding may be needed in places for septic closely related to properties of the soil. Pavements, side-
tank absorption fields, and the structural strength of walks, campsites, playgrounds, lawns, and trees and
foundations needs to be increased for local roads and shrubs are influenced by the nature of the soil.
streets.
Potential is also low for trench sanitary landfills, Crops and pasture
sewage lagoon areas, and shallow excavations. Water con-
trol measures, however, are needed to realize even low JOHN D. GRIFFIN, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section
potential. In addition, sewage lagoon areas need to be
sealed or lined with impervious material. The major management concerns in the use of the soils
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or- for crops and pasture are described in this section. In ad-
dination group 2w. edition, the crops or pasture plants best suited to the soil,
including some not commonly grown in the survey area,
are discussed; the system of land capability classification
Use and management of the soils used by the Soil Conservation Service is explained; and
the predicted yields of the main crops and pasture plants
The soil survey is a detailed inventory and evaluation are presented for each soil.
of the most basic resource of the survey area-the soil. It This section provides information about the overall
is useful in adjusting land use, including urbanization, to agricultural potential of the survey area and about the
the limitations and potentials of natural resources and the management practices that are needed. The information is
environment. Also, it can help avoid soil-related failures useful to equipment dealers, land improvement contrac-
in uses of the land. tors, fertilizer companies, processing companies, planners,
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists, con- conservationists, and others. For each kind of soil, infor-
servationists, engineers, and others keep extensive notes mation about management is presented in the section
about the nature of the soils and about unique aspects of "Soil maps for detailed planning." Planners of manage-
behavior of the soils. These notes include data on erosion, ment systems for individual fields or farms should also
drought damage to specific crops, yield estimates, flood- consider the detailed information given in the description
ing, the functioning of septic tank disposal systems, and of each soil.
other factors affecting the productivity, potential, and Acreage in pasture has been steadily increasing as
limitations of the soils under various uses and manage- more of the range and woodland are cleared and planted
ment. In this way, field experience and measured data on to tame grasses and legumes (fig. 8). Acreage in crops has
soil properties and performance are used as a basis for remained relatively stable, but acreage in citrus has been
predicting soil behavior. decreasing at the rate of about 200 acres per year. There
Information in this section is useful in planning use and are about 19,000 acres of urban and built-up areas; this
management of soils for crops and pasture, rangeland, figure has been growing at the rate of about 500 acres
and woodland; as sites for buildings, highways and other per year.
transportation systems, sanitary facilities, and parks and More than 187,000 acres in the survey area were used
other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. From for crops and pasture in 1975, according to the Soil Con-







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 41

a well designed water control system that lowers the the data presented, the potential of each soil for specified
seasonal high water table to a depth of 4 feet is required, land uses can be determined, soil limitations to these land
Planting the trees on bedded rows lowers the effective uses can be identified, and costly failures in houses and
depth of the water table, and maintaining plant cover other structures, caused by unfavorable soil properties,
between the rows reduces erosion, can be avoided. A site where soil properties are favorable
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture can be selected, or practices that will overcome the soil
grasses and legumes. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, limitations can be planned.
and white clover produce good yields when well managed. Planners and others using the soil survey can evaluate
Water control measures which quickly remove excess sur- the impact of specific land uses on the overall productivi-
face water are required. Fertilizer and lime are needed, ty of the survey area or other broad planning area and on
and controlled grazing helps maintain plant vigor, the environment. Productivity and the environment are
Potential for pine trees is high. Equipment limitations closely related to the nature of the soil. Plans should
during periods of high rainfall, plant competition, and maintain or create a land-use pattern in harmony with the
seedling mortality are the primary management concerns, natural soil.
Planting the trees on bedded rows lowers the effective Contractors can find information that is useful in locat-
depth of the water table. ing sources of sand, roadfill, and topsoil. Other informa-
This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption tion indicates wetness or very firm soil horizons that
fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial cause difficulty in excavation.
buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds. To Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and many
realize even this potential, however, water control mea- other specialists also can find useful information in this
sures are needed, and fill material needs to be added. In soil survey. The safe disposal of wastes, for example, is
addition, mounding may be needed in places for septic closely related to properties of the soil. Pavements, side-
tank absorption fields, and the structural strength of walks, campsites, playgrounds, lawns, and trees and
foundations needs to be increased for local roads and shrubs are influenced by the nature of the soil.
streets.
Potential is also low for trench sanitary landfills, Crops and pasture
sewage lagoon areas, and shallow excavations. Water con-
trol measures, however, are needed to realize even low JOHN D. GRIFFIN, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section
potential. In addition, sewage lagoon areas need to be
sealed or lined with impervious material. The major management concerns in the use of the soils
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland or- for crops and pasture are described in this section. In ad-
dination group 2w. edition, the crops or pasture plants best suited to the soil,
including some not commonly grown in the survey area,
are discussed; the system of land capability classification
Use and management of the soils used by the Soil Conservation Service is explained; and
the predicted yields of the main crops and pasture plants
The soil survey is a detailed inventory and evaluation are presented for each soil.
of the most basic resource of the survey area-the soil. It This section provides information about the overall
is useful in adjusting land use, including urbanization, to agricultural potential of the survey area and about the
the limitations and potentials of natural resources and the management practices that are needed. The information is
environment. Also, it can help avoid soil-related failures useful to equipment dealers, land improvement contrac-
in uses of the land. tors, fertilizer companies, processing companies, planners,
While a soil survey is in progress, soil scientists, con- conservationists, and others. For each kind of soil, infor-
servationists, engineers, and others keep extensive notes mation about management is presented in the section
about the nature of the soils and about unique aspects of "Soil maps for detailed planning." Planners of manage-
behavior of the soils. These notes include data on erosion, ment systems for individual fields or farms should also
drought damage to specific crops, yield estimates, flood- consider the detailed information given in the description
ing, the functioning of septic tank disposal systems, and of each soil.
other factors affecting the productivity, potential, and Acreage in pasture has been steadily increasing as
limitations of the soils under various uses and manage- more of the range and woodland are cleared and planted
ment. In this way, field experience and measured data on to tame grasses and legumes (fig. 8). Acreage in crops has
soil properties and performance are used as a basis for remained relatively stable, but acreage in citrus has been
predicting soil behavior. decreasing at the rate of about 200 acres per year. There
Information in this section is useful in planning use and are about 19,000 acres of urban and built-up areas; this
management of soils for crops and pasture, rangeland, figure has been growing at the rate of about 500 acres
and woodland; as sites for buildings, highways and other per year.
transportation systems, sanitary facilities, and parks and More than 187,000 acres in the survey area were used
other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. From for crops and pasture in 1975, according to the Soil Con-







42 SOIL SURVEY

servation Service "Now on the Land" report. The Florida such as the vary poorly drained Delray, Floridana, and
Crop and Livestock Reporting Service reported that Hontoon soils, are naturally so wet that the production of
about 160,000 acres were used for pasture, and about crops and pasture grasses is generally not possible in
17,000 acres were in citrus groves. About 4,000 acres their natural state. Crops grown on somewhat poorly
were hayland. Field crops are not extensively grown in drained soils, such as Adamsville soils, are damaged by
the survey area. Those that are grown are primarily corn the high water table in many years. Moderately well
and sorghum to be cut as silage for dairy cattle. A small drained soils, such as Tavares soils, generally do not have
quantity of bahiagrass seed is harvested from improved a water table high enough to damage crops in most years.
pastures that are lightly grazed. The design of surface and subsurface water control
Special crops grown commercially in the survey area systems varies with the kind of soil. A combined surface
are citrus, watermelons, cabbage, peppers, tobacco and to- and subsurface system is needed in most areas of the
mato seedlings, and nursery plants. Citrus is the most im- poorly drained and very poorly drained soils used for in-
portant special crop. tensive rowcropping. Drains need to be more closely
The soils in Osceola County Area can potentially spaced in soils with slowly permeable layers than in more
produce more food. About 80 percent of the land now permeable soils. Finding adequate outlets for water con-
used as pasture and about .60 percent of the land now trol systems is difficult in many areas.
used as range and woodland could be used as cropland. In Organic soils oxidize and subside when the water table
addition to the reserve productive capacity represented is lowered. In areas of organic soils, a water control
by this land, food production could also be increased by system is needed to keep the water at the level required
extending the latest crop production technology to all by crops during the growing season and to raise it to the
cropland in the survey area. This soil survey can greatly surface during other parts of the year to minimize oxida-
facilitate the application of such technology. tion or subsidence.
Approximately one-fifth of Osceola County Area is Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
planted to tame pasture. Approximately two-thirds of the seeds and in the infiltration rate of water into the soil.
farm income is derived from livestock, principally beef Soils that have good tilth are granular and porous. Most
cattle and dairies. Cow-calf operations are dominant. Hay of the soils used for crops and pasture in Osceola County
is frequently harvested for feeding during winter (fig. 9). Area have sandy surface texture and are low in content
The improved pasture in many parts of the survey area of organic matter. Regular additions of crop residues,
has been greatly depleted by continued excessive use. manure, and other organic materialcan help improve soil
The amount of forage produced may be less than half of structure and increase the available water capacity of
the potential production. Productivity of improved these soils.
pasture can be increased by fertilizing, seeding legumes, Soil fertility is also a major consideration in managing
Soil fertility is also a major consideration in managing
and using other management practices that are effective the soils in the survey area. Natural fertility is low in
for specific kinds of soil and pasture and hayland plants. most of the soils, and application of lime and complete
most of the soils, and application of lime and complete
Where climate and topography are about the same, dif- fertilizer is required for adequate yields of crops and
ferences in the kind and amount of forage that pasture
can produce are related closely to the kind of soil. Effec- pasture grasses. Minor trace elements should also be in-
tive management is based on the relationships among eluded in fertilizers for citrus. Lime and fertilizer applica-
soils, pasture plants, fertilization, and water. tons should be based on soil tests and crop needs. The
Soil erosion is not a major concern in Osceola County Cooperative Extension Service can help in determining
Area. Most of the soils have slopes of less than 2 percent, the kds and amounts of fertilizer and lime to apply.
have sandy texture with rapid permeability, and usually Yields per acre
have a good cover of vegetation. Some of the better
drained soils, such as the Candler, St. Lucie, and Tavares The average yields per acre that can be expected of the
soils which have slopes of 2 to 12 percent, are subject to principal crops under a high level of management are
slight erosion. Most soils, and especially the better shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be higher
drained ones, are subject to soil blowing when vegetative or lower than those indicated in the table because of
cover is absent. Soil blowing can damage these soils and variations in rainfall and other climatic factors. Absence
young, tender crops in a few hours if winds are strong of an estimated yield indicates that the crop is not suited
and the soils are dry and bare of vegetation or surface to or not commonly grown on the soil.
mulch. Maintaining vegetative cover and surface mulch The estimated yields were based mainly on the ex-
minimizes soil blowing. Windbreaks of adapted trees and perience and records of farmers, conservationists, and ex-
strip crops are effective in reducing wind erosion, tension agents. Results of field trials and demonstrations
Information for the design of erosion control practices and available yield data from nearby counties were also
for each kind of soil is available in local offices of the Soil considered.
Conservation Service. The yields were estimated assuming that the latest soil
Water control is a major management need on about 75 and crop management practices were used. Pasture yields
percent of the soils in Osceola County Area. Some soils, were estimated for the most productive varieties of







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 43

grasses and legumes suited to the climate and the soil. A Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
few farmers may be obtaining average yields higher than choice of plants, or that require special conservation prac-
those shown in table 5. tices, or both.
The management needed to achieve the indicated yields Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
of the various crops depends on the kind of soil and the the choice of plants, or that require very careful manage-
crop. Such management provides drainage, erosion con- ment, or both.
trol, and protection from flooding; the proper planting Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
appropriate tillage practices, including time of tillage and Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
seedbed preparation and tilling when soil moisture is generally unsuitable for cultivation.
favorable; control of weeds, plant diseases, and harmful Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
insects; favorable soil reaction and optimum levels of them unsuitable for cultivation.
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that
each crop; effective use of crop residues, barnyard nearly preclude their use for commercial crop production.
manure, and green-manure crops; harvesting crops with Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class;
the smallest possible loss; and timeliness of all fieldwork, they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or c,
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of to the class numeral, for example, IIe. The letter e shows
the soils for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless close-
to increase as new production technology is developed, growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that water in
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of or on the soil interferes with plant growth or cultivation
other soils, however, is not likely to change. (in some soils the wetness can be partly corrected by ar-
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in tificial drainage); s shows that the soil is limited mainly
the survey area, but estimated yields are not included because it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in
because the acreage of these crops is small. The local of- only some parts of the United States, shows that the
fices of the Soil Conservation Service and the Coopera- chief limitation is climate that is too cold or too dry.
tive Extension Service can provide information about the In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
management concerns and productivity of the soils for this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
these crops. subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in class
V are subject to little or no erosion, though they have
Capability classes and subclasses other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, range-
Capability classes and subclasses show, in a general land, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The acreage of soils in each capability class and sub-
The soils are classed according to their limitations when class is indicated in table 6. All soils in the survey area
they are used for field crops, the risk of damage when except Pits, Urban land, and other miscellaneous areas
they are used, and the way they respond to treatment. are included. Some of the soils that are well suited to
The grouping does not take into account major and crops and pasture may be in low-intensity use, for exam-
generally expensive landforming that would change slope, ple, soils in capability class III. Data in this table can be
depth, or other characteristics of the soils; does not take used to determine the farming potential of such soils.
into consideration possible but unlikely major reclamation The capability subclass is identified in the description
projects; and does not apply to horticultural crops or of each soil map unit in the section "Soil maps for
other crops that require special management. Capability detailed planning."
classification is not a substitute for interpretations
designed to show suitability and limitations of groups of Range and grazeable woodland
soils for rangeland, for forest trees, or for engineering
roses CLIFFORD W. CARTER, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Ser-
purposes. vice, helped prepare this section.
In the capability system, all kinds of soil are grouped at
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only the Native grasses are an important part of the overall,
levels class and subclass are used in this soil survey, year-round supply of forage to livestock producers in
These levels are defined in the following paragraphs. A Osceola County Area. This forage is readily available, it is
survey area may not have soils of all classes, economical, and it provides important roughage needed by
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are designated cattle. About 445,400 acres throughout the survey area
by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals in- are used as native range by domestic livestock. Of this,
dicate progressively greater limitations and narrower cho- about 98,400 acres are used strictly as range, and the
ices for practical use. The classes are defined as follows: remaining 347,000 acres are grazeable woodland.
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. The dominant native forage species that grow on a soil
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the are generally the most productive and the most suitable
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation for livestock. They will maintain themselves as long as
practices. the environment does not change. The forage species are







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 43

grasses and legumes suited to the climate and the soil. A Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
few farmers may be obtaining average yields higher than choice of plants, or that require special conservation prac-
those shown in table 5. tices, or both.
The management needed to achieve the indicated yields Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
of the various crops depends on the kind of soil and the the choice of plants, or that require very careful manage-
crop. Such management provides drainage, erosion con- ment, or both.
trol, and protection from flooding; the proper planting Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties; limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
appropriate tillage practices, including time of tillage and Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
seedbed preparation and tilling when soil moisture is generally unsuitable for cultivation.
favorable; control of weeds, plant diseases, and harmful Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
insects; favorable soil reaction and optimum levels of them unsuitable for cultivation.
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for Class VIII soils and landforms have limitations that
each crop; effective use of crop residues, barnyard nearly preclude their use for commercial crop production.
manure, and green-manure crops; harvesting crops with Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class;
the smallest possible loss; and timeliness of all fieldwork, they are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or c,
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of to the class numeral, for example, IIe. The letter e shows
the soils for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless close-
to increase as new production technology is developed, growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that water in
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of or on the soil interferes with plant growth or cultivation
other soils, however, is not likely to change. (in some soils the wetness can be partly corrected by ar-
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in tificial drainage); s shows that the soil is limited mainly
the survey area, but estimated yields are not included because it is shallow, drought, or stony; and c, used in
because the acreage of these crops is small. The local of- only some parts of the United States, shows that the
fices of the Soil Conservation Service and the Coopera- chief limitation is climate that is too cold or too dry.
tive Extension Service can provide information about the In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
management concerns and productivity of the soils for this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
these crops. subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in class
V are subject to little or no erosion, though they have
Capability classes and subclasses other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, range-
Capability classes and subclasses show, in a general land, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. The acreage of soils in each capability class and sub-
The soils are classed according to their limitations when class is indicated in table 6. All soils in the survey area
they are used for field crops, the risk of damage when except Pits, Urban land, and other miscellaneous areas
they are used, and the way they respond to treatment. are included. Some of the soils that are well suited to
The grouping does not take into account major and crops and pasture may be in low-intensity use, for exam-
generally expensive landforming that would change slope, ple, soils in capability class III. Data in this table can be
depth, or other characteristics of the soils; does not take used to determine the farming potential of such soils.
into consideration possible but unlikely major reclamation The capability subclass is identified in the description
projects; and does not apply to horticultural crops or of each soil map unit in the section "Soil maps for
other crops that require special management. Capability detailed planning."
classification is not a substitute for interpretations
designed to show suitability and limitations of groups of Range and grazeable woodland
soils for rangeland, for forest trees, or for engineering
roses CLIFFORD W. CARTER, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Ser-
purposes. vice, helped prepare this section.
In the capability system, all kinds of soil are grouped at
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only the Native grasses are an important part of the overall,
levels class and subclass are used in this soil survey, year-round supply of forage to livestock producers in
These levels are defined in the following paragraphs. A Osceola County Area. This forage is readily available, it is
survey area may not have soils of all classes, economical, and it provides important roughage needed by
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are designated cattle. About 445,400 acres throughout the survey area
by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals in- are used as native range by domestic livestock. Of this,
dicate progressively greater limitations and narrower cho- about 98,400 acres are used strictly as range, and the
ices for practical use. The classes are defined as follows: remaining 347,000 acres are grazeable woodland.
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. The dominant native forage species that grow on a soil
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the are generally the most productive and the most suitable
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation for livestock. They will maintain themselves as long as
practices. the environment does not change. The forage species are







