• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Putnam County area...
 General nature of the survey...
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and their morpholo...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Putnam County area, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025731/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Putnam County area, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 224 p., 102 p. of plates : ill., maps (some col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Readle, Elmer L
Baldwin, Robert, 1944-
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.
Publication Date: [1990]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Putnam County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Putnam County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 129-130) and index to map units.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Fieldwork by Robert Baldwin ... et al."--P. 1.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025731
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001553114
notis - AHG6718
oclc - 22251065
lccn - 90601822

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of Putnam County area in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the survey area
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    How this survey was made
        Page 6
        Map unit composition
            Page 7
            Page 8
    General soil map units
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
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    Use and management of the soils
        Page 69
        Crops and pasture
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
        Grazeable woodland
            Page 73
            Page 74
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
        Recreation
            Page 78
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 78
        Engineering
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
    Soil properties
        Page 85
        Engineering index properties
            Page 85
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 86
        Soil and water features
            Page 87
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
        Engineering index test data
            Page 91
            Page 92
    Classification of the soils
        Page 93
    Soil series and their morphology
        Page 93
        Page 94
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    Formation of the soils
        Page 127
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 127
        Processes of soil formation
            Page 128
    Reference
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Glossary
        Page 131
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    Tables
        Page 139
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    General soil map
        Page 225
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    Index to map sheets
        Page 227
    Map
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Full Text

United States In cooperation with
Department of University of Florida, S
Agriculture Institute of Food and oil S uriey of
Agricultural Sciences,
Soil Agricultural Experiment rutnam County
Conservation Stations and Soil Science
Service Department, and
Florida Department of A rea
Agriculture and A e
Consumer Services F lo rida





Florida













4,-















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas. -


KOK( ro mo
To find information about
your area of interest,
locate that area on the6 z Q -
Index to Map Sheets, MAP SHEET
which precedes the soil 4 13
maps. Note the number of 16 17.. ...is- 19 i ..
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet. INDEX TO MAP SHEETS


Locate your area of .7 Fa\ B \aC
interest on the map -- N .ASB /
sheet. Note the map unit / Bac/
symbols that are in that
area. Turn to the Index I
to Map Units (see Con- AREA OF INTEREST
tents), which lists the map ^ ^_}(/(. \"\ NOTE: Map unit symbols ,n a soi

name and shows the ol numbers and letters.
page where each map MAP SHEET
unit is described.

The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.





















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1985. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1985. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1985. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations and Soil Science Department, and Florida State Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance
furnished to the Putnam Soil and Water Conservation District. The Putnam
County Board of Commissioners contributed financially to accelerate the
completion of the fieldwork for this survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.
This survey supercedes the soil survey of Putnam County published in 1914
(13).
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: Leatherleaf fern is grown under a protective canopy in an area of Centenary fine
sand.


















ii

















Contents


Index to map units..................................................... iv Soil properties ........................................................ 85
Summary of tables..................................................... v Engineering index properties..... ................ 85
Foreword...................................................................... vii Physical and chemical properties......... .............. 86
General nature of the survey area................................ 1 Soil and water features............................................ 87
How this survey was made......................................... 6 Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
Map unit composition............................................... 7 selected soils..................................................... 88
General soil map units.............................................. 9 Engineering index test data........................................ 91
Detailed soil map units ............................................. 17 Classification of the soils..... ................... 93
Use and management of the soils......................... 69 Soil series and their morphology................................ 93
Crops and pasture....................................................... 69 Formation of the soils........................................... 127
Grazeable woodland ................................................ 73 Factors of soil formation...... ......................... 127
Woodland management and productivity.............. 75 Processes of soil formation...... ........................ 128
R creation .......................................... .................... 78 R eferences ................... ............................... .......... 129
W wildlife habitat ...................................... ................. 78 G lossary ...................... ................................. .......... 131
Engineering ........................................................... 79 Tables ......................... ........................................ 139


Soil Series

Adamsville series......................................................... 93 Newnan series.......................................................... 110
Apopka series............................................................. 94 Okeechobee series ........................... ................. 111
Astatula series ............................................................. 95 O na series ................................................................. 111
A store series................................................................... 95 O rsino series............................................................. 112
B luff series ........................................... ..................... 96 Paisley series ........................................................ 113
Bonneau series............................................................. 96 Palmetto series......................................................... 114
C andler series.................... ....... ............................ 97 Paola series .................................................... .............. 114
Cassia series.............................................................. 98 Placid series ............................................................. 115
C entenary s ries .............................................................. 99 Pom ona series ............................................................... 115
D eland series ................................................................... 99 Pom pano series ............................................................... 116
Electra series ....................................................................... 100 R a series ........................... 17
Florahome series.......................................................... 101 Riviera series ............................................................ 117
Floridana series ............................................................ 101 Samsula series ......................................................... 118
H obe series ..................................................S henks series ...................................... ........................... 118
H olopaw series ........................... .................................... 103 S parr series...................................................................... 119
H ontoon series ................................................................ 103 St Johns series............................................................... 120
Im m okalee series ............................................................ 104 Surrency series ................................................................ 120
Lochloosa series ...................................................... 105 Tavares series ....................................................... ... 121
Malabar series ............................................................. 105 Terra Ceia series ................................................... ... 121
Millhopper series ...................................................... 106 Tomoka series ....................................................... ... 122
Monteocha series............................ ......................... 107 Wabasso series............................................................... 123
Mulat series................................................................ 108 Wauchula series ....................................................... 123
Myakka series............................................................... 109 Winder series............................................................ 124
Narcoossee series ....................................................... 109 Zolfo series ............................................................... 125

Issued March 1990






iii


















Index to Map Units


1-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............. 17 35-Malabar fine sand ......... ...... .......... 44
2-Candler fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.......... 18 36-Shenks muck, frequently flooded........................ 45
3-Myakka fine sand ................ ............................. 19 37-Ona fine sand.......................................................... 46
4-Zolfo fine sand...................................................... 20 38-Holopaw fine sand ................................................ 46
5-Placid fine sand, depressional............................... 21 39-Holopaw fine sand, depressional.......................... 47
6-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......... 22 40-Paola fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes............. 48
7-Immokalee fine sand............................................ 23 41-Millhopper sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes............. 49
8-Arents, 0 to 2 percent slopes............................. 24 42-Riviera fine sand, depressional.......................... 49
9-Pomona fine sand ................................................ 24 43-Placid-Pompano association, frequently flooded 50
10-Pompano fine sand ................................................ 25 44-Candler sand, 12 to 25 percent slopes ............. 51
11 -Udorthents, excavated............................................ 6 45-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes ......... 52
12-Electra fine sand ..................................................... 26 46-Astatula fine sand, 8 to 15 percent slopes......... 52
13-St. Johns fine sand, depressional ......................... 27 47-Myakka-Urban land complex ................................. 53
14-Cassia fine sand............................................... 28 47-Myakka-Urban land complex.................... 53
15-Apopka sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........... 28 48-Florahome sand ............................................... 54
16-Adamsville sand ....... ......... ........ 29 49-Bonneau fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes........... 54
17-Millhopper sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 30 50-Wabasso fine sand ..................... ..................... 55
18-Lochloosa sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 31 51-Surrency fine sand, depressional........................ 56
19-Pomona fine sand, depressional........................ 32 52-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes............ 57
20-Bluff sandy clay loam, frequently flooded......... 32 53-Zolfo-Urban land complex..................................... 58
21-Apopka sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ................. 33 54-Candler-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent
22- Tom oka m uck .......................... ......................... 34 slopes ........................................................................ 58
23-Palmetto fine sand ............................................... 35 55-Centenary-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent
24-Holopaw fine sand, frequently flooded......... 36 slopes...................................................................... 59
25-Narcoossee fine sand.......................... 36 56-Mulat fine sand ..................................................... 60
26-Terra Ceia muck, frequently flooded ................. 37 57-Deland fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes...... .. 60
27-Samsula muck ....................................................... 38 58-Wauchula fine sand .............................................. 61
28-Centenary fine sand................................................ 38 59-Floridana fine sand .................................................. 62
29-Riviera fine sand, frequently flooded ................... 39 60-Astor mucky fine sand, frequently flooded ....... 63
30-Hontoon muck ...................................................... 40 61 -Newnan fine sand ................................................... 64
31-Myakka fine sand, depressional......................... 41 62-Monteocha sand, depressional ........................... 65
32-Sparr sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........... 41 63-Okeechobee muck................................................ 65
33-Winder fine sand ............................................. 42 64-Paisley loamy fine sand.......................................... 66
34-Riviera fine sand.............................................. 43 65-Hobe fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................. 67

















iv


















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)........................................................ 140
Freeze data (table 2) ....................................................................................... 141
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 3)............................. 142
Acres. Percent.
Land capability and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 4) .......... 144
Land capability. Irish potatoes. Cabbage. Watermelons.
Oranges. Improved bermudagrass. Improved
bermudagrass hay. Leatherleaf fern.
Grazeable woodland sites (table 5)............................................................... 148
Soil. Woodland sites.
Grazeable woodland sites potential productivity (table 6).......................... 151
Woodland sites. Annual production in excellent grazing
condition. Air-dry weight herbage. Important grazing
plants. Percent of cover in excellent condition.
Woodland management and productivity (table 7)...................................... 152
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 8)............................................................... 161
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 9) .................................................................................. 166
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 10) ............................................................. 170
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 11)............................................................................. 175
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction m materials (table 12)................................................................... 181
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
W ater m anagem ent (table 13)........................................................................ 185
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas, Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.



v





















Engineering index properties (table 14) ........................................................ 192
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15) ............................ 200
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Shrink-swell potential.
Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.
Soil and water features (table 16).................................................................... 205
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.
Depth to water table in selected soils (table 17) ......................................... 209
Soil. Year. Month.
Physical properties of selected soils (table 18)............................................ 211
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.
Chemical properties of selected soils (table 19).......................................... 215
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate-dithionite extractable.
Clay mineralolgy of selected soils (table 20)................................................ 219
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay minerals.
Engineering index test data (table 21) .......................................................... 221
Report number. Classification. Mechanical analyses.
Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Moisture density.
Classification of the soils (table 22)............................................................ 224
Family or higher taxonomic class.














vi

















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in the Putnam County Area. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service













vii








































Location of Putnam County Area in Florida.


















Location of Putnam County Area in Florida.













Soil Survey of

Putnam County Area, Florida


By Elmer L. Readle, Soil Conservation Service


Fieldwork by Robert Baldwin, Jeffrey E. Leppo, Alfred 0. Jones,
Cornelius J. Heidt, Brian F. Grissi, and Duane T. Simonson,
Soil Conservation Service


United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
In cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department,
and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




PUTNAM COUNTY AREA is in the northeast part of climate, history and development, geomorphology and
peninsular Florida. It is bordered on the north by Clay geology, water resources, farming, and transportation.
County, on the west by Alachua County, on the south by
Marion County, on the southeast by Volusia County, and Climate
on the east by Flagler and St. Johns Counties. Orange
Creek, Rodman Reservoir, and the Oklawaha River form Data and information prepared by the National Climatic Data Center,
reek odman esevoir, and e kawaa iver form Asheville, North Carolina, and from data collected by the University of
part of the border on the south. Crescent Lake forms Florida, Agriculture Research Center, Hastings, Florida (20).
part of the border on the southeast. St. River Putnam County has a humid, subtropical climate. The
formssummers are long, warm, and relatively humid. The
The survey area, which does not encompass all of wintsummers are milong, warm, and relatively humid.dry. Nearness to the
Putnam County, covers 444,604 acres, or 694 square Atlantic Ocean causes some climatic differences in the
miles. 24,000 acres of the Ocala National Forest is in county. The frequency of frost or freezing temperatures
Putnam County but is not included in this survey. is greater in the western part of the county, and rainfall
At its widest point, the survey area is about 34 miles is more frequent in the eastern part. The prevailing winds
long from north to south and is about 32 miles wide from are northerly in fall and winter and southerly in spring
east to west. The county seat is Palatka. According to and summer. Average windspeed is 12 to 18 miles per
the 1980 census, the population of Palatka was 10,975. hour during the day, and it mostly is under 8 miles per
The total population of Putnam County was 50,549. hour at night. Tropical storms are not a great hazard in
Agriculture, forestry, and wood product industries are Putnam County. Generally, the Atlantic storms do not
the main enterprises. approach this area sufficiently close to cause sustained
high winds. Tropical storms on occasion produce
intense, heavy rains in the area. Tornadoes occasionally
General Nature of the Survey Area occur in the county. Storm paths have been short and
narrow, and according to available records, damage has
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that not been extensive.
affect the use and management of the soils in the In summer, temperatures vary only slightly from day to
Putnam County Area are discussed. These factors are day. The average daily maximum temperature is 89







2 Soil Survey



degrees F, and the average daily minimum temperature England, and he was promised an additional 20,000
is 70 degrees. Afternoon temperatures reach 90 degrees acres if he could establish and populate this area.
or higher with great regularity, and at night temperatures John Bartram and his son, William, plied the St. Johns
may fall to the 70's. Although temperatures above 100 River together in 1768. William returned alone in 1774
degrees have been recorded, their occurrence is rare. In and wrote about his adventures in Bartram's Travels. He
winter, temperatures vary considerably from day to day gave a detailed account of his trip and what he saw of
as periodic cold fronts move southward across the State. this area in the middle of the 17th century. In his
These cold waves seldom last more than 3 or 4 days. writings, Bartram makes reference to "Spaulding's Upper
The second day after the front passes is generally the Store." This trading point was in Putnam County, in an
coldest. Temperatures may vary from the 70's during area that is now known as Stokes Landing. Spaulding
midday to an early morning low in the 30's. In winter, the traded extensively with the Indians in the area. Bartram
average daily maximum temperature is 67 degrees, and also visited and wrote about Mount Royal, the largest
the average daily minimum temperature is 40 degrees. Indian ceremonial mound in Florida. Mount Royal is in
Temperatures of 32 degrees or lower, which occur 8 to the area of Welaka.
10 times per year, have been recorded as early as James Marver, who has been credited with being the
November 3 and in spring as late as March 26. A low first settler of Palatka, established a trading post in 1821,
temperature of 15 degrees was recorded January 13, which was in the area where Memorial Bridge now
1981. Table 1 gives data on temperatures and crosses the St. Johns River. It was a viable trading post
precipitation for the survey area from 1952 to 1984. until the outbreak of the Seminole War, when it was
Table 2 shows freeze probabilities, burned by the Indians.
Actual rainfall averages about 56 inches. In about 1832 and during the outbreak of the Second
Approximately 60 percent of the annual rainfall occurs Seminole War, the United States established Fort
between June and September. Most rainfall occurs as Shannon, which was in the area where the Post Office
convection thundershowers late in the afternoon and now stands. Palatka had the beginnings of maintained
evening. The drier months are October and November. roads, businesses, law and order, and permanent
From October through May, the rainfall is more evenly buildings.
distributed and may occur at anytime of the day. Most of Putnam County continued to progress during the
this rain is associated with frontal passages. 1850's when Palatka was designated headquarters for
During winter and early in the spring, heavy fog forms deep water navigation (8). This enabled large ocean
frequently at night but generally dissipates by early steamers to use Palatka as a port of entry. Hubbard L
morning. In spring, the relative humidity in the afternoon Hart, owner of a line of steamers, received permission
ranges from 40 to 50 percent; and from June through from officials at the State capitol in Tallahassee to open
September, it ranges from 40 to 60 percent. The up the Ockalawaha River for navigation. The opening of
humidity may rise to 90 or 95 percent early in the the river for navigation brought commerce to the area
morning, causing a heavy dew. even before the Civil War. The steamboat industry was
established, and many of the steamers that were in
History and Development existence before the war were commissioned for use by
the Confederate Army. Some of these vessels were later
Janice S. Mahaffey, archivist, Putnam County Archives and History captured by the Federal troops. After the war, Hart
Commission, assisted in preparing this section. decided that the beauty of the Ockalawaha River was a
Putnam County was created on January 13, 1849, marketable item, and he established a boat excursion,
from parts of Alachua, St. Johns, Duval, Marion, and which was named the Silver Springs Run. These
Mosquito (Orange) Counties. In the middle of the 19th excursion boats traveled from Palatka to Silver Springs
century, the county seat was established at Palatka, also and back. The round trip took about 3 days.
known as Pilatka. During the peak of the steamboat era, from about the
The county was named in honor of Benjamin 1870's to the 1920's, Putnam County had approximately
Alexander Putnam, Surveyor-General of East Florida. He six major boat lines that plied the St. Johns River.
also served as a state legislator and as a circuit judge. After the Civil War, Putnam County was mainly
He later became the first president of the Florida developed by northerners, who were interested in the
Historical Society. A common misconception is that the newly developing citrus industry. One of the main areas
county was named in honor of Israel Putnam of was in the southern part of Putnam County, and it was
Revolutionary War fame. known as the Fruitland Peninsula. This area became the
One of the first settlers in Putnam County was Denys "citrus belt." Citrus was a viable industry until the freeze
Rolles, Esq., who established Rollestown, also known as of 1894-95. At this time, "the citrus belt" moved to
Rolleston or Charlotia, in the area that is now known as central Florida. The citrus industry persisted in the
East Palatka. Rolles received a 20,000 acre land grant county, but on a smaller scale, even after most of the
from Governor James Grant when Florida was ruled by the citrus industries moved from the area.






Putnam County Area, Florida 3


On November 7, 1884, another disaster struck to Palatka from Tallahassee could better serve the State
Palatka. A fire destroyed three commercial blocks, two of Florida.
banks, two major hotels, warehouses, and numerous
businesses. As a result of the fire, many businesses Geomorphology and Geology
moved elsewhere, and Palatka was no longer the
second largest city on the St. Johns River. Jacksonville Thomas M. Scott, Ph.D., senior geologist, Department of Natural
became a major port of entry for the shipping industry. Resources, Florida Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology, prepared
Palatka never fully recovered from the "Great Fire." this section.
During the 1920's, a local campaign to have Palatka Several geomorphic features are recognized in Putnam
become the Capitol of Florida began. The argument was County (23). The highland parts of the county include the
that Palatka was centrally located, and numerous Northern Highlands, the Duval Upland, the Crescent City
railroad lines ran through the heart of the city. Ridge, and relatively isolated features including the
Proponents of this campaign felt that moving the capitol Teasdale Hill, Palatka Hill, San Mateo Hill, and Welaka




DUVAL UPLAND




NORTHERN TEASDALE HILL
HIGHLANDS r 0^> PALATKA TEASDALE HILL
HILL
SAN MATEO
SHILL
CENTRAL HL
I VALLEY Q 4 7

-I -.. WELAKA
VMT.DORA A
RIDGE A




-o





Figure 1.-Geomorphic features of Putnam County.







4 Soil Survey



Hill. The Marion Uplands and the Mount Dora Ridge -- 8 NMH R
occur in a very small section of southwestern Putnam SM
County (fig. 1). cAY
The lower lying regions of Putnam County are in the E as
Central Valley, the St. Johns River Offset, and the STOE
< < UM1 TTOME
Eastern Valley. | .os-ArC
The Florahome Valley, which is near the edge of the -
Northern Highlands, is a unique and interesting puocENE N.> comM
geomorphic feature. This valley is a flat-floored basin SHELL OEM
surrounded by higher hills. Some believe that the
Florahome Valley was a large depression that resulted
from the dissolution of the underlying limestone of the
Eocene age.
Putnam County is underlain by sedimentary rocks with
an average thickness of nearly 4,000 feet that range in It s
S P- 0 STATENVILLE F.
age from the early Paleozoic era to the Recent. The Z X 0
sediments of the Cenozoic era consist of carbonate COOSAWHATOC, -:'.
sediments, mostly dolomite and limestone, which are
dominant in the Paleogene section, and clastic
sediments, mostly sand and clay, which are dominant in
the Neogene section (fig. 2). The strata of the Cenozoic ____
era are nearly 1,800 feet thick in this area. s PEEY FARMs,
The oldest Cenozoic era sediments in this area belong
to the Cedar Keys Formation of Paleocene age. This -
formation consists of soft to hard, fossiliferous limestone
and dolomite with variable percentages of anhydrite and SUWAELS.
gypsum. The Cedar Keys Formation is approximately 500
feet thick. The top of the formation is between depths of OUCOCEN
1,500 and 1,700 feet below sea level. This formation BED0LS. 5
does not contain potable water.
Overlying the Cedar Keys Limestone is the Oldsmar
Limestone of Early Eocene age. The Oldsmar Limestone CRYSTALRIVER
consists of soft to hard, fossiliferous limestone and
dolomite with minor amounts of evaporites (anhydrite
and gypsum). It is separated from the Cedar Keys Q 'GUS F
Limestone by color change and by its included fossil S IM|ESO NE
content. The Oldsmar Limestone ranges from 400 to 500 EiCE AVON PALS.
feet in thickness. The top of the unit is between depths EOCENE x"L'UDE
of 1,000 and 1,200 feet below sea level. The Oldsmar FOMELAKE CITY LS- GPS
Limestone also does not contain potable water.
The Middle Eocene age carbonates of northern Florida oARLS.
Park Limestone are referred to as the Avon Park
Limestone. This unit consists of beds of soft to hard,
variably fossiliferous, white to brown carbonates of
limestone and dolomite. Grain size ranges from sand
size to clay size. Some beds are very porous and PAEOC CEDAR EYS
permeable, while others are impermeable. These
sediments range from 450 to 740 feet in thickness. The
top of the Avon Park Limestone generally is 250 to 300
feet below sea level in this area. This formation forms
the lower part of the Floridan Aquifer and supplies
potable water to wells drilled into it. Figure 2.-Cenozoic stratigraphic column.
The Late Eocene age Ocala Group limestones are
underlain by the Avon Park Limestone in the Putnam
County Area. In ascending order, the Ocala Group
consists of the Inglis Formation, Williston Formation, and white to buff limestones that are generally fossiliferous,
the Crystal River Formation. The group is composed of poorly indurated, and granular. The limestones range







Putnam County Area, Florida 5



from fine to coarse. Dolomite is not common in the interbedded with dolomitic, clayey, phosphatic quartz
Ocala Group. sands and clays. Dolomite is most abundant in the lower
The formations of the Paleogene section generally are part of the formation. The Penney Farms Formation is
considered to be unconformably related to each other; over the entire county, ranging in thickness from a few
that is, the top of each unit has been subjected to feet to 50 feet. The top ranges from 25 to 200 feet
erosion or nondeposition for some time before the below sea level.
overlying unit was deposited. These missing intervals The Early Miocene age Marks Head Formation is a
may span millions of years. In these sediments, however, complex, interbedded sequence of dolomites, clays, and
it is often difficult to recognize the unconformity because quartz sands. Lithologically, the sediments range from
of the very similar nature of the sediments on either side quartz sandy, phosphatic dolomites to quartz sandy,
of the unconformity. The unconformity, however, at the dolomitic, phosphatic clays and clayey, dolomitic,
top of the Ocala Group is very easily recognized. The phosphatic quartz sands. Because of erosion, this unit is
sandy, phosphatic dolomites of the basal Miocene age absent in southeastern Putnam County. It ranges up to
contrast markedly with the fossiliferous limestones of the 75 feet in thickness in other parts of the county. The top
Late Eocene age. The unconformity also represents the of the Marks Head Formation is between 50 feet above
longest span of time of an unconformity encountered in mean sea level and 100 feet below mean sea level.
this area. The amount of time missing from the The Middle Miocene age Coosawhatchie Formation,
sedimentary record may span as much as 15 million the uppermost formation of the Hawthorn Group,
years, from the middle part of the Late Eocene age
section to the base of the Miocene age section. The consists of quartz sandy, clayey, phosphatic dolomites
Oligocene age section is completely absent in the and dolomitic, clayey, phosphatic quartz sands with
northeastern part of Florida. some clay beds, particularly near the base of the unit.
Overlying the unconformity on the top of the Ocala Because of erosion, this formation is absent in the
Group are the sediments of the Miocene Hawthorn southeastern part of the county. It attains a maximum
Group. The Hawthorn Group is characterized as a thickness of 50 feet in other parts of the county. The top
complex lithologic sequence of interbedded carbonates, of the Coosawhatchie Formation ranges from 75 feet
generally dolomite, and clastics of quartz sands and above mean sea level to 74 feet below mean sea level.
clays (11). The Hawthorn Group is composed of, in Sediments of the Hawthorn Group typically provide
ascending order, the Penney Farms Formation, the very little water to wells. The Hawthorn Group typically is
Marks Head Formation, and the Coosawhatchie considered as the aquiclude or aquitard, sealing the
Formation (12). underlying Floridan Aquifer (fig. 3).
The Early Miocene age Penney Farms Formation The sediments overlying the Hawthorn Group have
consists of quartz, sandy, phosphatic dolomites often been discussed as post-Hawthorn Undifferentiated




AA



200-




Z --200- --
-300- AVON PARK FLORIDAN --
< -400- LIMESTONE AQUIFER

< 0 -500-
N
-600-
-700 0 2 4 6 8 10 m les



Figure 3.-Geological cross section A-A' in Putnam County.







6 Soil Survey



because of the difficulties in identifying the individual county and Crescent Lake in the southeastern part are
formations. No sediments of known Late Miocene age two of the largest lakes. Most of the lakes are on the
have been recognized. However, zones of reworked uplands in the western and southeastern parts of the
Hawthorn Group sediments may represent the Late county. Water for irrigation of crops is pumped from
Miocene age. many of these lakes.
Shelly sands and clays overlie the Hawthorn Group in
eastern Putnam County. These sediments have been Farming
called the Nashua Formation of Pliocene age. The
Nashua Formation consists of quartz sands with variable Agriculture is an important industry in Putnam County.
percentages of clay and carbonate in the matrix and Many of the soils and the climate are well suited to
common to abundant mollusk shells. The sediment is vegetables, pasture grasses, ferns, fruit, and pine trees.
generally very clayey and often is predominantly a clay According to the 1982 Census of Agriculture (21),
with quartz sand and mollusk shells. The areal extent there were 549 farms in the county. Total value of
and thickness of this unit is not currently known. agricultural products sold in 1982 was approximately 21
In the western part of Putnam County, sands are million dollars.
underlain by the Hawthorn Group. These sands have Farming has been important in Putnam County since
been called Citronelle Formation (5) and Cypresshead the county was created. The Federal Point area became
Formation (7). These sediments are thought to be the an established center for growing Irish potatoes in the
nonmarine to near-shore equivalent of the Nashua early 1900's (9). Most of the cabbage and Irish potatoes
Formation. The sands are typically slightly clayey produced in Putnam County are grown on the flatwoods
(kaolin), silty, poorly sorted, poorly indurated quartz in the East Palatka and Federal Point areas. These
sands. These formations range up to 130 feet in areas are served by established drainage districts which
thickness and are thin toward the west. facilitate the establishment of water control measures
The Pleistocene age and Recent deposits in Putnam needed to grow vegetable crops on the poorly drained
County Area have not been accurately delineated or soils on the flatwoods.
named. They consist of quartz sand, clay, and shell The area west of Crescent City has been an important
material. The thickness of these sediments is not citrus producing area until severe freezes were
accurately known. experienced in the early and middle 1980's. As the
acreage of citrus has declined, acreages planted to other
Water Resources fruits, such as grapes, blueberries, and peaches, has
increased. Acreage of fern used in the florist trade has
The Floridan Aquifer is the major source of potable been steadily increasing.
ground water in Putnam County (3). This source consists Many farmers in Putnam County raise beef cattle,
of porous limestone formations 150 to 200 feet deep. swine, poultry, and a few goats. Horses are increasing in
Wells drilled into the aquifer yield large quantities of number. Only a few dairy farms are in 'operation. Fish
water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses. The farming is a growing business. Several fish farms located
shallow aquifer is a secondary source of water. This in the county specialize in raising eels and catfish for
aquifer overlies the Floridan Aquifer and is composed of food and tropical fish for aquariums.
unconsolidated sand, shells, and clay in and above the
upper part of the Hawthorn Group. Most residential sites Transportation
outside the larger cities are serviced by individual wells
placed in the shallow aquifer. Larger cities with Putnam County has several county and State
community or public water supplies generally obtain highways and a U.S. highway, which provide good
water from the deeper Floridan Aquifer. access to most parts of the county. Railroads serve the
The St. Johns River and its tributaries, the Oklawaha eastern and central parts of the county. Rail spurs from
River, Dunns Creek, and Rice Creek, are major streams the main railroad system serve the transportation needs
in Putnam County. These streams provide excellent for shipping bulk freight from several locations in the
recreation. The St. Johns River is a major barge route county. Rail passenger service is available in Palatka.
and water source for industry located on or near the Bus transportation and charter air service are also
river. These streams are not normally used for available locally.
agricultural or domestic uses. These streams receive
most of the surface drainage from the flatwoods. No
major streams flow through the uplands, and drainage How This Survey Was Made
patterns are indistinct.
Putnam County has many freshwater lakes. These This survey was made to provide information about the
water areas range from a few acres to several square soils in the survey area. The information includes a
miles. Georges Lake in the northwestern part of the description of the soils and their location and a







Putnam County Area, Florida 7



discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils
of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils
the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general were field tested through observation of the soils in
pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants different uses under different levels of management.
growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
profile extends from the surface down into the sources, such as research information, production
unconsolidated material from which the soil formed. The records, and field experience of specialists. For example,
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other data on crop yields under defined levels of management
living organisms and has not been changed by other were assembled from farm records and from field or plot
biological activity. experiments on the same kinds of soil.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief, soil properties but also on such variables as climate and
climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over
kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of long periods of time, but they are not predictable from
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil a high water table within certain depths in most years,
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils but they cannot assure that a high water table will
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy date.
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape. After soil scientists located and identified the
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
into one another as their characteristics gradually drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
scientists must determine the boundaries between the Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented accurately.
by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in Map Unit Composition
an area and to determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture, area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and identified and named according to the taxonomic
other features that enable them to identify soils. After classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
describing the soils in the survey area and determining taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil objects, they have a characteristic variability in their
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of other taxonomic classes. In the detailed soil map units,
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists these latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they In the general soil map units, they are called soils of
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the minor extent.
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
confirm data and assemble additional data based on patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
experience and research, the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
the soils in the area are generally collected for laboratory inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil or require different management. These are contrasting







8



(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been landscape into segments that have similar use and
observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the management requirements. The delineation of such
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
complex that it was impractical to make enough information for the development of resource plans, but
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
landscape. in small areas.







9








General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication This map unit makes up about 71,127 acres, or about
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of 16 percent, of the survey area. It is about 45 percent
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general Pomona soils, 17 percent Palmetto soils, and 38 percent
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map soils of minor extent.
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor Pomona soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
one unit can occur in other units but in a different subsurface layer, to a depth of 20 inches, is gray and
pattern. light gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
The general soil map can be used to compare the depth of 28 inches, is dark reddish brown loamy fine
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of sand. The middle layers, to a depth of 42 inches, are
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, dark brown and light brownish gray fine sand. The lower
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for part of the subsoil, to a depth of 73 inches, is gray and
planning the management of a farm or field or for light gray fine sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of
selecting a site for a road or a building or other structure. about 80 inches is greenish gray fine sandy loam.
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place Palmetto soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that surface layer is very dark gray and dark gray fine sand
affect management, about 10 inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface
layer, to a depth of 21 inches, is gray and light gray fine
Soils on the Flatwoods sand. The lower part, to a depth of 26 inches, is gray
The four general soil map units in this group consist of fine sand mixed with fragments of dark reddish brown
soils that are nearly level and very poorly drained to fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 34
somewhat poorly drained. Some of these soils are sandy inches, is dark yellowish brown and yellowish brown fine
throughout. Some are sandy to a depth of 40 to 80 sand. The next layer, to a depth of about 52 inches, is
inches. Some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches light gray fine sand. Below that layer, the subsoil, to a
and are loamy below. Others are loamy and have a depth of 75 inches, is light gray fine sandy loam and to a
clayey subsoil. The soils in these map units are mainly in depth of 80 inches is gray loamy fine sand.
areas east of the St. Johns River and north of Dunn's The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Holopaw,
Creek and north, northwest, and southwest of Palatka. Myakka, Ona, Pompano, and Riviera soils.
Most of the acreage in this map unit is used as
1. Pomona-Palmetto commercial woodland. A few small areas are in improved
Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy to a pasture. In some areas east of the St. Johns River,
depth of more than 40 inches and are loamy below; these soils are used for cultivated crops.
these soils have layers at a depth of 10 to 30 inches
that are stained by organic matter 2. Myakka-Zolfo-Immokalee
The soils in this map unit are mostly on the broad
flatwoods that are interspersed with numerous Nearly level, poorly drained and somewhat poorly
depressional areas and poorly defined to well defined drained soils that are sandy throughout; these soils have
drainageways. The depressional areas are ponded, and a dark subsoil at a depth of 20 to more than 50 inches
the drainageways are periodically flooded. This map unit The soils in this map unit are mostly in the broad
is mostly located northwest, west, and southwest of flatwood areas and on low ridges and knolls that are
Palatka. interspersed with depressional areas and well defined to
The natural vegetation on the flatwoods is slash pine, poorly defined drainageways. The depressional areas are
longleaf pine, sawpalmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and ponded, and the drainageways are periodically flooded.
native grasses. In the depressions and drainageways, This map unit is located mostly northwest and west of
the vegetation consists of cypress, bay, gum, maple, and Palatka. Another area of this map unit is located west of
other hardwoods. Crescent City.







10 Soil Survey



The natural vegetation on the flatwoods is slash pine, The natural vegetation on the flatwoods is slash pine,
longleaf pine, sawpalmetto, gallberry, waxmyrtle, and longleaf pine, sawpalmetto, gallberry, and waxmyrtle.
grasses, mostly bluestem and pineland threeawn. The The vegetation in the depressions and drainageways
vegetation on the low ridges and knolls is mostly live consists of bay, cypress, gum, and maple.
oak, laurel oak, water oak, slash pine, and longleaf pine. This map unit makes up about 17,784 acres, or 4
The dominant vegetation in the depressions and percent, of the survey area. It is about 40 percent
drainageways is cypress, bay, gum, maple, and other Pomona soils, 15 percent Wauchula soils, 15 percent
hardwoods. Mulat soils, and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
This map unit makes up about 62,245 acres, or about Typically, Pomona soils have a surface layer of black
14 percent, of the survey area. It is about 60 percent fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
Myakka soils, 10 percent Zolfo soils, 10 percent a depth of 20 inches, is gray and light gray fine sand.
Immokalee soils, and about 20 percent soils of minor The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 28 inches, is
extent. dark reddish brown loamy fine sand. The middle layers,
Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface to a depth of 42 inches, are dark brown and light
layer is black and dark gray fine sand about 8 inches brownish gray fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil, to
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 21 inches, is a depth of 73 inches, is gray and light gray fine sandy
gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth loam. The substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is
of 38 inches, is black and very dark gray fine sand. greenish gray fine sandy loam.
Below that layer, to a depth of about 42 inches, is gray g iay f sad am
fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of 60 Typfine sand about 6 inchula sois have sua surface layer of black
inches, is very dark gray fine sand. The substratum to a fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
depth of 80 inches is dark gray fine sand. a depth of 12 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper
Zolfo soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the part of the subsoil, to a depth of 22 inches, is black and
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches very dark grayish brown fine sand. Below that layer, to a
thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 64 inches, is depth of 34 inches, is brown fine sand. The lower part of
pale brown, very pale brown, light gray, and dark grayish the subsoil, to a depth of 44 inches, is gray fine sandy
brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches is grayish
more is dark reddish brown fine sand. brown fine sand.
Immokalee soils are poorly drained. Typically, the Typically, Mulat soils have a surface layer of very dark
surface layer is black and dark gray fine sand about 7 gray and dark gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 35 subsurface layer, to a depth of 33 inches, is grayish
inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the brown and dark grayish brown fine sand. The upper part
subsoil, to a depth of 48 inches, is black and dark of the subsoil, to a depth of 38 inches, is gray fine sandy
reddish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 68 loam. The lower part, to a depth of 58 inches, is gray
inches, is dark yellowish brown fine sand. The sandy clay loam. The upper part of the substratum, to a
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark gray depth of 63 inches, is gray loamy fine sand. The lower
fine sand. part to a depth of 80 inches or more is light gray fine
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are sand.
Adamsville, Cassia, Ona, and St. Johns soils. The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Myakka,
Most of the acreage in this map unit is used for Paisley, Palmetto, Riviera, and Wabasso soils.
commercial production of pine trees. Some small areas Most of the acreage in this map unit is used as
are used as improved pasture, cropland, or for commercial woodland or pasture. Some large acreages
residential development. in the East Palatka and Federal Point areas are in
3. Pomona-Wauchula-Mulat cultivated crops.
Nearly level, poorly drained soils; some are sandy to a 4. Holopaw-Riviera-Bluff
depth of 20 to 40 inches and are loamy below; some are
sandy to a depth of 40 to 79 inches and are loamy Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
below; and some have a dark subsoil above the loamy soils; some are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and
layer are loamy below; some are sandy to a depth of 40 to 79
The soils in this map unit are mostly on the broad inches and are loamy below; and some are loamy and
flatwoods that are interspersed with a few depressions have a clayey subsoil
and drainageways. The depressional areas are ponded, The soils in this map unit are mostly on the flatwoods
and the drainageways are periodically flooded. The that are interspersed with broad drainageways and
largest area of this map unit is in East Palatka and depressions. The drainageways are periodically flooded,
Federal Point. Smaller areas are along the northern part and the depressions are ponded for long periods. This
of the Putnam-Alachua county line. map unit is located east, northeast, and southwest of







Putnam County Area, Florida 11



Palatka. A small area is located along the Putnam- at a depth of more than 50 inches. These soils mostly
Volusia county line. are west of Palatka and west of Crescent Lake.
The natural vegetation on the flatwoods is slash pine,
longleaf pine, water oak, gallberry, waxmyrtle, scattered 5. Candler-Apopka
bay, scattered sawpalmetto, and grasses, mostly Nearly level to steep, excessively drained and well
bluestem and threeawn. The vegetation in the drained soils; some are sandy to a depth of more than
drainageways and depressions consists mostly of 80 inches and have thin lamellae at a depth of 60 to 80
cypress, bay, and mixed hardwoods. inches; and some are sandy and have a loamy subsoil
This map unit makes up about 44,460 acres, or 10 below a depth of 40 to 79 inches
percent, of the survey area. It is about 35 percent The soils in this map unit are on the broad, rolling
Holopaw soils, 35 percent Riviera soils, 10 percent Bluff uplands that are interspersed with remnant sinkholes
soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent. and long, narrow hillsides. Lakes and intermittent ponds
Holopaw soils are poorly drained and very poorly are common. The water level in the lakes and ponds
drained. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine fluctuates, depending on rainfall and seepage from the
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a surrounding soils and underground aquifers. This map
depth of 55 inches, is light gray, gray, and dark gray fine unit is located in the western half of Putnam County
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about between Florida State Highways 20 and 100 in the
69 inches, is gray fine sandy loam. The lower part to a Interlachen area.
depth of 80 inches or more is greenish gray sandy clay The natural vegetation consists of turkey oak and live
loam. oak and a few longleaf pine (fig. 4). The understory
Riviera soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface vegetation includes pineland threeawn, bluestem,
layer is black fine sand about 5 inches thick. The lopsided indiangrass, and scattered sawpalmetto.
subsurface layer, to a depth of 25 inches, is gray fine Rosemary grows in some areas of this map unit.
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 41 This map unit makes up about 71,137 acres, or 16
inches, is gray sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a percent, of the survey area. It is about 50 percent
depth of 50 inches, is gray fine sandy loam. The upper Candler soils, 14 percent Apopka soils, and 36 percent
part of the subsoil has tongues of gray fine sand soils of minor extent.
extending into it from the subsurface layer. The Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is grayish surface layer is brownish gray fine sand about 4 inches
brown loamy fine sand. thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth
Bluff soils are very poorly drained and are frequently of 61 inches, is very pale brown fine sand. The lower
flooded. Typically, the upper part of the surface layer is part to a depth of 80 inches is very pale brown fine sand
black sandy clay loam about 16 inches thick. The lower that has thin layers of yellowish brown loamy fine sand
part, to a depth of 19 inches, is very dark gray sandy lamellae.
clay. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 39 Apopka soils are well drained. Typically, the surface
inches, is dark gray sandy clay loam. The middle part, to layer is dark grayish brown sand about 7 inches thick.
a depth of 60 inches, is gray and olive gray sandy clay. The upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of 40
The substratum to a depth of 80 inches is light gray inches, is pale brown and very pale brown sand. The
sandy clay loam mixed with soft calcium carbonate lower part, to a depth of 43 inches, is brownish yellow
accumulations and hard calcium carbonate nodules. sand that is mixed with the underlying layer. The subsoil
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Astor, to 80 inches or more is yellowish red sandy clay loam.
Placid, Pompano, and Winder soils. The soils of minor extent in this map unit are
Most of the acreage in this map unit is used as Adamsville, Astatula, Millhopper, Myakka, Placid,
commercial woodland and for cultivated crops. Areas Samsula, Sparr, and Tavares soils.
that are flooded or ponded are used for wildlife habitat. In many areas, the soils in this map unit are used for
Hardwood timber is harvested in some areas in this map community development, but a much larger acreage is
unit. used for pine production, improved pasture, and hay.
Most of the acreage in this map unit is in natural
Soils on the Uplands vegetation and is used as habitat for wildlife.
The six general soil map units in this group consist of 6. Millhopper-Sparr
soils that are nearly level to steep and somewhat poorly
drained to excessively drained. Some of these soils are Nearly level to sloping, moderately well drained and
sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. Some are sandy somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy and have
to a depth of 40 inches or more and are loamy below, a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 to 79 inches
Some soils in these map units have thin lamellae at a The soils in this map unit are in broad, gently rolling
depth of 60 to 80 inches, and some have a dark subsoil areas on the uplands. Small knolls and low ridges are








12 Soil Survey

































-0 r



Figure 4.-The natural vegetation of turkey oak, longleaf pine, rosemary, grasses, and forbs in an area of the Candler-Apopka general soil
map unit provides good habitat for wildlife.



dissected by intermittent streams and ponds and by This map unit makes up about 17,784 acres, or about
long, narrow swales. Most of this map unit is located in 4 percent, of the survey area. It is about 55 percent
the western part of the county between the Putnam- Millhopper soils, 30 percent Sparr soils, and about 15
Alachua county line and Florida State Highway 21 and percent soils of minor extent.
from State Highway 20 north to Melrose. Another area is Millhopper soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
located between the Putnam-Marion county line and the the surface layer is grayish brown sand about 3 inches
town of Johnson. Smaller areas are in the extreme thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 66 inches, is
southwest corner of Putnam County that adjoins and light yellowish brown, very pale brown, and light gray
intersects the county lines of Alachua and Marion sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 70
Counties. inches, is brown fine sandy loam. The lower part to a
The natural vegetation includes live oak, laurel oak, depth of 80 inches or more is gray sandy clay loam.
water oak, turkey oak, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Sparr soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the
The understory vegetation is mainly pineland threeawn, surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9 inches
lopsided indiangrass, bluestem, low panicum, greenbrier, thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth
and sawpalmetto. The vegetation in the narrow swales of 30 inches, is very pale brown sand. The lower part, to
and in areas that are adjacent to ponds and streams a depth of 65 inches, is white sand. The upper part of
includes magnolia, sweetgum, hickory, and slash pine. the subsoil, to a depth of about 70 inches, is yellowish







- .







Putnam County Area, Florida 13



brown loamy sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 is dark grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth
inches or more is yellowish brown fine sandy loam. of 80 inches or more is dark reddish brown fine sand.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Apopka, The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Apopka,
Bonneau, Candler, Electra, Lochloosa, Placid, Pomona, Adamsville, Candler, Deland, Electra, Hobe, Immokalee,
and Tavares soils. Orsino, Paola, and St. Johns soils.
Most of the acreage in this map unit is used as Most of the acreage in this map unit is used for
improved pasture, pine woodlands, and for community residential development and as pine woodlands and
development. improved pasture.
7. Tavares-Centenary-Zolfo 8. Astatula-Tavares
Nearly level and gently sloping, moderately well drained
and somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy Nearly level to moderately steep, excessively drained
throughout; some have a dark subsoil at a depth of more and moderately well drained soils that are sandy
than 50 inches throughout
The soils in this map unit are in broad, undulating The soils in this map unit are on broad, gently rolling
areas on the uplands that are interspersed with uplands that are interspersed with a few relict sinkholes,
intermittent ponds and lakes. These soils also are along small lakes, and depressions. This map unit is mostly
major drainageways. Narrow sand ridges and knolls are located west and southwest of Crescent City and
parallel to the drainageways and are often dissected by southwest of Interlachen.
intermittent and perennial streams. Some areas of this The natural vegetation consists of turkey oak, bluejack
map unit are in the southwest part of Putnam County oak, and live oak and a few longleaf pine. The
that adjoins Marion County. Some areas are west of understory vegetation includes pineland threeawn,
Palatka along Florida State Highways 20 and 19. Other bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and scattered
major areas are south and west of Crescent City, sawpalmetto. In a few small areas, rosemary grows in
southeast of Georges Lake, and west of Bostwick in the abundance in the western part of Putnam County.
northern part of Putnam County. This map unit makes up about 26,676 acres, or 6
The natural vegetation consists of live oak, laurel oak, percent, of the survey area. It is about 42 percent
turkey oak, longleaf pine, slash pine, and scattered sand Astatula soils, 20 percent Tavares soils, and 38 percent
pine. The understory vegetation includes pineland soils of minor extent.
threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, bluestem, and Astatula soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
sawpalmetto. surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick.
This map unit makes up about 53,353 acres, or 12 The upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of
percent, of the survey area. It is about 25 percent 12 inches, is pale brown fine sand. The lower part to a
Tavares soils, 20 percent Centenary soils, 15 percent depth of 80 inches or more is very pale brown fine sand.
Zolfo soils, and 40 percent soils of minor extent. Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 5
the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material,
inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of 45 inches, is very pale brown and yellow
to a depth of 45 inches, is very pale brown and yellow fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of 67 inches, is
fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of 67 inches, is very pale brown fine sand and contains masses of white
very pale brown fine sand and contains masses of white fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or
fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is white fine sand.
more is white fine sand. The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Orsino,
Centenary soils are moderately well drained. Typically, Candler, Paola, Adamsville, Myakka, and Centenary
the surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 8 inches soils.
thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth Most of the acreage in this map unit is in natural
of 50 inches, is yellow and very pale brown fine sand. vegetation and is used as habitat for wildlife. Many areas
The lower part, to a depth of 65 inches, is light gray fine are used for residential development, commercial
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 76 production of pine trees, and improved pasture. Some
inches, is dark grayish brown loamy fine sand. The lower areas near Crescent City are used for growing ferns.
part to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark reddish
brown loamy fine sand. 9. Candler-Tavares-Adamsville
Zolfo soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches Nearly level to steep, excessively drained, moderately
thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth well drained, and somewhat poorly drained soils that are
of 53 inches, is pale brown, very pale brown, and light sandy throughout; some have lamellae at a depth of 60
gray fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 64 inches, to 80 inches







14 Soil Survey



The soils in this map unit are on broad, rolling uplands The natural vegetation consists of sand pine and live
that are interspersed with remnant sinkholes and long, oak and a few longleaf pine. The understory vegetation
narrow hillsides. Lakes and intermittent ponds are includes sawpalmetto, greenbrier, bluestem, and
common. The water level in the lakes and ponds pineland threeawn.
fluctuates, depending on rainfall and seepage from the This map unit makes up about 8,892 acres, or 2
surrounding soils and underground aquifers. The largest percent, of the survey area. It is about 32 percent Orsino
area of this map unit is located northeast of Interlachen. soils, 25 percent Astatula soils, 20 percent Paola soils,
Smaller areas are in the southwest part of the survey and 23 percent soils of minor extent.
area and north of Crescent City. Orsino soils are moderately well drained. Typically, the
The natural vegetation consists of turkey oak and live surface layer is gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
oak and a few longleaf pine. The understory vegetation subsurface layer, to a depth of 24 inches, is light gray
includes pineland threeawn, bluestem, lopsided fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 64 inches, is
indiangrass, and scattered sawpalmetto. Rosemary brownish yellow and yellowish brown fine sand. Tongues
grows in some areas of this map unit. of light gray fine sand are in the upper part of the
This map unit makes up about 13,338 acres, or 3 subsoil. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more
percent, of the survey area. It is about 55 percent is light gray fine sand.
Candler soils, 15 percent Tavares soils, 10 percent Astatula soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
Adamsville soils, and 20 percent soils of minor extent. surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 4 inches thick.
Candler soils are excessively drained. Typically, the The upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of
surface layer is brownish gray fine sand about 4 inches 12 inches, is pale brown fine sand. The lower part to a
thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth depth of 80 inches or more is very pale brown fine sand.
of 61 inches, is very pale brown fine sand. The lower Paola soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
part to a depth of 80 inches is very pale brown fine sand surface layer is dark gray fine sand about 3 inches thick.
that has thin layers of yellowish brown loamy fine sand The subsurface layer, to a depth of 27 inches, is light
lamellae. gray fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth
Tavares soils are moderately well drained. Typically, of 52 inches, is yellow fine sand. The lower part to a
the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 5 depth of 80 inches or more is very pale brown fine sand.
inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material, The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Cassia,
to a depth of 45 inches, is very pale brown and yellow Centenary, Deland, Electra, Hobe, and Tavares soils.
fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of 67 inches, is Most of the acreage in this map unit is in natural
very pale brown fine sand and contains masses of white vegetation and is used as habitat for wildlife. A few areas
fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or along the St. Johns River are used for homesites and
more is white fine sand that has yellowish red mottles. urban development. Some areas are used as improved
Adamsville soils are somewhat poorly drained. pasture and hay crops.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown sand about
6 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying material, Soils in the Broad Swamps and Marshes
to a depth of 42 inches, is very pale brown and light
yellowish brown sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 The two general soil map units in this group consist of
inches or more is light gray sand. organic soils that are nearly level and very poorly
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Apopka, drained. Some of the soils are organic to a depth of 16
Millhopper, Sparr, Myakka, Placid, and Samsula soils. to 51 inches and are sandy or loamy below. Some are
In some areas, the soils in this map unit are used for organic to a depth of more than 51 inches. The soils in
community development, but a much larger acreage is these map units are located mostly north of Interlachen
used for pine production and as improved pasture and in the northwest part of Putnam County and west of
hay. Most of the acreage in this map unit is in natural Crescent Lake.
vegetation and is used as habitat for wildlife.
11. Samsula-Hontoon-Tomoka
10. Orsino-Astatula-Paola
Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils; some are
Nearly level to moderately sloping, moderately well organic to a depth of 16 to 51 inches and are sandy or
drained and excessively drained soils that are sandy loamy below; and some are organic to a depth of more
throughout than 51 inches
The soils in this map unit are on low knolls and broad The soils in this map unit are mostly in swamps and
hills and slopes in the upland areas that are interspersed depressions on the flatwoods and in the upland areas.
with depressional areas, lakes, and narrow The largest area of this map unit is located in the
drainageways. Most areas of this map unit are located northwestern part of Putnam County from the area north
northwest and southwest of Crescent City and along the of Florahome south to near Interlachen. Some smaller
St. Johns River west of Satsuma. areas are near Bostwick in the northeastern part of







Putnam County Area, Florida 15



Putnam County. Other small areas are in the lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark
southeastern part of the county west of Crescent City. reddish brown muck.
Except in areas where these soils have been drained Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of
and used for agriculture, the natural vegetation consists Tomoka soils is black muck about 12 inches thick. The
of red bay, cypress, red maple, and other hardwoods. lower part, to a depth of 24 inches, is dark reddish
Some areas have a marsh vegetation of sawgrass, brown muck. The upper part of the underlying material,
maidencane, and other hydrophytic plants. to a depth of 28 inches, is black fine sand. The middle
This map unit makes up about 22,230 acres, or about part, to a depth of 31 inches, is light gray fine sand. The
5 percent, of the survey area. It is about 55 percent lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is grayish
Samsula soils, 20 percent Hontoon soils, 15 percent brown and gray fine sandy loam.
Tomoka soils, and about 10 percent soils of minor The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Ona,
extent. Placid, St. Johns, and Surrency soils.
Typically, Samsula soils have a surface layer of dark Most of the acreage in this map unit is in natural
reddish brown and black muck about 29 inches thick. vegetation and is used as habitat for wildlife. Some
The upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of areas near Florahome have been drained and are used
40 inches, is black fine sand. The middle part, to a depth for cultivated crops.
of 50 inches, is gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth
of 80 inches or more is light brownish gray fine sand. 12. Okeechobee-Samsula
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of Nearly level, very poorly drained organic soils; some are
Hontoon soils is black muck about 20 inches thick. The organic to a depth of more than 51 inches; and some



































Figure 5.-Typical vegetation in an area of the Terra Ceia-Shenks general soil map unit. These soils are frequently flooded.







16


are organic to a depth of 16 to 51 inches and are sandy along the major rivers and streams in the southern part
below, of Putnam County.
The soils in this map unit are in the freshwater
marshes or on the prairies and in large depressions on 13. Terra Cea-Shenks
the uplands. Most of the map unit is located in Fowler's Nearly level, very poorly drained, frequently flooded soils;
Prairie, Levy's Prairie, Ashley's Prairie, and Goodson's some are organic to a depth of more than 51 inches;
Prairie in the northwest part of the county. and some are organic to a depth of 16 to 51 inches and
The natural vegetation consists of hydrophytic plants, are clayey below
such as cattails, sawgrass, maidencane, pickerelweed, The soils in this map unit are mostly in broad, swampy
and buttonwood and many hydrophytic grasses, sedges, areas on the flood plains along major rivers and streams.
and reeds. This map unit is mostly along the Oklawaha River, the
This map unit makes up about 8,892 acres, or about 2 southern part of the St. Johns River, and Dunn's Creek.
percent, of the survey area. It is about 32 percent Other areas are along the northeastern edge of Lake
Okeechobee soils, 30 percent Samsula soils, and 38 George and Crescent Lake.
percent soils of minor extent. The natural vegetation includes cypress, sweetgum,
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of maple, and loblolly bay (fig. 5). The understory
Okeechobee soils is black muck about 25 inches thick. vegetation consists of hydrophytic grasses, reeds, and
Below that layer, to a depth of 46 inches, is brown sedges and other aquatic plants, such as lilies, cattails,
mucky peat. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or and ferns.
more is dark reddish brown muck. This map unit makes up about 26,676 acres, or 6
Typically, Samsula soils have a surface layer of dark percent, of the survey area. It is about 65 percent Terra
reddish brown and black muck about 29 inches thick. Ceia soils, 8 percent Shenks soils, and 27 percent soils
The upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of of minor extent.
40 inches, is black fine sand. The middle part, to a depth Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of Terra
of 50 inches, is gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth Ceia soils is dark reddish brown muck about 28 inches
of 80 inches or more is light brownish gray fine sand. thick. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is
The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Hontoon, black muck.
Ona, and Placid soils. Typically, Shenks soils have a surface layer of dark
Most of the acreage in this map unit is in natural reddish brown muck about 18 inches thick. The upper
vegetation and is used as habitat for wildlife, part of the underlying material, to a depth of 60 inches,
Soils on the Flood Plains is black clay. The middle part, to a depth of 70 inches, is
very dark gray loamy sand. The lower part to a depth of
The one general soil map unit in this group consists of 80 inches or more is dark gray sand.
nearly level, very poorly drained, frequently flooded soils. The soils of minor extent in this map unit are Astor,
Some of these soils are organic to a depth of more than Bluff, Holopaw, Hontoon, Pompano, and Riviera soils.
51 inches, and some are organic to a depth of 16 to 51 Most of the acreage in this map unit is in natural
inches and are clayey below. These soils are mostly vegetation and is used as habitat for wildlife.







17








Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil a special symbol on the soil maps.
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be have little or no soil material and support little or no
used to plan the management needed for those uses. vegetation. Urban land is an example. Miscellaneous
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
under "Use and Management of the Soils." small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an the soil maps.
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
for which the unit is named. each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit give properties of the soils and the limitations,
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
general facts about the soil and gives the principal defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses. 1-Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up soil is nearly level to gently sloping and excessively
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the drained. It is on ridges and knolls on the broad uplands.
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from
a series have major horizons that are similar in 10 to 4,000 acres.
composition, thickness, and arrangement. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of brownish gray
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of the
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in subsurface layer, to a depth of 61 inches, is very pale
slope, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion, and other brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches
characteristics that affect their use. On the basis of such is very pale brown fine sand and a series of layers of
differences, a soil series is divided into soilphases. Most yellowish brown loamy fine sand.
of the areas shown on the detailed soil maps are phases Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
of soil series. The name of a soil phase commonly Apopka, Astatula, Deland, Millhopper, and Tavares soils.
indicates a feature that affects use or management. For These soils are in similar positions on the landscape as
example, Candler fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is Candler soil or in slightly lower positions. Also included
one of several phases in the Candler series, are small areas of soils that are similar to Candler soil,
Some map units are made up of two or more major but they have gravel-size quartz pebbles mixed
soils. These map units are called soil associations. throughout. The included soils make up about 15 percent
A soil association is made up of two or more of this map unit.
geographically associated soils that are shown as one This soil has a high water table at a depth of more
unit on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil than 80 inches. The available water capacity is very low
uses in the survey area, it was not considered practical in the surface layer and the upper part of the subsurface
or necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern layer, and it is low in the lower part of the subsurface
and relative proportion of the soils are somewhat similar, layer. The permeability is rapid. Natural fertility is low.
Placid-Pompano association, frequently flooded, is an Some of the Candler soil is used for citrus crops in the
example, area near Crescent City. Most of the acreage of this soil
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils is in natural vegetation that includes turkey oak, live oak,
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some longleaf pine, threeawn, and bluestem.
of these included soils have properties that differ This Candler soil is not suitable for most cultivated
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such crops. Droughtiness and poor soil quality are severe
differences could significantly affect use and limitations to use for cultivated crops. Plant nutrients are
management of the soils in the map unit. The included rapidly leached from this soil. Conservation tillage helps







18 Soil Survey



conserve moisture and controls erosion if the soil is brown fine sand and a series of layers of strong brown
cultivated. Close-growing plants should be included in fine sandy loam.
the rotation system at least three-fourths of the time. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Crop residue left on or in the soil controls erosion and Apopka, Astatula, Millhopper, and Tavares soils. These
improves soil quality. This soil is well suited to citrus soils are in similar positions on the landscape as Candler
crops if cold temperatures are not a problem. soil or in slightly lower positions. Also included are small
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay areas of soils that are similar to Candler soil, but some
crops. Deep-rooted plants, such as bermudagrass and of these soils are moderately well drained, and others
bahiagrass, are well suited to this soil. Regular have gravel-size quartz pebbles mixed throughout. The
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed, and grazing included soils make up about 10 percent of this map
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor. unit.
The potential of this soil for the production of pine This soil has a high water table at a depth of more
trees is medium. Slash, longleaf, and sand pines are the than 80 inches. The available water capacity is very low
better suited trees to plant for commercial woodland in the surface layer and the upper part of the subsurface
production. Use of equipment, seedling mortality, and layer, and it is low in the lower part of the subsurface
plant competition are concerns in management. This soil layer. The permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility is
is drought; and during long, dry periods, adequate low.
moisture for plant growth is not available. Using special This soil is used for citrus crops in an area near
planting stock that is larger than usual or that is Crescent City. Large acreages of this soil is in natural
containerized reduces seedling mortality. The loose, vegetation that mostly includes turkey oak and scrub live
sandy surface of this soil is a limitation to use of oak and a few longleaf pine. The understory vegetation
equipment. Machinery equipped with large, low-pressure includes threeawn and bluestem.
tires or tracks will help overcome this limitation. Plant This Candler soil is not suitable for most cultivated
competition from hardwoods, mostly oaks, can be crops. Droughtiness and poor soil quality are severe
reduced if herbicides are used during site preparation limitations to use for cultivated crops. Water drains
reduced if herbicides are used during site preparation. rapidly from this soil along with the plant nutrients.
Although runoff is slow, logging and site preparation Conservation tillage helps conserve moisture and
operations can increase and concentrate water controls erosion if this soil is cultivated. Close-growing
movement on this soil and cause soil erosion. These cover crops should be included in the rotation system at
activities should be avoided in and adjacent to least three-fourths of the time. Crop residue should be
drainageways. Special design and proper placement of left on or in the soil to help control erosion and improve
roads, skid trails, and stream crossings reduce soil soil quality. This soil is well suited to citrus crops if cold
erosion. During site preparation and thinning and temperatures are not a problem.
harvesting operations, as much plant debris as possible This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay
should be left on the surface of the soil to help conserve crops. Even when fertilized, deep-rooted plants, such as
organic matter, bermudagrass and bahiagrass, produce only moderate
This soil has slight limitations for urban uses, such as yields. Periodic drought severely limits plant growth.
septic tank absorption fields and for dwellings and local The potential of this soil for the production of pine
roads and streets. In areas where septic tank absorption trees is medium. Slash, longleaf, and sand pines are the
fields are concentrated, ground water contamination is a better suited trees to plant for commercial woodland
hazard. production. Use of equipment, seedling mortality, and
The sandy surface layer is a severe limitation for plant competition are concerns in management This soil
recreational development. The surface layer should be is drought; and during long, dry periods, the soil does
stabilized by adding suitable fill material or by paving the not retain enough moisture to sustain plant growth.
area to help overcome this limitation. Using special planting stock that is larger than usual or
This Candler soil is in capability subclass IVs. The that is containerized reduces seedling mortality. The
woodland ordination symbol is 8S. loose, sandy surface of this soil is a limitation to use of
equipment. Machinery equipped with large, low-pressure
2-Candler fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This tires or tracks can help overcome this limitation. Plant
soil is sloping and excessively drained. It is on ridges competition from hardwoods, mostly oaks, can be
and knolls on the broad uplands. The mapped areas are reduced if herbicides are used during site preparation.
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 300 acres. Although runoff is slow, logging and site preparation
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark grayish operations can increase and concentrate water
brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of movement on this soil and cause soil erosion. These
the subsurface layer, to a depth of 65 inches, is activities should be avoided in and adjacent to
yellowish brown and brownish yellow fine sand. The drainageways. Special design and proper placement of
lower part to a depth of more than 80 inches is very pale roads, skid trails, and stream crossings can reduce soil







Putnam County Area, Florida 19



loss. During site preparation and thinning and harvesting 3-Myakka fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
operations, as much plant debris as possible should be poorly drained. It is on the flatwoods. The mapped areas
left on the surface of this soil to help conserve organic are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 2,000 acres.
matter. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
This soil has slight limitations for urban uses (fig. 6), Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black and
such as septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and dark gray fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface
local roads and streets. In areas where septic tank layer, to a depth of 21 inches, is gray fine sand. The
absorption fields are concentrated, ground water upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 38 inches,
contamination is a hazard. is black and very dark gray fine sand. Below that layer,
The sandy surface of this soil is a severe limitation for to a depth of about 42 inches, is gray fine sand. The
most recreational development. The surface layer should lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 60 inches,
be stabilized for recreational uses by adding a suitable is very dark gray fine sand. The substratum to a depth of
fill material or by paving the area to help overcome 80 inches is dark gray fine sand.
these limitations. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This Candler soil is in capability subclass VIs. The Cassia, Immokalee, Placid, and St. Johns soils. Also
woodland ordination symbol is 8S. included are small areas of soils that are similar to
Myakka soil, but some of these soils have a subsoil at a





































Figure 6.-This golf course is in an area of Candler fine sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.







20 Soil Survey



depth of less than 20 inches, and others have a thin, logging systems that leave residual biomass well
weakly developed subsoil. The included soils make up distributed on the surface of the soil helps to conserve
about 10 percent of this map unit. organic matter. Applications of nitrogen fertilizer with
In most years, this soil has a high water table at a phosphorus provide excellent growth response.
depth of less than 12 inches for 1 month to 4 months Excessive wetness during rainy periods is a severe
and at a depth of more than 40 inches during dry limitation to use of this soil for urban development The
periods. The available water capacity is very low in the high water table can interfere with the proper functioning
surface and subsurface layers, medium in the subsoil, of septic tank absorption fields. If septic tank absorption
and low in the substratum. The permeability is rapid in fields are elevated by adding a suitable fill material, the
the surface and subsurface layers, moderate or soil is suited to this use. The use of this soil for building
moderately rapid in the subsoil, and rapid in the sites and for local roads and streets also requires that
substratum. Natural fertility is low. measures be taken to overcome the wetness limitation.
Most of the acreage of this soil is used for the If adequate water outlets are available, a drainage
commercial production of slash pine. A small acreage is system should be installed to help keep the high water
used for improved pasture and hay crops. The natural table at an effective depth. The use of fill material to
vegetation includes slash pine and longleaf pine. The elevate building sites and roadbeds will also help keep
understory vegetation includes sawpalmetto, gallberry, the high water table at an effective depth.
waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, and bluestem. Excessive wetness and the sandy surface layer of this
Wetness and poor soil quality are severe limitations to soil are severe limitations for recreational uses. The
use of this Myakka soil for cultivated crops. The root wetness limitation can be overcome by establishing a
zone is limited by a high water table that is within 12 water control system that will help keep the high water
inches of the surface during long periods of wetness. If a table at an effective depth. In areas of intensive foot
water control system is established and maintained, this traffic, the surface should be stabilized by adding
soil is suited to many vegetable crops. The water control suitable fill material or by paving the area.
system should remove excess water during wet periods This Myakka soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
and provide for subsurface irrigation during dry periods. woodland ordination symbol is 8W.
Close-growing cover crops should be included in the woodland ordination symbol is 8W.
cropping system when the soil is not cultivated. Crop 4-Zofo fine sand. This soil is neary level and
residue left on the soil helps to control erosion, 4-Zolfo fine sand. This soi is nearly level and knolls
maintains organic matter, and improves soil quality, somewn the fat poo drained. It s on low side slodges and the upknos
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows. on the flmappeatwoods and on irregular side slopes on upane ds.
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from
needs of the crop. 10 to 250 acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture and hay Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
crops. Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are well fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
adapted to this soil. A water control system is needed to subsurface layer, to a depth of 53 inches, is pale brown,
remove excess surface water after heavy rains. Regular very pale brown, and light gray fine sand. The lower part,
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing to a depth of 64 inches, is dark grayish brown fine sand.
should be controlled to prevent overgrazing, to help The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark
maintain plant vigor, and to obtain maximum yields. reddish brown fine sand.
The potential of this soil for the production of pine Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
trees is medium. Slash and longleaf pines are the better Adamsville, Centenary, Narcoossee, and Tavares soils.
suited trees to plant for commercial woodland Also included are small areas of soils that are in similar
production. The major concerns in management are the positions on the landscape as Zolfo soil, but some of
use of equipment, seedling mortality, plant competition, these soils have a brownish yellow or yellowish brown
and the hazard of windthrow. Seasonal wetness is a subsoil, some have a weakly cemented subsoil, and
limitation to use of equipment on this soil. Timely some have a subsoil at a depth of less than 50 inches.
scheduling of site preparation and planting, thinning, and In addition, there are small areas of a soil that is similar
harvesting operations can help overcome this wetness to Zolfo soil, but it is in a slightly lower position on the
limitation. Field work generally can be done during the landscape and is poorly drained. The included soils
wet periods if machinery is equipped with large, low- make up about 10 percent of this map unit
pressure rubber tires or tracks. Proper site preparation In most years, this soil has a high water table at a
reduces seedling mortality and helps to control plant depth of 24 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. In some
competition. Bedding helps to establish seedlings, years, the high water table is at a depth of 10 to 24
increases early growth, and reduces seedling mortality. inches for about 2 weeks. The available water capacity is
Chopping helps control plant competition, reduces medium in the surface layer, very low or low in the
debris, and facilitates planting operations. The use of subsurface layer, and medium to high in the subsoil. The






Fp----_ _








Putnam County Area, Florida 21



permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers available, a surface drainage system can be installed to
and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. maintain the high water table at an effective depth.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation The sandy surface layer of this soil is a severe
that includes turkey oak, live oak, longleaf pine, and limitation for recreational uses. The surface layer should
slash pine. The understory vegetation is sparse. It be stabilized by adding a fill material and using a
consists of scattered wiregrass, bluestem, and vegetation cover or a hard surface material to help
sawpalmetto. overcome this limitation.
Periodic wetness is a severe limitation to use of this This Zolfo soil is in capability subclass Illw. The
Zolfo soil for cultivated crops. This soil is drought. The woodland ordination symbol is 10W.
adapted crops that can be grown on this soil are limited
if intensive water control measures are not used. If a 5-Placid fine sand, depressional. This soil is nearly
water control system is established and maintained to level and very poorly drained. It is in depressional areas
remove excess water in wet periods and to provide for on the flatwoods and uplands. The mapped areas are
subsurface irrigation in dry periods, this soil can be used irregular in shape to circular and range from 4 to 200
for potatoes and other vegetables. When the soil is not acres. The slopes are concave and are less than 2
cultivated, close-growing cover crops should be included percent.
in the rotation system to help maintain soil quality and Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black and
protect the soil from wind erosion. very dark gray fine sand about 14 inches thick. The
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of 26
crops. Bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted to inches, is dark grayish brown fine sand. The lower part
this soil. A water control system is needed to remove to a depth of 80 inches or more is grayish brown and
excess surface water during heavy rains. Regular light gray fine sand.
applications of lime and fertilizer are required. Grazing Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
should be controlled to help maintain plant vigor and Myakka, Ona, Samsula, and St. Johns soils. These soils
obtain maximum yields. are in similar positions on the landscape as Placid soil.
The potential of this soil for the production of pine Also included are small areas of soils that are similar to
trees is medium to high. Slash and longleaf pines are the Placid soil, but some of these soils have a surface layer
better suited trees to plant for commercial woodland of muck that is 4 to 10 inches thick, some are frequently
production. An adequate supply of phosphorus is needed flooded, and others have a very dark gray or black
for maximum growth. The major concerns in surface layer more than 24 inches thick. The included
management are the restricted use of equipment on this soils make up about 10 percent of this map unit.
soil, seedling mortality, and plant competition. Seasonal In most years, this soil has a high water table above
wetness and periods of droughtiness limit the use of the surface for more than 6 months. The available water
equipment and increase seedling mortality. Site capacity is high in the surface layer, and it is low in the
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, helps to underlying material. The permeability is rapid. Natural
establish seedlings, reduces seedling mortality, and fertility is moderate.
increases early growth. Chopping and bedding reduce Several large areas have been drained, and this soil is
debris, control competing vegetation, and facilitate used for growing grain and vegetables or for pasture or
planting operations. Machinery equipped with high hay production. Some areas of this soil is in natural
flotation rubber tires or tracks can help overcome the vegetation that includes cypress, sweetgum, blackgum,
limitations to use of equipment, can reduce soil bay, red maple, and waxmyrtle. Some areas have marsh
compaction, and can also reduce root damage during vegetation consisting mostly of maidencane, sawgrass,
thinning operations. Site preparation and planting and and other water-tolerant plants.
harvesting operations should be scheduled during dry This Placid soil is not suitable for cultivated crops if a
periods to help overcome the wetness limitations to use properly designed water control system is not
of equipment. The use of logging systems that leave established and maintained. The soil surface is ponded
residual biomass well distributed on the surface of the for long periods during the growing season. Outlets for
soil increases the content of organic matter and residual needed water control systems are often not available or
fertility of the soil. Applications of nitrogen fertilizer with are difficult and expensive to install. If a water control
phosphorus provide excellent growth response, system can be established, this soil is well suited to
Wetness and poor filtering capacity are severe grain and vegetable crops. Management practices
limitations to use of this soil as septic tank absorption should include close-growing cover crops in the rotation
fields. Wetness is a moderate limitation for dwellings and system when the soil is not cultivated. Crop residue
for local roads and streets. Adding suitable fill material to should be left on the surface to help control erosion and
help keep the high water table at an effective depth will maintain soil quality. Regular applications of fertilizer and
help overcome the wetness limitation. If outlets are lime are needed.