44 SOIL SURVEY

grouped into three categories according to their response Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory of
to grazing-decreasers, increases, and invaders, native grasses, legumes, and forbs (fig. 10). The understo-
Decreasers generally are the most palatable plants, and ry is an integral part of the forest plant community. The
they decrease in abundance if the range is under continu- native plants can be grazed without significantly impair-
ous heavy grazing. Increasers are less palatable to ing other forest values. On such forest land, grazing is
livestock; they increase for a while under continuous compatible with timber management if it is controlled or
heavy grazing but eventually decrease under continuous managed in such a manner that timber and forage
heavy grazing. Invaders are native to the range in small resources are maintained or enhanced.
amounts. They have little value for forage, so they tend Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs,
to increase after other vegetation has been grazed, shrubs, and other plants within the reach of livestock or
Range condition is a measure of the current productivi- of grazing or browsing wildlife. A well managed wooded
ty of the range in relation to its potential. Four condition area can produce enough understory vegetation to sup-
classes are used to measure range condition. They are: port optimum numbers of livestock or wildlife, or both.
Excellent condition-Producing 76 to 100 percent of Forage production of grazeable woodland varies accord-
potential. ing to different kinds of grazeable woodland; amount of
Good condition-Producing 51 to 75 percent of poten- shade cast by the canopy; accumulation of fallen needles;
tial. the influence of time and intensity of grazing on the
Fair condition-Producing 26 to 50 percent of potential, presence or absence of grass species and forage produc-
Poor condition-Producing 0 to 25 percent of potential. tion; and the number, size and spacing, and method of site
Only about 10 percent of the range in Osceola County preparation for tree plantings.
Area is in excellent condition, while about 70 percent is in
fair and poor condition. Woodland management and productivity
Table 7 shows for each soil the potential for producing
livestock forage. Potential production refers to the Louis P. HEARD, environmental coordinator, Soil Conservation Ser-
amount of herbage that can be expected to grow on well vice, helped prepare this section.
managed range. Yields are expressed in table 7 in terms According to latest estimates, there are about 360,400
of pounds of air-dry herbage per acre for range in excel- acres of commercial forest and 5,400 acres of noncommer-
lent condition in favorable, normal, and unfavorable years, cial forest in the survey area. This is about 55 percent of
Favorable years are those in which climatic factors such the total area of the survey area. About 347,000 acres of
as rainfall and temperature are favorable for plant the total forest area is not managed for the purpose of
growth. Moisture content in the plants varies as the harvesting marketable trees but is used primarily for
growing season progresses and is not a measure of grazing cattle. Very light stocking or tree density and the
productivity. Forage refers to total vegetation produced resulting open canopy allow valuable native range grasses
and does not reflect forage value or grazing potentials. to thrive. Almost all trees that are harvested have been
The productivity of the soils is closely related to the propogated naturally from seed trees. There are less than
natural drainage of the soil. The wettest soils, such as 500 acres of planted pine in the survey area. Most of the
those in marshes, produce the greatest amount of vegeta- existing trees are naturally seeded second, third, and
tion, while the deep, drought sandhills normally produce fourth generation trees. There are only about 40 acres of
the least herbage annually. original old growth pines remaining.
Management of the soils for range should be planned During the late 1800's and early 1900's, the timber and
with potential productivity in mind. Soils with the highest naval stores industry flourished in Osceola County Area.
production potential should be given highest priority if Several large sawmills and turpentine stills were
economic considerations are important. Major manage- established during this period, including the first electric
ment considerations revolve around livestock grazing. The sawmill, in Holopaw. The mills sawed primarily longleaf
length of time an area should be grazed, the season it pine, slash pine, and baldcypress. The flourishing timber
should be used, how long and when the range should be and naval stores industry ended when the supply of trees
rested, the grazing pattern of livestock within a pasture was depleted in the early 1900's. The sawmills and tur-
that contains more than one soil, and the palatability of pentine mills were dismantled and were never again
the dominant plants on the soil are basic considerations if established to such a degree. In support of this forest in-
the range is to be improved or maintained. Manipulation dustry, several railroads were built throughout the sur-
of range often involves mechanical brush control, con- vey area. Evidence of these "tram lines" still exists today.
trolled burning, and especially controlled livestock graz- Many miles of the old railroad grades are still evident.
ing. Predicting the effects of these practices is of utmost There are presently three commercial sawmills in the
importance. Without exception, the proper management survey area. These mills are sawing mainly pond cypress,
of range will result in maximum sustained production, which is used primarily in the manufacture of orange
conservation of the soil and water resources, and boxes and plaster lath. There is one large pulp wood yard,
generally, improvement of the habitat for many wildlife in Kissimmee. This wood yard processes and ships ap-
species. proximately 30,000 cords of pulpwood annually. About 10







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 45

percent of the cordage is cut in adjoining Orange and rating of slight indicates that the expected mortality of
Brevard Counties, and most of this pulpwood is shipped the planted seedlings is less than 25 percent; moderate, 25
to mills in northern Florida. to 50 percent; and severe, more than 50 percent.
Most woodland is burned on an average of once every 2 Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to
or 3 years. Burning helps destroy unwanted vegetation which undesirable plants are expected to invade or grow
and stimulates growth of forage grasses which cattle can if openings are made in the tree canopy. The invading
graze. This frequent burning, however, has a detrimental plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings by
effect on tree growth. It is estimated that potential wood impeding or preventing their growth. A rating of slight
productivity is lowered about 20 to 30 percent by exces- indicates little or no competition from other plants;
sive burning, moderate indicates that plant competition is expected to
Table 8 contains information useful to woodland owners hinder the development of a fully stocked stand of desira-
or forest managers planning use of soils for wood crops. ble trees; severe means that plant competition is expected
Map unit symbols for soils suitable for wood crops are to prevent the establishment of a desirable stand unless
listed, and the ordination (woodland suitability) symbol the site is intensively prepared, weeded, or otherwise
for each soil is given. All soils bearing the same ordina- managed for the control of undesirable plants.
tion symbol require the same general kinds of woodland The potential productivity of merchantable or common
management and have about the same potential produc- trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is
tivity. the average height, in feet, that dominant and codominant
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, in- trees of a given species attain in a specified number of
dicates the potential productivity of the soils for impor- years. The site index applies to fully stocked, even-aged,
tant trees. The number 1 indicates very high productivity; unmanaged stands. Common trees are those that
2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; and 5, low. The woodland managers generally favor in intermediate or im-
second part of the symbol, a letter, indicates the major provement cuttings. They are selected on the basis of
kind of soil limitation. The letter x indicates stoniness or growth rate, quality, value, and marketability.
rockiness; w, excessive water in or on the soil; t, toxic Trees to plant are those that are suitable for commer-
substances in the soil; d, restricted root depth; c, clay in cial wood production and that are suited to the soils.
the upper part of the soil; s, sandy texture; f, high con-
tent of coarse fragments in the soil profile; and r, steep Windbreaks and environmental plantings
slopes. The letter o indicates insignificant limitations or
restrictions. If a soil has more than one limitation, priori- Windbreaks are established to protect livestock,
ty in placing the soil into a limitation class is in the fol- buildings, and yards from wind. Windbreaks also help
lowing order: x, w, t, d, c, s, f, and r. protect fruit trees and gardens, and they furnish habitat
In table 8 the soils are also rated for a number of fac- for wildlife. Several rows of low- and high-growing broad-
tors to be considered in management. Slight, moderate, leaved and coniferous species provide the most protection.
and severe are used to indicate the degree of major soil Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
limitations, angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss across the field, the interval depending on erodibility of
of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the the soil. They protect cropland and crops from wind and
expected soil loss is small, moderate if some measures are provide food and cover for wildlife.
needed to control erosion during logging and road con- Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
struction, and severe if intensive management or special houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The plants,
equipment and methods are needed to prevent excessive mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely spaced. A
loss of soil. healthy planting stock of suitable species planted properly
Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the charac- on a well prepared site and maintained in good condition
teristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use of the can insure a high degree of plant survival.
equipment generally needed in woodland management or Additional information about planning windbreaks and
harvesting. A rating of slight indicates that use of equip- screens and the planting and care of trees can be ob-
ment is not limited to a particular kind of equipment or tained from local offices of the Soil Conservation Service
time of year; moderate indicates a short seasonal limita- or the Cooperative Extension Service or from
tion or a need for some modification in management or nurserymen.
equipment; severe indicates a seasonal limitation, a need
for special equipment or management, or a hazard in the Engineering
use of equipment.
Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree that the JAMES W. NRRIs, area engineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped
soil affects expected mortality of planted tree seedlings. prepare this section.
Plant competition is not considered in the ratings. This section provides information about the use of soils
Seedlings from good planting stock that are properly for building sites, sanitary facilities, construction material,
planted during a period of sufficient rainfall are rated. A and water management. Among those who can benefit







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 45

percent of the cordage is cut in adjoining Orange and rating of slight indicates that the expected mortality of
Brevard Counties, and most of this pulpwood is shipped the planted seedlings is less than 25 percent; moderate, 25
to mills in northern Florida. to 50 percent; and severe, more than 50 percent.
Most woodland is burned on an average of once every 2 Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to
or 3 years. Burning helps destroy unwanted vegetation which undesirable plants are expected to invade or grow
and stimulates growth of forage grasses which cattle can if openings are made in the tree canopy. The invading
graze. This frequent burning, however, has a detrimental plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings by
effect on tree growth. It is estimated that potential wood impeding or preventing their growth. A rating of slight
productivity is lowered about 20 to 30 percent by exces- indicates little or no competition from other plants;
sive burning, moderate indicates that plant competition is expected to
Table 8 contains information useful to woodland owners hinder the development of a fully stocked stand of desira-
or forest managers planning use of soils for wood crops. ble trees; severe means that plant competition is expected
Map unit symbols for soils suitable for wood crops are to prevent the establishment of a desirable stand unless
listed, and the ordination (woodland suitability) symbol the site is intensively prepared, weeded, or otherwise
for each soil is given. All soils bearing the same ordina- managed for the control of undesirable plants.
tion symbol require the same general kinds of woodland The potential productivity of merchantable or common
management and have about the same potential produc- trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is
tivity. the average height, in feet, that dominant and codominant
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, in- trees of a given species attain in a specified number of
dicates the potential productivity of the soils for impor- years. The site index applies to fully stocked, even-aged,
tant trees. The number 1 indicates very high productivity; unmanaged stands. Common trees are those that
2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; and 5, low. The woodland managers generally favor in intermediate or im-
second part of the symbol, a letter, indicates the major provement cuttings. They are selected on the basis of
kind of soil limitation. The letter x indicates stoniness or growth rate, quality, value, and marketability.
rockiness; w, excessive water in or on the soil; t, toxic Trees to plant are those that are suitable for commer-
substances in the soil; d, restricted root depth; c, clay in cial wood production and that are suited to the soils.
the upper part of the soil; s, sandy texture; f, high con-
tent of coarse fragments in the soil profile; and r, steep Windbreaks and environmental plantings
slopes. The letter o indicates insignificant limitations or
restrictions. If a soil has more than one limitation, priori- Windbreaks are established to protect livestock,
ty in placing the soil into a limitation class is in the fol- buildings, and yards from wind. Windbreaks also help
lowing order: x, w, t, d, c, s, f, and r. protect fruit trees and gardens, and they furnish habitat
In table 8 the soils are also rated for a number of fac- for wildlife. Several rows of low- and high-growing broad-
tors to be considered in management. Slight, moderate, leaved and coniferous species provide the most protection.
and severe are used to indicate the degree of major soil Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
limitations, angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss across the field, the interval depending on erodibility of
of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the the soil. They protect cropland and crops from wind and
expected soil loss is small, moderate if some measures are provide food and cover for wildlife.
needed to control erosion during logging and road con- Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
struction, and severe if intensive management or special houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The plants,
equipment and methods are needed to prevent excessive mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely spaced. A
loss of soil. healthy planting stock of suitable species planted properly
Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the charac- on a well prepared site and maintained in good condition
teristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use of the can insure a high degree of plant survival.
equipment generally needed in woodland management or Additional information about planning windbreaks and
harvesting. A rating of slight indicates that use of equip- screens and the planting and care of trees can be ob-
ment is not limited to a particular kind of equipment or tained from local offices of the Soil Conservation Service
time of year; moderate indicates a short seasonal limita- or the Cooperative Extension Service or from
tion or a need for some modification in management or nurserymen.
equipment; severe indicates a seasonal limitation, a need
for special equipment or management, or a hazard in the Engineering
use of equipment.
Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree that the JAMES W. NRRIs, area engineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped
soil affects expected mortality of planted tree seedlings. prepare this section.
Plant competition is not considered in the ratings. This section provides information about the use of soils
Seedlings from good planting stock that are properly for building sites, sanitary facilities, construction material,
planted during a period of sufficient rainfall are rated. A and water management. Among those who can benefit







46 SOIL SURVEY

from this information are engineers, landowners, commu- of soils that differ from the dominant soil may be in-
nity planners, town and city managers, land developers, eluded in mapping. Thus, these data do not eliminate the
builders, contractors, and farmers and ranchers, need for onsite investigations, testing, and analysis by
The ratings in the engineering tables are based on test personnel having expertise in the specific use contem-
data and estimated data in the "Soil properties" section. plated.
The ratings were determined jointly by soil scientists and The information is presented mainly in tables. Table 9
engineers of the Soil Conservation Service using known shows, for each kind of soil, the degree and kind of limita-
relationships between the soil properties and the behavior tions for building site development; table 10, for sanitary
of soils in various engineering uses. facilities; and table 12, for water management. Table 11
Among the soil properties and site conditions identified shows the suitability of each kind of soil as a source of
by a soil survey and used in determining the ratings in construction materials.
this section were grain-size distribution, liquid limit, The information in the tables, along with the soil map,
plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock, hardness the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this sur-
of bedrock that is within 5 or 6 feet of the surface, soil vey, can be used to make additional interpretations and to
wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, construct interpretive maps for specific uses of land.
likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure or aggrega- Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a spe-
tion, in-place soil density, and geologic origin of the soil cial meaning in soil science. Many of these terms are
material. Where pertinent, data about kinds of clay defined in the Glossary.
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and
the kind of absorbed cations were also considered. Building site development
On the basis of information assembled about soil pro- The degree and kind of soil limitations that affect shal-
perties, ranges of values can be estimated for erodibility, low excavations, dwellings with and without basements,
permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, available small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets
water capacity, shear strength, compressibility, slope sta- are indicated in table 9. A slight limitation indicates that
ability, and other factors of expected soil behavior in en- soil properties generally are favorable for the specified
soil properties generally are favorable for the specified
gineering uses. As appropriate, these values can be ap-
use; any limitation is minor and easily overcome. A
plied to each major horizon of each soil or to the entire ue a limitation is minr and easily overcome.
profile moderate limitation indicates that soil properties and site
These factors of soil behavior affect construction and features are unfavorable for the specified use, but the
maintenance of roads, airport runways, pipelines, founda- lmtatons can be overcome or minimized by special
tions for small buildings, ponds and small dams, irrigation planning and design. A severe limitation indicates that one
projects, drainage systems, sewage and refuse disposal or more soil properties or site features are so unfavorable
systems, and other engineering works. The ranges of or difficult to overcome that a major increase in construc-
systems, and other engineering works. The ranges of
values can be used to (1) select potential residential, com- tion effort, special design, or intensive maintenance is
mercial, industrial, and recreational uses; (2) make required. For some soils rated severe, such costly mea-
preliminary estimates pertinent to construction in a par- sures may not be feasible.
ticular area; (3) evaluate alternative routes for roads, Shallow excavations are made for pipelines, sewerlines,
streets, highways, pipelines, and underground cables; (4) communications and power transmission lines, basements,
evaluate alternative sites for location of sanitary landfills, open ditches, and cemeteries. Such digging or trenching is
onsite sewage disposal systems, and other waste disposal influenced by soil wetness caused by a seasonal high
facilities; (5) plan detailed onsite investigations of soils water table; the texture and consistence of soils; the ten-
and geology; (6) find sources of sand, clay, and topsoil; (7) dency of soils to cave in or slough; and the presence of
plan farm drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds, very firm, dense soil layers. In addition, excavations are
terraces, and other structures for soil and water conser- affected by slope of the soil and the probability of flood-
vation; (8) relate performance of structures already built ing. Ratings do not apply to soil horizons below a depth of
to the properties of the kinds of soil on which they are 6 feet unless otherwise noted.
built so that performance of similar structures on the In the soil series descriptions, the consistence of each
same or a similar soil in other locations can be predicted; soil horizon is given, and the presence of very firm or ex-
and (9) predict the trafficability of soils for cross-country tremely firm horizons, usually difficult to excavate, is in-
movement of vehicles and construction equipment, dicated.
Data presented in this section are useful for land-use Dwellings and small commercial buildings referred to
planning and for choosing alternative practices or in table 9 are built on undisturbed soil and have founda-
general designs that will overcome unfavorable soil pro- tion loads of a dwelling no more than three stories high.
perties and minimize soil-related failures. Limitations to Separate ratings are made for small commercial buildings
the use of these data, however, should be well understood, without basements and for dwellings with and without
First, the data are generally not presented for soil basements. For such structures, soils should be suffi-
material below a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Also, because of the ciently stable that cracking or subsidence of the structure
scale of the detailed map in this soil survey, small areas from settling or shear failure of the foundation does not