22 Soil Survey



This soil is too wet for most improved grasses and are small areas of Tavares soils that have slopes of
legumes. If an adequate water control system is more than 5 percent. The included soils make up less
established and maintained, this soil is well suited to than 20 percent of this map unit.
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. A water control In most years, this soil has a high water table between
system is needed to keep the high water table from depths of 40 and 80 inches for more than 6 months. The
rising above the surface during wet periods. Plants grow water table recedes to a depth of more than 80 inches
well when fertilized and limed. Grazing must be during dry periods. The available water capacity is low in
controlled to maintain maximum plant vigor and obtain the surface layer, and it is very low in the underlying
maximum yields. material. The permeability is rapid or very rapid. Natural
This soil generally is not used for the commercial fertility is low.
production of pine trees. The potential of this soil for the Some areas of this soil are used as improved pasture.
production of pine trees is low because the high water Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
table is above the surface for long periods. Seedling that includes turkey oak, longleaf pine, and scattered live
mortality and the restricted use of equipment on this soil oak. The understory vegetation consists of threeawn,
are concerns in management. bluestem, panicum, and scattered sawpalmetto.
This soil has severe limitations for urban development Droughtiness and rapid leaching of nutrients are
because the surface is ponded for long periods, severe limitations to use of this Tavares soil for
Adequate water outlets to drain areas for building site cultivated crops. If this soil is cultivated, row crops
development, for construction of roadways, or for should be planted on the contour, and close-growing
installing a septic tank absorption field are generally not cover crops should be grown in rotation with row crops.
available. Adding fill material to elevate these areas can Crop residue should be left on the surface to help
help overcome this limitation. Large amounts of fill control erosion and improve soil quality. It is feasible to
material are needed to maintain the high water table at grow high-value crops if irrigation water is readily
an effective depth, available.
Because of ponding and the sandy surface layer, this This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Coastal
soil has severe limitations for recreational development. bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well suited to this soil,
If a water control system is established to maintain the but yields are reduced by periodic drought Grazing
high water table at an effective depth, this soil is suited should be controlled to maintain plant vigor.
to recreational uses, such as campgrounds, picnic areas, The potential of this soil for the production of pine
playgrounds, and paths and trails. The surface should be trees is medium. Slash pine is the better suited tree to
stabilized for recreational uses by adding suitable fill plant for commercial woodland production. Use of
material or by paving the areas that are subject to equipment, seedling mortality, and plant competition are
intensive foot traffic. the main concerns in management. This soil is drought
This Placid soil is in capability subclass Vllw and does not retain enough moisture for plant growth
(undrained). The woodland ordination symbol is 6W. during long, dry periods. Using special planting stock that
is larger than usual or that is containerized reduces
6-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This seedling mortality. The loose, sandy surface of this soil is
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well a limitation to use of equipment. Machinery equipped
drained. It is on the uplands and on knolls and ridges on with large, low-pressure tires or tracks will help
the flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in shape overcome this limitation. Plant competition from
and range from 10 to 400 acres. The slopes are convex, hardwoods, mostly oaks, can be reduced if herbicides
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark grayish are used during site preparation. Although runoff is slow,
brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The upper part of logging and site preparation operations can increase and
the underlying material, to a depth of 45 inches, is very concentrate water movement on this soil and cause soil
pale brown and yellow fine sand. The next layer, to a erosion. These activities should be avoided in and
depth of 67 inches, is very pale brown fine sand and adjacent to drainageways. Special design and proper
contains masses of white fine sand. The lower part to a placement of roads, skid trails, and stream crossings
depth of 80 inches or more is white fine sand that has reduce soil loss. During site preparation and thinning and
yellowish red mottles. harvesting operations, as much of the plant debris as
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of possible should be left on the surface of the soil to help
Adamsville, Candler, Centenary, Narcoossee, Sparr, and conserve organic matter.
Zolfo soils. Also included are small areas of soils that Wetness is a moderate limitation to the use of this soil
are similar to Tavares soil, but some of these soils have as septic tank absorption fields. Fill material may be
a thin, light gray or white surface layer; some have thin needed to elevate the septic tank absorption field for
bands of fine sandy loam at a depth of more than 50 proper functioning of the system. The thick, sandy
inches; and others have a sand or coarse sand surface texture of these soils may not adequately filter the
and subsurface layer. In addition, included in mapping effluent in the septic tank absorption field. The poor








Putnam County Area, Florida 23



filtering capacity of the soil may result in the measures. Close-growing cover crops should be included
contamination of ground water in areas where septic in the rotation system when the soil is not cultivated.
tank absorption fields are concentrated. This soil has Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
slight limitations for dwellings without basements, small Crop residue should be left on the surface to control
commercial buildings, and local roads and streets. erosion, to help maintain the content of organic matter,
The sandy surface layer of this soil is a severe and to maintain tilth. Fertilizer and lime are needed.
limitation for recreational uses. In areas of intensive foot This soil is well suited to improved pasture and hay
traffic, the surface should be stabilized for recreational crops. Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are well
uses by adding suitable fill material, using a vegetation adapted to this soil. A water control system is needed to
cover, or paving the area to reduce or overcome this remove excess surface water after heavy rains. Regular
limitation. applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
This Tavares soil is in capability subclass Ills. The should be controlled to prevent overgrazing, to help
woodland ordination symbol is 10S. maintain plant vigor, and to obtain maximum yields.
The potential of this soil for the production of pine
7-poorlymmokalee fine sand. This soil is nearly level and trees is medium. Slash and longleaf pines are the better
poorly drained. It is on broad flatwood areas and in long, suited trees to plant for commercial woodland
narrow areas bordering drainageways. The mapped production. The major concerns in management are the
areas are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 250 production. The major concerns in management are the
acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent use of equipment, seedling mortality, plant competition,

Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black and and the hazard of windthrowi Seasonal wetness limits
dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface the of equipment on this soil. Timely scheduling of
layer, to a depth of 35 inches, is light gray fine sand. The site preparation and planting, thinning, and harvesting
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 48 inches, is operations can help overcome this wetness limitation.
black and dark reddish brown fine sand. The lower part Field work generally can be done during the wet periods
to a depth of 68 inches, is dark yellowish brown fine sand. The lower part, if machinery is equipped with large, low-pressure rubber
sand. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is tires or tracks. Proper site preparation reduces seedling
dark gray fine sand. mortality and helps to control plant competition. Bedding
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of helps to establish seedlings, increases early growth, and
Cassia, Myakka, and St. Johns soils. Also included are reduces seedling mortality. Chopping helps to control
small areas of soils that are similar to Immokalee soil, competing vegetation, reduces debris, and facilitates
but some of these soils have a subsoil at a depth of planting operations. The use of logging systems that
more than 50 inches, others have a thin, very weakly leave residual biomass well distributed on the surface of
developed subsoil, and others are better drained than the soil helps to conserve organic matter. Applications of
Immokalee soil. The included soils make up about 15 nitrogen fertilizer with phosphorus provide excellent
percent of this map unit. growth response.
In most years, this soil has a high water table at a Excessive wetness during rainy periods is a severe
depth of less than 12 inches for about 2 months and limitation to use of this soil for urban development. The
between depths of 12 and 40 inches for more than 8 high water table can interfere with the proper functioning
months. The available water capacity is low in the of septic tank absorption fields. If septic tank absorption
surface layer, very low in the subsurface layer, medium fields are elevated by adding a suitable fill material, this
to high in the subsoil, and low in the substratum. The soil is suited to this use. The use of this soil for building
permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers sites and for local roads and streets also requires that
and in the substratum, and it is moderate in the subsoil. measures be taken to overcome the wetness limitation.
Natural fertility is low. If adequate water outlets are available, a drainage
Some areas of this soil are used for commercial system should be installed to help keep the high water
production of slash pine. Most of the acreage of this soil table at an effective depth. The use of fill material to
is in natural vegetation that includes slash and longleaf elevate building sites and roadbeds will also help keep
pine. The understory vegetation includes sawpalmetto, the high water table at an effective depth.
gallberry, waxmyrtle, lopsided indiangrass, pineland Excessive wetness and the sandy surface layer of this
threeawn, and bluestem. soil are severe limitations for recreational uses. The
Wetness and poor soil quality are severe limitations to wetness limitation can be overcome by establishing a
use of this Immokalee soil for cultivated crops. If a water water control system that will maintain the high water
control system is established and maintained, this soil is table at an effective depth. In areas of intensive foot
suitable for many vegetable crops. The water control traffic, the surface should be stabilized by adding
system must remove excess water in wet periods and suitable fill material or by paving the recreation areas.
provide for subsurface irrigation in dry periods. This Immokalee soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
Management practices should include soil-improving woodland ordination symbol is 8W.







24 Soil Survey



8-Arents, 0 to 2 percent slopes. Arents consists of The potential of this soil for the production of pine
heterogeneus soil materials that were removed from trees is low. In many areas, this soil is not suited for this
other soils and used in land-leveling operations, as fill use because of the wide range of soil properties.
material, or as a cover for sanitary landfills. This material This Arents soil has severe limitations for community
is a mixture of fine sand or sand and fragments of loamy development. The areas that have less than 2 feet of fill
subsoil material. Areas of this soil occur throughout the material may require additional elevation of building
county. The mapped areas are square or rectangular or foundation sites and subgrades for local roads and
are irregular in shape. These areas range from 3 to 80 streets. Areas that have less than 3 feet of fill material
acres. may require additional fill material to elevate the septic
Arents do not have an orderly sequence of soil layers. tank absorption field. Sanitary landfill areas are not
In most areas, the upper 20 to 40 inches is variable and suited to community development. Differential settling of
contains discontinuous lenses, pockets, and streaks of the buried refuse severely limits the use of this soil for
light gray, gray, grayish brown, brown, and yellowish dwellings without basements and for local roads and
brown sand. The average thickness of the fill material is streets in these areas. Sanitary landfill areas are not
about 30 inches. It has few to common light gray, pale suitable for septic tank absorption fields. Refuse cells
brown, grayish brown, or yellowish brown loamy subsoil would not provide adequate filtering capacity of effluents.
fragments. Below that depth is an undisturbed soil that is Differential settling would cause the septic tank
generally sandy. absorption fields to cease functioning.
In some areas, large cells of solid waste refuse are at This soil has a severe limitation for recreational
a depth of more than 2 to 4 feet. This refuse consists of development because the surface is too sandy. The
plastic, wood, glass, concrete, metal, and other materials surface layer can be stabilized by adding suitable fill
that range from 2 to 10 feet in thickness. The refuse material or by paving the high traffic areas to help
generally is stratified with layers of soil material that was overcome this limitation.
used for daily cover. A final layer of soil material is Arents has not been assigned to a capability subclass
spread on top of the refuse and smoothed. These or to a woodland group.
sanitary landfill areas are identified on the soil map by
the words "sanitary landfill" or in small areas by the 9-poorly drPomona fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
letters "SLF" and by the map symbol. poo drained areas are irregul broad flatwood areas. The
Included with this soil in mapping are a few areas in mato 40ed areas are irregularopes in shape and range from 80
which the mixed material has fragments of black or dark Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
reddish brown sandy soil material. A few small areas Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
have shell fragments or loamy subsoil fragments that are sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface later, to a
slightly acid to moderately alkaline. In some spots, the fill depth of 20 inches, is gray and light gray fine sand. The
material is less than 20 inches thick, and in other areas, upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 28 inches, is dark
about 40 inches of fill material is underlain by muck. reddish brown loamy fine san Below that layer to a
Some areas along the Cross Florida Barge Canal have depth of 42 inches, is dark brown and light brownish
slopes up to 20 percent gray fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 73 inches,
slopes up to 20 percent is gray and light gray fine sandy loam. The substratum to
The high water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches a depth of 80 inches is greenish gray fine sandy loam.
for 2 to 6 months. In sanitary landfill areas, the high Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
water table is controlled by perimeter drainage ditches or Myakka, Palmetto, Pomona fine sand, depressional, and
other water control measures. The available water Wauchula soils. Also included are small areas of soils
capacity is very low or low. The permeability is rapid. that are similar to Pomona soil, but, in some soils, the
Natural fertility and the content of organic matter are upper part of the subsoil is more than 30 inches deep,
low. some soils are slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the
The natural vegetation consists of waxmyrtle, inkberry, lower part of the subsoil, and some are weakly
sawpalmetto, longleaf pine, and slash pine. The cemented in the upper part of the susboil. The included
understory vegetation is bluestem, panicum, and soils make up about 15 percent of this map unit.
pineland threeawn. In most years, this soil has a high water table at a
This soil generally is not suited to vegetable crops depth of less than 12 inches for 1 month to 3 months
because of the extreme variability of soil properties and and between depths of 12 and 40 inches for more than
poor soil quality. 6 months. The available water capacity is very low or low
In some areas, improved pasture grasses can be in the surface and subsurface layers, and it is medium or
grown on this soil. Deep-rooted plants, such as high in the subsoil. The permeability is rapid or very rapid
bahiagrass, should be grown. Large amounts of fertilizer in the surface layer and rapid in the subsurface layer,
are needed. and it is moderate to rapid in the upper part of the








Putnam County Area, Florida 25



subsoil and moderately slow to moderate in the lower the subsoil are severe limitations to use as septic tank
part. Natural fertility is low. absorption fields. A water control system should be
Large areas of this soil are used for commercial installed or building sites, roadways, and septic tank
production of slash pine; and in some areas, the soil is absorption fields should be elevated to help overcome
used for vegetable crops. Most of the acreage of this the wetness limitation.
soil is in natural vegetation that includes slash and Excessive wetness and the sandy surface layer of this
longleaf pine. The understory vegetation includes soil are severe limitations for recreational development.
sawpalmetto, gallberry, threeawn, bluestem, and A water control system is needed to help overcome the
lopsided indiangrass. wetness limitation by maintaining the seasonal high
This Pomona soil has severe limitations for cultivated water table at an effective depth. In areas of intensive
crops because of wetness. The number of adapted foot traffic, the sandy surface layer should be stabilized
crops that can be grown on this soil are limited unless by adding suitable fill material or by paving the recreation
intensive management practices are used. If an areas.
adequate water control system is established and This Pomona soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
maintained, this soil is well suited to many vegetable woodland ordination symbol is 10W.
crops, including cabbage and Irish potatoes. The water
control system should be designed to remove excess 10-Pompano fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
surface water after intense rains and to provide for poorly drained. It is in broad, low flatwood areas and
subsurface irrigation during dry periods. Close-growing narrow areas along drainageways. The mapped areas
cover crops should be included in the rotation system are irregular in shape to elongated and range from 10 to
when the soil is not cultivated. Management practices 200 acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
should include leaving crop residue on the soil and using Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
conservation tillage to help control wind erosion, to and dark grayish brown fine sand about 19 inches thick.
conserve moisture, and to maintain soil quality. The underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. is gray and light gray fine sand.
Bermudagrass and bahiagrass grow well when properly Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
managed. A water control system is needed to remove Holopaw, Malabar, and Palmetto soils. Also included are
excess surface water after heavy rains. Regular small areas of soils that are similar to Pompano soil, but
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing some of these soils have a dark brown subsurface layer,
should be controlled to help maintain plant vigor, some are on flood plains and are frequently flooded, and
The potential of the soil for the production of pine others have a subsurface layer of loamy fine sand. The
trees is medium to high. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf included soils make up about 20 percent of this map
pines are the better suited trees to plant for commercial unit.
woodland production. The major concerns in In most years, this soil has a high water table at a
management are the restricted use of equipment on this depth of less than 12 inches for 2 to 6 months. The
soil, rate of seedling mortality, and plant competition. available water capacity is very low. The permeability is
Seasonal wetness and periods of droughtiness limit the rapid. Natural fertility is low.
use of equipment and increase the rate of seedling Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
mortality. Site preparation activities, such as harrowing that includes slash and longleaf pine and scattered gum
and bedding, helps to establish seedlings, reduce and maple. The understory vegetation includes
seedling mortality, and increase early growth. Chopping waxmyrtle, gallberry, scattered sawpalmetto, pineland
and bedding reduce debris, control competing threeawn, and bluestem.
vegetation, and facilitate planting operations. Machinery Wetness and poor soil quality are severe limitations to
equipped with high flotation rubber tires or tracks helps use of this Pompano soil for cultivated crops. The root
to overcome the limitations to use of equipment, reduces zone is limited by a high water table that is near the
soil compaction, and also reduces root damage during surface for long periods. Intensive management
thinning operations. Site preparation and planting and practices must be used to grow crops. A water control
harvesting operations should be scheduled during dry system is needed to remove excess water in wet periods
periods to help overcome the wetness limitations to use and to provide for subsurface irrigation during dry
of equipment. The use of logging systems that leave periods. When the soil is not cultivated, close-growing
residual biomass well distributed on the surface of the cover crops should be included in the rotation system to
soil increases the content of organic matter and residual help maintain the content of organic matter in the soil,
fertility of the soil. Applications of nitrogen fertilizer with maintain tilth, and improve soil quality. Seedbed
phosphorus provide excellent growth response. preparation should include bedding of the rows. Regular
Wetness is a severe limitation of this soil for dwellings applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
and local roads and streets. Wetness, poor filtering This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
capacity, and the slow percolation in the lower part of Bermudagrass and bahiagrass grow well with proper







26 Soil Survey



management. A water control system is needed to material have been removed mainly for use in road
remove excess surface water after heavy rains. Regular construction and as fill material. These are commonly
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing referred to as borrow pits. Most of these areas have
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor, been excavated to a depth of 6 feet or more.
The potential of this soil for the production of pine Included in this map unit is spoil material that is mostly
trees is medium to high. Slash pine is the better suited a mixture of sand and sandy loam, which has been
tree to plant for commercial woodland production. scattered around the edge of the pits. These soils have
Seedling mortality is a major concern in management. little or no agricultural or woodland value. Wildlife or
This soil is drought and does not retain enough recreational areas can be developed after excavation
moisture to sustain plant growth during long, dry periods, operations are discontinued.
Excessive wetness during rainy periods can increase the Udorthents has not been assigned to a capability
rate of seedling mortality. Site preparation activities that subclass or to a woodland group.
include bedding of the rows, furrowing, and surface
drainage help establish seedlings and increase early 12-Electra fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
growth. The use of equipment, seedling mortality, and somewhat poorly drained. It is on low knolls and slopes
plant competition are the main concerns in management. along well defined drainageways on the flatwoods and
Site preparation and planting, thinning, and harvesting on low ridges, knolls, and side slopes on the uplands.
operations should be scheduled to avoid seasonal The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from
limitations. Forest management operations can generally 5 to 150 acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
be carried out during wet periods if machinery is Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine
equipped with large tires or tracks. Harrowing and sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
chopping reduce plant competition. The surface layer of depth of 48 inches, is light gray and light brownish gray
this soil is generally low in organic matter. During site fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 64
preparation and harvesting operations, as much plant inches, is black and dark reddish brown fine sand. The
residue as possible should be left on the surface of the lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is brown fine
soil to help conserve organic matter. Applications of sandy loam.
nitrogen fertilizer with phosphorus provide excellent Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
growth response. Adamsville, Cassia, Hobe, Newnan, and Sparr soils. Also
Wetness is a severe limitation for urban uses, such as included are small areas of soils that are similar to
septic tank absorption fields, building sites, and local Electra soil, but some of these soils have a thick, dark
roads and streets. To help overcome this wetness surface layer. In some of these soils, the lower part of
limitation, a water control system should be established the subsoil is slightly acid to mildly alkaline; and in
and maintained to remove excess water and to maintain others, the upper part of the subsoil is weakly cemented.
the high water table at an effective depth. The poor The included soils make up about 15 percent of this map
filtering capacity of this soil is a severe limitation to use unit.
as septic tank absorption fields. Because of the low In most years, this soil has a high water table between
position of this soil, adequate outlets for water removal depths of 25 and 40 inches for about 4 months, and it
are not available or are difficult to install. The high water recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches during dry
table can be maintained at an effective depth by adding periods. The available water capacity is low in the
suitable fill material to elevate septic tank absorption surface layer, very low in the subsurface layer, and
fields, building sites, and roadways. medium in the subsoil. The permeability is rapid in the
Excessive wetness and the sandy surface of the soil surface and subsurface layers, and it is moderate in the
are severe limitations for recreational development. A upper part of the subsoil and slow or very slow in the
water control system is needed to help overcome the lower part. Natural fertility is low.
wetness limitation and to keep the high water table at an Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
effective depth. If this soil is used for camp areas, picnic that includes laurel oak, live oak, and scrub live oak. The
areas, or playgrounds, the high water table should be understory vegetation is sparse. It includes sawpalmetto,
kept at a depth of about 2.5 feet or more; and if it is grassleaf goldaster, and bluestem.
used for paths and trails, it should be kept at a depth of This Electra soil has severe limitations for cultivated
2 feet or more. The surface should be stabilized by crops. Very poor soil quality is caused by droughtiness
adding suitable fill material or by paving the areas that and rapid leaching of plant nutrients. The root zone is
are subject to intensive foot traffic. limited by a high water table during wet periods. A water
This Pompano soil is in capability subclass IVw. The control system is needed to remove excess water during
woodland ordination symbol is 8W. rainy periods if this soil is cultivated, and an irrigation
system is needed during the dry periods. Soil-improving
11-Udorthents, excavated. Udorthents, excavated, cover crops should be included in the rotation system
consist of excavated areas from which soil and geologic when the soil is not cultivated. Returning crop residue to







Putnam County Area, Florida 27



the soil and using conservation tillage help to conserve are circular to irregular in shape and range from 4 to 300
moisture and control erosion. acres. The slopes are less than 2 percent.
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture. Poor soil Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
quality and periodic drought reduce yields. Bermudagrass sand about 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
and bahiagrass are well adapted to this soil. Regular depth of 28 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing the subsoil, to a depth of 50 inches, is black fine sand.
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor and to keep The lower part, to a depth of about 55 inches, is dark
a good ground cover on the soil. brown fine sand. The underlying material to a depth of
The potential of this soil for the production of pine 80 inches is dark gray fine sand.
trees is medium to high. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf Included with these soils in mapping are small areas of
pines are the better suited trees to plant for commercial Myakka, Ona, Placid, Pomona, and Samsula soils. Also
woodland production. The major concerns in included are small areas of soils that are similar to St.
management are the restricted use of equipment on this Johns soil, but some of these soils have a subsoil at a
soil, high rate of seedling mortality, and plant depth of more than 30 inches, some have a surface
competition. Seasonal wetness and periods of layer of muck that is 4 to 8 inches thick, and others have
droughtiness severely limit the use of equipment and a very weakly developed subsoil. The included soils
cause seedling mortality. Site preparation activities, such make up about 20 percent of this map unit.
as harrowing and bedding, help establish seedlings, In most years, this soil has a high water table that is 1
reduce seedling mortality, and increase early growth. foot to 2 feet above the surface for 6 months or more.
Chopping and bedding reduce debris, control competing The available water capacity is medium in the surface
vegetation, and facilitate planting operations. Machinery layer, very low or low in the subsurface layer and
equipped with high flotation rubber tires or tracks helps substratum, and medium to very high in the subsoil. The
to overcome the limitations to use of equipment, reduces permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
soil compaction, and also reduces root damage during and in the substratum, and it is moderately slow or
thinning operations. Site preparation and planting and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
harvesting operations should be scheduled during dry Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
periods to help overcome the wetness limitations to use that includes bay, cypress, waxmyrtle, scattered gum,
of equipment. The use of logging systems that leave and maple. Some areas have marsh vegetation that
residual biomass well distributed on the surface of the includes maidencane, St.-Johnswort, chalky bluestem,
soil increases the content of organic matter and residual and panicum.
fertility of the soil. Applications of nitrogen fertilizer with This St. Johns soil is not suitable for cultivated crops.
phosphorus provide excellent growth response. The surface is ponded for long periods, which inhibits
The seasonal high water table and poor filtering plant growth and interferes if the soil is cultivated. This
capacity are severe limitations to use of this soil as soil is in low-lying, depressional areas. Adequate outlets
septic tank absorption fields. If adequate water outlets to remove excess water are generally not available or
are available, a water control system should be are difficult to install and maintain.
established to maintain the high water table at an This soil is not suited to improved pasture and hay
effective depth. If water outlets are not available, the crops. The surface is ponded for long periods, which
septic tank absorption field should be elevated to help severely limits growth of improved pasture plants.
keep the high water table at an effective depth. Wetness Adequate water outlets for surface drainage systems are
is a moderate limitation for building sites and for local generally not available.
roads and streets. Special measures, such as installing a This soil generally is not used for commercial
water control system or elevating building sites and production of pine trees because of ponding. The
roadways, will help to overcome this wetness limitation, potential of this soil for the production of pine trees is
The sandy surface layer of this soil is a severe moderate if this soil has adequate surface drainage.
limitation for recreational development. To reduce or Slash pine is the better suited tree to plant for
overcome this limitation, the surface layer should be commercial woodland production. The use of equipment
stabilized by adding suitable fill material or paving the and seedling mortality are the main concerns in
areas that are subject to intensive foot traffic. management. This soil is rarely drained for commercial
Establishing a good vegetation cover on this soil is woodland production.
difficult. This soil has severe limitations for urban development.
This Electra soil is in capability subclass VIs. The Ponding restricts the use of this soil for building sites, for
woodland ordination symbol is 8S. local roads and streets, and as septic tank absorption
fields. Adequate drainage outlets to remove excess
13-St. Johns fine sand, depressional. This soil is water are generally not available. If this soil is used for
nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressional urban development, large quantities of fill material would
areas on the flatwoods and uplands. The mapped areas be required to elevate the building sites, roadways, and







28 Soil Survey



septic tank absorption fields and to maintain the high and bahiagrass are well adapted to this soil. Regular
water table at an effective depth. applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
Because of the sandy surface layer and ponding for should be controlled to maintain plant vigor and to help
long periods, this soil has severe limitations for keep a good ground cover on the soil.
recreational development. If outlets to remove excess The potential of this soil for the production of pine
water are available, this soil can be used for camp and trees is medium. Slash and longleaf pines are the better
picnic areas, playgrounds, and paths and trails. The suited trees to plant for commercial woodland
surface should be stabilized by adding suitable fill production. The major concerns in management are the
material or by paving the areas that are subject to use of equipment on this soil, seedling mortality, and
intensive foot traffic. plant competition. Seasonal wetness and periods of
This St. Johns soil is in capability subclass VIIw. The droughtiness are moderate limitations to use of
woodland ordination symbol is 2W. equipment and severely reduce the rate of seedling
survival. Site preparation activities, such as harrowing
14-Cassia fine sand. This soil is nearly level and and bedding, help to establish seedlings, reduce
somewhat poorly drained. It is on small knolls on the seedling mortality, and increase early growth. Chopping
flatwoods and in low positions on the uplands. The and bedding reduce debris, control competing
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 5 to vegetation, and facilitate planting operations. Machinery
150 acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. equipped with high flotation rubber tires or tracks helps
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of gray fine sand to overcome the limitation to use of equipment, reduces
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of soil compaction, and also reduces root damage during
28 inches, is light gray, white, and gray fine sand. The thinning operations. Site preparation and planting and
subsoil, to a depth of 46 inches, is very dark grayish harvesting operations should be scheduled during dry
brown and dark brown fine sand. The substratum to a periods to overcome the wetness limitationsuse
sandepth of 80 inches is pale brown and light gray fine of equipment. The use of logging systems that leave

Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of residual biomass well distributed on the surfaceof the
Adamsville, Myakka, Narcoossee, and Zolfo soils. Also soil increases the content of organic matter and residual
included are small areas of a soil that is similar to Cassia fertility of the soil. Applications of nitrogen fertilizer with
soil, but it is moderately well drained and has a subsoil phosphorus provide excellent growth response.
at a depth of more than 30 inches. The included soils A seasonal high water table is a severe limitation to
make up about 20 percent of this map unit. use of this soil a s septic tank absorption fields. A water
In most years, this soil has a high water table at a control system should be established to maintain the
depth of 15 to 40 inches for about 6 months. It is at a high water table. The septic tank absorption fields should
depth of more than 40 inches during extended dry be elevated by adding suitable fill material to help keep
periods. The available water capacity is very low or low the high water table at an adequate depth and to
in the surface and subsurface layers and in the improve infiltration. Limitations are moderate for building
substratum, and it is medium in the subsoil. The sites and local roads and streets. Installing a water
permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers control system or elevating roadways will help to
and in the substratum, and it is moderate or moderately overcome these limitations.
rapid in the subsoil. Natural fertility is very low. The loose, sandy surface layer of this soil is a severe
In a few areas, this soil has been planted to slash limitation for recreational development. The surface layer
pine. Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural should be stabilized by adding suitable fill material or by
vegetation that includes slash pine, live oak, water oak, paving the area to help overcome this limitation.
sawpalmetto, bluestem, and pineland threeawn. This Cassia soil is in capability subclass Vis. The
This Cassia soil has severe limitations for cultivated woodland ordination symbol is 8S.
crops. Very poor soil quality is caused by droughtiness
and rapid leaching of plant nutrients. The root zone is 15-Apopka sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is
limited by a high water table during wet periods. A water nearly level to gently sloping and well drained. It is on
control system is needed to remove excess water during ridges and side slopes on the uplands. The mapped
rainy periods if this soil is cultivated, and an irrigation areas are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 300
system is needed during the dry periods. Soil-improving acres.
crops should be included in the rotation system at least Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark grayish
two-thirds of the time. Returning crop residue to the soil brown sand about 7 inches thick. The upper part of the
and using conservation tillage help conserve moisture subsurface layer, to a depth of 40 inches, is pale brown
and control erosion. and very pale brown sand. The lower part, to a depth of
This soil has moderate limitations for pasture. Poor soil about 43 inches, is brownish yellow sand. The subsoil to
quality and periodic drought reduce yields. Bermudagrass a depth of 80 inches or more is yellowish red sandy clay







Putnam County Area, Florida 29



loam that has red, brownish yellow, and reddish yellow equipment. Machinery equipped with large tires or tracks
mottles. can help overcome this limitation. Using special planting
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of stock that is larger than usual or that is containerized
Bonneau, Candler, Millhopper, and Sparr soils. Also reduces seedling mortality. Scheduling planting
included are small areas of soils that are similar to operations during seasons when rainfall is heavier and
Apopka soil, but some of these soils have a subsoil at a more frequent increases plant growth and the rate of
depth of less than 40 inches, some are on steeper seedlings survival. Logging, site preparation, and planting
slopes than Apopka soil, and others have a surface activities increase and concentrate water runoff on this
texture that is more coarse than fine sand, and others soil and cause soil erosion. These activities should be
have gravel-size quartz pebbles mixed throughout. The avoided in and adjacent to stream beds. Special design
soils that have gravel-size quartz pebbles are mostly in and proper placement of roads, skid trails, and stream
the area between Interlachen and Grandin. The included crossings reduce soil erosion. During site preparation
soils make up about 25 percent of this map unit. and thinning and harvesting operations, as much plant
This soil has a high water table at a depth of more debris as possible should be left on the surface of the
than 80 inches. The available water capacity is very low soil to help conserve organic matter. Applications of
in the surface and subsurface layers, and it is medium or nitrogen fertilizer with phosphorus provide excellent
high in the subsoil. The permeability is rapid in the growth response.
surface and subsurface layers, and it is moderate in the This soil has slight limitations for most urban uses. It
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. can be used as septic tank absorption fields, for
In a few areas, this soil is used for improved pasture dwellings, and for local roads and streets.
and hay crops. Most of the acreage of this soil is in The sandy surface layer of this soil is a severe
natural vegetation that includes turkey oak and a few limitation for recreational development. The surface
longleaf pine. The understory vegetation is sparse and should be stabilized by adding suitable fill material or by
includes bluestem, threeawn, and lopsided indiangrass. paving areas to help overcome this limitation.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are This Apopka soil i s in capability subclass Ills. The
severe limitations to use of this Apopka soil for cultivated Ths oodlApopka soil is in capability subclass 10lls. The
crops. The available water capacity is very low or low in woodland ordination symbol is 10S.
the root zone. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed, and this soil and. This soil is nearly level and
has little runoff. This soil requires special measures somewhat poorly drained. This sol s nearly level and
when cultivated crops are grown. Close-growing cover somewhat poorly drained. It is on low knolls on the
crops should be included in the cropping system when flatwoods and on low side slopes on the uplands. The
the soil is not cultivated. Crop residue should be left on mapped areas range from 30 to 120 acres. The slopes
the soil to control erosion and increase the content of range from 0 to 2 percent.
organic matter. If adequate water is available, irrigation Typically, this soil has a surface layer of grayish brown
of high value crops is practical. Frequent applications of sand about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
fertilizer and lime are necessary. underlying material, to a depth of 42 inches, is very pale
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. Deep- brown and light yellowish brown sand. The lower part to
rooted plants, such as bermudagrass and bahiagrass, a depth of 80 inches is light gray sand.
are well adapted to this soil, and high yields can be Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
obtained if the soil is well fertilized and limed. Yields are Cassia, Narcoossee, Tavares, and Zolfo soils. Also
reduced by extended periods of drought. Grazing should included are small areas of a soil that is similar to
be controlled to maintain plant vigor and obtain Adamsville soil, but it has a surface layer of black or very
maximum yields. dark gray sand that is more than 10 inches thick. The
The potential of this soil for the production of pine included soils make up less than 10 percent of this map
trees is medium to high. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf unit.
pines are the better suited trees to plant for commercial In most years, this soil has a high water table at a
woodland production. The use of equipment, seedling depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. In some
mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns in years, the high water table is at a depth of 10 to 20
management. This soil is drought, and seasonal dry inches for about 2 weeks. The permeability is rapid. The
periods and very low available water capacity in the root available water capacity is low in the surface layer and is
zone cause excessive seedling mortality and inhibit plant very low to low in the underlying material. Natural fertility
growth. Plant competition from hardwoods, mostly oaks, is low.
can be reduced if herbicides are used during site A small acreage of this soil is used for improved
preparation. Site preparation activities should include pasture and hay crops and for commercial production of
chopping, which helps control competing vegetation, slash pine. Most of the acreage is in natural vegetation
reduces debris, and facilitates planting operations. The of water oak, laurel oak, and live oak and a few longleaf
loose, sandy surface of this soil is a limitation to use of pine and slash pine. The sparse understory vegetation







30 Soil Survey



includes pineland threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, and This soil has a severe limitation for recreational
bluestem. development because the surface layer is too sandy.
Periodic wetness is a severe limitation to use of this The surface should be stabilized by adding suitable fill
Adamsville soil for cultivated crops. If a water control material or by paving the area to minimize the effects of
system is installed to remove excess water during wet this limitation.
periods and provide irrigation during dry periods, this soil This Adamsville soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
is well suited to a variety of vegetable crops. woodland ordination symbol is 10W.
Management should include close-growing cover crops
when the soil is not cultivated. Crop residue should be 17-Millhopper sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
left on the ground to help control erosion, to increase soil is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well
the content of organic matter, and to maintain soil tilth. drained. It is on ridges and side slopes on the uplands.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed but The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from
should be applied according to the needs of the crop. 30 to 120 acres.
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay Typically, this soil has a surface layer of grayish brown
crops. A water control system is needed to remove sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
excess water during heavy rains. Applications of fertilizer depth of 66 inches, is light yellowish brown, very pale
and lime are needed, and grazing must be controlled to brown, and light gray sand. The upper part of the
maintain plant vigor and obtain maximum yields. subsoil, to a depth of 70 inches, is brown fine sandy
The potential of this soil for the production of pine loam. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is gray
trees is medium to high. Slash and longleaf pines are the ndy clay loam.
better suited trees to plant for commercial woodland Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
betteproduction. The main concerns in managementrcial woodlandre the Apopka, Candler, Sparr, and Tavares soils. Also included
pruse of equipment, seedl main concerns in mand plagement are the are small areas of soils that are similar to Millhopper soil,
use of equipment, seedling mortality, and plant but some of these soils have a surface layer of fine
competition. Seasonal wetness and periods of sand, some have a thick, dark surface layer, and others
droughtiness are moderate limitations to use of have a slightly acid or neutral subsoil. The included soils
equipment on this soil and increase the rate of seedling make up about 15 percent of this map unit.
mortality. Site preparation activities, such as harrowing In most years, this soil has a high water table at a
and bedding, help establish seedlings, reduce seedling depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 month to 4 months. It can
mortality, and increase early growth; and chopping and be at a depth of 30 to 40 inches for a few days after
bedding reduce debris, control competing vegetation, heavy rains. The available water capacity is low in the
and facilitate planting operations. The use of machinery surface and subsurface layers, and it is medium in the
equipped with high flotation rubber tires or tracks will subsoil. The permeability is rapid in the surface and
help overcome the wetness limitation to use of subsurface layers, and it is moderate to slow in the
equipment, reduce soil compaction, and also reduce root subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
damage during thinning operations. Site preparation and In a few small areas, this soil is used for improved
planting and harvesting operations should be scheduled pasture, hay, or vegetable crops. Most of the acreage of
during dry periods to help overcome the limitations to this soil is in natural vegetation that includes turkey oak
use of equipment on this soil. The use of logging and longleaf pine. The understory vegetation is sparse. It
systems that leave residual biomass well distributed on includes pineland threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, and
the surface of the soil increases the content of organic bluestem.
matter and residual fertility of the soil. Applications of This Millhopper soil has severe limitations for most
nitrogen fertilizer with phosphorus provide excellent cultivated crops. It is drought, and plant nutrients are
growth response. rapidly leached from the root zone. The plants that can
Wetness and poor filtering capacity are severe be grown on this soil are limited. If this soil is cultivated,
limitations to use of this soil as septic tank absorption management practices that control erosion and improve
fields. This limitation can be overcome by using fill soil quality should be used. These practices include
material to elevate the septic tank absorption field and to using conservation tillage and leaving crop residue on
help keep the high water table at an effective depth, the soil. Close-growing cover crops should be included in
Wetness is a moderate limitation for dwellings and for the cropping system when the soil is not cultivated.
local roads and streets. To help overcome this limitation, Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. It
a water control system should be established to help is feasible to grow high-value crops on this soil if
maintain the high water table at an effective depth if irrigation water is readily available.
adequate water outlets are available. The use of fill This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture
material to elevate building sites and roadways may be and hay crops. Deep-rooted plants, such as
needed if an effective water control system cannot be bermudagrass and bahiagrass, are well adapted to this
established, soil, and high yields can be obtained if this soil is







Putnam County Area, Florida 31



fertilized and limed. Yields are reduced by periodic Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray
drought. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
vigor and to help keep a good ground cover on the soil. depth of 27 inches, is brown grading to pale brown sand.
The potential of this soil for the production of pine The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 32 inches, is
trees is medium to high. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf yellowish brown loamy sand. The next layer, to a depth
pines are the better suited trees to plant for commercial of 44 inches, is light brownish gray sandy clay loam. The
woodland production. The use of equipment, seedling next layer, to a depth of 62 inches, is light gray sandy
mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns in clay loam. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or
management. This soil is drought, and seasonal dry more is light gray fine sandy loam.
periods and very low available water capacity in the root Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
zone cause excessive seedling mortality and inhibit plant Apopka, Bonneau, Millhopper, and Sparr soils. Also
growth. Plant competition from hardwoods, mostly oaks, included are small areas of soils that are similar to
can be reduced if herbicides are used during site Lochloosa soil, but some of these soils are poorly
preparation. Site preparation activities should include drained, and some have a surface layer of fine sand.
chopping and applications of herbicides to help control The included soils make up about 10 percent of this map
competing vegetation, reduce debris, and facilitate unit.
planting operations. The loose, sandy surface of this soil In most years, this soil has a high water table between
is a limitation to use of equipment. Machinery equipped depths of 30 and 60 inches for 1 month to 4 months.
with large tires or tracks can help overcome this During rainy periods, it is at a depth of about 15 inches
limitation. Using special planting stock that is larger than for 1 week to 3 weeks. The available water capacity is
usual or that is containerized reduces seedling mortality. medium. The permeability is rapid to moderately rapid in
Scheduling planting operations during seasons when the surface and subsurface layers, moderate to
rainfall is heavier and more frequent increases the rate moderately rapid in the upper part of the subsoil and
of seedling survival and sustains plant growth. Logging, moderate or moderately slow in the lower part, and slow
site preparation, and planting activities increase and in the substratum. Natural fertility is low.
concentrate water runoff on this soil and cause soil A large acreage of this soil is used for commercial
erosion. These activities should be avoided in and production of slash pine. Natural vegetation includes
adjacent to stream beds. Special design and proper turkey oak, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine. The
placement of roads, skid trails, and stream crossings nderstory v egetation consists of buestem, opsided
reduce soil erosion. During site preparation and thinning Wetness is a moderate limitation to use of this
and harvesting operations, as much plant debris as Lochloosa soil for cultivated crops. The root zone is
possible should be left on the surface of the soil to help limited by the high water table during wet periods. A
conserve organic matter. Applications of nitrogencontrol system is needed to obtain maximum
fertilizer with phosphorus provide excellent growth yields from corn or peanuts. Close-growing cover crops
response, should be included in the cropping system when the soil
Wetness is a moderate or slight limitation to use of is not cultivated. Cover crops should be planted and
this soil for urban development. It is a moderate crop residue should be left on the soil to help maintain
limitation to use as septic tank absorption fields. This the content of organic matter and soil tilth. Seedbed
limitation can be overcome by adding fill material to preparation and applications of fertilizer and lime are
slightly elevate the septic tank absorption field. needed to ensure maximum yields.
Limitations to use of this soil for dwellings and for local This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
roads and streets are slight. The soil is well suited to Bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted to this
these uses, and special measures are not needed to soil, and high yields can be obtained if the soil is
overcome the wetness limitation, properly managed. Management practices should include
The sandy surface layer of this soil is a severe applications of fertilizer and lime and controlled grazing.
limitation for recreational development. The surface layer The potential of this soil for the production of pine
should be stabilized by adding suitable fill material or by trees is high. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf pines are the
paving the areas to help overcome this limitation, better suited trees to plant for commercial woodland
This Millhopper soil is in capability subclass Ills. The production. An adequate supply of phosphorus is needed
woodland ordination symbol is 10S. for maximum growth. The major concerns in
management are the use of equipment on this soil and
18-Lochloosa sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This seedling mortality. The loose, sandy surface layer of this
soil is nearly level to gently sloping and somewhat poorly soil is a limitation to use of equipment. Machinery
drained. It is on low knolls and ridges on the uplands. equipped with large, low-pressure tires or tracks helps to
The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from overcome this limitation and also helps to prevent soil
30 to 200 acres. compaction. The available water capacity is low in the







32 Soil Survey



root zone. During long, dry periods, this soil does not moderate to rapid in the upper part of the subsoil and
retain enough moisture in the root zone to sustain plant moderately slow to moderate in the lower part. Natural
growth. Using special planting stock that is larger than fertility is low.
usual or that is containerized reduces seedling mortality. Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
Planting activities should be scheduled during periods that includes cypress, sweetgum, red maple, and bay. In
when rainfall is heavier and more frequent. Logging, site areas with dense tree growth, the understory vegetation
preparation, and planting operations can increase and is sparse. If the canopy cover is thin, the understory
concentrate water runoff on this soil and cause soil vegetation includes maidencane, cordgrass, and other
erosion. Special design and proper placement of roads, water-tolerant plants.
skid trails, and stream crossings reduce soil erosion. Ponding is a severe limitation to use of this Pomona
Applications of nitrogen fertilizer with phosphorus and soil for cultivated crops or improved pasture. The water
potassium provide excellent growth response, table is above the surface during long periods of
Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this soil as wetness. A water control system is needed and is
septic tank absorption fields. A water control system is difficult to establish because of the low position of this
needed to help overcome this limitation by slightly soil on the landscape. Adequate outlets to remove
lowering the high water table to an effective depth. excess water are generally not available or are difficult to
Adding suitable fill material to elevate the septic tank install and maintain.
absorption field can also help to overcome the wetness This soil is not suited to commercial woodland
limitation. Limitations for dwellings and for local roads production because the surface is ponded for long
and streets are slight. Special measures are not needed periods.
for these uses. This soil has severe limitations for urban uses, such as
The sandy surface layer of this soil is a severe septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads
limitation for recreational development. In areas of and streets. The surface is ponded for long periods
intensive foot traffic, the surface should be stabilized for during rainy seasons. This limitation is very difficult to
recreational uses by adding suitable fill material or by overcome. A water control system is difficult to establish
paving the area to help overcome this limitation, because of the low position of this soil on the landscape
This Lochloosa soil is in capability subclass llw. The and because water outlets are generally not available. If
woodland ordination symbol is 11A. septic tank absorption fields, building sites, and
roadways are elevated, the high water table can be
19-Pomona fine sand, depressional. This soil is maintained at an effective depth. Large amounts of fill
nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressional material would be needed to elevate these areas.
areas on the flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular Because of ponding during rainy periods and the
in shape to circular and range from 3 to 250 acres. The sandy surface layer, this soil has severe limitations for
slopes are concave and are less than 2 percent. recreational development. A water control system is
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine needed to remove excess water and to maintain the high
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a water table at an effective depth. This ponding limitation
depth of 25 inches, is gray and light gray fine sand. The is not easily overcome. A water control system is difficult
upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 31 inches, is dark to establish because of the low position of this soil on
brown and dark yellowish brown fine sand. Below that the landscape and because water outlets needed to
layer, to a depth of 53 inches, is brown and light gray install the system are generally not available.
fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil to a depth of 80 This Pomona soil is in capability subclass VIIw. The
inches or more is light gray fine sandy loam and gray woodland ordination symbol is 2W.
sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of 20-Bluff sandy clay loam, frequently flooded. This
Placid and Tomoka soils. Also included are small areas soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in
of soils that are similar to Pomona soil, but some of drainageways on the flatwoods. The mapped areas are
these soils have a thick, dark surface layer and have a generally broad to narrow and elongated. These areas
subsoil at a depth of about 31 inches or more, and some range from 5 to 1,000 acres. The slopes range from 0 to
are slightly acid to moderately alkaline in the lower part 2 percent.
of the subsoil. The included soils make up about 20 Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of this
percent of this map unit. soil is black sandy clay loam about 16 inches thick, and
In most years, this soil has a high water table that is 1 the lower part, to a depth of 19 inches, is very dark gray
foot to 2 feet above the surface for 6 to 9 months. The sandy clay loam. The upper part of the subsoil, to a
available water capacity is low in the surface layer, very depth of 39 inches, is dark gray sandy clay loam. The
low or low in the subsurface layer, and medium or high middle part, to a depth of 49 inches, is gray sandy clay.
in the subsoil. The permeability is rapid or very rapid in The lower part, to a depth of 60 inches, is olive gray
the surface layer and rapid in the subsurface layer. It is sandy clay. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or








Putnam County Area, Florida



more is light gray sandy clay loam mixed with soft severe. This soil is suitable for recreational uses if a
calcium carbonate accumulations and hard calcium water control system is established to help control
carbonate nodules. flooding. The water control system should maintain the
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of high water table at an effective depth.
Holopaw and Riviera soils. Also included are small areas This Bluff soil is in capability subclass Vw. The
of soils that are similar to Bluff soil, but some of these woodland ordination symbol is 6W.
soils have a surface layer that is more than 24 inches
thick, some are strongly acid to extremely acid 21-Apopka sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This soil is
throughout, some have a muck surface layer that is 5 to sloping and well drained. It is on the uplands. The
10 inches thick, and some soils in depressional areas mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 2 to
are ponded for very long periods. The included soils 125 acres.
make up about 25 percent of this map unit. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark grayish
In most years, this soil has a high water table at a brown sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer,
depth of less than 12 inches for more than 6 months. to a depth of 55 inches, is light yellowish brown and very
This soil is frequently flooded for long periods during pale brown sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
rainy seasons. The available water capacity is high in the more is brownish yellow and red sandy loam.
surface layer, and it is medium or high in the subsoil and Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
substratum. The permeability is moderately slow in the Bonneau, Candler, Millhopper, and Sparr soils. Also
subsoil and substratum. Natural fertility is moderate, included are small areas of soils that are similar to
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation Apopka soil, but some of these soils are on steeper
that includes sweetgum, red maple, hickory, bay, water slopes than Apopka soil, some have a surface layer of
oak, cabbage palm, and cypress. The understory fine sand, and some soils that are mostly in the area
vegetation is sparse. It consists-of -raidencane, flags, between Interlachen and Grandin have gravel-size,
and scattered waxmyrtle. rounded, quartz pebbles mixed throughout. The included
This Bluff soil is not suited to cultivated"crops, soils make up about 10 percent of this map unit.
improved pasture, or hay crops because of excessive This soil has a high water table at a depth of more
wetness and flooding. The root zone is limited by the than 80 inches at all times. The available water capacity
high water table. This soil is flooded during wet periods, is very low in the surface and subsurface layers, and it is
This soil generally is not used for growing pine trees medium to high in the subsoil. The permeability is rapid
because of flooding. The potential of this soil for the in the surface and subsurface layers, and it is moderate
production of pine trees is high, but trees can be grown in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
if an adequate water control system is established and Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
maintained. The water control system is needed to help that includes turkey oak, scattered live oak, longleaf
control flooding and to remove excess surface water pine, and slash pine. The understory vegetation is
after heavy rains. The use of equipment on this soil and sparse. It includes pineland threeawn, bluestem, and
seedling mortality are the main concerns in lopsided indiangrass.
management. Poor soil quality and steepness of slope are severe
This soil has severe limitations for urban uses, such as limitations to use of this Apopka soil for cultivated crops.
septic tank absorption fields, building sites, and local The root zone is deep and well aerated, but it does not
roads and streets. The use of this soil as septic tank retain adequate moisture for crops during periods of
absorption fields is limited because of flooding, a high drought. Fertilizer is rapidly leached from the soil. If this
water table, and slow permeability. The use of this soil soil is cultivated, special soil-improving measures should
for building sites is limited by flooding, a high water table, be used, and erosion must be controlled. Conservation
and the high clay content. The clay expands when wet tillage should be used. Row crops should be planted on
and contracts when dry, which causes the support for the contour and in alternate strips with close-growing
building foundations to be unstable. The use of this soil cover crops. Crop residue should be left on the surface
for local roads and streets is limited by low soil strength, to control erosion and improve soil quality. Frequent
a high water table, and flooding. The limitations for urban applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
uses are difficult to overcome. It is difficult to control This soil is well suited to citrus trees if freezing
flooding and to remove excess water because of the low temperatures are not a problem. A ground cover of
position of this soil on the landscape. The use of fill close-growing vegetation is needed between trees to
material to elevate septic tank absorption fields, building help control erosion. High yields can be obtained in most
sites, and roadways helps to overcome these limitations. years without irrigation. If adequate water is available,
Unsuitable soil material should be excavated and irrigation is generally feasible.
backfilled with a more suitable soil material. This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay
Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this soil for crops. Deep-rooted plants, such as bahiagrass and
recreational development. The hazard of flooding is bermudagrass, are well adapted to this soil. Yields are








34 Soil Survey



reduced by extended periods of drought. Applications of 28 inches, is black fine sand. The next layer, to a depth
fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be of 31 inches, is light gray fine sand. The lower part to a
controlled to maintain plant vigor, depth of 80 inches or more is dark grayish brown,
The potential of this soil for the production of pine grayish brown, and gray fine sandy loam.
trees is medium to high. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
pines are the better suited trees to plant for commercial Hontoon, Placid, Samsula, and St. Johns soils. Also
woodland production. The use of equipment, seedling included are small areas of soils that are similar to
mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns in Tomoka soil, but they have a muck surface layer that is
management. This soil is drought, and seasonal dry less than 16 inches thick, and some have a sandy loam
periods and a very low available water capacity in the layer that is medium acid to mildly alkaline. The included
root zone cause an excessive rate of seedling mortality soils make up about 20 percent of this map unit.
and inhibit plant growth. Plant competition from This soil has a high water table at or above the
hardwoods, mostly oaks, can be reduced if herbicides surface except during extended dry periods. The
are used during site preparation. Site preparation available water capacity is very high in the muck layer,
activities should include chopping and applications of low in the sandy layer, and medium in the loamy layer.
herbicides. The loose, sandy surface of this soil is a The permeability is rapid in the muck and sandy layers,
limitation to use of equipment. Machinery equipped with and it is moderate or moderately rapid in the loamy layer.
large tires or tracks can help overcome this limitation. Natural fertility is high.
Using special planting stock that is larger than usual or Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation that
that is containerized reduces seedling mortality, includes bay, cypress, maple, and other hardwoods.
Scheduling planting operations during periods when Some areas have a marsh vegetation of sawgrass,
rainfall is heavier and more frequent will increase the maidencane, and other water-tolerant plants.
rate of seedling survival and increase plant growth. Excessive wetness is a severe limitation to use of this
Logging, site preparation, and planting activities can Tomoka soil for cultivated crops. In its natural state, the
increase and concentrate water runoff on this soil and root zone is limited by a high water table that is within 12
cause soil erosion. These activities should be avoided in inches of the surface. In most areas, this soil is covered
and adjacent to stream beds. Special design and proper by water for long periods. If an adequate water control
location of roads, skid trails, and stream crossings system is established and maintained, this soil is well
reduce soil erosion. During site preparation and thinning suited to vegetable or grain crops. A properly designed
and harvesting operations, as much plant debris as and maintained water control system is needed to
possible should be left on the surface of this soil to help remove excess water during the growing season. This
conserve organic matter. Applications of nitrogen soil should be saturated when it is not cultivated to keep
fertilizer with phosphorus provide excellent growth oxidation of the muck layers to a minimum. Fertilizer that
response. contains phosphate, potash, and minor elements is
This soil has slight limitations to use as septic tank needed. Regular applications of lime are needed for this
absorption fields, for dwellings, and for local roads and acid soil. Crop residue should be left on the soil to help
streets, but it is well suited to these uses. control erosion, maintain moisture, and improve soil
The sandy surface layer of this soil is a severe quality.
limitation for recreational development. Slopes are a This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops if a
severe limitation if this soil is used for playgrounds. The water control system is established and maintained.
surface layer should be stabilized by adding suitable fill Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well if the
material, paving the area, or smoothing the land to help soil is properly managed. To help prevent excessive
overcome these limitations. oxidation of the organic soil layers, the water control
This Apopka soil is in capability subclass IVs. The system should keep the high water table near the
woodland ordination symbol is 10S. surface. Fertilizer that is high in phosphate, potash, and
minor elements is needed. Grazing should be controlled
22-Tomoka muck. This organic soil is nearly level to obtain maximum yields.
and very poorly drained. It formed in moderately thick This soil is not suited to commercial woodland
beds of hydrophytic, nonwoody plant remains. This soil is production. The potential of this soil for the production of
in depressional areas on the flatwoods and in a few pine trees is very low. The use of equipment on this soil,
upland areas. The mapped areas are irregular in shape seedling mortality, and low soil strength are concerns in
to circular and range from 4 to 250 acres. The slopes management. Excessive wetness causes a high rate of
are concave and are less than 1 percent. seedling mortality; and because of the low soil strength,
Typically, the upper part of the surface layer of this the hazard of windthrow is high.
soil is black muck about 12 inches thick. The lower part, The rapid permeability and poor filtering capacity are
to a depth of 24 inches, is dark reddish brown muck. severe limitations to use of this soil as septic tank
The upper part of the underlying material, to a depth of absorption fields. This soil is saturated for long periods,







Putnam County Area, Florida 35



and the organic material is rapidly permeable and does threeawn, and bluestem. A large acreage of this soil is
not adequately filter the effluent in the septic tank used for commercial production of slash pine.
absorption field. This can cause contamination of the Excessive wetness is a severe limitation to use of this
ground water. Ponding and the low strength of the Palmetto soil for cultivated crops. Because of this
organic material are severe limitations to use of this soil limitation, the number and kinds of crops that can be
for dwellings and for local roads and streets. The organic grown on this soil are limited. If an adequate water
layers should be removed and the building sites and control system is established and maintained, potatoes,
roadbeds should be elevated to overcome these cabbage, and many other vegetable crops can be grown.
limitations. The water control system should remove excess surface
Ponding, low strength, and the high water table are water after heavy rains and provide for subsurface
severe limitations to use of this soil for recreational irrigation during dry periods. Close-growing cover crops
development. Because this soil is in depressional areas, should be included in the rotation system when the soil
a water control system to maintain the high water table is not cultivated. Returning crop residue to the soil
at an effective depth is difficult to establish and maintain, increases the content of organic matter and maintains
The surface layer has poor trafficability because of the soil tilth.
low strength of the organic material. This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
This Tomoka soil is in capability subclass Vllw crops. A water control system is needed to remove
(undrained). The woodland ordination symbol is 2W. excess water during wet periods. Applications of lime
and fertilizer are needed. Grazing should be controlled to
23-Palmetto fine sand. This soil is nearly level and help maintain plant vigor.
poorly drained. It is in broad, low flatwood areas and The potential of this soil for the production of pine
long, narrow bands bordering streams and drainageways. trees is medium to high. Slash pine is the better suited
The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from tree to plant for commercial woodland production.
5 to 300 acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. Seedling mortality is a major concern in management.
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray This soil is drought and does not retain enough
and dark gray fine sand about 10 inches thick. The moisture to sustain plant growth during long, dry periods.
upper part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of 21 Excessive wetness during rainy periods increases the
inches, is gray and light gray fine sand. The lower part, rate of seedling mortality. Proper site preparation that
to a depth of 26 inches, is gray fine sand mixed with includes bedding, furrowing, or surface drainage helps to
fragments of dark reddish brown fine sand. The upper establish seedlings and increases early plant growth.
part of the subsoil, to a depth of about 34 inches, is dark The use of equipment, seedling mortality, and plant
yellowish brown and yellowish brown fine sand. The next competition are the main concerns in management. Site
layer, to a depth of 52 inches, is light gray fine sand. preparation and planting, thinning, and harvesting
Below that layer, the subsoil, to a depth of 75 inches, is operations should be scheduled to avoid seasonal
light gray fine sandy loam and to a depth of 80 inches is limitations. Forest management operations can generally
gray loamy fine sand. be carried out during wet periods if machinery is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of equipped with large tires or tracks. Harrowing and
Holopaw and Pomona soils. Also included are small chopping reduce plant competition. The surface layer of
areas of soils similar to Palmetto soil, but some of these this soil is generally low in organic matter. During site
soils do not have dark yellowish brown and yellowish preparation and harvesting operations, as much plant
brown fine sand in the upper part of the subsoil; in some, residue as possible should be left on the surface of the
the lower part of the subsoil is neutral to moderately soil to help conserve organic matter. Applications of
alkaline; and in others, the upper part of the subsoil is at nitrogen fertilizer with phosphorus provide excellent
a depth of more than 30 inches. The included soils make growth response.
up about 15 percent of this map unit. Excessive wetness is a severe limitation to use of this
In most years, this soil has a high water table at a soil for urban development, such as septic tank
depth of less than 12 inches for 2 to 6 months. The absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and streets.
available water capacity is low in the surface and Poor filtering capacity is also a limitation to use of this
subsurface layers and in the upper part of the subsoil, soil as septic tank absorption fields. A drainage system
and it is medium in the lower part of the subsoil. The is needed to remove excess water. Septic tank
permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers absorption fields should be elevated by adding fill
and in the upper part of the subsoil, and it is moderately material. Building foundations and roadbeds should be
slow in the lower part of the subsoil. Natural fertility is reinforced and may require special design and
low. construction.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation Excessive wetness and the sandy surface layer of this
of slash and longleaf pine. The understory vegetation soil are severe limitations for recreational development.
includes waxmyrtle, gallberry, scattered palmetto, A water control system is needed to overcome the








36 Soil Survey



wetness limitation by maintaining the seasonal high suited tree to plant for commercial woodland production.
water table at an effective depth. In areas of intensive Site preparation should include bedding of the rows.
foot traffic, the surface layer should be stabilized by Excessive wetness is a severe limitation for urban
adding suitable fill material or by paving the recreation uses, such as septic tank absorption fields, dwellings,
areas. and local roads and streets. Poor filtering capacity is
This Palmetto soil is in capability subclass IVw. The also a limitation to use of this soil as septic tank
woodland ordination symbol is 10W. absorption fields. The hazard of flooding is severe. It is
difficult to control flooding and to remove excess water
24-Holopaw fine sand, frequently flooded. This because of the low position of this soil on the landscape.
soil is nearly level and poorly drained. It is on broad to Large amounts of fill material would be needed to
narrow flood plains of rivers, streams, and drainageways elevate septic tank absorption fields, building sites, and
on the flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in roadbeds. The possibility of ground water contamination
shape to long and narrow and range from 4 to 500 because of poor filtering of effluents in septic tank
acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. absorption fields when the soil is flooded would continue
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray to exist.
fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to Wetness and the sandy surface are severe limitations
a depth of 54 inches, is gray and dark gray fine sand. for recreational development. Flooding is a severe
The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark gray hazard. A water control system is needed to help control
and greenish gray sandy clay loam. flooding if the soil is used for camp areas and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of playgrounds. A water control system should help
Bluff and Riviera soils. Also included are small areas of maintain the high water table at an effective depth. In
soils that are similar to Holopaw soil, but they have a areas of intensive foot traffic, the loose, sandy surface
thicker, dark surface layer. The included soils make up layer should be stabilized by adding a suitable fill
about 20 percent of this map unit. material or by paving the recreation areas.
This soil is frequently flooded for long periods during This Holopaw soil is in capability subclass VIw
rainy seasons. When this soil is not flooded, the high (undrained). The woodland ordination symbol is 6W.
water table is within 12 inches of the surface. The
available water capacity is very low or low in the surface 25-Narcoossee fine sand. This soil is nearly level
and subsurface layers, and it is medium in the subsoil. and somewhat poorly drained. It is on slight ridges and
The permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface knolls on the flatwoods. The mapped areas range from 3
layers, and it is moderately slow in the subsoil. Natural to 160 acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent
fertility is low. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
that includes sweetgum, blackgum, red maple, cypress, a depth of 22 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper
bay, and cabbage palm. The understory vegetation is part of the subsoil is discontinuous in some pedons. It is
generally sparse. dark reddish brown fine sand to a depth of about 29
Flooding and wetness severely limit the use of this inches. The lower part, to a depth of 33 inches, is brown
Holopaw soil for cultivated crops. A water control system fine sand. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or
is needed to help control flooding and to remove excess more is pale brown and light gray fine sand.
surface and internal water if the soil is cultivated. Close- Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
growing cover crops should be included in the rotation Adamsville and Cassia soils. Also included are small
system if the soil is not cultivated. Crop residue should areas of soils that are similar to Narcoossee soil, but
be left on the soil to help maintain organic matter and some of these soils have a subsoil at a depth of more
soil tilth. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of than 25 inches, some are poorly drained, some have a
the rows. continuous, well developed subsoil, and others have a
In its natural state, this soil is not suited to pasture gray or light gray surface layer. The included soils make
because it is flooded for long periods. If a water control up about 20 percent of this map unit.
system is established and maintained to control flooding In most years, this soil has a high water table at a
and to quickly remove excess surface water, this soil is depth of 24 to 40 inches for 4 to 6 months. The
well suited to bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover, available water capacity is low or very low in the surface
Regular applications of fertilizer are needed, and grazing and subsurface layers, low in the subsoil, and very low in
must be controlled to help maintain plant vigor, the substratum. The permeability is rapid in the surface
This soil generally is not used for growing pine trees and subsurface layers and in the substratum. It is
because of flooding. The potential of this soil for the moderately rapid in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
production of pine trees is moderately high. A water Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
control system is needed to help control flooding and to that includes scrub live oak, laurel oak, sawpalmetto,
reach potential productivity. Slash pine is the better dwarf huckleberry, pineland threeawn, and bluestem.








Putnam County Area, Florida 37



Periodic wetness, droughtiness, and poor soil quality 26-Terra Ceia muck, frequently flooded. This soil
are severe limitations to use of this Narcoossee soil for is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is on broad to
cultivated crops. A water control system is needed to narrow flood plains along the St. Johns River and its
remove excess water during wet periods and provide for tributaries. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
subsurface irrigation during dry periods if this soil is used range from 20 to 2,000 acres. The slopes are less than
for vegetable crops. Close-growing cover crops should 1 percent.
be included in the rotation system when the soil is not Typically, the upper part of this organic soil is dark
cultivated. Returning crop residue to the soil helps to reddish brown muck about 28 inches thick. The lower
improve soil quality. part to a depth of 80 inches or more is black muck.
This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
crops. Bahiagrass and bermudagrass grow well. A water Bluff, Holopaw, Hontoon, and Riviera soils. Also included
control system is needed to remove excess water during are small areas of soils that are similar to Terra Ceia
rainy periods. Applications of fertilizer and lime are soil, but some of these soils have a muck layer that is
needed. Grazing should be controlled to help maintain less than 52 inches thick and some have a surface layer
plant vigor. of sand or fine sand. The included soils make up about
The potential of this soil for the production of pine 10 percent of this map unit.
The potential of this soil for the production of pine This soil has a high water table at the surface except
trees is medium to high. Slash and longleaf pines are the during long, dry periods, and it is flooded during rainy
better suited trees to plant for commercial woodland periods. The available water capacity is very high. The
production. The major concerns in management are the permeability is rapid. Natural fertility is moderate.
restricted use of equipment on this soil, seedling Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
mortality, and plant competition. Seasonal wetness and that includes sweetgum, red maple, cypress, bay, and
periods of droughtiness are limitations to use of cabbage palm. The understory vegetation is sparse.
equipment on this soil and increase the rate of seedling Wetness and flooding are severe limitations to use of
mortality. Site preparation activities, such as harrowing this Terra Ceia soil for cultivated crops. The root zone is
and bedding, help to establish seedlings, reduce limited by the high water table and by water that is
seedling mortality, and increase early growth. Chopping above the surface of the soil during rainy periods. If
and bedding reduce debris, control competing flooding is controlled and an adequate water control
vegetation, and facilitate planting operations. Machinery system is established and maintained, this soil is suited
equipped with high flotation rubber tires or tracks helps to many vegetable crops. A properly designed and
to overcome the limitations to use of equipment, reduces maintained water control system is needed to remove
soil compaction, and also reduces root damage during excess water during the growing season and to keep the
thinning operations. Site preparation and planting and soil saturated when it is not cultivated. Fertilizer that
harvesting operations should be scheduled during dry contains phosphate, potash, and minor elements are
periods to help overcome the wetness limitations to use needed. Water-tolerant cover crops should be kept on
of equipment. The use of logging systems that leave this soil when it is not cultivated. Returning crop residue
residual biomass well distributed on the surface of the to the soil helps to maintain the content of organic
soil increases the content of organic matter and residual matter.
fertility of the soil. Applications of nitrogen fertilizer with If a water control system is established and
phosphorus provide excellent growth response. maintained to help control flooding and remove excess
Wetness and poor filtering capacity are severe water, improved pasture grasses and clover grow well on
limitations to use of this soil as septic tank absorption this soil. The high water table should be maintained
fields. Septic tank absorption fields should be elevated close to the surface to prevent excessive oxidation in the
to help keep the high water table at an effective depth. organic soil layers. Applications of fertilizer with minor
Wetness is a moderate limitation to use of this soil for elements are needed. Grazing should be controlled to
dwellings and for local roads and streets. Establishing a The potential of this soil for the production of pine
wateontrolstem or e n b n fdat The potential of this soil for the production of pine
water control system or elevating building foundations trees is very low. This soil is not suited to commercial
trees is very low. This soil is not suited to commercial
and roadbeds is necessary to overcome this wetness woodland production. The high rate of seedling mortality
limitation. is caused by flooding and excessive wetness, and the
The sandy surface layer of this soil is a severe high windthrow hazard is caused by the low strength of
limitation for recreational development. In areas of the organic layers. The use of equipment, seedling
intensive foot traffic, the surface should be stabilized by mortality, and the hazard of windthrow are the main
adding suitable topsoil, establishing vegetation cover, or concerns in management.
paving the recreation areas. The excessive wetness, rapid permeability, low soil
This Narcoossee soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The strength, and poor filtering capacity of this soil are
woodland ordination symbol is 10W. severe limitations for urban uses, such as septic tank







38 Soil Survey



absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and streets. inches of the surface. In most areas, this soil is covered
This soil is frequently flooded and remains saturated for by water for long periods. If an adequate water control
long periods. This organic soil is rapidly permeable and system is established and maintained, this soil is well
does not adequately filter the effluent in the septic tank suited to vegetable or grain crops. A properly designed
absorption fields. This can cause contamination of the and maintained water control system is needed to
ground water. The organic layers should be removed and remove excess water during the growing season. This
building sites and roadbeds should be elevated to soil should be saturated when it is not cultivated to keep
overcome the wetness and low strength limitations. The oxidation of the muck layers to a minimum. Fertilizer that
use of suitable fill material is needed to elevate the contains phosphate, potash, and minor elements is
septic tank absorption fields to help maintain the high needed. Regular applications of lime are needed for this
water table at an effective depth. acid soil. Crop residue should be left on the soil to help
The high water table and low strength of the organic control erosion, conserve moisture, and improve soil
material are severe limitations for recreational quality.
development. The hazard of flooding is severe. Because This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops if a
this soil is in depressional areas, a water control system water control system is established and maintained.
to maintain the high water table at an effective depth is Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well if this
difficult to establish and maintain. The surface layer has soil is properly managed. To help prevent excessive
poor trafficability because of the low strength of the oxidation in the organic soil layers, the water control
organic material. system should keep the high water table near the
This Terra Ceia soil is in capability subclass VIIw surface. Fertilizer that is high in phosphate, potash, and
(undrained). The woodland ordination symbol is 6W. minor elements is needed. Grazing should be controlled
to obtain maximum yields.
27-Samsula muck. This organic soil is nearly level This soil is not suited to commercial woodland
and very poorly drained. It formed in moderately thick production. The potential of this soil for the production of
beds of hydrophytic, nonwoody plant remains. This soil is pine trees is very low. The restricted use of equipment
in depressional areas. The mapped areas are irregular in on this soil, seedling mortality, and the hazard of
shape to circular and range from 3 to 300 acres. The windthrow are the main concerns in management.
slopes are concave and are less than 1 percent. Excessive wetness is a limitation to use of equipment on
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark reddish this soil. The high rate of seedling mortality is also
brown and black muck about 29 inches thick. The upper caused by excessive wetness. The high windthrow
part of the underlying material, to a depth of 40 inches, hazard is caused by low strength.
is black fine sand. The next layer, to a depth of 50 The rapid permeability and poor filtering capacity are
inches, is gray fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 severe limitations to use of this soil as septic tank
inches or more is light brownish gray fine sand. absorption fields, for dwellings, and for local roads and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of streets. This soil is saturated for long periods, and the
Hontoon, Placid, St. Johns, and Tomoka soils. Also organic soil is rapidly permeable and does not
included are small areas of soils that are similar to adequately filter the effluent in the septic tank absorption
Samsula soil, but some of these soils have a muck fields. This can cause contamination of the ground
surface layer less than 16 inches thick, and some have a water. Ponding and the low strength of the organic
muck surface layer underlain by a thin, light sandy material are severe limitations for building sites, for
subsurface layer that is underlain by a black or very dark dwellings, and for local roads and streets. The organic
brown sandy layer. The included soils make up about 20 layers should be removed and the building sites and
percent of this map unit. roadbeds should be elevated by adding suitable fill
This soil has a high water table at or above the material to overcome these limitations.
surface except during extended dry periods. The Ponding, low strength, and the high water table are
available water capacity is very high in the muck surface severe limitations to use of this soil for recreational
layer, and it is very low in the underlying material. The development. Because this soil is in depressional areas,
permeability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility is high. a water control system to maintain the high water table
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation that at an effective depth is difficult to establish and maintain.
includes bay, cypress, maple, and other hardwoods. The surface layer has poor trafficability because of the
Some areas have a marsh vegetation of sawgrass, low strength of the organic material.
maidencane, and other water-tolerant plants. In some This Samsula soil is in capability subclass Vllw
areas, this soil has been drained and is used for pasture (undrained). The woodland ordination symbol is 2W.
or for vegetables, corn, soybeans, and wheat.
Excessive wetness is a severe limitation to use of this 28-Centenary fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
Samsula soil for cultivated crops. In its natural state, the moderately well drained. It is on ridges and knolls on the
root zone is limited by a high water table that is within 12 low uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape