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 47

occur. These ratings were determined from estimates of those that affect the absorption of the effluent and those
the shear strength, compressibility, and shrink-swell that affect the construction of the system.
potential of the soil. Soil texture, plasticity and in-place Properties and features that affect absorption of the
density, potential frost action, soil wetness, and depth to a effluent are permeability, depth to seasonal high water
seasonal high water table were also considered. Soil wet- table, and susceptibility to flooding. Excessive slope can
ness and depth to a seasonal high water table indicate cause lateral seepage and surfacing of the effluent. Also,
potential difficulty in providing adequate drainage for soil erosion and soil slippage are hazards if absorption
basements, lawns, and gardens. Slope is also an important fields are installed on sloping soils.
consideration in the choice of sites for these structures In some soils, loose sand is less than 4 feet below the
and was considered in determining the ratings. Suscepti- tile lines. In these soils the absorption field does not
ability to flooding is a serious hazard, adequately filter the effluent, and ground water in the
Local roads and streets referred to in table 9 have an area may be contaminated.
all-weather surface that can carry light to medium traffic On many of the soils that have moderate or severe
all year. They consist of a subgrade of the underlying soil limitations for use as septic tank absorption fields, a
system to lower the seasonal water table can be installed
material; a base of gravel, crushed rock fragments, or soil system to lower the seasonal water table can be installed
or the size of the absorption field can be increased so that
material stabilized with lime or cement; and a flexible or performance is satisfactory.
performance is satisfactory.
rigid surface, commonly asphalt or concrete. The roads Sewage lagoon areas are shallow ponds constructed to
are graded with soil material at hand, and most cuts and hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
fills are less than 6 feet deep. and liquid wastes. Lagoons have a nearly level floor and
The load supporting capacity and the stability of the cut slopes or embankments of compacted soil material.
soil as well as the quantity and workability of fill material Aerobic lagoons generally are designed to hold sewage
available are important in design and construction of within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly impervious soil
roads,and streets. The classifications of the soil and the material for the lagoon floor and sides is required to
soil texture, density, and shrink-swell potential are indica- minimize seepage and contamination of ground water.
tors of the traffic supporting capacity used in making the Soils that are very high in content of organic matter are
ratings. Soil wetness, flooding, slope, and depth to very not suitable. Unless the soil has very slow permeability,
compact layers affect stability and ease of excavation, contamination of ground water is a hazard. In soils where
the water table is seasonally high, seepage of ground
Sanitary facilities water into the lagoon can seriously reduce the lagoon's
Favorable soil properties and site features are needed capacity for liquid waste. Slope and susceptibility to
for proper functioning of septic tank absorption fields, flooding also affect the suitability of sites for sewage
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The nature of the lagoons or the cost of construction. Shear strength and
soil is important in selecting sites for these facilities and permeability of compacted soil material affect the per-
in identifying limiting soil properties and site features to formance of embankments.
be considered in design and installation. Also, those soil Sanitary landfill is a method of disposing of solid
properties that affect ease of excavation or installation of waste by placing refuse in successive layers either in ex-
these facilities will be of interest to contractors and local cavated trenches or on the surface of the soil. The waste
officials. Table 10 shows the degree and kind of limita- is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin layer
tions of each soil for such uses and for use of the soil as of soil materil (fig 2). Landfill areas are subject to heavy
daily cover for landfills. It is important to observe local vehicular traffic. Risk of polluting ground water and traf-
ficability affect the suitability of a soil for this use. The
dies ad re o so on s ss s s best soils have a loamy or silty texture, have moderate to
If the degree of soil limitation is expressed as slight, slow ermeabilit are dee to a seasonal water table, and
slow permeability, are deep to a seasonal water table, and
soils are generally favorable for the specified use and are ot et sils are likely to be
are not subject to flooding. Clayey soils are likely to be
limitations are minor and easily overcome; if moderate, sticky and difficult to spread. Sandy or gravelly soils
soil properties or site features are unfavorable for the generally have rapid permeability, which might allow nox-
specified use, but limitations can be overcome by special ious liquids to contaminate ground water. Soil wetness
planning and design; and if severe, soil properties or site can be a limitation, because operating heavy equipment
features are so unfavorable or difficult to overcome that on a wet soil is difficult. Seepage into the refuse increases
major soil reclamation, special designs, or intensive main- the risk of pollution of ground water.
tenance is required. Soil suitability is rated by the terms Ease of excavation affects the suitability of a soil for
good, fair, or poor, which, respectively, mean about the the trench type of landfill. If the seasonal water table is
same as the terms slight, moderate, and severe, high, water will seep into trenches.
Septic tank absorption fields are subsurface systems of Unless otherwise stated, the limitations in table 10
tile or perforated pipe that distribute effluent from a sep- apply only to the soil material within a depth of about 6
tic tank into the natural soil. Only the soil horizons feet. If the trench is deeper, a limitation of slight or
between depths of 18 and 72 inches are evaluated for this moderate may not be valid. Site investigation is needed
use. The soil properties and site features considered are before a site is selected.







48 SOIL SURVEY

Daily cover for landfill should be soil that is easy to Sand and gravel are used in great quantities in many
excavate and spread over the compacted fill in wet and kinds of construction. The ratings in table 11 provide
dry periods. Soils that are loamy or silty and free of guidance as to where to look for probable sources of sand
stones or boulders are better than other soils. Clayey and are based on the probability that soils in a given area
soils may be sticky and difficult to spread; sandy soils contain sizable quantities of sand. None of the soils in the
may be subject to soil blowing, survey area is a suitable source of gravel. A soil rated
The soils selected for final cover of landfills should be good or fair has a layer of suitable material at least 3 feet
suitable for growing plants. Of all the horizons, the A thick, the top of which is within a depth of 6 feet. Fine-
horizon in most soils has the best workability, more or- grained soils are not suitable sources of sand.
ganic matter, and the best potential for growing plants. The ratings do not take into account depth to the water
Thus, for either the area- or trench-type landfill, stockpil- table or other factors that affect excavation of the
ing material from the A horizon for .use as the surface material. Descriptions of grain size, kinds of minerals,
layer of the final cover is desirable, reaction, and stratification are given in the soil series
Where it is necessary to bring in soil material for daily descriptions and in table 15.
or final cover, thickness of suitable soil material available Topsoil is used in areas where vegetation is to be
and depth to a seasonal high water table in soils sur- established and maintained. Suitability is affected mainly
rounding the sites should be evaluated. Other factors to by the ease of working and spreading the soil material in
be evaluated are those that affect reclamation of the bor- preparing a seedbed and by the ability of the soil material
row areas. These factors include slope, erodibility, and to support plantlife. Also considered is the damage that
potential for plant growth. can result at the area from which the topsoil is taken.
The ease of excavation is influenced by the thickness of
Construction materials suitable material, wetness, and slope. The ability of the
soil to support plantlife is determined by texture, struc-
The suitability of each soil as a source of roadfill, sand, ture, and the amount of soluble salts or toxic substances.
gravel, and topsoil is indicated in table 11 by ratings of Organic matter in the Al or Ap horizon greatly increases
good, fair, poor, or unsuited. The texture, thickness, and the absorption and retention of moisture and nutrients.
organic-matter content of each soil horizon are important Therefore, the soil material from these horizons should be
factors in rating soils for use as construction materials, carefully preserved for later use.
Each soil is evaluated to the depth observed, generally Soils rated good have at least 16 inches of friable loamy
about 6 feet. material at their surface. They are free of stones and cob-
Roadfill is soil material used in embankments for bles, are low in content of gravel, and have gentle slopes.
roads. Soils are evaluated as a source of roadfill for low They are low in soluble salts that can limit or prevent
embankments, which generally are less than 6 feet high plant growth. They are naturally fertile or respond well
and less exacting in design than high embankments. The to fertilizer. They are not so wet that excavation is dif-
ratings reflect the ease of excavating and working the ficult during most of the year.
material and the expected performance of the material Soils rated fair are loose sandy soils or firm loamy or
where it has been compacted and adequately drained. The clayey soils in which the suitable material is only 8 to 16
performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or ce- inches thick or soils that have appreciable amounts of
ment is not considered in the ratings, but information gravel, stones, or soluble salt.
about some of the soil properties that influence such per- Soils rated poor are very sandy soils and very firm
formance is given in the descriptions of the soil series. clayey soils; soils with suitable layers less than 8 inches
The ratings apply to the soil material between the A thick; soils having large amounts of gravel, stones, or
horizon and a depth of 5 to 6 feet. It is assumed that soil soluble salt; steep soils; and poorly drained soils.
horizons will be mixed during excavation and spreading. Although a rating of good is not based entirely on high
Many soils have horizons of contrasting suitability within content of organic matter, a surface horizon is generally
their profile. The estimated engineering properties in preferred for topsoil because of its organic-matter con-
table 15 provide specific information about the nature of tent. This horizon is designated as Al or Ap in the soil se-
each horizon. This information can help determine the ries descriptions. The absorption and retention of
suitability of each horizon for roadfill. moisture and nutrients for plant growth are greatly in-
Soils rated good are coarse grained. They have low creased by organic matter.
shrink-swell potential, low potential frost action, and few
cobbles and stones. They are at least moderately well Water management
drained and have slopes of 15 percent or less. Soils rated Many soil properties and site features that affect water
fair have a plasticity index of less than 15 and have other management practices have been identified in this soil
limiting features, such as moderate shrink-swell potential, survey. In table 12 the degree of soil limitation and soil
moderately steep slopes, wetness, or many stones. If the and site features that affect use are indicated for each
thickness of suitable material is less than 3 feet, the en- kind of soil. This information is significant in planning, in-
tire soil is rated poor. stalling, and maintaining water management systems.







48 SOIL SURVEY

Daily cover for landfill should be soil that is easy to Sand and gravel are used in great quantities in many
excavate and spread over the compacted fill in wet and kinds of construction. The ratings in table 11 provide
dry periods. Soils that are loamy or silty and free of guidance as to where to look for probable sources of sand
stones or boulders are better than other soils. Clayey and are based on the probability that soils in a given area
soils may be sticky and difficult to spread; sandy soils contain sizable quantities of sand. None of the soils in the
may be subject to soil blowing, survey area is a suitable source of gravel. A soil rated
The soils selected for final cover of landfills should be good or fair has a layer of suitable material at least 3 feet
suitable for growing plants. Of all the horizons, the A thick, the top of which is within a depth of 6 feet. Fine-
horizon in most soils has the best workability, more or- grained soils are not suitable sources of sand.
ganic matter, and the best potential for growing plants. The ratings do not take into account depth to the water
Thus, for either the area- or trench-type landfill, stockpil- table or other factors that affect excavation of the
ing material from the A horizon for .use as the surface material. Descriptions of grain size, kinds of minerals,
layer of the final cover is desirable, reaction, and stratification are given in the soil series
Where it is necessary to bring in soil material for daily descriptions and in table 15.
or final cover, thickness of suitable soil material available Topsoil is used in areas where vegetation is to be
and depth to a seasonal high water table in soils sur- established and maintained. Suitability is affected mainly
rounding the sites should be evaluated. Other factors to by the ease of working and spreading the soil material in
be evaluated are those that affect reclamation of the bor- preparing a seedbed and by the ability of the soil material
row areas. These factors include slope, erodibility, and to support plantlife. Also considered is the damage that
potential for plant growth. can result at the area from which the topsoil is taken.
The ease of excavation is influenced by the thickness of
Construction materials suitable material, wetness, and slope. The ability of the
soil to support plantlife is determined by texture, struc-
The suitability of each soil as a source of roadfill, sand, ture, and the amount of soluble salts or toxic substances.
gravel, and topsoil is indicated in table 11 by ratings of Organic matter in the Al or Ap horizon greatly increases
good, fair, poor, or unsuited. The texture, thickness, and the absorption and retention of moisture and nutrients.
organic-matter content of each soil horizon are important Therefore, the soil material from these horizons should be
factors in rating soils for use as construction materials, carefully preserved for later use.
Each soil is evaluated to the depth observed, generally Soils rated good have at least 16 inches of friable loamy
about 6 feet. material at their surface. They are free of stones and cob-
Roadfill is soil material used in embankments for bles, are low in content of gravel, and have gentle slopes.
roads. Soils are evaluated as a source of roadfill for low They are low in soluble salts that can limit or prevent
embankments, which generally are less than 6 feet high plant growth. They are naturally fertile or respond well
and less exacting in design than high embankments. The to fertilizer. They are not so wet that excavation is dif-
ratings reflect the ease of excavating and working the ficult during most of the year.
material and the expected performance of the material Soils rated fair are loose sandy soils or firm loamy or
where it has been compacted and adequately drained. The clayey soils in which the suitable material is only 8 to 16
performance of soil after it is stabilized with lime or ce- inches thick or soils that have appreciable amounts of
ment is not considered in the ratings, but information gravel, stones, or soluble salt.
about some of the soil properties that influence such per- Soils rated poor are very sandy soils and very firm
formance is given in the descriptions of the soil series. clayey soils; soils with suitable layers less than 8 inches
The ratings apply to the soil material between the A thick; soils having large amounts of gravel, stones, or
horizon and a depth of 5 to 6 feet. It is assumed that soil soluble salt; steep soils; and poorly drained soils.
horizons will be mixed during excavation and spreading. Although a rating of good is not based entirely on high
Many soils have horizons of contrasting suitability within content of organic matter, a surface horizon is generally
their profile. The estimated engineering properties in preferred for topsoil because of its organic-matter con-
table 15 provide specific information about the nature of tent. This horizon is designated as Al or Ap in the soil se-
each horizon. This information can help determine the ries descriptions. The absorption and retention of
suitability of each horizon for roadfill. moisture and nutrients for plant growth are greatly in-
Soils rated good are coarse grained. They have low creased by organic matter.
shrink-swell potential, low potential frost action, and few
cobbles and stones. They are at least moderately well Water management
drained and have slopes of 15 percent or less. Soils rated Many soil properties and site features that affect water
fair have a plasticity index of less than 15 and have other management practices have been identified in this soil
limiting features, such as moderate shrink-swell potential, survey. In table 12 the degree of soil limitation and soil
moderately steep slopes, wetness, or many stones. If the and site features that affect use are indicated for each
thickness of suitable material is less than 3 feet, the en- kind of soil. This information is significant in planning, in-
tire soil is rated poor. stalling, and maintaining water management systems.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 49

Soil and site limitations are expressed as slight, attractions nearby, many also come to enjoy the great
moderate, and severe. Slight means that the soil proper- fishing, hunting, and climate. Approximately 10 to 15 per-
ties and site features are generally favorable for the cent of the survey area is now devoted to recreation. Two
specified use and that any limitation is minor and easily large state-owned wildlife management areas are open to
overcome. Moderate means that some soil properties or public for hunting, and many other areas have high poten-
site features are unfavorable for the specified use but can tial for recreational development.
be overcome or modified by special planning and design. The soils of the survey area are rated in table 13 ac-
Severe means that the soil properties and site features cording to limitations that affect their suitability for
are so unfavorable and so difficult to correct or overcome recreation uses. The ratings are based on such restrictive
that major soil reclamation, special design, or intensive soil features as flooding, wetness, slope, and texture of
maintenance is required. the surface layer. Not considered in these ratings, but im-
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or em- portant in evaluating a site, are location and accessibility
bankment. Soils best suited to this use have a low of the area, size and shape of the area and its scenic
seepage potential, which is determined by permeability, quality, the ability of the soil to support vegetation, ac-
Embankments, dikes, and levees require soil material cess to water, potential water impoundment sites availa-
that is resistant to seepage, erosion, and piping and has ble, and either access to public sewerlines or capacity of
favorable stability, shrink-swell potential, shear strength, the soil to absorb septic tank effluent. Soils subject to
and compaction characteristics. Organic matter in a soil flooding are limited, in varying degree, for recreation use
downgrades the suitability of a soil for use in embank- by the duration and intensity of flooding and the season
ments, dikes, and levees. when flooding occurs. Onsite assessment of height, dura-
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are bodies of water made tion, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential in
by excavating a pit or dugout into a ground-water aquifer planning recreation facilities.
(fig. 11). Excluded are ponds that are fed by surface ru- The degree of the limitation of the soils is expressed as
noff and embankment ponds that impound water 3 feet or slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that the soil pro-
more above the original surface. Soil properties and site perties are generally favorable and that the limitations
features that affect aquifer-fed ponds are depth to a per- are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that the
manent water table, permeability of the aquifer, quality limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
of the water, and ease of excavation, design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
Drainage of soil is affected by such soil properties as properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be off-
permeability; texture; depth to bedrock, hardpan, or other set only by costly soil reclamation, special design, inten-
layers that affect the rate of water movement; depth to sive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of
the water table; slope; stability of ditchbanks; suscepti- these measures.
ability to flooding; and availability of outlets for drainage. The information in table 13 can be supplemented by in-
Irrigation is affected by such features as slope, suscep- formation in other parts of this survey. Especially helpful
tibility to flooding, hazards of water erosion and soil are interpretations for septic tank absorption fields, given
blowing, texture, depth of root zone, rate of water intake in table 10, and interpretations for dwellings without
at the surface, permeability of the soil below the surface basements and for local roads and streets, given in table
layer, available water capacity, need for drainage, and 9.
depth to the water table. Camp areas require such site preparation as shaping
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a com- and leveling for tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
bination of channels and ridges constructed across a slope and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary facili-
to intercept runoff. They allow water to soak into the soil ties and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to heavy
or flow slowly to an outlet. Features that affect suitabili- foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best soils for
ty of a soil for terraces are uniformity and steepness of this use have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to
slope; depth to hardpan or other unfavorable material; flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs
large stones; permeability; ease of establishing vegeta- rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when
tion; and resistance to water erosion, soil blowing, soil dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of con-
slipping, and piping. structing camping sites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
Recreation vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for use as picnic areas are firm when
JOHN F. VANCE JR., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped wet, are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
prepare this section, during the period of use, and do not have slopes that will
Recreation is important to the economy of Osceola increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access
County Area. In past years tourism has been the second roads and parking areas.
largest industry in the survey area. Although many Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
tourists come to Osceola County Area primarily for food foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
and lodging while visiting the many popular amusement wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The