Putnam County Area, Florida 39



and range from 20 to 200 acres. The slopes are convex with large, low-pressure tires or tracks will help
and are less than 2 percent. overcome this limitation. Plant competition from
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine hardwoods, mostly oaks, can be reduced if herbicides
sand about 8 inches thick. The upper part of the are used during site preparation. Although runoff is slow,
subsurface layer, to a depth of 50 inches, is yellow and logging and site preparation operations can increase and
very pale brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of concentrate water movement on this soil and cause soil
65 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the erosion. These activities should be avoided in and
subsoil, to a depth of 76 inches, is dark grayish brown adjacent to drainageways. Special design and proper
fine sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or placement of roads, skid trails, and stream crossings can
more is dark reddish brown fine sand. help reduce soil loss. During site preparation and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of thinning and harvesting operations, as much plant debris
Adamsville, Deland, Florahome, Ona, Tavares, and Zolfo as possible should be left on the surface of the soil to
soils. Also included are small areas of soils that are help conserve organic matter.
similar to Centenary soil, but some of these soils have a Wetness is a moderate limitation to use of this soil as
subsoil at a depth of less than 50 inches, and some septic tank absorption fields. Special measures, such as
have a dark surface layer that is 10 inches or more thick. adding suitable fill material to elevate the septic tank
The included soils make up less than 20 percent of this absorption field, may be needed to overcome this
map unit. wetness limitation. In areas where septic tank absorption
In most years, this soil has a high water table between fields are concentrated, ground water contamination is a
depths of 40 and 60 inches for 2 to 6 months. The high hazard. Limitations for dwellings and for local roads and
water table recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches streets are slight. Special measures are not needed for
during extended dry periods. The available water these uses.
capacity is low or very low. The permeability is rapid in The sandy surface layer of this soil is a severe
the surface and subsurface layers and in the upper part limitation for recreational development. In areas of
of the subsoil. It is moderate in the lower part of the intensive foot traffic, the surface should be stabilized for
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. recreational development by using a vegetation cover,
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation adding suitable topsoil, or using a hard surface material
that includes turkey oak, scrub live oak, and few longleaf to help overcome this limitation.
pine. The understory vegetation is threeawn and This Centenary soil is in capability subclass Ills. The
panicum. woodland ordination symbol is 11S.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of nutrients are
severe limitations to use of this Centenary soil for 29-Riviera fine sand, frequently flooded. This soil
cultivated crops. It generally is feasible to grow high- is nearly level and poorly drained. It is on broad to
value crops if irrigation water is readily available. Close- narrow flood plains and in drainageways on the
growing cover crops should be grown in rotation with flatwoods and is in a few upland areas. The mapped
cultivated crops. Crop residue should be returned to the areas are irregular in shape to long and narrow and
soil to help control erosion, maintain moisture, and range from 20 to 200 acres. The slopes range from 0 to
improve soil quality. 2 percent.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
Coastal bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well suited to sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
this soil, but yields are reduced by periodic drought. depth of 21 inches, is gray and grayish brown fine sand.
Applications of fertilizer and lime provide good growth The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 47 inches, is
response. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant grayish brown fine sandy loam that has tongues of
vigor, grayish brown fine sand. The lower part, to a depth of 55
The potential of this soil for the production of pine inches, is grayish brown sandy clay loam. The
trees is medium to high. Slash and longleaf pines are the substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray fine
better suited trees to plant for commercial woodland sand.
production. The use of equipment, seedling mortality, Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
and plant competition are the main concerns in Holopaw and Pompano soils. Also included are small
management. This soil is drought; and during long, dry areas of soils that are similar to Riviera soil, but some of
periods, adequate moisture for plant growth is not these soils have a brownish yellow fine sand layer above
available. Using special planting stock that is larger than the subsoil, and others have a loamy fine sand surface
usual or that is containerized reduces seedling mortality, layer that has a high content of calcium carbonate
Planting seedlings during periods when rainfall is more accumulations. The included soils make up about 20
frequent and heavier increase plant growth and the rate percent of this map unit.
of plant survival. The loose, sandy surface of this soil is This soil is frequently flooded for long periods during
a limitation to use of equipment. Machinery equipped rainy seasons. During dry periods, the high water table is







40 Soil Survey



within 12 inches of the surface. The available water Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers, and Placid and Samsula soils. Also included are small areas
it is medium in the subsoil. The permeability is rapid in of soils that are similar to Hontoon soil, but they have a
the surface and subsurface layers, slow or very slow in thin layer of muck that is less than 16 inches thick that is
the subsoil, and moderate or moderately rapid in the underlain by sandy material. The included soils make up
substratum. Natural fertility is low. about 15 percent of this map unit.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation This soil has a high water table at or above the
that includes sweetgum, red maple, cypress, bay, and surface except during extended dry periods. The
scattered cabbage palm. The understory vegetation available water capacity is very high. The permeability is
includes bluestem, waxmyrtle, and maidencane. rapid throughout. Natural fertility is high.
This Riviera soil is not suited to cultivated crops, Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation that
improved pasture, and hay crops because of flooding includes bay, cypress, maple, and other hardwoods.
and excessive wetness. The root zone is limited by the Some areas have a marsh vegetation of sawgrass,
high water table. This soil is flooded during wet periods. maidencane, and other water-tolerant plants. In some
This soil generally is not used for growing pine trees areas, this soil has been drained and is used for pasture
because of flooding. The potential of this soil for the or for vegetables, corn, soybeans, and wheat.
production of pine trees is medium if flooding can be Excessive wetness is a severe limitation to use of this
controlled. Slash pine is the better suited tree to plant for Hontoon soil for cultivated crops. In its natural state, the
commercial woodland production. A simple water control root zone is limited by a high water table. In most areas,
system, such as surface drainage ditches, should be this soil is covered by water for long periods, but in large
established and maintained to remove excess surface areas near Florahome, this soil has been drained and is
water. Site preparation should include bedding of the used for agriculture. If an adequate water control system
rows. The use of equipment and seedling mortality are is established and maintained, this soil is well suited to
the main concerns in management. vegetable crops or grain crops. A property designed and
the main concerns in management. maintained water control system is needed to remove
Excessive wetness and poor filtering capacity are excess water during the growing season. This soil should
severe limitations to use of this soil as septic tank be saturated when it is not cultivated to keep oxidation
absorption fields, for dwellings, and for local roads and of the muck layers to a minimum. Fertilizer that contains
streets. Flooding is a severe hazard. These limitations phosphate, potash, and minor elements is needed.
are difficult to overcome because of the low position of Regular applications of lime are needed for this acid soil.
this soil on the landscape. Large amounts of fill material Crop residue should be left on the soil to control erosion,
would be required to elevate building sites, roadways, maintain moisture, and improve soil quality.
and septic tank absorption fields. Because of the poor This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops if a
filtering of effluents in septic tank absorption fields when water control system is established and maintained.
the soil is flooded, the possibility of ground and surface Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well if this
water contamination would continue to exist. soil is properly managed. To help prevent excessive
The sandy surface layer and excessive wetness are oxidation in the organic soil layers, the water control
severe limitations to use of this soil for recreational system should keep the water table near the surface.
development. Flooding is a severe hazard. In camp and Fertilizer that is high in phosphate, potash, and minor
playground areas, flooding must be controlled. A water elements is needed. Grazing should be controlled to
control system is needed to help maintain the high water obtain maximum yields.
table at an effective depth, to control flooding, and to This soil is not suited to commercial woodland
overcome the wetness limitation. In areas of intensive production. The potential of this soil for the production of
foot traffic, the surface should be stabilized by adding pine trees is very low. The use of equipment on this soil,
suitable fill material or by paving the area. seedling mortality, and the hazard of windthrow are the
This Riviera soil is in capability subclass Vw. The main concerns in management. Excessive wetness is a
woodland ordination symbol is 6W. limitation to use of equipment on this soil, and it
increases the rate of seedling mortality. The low soil
30-Hontoon muck. This organic soil is nearly level strength results in high windthrow hazard.
and very poorly drained. It formed in thick beds of The rapid permeability and poor filtering capacity are
hydrophytic, nonwoody plant remains. This soil is in severe limitations to use of this soil as septic tank
depressional areas throughout the county. The mapped absorption fields, for dwellings, and for local roads and
areas are irregular in shape to circular and range from 3 streets. This soil is saturated for long periods, and the
to 300 acres. The slopes are less than 1 percent. organic soil is rapidly permeable and does not
Typically, the upper part of this organic soil is black adequately filter the effluent in the septic tank absorption
muck about 20 inches thick. The lower part to a depth of fields. This can cause contamination of the ground
80 inches or more is dark reddish brown muck. water. Ponding and the low strength of the organic








Putnam County Area, Florida 41



material are severe limitations for building sites, for This soil generally is not used for pine trees because
dwellings, and for local roads and streets. The organic of ponding. The potential of this soil for the production of
layers should be removed and the building sites and pine trees is low, but trees can be grown if an adequate
roadbeds should be elevated to overcome these surface drainage system is established and maintained
limitations. on this soil. Slash pine is the better suited tree to plant
Ponding, low strength, and the high water table are for commercial woodland production. The use of
severe limitations to use of this soil for recreational equipment on this soil and seedling mortality are the
development. Because this soil is in depressional areas, main concerns in management. This soil is rarely drained
a water control system to maintain the high water table for commercial woodland production. Water outlets are
at an effective depth is difficult to establish and maintain, generally not available.
The surface layer has poor trafficability because of the This soil has severe limitations for urban development.
low strength of the organic material. Ponding restricts the use of this soil for building sites, for
This Hontoon soil is in capability subclass VIIw local roads and streets, and as septic tank absorption
(undrained). The woodland ordination symbol is 6W. fields. Adequate drainage outlets to remove excess
water are generally not available. If this soil is used for
31-Myakka fine sand, depressional. This soil is urban development, large quantities of fill material would
nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressional be required to elevate the building sites, roadways, and
areas on the flatwoods and in a few places on the septic tank absorption fields and to maintain the high
uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape to water table at an effective depth.
circular and range from 3 to 270 acres. The slopes are The sandy surface layer, ponding for long periods, and
concave and are less than 2 percent. excessive wetness are severe limitations to use of this
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray soil for recreational development. If water outlets are
fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to available, the wetness limitation can be overcome. A
a depth of 28 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. water control system should be installed to remove
The subsoil, to a depth of 34 inches, is very dark grayish excess water and to maintain the high water table at an
brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches effective depth. In areas of intensive foot traffic, the
or more is light gray and very pale brown fine sand. surface layer should be stabilized by adding suitable fill
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of material or by paving the areas.
Placid, Pomona, and St. Johns soils. Also included are This Myakka soil is in capability subclass VIIw. The
small areas of soils that are similar to Myakka soil, but woodland ordination symbol is 2W.
they have a subsoil that is at a depth of more than 30
inches. The included soils make up about 10 percent of 32-Sparr sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil is
this map unit. nearly level to gently sloping and somewhat poorly
In most years, this soil has a high water table 1 foot to drained. It is on low side slopes on the uplands, along
2 feet above the surface for 6 to 9 months. The well-defined drainageways on the flatwoods, and on low
available water capacity is very low in the surface and knolls and ridges on the flatwoods. The mapped areas
subsurface layers and in the substratum, and it is are irregular in shape and range from 20 to 150 acres.
medium in the subsoil. The permeability is rapid in the Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark grayish
surface and subsurface layers and in the substratum, brown sand about 9 inches thick. The upper part of the
and it is moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil, subsurface layer, to a depth of 30 inches, is very pale
Natural fertility is low. brown sand. The lower part, to a depth of 65 inches, is
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation white sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of
that includes bay, cypress, waxmyrtle, and scattered about 70 inches, is yellowish brown loamy sand. The
sweetgum and maple. Some areas have a marsh lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is yellowish
vegetation that includes maidencane, St. Johnswort, brown fine sandy loam.
chalky bluestem, and panicum. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This Myakka soil is not suitable for cultivated crops. Adamsville, Lochloosa, and Millhopper soils. Also
The surface is ponded for long periods, which inhibits included are small areas of soils that are similar to Sparr
plant growth and interferes if the soil is cultivated. This soil, but some of these soils have a surface layer of fine
soil is in low-lying, depressional areas. Adequate outlets sand, and some have a subsoil that is neutral or mildly
to remove excess water are generally not available or alkaline. The included soils make up about 10 percent of
are difficult to install and maintain, this map unit.
This soil is not suited to improved pasture and hay In most years, this soil has a high water table at a
crops. The surface is ponded for long periods, which depth of 20 to 40 inches for 1 month to 4 months. The
severely limits growth of improved pasture plants. available water capacity is low or medium in the surface
Adequate water outlets for surface drainage systems are layer, low in the subsurface layer, and medium in the
generally not available. subsoil. The permeability is rapid in the surface and







42 Soil Survey



subsurface layers, and it is moderate in the subsoil, effective depth for building sites and roadbeds. Elevation
Natural fertility is low. of building sites and roadbeds can also help keep the
Most areas of this soil have been left in natural high water table at an effective depth.
vegetation that includes longleaf pine, slash pine, loblolly The sandy surface layer is a severe limitation for
pine, magnolia, dogwood, hickory, live oak, laurel oak, recreational uses. The surface layer should be stabilized
and water oak. by adding suitable fill material or by paving the area to
Periodic wetness and poor soil quality are severe help overcome this limitation.
limitations to use of this Sparr soil for cultivated crops. This Sparr soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
The number of adapted crops that can be grown on this woodland ordination symbol is 10W.
soil is very limited unless a water control system is
installed. The system must remove excess water in wet 33-Winder fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
periods and provide for subsurface irrigation in dry poorly drained. It is in broad, low flatwood areas. The
periods. Fertilizer is rapidly leached from this soil. mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 5 to
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. 1,500 acres. The slopes are less than 2 percent.
Close-growing cover crops should be included in the Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
rotation system when the soil is not cultivated. Cover sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
crops and crop residue should be left on the soil to help depth of 17 inches, is grayish brown and light grayish
maintain the content of organic matter and to improve brown fine sand. Tongues of the subsurface layer extend
soil quality, into the upper 10 inches of the subsoil. The upper part
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay of the subsoil, to a depth of 27 inches, is dark gray
crops. Bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well adapted to sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a depth of 39 inches,
this soil. A water control system is needed to remove is grayish brown fine sandy loam. The substratum to a
excess surface water during heavy rains. Regular depth of 80 inches or more is light gray fine sandy loam
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing that includes calcium carbonate accumulations and shell
should be controlled to help maintain plant vigor and fragments.
obtain maximum yields. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
The potential of this soil for the production of pine Riviera, Holopaw, Malabar, Paisley, and Pomona soils.
trees is medium to high. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf Also included are small areas of soils that are similar to
pines are the better suited trees to plant for commercial Winder soil, but some of these soils have a loamy fine
woodland production. The major concerns in sand surface layer, some have a high content of calcium
management are restricted use of equipment, seedling carbonate accumulations throughout, some have a
mortality, and plant competition. Seasonal wetness and strongly acid or very strongly acid subsoil, and some
periods of droughtiness limit the use of equipment and have a brown or yellow subsurface layer. The included
increase seedling mortality. Site preparation activities, soils make up about 20 percent of this map unit.
such as harrowing and bedding, help to establish In most years, the high water table is at a depth of 0
seedlings, reduce seedling mortality, and increase early to 12 inches for 2 to 6 months. The available water
growth. Chopping and bedding reduce debris, control capacity is low or very low in the surface and subsurface
competing vegetation, and facilitate planting operations. layers, and it is low to medium in the subsoil. The
Machinery equipped with large low-pressure rubber tires permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
or tracks helps to overcome the use of equipment layers, and it is moderately slow in the upper part of the
limitations, reduces soil compaction, and also reduces subsoil and slow or very slow in the lower part. Natural
root damage during thinning operations. Plant fertility is low.
competition from hardwood understory can be reduced Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
by chemical or mechanical methods. The use of logging that includes laurel oak, water oak, red maple, cedar,
systems that leave residual biomass well distributed on and live oak. The understory vegetation includes
the surface of the soil increases the content of organic cabbage palm, cordgrass, pineland threeawn, and
matter and residual fertility of the soil. Applications of maidencane.
nitrogen fertilizer with phosphorus provide excellent Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this Winder
growth response. soil for cultivated crops. If an adequate water control
Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this soil as system is established and maintained, this soil is suitable
septic tank absorption fields. A water control system for cabbage and other vegetable crops. A water control
should be established and maintained or the septic tank system is needed to remove excess surface water during
absorption field should be elevated by adding fill material heavy rains and to provide for subsurface irrigation
to help overcome this wetness limitation. Wetness is a during dry periods. Soil-improving cover crops should be
moderate limitation for dwellings and for local roads and included in the rotation system when the soil is not
streets. This limitation can be overcome by using a water cultivated. Crop residue should be left on the soil to help
control system to help keep the high water table at an improve soil tilth and increase the content of organic








Putnam County Area, Florida 43



matter. Good seedbed preparation should include 34-Riviera fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
bedding of the rows. Fertilizer should be applied poorly drained. It is in broad, low areas on the flatwoods.
according to the needs of the crop. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from
This soil is suited to use as pasture. Bermudagrass, 20 to 300 acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
bahiagrass, and clover can be grown if a water control Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
system is established to remove excess water. sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
Applications of fertilizer are needed. Grazing should be depth of 25 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of
controlled to obtain maximum yields. the subsoil, to a depth of 41 inches, is gray sandy clay
The potential of this soil for the production of pine loam. The lower part, to a depth of 50 inches, is gray
trees is medium to high. Slash and loblolly pines are the fine sandy loam. Tongues of light gray fine sand extend
better suited trees to plant for commercial woodland into the upper part of the subsoil from the subsurface
production. The main concerns in management are the layer. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is
use of equipment, seedling mortality, and plant grayish brown loamy fine sand.
competition. During rainy periods, a high water table Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
comp onduerie reiny prtaios a igat ste Holopaw, Pompano, and Winder soils. Also included are
causes moderate seedling mortality. Special site small areas of soils that are similar to Riviera soil, but
preparation, such as bedding, furrowing, or surface some of these soils have a brownish yellow sandy layer
drainage, helps to establish seedlings, increases early above the subsoil, some have a black or very dark gray
growth, and reduces the mortality rate. The high rate of surface layer more than 6 inches thick, and others have
seedling mortality is also caused by an inadequate water a subsoil of sandy clay or clay. The included soils make
supply. This soil is drought, and during long, dry periods up about 20 percent of this map unit.
not enough moisture is retained in the root zone to In most years, this soil has a high water table at a
sustain plant growth. The sandy surface texture and the depth of less than 12 inches for 2 to 4 months and at a
seasonal high water table limit the use of equipment on depth of 12 to 30 inches during the rest of the year. The
this soil. Site preparation and planting, thinning, and high water table is at a depth of more than 40 inches
harvesting operations should be scheduled to avoid during dry periods. The available water capacity is low in
seasonal limitations. If special machinery is used that is the surface and subsurface layers and in the substratum,
equipped with large tires or tracks, forest management and it is medium in the subsoil. The permeability is rapid
operations can generally be carried out during the wet in the surface and subsurface layers, slow or very slow
periods. Site preparation activities, such as harrowing, in the subsoil, and moderate or moderately rapid in the
chopping, or bedding, help to control plant competition. substratum. Natural fertility is low.
During site preparation and thinning and harvesting Most of the acreage of this soil is used for commercial
operations, most of the plant residue should be left on production of slash pine. Some areas of this soil are in
the surface of the soil to conserve organic matter. natural vegetation that includes slash and longleaf pine,
Applying fertilizer with phosphorus at planting time is a water oak, sweetgum, and cabbage palm. The
good management practice. Applications of nitrogen understory vegetation includes gallberry, waxmyrtle,
fertilizer with phosphorus provide excellent growth bluestem, and threeawn.
response. Excessive wetness and poor soil quality are severe
The slow permeability and excessive wetness are limitations to use of this Riviera soil for cultivated crops.
severe limitations for urban uses, such as septic tank The number and kinds of crops that can be grown on
absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and streets. this soil are limited if intensive management practices
A water control system is needed to remove excess are not used. If a water control system is established
water and to maintain a high water table at an effective and maintained, potatoes, cabbage, and many other
depth, and septic tank absorption fields, building sites for vegetable crops can be grown. The water control system
dwellings, and roadbeds should be elevated by adding is needed to remove excess water in wet periods and
itdwellings, and roadbeds should be elevated by adding provide for subsurface irrigation during dry periods.
suitable fill material to overcome these limitations. Close-growing cover crops should be included in the
Wetness and the sandy surface layer are severe rotation system when the soil is not cultivated. Crop
limitations to use of this soil for recreational residue left on or in the soil helps maintain the content
development. To help overcome these limitations, a of organic matter and improves soil tilth.
water control system is needed to help maintain the This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
seasonal high water table at an effective depth. In areas Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well if this
of intensive foot traffic, the surface layer should be soil is properly managed. A water control system is
stabilized by adding a suitable fill material or paving the needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
areas to help overcome these limitations, rains. Applications of lime and fertilizer are needed.
This Winder soil is in capability subclass Illw. The Grazing should be controlled to prevent overgrazing and
woodland ordination symbol is 11W. to maintain plant vigor.







44 Soil Survey



The potential of this soil for the production of pine brown fine sand. The next layer, to a depth of 60 inches,
trees is medium to high. Slash and loblolly pines are the is grayish brown fine sand. The next layer, to a depth of
better suited trees to plant for commercial woodland 75 inches, is gray sandy clay loam. The lower part to a
production. The use of equipment, seedling mortality, depth of 80 inches or more is gray fine sandy loam.
and plant competition are the main concerns in Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
management. During rainy periods, a high water table Holopaw, Palmetto, Pompano, and Riviera soils. Also
causes a moderate rate of seedling mortality, but during included are small areas of soils that are similar to this
drought periods, a high rate of seedling mortality is Malabar soil, but in some of these soils, the lower part of
caused by not enough water. This soil is drought, and the subsoil is at a depth of less than 40 inches, and
during long, dry periods, it does not retain enough some of these soils are in depressional areas. The
moisture in the root zone to sustain plant growth. The included soils make up about 10 percent of this map
sandy surface of this soil and the seasonal high water unit.
table are moderate limitations to use of equipment. Site In most years, this soil has a high water table at a
preparation and planting, thinning, and harvesting depth of less than 12 inches for 2 to 6 months. The
operations should be scheduled to avoid seasonal available water capacity is low or very low in the sandy
limitations. Forest management operations generally can surface and subsurface layers and in the upper part of
be carried out in the wet periods if machinery is the subsoil. It is medium in the loamy part of the subsoil.
equipped with large tires or tracks. Site preparation The permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
activities, such as harrowing, chopping, or bedding, help layers and in the upper part of the subsoil, and it is
to control plant competition. During site preparation and moderately slow to very slow in the lower part of the
thinning and harvesting operations, as much plant subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
residue as possible should be left on the soil to help Most of the acreage of this soil is used for commercial
conserve organic matter. Applications of nitrogen production of slash pine. Some areas of this soil are in
fertilizer with phosphorus provide excellent growth natural vegetation that includes slash and longleaf pines
response. and a few sweetgum. The understory vegetation includes
Wetness is a severe limitation for urban uses, such as St. Johnswort, gallberry, waxmyrtle, bluestem, and
septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads threeawn.
and streets. This soil readily absorbs but does not Excessive wetness and poor soil quality are severe
adequately filter the effluent in septic tank absorption limitations to use of this Malabar soil for cultivated crops.
fields. The poor filtering capacity may result in pollution The number and kinds of crops that can be grown on
of the ground water. Septic tank absorption fields, this soil are limited unless intensive management
building sites, and roadbeds should be elevated by practices are used. If an adequate water control system
adding suitable fill material to maintain the high water is established and maintained, potatoes, cabbage, and
table at an effective depth. If adequate outlets are many other vegetable crops can be grown. A water
available, a water control system can be installed to control system is needed to remove excess water in wet
remove excess water and to overcome the wetness periods and to provide for subsurface irrigation during dry
limitation, periods. Close-growing cover crops should be included in
Excessive wetness and the sandy surface layer are the rotation system when the soil is not cultivated. Crop
severe limitations for recreational development. To residue left on the soil helps maintain the content of
overcome the wetness limitation, a water control system organic matter and improves soil tilth.
is needed to maintain the high water table at an effective This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
depth. The surface layer should be stabilized by adding Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well if this
suitable fill material or paving the areas to overcome the soil is properly managed. A water control system is
sandy texture limitation, needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
This Riviera soil is in capability subclass III1w. The rains. Applications of fertilizer are needed, and some
woodland ordination symbol is 10W. areas of this soil may need lime. Grazing should be
controlled to prevent overgrazing and to maintain plant
35-Malabar fine sand. This soil is nearly level and vigor.
poorly drained. It is in low flatwood areas. The mapped The potential of this soil for the production of pine
areas are broad to narrow and irregular in shape and trees is medium to high. Slash pine is the better suited
range from 5 to 200 acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2 tree to plant for commercial woodland production.
percent. Seedling mortality is a major concern in management.
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine This soil is drought and does not retain enough
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a moisture to sustain plant growth during long, dry periods.
depth of 20 inches, is grayish brown and very pale Excessive wetness during rainy periods can increase the
brown fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a mortality rate of seedlings. Site preparation practices that
depth of 31 inches, is brownish yellow and yellowish include bedding, furrowing, or surface drainage help to








Putnam County Area, Florida 45



establish seedlings and increase early plant growth. The soil is frequently flooded for long periods during rainy
use of equipment, seedling mortality, and plant seasons. The available water capacity is very high in the
competition are the main concerns in management. Site organic surface layer, and it is medium to high in the
preparation and planting, thinning, and harvesting underlying material. The permeability is rapid or very
operations should be scheduled to avoid seasonal rapid in the surface layer, very slow to a depth of 60
limitations. Forest management operations can be inches, and rapid in the lower part of the underlying
generally carried out during wet periods if machinery is material. Natural fertility is moderate.
equipped with large tires or tracks. Harrowing and Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
chopping reduce plant competition. The surface layer of that includes sweetgum, red maple, elm, hickory, and
this soil is generally low in organic matter. During site cypress. Hardwood timber is harvested from natural tree
preparation and harvesting operations, as much plant stands on a few acres of this soil.
residue as possible should be left on the surface of the This Shenks soil is not suitable for cultivated crops
soil to help conserve organic matter. Applications of because of excessive wetness and flooding. A water
nitrogen fertilizer with phosphorus provide excellent control system to help control flooding is needed if the
growth response. soil is used for cultivated crops.
Wetness is a severe limitation for urban uses, such as sois used for cultivated crops
septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads In its natural state, this soil is not suited to pasture and
and streets. This soil readily absorbs but does not hay crops because of wetness and flooding. If an
adequately filter the effluent in septic tank absorption adequate water control system is established and
fields. The poor filtering capacity may result in pollution maintained to help control flooding, this soil is well suited
of the ground water. Septic tank absorption fields, to bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. The high water
building sites, and roadbeds should be elevated by table should be maintained as close to the surface of the
adding suitable fill material to maintain the high water soil as possible to prevent excessive oxidation in the
table at an effective depth. If adequate water outlets are muck layer. Regular applications of fertilizer containing
available, a water control system can be installed to phosphate, potash, and minor elements are needed for
remove excess water and to maintain the high water maximum yields Grazing should be controlled to help
table at an effective depth to overcome the wetness maintain plant vigor.
limitation. This soil is not suited to commercial woodland
Excessive wetness and the sandy surface layer are production. The potential of this soil for the production of
severe limitations for recreational development. To pine trees is very low. This soil has a high windthrow
overcome the wetness limitation, a water control system hazard. The high rate of seedling mortality is caused by
is needed to maintain the high water table at an effective excessive wetness and flooding. Wetness also is a
depth. The surface layer should be stabilized by adding limitation to use of equipment on this soil. Excessive
suitable fill material or paving the areas to overcome the wetness, flooding, and soil strength are major concerns
sandy texture limitation. in management.
This Malabar soil is in capability subclass IVw. The The slow permeability and excessive wetness are
woodland ordination symbol is 10W. severe limitations to use of this soil as septic tank
36-Shenks muck, frequently flooded. This soil is absorption fields. Excessive wetness, the low strength of
nearly level and very poorly drained. It is on the flood the organic material, and the high shrink-swell potential
plains of major rivers and streams. The mapped areas of the soil below the organic layers are severe limitations
are broad and elongated and range from 10 to 1,500 for building sites, dwellings, and local roads and streets.
acres. The slopes are less than 2 percent. The organic and clayey layers should be removed, and
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark reddish the building sites and roadbeds should be elevated by
brown muck about 18 inches thick. The upper part of the adding suitable fill material to overcome these limitations.
underlying material, to a depth of 60 inches, is black This soil is frequently flooded and is saturated for long
clay. The middle part, to a depth of 70 inches, is very periods.
dark gray loamy sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 The organic surface layer and the high water table are
inches or more is dark gray sand. severe limitations to use of this soil for recreational
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of development. Flooding is a severe hazard. This soil is in
Holopaw, Riviera, and Terra Ceia soils. Also included are depressional areas, and a water control system to help
small areas of soils that are similar to Shenks soil, but control flooding and to maintain the high water table at
they have a surface layer of muck that is less than 16 an effective depth is difficult to establish and maintain.
inches thick. The included soils make up about 15 The surface layer has poor trafficability because of the
percent of this map unit. low strength of the organic material.
In most years, this soil has a high water table at a This Shenks soil is in capability subclass VIw
depth of less than 12 inches for 6 months or more. This (undrained). The woodland ordination symbol is 6W.







46 Soil Survey



37-Ona fine sand. This soil is nearly level and poorly should be controlled to prevent overgrazing, help
drained. It is in broad to narrow flatwood areas and is maintain plant vigor, and obtain maximum yields.
adjacent to the lakes on the uplands. The mapped areas The potential of this soil for the production of pine
are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 200 acres. trees is medium. Slash and longleaf pines are the better
The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. suited trees to plant for commercial woodland
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray production. The major concerns in management are use
fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to of equipment, seedling mortality, plant competition, and
a depth of 11 inches, is dark gray fine sand. The upper the hazard of windthrow. Seasonal wetness limits the
part of the subsoil, to a depth of 26 inches, is dark use of equipment on this soil and increases seedling
reddish brown and dark brown fine sand. Below that mortality. Timely scheduling of site preparation and
layer, to a depth of 55 inches, is pale brown, gray, and planting, thinning, and harvesting operations can help
brown fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil to a depth overcome this wetness limitation. Field work generally
of 80 inches or more is very dark gray fine sand. can be done during the wet periods if machinery is
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of equipped with large, low-pressure rubber tires or tracks.
Myakka, Placid, and St. Johns soils. Also included are Proper site preparation can reduce seedling mortality
small areas of soils that are similar to Ona soil, but some and help control plant competition. Bedding helps to
of these soils have a loamy subsoil, some are better establish seedlings, increases early growth, and reduces
drained than Ona soil, and others are in depressional seedling mortality. Chopping helps control competing
areas. The included soils make up about 10 percent of vegetation, reduces debris, and facilitates planting
this map unit. operations. The use of logging systems that leave
This soil has a high water table at a depth of less than residual biomass well distributed on the surface of the
12 inches for 1 month to 2 months during rainy periods soil helps toconserve organic matter. Applications of
in most years. The high water table is between depths of nitrogen fertilizer with phosphorus provide excellent
12 and 40 inches for 4 to 6 months and may recede to a growth response.
depth of more than 40 inches during dry periods. The Excessive wetness during rainy periods is a severe
limitation to use of this soil for urban development. The
available water capacity is moderate in the surface and tai te of tsoi fourbd l en e
available water capacity is moderate in the surface and high water table and poor filtering capacity can interfere
subsurface layers and in the upper part of the subsoil, with the proper functioning of septic tank absorption
and it is very low or low below the upper part of the fields. If septic tank absorption fields are elevated by
subsoil. The permeability is rapid, in the surface layer, adding a suitable fill material, the soil is suited to this
moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and rapid use. The use of this soil for building sites and for local
below the upper part of the subsoil. Natural fertility is roads and streets also requires that measures be taken
low. .to overcome the wetness limitation. If adequate water
In some areas, this soil is used for commercial outlets are available, a drainage system should be
production of slash pine. Most of the acreage of this soil installed to help keep the high water table at an effective
is in natural vegetation that includes slash and longleaf depth. The use of fill material to elevate building sites
pines. The understory vegetation includes sawpalmetto, and roadbeds will help keep the high water table at an
gallberry, waxmyrtle, lopsided indiangrass, threeawn, and effective depth.
bluestem. Excessive wetness and the sandy surface layer of this
Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this Ona soil soil are severe limitations for recreational uses. The
for cultivated crops. If a water control system is wetness limitation can be overcome by installing a water
established and maintained, this soil is suitable for many control system that will help keep the high water table at
vegetable crops. The water control system should an effective depth. In areas of intensive foot traffic, the
remove excess water in wet periods and provide for surface should be stabilized by adding suitable fill
subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Management material or by paving the area.
practices should include soil-improving measures. Close- This Ona soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
growing cover crops should be included in the rotation woodland ordination symbol is 10W.
system when the soil is not cultivated. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding of the rows. Crop 38-Holopaw fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
residue should be left on the soil to control erosion, to poorly drained. It is in low flatwood areas. The mapped
help maintain the content of organic matter, and to areas are irregular in shape and range from 30 to 300
improve soil tilth. Fertilizer and lime are needed. acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent
This soil is well suited to improved pasture and hay Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine
crops. Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are well sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
adapted to this soil. A water control system is needed to depth of 55 inches, is light gray, gray, and dark gray fine
remove excess surface water after heavy rains. Regular sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 69
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing inches, is gray fine sandy loam. The lower part to a








Putnam County Area, Florida 47



depth of 80 inches or more is greenish gray sandy clay competition. The surface layer of this soil is generally
loam. low in organic matter. During site preparation and
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of harvesting operations, as much plant residue as possible
Malabar, Palmetto, Pompano, and Sparr soils. Also should be left on the surface of the soil to help conserve
included are small areas of soils that are similar to organic matter. Applications of nitrogen fertilizer with
Holopaw soil, but they have dark fine sand or sand in the phosphorus provide excellent growth response.
upper part of the subsoil. The included soils make up Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this soil for
about 20 percent of this map unit. urban development, such as septic tank absorption
In most years, this soil has a high water table at a fields, dwellings, and local roads and streets. This soil
depth of less than 12 inches for 2 to 6 months. The readily absorbs but does not adequately filter the effluent
available water capacity is low in the surface and in septic tank absorption fields. The poor filtering
subsurface layers, and it is high in the subsoil. The capacity may result in pollution of the ground water.
permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface Septic tank absorption fields, building sites, and
layers, and it is moderately slow or moderate in the roadbeds should be elevated by adding suitable fill
subsoil. Natural fertility is low. material to maintain the high water table at an effective
Most of the acreage of this soil is used for commercial depth. If adequate water outlets are available, a water
production of slash pine. The natural vegetation includes control system can be installed to remove excess water
slash and longleaf pines and a few sweetgum. The and to also help maintain the high water table at an
understory vegetation includes gallberry, waxmyrtle, effective depth to overcome the wetness limitation.
bluestem, and threeawn. Excessive wetness and the sandy surface layer are
Excessive wetness and poor soil quality are severe severe limitations to use of this soil for recreational
limitations to use of this Holopaw soil for cultivated development. To overcome the wetness limitation, a
crops. The number and kinds of crops that can be grown water control system is needed to maintain the high
on this soil are limited unless intensive management water table at an effective depth. The surface layer
practices are used. If an adequate water control system should be stabilized by adding suitable fill material or
is established and maintained, potatoes, cabbage, and paving the areas to overcome the sandy texture
many other vegetable crops can be grown. The water limitation.
control system is needed to remove excess water in wet This Holopaw soil is in capability subclass IVw. The
periods and to provide for subsurface irrigation during dry woodland ordination symbol is 10W.
periods. Close-growing cover crops should be included in
the rotation system when the soil is not cultivated. Crop 39-Holopaw fine sand, depressional. This soil is
residue left on the soil helps maintain the content of nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressional
organic matter and improves soil tilth, areas on the flatwoods. The mapped areas are circular
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops. to irregular in shape and range from 3 to 200 acres. The
Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well when slopes are concave and are less than 2 percent.
properly managed. A water control system is needed to Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
remove excess surface water after heavy rains. Lime sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
and fertilizer are needed. Grazing should be controlled to depth of 47 inches, is gray and light gray fine sand. The
prevent overgrazing and to maintain plant vigor, upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 51 inches, is dark
The potential of this soil for the production of pine gray fine sandy loam. The middle part, to a depth of 58
trees is medium to high. Slash and loblolly pines are the inches, is gray sandy clay loam. The lower part to a
better suited trees to plant for commercial woodland depth of about 80 inches is greenish gray sandy loam.
production. Seedling mortality is a major concern in Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
management. This soil is drought and does not retain Riviera and Pompano soils. Also included are small
enough moisture to sustain plant growth during long, dry areas of soils that are similar to Holopaw soil, but they
periods. Excessive wetness during rainy periods can kill have a thick, dark surface layer and some small areas of
seedlings. Proper site preparation, which includes such Holopaw soils that are not ponded. The included soils
practices as bedding, furrowing, or surface drainage, make up about 15 percent of this map unit.
helps to establish seedlings and increases early growth. This soil is ponded during rainy periods. In most years,
The use of equipment, seedling mortality, and plant the high water table is 1 foot to 2 feet above the surface
competition are the main concerns in management. Site for more than 6 months. The available water capacity is
preparation and planting, thinning, and harvesting low or very low in the surface and subsurface layers, and
operations should be scheduled to avoid seasonal it is medium or high in the subsoil. The permeability is
limitations. Forest management operations can generally rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, and it is
be carried out during wet periods if field machinery is moderately slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
equipped with special features, such as large tires or Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
tracks. Harrowing and chopping reduce plant that includes cypress, sweetgum, red maple, and bay. In








48 Soil Survey



areas with dense tree growth, the understory vegetation Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
is sparse. If the canopy cover is thin, the understory Candler, Cassia, Orsino, and Tavares soils. Also included
vegetation includes maidencane, cordgrass, and other are small areas of soils that are similar to Paola soil, but
water-tolerant plants. some of these soils are light gray sand throughout, and
Ponding is a severe limitation to use of this Holopaw others have a well developed spodic horizon at a depth
soil for cultivated crops or improved pasture. The high of 30 to 50 inches. The included soils make up about 10
water table is above the surface during long periods of percent of this map unit.
wetness. A water control system is needed and is This soil has a high water table at a depth of more
difficult to establish because of the low position of this than 72 inches throughout the year. The available water
soil on the landscape. Adequate outlets to remove capacity is very low. The permeability is very rapid.
excess water are generally not available or are difficult to Most acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation that
install. includes sand pine, scrub live oak, and sawpalmetto.
This soil generally is not used for growing pine trees This Paola soil is not suited to most cultivated crops.
because of ponding. The potential of this soil for the Extreme droughtiness and very poor soil quality are
production of pine trees is low. Water ponds for long severe limitations to use for cultivated crops. Nutrients
periods and causes a high rate of seedling mortality, are rapidly leached from this soil. Conservation tillage
Wetness is a limitation to use of equipment during rainy helps conserve moisture and controls erosion if this soil
periods. Ponding and excessive wetness are the major is cultivated. This soil is moderately suited to citrus crops
concerns in woodland management. if cold temperatures are not a problem.
Ponding, excessive wetness, and poor filtering This soil is poorly suited to pasture and hay crops.
capacity are severe limitations for urban uses, such as Deep-rooted plants, such as bermudagrass and
septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads bahiagrass, are well adapted to this soil. Proper
and streets. This soil is ponded for long periods during management should include regular applications of
rainy seasons. The limitations are very difficult to fertilizer and lime. Grazing should be controlled to
overcome. A water control system is difficult to establish maintain plant vigor.
because of the low position of this soil on the landscape The potential of this soil for the production of pine
and also because water outlets generally are not trees is low. Sand pine is the better suited tree to plant
available. Septic tank absorption fields, building sites, for commercial woodland production. The main concerns
and roadways should be elevated to maintain the high in management are the use of equipment and seedling
water table at an effective depth to overcome the mortality. The loose, sandy surface of this soil is a
limitations. Large amounts of fill material would be limitation to use of equipment. Machinery equipped with
needed to accomplish this. large tires or tracks will help overcome this limitation.
Ponding during rainy periods and the sandy surface of This soil has very low available water capacity and does
this soil are severe limitations for recreational not supply enough moisture to provide for a good
development. To overcome the wetness limitation, a survival rate for seedlings. Using special planting stock
water control system is needed to remove the excess that is larger than usual or that is containerized reduces
water and to maintain the high water table at an effective seedling mortality. Scheduling planting operations so that
depth; but because of the low position of this soil on the seedlings are planted during the seasons when rainfall is
landscape and because adequate outlets generally are heavier and more frequent can also reduce the rate of
not available, a water control system is difficult to seedling mortality. Although runoff is slow, logging and
establish and maintain, site preparation operations can increase and concentrate
This Holopaw soil is in capability subclass VIIw. The water runoff on this soil and cause soil erosion. These
woodland ordination symbol is 2W. activities should be avoided in and adjacent to
drainageways. Special design and proper placement of
40-Paola fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This soil roads, skid trails, and stream crossings reduce soil
is nearly level to sloping and excessively drained. It is on erosion. During site preparation and harvesting
broad to narrow slopes and ridges on the uplands. Most operations, plant debris should be left on the surface of
areas of this soil are north of Florahome and southeast the soil to help conserve organic matter.
of Crescent City. The mapped areas are irregular in This soil has slight limitations for urban uses, such as
shape and range from 5 to 250 acres. septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine and streets. In areas where septic tank absorption fields
sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a are concentrated, ground water contamination is a
depth of 27 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper hazard.
part of the subsoil, to a depth of 52 inches, is yellow fine The sandy surface of this soil is a severe limitation for
sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is recreational uses. In areas of intensive foot traffic, the
very pale brown fine sand. surface layer should be stabilized by adding suitable fill








Putnam County Area, Florida 49



material or paving the areas to help overcome this bahiagrass, are well adapted to this soil. High yields can
limitation, be obtained if the soil is fertilized and limed. Periodic
This Paola soil is in capability subclass VIs. The drought reduces yields significantly. Steepness of slope
woodland ordination symbol is 2S. increases the hazard of erosion and reduces yields.
Grazing should be controlled to help maintain plant vigor
41-Millhopper sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes. This and to help keep a good ground cover on the soil.
soil is sloping and moderately well drained. It is on side The potential of this soil for the production of pine
slopes, ridges, and knolls on the uplands and is also on trees is medium to high. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf
slopes adjacent to drainageways and lakes in upland pines are the better suited trees to plant for commercial
areas. The mapped areas are mostly irregular in shape woodland production. Use of equipment, seedling
to long and narrow, but some areas are circular. The mortality, and plant competition are concerns in
individual areas range from 3 to 60 acres. management. This soil is drought, and seasonal dry
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray and periods and the low available water capacity in the root
dark grayish brown sand about 8 inches thick. The zone cause excessive seedling mortality and inhibit plant
subsurface layer extends to a depth of 67 inches. The growth. Plant competition from hardwoods, mainly oaks,
upper part is light yellowish brown and pale brown sand. can be reduced if herbicides are used during site
The lower part is light gray sand. The upper part of the preparation. Site preparation should also include
subsoil, to a depth of about 70 inches, is very pale chopping, which helps to control competing vegetation.
brown loamy sand. The lower part to a depth of 80 The loose, sandy surface of this soil is a limitation to use
inches or more is light gray sandy clay loam. of equipment, but use of machinery that is equipped with
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of large tires or tracks can help overcome this limitation.
Apopka and Tavares soils. Also included are small areas Using special planting stock that is larger than usual or
of soils that are similar to Millhopper soil, but some of that is containerized reduces seedling mortality.
these soils have a subsoil at a depth of less than 40 Scheduling planting operations during seasons when
inches, some have a more coarse surface texture, and rainfall is heavier and more frequent will increase the
some have slopes of. more than 8 percent. The included survival rate of seedlings and also increases plant
soils make up about 15 percent of this map unit. growth. Although runoff is slow, logging, site preparation,
In most years, this soil has a high water table at a and planting operations can increase and concentrate
depth of 40 to 60 inches for 1 month to 4 months. water runoff on this soil and cause soil erosion. These
During some years, the high watertable is between activities should be avoided in and adjacent to stream
depths of 30 and 40 inches for 1 week to 3 weeks. The beds. Special design and proper placement of roads,
available water capacity is low in the surface and skid trails, and stream crossings reduce soil erosion.
subsurface layers, and it is medium in the subsoil. The During site preparation and thinning and harvesting
permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface operations, as much plant debris as possible should be
layers, and it is moderate to slow in the subsoil. Natural left on the surface of the soil to help conserve organic
fertility is low. matter. Applications of nitrogen fertilizer with phosphorus
A large acreage of this soil is used for commercial provide excellent growth response.
production of slash pine. The natural vegetation includes Wetness is a moderate limitation to use of this soil as
turkey oak, bluejack oak, laurel oak, and longleaf pine. septic tank absorption fields. This limitation can be easily
The understory vegetation is sparse, but includes overcome by adding suitable fill material to elevate the
bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, and pineland threeawn. septic tank absorption field slightly. Limitations to use of
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients from this soil for dwellings without basements and local roads
the root zone are severe limitations to use of this and streets are slight. The soil is well suited to these
Millhopper soil for most cultivated crops. These uses and no special measures are needed.
limitations restrict the choice of plants that can be grown The sandy surface layer and slope are severe
on this soil and reduce yields. The steepness of slope limitations to use of this soil for recreational
limits the use of this soil for row crops. The erosion development. The surface layer should be stabilized by
hazard is increased, and it is more difficult to cultivate adding suitable fill material or by paving the area to help
this soil. If this soil is cultivated, conservation tillage overcome the sandy texture limitation. If this soil is used
helps to conserve moisture and controls erosion. Close- for playgrounds, land smoothing is necessary to reduce
growing crops should be used in the rotation system at the steepness of the slope.
least three-fourths of the time. Soil-improving cover This Millhopper soil is in capability subclass IVs. The
crops and crop residue should be used to help control woodland ordination symbol is 10S.
erosion. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed. 42-Riviera fine sand, depressional. This soil is
This soil is moderately well suited to improved pasture. nearly level and very poorly drained. It is mostly in
Deep-rooted plants, such as bermudagrass and depressional areas on the flatwoods. A few small areas








50 Soil Survey



are adjacent to lakes and marshes on the uplands. The roadways should be elevated to maintain the high water
mapped areas generally are broad to narrow, but many table at an effective depth. Large amounts of fill material
are circular. These areas range from 3 to 200 acres. The would be needed to elevate these areas.
slopes are concave and are less than 2 percent. Ponding during rainy periods and the sandy surface of
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine this soil are severe limitations for recreational
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a development. A water control system to remove the
depth of 25 inches, is gray and light gray fine sand. excess water and to maintain the water table at a depth
Tongues of light gray fine sand extend into the upper of 2 to 2.5 feet or more is needed to overcome these
part of the subsoil. The upper part of the subsoil, to a limitations. These limitations are difficult to overcome
depth of about 45 inches, is light grayish brown and because of the low position of this soil on the landscape,
grayish brown sandy clay loam. The lower part, to a and adequate outlets generally are not available to
depth of 49 inches, is gray fine sandy loam. The establish a water control system.
substratum to a depth of about 80 inches is gray loamy This Riviera soil is in capability subclass Vllw. The
fine sand. woodland ordination symbol is 2W.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Holopaw, Riviera fine sand, frequently flooded, and 43-Placid-Pompano association, frequently
Winder soils. Also included are small areas of soils that flooded. The soils in this association are nearly level
are similar to Riviera soil, but some of these soils have a and very poorly drained and poorly drained. These soils
thick, black or very dark gray surface layer, some do not are in regular and repeating patterns in narrow to broad
have tongues in the upper part of the subsoil, and others drainageways on the flatwoods and uplands. The
have a sandy clay or clay subsoil. The included soils mapped areas are elongated and range from 15 to 250
make up about 30 percent of this map unit. acres. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
This soil has a high water table above the surface for Placid soil makes up about 55 percent of the
6 to 12 months. The available water capacity is low in association. Pompano soil makes up about 30 percent
the surface and subsurface layers, medium in the The included soils make up about 15 percent.
subsoil, and low in the substratum. The permeability is Typically, the surface layer of Placid soil is black and
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, very slow or very dark gray sand about 11 inches thick. The upper
slow in the subsoil, and moderate or moderately rapid in part of the underlying material, to a depth of 35 inches,
the substratum. Natural fertility is low. is dark grayish brown sand. The lower part to a depth of
Most of the acreage of this soil has been left in natural 80 inches or more is light gray sand.
vegetation and is used as habitat for wildlife. The natural During rainy periods, Placid soil is frequently flooded
vegetation includes cypress, bay, waxmyrtle, and a few for brief periods. When this soil is not flooded, the high
sweetgum. The understory vegetation is sparse. It water table is within 12 inches of the surface for more
includes greenbrier and maidencane. than 6 months in most years. The available water
Ponding is a severe limitation to use of this Riviera soil capacity is high in the surface layer and low in the
for cultivated crops and improved pasture. The high underlying material. The permeability is rapid. Natural
water table is above the surface during long periods of fertility is medium.
wetness. A water control system is needed and is Typically, the surface layer of Pompano soil is very
difficult to establish because of the low position of this dark gray sand about 6 inches thick. The underlying
soil on the landscape. Adequate outlets to remove material to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray sand.
excess water are generally not available or are difficult to During rainy periods, Pompano soil is frequently
install and maintain. flooded for brief periods. When this soil is not flooded,
This soil is generally not used for growing pine trees the high water table is at a depth of less than 12 inches
because of ponding. The potential of this soil for the for 4 to 6 months in most years. The available water
production of pine trees is low. Water ponds for long capacity is very low. The permeability is rapid. Natural
periods and causes a high rate of seedling mortality. The fertility is low.
limitation to use of equipment during rainy periods, Included with these soils in mapping most commonly
ponding, and excessive wetness are the main concerns are Samsula soils.
in woodland management. Most of the acreage in this association is in dense,
Ponding is a severe limitation for urban uses, such as natural vegetation that includes sweetgum, red maple,
septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads loblolly bay, cabbage palm, waxmyrtle, and greenbrier.
and streets. The surface is ponded for long periods The understory vegetation is sparse.
during rainy seasons. This limitation is very difficult to The soils in this association in their native state have
overcome. A water control system is difficult to establish severe limitations for cultivated crops because of
because of the low position of this soil on the landscape excessive wetness and periodic flooding. If an adequate
and because water outlets are generally not available, water control system is established and maintained to
Septic tank absorption fields, building sites, and control flooding and remove excess surface water








Putnam County Area, Florida 51



rapidly, a number of crops can be grown on these soils. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of grayish brown
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows. sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
A close-growing cover crop should be included in the depth of 70 inches, is yellow and brownish yellow sand.
rotation system when the soil is not cultivated, and crop The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is yellow
residue should be left on the soil. sand and has thin, yellowish brown bands or layers of
Wetness and flooding are severe limitations to use of sandy loam.
these soils for improved pasture. If water remains on the Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
surface of these soils for long periods, plant growth is Apopka, Astatula, Millhopper, and Tavares soils. These
restricted. If an adequate water control system is soils are in similar positions on the landscape as Candler
established and maintained to control flooding and soil or in slightly lower positions. Also included are small
remove excess surface water rapidly after heavy rains, areas of soils that are similar to Candler soil, but they
this soil is moderately suited to improved pasture are coarse sand throughout or have a high content of
grasses. Bahiagrass and bermudagrass can be grown. gravel-size particles. The included soils make up less
Fertilizer and, in some places, lime are needed. Grazing than 10 percent of this map unit.
should be controlled to help maintain plant vigor. This soil has a high water table at a depth of more
These soils are generally not used for pine trees than 80 inches. The available water capacity is very low
because of flooding. The potential of these soils for the or low in the surface layer and upper part of the
production of pine trees is moderate. A water control subsurface layer, and it is low in the lower part of the
system is needed to control flooding for satisfactory tree subsurface layer. The permeability is rapid. Natural
growth. Slash pines are the better suited trees to plant fertility is low.
for commercial woodland production. Use of equipment Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
and seedling mortality are concerns in woodland that includes turkey oak and scrub live oak and a few
management. longleaf pine. The understory vegetation includes
Excessive wetness is a severe limitation of the soils in pineland threeawn and bluestem.
this association for urban uses, such as septic tank This Candler soil is not suitable for cultivated crops;
absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and streets. but in some areas, this soil is used for citrus crops if cold
Flooding is a severe hazard. Because these soils are in temperatures are not a problem. Droughtiness, poor soil
low positions on the landscape, it is difficult to implement quality, and steep slopes are severe limitations to use of
measures to control flooding and remove excess water, this soil for cultivated crops. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed,
These soils do not adequately filter septic tank effluent but runoff is rapid in areas without vegetation during
because they are too sandy. Fill material should be used intense rains. If a vegetation cover crop is not left on the
to elevate building sites and roadways to help overcome surface, the hazard of erosion is severe.
the limitations caused by flooding and excessive This soil is not suited to pasture. Even if fertilized,
wetness. deep-rooted grasses, such as bermudagrass and
Excessive wetness and the sandy surface layer are bahiagrass, produce only moderate yields. Periodic
severe limitations to use of these soils for recreational drought severely limits plant growth. Erosion is a severe
development. Additionally, flooding is a hazard and limits hazard on this soil.
the use of this soil for camp areas and playgrounds. The potential of this soil for the production of pine
Flooding and excessive wetness can be overcome but trees is medium. Slash, longleaf, and sand pines are the
generally only with difficulty. A water control system better suited trees to plant for commercial woodland
should be installed and maintained to keep the high production. The use of equipment, seedling mortality,
water table at a depth of more than 30 inches for camp and plant competition are concerns in management. This
areas, picnic areas, and playgrounds and at a depth of soil is drought and does not retain enough moisture in
about 24 inches in areas used for paths and trails. The the root zone to sustain plant growth during long, dry
water control system must also control flooding if these periods. Using special planting stock that is larger than
soils are used for campgrounds or playgrounds. The usual or that is containerized reduces seedling mortality.
surface should be stabilized by adding suitable fill The loose, sandy surface of this soil is a limitation to use
material or by paving the areas. of equipment. Machinery equipped with large, low-
Placid and Pompano soils are in capability subclass pressure tires or tracks can help overcome this
VIw. The woodland ordination symbol of these soils is limitation. Plant competition from hardwoods, mostly
6W. oaks, can be reduced if herbicides are used during site
preparation. Although runoff is slow, logging and site
44-Candler sand, 12 to 25 percent slopes. This soil preparation operations can increase and concentrate
is strongly sloping to steep and excessively drained. It is water movement on this soil and cause soil erosion.
on the slopes of ridges, knolls, and sinkholes on the These activities should be avoided in and adjacent to
uplands. The mapped areas are irregular in shape or drainageways. Special design and proper placement of
circular and range from 5 to 80 acres, roads, skid trails, and stream crossings can reduce soil







52 Soil Survey



loss. During site preparation and thinning and harvesting This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
operations, as much plant debris as possible should be crops. Deep-rooted plants, such as bermudagrass and
left on the surface of the soil to help conserve organic bahiagrass, are well suited to this soil. Regular
matter, applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing
Steepness of slope is a severe limitation of this should be controlled to maintain plant vigor.
Candler soil for urban uses, such as septic tank The potential of this soil for the production of pine
absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and streets. trees is low. Sand and longleaf pines are the better
In areas where septic tank absorption fields are suited trees to plant for commercial woodland
concentrated, ground water contamination is a hazard. production. Concerns in management are the use of
The loose, sandy surface layer and steepness of slope equipment on this soil and seedling mortality. The loose,
are severe limitations to use of this soil for recreational sandy surface of this soil is a severe limitation to use of
development. Steepness of slope is a moderate equipment. Machinery equipped with large tires or tracks
limitation in areas used for paths and trails. In areas of can help overcome this use of equipment limitation. This
intensive foot traffic, the surface layer should be soil has very low available water capacity and does not
stabilized by adding suitable fill material or by paving the supply enough moisture to provide for a good survival
areas to overcome the loose, sandy texture limitation. If rate for seedlings. Using special planting stock that is
this soil is used for playgrounds, the areas should be larger than usual or that is containerized reduces
levelled and smoothed. seedling mortality. Scheduling planting operations so that
This Candler soil is in capability subclass VIIs. The seedlings are planted during the seasons when rains are
woodland ordination symbol is 8S. more frequent can reduce the rate of seedling mortality.
Although runoff is slow, logging and site preparation
45-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This operations can increase and concentrate water runoff on
soil is nearly level to sloping and excessively drained. It this soil and and cause soil erosion. These activities
is on ridges and knolls on broad uplands. The mapped should be avoided in and adjacent to drainageways.
areas are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 1,500 Special design and proper placement of roads, skid
acres. trails, and stream crossings can reduce soil erosion.
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark gray fine During site preparation and thinning and harvesting
sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of the operations, as much plant debris as possible should be
underlying material, to a depth of 12 inches, is pale left on the surface of the soil to help conserve organic
brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of more than matter.
80 inches is very pale brown fine sand. This soil has slight limitations for urban uses, such as
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads
Apopka, Candler, Deland, Millhopper, and Tavares soils. and streets. In areas where septic tank absorption fields
Also included are small areas of soils that are similar to are concentrated, ground water contamination is a
Astatula soil, but some of these soils have a high hazard.
content of gravel-size particles, and others are on slopes The sandy surface layer is a severe limitation for
of more than 8 percent. The included soils make up recreational development. The surface layer should be
about 15 percent of this map unit. stabilized by adding suitable fill material or by paving the
This soil has a high water table at a depth of more area to help overcome this limitation.
than 72 inches. The available water capacity is very low. This Astatula soil is in capability subclass Vis. The
The permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility is low. woodland ordination symbol is 3S.
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
that includes turkey oak, live oak, threeawn, and 46-Astatula fine sand, 8 to 15 percent slopes. This
bluestem. A dense growth of sand pine is in some areas. soil is sloping and excessively drained. It is on ridges
In the area near Crescent City and where cold and knolls on the uplands. The mapped areas are
temperatures are not a problem, this soil is used for irregular in shape and range from 5 to 60 acres.
citrus crops. Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark grayish
This Astatula soil is not suitable for most cultivated brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The underlying
crops. Droughtiness and poor soil quality are severe material to a depth of 80 inches or more is pale brown
limitations for cultivated crops. Plant nutrients are rapidly and very pale brown fine sand.
leached from this soil. Conservation tillage helps Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
conserve moisture and controls erosion if the soil is Candler and Tavares soils. These soils are in similar
cultivated. Close-growing plants should be included in positions on the landscape as Astatula soil or in slightly
the rotation system at least three-fourths of the time. lower positions. Also included are small areas of soils
Crop residue left on or in the soil controls erosion and that are similar to Astatula soil, but some of these soils
improves soil quality. This soil is well suited to citrus have slopes of more than 15 percent, and some have a
crops if cold temperatures are not a problem. high content of gravel-size particles throughout. The








Putnam County Area, Florida 53



included soils make up about 10 percent of this map than 6 percent are severe limitations if this soil is used
unit. for playgrounds. The surface should be stabilized by
This soil has a high water table at a depth of more adding suitable fill material or by paving the areas to
than 72 inches. The available water capacity is very low. help overcome these limitations.
The permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility is very low. This Astatula soil is in capability subclass VIIs. The
In the southeastern part of the survey area, this soil is woodland ordination symbol is 3S.
used for citrus crops. Most of the acreage of this soil is
in natural vegetation that includes turkey oak and scrub 47-Myakka-Urban land complex. This map unit
live oak and a few longleaf pine. A dense growth of sand consists of Myakka soil that is nearly level and poorly
pine is in a few areas. The understory vegetation is drained and of areas of Urban land. The mapped areas
generally sparse. It includes threeawn and bluestem and are irregular in shape and range from 40 to 200 acres.
a few sawpalmetto. This map unit consists of about 65 percent Myakka
This Astatula soil is not suitable for most cultivated soil and 35 percent Urban land. In some small areas,
crops. Droughtiness and poor soil quality are severe Urban land makes up about 60 percent of the map unit.
limitations for cultivated crops. Water drains rapidly from The included soils make up less than 10 percent of this
this soil along with the plant nutrients. Rainfall is rapidly map unit. The individual areas of the soils in this map
absorbed, but runoff from unprotected areas is rapid unit are too mixed or too small to map separately at the
during heavy rains. In these areas, the hazard of erosion scale used for the maps in the back of this publication.
is severe. Conservation tillage helps conserve moisture Typically, Myakka soil has a surface layer of black fine
and controls erosion if this soil is cultivated. This soil is sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
wel suited to citrus crops if cold temperatures are not a depth of 22 inches, is gray fine sand. The upper part of
problem. the subsoil, to a depth of 37 inches, is black and dark
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay reddish brown fine sand. The next layer, to a depth of 57
crops. Deep-rooted plants, such as bermudagrass and inches, is brown fine sand. The lower part to a depth of
bahiagrass, produce only moderate yields even if the soil 80 inches or more is light gray fine sand.
is fertilized. Periodic drought severely limits plant growth. The Urban land part of this map unit is covered by
The potential of this soil for the production of pine co nrete, asphalt, buildings, and other impcovered by
trees is low. Sand and longleaf pines are the better concrete asphalt, buildings, and other impervious
suited trees to plant for commercial woodland surfaces that obscure or alter the soils so that their
production. The main concerns in management are use identification is not feasible.
of equipment and seedling mortality. The loose, sandy Included in mapping are small areas of Adamsville,
surface of this soil is a severe limitation to use of Cassia, Electra, and Pomona soils. Of these, Pomona
equipment. Machinery equipped with large tires or tracks soils are the most extensive.
can help overcome this limitation. This soil has very low Myakka soil has a high water table at a depth of less
available water capacity and does not supply enough than 12 inches for 1 month to 4 months in most years
moisture to provide for a good survival rate for seedlings, and is at a depth of more than 40 inches during long, dry
Using special planting stock that is larger than usual or periods. The available water capacity is very low in the
that is containerized reduces seedling mortality, surface and subsurface layers, medium or high in the
Scheduling planting operations so that seedlings are subsoil, and very low to low in the substratum. The
planted during the seasons when rains are more permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
frequent also reduces the rate of seedling mortality. and substratum and is moderate or moderately rapid in
Although runoff is slow, logging and site preparation the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
operations can increase and concentrate water runoff on Present land use precludes the use of the soils in this
this soil and cause soil erosion. These activities should map unit for cultivated crops, improved pasture grasses,
be avoided in and adjacent to drainageways. Special or commercial production of pine trees. The Myakka soil
design and proper placement of roads, skid trails, and part of this map unit is used for lawns, vacant lots, or
stream crossings can reduce soil erosion. During site playgrounds, or it is left as open space. The Urban land
preparation and thinning and harvesting operations, as part of this map unit is used mostly for houses, streets,
much plant debris as possible should be left on the driveways, buildings, parking lots, or other similar uses.
surface of the soil to help conserve organic matter. Wetness severely limits the use of Myakka soil as
This soil has slight limitations for urban uses, such as septic tank absorption fields. Using fill material to elevate
septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads the septic tank absorption field increases the effective
and streets. In areas where septic tank absorption fields depth of the high water table and helps overcome the
are concentrated, ground water contamination is a wetness limitation. Establishing and maintaining area
hazard. drainage systems or using fill material to elevate building
The sandy surface layer of this soil is a severe sites can help overcome the wetness limitation to use of
limitation for recreational development. Slopes of -more Myakka soil for houses, buildings, and streets and roads.







54 Soil Survey



Excessive wetness and the sandy texture of the but yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Grazing
surface layer are severe limitations to use of Myakka soil should be controlled to maintain plant vigor.
for recreational development. Water control measures, The potential of this soil for the production of pine
which keep the seasonal high water table at an effective trees is medium to high. Slash and longleaf pines are the
depth, are needed to overcome the wetness limitation, better suited trees to plant for commercial woodland
Stabilizing the surface layer by adding suitable topsoil production. Use of equipment, seedling mortality, and
and by paving the high traffic areas can help overcome plant competition are the main concerns in management
the sandy surface layer limitation. This soil is drought, and seasonal dry periods and very
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a low available water capacity in the root zone cause
capability subclass or to a woodland group. excessive seedling mortality and inhibit plant growth.
Plant competition from hardwoods, mainly oaks, can be
48-Florahome sand. This soil is nearly level to reduced if herbicides are used during site preparation.
gently sloping and moderately well drained. It is on Site preparation activities should include chopping, which
ridges and side slopes on the uplands. This soil is mostly helps control competing vegetation, reduces debris, and
in an area northeast and southeast of the Florahome facilitates planting operations. The loose, sandy surface
community. The mapped areas are irregular in shape to of this soil is a moderate limitation to use of equipment.
long and narrow and range from about 30 to 700 acres. Machinery equipped with large tires or tracks can help
The slopes range from 0 to 3 percent. overcome this limitation. Using special planting stock
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark that is larger than usual or that is containerized reduces
grayish brown and dark brown sand about 36 inches seedling mortality. Scheduling planting operations during
thick. The upper part of the underlying material, to a seasons when rainfall is heavier and more frequent will
depth of 58 inches, is brown sand. The lower part to a increase the survival rate of seedlings and sustain plant
depth of 80 inches is grayish brown sand. growth. Logging, site preparation, and planting activities
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of can increase and concentrate water runoff on this soil
Adamsville, Centenary, Narcoossee, and Tavares soils. and cause soil erosion. These activities should be
Also included are small areas of soils that are similar to avoided in and adjacent to stream beds. Special design
Florahome soil, but some of these soils are not as well and proper placement of roads, skid trails, and stream
drained, or some have a thin, light subsurface layer that crossings can reduce soil erosion. During site
is underlain by a darker subsurface layer. The included preparation and thinning and harvesting operations, as
soils make up about 10 percent of this map unit. much plant debris as possible should be left on the
In most years, this soil has a high water table at a surface of this soil to help conserve organic matter.
depth of 42 to 72 inches for 4 to 6 months. It recedes to Applications of nitrogen fertilizer with phosphorus provide
a depth of more than 72 inches during periods of low excellent growth response.
rainfall. In some years, the high water table is within 30 Wetness is a moderate limitation to use of this soil as
to 42 inches of the surface for about 2 weeks. The septic tank absorption fields. The poor filtering capacity
available water capacity is low or medium in the surface is a limitation and may result in ground water
layer, and it is low or very low in the underlying material, contamination if the density of septic tank absorption
The permeability is rapid. Natural fertility is low. fields in the area is high. For proper functioning of the
A large acreage of this soil is used for growing septic system, the septic tank absorption fields may
improved pasture and hay. A small acreage is used for need to be slightly elevated. Limitations for dwellings and
growing corn and some small grain. The natural for local roads and streets are slight. No special
vegetation on this soil includes laurel oak, magnolia, measures are needed for these uses.
hickory, live oak, and a few sweetgum and longleaf pine. The sandy surface layer of this soil is a severe
The understory vegetation includes bluestem, panicum, limitation for recreational uses. In areas of intensive foot
Virginia creeper, and poison ivy. traffic, the surface should be stabilized for recreational
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of nutrients are uses by adding a suitable topsoil, establishing vegetation
severe limitations to use of this Florahome soil for cover, or paving the area to reduce or overcome this
cultivated crops. If this soil is cultivated, row crops limitation.
should be planted on the contour. Close-growing cover This Florahome soil is in capability subclass Ills. The
crops should be grown in rotation with row crops. Crop woodland ordination symbol is 10S.
residue should be left on the surface to help control
erosion and to improve soil quality. It is feasible to grow 49-Bonneau fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
high-value crops on this soil if irrigation water is readily soil is nearly level to gently sloping and moderately well
available. drained. It is on knolls and side slopes on the uplands.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay. Coastal The mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from
bermudagrass and bahiagrass are well suited to this soil, 4 to 200 acres. The slopes are convex.