50 SOIL SURVEY

surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry. If fair means that the element of wildlife habitat or kind of
shaping is required to'obtain a uniform grade, the depth habitat can be created, improved, or maintained in most
of the soil over hardpan should be enough to allow neces- places. Moderately intensive management is required for
sary grading. satisfactory results. A rating of poor means that limita-
Paths and trails for walking, horseback riding, tions are severe for the designated element or kind of
bicycling, and other uses should require little or no wildlife habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
cutting and filling. The best soils for this use are those maintained in most places, but management is difficult
that are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when and must be intensive. A rating of very poor means that
dry, and are not subject to flooding more than once dur- restrictions for the element of wildlife habitat or kind of
ing the annual period of use. They should have moderate wildlife are very severe, and that unsatisfactory results
slopes and have few or no stones or boulders on the sur- can be expected. Wildlife habitat is impractical or even
face. impossible to create, improve, or maintain on soils having
such a rating.
Wildlife habitat The elements of wildlife habitat are briefly described in
the following paragraphs.
C.R. MCCRACKEN, biologist, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Grain and seed crops are seed-producing annuals used
Commission, and JOHN F. VANCE, JR., biologist, Soil Conservation Ser- by wildlife. The major soil properties that affect the
vice, helped prepare this section.
growth of grain and seed crops are depth of the root
The value and importance of wildlife in Osceola County zone, texture of the surface layer, available water capaci-
Area has increased considerably during the past few ty, wetness, slope, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and
years with the opening of two large State Wildlife soil moisture are also considerations. Examples are
Management areas. Bull Creek Wildlife Management sorghum, oats, rye, millets, and sunflowers.
Area, in the east-central part of the survey area, encom- Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
passes an area of about 20,000 acres. Three Lakes Wil- and herbaceous legumes that are planted for wildlife food
dlife Management Area, in the southwest-central part of and cover. Major soil properties that affect the growth of
the survey area adjoining Lakes Kissimmee, Marian, and grasses and legumes are depth of the root zone, texture
Jackson, has a total area of about 52,000 acres. Fish are of the surface layer, available water capacity, wetness,
also significant in the more than 800 lakes in the county, flood hazard, and slope. Soil temperature and soil
Fish camps located on the larger lakes provide a full moisture are also considerations. Examples are
range of fishing supplies and services, including the ser- bahiagrass, pangolagrass, lovegrass, switchgrass, hairy in-
vices of professional fishing guides. digo, sweet clover, and white dutch clover.
Soils directly affect the kind and amount of vegetation Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
that is available to wildlife as food and cover, and they af- established grasses and forbs, including weeds, that pro-
fect the construction of water impoundments. The kind vide food and cover for wildlife. Major soil properties that
and abundance of wildlife that populate an area depend affect the growth of these plants are depth of the root
largely on the amount and distribution of food, cover, and zone, texture of the surface layer, available water capaci-
water. If any one of these elements is missing, is in- ty, wetness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
adequate, or is inaccessible, wildlife either are scarce or moisture are also considerations. Examples are bluestems,
do not inhabit the area. lopsided indiangrass, goldenrod, beggarweed, pokeweed,
If the soils have the potential, wildlife habitat can be partridgepea, and low panicums.
created or improved by planting appropriate vegetation, Hardwood trees and the associated woody understory
by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by helping the provide cover for wildlife and produce nuts or other fruit,
natural establishment of desirable plants. buds, catkins, twigs, bark, or foliage that wildlife eat.
In table 14, the soils in the survey area are rated ac- Major soil properties that affect growth of hardwood
cording to their potential to support the main kinds of trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, available
wildlife habitat in the area. This information can be used water capacity, and wetness. Examples of native plants
in planning for parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, are oak, sweetgum, red maple, dogwood, persimmon,
and other developments for wildlife; selecting areas-that sumac, hickory, blackberry, grape, smilax, Virginia
are suitable for wildlife; selecting soils that are suitable creeper, viburnum, huckleberry, cabbage palm, gallberry,
for creating, improving, or maintaining specific elements sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, and briers. Examples of fruit-
of wildlife habitat; and determining the intensity of producing shrubs that are commercially available and
management needed for each element of the habitat, suitable for planting on soils rated good are American
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or beautyberry, Surinam cherry, podacarpus, youpon,
very poor. A rating of good means that the element of crabapple, and viburnums.
wildlife habitat or the kind of habitat is easily created, 'Coniferous plants are cone-bearing trees, shrubs, or
improved, or maintained. Few or no limitations affect ground cover plants that furnish habitat or supply food in
management, and satisfactory results can be expected if the form of browse, seeds, or fruitlike cones. Soil proper-
the soil is used for the designated purpose. A rating of ties that have a major effect on the growth of coniferous







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 51

plants are depth of the root zone, available water capaci- are the many thousands of soil borings made during the
ty, and wetness. Examples are pine, cedar, and cypress. course of the survey and the laboratory analyses of
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild her- selected soil samples from typical profiles.
baceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites, exclusive In making soil borings during field mapping, soil
of submerged or floating aquatics. They produce food or scientists can identify several important soil properties.
cover for wildlife that use wetland as habitat. Major soil They note the seasonal soil moisture condition or the
properties affecting wetland plants are texture of the presence of free water and its depth. For each horizon in
surface layer, wetness, reaction, and slope. Examples are the profile, they note the thickness and color of the soil
smartweed, pickerelweed, iris, duck potato, rushes, material; the texture, or amount of clay, silt, sand, and
sedges, cordgrass, and cattail. gravel or other coarse fragments; the structure, or the
Shallow water areas are bodies of water that have an natural pattern of cracks and pores in the undisturbed
average depth of less than 5 feet and that are useful to soil; and the consistence of the soil material in place
wildlife. They can be naturally wet areas, or they can be under the existing soil moisture conditions. They record
created by dams or levees or by water-control structures the depth of plant roots, determine the pH or reaction of
in marshes or streams. Major soil properties affecting the soil, and identify any free carbonates.
shallow water areas are wetness, slope, and permeability. Samples of soil material are analyzed in the laboratory
The availability of a dependable water supply is impor- to verify the field estimates of soil properties and to
tant if water areas are to be developed. Examples are determine all major properties of key soils, especially pro-
marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds, perties that cannot be estimated accurately by field ob-
The kinds of wildlife habitat are briefly described in servation. Laboratory analyses are not conducted for all
the following paragraphs. soil series in the survey area, but laboratory data for
Openland habitat consists of cropland, pasture, many soil series not tested are available from nearby sur-
meadows, and areas that are overgrown with grasses, vey areas.
herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce grain and The available field and laboratory data are summarized
seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild herbaceous in tables. The tables give the estimated range of en-
plants. The kinds of wildlife attracted to these areas in- gineering properties, the engineering classifications, and
clude bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow, the physical and chemical properties of each major
killdeer, cottontail rabbit, gray fox, and wild hog. horizon of each soil in the survey area. They also present
Woodland habitat consists of areas of hardwoods or data about pertinent soil and water features, engineering
conifers, or a mixture of both, and associated grasses, test data, and data obtained from physical and chemical
legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. Examples of wildlife laboratory analyses of soils.
attracted to these areas are wild turkey, thrushes, vireos,
woodpeckers, tree squirrels, gray fox, raccoon, and deer. Engineering properties
Wetland habitat consists of open, marshy or swampy,
shallow water areas where water-tolerant plants grow. Table 15 gives estimates of engineering properties and
Examples of wildlife attracted to this habitat are ducks, classifications for the major horizons of each soil in the
herons, egrets, rails, kingfishers, otters, and alligators, survey area.
Most soils have, within the upper 5 or 6 feet, horizons
Wildlife management practices of contrasting properties. Table 15 gives information for
Wildlife habiatmanagment thrives on disturbances each of these contrasting horizons in a typical profile.
Wildlife habitat management thrives on disturbances
such as controlled burning, grazing, chopping, cultivation, Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each horizon
is indicated. More information about the range in depth
water level manipulation, mowing, and sometimes the use and abt o r ies in each horizon is given for
of pesticides. Each species of wildlife occupies a niche in a each soil series in the section "Soil series and morpholo-
vegetative type; therefore, management for a particular gy
species involves an attempt to keep the vegetative com- described in table 15 in the standard terms
Texture is described in table 15 in the standard terms
munity in the stage or stages that favor that species. used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms
A primary factor in evaluating wildlife habitat is the acc to p ent of sa, si,
plant diversity in an area. A wide range in vegetative clay in soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in
types or age classes is generally more favorable to wil- diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil material that is 7 to
dlife. Increasing dominance by a few plant species is d f e i s m t i 7 to
life. Increasing dominance by a few plant species is 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 per-
generally accompanied by a corresponding decrease in cent sand. If a soil contains gravel or other particles
numberscent sand. If a soil contains gravel or other particles
numbers of wildlife, coarser than sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for
example, "gravelly loam." Other texture terms are
Soil properties defined in the Glossary.
The two systems commonly used in classifying soils for
Extensive data about soil properties are summarized on engineering use are the Unified Soil Classification System
the following pages. The two main sources of these data (Unified) (2) and the system adopted by the American







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 51

plants are depth of the root zone, available water capaci- are the many thousands of soil borings made during the
ty, and wetness. Examples are pine, cedar, and cypress. course of the survey and the laboratory analyses of
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild her- selected soil samples from typical profiles.
baceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites, exclusive In making soil borings during field mapping, soil
of submerged or floating aquatics. They produce food or scientists can identify several important soil properties.
cover for wildlife that use wetland as habitat. Major soil They note the seasonal soil moisture condition or the
properties affecting wetland plants are texture of the presence of free water and its depth. For each horizon in
surface layer, wetness, reaction, and slope. Examples are the profile, they note the thickness and color of the soil
smartweed, pickerelweed, iris, duck potato, rushes, material; the texture, or amount of clay, silt, sand, and
sedges, cordgrass, and cattail. gravel or other coarse fragments; the structure, or the
Shallow water areas are bodies of water that have an natural pattern of cracks and pores in the undisturbed
average depth of less than 5 feet and that are useful to soil; and the consistence of the soil material in place
wildlife. They can be naturally wet areas, or they can be under the existing soil moisture conditions. They record
created by dams or levees or by water-control structures the depth of plant roots, determine the pH or reaction of
in marshes or streams. Major soil properties affecting the soil, and identify any free carbonates.
shallow water areas are wetness, slope, and permeability. Samples of soil material are analyzed in the laboratory
The availability of a dependable water supply is impor- to verify the field estimates of soil properties and to
tant if water areas are to be developed. Examples are determine all major properties of key soils, especially pro-
marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds, perties that cannot be estimated accurately by field ob-
The kinds of wildlife habitat are briefly described in servation. Laboratory analyses are not conducted for all
the following paragraphs. soil series in the survey area, but laboratory data for
Openland habitat consists of cropland, pasture, many soil series not tested are available from nearby sur-
meadows, and areas that are overgrown with grasses, vey areas.
herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce grain and The available field and laboratory data are summarized
seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild herbaceous in tables. The tables give the estimated range of en-
plants. The kinds of wildlife attracted to these areas in- gineering properties, the engineering classifications, and
clude bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow, the physical and chemical properties of each major
killdeer, cottontail rabbit, gray fox, and wild hog. horizon of each soil in the survey area. They also present
Woodland habitat consists of areas of hardwoods or data about pertinent soil and water features, engineering
conifers, or a mixture of both, and associated grasses, test data, and data obtained from physical and chemical
legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. Examples of wildlife laboratory analyses of soils.
attracted to these areas are wild turkey, thrushes, vireos,
woodpeckers, tree squirrels, gray fox, raccoon, and deer. Engineering properties
Wetland habitat consists of open, marshy or swampy,
shallow water areas where water-tolerant plants grow. Table 15 gives estimates of engineering properties and
Examples of wildlife attracted to this habitat are ducks, classifications for the major horizons of each soil in the
herons, egrets, rails, kingfishers, otters, and alligators, survey area.
Most soils have, within the upper 5 or 6 feet, horizons
Wildlife management practices of contrasting properties. Table 15 gives information for
Wildlife habiatmanagment thrives on disturbances each of these contrasting horizons in a typical profile.
Wildlife habitat management thrives on disturbances
such as controlled burning, grazing, chopping, cultivation, Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each horizon
is indicated. More information about the range in depth
water level manipulation, mowing, and sometimes the use and abt o r ies in each horizon is given for
of pesticides. Each species of wildlife occupies a niche in a each soil series in the section "Soil series and morpholo-
vegetative type; therefore, management for a particular gy
species involves an attempt to keep the vegetative com- described in table 15 in the standard terms
Texture is described in table 15 in the standard terms
munity in the stage or stages that favor that species. used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms
A primary factor in evaluating wildlife habitat is the acc to p ent of sa, si,
plant diversity in an area. A wide range in vegetative clay in soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in
types or age classes is generally more favorable to wil- diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil material that is 7 to
dlife. Increasing dominance by a few plant species is d f e i s m t i 7 to
life. Increasing dominance by a few plant species is 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 per-
generally accompanied by a corresponding decrease in cent sand. If a soil contains gravel or other particles
numberscent sand. If a soil contains gravel or other particles
numbers of wildlife, coarser than sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for
example, "gravelly loam." Other texture terms are
Soil properties defined in the Glossary.
The two systems commonly used in classifying soils for
Extensive data about soil properties are summarized on engineering use are the Unified Soil Classification System
the following pages. The two main sources of these data (Unified) (2) and the system adopted by the American







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 51

plants are depth of the root zone, available water capaci- are the many thousands of soil borings made during the
ty, and wetness. Examples are pine, cedar, and cypress. course of the survey and the laboratory analyses of
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild her- selected soil samples from typical profiles.
baceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites, exclusive In making soil borings during field mapping, soil
of submerged or floating aquatics. They produce food or scientists can identify several important soil properties.
cover for wildlife that use wetland as habitat. Major soil They note the seasonal soil moisture condition or the
properties affecting wetland plants are texture of the presence of free water and its depth. For each horizon in
surface layer, wetness, reaction, and slope. Examples are the profile, they note the thickness and color of the soil
smartweed, pickerelweed, iris, duck potato, rushes, material; the texture, or amount of clay, silt, sand, and
sedges, cordgrass, and cattail. gravel or other coarse fragments; the structure, or the
Shallow water areas are bodies of water that have an natural pattern of cracks and pores in the undisturbed
average depth of less than 5 feet and that are useful to soil; and the consistence of the soil material in place
wildlife. They can be naturally wet areas, or they can be under the existing soil moisture conditions. They record
created by dams or levees or by water-control structures the depth of plant roots, determine the pH or reaction of
in marshes or streams. Major soil properties affecting the soil, and identify any free carbonates.
shallow water areas are wetness, slope, and permeability. Samples of soil material are analyzed in the laboratory
The availability of a dependable water supply is impor- to verify the field estimates of soil properties and to
tant if water areas are to be developed. Examples are determine all major properties of key soils, especially pro-
marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds, perties that cannot be estimated accurately by field ob-
The kinds of wildlife habitat are briefly described in servation. Laboratory analyses are not conducted for all
the following paragraphs. soil series in the survey area, but laboratory data for
Openland habitat consists of cropland, pasture, many soil series not tested are available from nearby sur-
meadows, and areas that are overgrown with grasses, vey areas.
herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce grain and The available field and laboratory data are summarized
seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild herbaceous in tables. The tables give the estimated range of en-
plants. The kinds of wildlife attracted to these areas in- gineering properties, the engineering classifications, and
clude bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow, the physical and chemical properties of each major
killdeer, cottontail rabbit, gray fox, and wild hog. horizon of each soil in the survey area. They also present
Woodland habitat consists of areas of hardwoods or data about pertinent soil and water features, engineering
conifers, or a mixture of both, and associated grasses, test data, and data obtained from physical and chemical
legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. Examples of wildlife laboratory analyses of soils.
attracted to these areas are wild turkey, thrushes, vireos,
woodpeckers, tree squirrels, gray fox, raccoon, and deer. Engineering properties
Wetland habitat consists of open, marshy or swampy,
shallow water areas where water-tolerant plants grow. Table 15 gives estimates of engineering properties and
Examples of wildlife attracted to this habitat are ducks, classifications for the major horizons of each soil in the
herons, egrets, rails, kingfishers, otters, and alligators, survey area.
Most soils have, within the upper 5 or 6 feet, horizons
Wildlife management practices of contrasting properties. Table 15 gives information for
Wildlife habiatmanagment thrives on disturbances each of these contrasting horizons in a typical profile.
Wildlife habitat management thrives on disturbances
such as controlled burning, grazing, chopping, cultivation, Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each horizon
is indicated. More information about the range in depth
water level manipulation, mowing, and sometimes the use and abt o r ies in each horizon is given for
of pesticides. Each species of wildlife occupies a niche in a each soil series in the section "Soil series and morpholo-
vegetative type; therefore, management for a particular gy
species involves an attempt to keep the vegetative com- described in table 15 in the standard terms
Texture is described in table 15 in the standard terms
munity in the stage or stages that favor that species. used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms
A primary factor in evaluating wildlife habitat is the acc to p ent of sa, si,
plant diversity in an area. A wide range in vegetative clay in soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in
types or age classes is generally more favorable to wil- diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil material that is 7 to
dlife. Increasing dominance by a few plant species is d f e i s m t i 7 to
life. Increasing dominance by a few plant species is 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 per-
generally accompanied by a corresponding decrease in cent sand. If a soil contains gravel or other particles
numberscent sand. If a soil contains gravel or other particles
numbers of wildlife, coarser than sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for
example, "gravelly loam." Other texture terms are
Soil properties defined in the Glossary.
The two systems commonly used in classifying soils for
Extensive data about soil properties are summarized on engineering use are the Unified Soil Classification System
the following pages. The two main sources of these data (Unified) (2) and the system adopted by the American