Putnam County Area, Florida 55



Typically, this soil has a surface layer of dark grayish pressure tires or tracks can help overcome the
brown fine sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface limitations that restrict the use of equipment and can
layer, to a depth of 25 inches, is yellowish brown fine reduce soil compaction. The available water capacity is
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 31 low or very low in the effective rooting depth. During
inches, is brownish yellow fine sandy loam. The middle long, dry periods, this soil does not retain enough
part, to a depth of 64 inches, is brownish yellow sandy moisture in the root zone to sustain plant growth. Using
clay loam. The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or special planting stock that is larger than usual or that is
more is mixed light gray and yellowish brown sandy clay containerized reduces the rate of seedling mortality.
loam. Scheduling planting operations during seasons when
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of rainfall is heavier and more frequent can also reduce
Lochloosa and Millhopper soils. Also included are small seedling mortality. Logging, site preparation, and planting
areas of soils that are similar to Bonneau soil, but some operations can increase and concentrate water runoff on
of these soils have a surface layer of loamy sand or this soil and cause soil erosion. Special design and
sand, others have a subsoil at a depth of less than 20 proper placement of roads, skid trails, and stream
inches, and others are better drained than Bonneau soil crossings can reduce soil erosion. Applications of
or have slopes of more than 5 percent. The included nitrogen fertilizer with phosphorus and potassium provide
soils make up about 20 percent of this map unit. excellent growth response.
In most years, this soil has a high water table between Wetness is a moderate limitation to use of this soil as
depths of 40 and 60 inches for 1 month to 4 months. septic tank absorption fields. This limitation can be
During some years, the high water table is between overcome by adding fill material to slightly elevate the
depths of 30 and 40 inches for 1 week to 3 weeks. The septic tank absorption field. Limitations for dwellings and
available water capacity is very low or low in the surface local roads and streets are slight. This soil is well suited
and subsurface layers, and it is medium in the subsoil. to these uses and no special measures are required.
The permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface The sandy surface layer of this soil is a severe
layers, and it is moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is limitation for recreational development. The surface layer
low, should be stabilized by adding suitable fill material or by
Most areas of this soil are in improved pasture. In paving the areas to help overcome this limitation.
some areas, this soil is used for growing pecans, and in This Bonneau soil is in capability subclass Ils. The
other areas, it is used for commercial woodland woodland ordination symbol is 9S.
production of slash pine. The natural vegetation includes
laurel oak, turkey oak, longleaf pine, slash pine, and 50-Wabasso fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
scattered live oak. The understory vegetation consists of poorly drained. It is on the flatwoods. The mapped areas
pineland threeawn, bluestem, panicum, and scattered are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 200 acres.
sawpalmetto. The slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
This Bonneau soil has moderate limitations for most Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
plant nutrients from the root zone limit the choice of depth of 21 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper
plants that can be grown and reduce yields of suitable part of the subsoil, to a depth of 28 inches, is black and
crops. Cover crops should be included in the crop dark reddish brown fine sand. The layer below that, to a
rotation system at least half the time. Crop residue depth of 31 inches, is brown fine sand. The next layer, to
should be left on the soil to help control erosion and a depth of 35 inches, is dark grayish brown fine sandy
improve soil quality. Conservation tillage helps to loam. The next layer, to a depth of 49 inches, is grayish
conserve moisture and controls erosion. Regular brown sandy clay loam. The lower part of the subsoil, to
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed. a depth of 57 inches, is light gray fine sandy loam. The
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses. substratum to a depth of 80 inches is light gray fine
The most suited grasses to plant on this soil are sand.
bermudagrass and bahiagrass. Regular applications of Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
fertilizer and occasional applications of lime are needed. Myakka, Palmetto, Pompano, Riviera, and Wauchula
Grazing should be controlled to help maintain plant vigor, soils. Also included are small areas of soils similar to
obtain maximum yields, and help keep a good ground Wabasso soil, but some of these soils have a thicker
cover on the soil. surface layer than Wabasso soil, and some have a
The potential of this soil for the production of pine sandy clay texture in the lower part of the subsoil. The
trees is medium to high. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf included soils make up about 15 percent of this map
pines are the better suited trees to plant for commercial unit.
woodland production. The major concerns in In most years, this soil has a high water table at a
management are the use of equipment on this soil and depth of less than 12 inches for 1 month to 4 months.
seedling mortality. Machinery equipped with large, low- The high water table is at a depth of 12 to 40 inches for







56 Soil Survey



periods as long as about 6 months and at a depth of fertilizer with phosphorus provide excellent growth
more than 40 inches during very dry periods. The response.
available water capacity is very low in the surface and Excessive wetness during rainy periods is a severe
subsurface layers, medium in the subsoil, and low in the limitation to use of this soil for urban development. The
substratum. The permeability is rapid in the surface and high water table can interfere with the proper functioning
subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the of septic tank absorption fields. If septic tank absorption
subsoil and slow or very slow in the lower part, and rapid fields are elevated by adding suitable fill material, the soil
in the substratum. Natural fertility is low. is suited to this use. The use of this soil for building sites
Large acreages of this soil are used for crops, such as and for local roads and streets also requires that
potatoes and cabbage. The natural vegetation includes measures be taken to overcome the severe wetness
slash pine, cabbage palm, and water oak. The limitation. If adequate water outlets are available, a
understory vegetation includes sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, drainage system should be installed to help keep the
and pineland threeawn. high water table at an effective depth. The use of fill
Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this Wabasso material to elevate building sites and roadbeds will also
soil for cultivated crops. The number of adapted crops help keep the high water table at an effective depth.
that can be grown on this soil is very limited if intensive Excessive wetness and the sandy surface layer of this
water control measures are not used. If a water control soil are severe limitations for recreational uses. The
system is established and maintained, this soil is suited wetness limitation can be overcome by establishing a
to many kinds of flowers and vegetable crops. The water water control system that will help keep the high water
control system is needed to remove excess water in wet table at an effective depth. In areas of intensive foot
periods and provide for subsurface irrigation in dry traffic, the surface should be stabilized by adding fill
periods. Close-growing, soil-improving crops should be material or by paving the areas.
included in the rotation system at least two-thirds of the This Wabasso soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
time. Crop residue should be left on the surface to help woodland ordination symbol is 10W.
control erosion, maintain organic matter, and improve
soil quality. Conservation tillage will help conserve 51-Surrency fine sand, depressional. This soil is
moisture and control erosion. Fertilizer and lime should nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressional
be applied according to the needs of the crop. areas on the uplands and flatwoods. The mapped areas
These soils are well suited to pasture and hay crops. are circular to irregular in shape and range from 3 to 70
Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are well adapted acres. The slopes are concave and are less than 2
to this soil and grow well with proper management. A percent.
drainage system is needed to remove excess surface Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
water during heavy rains. Grazing should be controlled to fine sand about 13 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
help prevent overgrazing, to maintain plant vigor, and to a depth of 25 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper
obtain maximum yields. part of the subsoil, to a depth of 40 inches, is light
The potential of this soil for the production of pine brownish gray fine sandy loam. The lower part to a depth
trees is medium to high. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf of 80 inches or more is grayish brown sandy clay loam.
pines are the better suited trees to plant for commercial Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
woodland production. The major concerns in Pomona and Tomoka soils. Also included are small
management are restricted use of equipment on this soil, areas of soils that are similar to Surrency soil, but some
seedling mortality, and plant competition. Seasonal of these soils have a subsoil that is slightly acid to mildly
wetness and periods of droughtiness limit the use of alkaline, some have a surface layer of sandy clay, and
equipment and increase the rate of seedling mortality, others have a thin surface layer. The included soils make
Site preparation activities, such as harrowing and up about 20 percent of this map unit.
bedding, help establish seedlings, reduce seedling In most years, this soil has a high water table above
mortality, and increase early growth. Chopping and the surface for more than 6 months. The available water
bedding reduce debris, control competing vegetation, capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers, and
and facilitate planting operations. Machinery equipped it is low or medium in the subsoil. The permeability is
with large, low-pressure rubber tires or tracks will help rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, and it is
overcome the limitations that restrict the use of moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
equipment, reduce soil compaction, and also reduce root Most acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation that
damage during thinning operations. Plant competition includes cypress, bay, and sweetgum. Some areas have
from the hardwood understory can be reduced by a marsh vegetation that consists mostly of maidencane
chemical or mechanical methods. The use of logging and other water-tolerant plants.
systems that leave residual biomass well distributed on This Surrency soil is not suited to cultivated crops
the surface of the soil increases organic matter content unless a properly designed water control system is
and residual fertility of the soil. Applications of nitrogen established and maintained. Water is above the surface







Putnam County Area, Florida 57



for long periods during the growing season. Outlets for lower part, to a depth of 64 inches, is brownish yellow
needed water control systems are often not available, or and yellowish brown fine sand. The substratum to a
they are difficult and expensive to install. If a water depth of 80 inches or more is light gray fine sand.
control system can be established, this soil is well suited Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
to many grain and vegetable crops. Close-growing cover Astatula, Cassia, Paola, and Tavares soils. Also included
crops should be included in the rotation system when are small areas of soils that are similar to Orsino soil, but
the soil is not cultivated. Crop residue should be left on some of these soils have a dark sandy subsoil, some
the soil to help control erosion and to maintain soil have a loamy subsoil, and others are light gray fine sand
quality. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are throughout. The included soils make up about 20 percent
needed. of this map unit.
This soil is too wet for most improved grasses and In most years, this soil has a high water table at 40 to
legumes. If an adequate water control system can be 60 inches for up to 6 months. The available water
maintained, this soil is well suited to bermudagrass, capacity is low or very low. The permeability is very
bahiagrass, and clover. The water control system must rapid. Natural fertility is very low.
keep the high water table from rising above the surface Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
during wet periods. Plants grow well if fertilized and that includes laurel oak, scrub live oak, sand pine,
limed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, and bluestem grasses.
vigor and to obtain maximum yields. Poor soil quality is a severe limitation to use of this
This soil is generally not used for commercial Orsino soil for cultivated crops. Natural fertility is low and
production of pine trees. The potential of this soil for the response to fertilizer is moderate to high. Droughtiness
production of pine trees is low because the high water and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of
table is above the surface of the soil for long periods, adapted crops that can be grown on this soil and reduce
Seedling mortality and the use of equipment on this soil the potential yield. Intensive management practices,
are the main concerns in woodland management. such as contour stripcropping, crop rotation, crop residue
This soil has a severe limitation for urban development management, and irrigation, should be used on this soil.
because the surface is ponded for long periods. This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
Adequate water outlets are generally not available to crops. Deep-rooted plants, such as bermudagrass and
establish and maintain a water control system for bahiagrass, are well adapted to this soil. Management
building sites, roadways, or septic tank absorption fields. practices should include regular applications of fertilizer
Adding fill material to elevate these areas can help and lime and controlled grazing to help maintain plant
overcome this limitation. Large amounts of fill material vigor.
are needed to maintain the high water table at an The potential of this soil for the production of pine
effective depth, trees is medium. Slash and longleaf pines are the better
Because of ponding and the sandy surface layer, this suited trees to plant for commercial woodland
soil has severe limitations for recreational development, production. The use of equipment, seedling mortality,
If a water control system is established to maintain the and plant competition are the main concerns in
high water table at an effective depth, this soil is suited management. This soil is drought, and during long, dry
to recreational uses, such as campgrounds, picnic areas, seasons, not enough moisture is available in the root
playgrounds, and paths and trails. The surface should be zone to sustain plant growth. Using special planting
stabilized for recreational uses by adding suitable fill stock that is larger than usual or that is containerized
material or by paving the areas that are subject to reduces seedling mortality. The loose, sandy surface of
intensive foot traffic. this soil is a limitation to use of equipment. Machinery
This Surrency soil is in capability subclass VIw equipped with large, low-pressure tires or tracks helps to
(undrained). The woodland ordination symbol is 2W. overcome this limitation. Plant competition from
hardwoods, mostly oaks, can be reduced if herbicides
52-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This are used during site preparation. Although runoff is slow,
soil is nearly level to sloping, moderately well drained, logging and site preparation operations can increase and
and very rapidly permeable. It is on broad to narrow concentrate water movement on this soil and cause soil
slopes and moderately high ridges in upland areas. The erosion. These activities should be avoided in and
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 8 to adjacent to drainageways. Special design and proper
310 acres. placement of roads, skid trails, and stream crossings
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of gray fine sand reduce soil erosion. During site preparation and thinning
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of and harvesting operations, as much plant debris as
24 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper part of the possible should be left on the surface of the soil to help
subsoil, to a depth of 36 inches, is brownish yellow fine conserve organic matter.
sand. Tongues of light gray fine sand extend from the Wetness is a moderate limitation to use of this soil as
subsurface layer into the upper part of the subsoil. The septic tank absorption fields. In areas where septic tank







58 Soil Survey



absorption fields are concentrated, ground water Present land use precludes the use of this map unit
contamination is a hazard. A water control system is for cultivated crops, pasture and hay crops, or
needed to help overcome this limitation by lowering the commercial woodland production. The Zolfo soil part of
high water table to an effective depth. Adding suitable fill this map unit is used for lawns, parks, or playgrounds, or
material to slightly elevate the septic tank absorption it is left as open space. The Urban land part of this map
field can also help to overcome the wetness limitation, unit is used mostly for houses, streets, driveways,
Limitations for other urban uses, such as dwellings, small buildings, parking lots, or other similar uses.
commercial buildings, and local roads and streets, are Zolfo soil is moderately suited to use for lawns, parks,
slight. No special measures are needed for these uses. or playgrounds. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
The sandy surface layer is a severe limitation for are needed to maintain lawn grasses and ornamental
recreational development. The surface layer should be plants in good condition. Periodic irrigation is also
stabilized to help overcome this limitation by adding needed. Because of the disturbed surface layer, good
suitable top soil, establishing vegetation cover, or paving quality topsoil should be spread before establishing
the areas that are subject to intensive foot traffic. lawns.
This Orsino soil is in capability subclass IVs. The Wetness is a severe limitation to use of Zolfo soil as
woodland ordination symbol is 8S. septic tank absorption fields and is a moderate limitation
for dwellings without basements and for local roads and
53-Zolfo-Urban land complex. This map unit streets. This wetness limitation is caused by the high
consists of Zolfo soil that is nearly level and somewhat water table. The poor filtering capacity of this soil is a
poorly drained and of areas of Urban land. The soils in severe limitation and can result in ground water
this map unit are on low ridges and knolls in areas that contamination if the density of septic tank absorption
have been developed for residential, institutional, or fields in the area is high. Using fill material to elevate the
commercial purposes. Most areas of this map unit are in septic tank absorption fields and roadbeds can help
or near the cities of Palatka and Crescent City. The overcome these limitations. If water outlets are available,
mapped areas are mostly square or rectangular, but area drainage systems should be installed to keep the
some areas are irregular in shape. They range from 20 water table at an effective depth.
to 300 acres. The slopes are less than 2 percent. The sandy surface is a severe limitation for
Most of the mapped areas consist of about 65 percent recreational uses. Stabilizing the surface layer by adding
Zolfo soil and about 35 percent Urban land. In a few suitable topsoil, establishing vegetation cover, or using
areas, Urban land makes up more than 65 percent of the some 'other form of surfacing material should reduce or
map unit. The included soils make up less than 10 help overcome this limitation.
percent of this map unit. The individual areas of the soils The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
in this map unit are too mixed or too small to map capability subclass or to a woodland group.
separately at the scale used for the maps in the back of
this publication. 54-Candler-Urban land complex, 0 to 8 percent
Typically, Zolfo soil has a surface layer of black and slopes. This map unit consists of Candler soil that is
very dark brown fine sand about 9 inches thick. The nearly level to sloping and excessively drained and of
subsurface layer, to a depth of 53 inches, is light areas of Urban land. The soils in this map unit are on
brownish gray and gray fine sand. The subsoil to a depth broad upland ridges in areas that have been developed
of 80 inches or more is dark brown and brown fine sand. for residential, institutional, or commercial purposes. The
The Urban land part of this map unit is covered by mapped areas range from about 40 to 400 acres.
concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces Most of the mapped areas consist of about 65 percent
that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification Candler soil and 35 percent Urban land. In a few areas,
is not feasible. Urban land makes up more than 65 percent of the map
Included in mapping are small areas of Adamsville, unit. The included soils make up less than 10 percent of
Cassia, Centenary, Myakka, Narcoossee, and Tavares this map unit. The individual areas of the soils in this
soils. Also included are small areas of soils that are map unit are too mixed or too small to map separately at
similar to this Zolfo soil except they have a thick, dark the scale used for the maps in the back of this
surface layer. publication.
The high water table is at a depth of 24 to 40 inches Typically, Candler soil has a surface layer of brown
for 2 to 6 months in most years. It is at a depth of 10 to fine sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to
24 inches for up to 2 weeks in some years. The a depth of about 62 inches, is very pale brown fine sand.
available water capacity is medium in the surface layer, The next layer to a depth of 80 inches or more is very
very low or low in the subsurface layer, and medium to pale brown fine sand that has thin horizontal bands of
very high in the subsoil. The permeability of Zolfo soil is strong brown fine sandy loam.
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate The Urban land part of this map unit is covered by
in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low. concrete, asphalt, buildings, and other impervious







Putnam County Area, Florida 59



surfaces that obscure or alter the soils so that their few areas, Urban land makes up more than 65 percent
identification is not feasible. of the map unit. The included soils make up less than 10
Included in mapping are small areas of Astatula, percent of this map unit. The individual areas of the soils
Candler, 8 to 25 percent slopes, Centenary, and Deland in this map unit are too mixed or too small to map
soils. separately at the scale used for the maps in the back of
Candler soil has a high water table at a depth of more this publication.
than 72 inches. The available water capacity is very low Typically, Centenary soil has a surface layer of grayish
or low. The permeability is rapid. Natural fertility and the brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The upper part of
content of organic matter are low. the subsurface layer, to a depth of 45 inches, is light
Present land use precludes the use of the soils in this grayish brown sand. The lower part, to a depth of 65
map unit for cultivated crops, pasture, or commercial inches, is light gray sand. The subsoil to a depth of 80
woodland production. The Candler soil part of this map inches or more is dark brown fine sand.
unit is used for lawns, parks, playgrounds, golf courses, The Urban land part of this map unit is covered by
or cemeteries, or it is left as open space. The Urban concrete, asphalt, buildings, or other impervious surfaces
land part of this map unit is used mostly for houses, that obscure or alter the soils so that their identification
streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, or other similar is not feasible.
uses. Included in mapping are small areas of Candler,
The soils in this map unit are moderately suited to Deland, Tavares, and Zolfo soils.
growing lawn grasses and ornamental shrubs. Regular The high water table is at a depth of 40 to 60 inches
applications of fertilizer and water are needed to for 2 to 6 months in most years, and it recedes to a
maintain lawns in good condition. The selection of depth of more than 60 inches during extended dry
drought-tolerant plants is critical for the establishment of periods. The available water capacity is low or very low
lawns, shrubs, and vegetable gardens. If the surface in the surface layer, low in the subsurface layer, and very
layer has been removed during construction, the addition low to low in the subsoil. The permeability is very rapid in
of good quality topsoil may be required for vigorous plant the surface and subsurface layers and moderately rapid
growth. in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
Candler soil has only slight limitations to use as septic Present land use precludes the use of this map unit
tank absorption fields, for dwellings with or without for cultivated crops, pasture and hay crops, or
basements, and for local roads and streets. In areas commercial woodland production. The Centenary soil
where septic tank absorption fields are concentrated, the part of this map unit is used for lawns, parks, or
hazard of ground water pollution exists because of the playgrounds, or it is left as open space. The Urban land
poor filtering capacity of the soil. part of this map unit is used mainly for houses, streets,
The sandy surface is a severe limitation for driveways, buildings, parking lots, or other similar uses.
recreational development. Slope of more than 6 percent Centenary soil is moderately suited to use for parks
is a severe limitation to use of Candler soil for playgrounds. Poor soil quality is a severe limitation
playgrounds. Stabilizing the surface layer by establishing to use for lawns and playgrounds. Poor soil quality is a severe r applimitation
vegetation cover, adding suitable topsoil, or paving the to use for lawns and landscaping Regular applications
high traffic areas can help overcome these limitations. of fertilizer and lime are needed to maintain lawn
Land shaping of the areas that have slope of more than grasses and ornamental plants in good condition.
6 percent may be needed to overcome the slope Periodic irrigation is also needed during dry periods. If
limitation to use of Candler soil for playgrounds. the surface layer has been removed or disturbed during
The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a construction, a good quality topsoil should be added
capability subclass or to a woodland group. before establishing lawns.
Wetness is a moderate limitation to use of Centenary
55-Centenary-Urban land complex, 0 to 5 percent soil as septic tank absorption fields and a slight limitation
slopes. This map unit consists of Centenary soil that is for dwellings without basements and for local roads and
nearly level or gently sloping and moderately well streets. To overcome the wetness limitation, fill material
drained and of areas of Urban land. The soils in this map is needed to slightly elevate the septic tank absorption
unit are on low ridges and knolls in areas that have been fields. In areas where septic tank absorption fields are
developed for residential, institutional, industrial, or concentrated, ground water contamination is a hazard.
commercial purposes. Most areas of this map unit are in The sandy surface is a severe limitation for
or near the cities of Palatka and Crescent City. The recreational uses. Stabilizing the surface layer by adding
mapped areas are mostly square or rectangular, but a suitable topsoil, establishing vegetation cover, paving the
few areas are irregular in shape. They range from 20 to high traffic areas, or using some other form of surfacing
several hundred acres. material can help overcome or reduce these limitations.
Most of the mapped areas consist of about 65 percent The soils in this map unit have not been assigned to a
Centenary soil and about 35 percent Urban land. In a capability subclass or to a woodland group.







60 Soil Survey



56-Mulat fine sand. This soil is nearly level and This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
poorly drained. It is in low areas on the uplands and on Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well if
broad, low flats. Large areas of this soil are in the east properly managed. A water control system is needed to
Palatka and Federal Point areas of the county. The remove excess surface water after heavy rains. Lime
mapped areas are irregular in shape and range from 4 to and fertilizer are needed. Grazing should be controlled to
400 acres. The slopes are less than 2 percent. prevent overgrazing and to maintain plant vigor.
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray The potential of this soil for the production of pine
and dark gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The trees is medium to high. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf
subsurface layer, to a depth of 33 inches, is grayish pines are the better suited trees to plant for commercial
brown and dark grayish brown fine sand. The upper part woodland production. Concerns in management are the
of the subsoil, to a depth of 38 inches, is gray fine sandy use of equipment on this soil, seedling mortality, and
loam. The lower part, to a depth of 58 inches, is gray plant competition. During rainy periods, the high water
sandy clay loam. The upper part of the substratum, to a table causes moderate seedling mortality. Site
depth of 63 inches, is gray loamy fine sand. The lower preparation activities, such as bedding, furrowing, or
part to a depth of 80 inches or more is light gray fine surface drainage, help establish seedlings, increase early
sand. growth, and decrease the seedling mortality rate. This
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of soil is drought; and during long, dry periods, it does not
Lochloosa, Paisley, Riviera, and Wauchula soils. Also retain enough moisture in the root zone to sustain plant
included are small areas of soils that are similar to Mulat growth. The sandy surface texture and the seasonal high
soil, but some of these soils have a sandy clay subsoil, water table of this soil are severe limitations to use of
some have a subsoil that is at a depth of less than 20 equipment. Site preparation and planting, thinning, and
inches or that extends to a depth of more than 60 harvesting operations should be scheduled during dry
inches, some have a yellowish brown, brownish yellow, periods. If machinery is equipped with large tires or
or yellow subsurface layer, and, in the cultivated areas, tracks, forest management operations can be carried out
some soils have a thicker, black surface layer than Mulat in the wet periods. Site preparation that includes
soil. The included soils make up about 20 percent of this harrowing, chopping, or bedding of the rows helps to
map unit. control plant competition. During site preparation and
ap. ui. thinning and harvesting operations, as much plant
This soil has a high water table at a depth of less than residue as possible should be left on the surface of the
12 inches for 2 to 8 months during rainy periods. It is soil to help conserve organic matter. Applications of
between depths of 12 and 30 inches during periods of fertilizer with phosphorus should be applied during
low rainfall. The available water capacity is medium in planting operations. Applications of nitrogen fertilizer with
the surface layer, low to medium in the subsurface layer, phosphorus provide excellent growth response.
medium in the subsoil, and low in the substratum. The Wetness is a severe limitation for urban uses, such as
permeability is moderately rapid or rapid in the surface septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads
and subsurface layers, slow or moderately slow in the and streets. This soil readily absorbs but does not
subsoil, and moderately rapid in the substratum. Natural adequately filter the effluent in septic tank absorption
fertility is medium. fields. The poor filtering capacity may result in pollution
Large acreages of this soil are used for cultivated of the ground water. Septic tank absorption fields,
crops, such as Irish potatoes and cabbage. Some areas building sites, and roadbeds should be elevated by
are in natural vegetation of water oak and waxmyrtle and adding suitable fill material. If adequate water outlets are
a few slash pine, longleaf pine, and sawpalmetto. The available, a water control system should be installed to
understory vegetation consists of gallberry, bluestem, remove excess water and to also help maintain the high
pineland threeawn, and greenbrier. water table at an effective depth.
Excessive wetness and poor soil quality are severe Excessive wetness and the sandy surface layer are
limitations to use of this Mulat soil for cultivated crops. severe limitations for recreational development. To
Because of these limitations, the number and kinds of overcome the wetness limitation, a water control system
crops that can be grown are limited if very intensive is needed to maintain the high water table at an effective
management practices are not used. If a water control depth. The surface layer should be stabilized by adding
system is established and maintained, potatoes, suitable fill material or paving the areas to overcome the
cabbage, and many other vegetable crops can be grown. sandy texture limitation.
A water control system is needed to remove excess This Mulat soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
water in wet periods and provide for subsurface irrigation woodland ordination symbol is 11W.
during dry periods. Close-growing cover crops should be
planted when the soil is not cultivated. Crop residue 57-Deland fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This
should be left on or in the soil to help maintain the soil is nearly level to sloping and well drained. It is on
content of organic matter and soil tilth. moderately high knolls and broad ridges on the uplands.








Putnam County Area, Florida 61



The mapped areas are long to irregular in shape and provide for a good survival rate for seedlings. Use of
range from 6 to more than 200 acres. special planting stock that is larger than usual or that is
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark containerized reduces seedling mortality. Scheduling
grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The upper planting operations so that seedlings are planted during
part of the subsurface layer, to a depth of 12 inches, is the seasons when rainfall is heavier and more frequent
grayish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a depth of can also reduce the rate of seedling mortality. Although
46 inches, is very pale brown fine sand. The lower part, water runoff is slow, logging and site preparation
to a depth of 55 inches, is light yellowish brown fine operations can increase and concentrate water runoff on
sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 61 this soil and cause soil erosion. These activities should
inches, is dark brown fine sand. The lower part to a be avoided in and adjacent to drainageways. Special
depth of more than 80 inches is very dark brown and design and proper placement of roads, skid trails, and
dark grayish brown fine sand. stream crossings reduce soil erosion. During site
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of preparation and thinning and harvesting operations, as
Astatula and Centenary soils. Also included are small much plant debris as possible should be left on the
areas of soils that are similar to Deland soil, but some of surface of the soil to help conserve organic matter.
these soils have a surface texture of sand, and some This soil has slight limitations for urban uses, such as
have a subsoil at a depth of less than 50 inches. The for dwellings and local roads and streets. Because of
included areas make up about 10 percent of this map rapid permeability and depth of the high water table, this
unit. soil is well suited to use as septic tank absorption fields.
This soil has a high water table at a depth of more In areas where septic tank absorption fields are
than 72 inches. The available water capacity is very low concentrated, ground water contamination is a hazard.
in the surface and subsurface layers, and it is medium in This soil is poorly suited to recreational uses because
the subsoil. The permeability is very rapid or rapid in the of the sandy surface texture. This limitation can be
surface and subsurface layers, and it is moderate in the overcome if the surface layer is stabilized by adding
subsoil. Natural fertility is very low. topsoil to establish a vegetation cover. Slope of more
Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation than 6 percent is a severe limitation to use of this soil for
that includes turkey oak, longleaf pine, sand pine, and playgrounds. Frequent irrigation and regular application
sand live oak. The understory vegetation includes of fertilizer are required for good lawn and turf
rosemary, pineland threeawn, scattered scrub oak, management.
bluestem, and native grasses. Some areas have been This Deland soil is in capability subclass IVs. The
planted to pasture and pine trees. woodland ordination symbol is 5S.
Under natural conditions, this Deland soil has severe
limitations for cultivated crops. Because of droughtiness 58-Wauchula fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
and poor soil qualities, row crops generally are not poorly drained. It is on broad flats. This soil is in the
grown. If intensive management practices are used, a vegetable farming area in the northeastern part of the
few special crops, such as watermelons and ferns, can county. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
be grown. range from 3 to 250 acres. The slopes are less than 2
In areas where cold temperatures are not a problem, percent.
this soil is well suited to citrus trees. Growing a cover Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black fine
crop between trees reduces soil loss to wind erosion, sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a
Applying lime and fertilizer and irrigating during dry depth of 12 inches, is light gray fine sand. The upper
periods are good management practices. part of the subsoil, to a depth of 22 inches, is black and
This soil is moderately well suited to pasture and hay very dark grayish brown fine sand. The middle part, to a
crops. If properly managed, deep-rooted grasses, such depth of 34 inches, is brown fine sand. The lower part,
as bahiagrass and bermudagrass, grow well. Regular to a depth of 44 inches, is gray fine sandy loam. The
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing substratum to a depth of 80 inches is grayish brown fine
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor, sand.
The potential of this soil for the production of pine Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
trees is moderately low. Slash, longleaf, and sand pines Mulat, Myakka, Palmetto, Pomona, Riviera, and Wabasso
are the better suited trees to plant for commercial soils. Also included are small areas of soils that are
woodland production. The main concerns in similar to Wauchula soil, but some of these soils have a
management are the use of equipment on this soil and thicker surface layer, and some have a sandy clay
seedling mortality. The loose, sandy surface of this soil is texture in the lower part of the subsoil. The included
a moderate limitation to use of equipment. Machinery soils make up about 15 percent of this map unit.
that is equipped with large tires or tracks can help In most years, this soil has a high water table at a
overcome this limitation. This soil has very low available depth of 12 to 40 inches for about 6 months. It is at a
water capacity and does not supply enough moisture to depth of less than 12 inches for 1 month to 4 months in







62 Soil Survey



wet periods and at a depth of more than 40 inches distributed on the surface of the soil increases organic
during very dry periods. The available water capacity is matter content and residual fertility of the soil.
low or medium in the surface layer, very low or low in Applications of nitrogen fertilizer with phosphorus provide
the subsurface layer, and high or very high in the upper excellent growth response.
part of the subsoil and medium or high in the lower part. Excessive wetness during rainy periods is a severe
The permeability is very rapid in the surface and limitation to use of this soil for urban development. The
subsurface layers, and it is moderate in the upper part of high water table and slow permeability of the loamy
the subsoil and slow or moderately slow in the lower subsoil can interfere with the proper functioning of septic
part. Natural fertility is low. tank absorption fields. If septic tank absorption fields are
Large acreages of this soil are used for cultivated elevated by adding suitable fill material, this soil is suited
crops, such as potatoes and cabbage. Some areas are to this use. The use of this soil for building sites and for
in natural vegetation that includes slash pine, cabbage local roads and streets also requires that measures be
palm, and water oak. The understory vegetation includes taken to overcome the severe wetness limitation. If
sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, and pineland threeawn. adequate water outlets are available, an area wide
Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this Wauchula drainage system should be installed to remove excess
soil for cultivated crops. The number of adapted crops water and to help keep the high water table at an
that can be grown on this soil is very limited if intensive effective depth. The use of fill material to elevate
water control measures are not used. If a properly building sites and roadbeds will also help keep the high
designed water control system is established and water table at an effective depth.
maintained, this soil is suited to many kinds of flowers Excessive wetness and the sandy surface layer of this
and vegetable crops. The water control system is Excessive wetness and the sandy surface layer of this
needed vegetable crops. Thexess water control system i wet periods and soil are severe limitations for recreational uses. The
needed to remove excess water in wet periods. Close- wetness limitation can be overcome by establishing a
provide for subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Close- water control system that will help maintain the high
growing, soil-improving crops should be included in the water contrable system that ive depth. In areas of intensive
rotation system at least two-thirds of the time. Crop water table at an effective depth. In areas of intensive
residueon systhould bem at least twon the surface to he time.lp control foot traffic, the surface should be stabilized by adding fill
residue should be left on the surface to help control material, establishing vegetation cover, or by paving the
erosion, maintain organic matter, and improve soil material, establishing vegetation cover, or by paying the
quality. Conservation tillage will help conserve moisture recreation areas.
and control erosion. Fertilizer and lime should be applied This Wauchula soil is in capability subclass Illw. The
according to the needs of the crop. woodland ordination symbol is 10W.
These soils are well suited to pasture and hay crops.
Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover are well adapted 59-Floridana fine sand. This soil is nearly level and
to this soil and grow well if properly managed. A very poorly drained. It is on low, broad flats. This soil is
drainage system is needed to remove excess surface in the vegetable farming area in the northeastern part of
water during intense rains. Grazing should be controlled the county. The mapped areas are irregular in shape and
to prevent overgrazing, to help maintain plant vigor, and range from 40 to 80 acres. The slopes are less than 2
to obtain maximum yields. percent.
The potential of this soil for the production of pine Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray
trees is medium to high. Slash, loblolly, and longleaf and very dark grayish brown fine sand about 12 inches
pines are the better suited trees to plant for commercial thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 24 inches, is
woodland production. The major concerns in light gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 35 inches,
management are the use of equipment on this soil, is light gray sandy clay loam. The substratum to a depth
seedling mortality, and plant competition. Seasonal of 80 inches or more is light gray loamy fine sand and
wetness and periods of droughtiness are limitations to fine sand.
use of equipment, and they also cause seedling Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
mortality. Site preparation activities, such as harrowing soils that are similar to Floridana soil, but in some soils,
and bedding, help establish seedlings, reduce seedling the subsoil is within 20 inches of the surface, some have
mortality, and increase early plant growth; and chopping a yellowish brown sandy subsurface layer, and some
and bedding reduce debris, control competing have a surface layer that is 7 to 10 inches thick. The
vegetation, and facilitate planting operations. Machinery included soils make up less than 15 percent of this map
equipped with large, low-pressure rubber tires or tracks unit.
can help overcome the limitation to use of equipment on In its natural state, this soil has a high water table at a
this soil, can reduce soil compaction, and can also depth of less than 12 inches for 6 to 9 months. The
reduce root damage during thinning operations. Plant available water capacity is medium to high in the surface
competition from the hardwood understory can be layer and subsoil, and it is low in the subsurface layer.
reduced by chemical or mechanical methods. The use of The permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
logging systems that leave residual biomass well layers, and it is very slow or slow in the subsoil. Natural








Putnam County Area, Florida 63



fertility is high, and the organic matter content is This Floridana soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The
moderate. woodland ordination symbol is 11W.
In most areas, this soil has been cleared and is used
for cabbage and potato production. Some areas are in 60-Astor mucky fine sand, frequently flooded.
natural vegetation that includes slash pine, cabbage This soil is nearly level and very poorly drained. It is on
palm, sweetgum, water oak, waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, the flood plain of the St. Johns River and in narrow
and various ferns. drainageways extending from the St. Johns River. The
Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this Floridana mapped areas are irregular in shape to long and narrow
soil for cultivated crops. The root zone is limited by a and range from 5 to 200 acres. The slopes are less than
seasonal high water table that is at a depth of less than 1 percent.
12 inches. A water control system to remove excess Typically, the surface layer is about 55 inches thick.
water rapidly and provide for subsurface irrigation is The upper part of the surface layer of this soil is black
needed to obtain maximum yields. Close-growing cover mucky fine sand about 13 inches thick. The middle part,
crops should be included in the rotation system when to a depth of 32 inches, is very dark gray fine sand. The
the soil is not cultivated. Crop residue should be returned lower part, to a depth of 55 inches, is very dark grayish
to the soil. Seedbed preparation should include bedding brown fine sand. The underlying material to a depth of
of the rows. Fertilizer should be applied according to the 80 inches or more is dark grayish brown fine sand.
needs of the crop. Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
This soil is well suited to most pasture grasses. A Holopaw, Pompano, and Terra Ceia soils. Also included
water control system should be established and are small areas of soils that are similar to Astor soil, but
maintained to remove excess surface water rapidly, and some of these soils have a surface layer that is less than
regular applications of fertilizer are needed to realize the 24 inches thick, some are brown or dark brown in the
full potential of this soil for pasture grasses. lower part of the surface layer, and others are in slightly
Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well if higher positions on the landscape than Astor soil and
properly managed. Grazing should be controlled to are rarely flooded. The included soils make up about 25

The potential of this soil for the production of pine percent of this map unit.
trees is moderately high. This potential productivity is This soil is flooded several times each year during
attainable only in areas that have adequate surface periods of heavy rains. Areas adjacent to the St. Johns
drainage. Slash and loblolly pines are the better suited River are subject to flooding that is caused by storm
trees to plant for commercial woodland production. The tides. The duration of flooding is generally more than 1
use of equipment and seedling mortality are concerns in month. When not flooded, this soil has a water table
management. Because of seasonal wetness and periods generally at a depth of 12 inches or less, but the water
of drought, a timely scheduling of site preparation and table may recede to greater depths during dry periods.
seedling planting is necessary. Proper site preparation The available water capacity is very high or high in the
includes bedding of the rows. surface layer, and it is low in the underlying material. The
Wetness is a severe limitation to use of this soil as permeability is rapid. Natural fertility is medium.
septic tank absorption fields, for dwellings, and for local Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
roads and streets. This soil readily absorbs but does not that includes sweetgum, blackgum, red maple, cypress,
adequately filter the effluent in septic tank absorption bay, and cabbage palm. The understory vegetation is
fields. The poor filtering capacity may result in pollution generally sparse.
of the ground water. Slow permeability of the loamy Flooding and wetness are severe limitations to use of
subsoil is also a limitation. Septic tank absorption fields, this Astor soil for cultivated crops. A water control
building sites, and roadbeds should be elevated by system is needed to help control flooding and to remove
adding suitable fill material, and if water outlets are excess water if the soil is cultivated. Close-growing cover
available, a water control system should be installed to crops should be included in the cropping system when
remove excess water and to maintain the high water the soil is not cultivated. Crop residue should be left on
table at a depth of 1.5 feet or more to overcome the the soil to help maintain the content of organic matter, to
wetness limitation, control erosion, and to maintain soil tilth. Seedbed
Excessive wetness and the sandy surface layer are preparation should include bedding of the rows.
severe limitations for recreational development. To In its natural state, this soil is not suited to pasture
overcome the wetness limitation, a water control system because it is flooded for long periods. This soil is well
is needed to maintain the high water table at an effective suited to bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover if a
depth. The surface layer should be stabilized by adding water control system can be established and maintained
suitable fill material, establishing vegetation cover, or to control flooding and to remove excess surface water
paving the areas to overcome the sandy texture rapidly. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
limitation. Grazing should be controlled to help maintain plant vigor.