52 SOIL SURVEY

Association of State Highway and Transportation Offi- sification boundaries (1 or 2 percent), the classification in
cials (AASHTO) (1). the marginal zone is omitted.
The Unified system classifies soils according to proper-
ties that affect their use as construction material. Soils Physical and chemical properties
are classified according to grain-size distribution of the
fraction less than 3 inches in diameter, plasticity index, Table 16 shows.estimated values for several soil charac-
liquid limit, and organic-matter content. Soils are grouped teristics and features that affect behavior of soils in en-
into 15 classes-eight classes of coarse-grained soils, gineering uses. These estimates are given for each major
identified as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; six horizon, at the depths indicated, in the typical pedon of
classes of fine-grained soils, identified as ML, CL, OL, each soil. The estimates are based on field observations
MH, CH, and OH; and one class of highly organic soils, and on test data for these and similar soils.
identified as Pt. Soils on the borderline between two Permeability is estimated on the basis of known rela-
classes have a dual classification symbol, for example, CL- tionships among the soil characteristics observed in the
ML. field-particularly soil structure, porosity, and gradation
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to those or texture-that influence the downward movement of
properties that affect their use in highway construction water in the soil. The estimates are for vertical water
and maintenance. In this system a mineral soil is clas- movement when the soil is saturated. Not considered in
sified in one of seven basic groups ranging from A-1 the estimates is lateral seepage or such transient soil fea-
through A-7 on the basis of grain-size distribution, liquid tures as plowpans and surface crusts. Permeability of the
limit, and plasticity index. Soils in group A-1 are coarse soil is an important factor to be considered in planning
grained and low in content of fines. At the other extreme, and designing drainage systems, in evaluating the poten-
in group A-7, are fine-grained soils. Highly organic soils tial of soils for septic tank systems and other waste
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspec- disposal systems, and in many other aspects of land use
tion. and management.
When laboratory data are available, the A-i, A-2, and Available water capacity is rated on the basis of soil
A-7 groups are further classified as follows: A-i-a, A-l-b, characteristics that influence the ability of the soil to hold
A-2-4, A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, and A-7-6. As an addi- water and make it available to plants. Important charac-
tional refinement, the desirability of soils as subgrade teristics are content of organic matter, soil texture, and
material can be indicated by a group index number. These soil structure. Shallow-rooted plants are not likely to use
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to the available water from the deeper soil horizons. Availa-
20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification ble water capacity is an important factor in the choice of
for soils tested in the survey area, with group index num- plants or crops to be grown and in the design of irrigation
bers in parentheses, is given in table 21. The estimated systems.
classification, without group index numbers, is given in Soil reaction is expressed as a range in pH values. The
table 15. Also in table 15 the percentage, by weight, of range in pH of each major horizon is based on many field
rock fragments more than 3 inches in diameter is esti- checks. For many soils, the values have been verified by
mated for each major horizon. These estimates are deter- laboratory analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting
mined mainly by observing volume percentage in the field the crops, ornamental plants, or other plants to be grown;
and then converting that, by formula, to weight percent- in evaluating soil amendments for fertility and stabiliza-
age. tion; and in evaluating the corrosivity of soils.
Percentage of the soil material less than 3 inches in Salinity is expressed as the electrical conductivity of
diameter that passes each of four sieves (U.S. standard) the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at 25
is estimated for each major horizon. The estimates are degrees C. Estimates are based on field and laboratory
based on tests of soils that were sampled in the survey measurements at representative sites of the nonirrigated
area and in nearby areas and on field estimates from soils. The salinity of individual irrigated fields is affected
many borings made during the survey, by the quality of the irrigation water and by the frequen-
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of cy of water application. Hence, the salinity of individual
water on the strength and consistence of soil. These in- fields can differ greatly from the value given in table 16.
dexes are used in both the Unified and AASHTO soil Salinity affects the suitability of a soil for crop produc-
classification systems. They are also used as indicators in tion, its stability when used as a construction material,
making general predictions of soil behavior. Ranges in and its potential to corrode metal and concrete.
liquid limit and plasticity index are estimated on the basis Shrink-swell potential depends mainly on the amount
of test data from the survey area or from nearby areas and kind of clay in the soil. Laboratory measurements of
and on observations of the many soil borings made the swelling of undisturbed clods were made for many
during the survey, soils. For others the swelling was estimated on the basis
In some surveys, the estimates are rounded to the of the kind and amount of clay in the soil and on mea-
nearest 5 percent. Thus, if the ranges of gradation and surements of similar soils. The size of the load and the
Atterburg limits extend a marginal amount across clas- magnitude of the change in soil moisture content also in-







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 53

fluence the swelling of soils. Shrinking and swelling of 7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay
some soils can cause damage to building foundations, and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate.
basement walls, roads, and other structures unless special These soils are very slightly erodible, and crops can easily
designs are used. A high shrink-swell potential indicates be grown.
that special design and added expense may be required if 8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject to
the planned use of the soil will not tolerate large volume soil blowing.
changes. Soil blowing usually starts at some critical location,
Erosion factors are used to predict the erodibility of a building sites for example, where the surface is exposed;
soil and its tolerance to erosion in relation to specific in areas of spoil material from excavations; on exposed
kinds of land use and treatment. The soil erodibility fac- knolls; on tracks or paths made by machinery or animals;
tor (K) is a measure of the susceptibility of the soil to and at corners or turnrows in cultivated areas, where the
erosion by water. Soils having the highest K values are soil has been excessively pulverized. Soil blowing occurs
the most erodible. K values range from 0.10 to 0.64. To when a wind of adequate velocity blows across an unpro-
estimate annual soil loss per acre, the K value of a soil is tected surface that is smooth, bare, loose, dry, and finely
modified by factors representing plant cover, grade and granulated.
length of slope, management practices, and climate. The
soil-loss tolerance factor (T) is the maximum rate of soil Soil and water features
erosion, whether from rainfall or soil blowing, that can Table 17 contains information helpful in planning land
occur without reducing crop production or environmental uses and engineering projects that are likely to be af-
quality. The rate is expressed in tons of soil loss per acre fected by soil and water features.
per year. Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
similar properties that affect their resistance to soil blow- placed in one of four groups on the basis of the intake of
ing if cultivated. The groups are used to predict the water after the soils have been wetted and have received
susceptibility of soil to blowing and the amount of soil precipitation from long-duration storms.
lost as a result of blowing. Soils are grouped according to The four hydrologic soil groups are:
the following distinctions: Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low ru-
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine sands. noff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly
These soils are extremely erodible, so vegetation is dif- of deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
ficult to establish. They are generally not suitable for gravels. These soils have a high rate of water transmis-
crops. sion.
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very fine Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
sands. These soils are very highly erodible, but crops can thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
be grown if intensive measures to control soil blowing are or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
used. that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy loams, texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water trans-
and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly erodi- mission.
ble, but crops can be grown if intensive measures to con- Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
trol soil blowing are used. thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils that have a
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 percent layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
clay and more than 5 percent finely divided calcium car- soils that have moderately fine texture or fine texture.
bonate. These soils are erodible, but crops can be grown if These soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
intensive measures to control soil blowing are used. Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are chiefly of clay soils that have a high shrink-swell poten-
moderately erodible, but crops can be grown if measures tial, soils that have a permanent high water table, soils
to control soil blowing are used. that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface,
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and and soils that are shallow over nearly impervious materi-
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and al. These soils have a very slow rate of water transmis-
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5 per- sion.
cent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are Flooding is the temporary covering of soil with water
slightly erodible, but crops can be grown if measures to from overflowing streams, with runoff from adjacent
control soil blowing are used. slopes, and by tides. Water standing for short periods
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and less after rains is not considered flooding, nor is water in
than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, except depressions, swamps, and marshes. Flooding is rated in
silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly erodible, and general terms that describe the frequency and duration of
crops can easily be grown, flooding and the time of year when flooding is most like-







54 SOIL SURVEY

ly. The ratings are based on evidence in the soil profile of rate of corrosion of concrete is based mainly on the
the effects of flooding, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, sulfate content, texture, and acidity of the soil. Protective
silt, or, in places, clay deposited by floodwater; irregular measures for steel or more resistant concrete help to
decrease in organic matter content with increasing depth; avoid or minimize damage resulting from the corrosion.
and absence of distinctive soil horizons that form in soils Uncoated steel intersecting soil boundaries or soil
of the area that are not subject to flooding. The ratings horizons is more susceptible to corrosion than an installa-
are also based on local information about floodwater tion that is entirely within one kind of soil or within one
levels in the area and the extent of flooding; and on infor- soil horizon.
mation that relates the position of each soil on the land-
scape to historic floods. Physical, chemical, and mineralogical
The generalized description of flood hazards is of value analyses of selected soils
in land-use planning and provides a valid basis for land-
use restrictions. The soil data are less specific, however, By V.W. CARLISLE and R.E. CALDWELL, Professors of Soil Science,
than those provided by detailed engineering surveys that and MA. GRANGER, Visiting Assistant Professor of Soil Science, Soil
delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency Science Department, University of Florida Agricultural Experiment
levels. Stations.
High water table is the highest level of a saturated Physical, chemical, and mineral properties of represen-
zone more than 6 inches thick for a continuous period of tative pedons sampled in Osceola County Area are
more than 2 weeks during most years. The depth to a presented in tables 18, 19, and 20. Analyses were con-
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. Esti- ducted and coordinated by the Soil Characterization
mates are based mainly on the relationship between gray- Laboratory at the University of Florida. Detailed profile
ish colors or mottles in the soil and the depth to free descriptions of soils analyzed are given in alphabetical
water observed in many borings made during the course order in the section "Soil series and morphology." Labora-
of the soil survey. Indicated in table 17 are the depth to tory data and profile information for additional soils in
the seasonal high water table; the kind of water table, Osceola County Area as well as for soils in other counties
that is, perched, artesian, or apparent; and the months of in Florida are on file at the Soil Science Department,
the year that the water table commonly is high. Only University of Florida.
saturated zones above a depth of 5 or 6 feet are indicated. Soils were sampled from pits at carefully selected loca-
Information about the seasonal high water table helps tions that represented typifying pedons. Samples were
in assessing the need for specially designed foundations, air-dried, crushed, and sieved through a 2-millimeter
the need for specific kinds of drainage systems, and the screen. Most of the analytical methods used are outlined
need for footing drains to insure dry basements. Such in- in Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 1 (7).
formation is also needed to decide whether or not con- Particle size distribution was determined by using a
struction of basements is feasible and to determine how modification of the Bouyoucos hydrometer procedure
septic tank absorption fields and other underground in- with sodium hexametaphosphate as the dispersant.
stallations will function. Also, a seasonal high water table Hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, and water content
affects ease of excavation. were determined on undisturbed core samples. Organic
Depth to bedrock is shown for all soils that are under- carbon was determined by a modification of the Walkley-
lain by bedrock at a depth of 5 to 6 feet or less. For many Black wet combustion method. Extractable bases were
soils, the limited depth to bedrock is a part of the defini- obtained by leaching soils with ammonium acetate buf-
tion of the siil series. The depths shown are based on fered at pH 7.0. Sodium and potassium in the extract
measurements made in many soil borings and on other were determined by flame photometry and calcium and
observations during the mapping of the soils. The kind of magnesium, by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracta-
bedrock and its hardness as related to ease of excavation ble acidity was determined by the barium chloride-
is also shown. Rippable bedrock can be excavated with a triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. Cation exchange
single-tooth ripping attachment on a 200-horsepower trac- capacity was calculated by summation of extractable
tor, but hard bedrock generally requires blasting. bases and extractable acidity. Base saturation is the ratio
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of soils of extractable bases to cation exchange capacity ex-
containing semifluid layers. Initial subsidence generally pressed in percent. The pH measurements were made
results from drainage. Total subsidence is initial sub- with a glass electrode using a soil water ratio of 1:1; a
sidence plus the slow sinking that occurs over a period of 0.1M calcium chloride solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio;
several years as a result of the oxidation or compression and a nitrogen-potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-
of organic material. solution ratio.
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced Aluminum, carbon, and iron were extracted from
chemical action that dissolves or weakens uncoated steel suspected spodic horizons with 0.1M sodium
or concrete. The rate of corrosion of uncoated steel is re- pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and iron was
lated to soil moisture, particle-size distribution, total acidi- by atomic absorption spectroscopy and of extracted car-
ty, and electrical conductivity of the soil material. The bon, by the Walkley-Black wet combustion method.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 55

Mineralogy of the less than 2-micron clay fraction was capacity values in the argillic horizons of Gentry, Old-
ascertained by X-ray diffraction. Peak heights were taken smar, and Vero soils are caused by the presence of the
at 18-angstrom, 14-angstrom, 7.2-angstrom, 4.83-angstrom, much more highly reactive montmorillonitic clays. Soils
and 4.31-angstrom positions. These positions represent with low cation exchange capacities require only small
montmorillonite or interstratified expandibles, vermiculite amounts of bases to significantly alter both their base
or 14-angstrom intergrades, kaolinite, gibbsite, and status and soil reaction in the upper horizons. Successful
quartz, respectively. They were measured, summed, and crop production on these soils usually requires light but
normalized to give percentage of soil minerals identified frequent applications of fertilizers. Fertile soils have high
in the X-ray diffractograms. This is not an absolute quan- cation exchange capacity and high base saturation.
tity but a relative distribution of clay minerals in the clay Expectantly, organic carbon content is highest in
fraction. The absolute percentage would require addi- Histosols and decreases with depth in all mineral pedons
tional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, unit struc- except those with Bh horizons. Organic carbon content in
ture substitution, and matrix problems, the better developed Bh horizons ranges from less than
Sands are by far the major fraction in all horizons of all 1.5 percent in the Oldsmar soils to more than 4 percent in
pedons (table 18) with the exception of the IIIC3 horizon the Wauchula soils. Organic carbon is directly responsible
of the Kaliga series. Pedons of Candler, Paola, Satellite, for improving nutrient and water retention capacities and
and St. Lucie soils contain less than 2 percent clay is the primary source of cation exchange capacity in the
throughout their profiles to a depth of 2 meters. With the surface horizons of the soils in Osceola County Area.
exception of a few horizons, the silt content of these soils Lack of significant quantities of clay in the upper
is also less than 2 percent. Adamsville, Cassia, Myakka, horizons dictates that the proper use of these soils in-
Placid, and Smyrna soils are also inherently sandy and cludes programs for the conservation and maintenance of
have no more than about 8 percent silt content or 8 per- organic carbon.
cent clay content throughout their profiles. Other pedons, Soil reaction in calcium chloride is uniformly low in
such as Ankona, Gentry, Lokosee, Oldsmar, Vero, and most pedons, seldom ranging more than 1.5 pH units
Wauchula, have textural increases of clay in lower between horizons within the same profile. The Vero soil is
horizons, but silt content usually remains very low. With an outstanding exception; pH ranges from 3.2 in the A12
the exception of the Candler and Satellite pedons, the horizon to 7.9 in the C2g horizon. Ankona, Cassia, Hon-
sand fraction of these soils is dominated by fine sand. toon, Myakka, Oldsmar, Paola, Samsula, Satellite, St.
Droughtiness is a common characteristic of sandy soils, Lucie, and Wauchula soils are consistently strongly acid
particularly those that are naturally moderately well and show little difference in pH between horizons of the
drained, well drained, or excessively drained, same pedon. Correlation between percent base saturation
Based on bulk densities and the moisture retained and pH is not always evident as is readily demonstrated
between 1/10 and 15 bars tension, the Candler, Paola, by the sandy Candler, Paola, Satellite, and St. Lucie soils.
Satellite, and St. Lucie soils retain only 2 or 3 centimeters Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron was less than
of plant-available water in the upper 1 meter of soil. 0.1 percent in selected horizons of Spodosols. The ratio of
Other mineral soils retain up to or more than 35 centime- sodium pyrophosphate extractable carbon and aluminum
ters, and Hontoon, an organic soil, retains more than 60 to clay in Ankona, Cassia, Myakka, Smyrna, Vero, and
centimeters of plant-available water in the upper meter. Wauchula soils was sufficient to meet certain chemical
Hydraulic conductivity of these soils is usually high, criteria for spodic horizons. Oldsmar soils and Lokosee
frequently higher than 25 centimeters per hour. However, soils, an Alfisol, did not meet these criteria.
in the argillic horizons of Ankona, Gentry, Oldsmar, and Mineralogy of the sand fraction (more than 2 microns)
Vero soils; the Bir horizons of Lokosee soils; and the is siliceous; quartz is dominant in all pedons. Very small
spodic horizons of Cassia, Oldsmar, and Wauchula soils, amounts of heavy minerals, mostly ilmenite, occur in most
the hydraulic conductivity approaches or may be zero. horizons; the greatest concentration is in the very fine
Low values for extractable bases, cation exchange sand fraction. Mineralogy of the crystalline components of
capacities (sum of cations), and base saturations (table 19) the clay fraction (less than 2 microns) is reported in table
are indicative of low inherent soil fertility. Calcium and 20 for specific horizons of selected pedons. In general the
magnesium are the predominant bases; the largest clay mineralogical suite is composed of montmorillonite, a
amounts of these elements occur in the Hontoon soils. 14-angstrom intergrade mineral, kaolinite, and quartz.
Sodium is almost uniformly low, and trace amounts of Gibbsite occurred in detectable amounts only in the Can-
potassium further support the absence of appreciable dler soil, which contains less than 2 percent clay. Mont-
quantities of weatherable minerals (not reported) in the morillonite occurred in Gentry, Kaliga, Oldsmar, Placid,
soils. Cation exchange capacity is frequently less than 10 Samsula, and Vero pedons; it dominated the clay fractions
milliequivalents per 100 grams of soil with the exception only in the lower horizons of Gentry, Kaliga, Oldsmar, and
of surface, sapric, spodic, and a few argillic horizons. Vero soils. Kaolinite, 14-angstrom intergrade minerals,
Enhanced cation exchange capacity is expected in surface, and quartz occurred in all pedons.
sapric, and spodic horizons due to the increased reactivity Montmorillonite, least stable of the mineral components
of associated organic material. Higher cation exchange in the present environment, appears to have been in-







56 SOIL SURVEY

herited in the Gentry, Kaliga, Oldsmar, Samsula, and Soil series and morphology
Vero soils. This is evidenced by relatively large increases
with increased profile depth. The general tendency is for In this section, each soil series recognized in the survey
kaolinite to also increase with increasing depth, particu- area is described in detail. The descriptions are arranged
larly in pedons with argillic horizons, such as Ankona, in alphabetic order by series name.
Gentry, Lokosee, Oldsmar, and Vero soils. These in- Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
creases coupled with the tendency for the 14-angstrom in- formed are discussed for each series. The soil is then
e m l to d e wh i d s compared to similar soils and to nearby soils of other se-
tergrade mineral to decrease with increasing depth sug- hen a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil
ries. Then a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil
gest that the 14-angstrom intergrade is the most stable that is typical of the soil series in the survey area, is
mineral species in this weathering environment. Clay described. The detailed descriptions of each soil horizon
mineralogy of the soils in the survey area influences their follow standards in the Soil Survey Manual (6). Unless
use and management less than does the total clay content, otherwise noted, colors described are for moist soil.
Following the pedon description is the range of impor-
tant characteristics of the soil series in this survey area.
Engineering test data Phases, or mapping units, of each soil series are described
in the section "Soil maps for detailed planning."
Table 21 contains engineering test data made by the
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation, Adamsville series
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major
soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to The Adamsville series is a member of the uncoated,
help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The clas- hyperthermic family of Aquic Quartzipsamments. It con-
sifications given are based on data obtained by mechani- sists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained, sandy soils
cal analysis and by tests to determine liquid limits and formed in unconsolidated marine sands. These soils occur
plastic limits, as narrow, discontinuous elongated ridges slightly higher
The mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve than and adjacent to large sloughs and marshes and as
and hydrometer methods (3). In this method, the various low knolls scattered throughout the flatwoods. Slopes
grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis of all the range from 0 to 2 percent. The water table is within a
depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years
material in the soil sample, including that coarser than 2 depth of 10 to 20 inches for u to 2 weeks in mot
millimeters in diameter. The mechanical analyses used in some years. It is within a depth of 60 inches for more
this method should not be used in naming textural classes than 9 months in most years.
of soils. Adamsville soils are associated with Basinger, Im-
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in mokalee, Myakka, Pompano, and Tavares soils. Adamsville
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively soils are not so wet as Basinger soils and lack a Bh
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive ef- horizon. They are distinguished from Immokalee and
fort remains constant, the density of the compacted Myakka soils by lacking a spodic horizon. Adamsville soils
material increases until the optimum moisture content is are not so wet as Pompano soils and are more poorly
reached. After that, density decreases with increase in drained than Tavares soils.
moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the Typical pedon of Adamsville sand, from a wooded area
compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a about 200 feet east of the intersection of Pleasant Hill
rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the and Southport Roads (SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 8, T. 27 S., R. 29
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density. E.):
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of A--0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak fine granular struc-
water on the strength and consistence of the soil material, ture; very friable; common fine to medium and few coarse to very
As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased from coarse roots; contains many uncoated sand grains; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to a C1-4 to 16 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; common medium faint pockets
plastic state. If the moisture content is further increased, of light gray (10YR 7/1); few medium faint very pale brown (10YR
the material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The 7/3) and few fine distinct reddish brown (5YR 5/3) mottles; single
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil grained; loose; common fine and medium roots and few coarse roots;
many uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid; gradual smooth
material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state, and boundary.
the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil C2-16 to 33 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand; white (10YR
material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The 8/1) sand pockets 1/2 to 1 inch in diameter, single grained; loose;
few fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boun-
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the dary.
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of C3-33 to 55 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; few medium distinct mot-
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic. tles of yellow (10YR 7/6) and dark brown (10YR 4/3) and few medi-
The data on liuid limit and plasticit index in this table um faint mottles of light brownish gray (1YR 6/2); single grained;
e data on liquid limit and plasticity index in tis table loose; few fine to coarse roots; strongly acid; gradual smooth boun-
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples, dary.







56 SOIL SURVEY

herited in the Gentry, Kaliga, Oldsmar, Samsula, and Soil series and morphology
Vero soils. This is evidenced by relatively large increases
with increased profile depth. The general tendency is for In this section, each soil series recognized in the survey
kaolinite to also increase with increasing depth, particu- area is described in detail. The descriptions are arranged
larly in pedons with argillic horizons, such as Ankona, in alphabetic order by series name.
Gentry, Lokosee, Oldsmar, and Vero soils. These in- Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
creases coupled with the tendency for the 14-angstrom in- formed are discussed for each series. The soil is then
e m l to d e wh i d s compared to similar soils and to nearby soils of other se-
tergrade mineral to decrease with increasing depth sug- hen a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil
ries. Then a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil
gest that the 14-angstrom intergrade is the most stable that is typical of the soil series in the survey area, is
mineral species in this weathering environment. Clay described. The detailed descriptions of each soil horizon
mineralogy of the soils in the survey area influences their follow standards in the Soil Survey Manual (6). Unless
use and management less than does the total clay content, otherwise noted, colors described are for moist soil.
Following the pedon description is the range of impor-
tant characteristics of the soil series in this survey area.
Engineering test data Phases, or mapping units, of each soil series are described
in the section "Soil maps for detailed planning."
Table 21 contains engineering test data made by the
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation, Adamsville series
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major
soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to The Adamsville series is a member of the uncoated,
help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The clas- hyperthermic family of Aquic Quartzipsamments. It con-
sifications given are based on data obtained by mechani- sists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained, sandy soils
cal analysis and by tests to determine liquid limits and formed in unconsolidated marine sands. These soils occur
plastic limits, as narrow, discontinuous elongated ridges slightly higher
The mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve than and adjacent to large sloughs and marshes and as
and hydrometer methods (3). In this method, the various low knolls scattered throughout the flatwoods. Slopes
grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis of all the range from 0 to 2 percent. The water table is within a
depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years
material in the soil sample, including that coarser than 2 depth of 10 to 20 inches for u to 2 weeks in mot
millimeters in diameter. The mechanical analyses used in some years. It is within a depth of 60 inches for more
this method should not be used in naming textural classes than 9 months in most years.
of soils. Adamsville soils are associated with Basinger, Im-
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in mokalee, Myakka, Pompano, and Tavares soils. Adamsville
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively soils are not so wet as Basinger soils and lack a Bh
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive ef- horizon. They are distinguished from Immokalee and
fort remains constant, the density of the compacted Myakka soils by lacking a spodic horizon. Adamsville soils
material increases until the optimum moisture content is are not so wet as Pompano soils and are more poorly
reached. After that, density decreases with increase in drained than Tavares soils.
moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the Typical pedon of Adamsville sand, from a wooded area
compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a about 200 feet east of the intersection of Pleasant Hill
rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the and Southport Roads (SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 8, T. 27 S., R. 29
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density. E.):
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of A--0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak fine granular struc-
water on the strength and consistence of the soil material, ture; very friable; common fine to medium and few coarse to very
As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased from coarse roots; contains many uncoated sand grains; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to a C1-4 to 16 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; common medium faint pockets
plastic state. If the moisture content is further increased, of light gray (10YR 7/1); few medium faint very pale brown (10YR
the material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The 7/3) and few fine distinct reddish brown (5YR 5/3) mottles; single
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil grained; loose; common fine and medium roots and few coarse roots;
many uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid; gradual smooth
material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state, and boundary.
the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil C2-16 to 33 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand; white (10YR
material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The 8/1) sand pockets 1/2 to 1 inch in diameter, single grained; loose;
few fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boun-
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the dary.
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of C3-33 to 55 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; few medium distinct mot-
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic. tles of yellow (10YR 7/6) and dark brown (10YR 4/3) and few medi-
The data on liuid limit and plasticit index in this table um faint mottles of light brownish gray (1YR 6/2); single grained;
e data on liquid limit and plasticity index in tis table loose; few fine to coarse roots; strongly acid; gradual smooth boun-
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples, dary.







56 SOIL SURVEY

herited in the Gentry, Kaliga, Oldsmar, Samsula, and Soil series and morphology
Vero soils. This is evidenced by relatively large increases
with increased profile depth. The general tendency is for In this section, each soil series recognized in the survey
kaolinite to also increase with increasing depth, particu- area is described in detail. The descriptions are arranged
larly in pedons with argillic horizons, such as Ankona, in alphabetic order by series name.
Gentry, Lokosee, Oldsmar, and Vero soils. These in- Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
creases coupled with the tendency for the 14-angstrom in- formed are discussed for each series. The soil is then
e m l to d e wh i d s compared to similar soils and to nearby soils of other se-
tergrade mineral to decrease with increasing depth sug- hen a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil
ries. Then a pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil
gest that the 14-angstrom intergrade is the most stable that is typical of the soil series in the survey area, is
mineral species in this weathering environment. Clay described. The detailed descriptions of each soil horizon
mineralogy of the soils in the survey area influences their follow standards in the Soil Survey Manual (6). Unless
use and management less than does the total clay content, otherwise noted, colors described are for moist soil.
Following the pedon description is the range of impor-
tant characteristics of the soil series in this survey area.
Engineering test data Phases, or mapping units, of each soil series are described
in the section "Soil maps for detailed planning."
Table 21 contains engineering test data made by the
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation, Adamsville series
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major
soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to The Adamsville series is a member of the uncoated,
help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The clas- hyperthermic family of Aquic Quartzipsamments. It con-
sifications given are based on data obtained by mechani- sists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained, sandy soils
cal analysis and by tests to determine liquid limits and formed in unconsolidated marine sands. These soils occur
plastic limits, as narrow, discontinuous elongated ridges slightly higher
The mechanical analyses were made by combined sieve than and adjacent to large sloughs and marshes and as
and hydrometer methods (3). In this method, the various low knolls scattered throughout the flatwoods. Slopes
grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis of all the range from 0 to 2 percent. The water table is within a
depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years
material in the soil sample, including that coarser than 2 depth of 10 to 20 inches for u to 2 weeks in mot
millimeters in diameter. The mechanical analyses used in some years. It is within a depth of 60 inches for more
this method should not be used in naming textural classes than 9 months in most years.
of soils. Adamsville soils are associated with Basinger, Im-
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in mokalee, Myakka, Pompano, and Tavares soils. Adamsville
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively soils are not so wet as Basinger soils and lack a Bh
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive ef- horizon. They are distinguished from Immokalee and
fort remains constant, the density of the compacted Myakka soils by lacking a spodic horizon. Adamsville soils
material increases until the optimum moisture content is are not so wet as Pompano soils and are more poorly
reached. After that, density decreases with increase in drained than Tavares soils.
moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the Typical pedon of Adamsville sand, from a wooded area
compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a about 200 feet east of the intersection of Pleasant Hill
rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the and Southport Roads (SW1/4NW1/4 sec. 8, T. 27 S., R. 29
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density. E.):
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of A--0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak fine granular struc-
water on the strength and consistence of the soil material, ture; very friable; common fine to medium and few coarse to very
As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased from coarse roots; contains many uncoated sand grains; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid to a C1-4 to 16 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; common medium faint pockets
plastic state. If the moisture content is further increased, of light gray (10YR 7/1); few medium faint very pale brown (10YR
the material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The 7/3) and few fine distinct reddish brown (5YR 5/3) mottles; single
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil grained; loose; common fine and medium roots and few coarse roots;
many uncoated sand grains; very strongly acid; gradual smooth
material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state, and boundary.
the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil C2-16 to 33 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand; white (10YR
material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The 8/1) sand pockets 1/2 to 1 inch in diameter, single grained; loose;
few fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boun-
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the dary.
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of C3-33 to 55 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; few medium distinct mot-
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic. tles of yellow (10YR 7/6) and dark brown (10YR 4/3) and few medi-
The data on liuid limit and plasticit index in this table um faint mottles of light brownish gray (1YR 6/2); single grained;
e data on liquid limit and plasticity index in tis table loose; few fine to coarse roots; strongly acid; gradual smooth boun-
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples, dary.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 57

C4-55 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; few fine faint yellow (10YR The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of
8/6) mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid. 1. Mottles of gray and brown are in this horizon. Texture is sand or fine
sand.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to mildly alkaline in all
horizons.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and Ankona series
chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 4 to 20 inches. Where value is 3,
thickness is less than 10 inches. The Ankona series is a member of the sandy, siliceous,
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 3 hyperthermic, ortstein family of Arenic Haplaquods. It
or less. Mottles are in shades of red, gray, yellow, and brown, consists of nearly level, poorly drained, very slowly
permeable soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy
Adamsville Variant and loamy sediments of marine origin. These soils are on
broad flats and low knolls in the flatwoods. Slopes range
The Adamsville Variant is a member of the uncoated, from 0 to 2 percent. The water table is within a depth of
hyperthermic family of Aquic Quartzipsamments. It con- 10 inches for 1 to 4 months and at a depth of 10 to 40
sists of somewhat poorly drained soils formed in thick inches for 6 months or more in most years. It is perched
beds of sand and sapric organic materials. These soils above the spodic horizon early in the summer rainy
occur as narrow, natural dikes bordering large lakes. season and following heavy rainfall in other seasons.
They have a black organic layer underlying sandy materi- Ankona soils are associated with EauGallie, Immokalee,
als. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The water table is Myakka, Oldsmar, Pomona, Pompano, Placid, and Delray
within 20 to 40 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months in soils. Ankona soils have a spodic horizon below a depth of
most years and between depths of 10 and 20 inches for up 30 inches, whereas EauGallie, Myakka, and Pomona soils
to 2 weeks in some years. It is within 60 inches for more have a spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches. Ankona
than 9 months in most years. soils have an argillic horizon, whereas Immokalee, Myak-
Adamsville Variant soils are closely associated with ka, Pompano, and Placid soils are sandy throughout. The
Basinger, Holopaw, Pompano, Riviera, and Winder soils, argillic horizon in Ankona soils has lower base saturation
They differ from all these soils by being better drained than the argillic horizon in EauGallie, Delray, and Old-
and by having a buried Oa horizon. In addition, they smar soils. Ankona soils have an ochric epipedon, whereas
differ from Holopaw, Riviera, and Winder soils by lacking Delray and Placid soils have mollic and umbric epipedons.
a Bt horizon. In addition, Ankona soils have a cemented spodic horizon
Typical pedon of Adamsville Variant fine sand, 0 to 5 (orstein) which is lacking in all of the associated soils.
percent slopes, in a wooded area approximately 1,600 feet Typical pedon of Ankona fine sand having slope of 1
south of Thompkins Road and 3,000 feet west of State percent, from a wooded area about 900 feet east and 1,200
Highway 15 (SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 18, T. 25 S., R. 31 E.): feet south of intersection of private road (Russell Ranch
Road) and U.S. Highway 441, about 5 miles south of
A-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak fine granular Kenansville (NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 15, T. 31 S., R. 34 E.):
structure; very friable; common fine and medium roots; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. All-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak medium granular
C-5 to 33 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; common coarse faint structure; friable; many fine, medium, and coarse roots; many un-
pale brown (10YR 6/3) mottles; single grained; loose; common medi- coated white sand grains; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
um and fine roots; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. A12-5 to 9 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; common medium
Oab-33 to 49 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; weak coarse and medium distinct (10YR 6/1) mottles; single grained; loose; common medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; few large and many fine roots; and fine roots; medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
many uncoated white sand grains; very strongly acid; clear smooth A21-9 to 14 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; common coarse distinct
boundary. dark gray (10YR 4/1), gray (10YR 5/1), and grayish brown (10YR
Ab-49 to 53 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak medium granular 5/2) mottles; single grained; loose; common medium and fine roots;
structure; very friable; few fine roots; sand grains are coated with medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
organic matter; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. A22-14 to 32 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; single grained;
C-53 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; loose; few medium and fine roots; few medium very dark gray
strongly acid. (10YR 3/1) and dark gray (10YR 4/1) streaks along walls of root
channels; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Thickness of the sandy mantle overlying the Oab horizon ranges from B21h-32 to 36 inches; black (N 2/0) loamy sand; massive in place, parts
15 to 40 inches. Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly to moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few un-
acid in all horizons, coated sand grains; few coarse very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
The A horizon ranges from 4 to 6 inches in thickness. It has hue of pockets of fine sand; extremely acid; gradual smooth boundary.
10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 1. The A horizon in some B22h-36 to 40 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) loamy sand; few
pedons is mottled with black and in shades of gray and brown. medium faint dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) and reddish brown
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 through 8, and chroma of 1 (5YR 4/3) mottles; massive in place, parts to moderate medium sub-
through 3. It has mottles of black and in shades of gray and brown, angular blocky structure; moderately cemented in about 90 percent
Thickness ranges from 10 to 28 inches. of the pedon; firm; extremely acid; gradual smooth boundary.
The Oab horizon ranges from 15 to 23 inches in thickness. it has hue B3&Bh-40 to 47 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) loamy sand; few medi-
of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1. In places it has dark red- um faint dark brown (10YR 3/3) and dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
dish brown mottles. Fiber content ranges from 5 to 15 percent, rubbed. mottles; moderate fine granular structure; friable; many coarse
The Ab horizon is 2 to 5 inches thick. It has hue of 10YR, value of 2 black (10YR 2/1) spodic fragments 1/4 to 1 inch in diameter; very
or 3, and chroma of 1. strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 57

C4-55 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; few fine faint yellow (10YR The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of
8/6) mottles; single grained; loose; strongly acid. 1. Mottles of gray and brown are in this horizon. Texture is sand or fine
sand.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to mildly alkaline in all
horizons.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 5, and Ankona series
chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 4 to 20 inches. Where value is 3,
thickness is less than 10 inches. The Ankona series is a member of the sandy, siliceous,
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 3 hyperthermic, ortstein family of Arenic Haplaquods. It
or less. Mottles are in shades of red, gray, yellow, and brown, consists of nearly level, poorly drained, very slowly
permeable soils that formed in thick deposits of sandy
Adamsville Variant and loamy sediments of marine origin. These soils are on
broad flats and low knolls in the flatwoods. Slopes range
The Adamsville Variant is a member of the uncoated, from 0 to 2 percent. The water table is within a depth of
hyperthermic family of Aquic Quartzipsamments. It con- 10 inches for 1 to 4 months and at a depth of 10 to 40
sists of somewhat poorly drained soils formed in thick inches for 6 months or more in most years. It is perched
beds of sand and sapric organic materials. These soils above the spodic horizon early in the summer rainy
occur as narrow, natural dikes bordering large lakes. season and following heavy rainfall in other seasons.
They have a black organic layer underlying sandy materi- Ankona soils are associated with EauGallie, Immokalee,
als. Slopes range from 0 to 5 percent. The water table is Myakka, Oldsmar, Pomona, Pompano, Placid, and Delray
within 20 to 40 inches of the surface for 2 to 6 months in soils. Ankona soils have a spodic horizon below a depth of
most years and between depths of 10 and 20 inches for up 30 inches, whereas EauGallie, Myakka, and Pomona soils
to 2 weeks in some years. It is within 60 inches for more have a spodic horizon within a depth of 30 inches. Ankona
than 9 months in most years. soils have an argillic horizon, whereas Immokalee, Myak-
Adamsville Variant soils are closely associated with ka, Pompano, and Placid soils are sandy throughout. The
Basinger, Holopaw, Pompano, Riviera, and Winder soils, argillic horizon in Ankona soils has lower base saturation
They differ from all these soils by being better drained than the argillic horizon in EauGallie, Delray, and Old-
and by having a buried Oa horizon. In addition, they smar soils. Ankona soils have an ochric epipedon, whereas
differ from Holopaw, Riviera, and Winder soils by lacking Delray and Placid soils have mollic and umbric epipedons.
a Bt horizon. In addition, Ankona soils have a cemented spodic horizon
Typical pedon of Adamsville Variant fine sand, 0 to 5 (orstein) which is lacking in all of the associated soils.
percent slopes, in a wooded area approximately 1,600 feet Typical pedon of Ankona fine sand having slope of 1
south of Thompkins Road and 3,000 feet west of State percent, from a wooded area about 900 feet east and 1,200
Highway 15 (SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 18, T. 25 S., R. 31 E.): feet south of intersection of private road (Russell Ranch
Road) and U.S. Highway 441, about 5 miles south of
A-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak fine granular Kenansville (NW1/4SW1/4 sec. 15, T. 31 S., R. 34 E.):
structure; very friable; common fine and medium roots; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. All-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak medium granular
C-5 to 33 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; common coarse faint structure; friable; many fine, medium, and coarse roots; many un-
pale brown (10YR 6/3) mottles; single grained; loose; common medi- coated white sand grains; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
um and fine roots; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. A12-5 to 9 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; common medium
Oab-33 to 49 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; weak coarse and medium distinct (10YR 6/1) mottles; single grained; loose; common medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; few large and many fine roots; and fine roots; medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
many uncoated white sand grains; very strongly acid; clear smooth A21-9 to 14 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; common coarse distinct
boundary. dark gray (10YR 4/1), gray (10YR 5/1), and grayish brown (10YR
Ab-49 to 53 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak medium granular 5/2) mottles; single grained; loose; common medium and fine roots;
structure; very friable; few fine roots; sand grains are coated with medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
organic matter; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. A22-14 to 32 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; single grained;
C-53 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; loose; few medium and fine roots; few medium very dark gray
strongly acid. (10YR 3/1) and dark gray (10YR 4/1) streaks along walls of root
channels; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Thickness of the sandy mantle overlying the Oab horizon ranges from B21h-32 to 36 inches; black (N 2/0) loamy sand; massive in place, parts
15 to 40 inches. Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly to moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few un-
acid in all horizons, coated sand grains; few coarse very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
The A horizon ranges from 4 to 6 inches in thickness. It has hue of pockets of fine sand; extremely acid; gradual smooth boundary.
10YR, value of 3 through 5, and chroma of 1. The A horizon in some B22h-36 to 40 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) loamy sand; few
pedons is mottled with black and in shades of gray and brown. medium faint dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) and reddish brown
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 through 8, and chroma of 1 (5YR 4/3) mottles; massive in place, parts to moderate medium sub-
through 3. It has mottles of black and in shades of gray and brown, angular blocky structure; moderately cemented in about 90 percent
Thickness ranges from 10 to 28 inches. of the pedon; firm; extremely acid; gradual smooth boundary.
The Oab horizon ranges from 15 to 23 inches in thickness. it has hue B3&Bh-40 to 47 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) loamy sand; few medi-
of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1. In places it has dark red- um faint dark brown (10YR 3/3) and dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
dish brown mottles. Fiber content ranges from 5 to 15 percent, rubbed. mottles; moderate fine granular structure; friable; many coarse
The Ab horizon is 2 to 5 inches thick. It has hue of 10YR, value of 2 black (10YR 2/1) spodic fragments 1/4 to 1 inch in diameter; very
or 3, and chroma of 1. strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.







58 SOIL SURVEY

B21t-47 to 51 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sandy loam; few fine faint pass of Canoe Creek Road and the Sunshine State Park-
grayish brown (10YR 5/2), gray (10YR 5/1), and light brownish gray way, 16.0 miles south of St. Cloud (SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 34,
(10YR 6/2) mottles; weak medium granular structure; friable; few
medium dead roots; very strongly acid; gradual irregular boundary. T. 28 S., R. 30 E.):
B22tg-51 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy clay loam; common medium A11--0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine granular
faint light gray (5YR 7/1) and gray (5YR 5/1) mottles; massive in structure; very friable; common fine and medium roots; organic
place, parts to weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable,
slightly sticky; few medium dead roots; sand grains are well matter content is about 1 percent; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
bridged and coated with clay; very strongly acid. boundary.
A12-4 to 7 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; few medium faint
Solum thickness ranges from 62 to more than 80 inches. Soil reaction gray (10YR 6/1) mottles; single grained; loose; many medium roots;
ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid in all horizons except where very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
the soil has been limed. A2-7 to 19 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; few fine faint dark
The Al horizon has colors in hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and brown (10YR 3/3) and light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; sin-
chroma of 1. gle grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of Bh-19 to 35 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/2) fine sand; many medium
1 or 2. The A horizon ranges from 30 to 50 inches in thickness. distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 through 3, and chroma of mottles; single grained; loose; common medium black and dark red-
1 through 3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; hue of N and dish brown fragments of weakly cemented fine sand; very strongly
value of 2; or hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. This acid; clear wavy boundary.
horizon is noncemented to strongly cemented. More than half of the B2h C1-35 to 58 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; few fine faint
horizon in each pedon is weakly to strongly cemented. Consistence brown (10YR 4/3) and light yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles;
ranges from friable to firm. Texture ranges from sand to loamy fine single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
sand, and thickness ranges from 6 to 24 inches. The B3&Bh horizon has C2--58 to 80 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; few medium faint very
hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 through 4. In some dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) mottles; single grained; loose; very
pedons, it contains weakly cemented bodies (spodic fragments) that are strongly acid.
the same texture and color as the Bh horizon. Texture of the B3&Bh
horizon ranges from sand to loamy fine sand, and thickness ranges from Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid
7 to 30 inches. throughout. Thickness of the A horizon is less than 40 inches. Fine sand
Some pedons have an A'2 horizon above the Bt horizon. Where extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
present, this horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of
of 1 or 2. Texture is sand or fine sand. Thickness ranges to 12 inches. 1. Mottles in this horizon are in shades of gray or brown. The Al
The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of horizon ranges from 2 to 8 inches in thickness.
1 through 3; hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of
2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2; or hue of N and value of 5 1 through 3. Most mottles are in shades of brown. Horizon thickness
through 7. In some pedons, this horizon has mottles of gray, brown, and ranges from 6 to 30 inches.
yellow. Texture ranges from sandy loam to sandy clay loam. The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 6, and chroma of
A Cg horizon is present above a depth of 80 inches in some pedons. 2 or 3, or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3 through 6, and chroma of 2 or 4. Mot-
Color is similar to that of the Bt horizon, and texture ranges from sand tles are in shades of gray, brown, red, and yellow. Weakly cemented
to loamy sand. fragments of black, very dark brown, and dark reddish brown fine sand
occur throughout this horizon. Thickness ranges from 6 to 16 inches.
Basinger series The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 1
through 3. Mottles are gray, brown, yellow, or red.
The Basinger series is a member of the siliceous,
hyperthermic family of Spodic Psammaquents. It consists Candler series
of nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils formed in thick
beds of marine sediments. These soils normally occur in The Candler sees is a member of the uncoated,
sloughs, along poorly defined drainageways, and in hyperthermic family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It con-
depressions in the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 sists of nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively
percent. The water table is within 10 inches of the sur- drained, sandy soils formed in thick, sandy marine
face for 2 to 6 months annually and between depths of 10 deposits. These soils occur on undulating ridges in the
and 30 inches for more than 6 months in most years. sandhills. Slopes range from 0 to 12 percent. The water
Depressions are covered with standing water for periods table is below a depth of 72 inches throughout the year.
of 6 to 9 months or more in most years. Candler soils are associated with Adamsville, Paola, St.
Basinger soils are associated with EauGallie, Im- Lucie, Satellite, and Tavares soils. Candler soils differ
mokalee, Myakka, Pompano, Smyrna, and Vero soils. Bas- from Adamsville soils by having lamellae and by being
inger soils have a weakly developed Bh horizon, whereas much better drained. Candler soils are distinguished from
EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, Smyrna, and Vero soils Paola soils by having thin, discontinuous lamellae at a
have a well developed, weakly cemented spodic horizon, depth of 55 to 80 inches and by lacking an albic horizon.
EauGallie and Vero soils also differ from Basinger soils Candler soils differ from St. Lucie soils by lacking a C
by having a Bt horizon. Basinger soils differ from Pom- horizon and by having lamellae within 80 inches of the
pano soils by having a Bh horizon, surface. Candler soils are distinguished from Satellite and
Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand, from a grassy area Tavares soils by being better drained, by lacking a C
in a slough approximately 20 feet northwest of a dirt road horizon, and by having lamellae within 80 inches of the
on Bronson, Inc. Ranch, 5.75 miles southwest of the over- surface.







58 SOIL SURVEY

B21t-47 to 51 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sandy loam; few fine faint pass of Canoe Creek Road and the Sunshine State Park-
grayish brown (10YR 5/2), gray (10YR 5/1), and light brownish gray way, 16.0 miles south of St. Cloud (SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 34,
(10YR 6/2) mottles; weak medium granular structure; friable; few
medium dead roots; very strongly acid; gradual irregular boundary. T. 28 S., R. 30 E.):
B22tg-51 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy clay loam; common medium A11--0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine granular
faint light gray (5YR 7/1) and gray (5YR 5/1) mottles; massive in structure; very friable; common fine and medium roots; organic
place, parts to weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable,
slightly sticky; few medium dead roots; sand grains are well matter content is about 1 percent; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
bridged and coated with clay; very strongly acid. boundary.
A12-4 to 7 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; few medium faint
Solum thickness ranges from 62 to more than 80 inches. Soil reaction gray (10YR 6/1) mottles; single grained; loose; many medium roots;
ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid in all horizons except where very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
the soil has been limed. A2-7 to 19 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; few fine faint dark
The Al horizon has colors in hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and brown (10YR 3/3) and light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; sin-
chroma of 1. gle grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of Bh-19 to 35 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/2) fine sand; many medium
1 or 2. The A horizon ranges from 30 to 50 inches in thickness. distinct strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 through 3, and chroma of mottles; single grained; loose; common medium black and dark red-
1 through 3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; hue of N and dish brown fragments of weakly cemented fine sand; very strongly
value of 2; or hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. This acid; clear wavy boundary.
horizon is noncemented to strongly cemented. More than half of the B2h C1-35 to 58 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand; few fine faint
horizon in each pedon is weakly to strongly cemented. Consistence brown (10YR 4/3) and light yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles;
ranges from friable to firm. Texture ranges from sand to loamy fine single grained; loose; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
sand, and thickness ranges from 6 to 24 inches. The B3&Bh horizon has C2--58 to 80 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand; few medium faint very
hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 through 4. In some dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) mottles; single grained; loose; very
pedons, it contains weakly cemented bodies (spodic fragments) that are strongly acid.
the same texture and color as the Bh horizon. Texture of the B3&Bh
horizon ranges from sand to loamy fine sand, and thickness ranges from Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid
7 to 30 inches. throughout. Thickness of the A horizon is less than 40 inches. Fine sand
Some pedons have an A'2 horizon above the Bt horizon. Where extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
present, this horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of
of 1 or 2. Texture is sand or fine sand. Thickness ranges to 12 inches. 1. Mottles in this horizon are in shades of gray or brown. The Al
The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of horizon ranges from 2 to 8 inches in thickness.
1 through 3; hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of
2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2; or hue of N and value of 5 1 through 3. Most mottles are in shades of brown. Horizon thickness
through 7. In some pedons, this horizon has mottles of gray, brown, and ranges from 6 to 30 inches.
yellow. Texture ranges from sandy loam to sandy clay loam. The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 through 6, and chroma of
A Cg horizon is present above a depth of 80 inches in some pedons. 2 or 3, or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3 through 6, and chroma of 2 or 4. Mot-
Color is similar to that of the Bt horizon, and texture ranges from sand tles are in shades of gray, brown, red, and yellow. Weakly cemented
to loamy sand. fragments of black, very dark brown, and dark reddish brown fine sand
occur throughout this horizon. Thickness ranges from 6 to 16 inches.
Basinger series The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and chroma of 1
through 3. Mottles are gray, brown, yellow, or red.
The Basinger series is a member of the siliceous,
hyperthermic family of Spodic Psammaquents. It consists Candler series
of nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils formed in thick
beds of marine sediments. These soils normally occur in The Candler sees is a member of the uncoated,
sloughs, along poorly defined drainageways, and in hyperthermic family of Typic Quartzipsamments. It con-
depressions in the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 sists of nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively
percent. The water table is within 10 inches of the sur- drained, sandy soils formed in thick, sandy marine
face for 2 to 6 months annually and between depths of 10 deposits. These soils occur on undulating ridges in the
and 30 inches for more than 6 months in most years. sandhills. Slopes range from 0 to 12 percent. The water
Depressions are covered with standing water for periods table is below a depth of 72 inches throughout the year.
of 6 to 9 months or more in most years. Candler soils are associated with Adamsville, Paola, St.
Basinger soils are associated with EauGallie, Im- Lucie, Satellite, and Tavares soils. Candler soils differ
mokalee, Myakka, Pompano, Smyrna, and Vero soils. Bas- from Adamsville soils by having lamellae and by being
inger soils have a weakly developed Bh horizon, whereas much better drained. Candler soils are distinguished from
EauGallie, Immokalee, Myakka, Smyrna, and Vero soils Paola soils by having thin, discontinuous lamellae at a
have a well developed, weakly cemented spodic horizon, depth of 55 to 80 inches and by lacking an albic horizon.
EauGallie and Vero soils also differ from Basinger soils Candler soils differ from St. Lucie soils by lacking a C
by having a Bt horizon. Basinger soils differ from Pom- horizon and by having lamellae within 80 inches of the
pano soils by having a Bh horizon, surface. Candler soils are distinguished from Satellite and
Typical pedon of Basinger fine sand, from a grassy area Tavares soils by being better drained, by lacking a C
in a slough approximately 20 feet northwest of a dirt road horizon, and by having lamellae within 80 inches of the
on Bronson, Inc. Ranch, 5.75 miles southwest of the over- surface.







OSCEOLA COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA 59

Typical pedon of Candler sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes, A2-3 to 20 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; common medium
in a wooded area approximately 250 feet south of Sand distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles; single grained;
Hill Road and 1,400 feet west of Florida Highway 545 loose; common medium and few fine roots; light brownish gray
(NW1/4NW1/4 sec. 22, T. 25 S., R. 26 E.): (10YR 6/2) streaks along root channels; strongly acid; gradual
smooth boundary.
A1-0 to 3 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand; single grained; B21h-20 to 22 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) loamy fine sand;
loose; many fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. massive, crushes to moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
A21-3 to 6 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sand; single grained; firm; many fine and few medium roots; common medium distinct
loose; many fine roots; medium acid; clear wavy boundary. pockets of very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand; sand grains are
A22-6 to 17 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand; single grained; coated and weakly cemented with organic matter; very strongly
loose; few fine roots; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary. acid; clear wavy boundary.
A23-17 to 35 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) sand; single B22h-22 to 25 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4) fine sand; common
grained; loose; few fine roots to a depth of 17 or 18 inches; medium medium distinct dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) mottles; massive,
acid; gradual wavy boundary, crushes to moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm;
A24-35 to 62 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand; single grained; many fine and few medium roots; sand grains are coated and
loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. weakly cemented with organic matter; very strongly acid; clear
A24&B--62 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) sand; single wavy boundary.
grained; loose; few discontinuous lamellae of reddish yellow (10YR B23h-25 to 28 inches; reddish brown (5YR 4/4) fine sand; common
6/8) fine sandy loam, 1/16 to 1/4 inch thick, between depths of 62 medium distinct dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) mottles; massive,
and 66 inches; strongly acidcrushes to weak medium granular structure; friable; very strongly
Thickness of the solum is 80 inches or more. Reaction ranges from acid; clear wavy boundary.
very strongly acid to medium acid in all horizons. A'2-28 to 53 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine sand; common
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and chroma of 2 or 3. It medium faint light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) mottles in lower
ranges in thickness from 3 to 8 inches. part of horizon; single grained; loose; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) stains
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and chroma of along root channels; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
3 through 6. It ranges in thickness from 48 to 65 inches. Gray, light B'21h-53 to 65 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 4/2) and dark reddish gray
gray, and white, uncoated sand grains occur throughout this horizon. (5YR 4/2) loamy fine sand; common medium distinct pinkish gray
The A2&B horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 3 (7.5YR 6/2) mottles; weak fine granular structure; friable; few
to 8 The A2 part of this horizon ranges from 2 to 9 inches in thickness medium and fine roots; common medium black (10YR 2/1) bodies of
between lamellae. The lamellae range from 1/2 inch to 6 inches in length fine sand weakly cemented with organic matter; strongly acid;
and from 1/16 to 1 inch in thickness. Total thickness of the lamellae is 1 gradual wavy boundary.
to 4 inches. Pockets of light gray (10YR 7/1) or white (10YR 8/1) fine B'22h-65 to 88 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak medium suban-
sand occur in this horizon. gular blocky structure; firm; sand grains are coated and weakly ce-
In some pedons a continuous Bt horizon occurs at a depth of 82 inches mented with organic matter; strongly acid.
or more. This horizon is red and yellowish red.
Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium acid in the Al
Cassia series horizon and from very strongly acid to strongly acid in the other
horizons.
The Cassia series is a member of the sandy, siliceous, The Ap or Al horizon ranges from 3 to 5 inches in thickness. It has
hyperthermic family of Typic Haplohumods. It consists of hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or less.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or
nearly level, somewhat poorly drained soils formed in less. Thickness of the A2 horizon ranges from 15 to 21 inches. Mottles in
thick beds of marine sands. The soils occur as low ridges shades of gray and brown occur throughout this horizon.
throughout the flatwoods. Slopes range from 0 to 2 per- The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1; hue of
cent. The water table is at a depth of 15 to 40 inches for 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
about 6 months in most years and recedes below a depth chroma of 1 through 3; or hue of N and value of 2 or 3. It has mottles in
of 40 inches in very dry seasons. shades of gray, brown, and red. Thickness of the Bh horizon ranges
from 5 to 13 inches. Texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand.
Cassia soils are associated with Immokalee, Myakka, A B3 horizon is present in some pedons. It ranges in thickness to 4
Pomello, and St. Lucie soils. Cassia soils differ from Im- inches. It has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 3 or 4, or hue
mokalee soils by being better drained; by having a of 7.5YR, value of 4, and chroma of 4. Some pedons have mottles and
thinner, lighter colored Al horizon; and by having a Bh weakly cemented Bh fragments in this horizon that are dark reddish
horizon at a depth of less than 30 inches. Cassia soils are brown or dark brown.
better drained than Myakka soils and have a thinner, The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of
1 through 4. Thickness ranges from 11 to 26 inches. Not all pedons con-
lighter colored Al horizon. Cassia soils differ from Pomel- tain an A'2 horizon.
lo soils by having an A horizon less than 30 inches thick. The B'2h horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3,
Cassia soils are more poorly drained than St. Lucie soils and chroma of 1 through 3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and chroma of 2; or
and have a spodic horizon, hue of 5YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. In some pedons this
Typical pedon of Cassia fine sand, in rangeland 0.6 mile horizon extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. It is noncemented to
east of Holopaw and 0.8 mile south of U.S. Highway 441 weakly cemented with organic matter. Texture is fine sand or loamy
(SW /4E1/4 sec. 13, T. 27 ., R. 32 E.): fine sand.
(SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 13, T. 27 S., R. 32 E.): Some pedons have a C horizon. The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value
A1-0 to 3 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak fine granular struc- of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1 through 4, or hue of N and value of 5
ture; very friable; common fine and medium roots; very strongly through 8 This horizon is not in pedons in which the B'2h horizon ex-
acid; clear smooth boundary. tends to a depth of more than 80 inches.







60 SOIL SURVEY

Delray series loam. Few to common fine and medium yellow, brown, and gray mottles
occur throughout this horizon.
The Delray series is a member of the loamy, mixed, The B3g horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or
hyperthermic family of Grossarenic Argiaquolls. 2. In some pedons a Cg horizon with hue of 10YR, value of 6 or more,
hyperthermic family of Grossarenic Argiaquolls. It con- and chroma of 1 underlies the B3g horizon. Texture is loamy fine sand
sists of very poorly drained soils that formed in thick or fine sandy loam.
beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments. These soils
occur in depressions within the flatwoods and at the EauGallie series
edges of large lakes that have fluctuating water levels.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Water stands on the The EauGallie series is a member of the sandy,
surface for 2 or 6 months in most years and is within a siliceous, hyperthermic family of Alfic Haplaquods. It con-
depth of 10 inches for 6 to 9 months in most years, sists of poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of
Delray soils are closely associated with Nittaw, sandy and loamy marine sediments. These soils occur in
Floridana, Holopaw, Malabar, Placid, Pompano, Riviera, broad, nearly level areas and low ridges in the flatwoods.
and Winder soils. Delray soils have an albic horizon and Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The water table rises to
an argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches, whereas within 10 inches of the surface for periods of 1 to 4
Nittaw soils lack an albic horizon and have an argillic months in most years and is within a depth of 40 inches
horizon within a depth of 20 inches. Delray soils have an for 6 months or more.
argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches, whereas EauGallie soils are closely associated with Immokalee,
Floridana soils have the argillic horizon at a depth of 20 Malabar, Myakka, Oldsmar, Ona, Smyrna, Vero, and
to 40 inches. Delray soils differ from Holopaw soils by Wauchula soils. EauGallie soils have an argillic horizon
being more poorly drained and by having a mollic below the spodic horizon, whereas Immokalee, Myakka,
epipedon. Delray soils differ from Malabar soils by being Ona, and Smyrna soils lack an argillic horizon. EauGallie
more poorly drained, by lacking a Bir horizon, and by soils differ from Malabar soils by having a spodic horizon
having a mollic epipedon. Delray soils differ from Placid instead of a Bir horizon above an argillic horizon. EauGal-
soils by having an argillic horizon below a depth of 40 lie soils differ from Oldsmar soils by having an A horizon
inches. Delray soils differ from Pompano soils by being less than 30 inches thick, whereas Oldsmar soils have an
more poorly drained and by having a mollic epipedon and A horizon more than 30 inches thick. EauGallie soils have
an argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches. Delray soils an argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches, whereas
differ from Riviera and Winder soils by being more Vero and Wauchula soils have an argillic horizon above a
poorly drained, by not having tongues of the albic horizon depth of 40 inches. Additionally, the base saturation of
extending into the argillic horizon, and by having a mollic the argillic horizon in EauGallie soils is more than 35 per-
epipedon. cent, whereas in Wauchula soils it is less than 35 percent.
Typical pedon of Delray loamy fine sand, from a grassy Typical pedon of EauGallie fine sand, from a pasture
area about 1/4 mile west of the northwest shore of Lake 500 feet east of State Highway 523 and about 2.4 miles
Winder (SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 36, T. 25 S., R. 34 E.): west of the Sunshine State Parkway (SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 7,
T. 29 S., R. 32 E.):
All-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; very high organic
matter content; moderate medium granular structure; friable; many A1-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine granular struc-
fine roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. ture; very friable; many fine, medium, and coarse roots; very
A12-6 to 14 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; medium content strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
of organic matter; weak fine granular structure; very friable; cor- A21-6 to 13 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; common coarse faint
mon fine roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary, gray (10YR 5/1) and few coarse distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
A2-14 to 44 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; mottles; dark grayish brown stains along root channels; single
few fine roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; very strongly acid;
B21tg--44 to 50 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy loam; few fine gradual wavy boundary.
faint pale brown (10YR 6/3) mottles; weak fine granular structure; A22-13 to 23 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; few medium
friable; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary, distinct dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and few medium prominent
B22tg-50 to 62 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sandy clay loam; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) mottles; single grained; loose; very
few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
subangular blocky structure; sand grains coated and bridged with B21h-23 to 27 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; moderate medium granu-
clay; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. lar structure; friable; common fine roots; sand grains coated with
B3g-62 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy fine sand; few organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; massive; friable; B22h-27 to 34 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; common coarse faint
mildly alkaline, dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) mottles; weak fine granular structure; fria-
ble; few medium roots; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Solum thickness ranges from 50 to more than 80 inches. Reaction B3-34 to 49 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; common medium
ranges from slightly acid in the A horizon to neutral or mildly alkaline distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) mottles; single grained; loose; com-
in the Btg and C horizons. mon indurated iron concretions 1/4 inch to 2 1/2 inches in diameter;
The Al horizon is 14 to 21 inches thick It has hue of 10YR, value of 2 medium acid; clear irregular boundary.
or 3, and chroma of 1. A'2-49 to 54 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand; single
The A2 horizon is 23 to 30 inches thick It has hue of 10YR, value of 4 grained; loose; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
through 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. B'tg-54 to 82 inches; gray (N 6/0) sandy clay loam; few fine distinct
The B2tg horizon is 8 to 21 inches thick It has hue of 10YR, value of olive gray (2.5YR 5/2) stains along root channels; weak medium sub-
4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay angular blocky structure; slightly sticky; few medium roots; neutral







60 SOIL SURVEY

Delray series loam. Few to common fine and medium yellow, brown, and gray mottles
occur throughout this horizon.
The Delray series is a member of the loamy, mixed, The B3g horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or
hyperthermic family of Grossarenic Argiaquolls. 2. In some pedons a Cg horizon with hue of 10YR, value of 6 or more,
hyperthermic family of Grossarenic Argiaquolls. It con- and chroma of 1 underlies the B3g horizon. Texture is loamy fine sand
sists of very poorly drained soils that formed in thick or fine sandy loam.
beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments. These soils
occur in depressions within the flatwoods and at the EauGallie series
edges of large lakes that have fluctuating water levels.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Water stands on the The EauGallie series is a member of the sandy,
surface for 2 or 6 months in most years and is within a siliceous, hyperthermic family of Alfic Haplaquods. It con-
depth of 10 inches for 6 to 9 months in most years, sists of poorly drained soils that formed in thick beds of
Delray soils are closely associated with Nittaw, sandy and loamy marine sediments. These soils occur in
Floridana, Holopaw, Malabar, Placid, Pompano, Riviera, broad, nearly level areas and low ridges in the flatwoods.
and Winder soils. Delray soils have an albic horizon and Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The water table rises to
an argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches, whereas within 10 inches of the surface for periods of 1 to 4
Nittaw soils lack an albic horizon and have an argillic months in most years and is within a depth of 40 inches
horizon within a depth of 20 inches. Delray soils have an for 6 months or more.
argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches, whereas EauGallie soils are closely associated with Immokalee,
Floridana soils have the argillic horizon at a depth of 20 Malabar, Myakka, Oldsmar, Ona, Smyrna, Vero, and
to 40 inches. Delray soils differ from Holopaw soils by Wauchula soils. EauGallie soils have an argillic horizon
being more poorly drained and by having a mollic below the spodic horizon, whereas Immokalee, Myakka,
epipedon. Delray soils differ from Malabar soils by being Ona, and Smyrna soils lack an argillic horizon. EauGallie
more poorly drained, by lacking a Bir horizon, and by soils differ from Malabar soils by having a spodic horizon
having a mollic epipedon. Delray soils differ from Placid instead of a Bir horizon above an argillic horizon. EauGal-
soils by having an argillic horizon below a depth of 40 lie soils differ from Oldsmar soils by having an A horizon
inches. Delray soils differ from Pompano soils by being less than 30 inches thick, whereas Oldsmar soils have an
more poorly drained and by having a mollic epipedon and A horizon more than 30 inches thick. EauGallie soils have
an argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches. Delray soils an argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches, whereas
differ from Riviera and Winder soils by being more Vero and Wauchula soils have an argillic horizon above a
poorly drained, by not having tongues of the albic horizon depth of 40 inches. Additionally, the base saturation of
extending into the argillic horizon, and by having a mollic the argillic horizon in EauGallie soils is more than 35 per-
epipedon. cent, whereas in Wauchula soils it is less than 35 percent.
Typical pedon of Delray loamy fine sand, from a grassy Typical pedon of EauGallie fine sand, from a pasture
area about 1/4 mile west of the northwest shore of Lake 500 feet east of State Highway 523 and about 2.4 miles
Winder (SE1/4SE1/4 sec. 36, T. 25 S., R. 34 E.): west of the Sunshine State Parkway (SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 7,
T. 29 S., R. 32 E.):
All-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; very high organic
matter content; moderate medium granular structure; friable; many A1-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak fine granular struc-
fine roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. ture; very friable; many fine, medium, and coarse roots; very
A12-6 to 14 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand; medium content strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
of organic matter; weak fine granular structure; very friable; cor- A21-6 to 13 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; common coarse faint
mon fine roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary, gray (10YR 5/1) and few coarse distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
A2-14 to 44 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single grained; loose; mottles; dark grayish brown stains along root channels; single
few fine roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary. grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; very strongly acid;
B21tg--44 to 50 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy loam; few fine gradual wavy boundary.
faint pale brown (10YR 6/3) mottles; weak fine granular structure; A22-13 to 23 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand; few medium
friable; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary, distinct dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) and few medium prominent
B22tg-50 to 62 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sandy clay loam; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3) mottles; single grained; loose; very
few fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
subangular blocky structure; sand grains coated and bridged with B21h-23 to 27 inches; black (N 2/0) fine sand; moderate medium granu-
clay; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. lar structure; friable; common fine roots; sand grains coated with
B3g-62 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy fine sand; few organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles; massive; friable; B22h-27 to 34 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; common coarse faint
mildly alkaline, dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) mottles; weak fine granular structure; fria-
ble; few medium roots; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Solum thickness ranges from 50 to more than 80 inches. Reaction B3-34 to 49 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; common medium
ranges from slightly acid in the A horizon to neutral or mildly alkaline distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) mottles; single grained; loose; com-
in the Btg and C horizons. mon indurated iron concretions 1/4 inch to 2 1/2 inches in diameter;
The Al horizon is 14 to 21 inches thick It has hue of 10YR, value of 2 medium acid; clear irregular boundary.
or 3, and chroma of 1. A'2-49 to 54 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine sand; single
The A2 horizon is 23 to 30 inches thick It has hue of 10YR, value of 4 grained; loose; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
through 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. B'tg-54 to 82 inches; gray (N 6/0) sandy clay loam; few fine distinct
The B2tg horizon is 8 to 21 inches thick It has hue of 10YR, value of olive gray (2.5YR 5/2) stains along root channels; weak medium sub-
4 or 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay angular blocky structure; slightly sticky; few medium roots; neutral




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