64 Soil Survey



The potential of this soil for the production of pine higher reaction in the lower part of the subsoil. The
trees is moderately high, but this soil is generally not included soils make up about 25 percent of this map
used for growing pines for commercial woodland unit.
production because of flooding. With proper In most years, this soil has a seasonal high water
management, slash pines can be grown. The potential table between depths of 18 and 30 inches for 1 month
productivity is attainable only if a water control system to 2 months and is at a depth of 30 to 60 inches for 2 to
can be established to control flooding on this soil. The 5 months. It recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches
major concerns in management are seedling mortality during long, dry periods. The available water capacity is
and the restricted use of equipment. Flooding is a severe very low or low in the surface and subsurface layers, and
hazard. Because of excessive wetness, the seedling it is low or medium in the subsoil. The permeability is
survival rate is very low. Excessive wetness and the high rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, and it is
content of organic matter in the surface layer restricts moderately rapid or rapid in the upper part of the subsoil
the use of heavy equipment. and slow to moderately slow in the lower part. Natural
Excessive wetness is a severe limitation for urban fertility is very low.
uses, such as septic tank absorption fields, dwellings, Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
and local roads and streets. The hazard of flooding is that includes scrub live oak, water oak, slash pine, and
severe. It is difficult to control flooding and to remove longleaf pine. The understory vegetation includes
excess water because of the low position of the soil on sawpalmetto, bluestem, pineland threeawn, and
the landscape. Large amounts of fill material would be greenbrier.
needed to elevate septic tank absorption fields, building Droughtiness, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and
sites, and roadbeds. The possibility of ground water poor soil quality are severe limitations to use of this
contamination because of the poor filtering of effluents in Newnan soil for cultivated crops. Use of intensive soil
septic tank absorption fields when the soil is flooded management practices are required if this soil is
would continue to exist. cultivated. Soil-improving cover crops should be included
Wetness and the sandy surface are severe limitations in the cropping system if the soil is not cultivated. Crop
to use of this soil for recreational development. Flooding residue should be left on the surface until the soil is
is a severe hazard. In camp areas and in areas used for cultivated, and then the crop residue should be plowed
playgrounds, a water control system is needed to help into the soil. Conservation tillage helps to improve soil
control flooding, to remove excess water, and to help tilth, conserves moisture, and helps to control erosion.
maintain the high water table at a depth of 2 to 2.5 feet Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are needed. A
or more. In areas of intensive foot traffic, the loose, water control system is needed to remove excess water
sandy surface layer should be stabilized by adding a during wet periods. A properly designed irrigation system
suitable fill material or by paving the recreation areas. is needed to maintain optimum moisture and ensure
This Astor soil is in capability subclass VIw maximum yields during dry periods.
(undrained). The woodland ordination symbol is 6W. This soil is moderately suited to pasture and hay
crops. Poor soil quality and periodic drought reduce
61-Newnan fine sand. This soil is nearly level and yields. Deep-rooted plants, such as bermudagrass and
somewhat poorly drained. It is along the edges of well- bahiagrass, are well adapted to this soil. Regular
defined drainageways and low knolls on the flatwoods. It applications of lime and fertilizer are needed. Grazing
is also on low ridges and side slopes adjacent to should be controlled to maintain plant vigor, to help keep
depressions on the uplands. The mapped areas are a good ground cover on the soil, and to obtain maximum
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 120 acres. The yields.
slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. The potential of this soil for the production of pine
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark trees is medium. Slash and longleaf pines are the better
grayish brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The suited trees for commercial woodland production. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of 22 inches, is light gray major management concerns are restricted use of
fine sand. The upper part of the subsoil, to a depth of 30 equipment, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
inches, is dark brown and dark yellowish brown fine Seasonal wetness and periods of droughtiness limit use
sand. The next layer, to a depth of 58 inches, is of equipment and increase the rate of seedling mortality.
yellowish brown and very pale brown fine sand. The Site preparation activities, such as harrowing and
lower part of the subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more bedding, help establish seedlings, reduce seedling
is light brownish gray sandy loam and sandy clay loam. mortality, and increase early plant growth; and chopping
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of and bedding reduce debris, control competing
Cassia, Electra, Lochloosa, and Sparr soils. Also vegetation, and facilitate planting operations. Machinery
included are small areas of soils that are similar to equipped with high flotation rubber tires or tracks can
Newnan soil, but in some of these soils, the upper part help overcome the limitation to use of equipment, can
of the subsoil is weakly developed, and some have a reduce soil compaction, and can also reduce root








Putnam County Area, Florida 65



damage during thinning operations. Plant competition layer and the upper part of the subsoil, and moderately
from hardwood understory can be reduced by chemical slow to moderate in the lower part of the subsoil. Natural
or mechanical methods. The use of logging systems that fertility is medium.
leave residual biomass well distributed on the surface of Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
the soil increases the content of organic matter and that includes cypress, sweetgum, red maple, and bay. In
residual fertility of the soil. Applications of nitrogen areas with dense tree growth, the understory vegetation
fertilizer with phosphorus provide excellent growth is sparse. If the canopy cover is thin, the understory
response. vegetation includes maidencane, cordgrass, and other
A seasonally high water table is a severe limitation to water-tolerant plants.
use of this soil as septic tank absorption fields. A water Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
control system should be established to maintain the cultivated crops and improved pasture because of
high water table at an effective depth. Elevating the ponding. Adequate water control systems are difficult to
septic tank absorption fields by adding suitable fill establish because this soil is mostly in isolated
material can increase the filtering capacity of the soil and depressional areas that do not have suitable drainage
can also help maintain the high water table at an outlets. If these areas can be adequately drained and a
effective depth. Wetness is a moderate limitation for good water control system maintained, some special
dwellings and local roads and streets. Special measures, crops and grasses can be grown.
such as installing a water control system and elevating This soil is generally not suited to production of pine
building sites and roadways, will help to overcome this trees because of ponding. In some areas, trees are
wetness limitation. harvested, but regrowth is caused by natural
The sandy surface layer of this soil is a severe regeneration rather than the planting of seedlings.
limitation for recreational development. To reduce or Ponding and the sandy surface layer severely restrict
overcome this limitation in areas of intensive foot traffic, the use of this soil as septic tank absorption fields, for
the surface layer should be stabilized by adding suitable dwellings, and for local roads and streets. A water
fill material or paving areas used for trails, campsites, control system is difficult to establish and maintain
picnicking, and playgrounds. Establishing a good because of the low position of this soil on the landscape
vegetation cover is difficult. and because drainage outlets are generally not available.
This Newnan soil is in capability subclass Ills. The Because of ponding and the sandy surface layer, this
woodland ordination symbol is 10W. soil has severe limitations for recreational uses. Drainage
outlets and a water control system are needed to
62-Monteocha sand, depressional. This soil is remove excess water before this soil can be used for
nearly level and very poorly drained. It is in depressional recreational areas. The excessive wetness and ponding
areas on the flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular limitations are difficult to overcome because of the low
in shape to circular and range from 8 to 135 acres. The position of this soil on the landscape. Outlets to remove
slopes are less than 2 percent. excess water are generally not available.
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black sand This Monteocha soil is in capability subclass VIlw. The
about 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth woodland ordination symbol is 2W.
of 25 inches, is gray sand. The upper part of the subsoil,
to a depth of 34 inches, is black and dark reddish brown 63-Okeechobee muck. This organic soil is nearly
sand. The layers below that, to a depth of 50 inches, are level and very poorly drained. It formed in thick beds of
dark brown and brown sand. The lower part of the hydrophytic, nonwoody plant remains. This soil is in
subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray and light depressional areas on the uplands. It is in the western
gray sandy loam. part of the county. The mapped areas are irregular in
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of shape to circular and range from 500 to 1,200 acres.
Placid, Samsula, and Surrency soils. Also included are The slopes are concave and are less than 1 percent.
soils that are similar to Monteocha soil, but they have a Typically, this soil has a surface layer of black muck
dark brown subsoil at a depth of more than 30 inches. about 25 inches thick. The next layer, to a depth of 46
The center of some delineations include some soils that inches, is brown mucky peat. Below that layer to a depth
have a surface layer of well decomposed organic of 80 inches or more is dark reddish brown muck.
material about 1 inch to 5 inches thick. The included Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
soils make up 20 percent or less of this map unit. Hontoon, Placid, Samsula, and St. Johns soils. Also
In most years, this soil has a high water table that is 1 included are small areas of soils that are similar to
foot to 2 feet above the surface for more than 4 months. Okeechobee soil, but they are very strongly acid or
The available water capacity is high or very high in the extremely acid. The included soils make up about 10
surface layer, and it is medium in the subsurface layer percent of this map unit.
and in the subsoil. The permeability is rapid in the This soil has a high water table at or above the
surface layer, moderately rapid to rapid in the subsurface surface except during extended dry periods. The








66 Soil Survey



available water capacity is very high. The permeability is of soils that are similar to Paisley soil, but some of these
rapid. Natural fertility is high. soils are strongly acid or very strongly acid and do not
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation of have carbonatic material, and some have a subsoil of
water-tolerant grasses, reeds, and sedges. Cattails, clay loam. The included soils make up about 20 percent
sawgrass, maidencane, pickerelweed, and buttonwood of this map unit.
are common plants in the marsh areas. In a few small In most years, this soil has a high water table at a
areas are mixed hardwoods of red maple, sweetgum, depth of 12 inches or less for 2 to 6 months. The
cypress, and swamp elm. available water capacity is low in the surface layer, and it
This Okeechobee soil is not suited to cultivated crops is high or very high in the subsoil. The permeability is
or improved pasture because of ponding. If an adequate rapid in the surface layer, and it is slow in the subsoil.
water control system can be installed, this soil is well Natural fertility is moderate.
suited to vegetable or grain crops and improved pasture. Most of the acreage of this soil is in natural vegetation
A properly designed and maintained water control that includes slash and longleaf pines and a few red
system to remove excess water during the growing maple, sweetgum, and cabbage palm. The understory
season is needed. This soil should be saturated when it vegetation includes waxmyrtle, gallberry, pineland
is not cultivated to keep oxidation in the organic layers to threeawn, and a few sawpalmetto.
a minimum. Fertilizer that contains phosphate, potash, Excessive wetness is a severe limitation to use of this
and other minor elements is needed. Bermudagrass, Paisley soil for cultivated crops. Because of this
bahiagrass, and clover grow well if properly managed. limitation, the number and kinds of crops that can be
Crop residue should be left on the soil to help control imitation, the number and kinds of crops that can be
erosion, conserve moisture, and improve soil quality, grown are limited unless very intensive management
Controlled grazing is needed to obtain maximum yields. practices are used. If good water control measures are
This soil is not suited to commercial woodland used, cabbage and many other vegetable crops can be
production because of ponding and low soil strength. grown. A water control system is needed to remove
The rapid permeability and poor filtering capacity are excess water in wet periods and to provide for
severe limitations to use of this soil for urban subsurface irrigation during dry periods. Close-growing
development. This soil is saturated for long periods, and cover crops should be planted when the soil is not
the organic material is rapidly permeable and does not cultivated. Crop residue should be left on the soil to help
adequately filter the effluent in the septic tank absorption maintain the content of organic matter and improve tilth.
fields. This can cause contamination of the ground This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops.
water. Ponding and the low strength of the organic Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well if
material are severe limitations for building sites, for properly managed. A water control system is needed to
dwellings, and for local roads and streets. The organic remove excess surface water after heavy rains. Lime
layers should be removed and the building sites and and fertilizer are needed. Grazing should be controlled to
roadbeds should be elevated to overcome these prevent overgrazing and to maintain plant vigor.
limitations. The potential of this soil for the production of pine
This soil is not suited to recreational uses because of trees is moderately high. Slash and loblolly pines are the
ponding and low strength of the organic material, better suited trees for commercial woodland production.
This Okeechobee soil is in capability subclass Vllw The major concerns in management are seedling
(undrained). This soil has not been assigned to a mortality, restricted use of equipment, and plant
woodland group. competition. Seasonal wetness is a severe limitation. It
restricts the use of equipment on this soil and increases
64-Paisley loamy fine sand. This soil is nearly level plant competition. The severe rate of seedling mortality
and poorly drained. It is in low, broad to narrow areas on is also caused by excessive wetness. Site preparation
the flatwoods. The mapped areas are irregular in shape activities, such as harrowing and bedding, help establish
and range from 20 to 180 acres. The slopes are less seedlings, increase early growth, and reduce seedling
than 1 percent. mortality. Bedding should be done in a manner that does
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of very dark gray not block the natural drainage flow. Short-term drainage
loamy fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface of surface water is needed until trees become well
layer, to a depth of 9 inches, is grayish brown loamy fine established. Special machinery equipped with high
sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 65 inches, is gray and flotation rubber tires or crawler equipment will reduce
light gray sandy clay. The substratum to a depth of 80 root damage and soil compaction. Thinning and
inches or more is light gray sandy clay that has pockets harvesting operations should be done during dry periods.
of white sand, soft white carbonates, and calcareous Site preparation, such as chopping, burning, and
concretions. bedding, reduce debris, control competing vegetation,
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of and facilitate planting. Applications of nitrogen fertilizer
Riviera and Winder soils. Also included are small areas with phosphorus provide excellent growth response.








Putnam County Area, Florida 0 67



Wetness and an unstable, fine-textured subsoil that A small acreage of this soil is used for citrus crops
has a low load-bearing capacity are severe limitations for and ornamental fern production. Most acreage is in
most urban uses, such as septic tank absorption fields, natural vegetation that includes scrub live oak, sand
dwellings, and local roads and streets. Septic tank pine, scattered longleaf pine, and a few, widely spaced
absorption fields, building sites, and roadbeds should be turkey oak. The understory vegetation includes
elevated by adding suitable fill material to maintain the sawpalmetto, pineland threeawn, and panicum.
high water table at an effective depth and to stabilize Droughtiness and rapid leaching of nutrients are
foundations and subgrades. Using enlarged footers, severe limitations to use of this Hobe soil for cultivated
extra reinforcements in foundations, or piling can also crops. Close-growing cover crops should be included in
help increase the load-bearing capacity of this soil. If the rotation system with row crops. Crop residue should
adequate water outlets are available, a water control be left on the surface to help control erosion and
system can be installed to remove excess water and to improve soil quality. Conservation tillage helps conserve
maintain the high water table at an effective depth. moisture and control erosion. High value crops should be
Excessive wetness is a severe limitation to use of this irrigated if water is readily available.
soil for recreational development. To help overcome this This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture. Poor soil
limitation, a water control system is needed to maintain quality and droughtiness limit growth and reduce yields.
the high water table to an effective depth. Deep-rooted plants, such as Coastal bermudagrass and
This Paisley soil is in capability subclass IIIw. The improved bahiagrass, are well adapted to this soil.
woodland ordination symbol is 13W. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant vigor and
65-Hobe fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil to help keep a good ground cover on the soil.
is nearly level to gently sloping and somewhat The potential of this soil for the production of longleaf
excessively drained. It is on low knolls and ridges on the pine is medium. It is low to medium for slash and loblolly
flatwoods and in low upland areas. The mapped areas pines and medium for sand pine. All of these trees are
are oval to irregular in shape and range from 5 to 80 suited to plant for commercial woodland production. The
acres. major concern in management is a low available water
Typically, this soil has a surface layer of gray fine sand capacity that causes a moderate rate of seedling
about 3 inchesally, thick. The sub a surface layer of gray fine sand mortality. Using special planting stock that is larger than
about 3 inches thick. The subsurfacgray and white layer, to a depth of usual or that is containerized reduces seedling mortality.
42 inches, is light gray and white fine sand. The upper The loose, sandy surface layer of this soil is a moderate
part of the subsoil, to a depth of 50 inches, is dark limitation to use of equipment. Machinery equipped with
brown fine sand. The next layer, to a depth of 62 inches, large, low-pressure tires or tracks can help overcome
is dark yellowish brown fine sand. The next layer, to a this limitation. During site preparation practices, as much
depth of 68 inches, is yellowish brown fine sandy loam. debris as possible should be left on the surface of the
The lower part to a depth of 80 inches or more is light soil. To conserve organic matter, burning should be
gray sandy clay loam. restricted.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of This soil has slight limitations to use as septic tank
Cassia, Electra, and Pomona soils. Also included are absorption fields. In areas where septic tank absorption
small areas of a soil that is similar to Hobe soil, but it fields are concentrated, ground water contamination is a
does not have dark brown fine sand in the upper part of hazard. Limitations are slight for dwellings, for local
the subsoil. The included soils make up about 20 roads and streets, and for small commercial buildings.
percent of this map unit. The sandy surface layer is a severe limitation to use of
In most years, this soil has a high water table at a this soil for recreational development. To reduce or
depth of 60 to 72 inches for 1 month to 4 months. It is overcome this limitation in areas of intensive foot traffic,
within 40 to 60 inches of the surface for up to 3 weeks the surface layer should be stabilized by adding suitable
during wet periods. The available water capacity is very fill material or paving areas used for picnicking,
low to low in the surface layer, very low in the campsites, playgrounds, and paths and trails.
subsurface layer, and medium in the subsoil. The Establishing a good vegetation cover on this soil is
permeability is very rapid in the surface and subsurface difficult.
layers, and it is moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is This Hobe soil is in capability subclass Vis. The
low. woodland ordination symbol is 2S.










69








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, According to the 1985 Florida Statistical Abstract,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses more than 50,000 acres in Putnam County is used for
and management. Field experience and collected data crops and pasture. The Putnam County Extension
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis Service estimates that of the total acreage about 35,000
for predicting soil behavior. acres is used for pasture, 8,000 acres for vegetable
Information in this section can be used to plan the use crops, 3,000 acres for fruit crops, 4,000 acres for hay,
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as 2,500 acres for corn, 700 acres for fern, and 300 acres
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, for pecans.
highways and other transportation systems, and parks Specialty crops grown commercially in the survey area
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It include vegetables, citrus crops, watermelons, pecans,
can be used to identify the potentials and limitations of ferns, cut flowers, and flower bulbs and sets. Irish
each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent potatoes and cabbage are the most extensively grown
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil vegetable crops. Crops are grown mostly in the East
properties. Palatka, Federal Point, and Hastings areas. Soils most
Planners and others using soil survey information can used for vegetable crops are Mulat, Myakka, Pomona,
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity and Wauchula soils. These soils are nearly level and
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. poorly drained but water control systems have been
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a established to provide subirrigation during dry periods
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature. and for drainage of excess water during wet periods.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of Many of these soils have been leveled to provide for the
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to most efficient use of irrigation water.
identify areas where wetness or very firm soil layers can In the past, oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines were
cause difficulty in excavation, the most important fruit crops in the survey area. The
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and acreage of citrus crops has declined dramatically during
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can the early and middle 1980's because of severe freezes.
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate Most citrus was grown in the area west of Crescent City
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, on Astatula, Centenary, Candler, Deland, and Tavares
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. soils. Acreages of blueberries, grapes, peaches, and
pecans have been steadily increasing.
Crops and Pasture Ferns that are produced for cut foliage and are used
by florists are also grown in the area west of Crescent
William F. Kuentsler, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped City (see cover). Leatherleaf ferns are the most
to prepare this section. extensively grown, followed by plumosus. Ferns are
General management needed for crops and pasture is grown mostly on Astatula, Centenary, Orsino, and
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants Tavares soils. The ferns are grown under natural shade
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly of large live oak and laurel oak trees or under canopy-
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of covered areas. Ferns require spray irrigation to supply
land capability classification used by the Soil moisture during dry periods and provide protection from
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated freezing during cold weather. The acreage of fern has







69








Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land listed for each soil.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual fields
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid or farms should consider the detailed information given
soil-related failures in land uses. in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics Cooperative Extension Service.
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, According to the 1985 Florida Statistical Abstract,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses more than 50,000 acres in Putnam County is used for
and management. Field experience and collected data crops and pasture. The Putnam County Extension
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis Service estimates that of the total acreage about 35,000
for predicting soil behavior. acres is used for pasture, 8,000 acres for vegetable
Information in this section can be used to plan the use crops, 3,000 acres for fruit crops, 4,000 acres for hay,
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as 2,500 acres for corn, 700 acres for fern, and 300 acres
woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, for pecans.
highways and other transportation systems, and parks Specialty crops grown commercially in the survey area
and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habitat. It include vegetables, citrus crops, watermelons, pecans,
can be used to identify the potentials and limitations of ferns, cut flowers, and flower bulbs and sets. Irish
each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent potatoes and cabbage are the most extensively grown
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil vegetable crops. Crops are grown mostly in the East
properties. Palatka, Federal Point, and Hastings areas. Soils most
Planners and others using soil survey information can used for vegetable crops are Mulat, Myakka, Pomona,
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity and Wauchula soils. These soils are nearly level and
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. poorly drained but water control systems have been
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a established to provide subirrigation during dry periods
land use pattern that is in harmony with nature. and for drainage of excess water during wet periods.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of Many of these soils have been leveled to provide for the
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to most efficient use of irrigation water.
identify areas where wetness or very firm soil layers can In the past, oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines were
cause difficulty in excavation, the most important fruit crops in the survey area. The
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and acreage of citrus crops has declined dramatically during
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can the early and middle 1980's because of severe freezes.
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate Most citrus was grown in the area west of Crescent City
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, on Astatula, Centenary, Candler, Deland, and Tavares
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. soils. Acreages of blueberries, grapes, peaches, and
pecans have been steadily increasing.
Crops and Pasture Ferns that are produced for cut foliage and are used
by florists are also grown in the area west of Crescent
William F. Kuentsler, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped City (see cover). Leatherleaf ferns are the most
to prepare this section. extensively grown, followed by plumosus. Ferns are
General management needed for crops and pasture is grown mostly on Astatula, Centenary, Orsino, and
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants Tavares soils. The ferns are grown under natural shade
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly of large live oak and laurel oak trees or under canopy-
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of covered areas. Ferns require spray irrigation to supply
land capability classification used by the Soil moisture during dry periods and provide protection from
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated freezing during cold weather. The acreage of fern has







70 Soil Survey


increased significantly in recent years because of waters; and desirability of using the land for other
increasing demand and because of the decline of the purposes.
citrus industry. Although the total acreage of fern As population increases, the demand for food will also
produced is relatively small, the total value of the crop increase. To increase food production, knowledge of
exceeds that of any other crop in the Putnam County soils and soil properties is essential. Some of the major
Area. soil properties to be considered are water and wind
Field crops in the survey area include corn and small erosion, wetness, fertility, and tilth.
acreages of grain sorghum, wheat, oats, and soybeans. Soil erosion from water runoff is not as serious in
Most of the corn is grown on organic soils near Putnam County as it is in many areas in the southern
Florahome and on the mineral soils in the vegetable United States. Most of the soils are sandy and nearly
farming area in the eastern part of Putnam County. In level. However, erosion does occur during periods of
the vegetable producing area, a tropical variety of corn is torrential rainfall in a few bare areas that have short,
planted late in the spring or early in the summer steep slopes. In areas that are experiencing rapid urban
following the harvest of cabbage or Irish potatoes. The development, erosion can be a problem if water
corn crop uses the residual fertilizer remaining from the quantities are concentrated and runoff is accelerated.
vegetable crops and requires little or no additional Installation of properly designed water control systems
fertilizer. Mostly, cultivated crops are followed by a cover can help prevent erosion in built-up areas.
crop, generally a close-growing crop of sweet sorghum In the other areas where erosion is a problem, erosion
or sorghum sudangrass. The cover crop helps protect control practices that provide a protective surface cover,
the soil from erosion and uses the residual fertilizer reduce runoff, and increase the rate of infiltration can
remaining from the cultivated crop. The cover crop also help keep the soil in place. Conservation tillage that
adds organic matter to the soil and helps to maintain minimizes soil disturbance and leaves a maximum
fertility. amount of crop residue on the surface increases
The potential of the soils in Putnam County for infiltration and reduces runoff and the hazard of erosion.
increased production of food is high. About 150,000 Soil blowing is a major problem on the sandy soils and
acres of potentially good cropland is currently used as on the muck soils. In a few hours, soil blowing can
woodland, and about 20,000 acres is used as improved damage the soil and the tender truck crops and young
pasture. Food production could also be considerably citrus trees if winds are strong and the soil is bare of
increased by the use of the latest cropland technology vegetation or surface mulch. In addition to crop and soil
on all cropland in the county. This soil survey can greatly damage, other environmental problems are associated
facilitate the application of such technology. The acreage with soil blowing. Conservation tillage that maintains a
in crops and pasture has increased slightly in the past plant cover or a surface mulch minimizes soil blowing on
years. The acreage in woodland has decreased as more these soils. Windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs,
land is used for farming and urban uses. Food such as slash pine, sand pine, and waxmyrtle, and cover
production could be increased by growing crops that are crops and stripcrops of small grain are effective in
not presently grown commercially. If water is adequately reducing wind erosion and crop damage.
controlled, soils that are poorly drained and very poorly Water control is a major management need on land
drained and that warm up early in spring are well suited used for crops and pasture. About 65 percent of the
to many vegetable crops and small fruits, such as soils in the survey area are poorly drained or very poorly
blueberries, blackberries, and strawberries. Other crops, drained. In most years, they are too wet for crops
such as sweet potatoes and tomatoes, can be grown if commonly grown in the area. These sandy soils also
economic conditions are favorable. Rice, sugarcane, have a low available water capacity and are drought
corn, and similar crops are well suited to the organic during dry periods. For intensive row cropping, a
soils. Organic soils oxidize and subside when pore space combination of surface drainage and subirrigation (fig. 7)
is exposed to the air. Because of this, water must be is needed on most of the poorly drained soils. The
maintained at the level required for the crops during the design of surface drainage and irrigation systems varies
growing season and then raised during other parts of the with the kind of soil and the crop grown. More
year to minimize subsidence. information about water control and practices that
Although the soils of the Putnam County Area have prevent wind erosion is available at the local office of the
the potential for increased production, other factors must Soil Conservation Service.
also be considered in choosing crops and selecting Soil fertility is naturally low in most of the sandy soils
sites. Among these are: economic conditions; availability in the survey area. Dark-surfaced mineral soils generally
of suitable drainage outlets; risk of possible adverse have more organic matter and more plant nutrients.
weather conditions; saltwater intrusion into the aquifer; Organic soils require special fertilizer because they are
availability of an adequate supply of freshwater for low in copper and other trace elements. Most soils in the
irrigation; environmental considerations, such as county are very strongly acid. If they have not been
preservation of wetlands; possible pollution of nearby limed, applications of ground limestone are needed for







Putnam County Area, Florida 71


































Figure 7.-Irish potatoes in an area of Mulat fine sand. This soil requires intensive management for cultivated crops.


good growth of legumes and other crops. Nitrogen and Structure can be improved by regular applications of
available phosphorus and potash levels are naturally low organic matter, such as crop residue and manure. Soils
in most of the mineral soils. More specific information that have a light color surface also are low in organic
about natural fertility is given for each soil under matter. Adding organic matter increases the fertility and
"Detailed Soil Map Units" and "Soil Series and Their available water capacity of the soils.
Morphology." Natural soil fertility, however, changes as Pastures in the survey area are used to produce
the soil is used. Kinds and amounts of lime and fertilizer forage and hay crops for beef and dairy cattle. Beef
added to the soils should be based on the results of soil cattle cow-calf operations are the main livestock
tests, on the needs of the crop, and on the expected enterprises. Only a few dairy farms are presently in
yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can help in operation. Bahiagrass and bermudagrass (fig. 8) are the
determining the proper application of fertilizer and lime main pasture plants. Extensive areas of pasture are
needed. grown throughout the county on both the flatwoods and
Tilth refers to the condition of the soil in relation to the uplands.
plant growth. It is an important factor in the germination Pasture yields are closely related to the kind of soil.
of seeds and in the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils Proper pasture management depends on the soil
that have good tilth are granular, porous, and easily properties, kinds of pasture plants, lime and fertilizer
cultivated, inputs, available moisture, and animal density. Pastures
Most soils used for crops in the survey area have a in many parts of the county are greatly depleted by
sandy surface layer structure. Some are structureless, continuous excessive grazing. Yields can be increased







72 Soil Survey

































Figure 8.-Improved pasture of bermudagrass In an area of Centenary fine sand. This soil is well suited to pasture grasses, but yields are
reduced by periodic drought.



by applying lime and fertilizer, using grass-legume Yields Per Acre
mixtures, and controlling grazing. The average yields per acre that can be expected of
If adequately drained, the poorly drained soils on the the principal crops under a high level of management
flatwoods are well suited to pasture. Subsurface irrigation are shown in table 4. In any given year, yields may be
increases the length of time that the forage is available higher or lower than those indicated in the table because
and the total forage produced. If irrigated and adequately of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
limed and fertilized, these soils are well suited to white The yields are based mainly on the experience and
clover and other legumes. records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
If adequately limed and fertilized, the well drained and agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
moderately well drained soils, such as Apopka, results of field trials and demonstrations are also
Centenary, Deland, Astatula, and Tavares soils, are well considered.
suited to pasture of improved bahiagrass and The management needed to obtain the indicated
bermudagrass varieties. Irrigation is needed for best yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
production. and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion
In 1984, it was estimated that 14,000 acres was used control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
for urban development and an increase of about 5 and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
percent per year is foreseen. The use of this soil survey appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
in making land use decisions can influence the future diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction
role of farming in the county. and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,






Putnam County Area, Florida 73



and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
residue, barnyard manure, and green manure crops; and other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss. use.
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops generally unsuitable for cultivation.
grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum, them unsuitable for cultivation.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
to increase as new production technology is developed. crop production. (None in the Putnam County Area.)
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
other soils, however, is not likely to change. They are designated by adding a small letter, w or s, to
Crops other than those shown in table 4 are grown in the class numeral, for example, llw. The letter w shows
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed that water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the corrected by artificial drainage); and s shows that the soil
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information is limited mainly because it is shallow or drought.
about the management and productivity of the soils for There are no subclasses in class I because the soils
those cropsmanagement and productivity of the soils for of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V are
subject to little or no erosion, but they have other
Land Capability C'lassification limitations that restrict their use to pasture, woodland,
Land Capability Classification wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V contains only the
Land capability classification shows, in a general way, subclasses indicated by w or s.
the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops that The capability classification of each map unit is given
require special management are excluded. The soils are in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."
grouped according to their limitations for field crops, the
risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the way Grazeable Woodland
they respond to management. The criteria used in
grouping the soils do not include major, and generally R. Gregory Hendricks, range conservationist, Soil Conservation
grouping the soils do not Service, helped to prepare this section.
expensive, landforming that would change slope, depth,
or other characteristics of the soils, nor do they include Putnam County Area has approximately 340,000 acres
possible but unlikely major reclamation projects. of woodland, which mostly has the potential for cattle
Capability classification is not a substitute for grazing. Woodland ownership in the county has been
interpretations designed to show suitability and defined as 6 percent Federal, 26 percent corporate, and
limitations of groups of soils for woodland and for 70 percent as privately owned. Utilization of woodland
engineering purposes. grazing resources can compliment tame pasture grazing
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at systems. They offer a low overhead and provide a low
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only maintenance winter reserve.
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory
are defined in the following paragraphs. of native grasses, legumes, forbs, and shrubs (fig. 9).
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are The understory is an integral part of the forest plant
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The community. The native plants can be grazed without
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and significantly impairing other forest values. On such forest
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are land, grazing is compatible with timber management if it
defined as follows: is controlled or managed in such a manner that timber
and forage resources are maintained or enhanced. The
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use. native forage in woodland areas is readily available to
(None in he Putnam County Area.) livestock producers and is an economically grazeable
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the resource. Integrating forest and grazing management is
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation an opportunity to obtain income from the land during the
practices. life of the pine stand.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the Each soil in the Putnam County Area supports the
choice of plants or that require special conservation growth of distinctive types and amounts of native
practices, or both. vegetation. Based on this vegetation, grazeable
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce woodland sites have been developed. These sites
the choice of plants or that require very careful correspond with the commonly known ecological
management, or both. communities (19). Table 5 shows each soil mapped in







74 Soil Survey






















site. Although seven grazeable woodland sites are sites.




















Scrub Oak. Important native forage for livestock is chalky produce under differing yearly climatic conditions. It also
bluestem plants. Associated plants of annual forbs, Sand Pine-Scrub Oak sites by 70 percent if proper
... ,. I
















Figure 9.-This slash pine plantation In an area of Myakka fine sand has excellent potential for woodland grazing.


the survey area and its associated grazeable woodland Turkey Oak Hills and Sand Pine-Scrub Oak woodland
site. Although seven grazeable woodland sites are sites.
recognized, only three are considered to be major sites. Forage production on grazeable woodland varies
These woodland sites are the North Florida Flatwoods, according to specific sites. Table 6 shows the amount of
the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills, and the Sand Pine- forage a grazeable woodland site can be expected to
Scrub Oak. Important native forage for livestock is chalky produce under differing yearly climatic conditions. It also
bluestem, creeping bluestem, and indiangrass on the shows the percentage and the major native grazing
North Florida Flatwoods. Associated plants of annual plants that make up a grazeable woodland site. The
forbs, ground blueberry, gallberry, and a variety of potential for production of annual forage can be
sedges and rushes provide excellent food for wildlife, correlated to many factors, such as the natural soil-water
Important native forage for livestock on the Longleaf regime. Soils that have a high water table and are on the
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills and the Sand Pine-Scrub Oak flatwoods and in sloughs and marshes will produce more
sites consist of indiangrass and a variety of panicum and than the soils in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills and
bluestem plants. Associated plants of annual forbs, Sand Pine-Scrub Oak sites by 70 percent if proper
sedges, and a variety of browse plants provide-most of grazing management is followed. Other factors, such as
the food for wildlife on the drought Longleaf Pine- shade cast by the forest and brush canopy, the







Putnam County Area, Florida 75



accumulation of fallen needles, the influence of time, Woodland Management and Productivity
and intensity of grazing on the forage, and the number,
size, spacing, and method of site preparation for tree John Holzaepfel, Putnam County forester, Florida Division of
planting, affect potential grazing capacity. Suggested Forestry, assisted in preparing this section.
annual stocking rates range from 8 to 30 acres per cow An understanding of the influence soils have on forest
on soils that have a high water table, such as Myakka, productivity can increase the capabilities that woodland
Immokalee, and Holopaw soils. On drought soils, such owners and managers have in making optimal
as Candler, Astatula, and Apopka soils, stocking rates silvicultural and economic decisions (6). The relationship
range from 20 to 60 acres per cow annually. Site between soils and species suitability, growth potential,
condition, in respect to the make up of forage and forest operations will be discussed later in this
composition and forest canopy, correlate directly with section.
suggested stocking rates and annual carrying capacity.
Newly planted pine stands can be grazed the second Woodlands in the Putnam County survey area cover
growing season following planting. Maximum forage 340,000 acres, or 76 percent ofthe land area (22 (fig.
yields can be expected on through the 12th year of the 10). The private forest industry has about 85,400 acres
pine stand; whereas, annual forage production will begin under corporate ownership, most of which is under
to diminish as the forest canopy begins to close, intensive management for pulpwood and sawtimber
products.


















e .

















Figure 10.-Pomona fine sand is a significant soil for commercial production of pine trees.







76 Soil Survey



Most of the woodland in the survey area is on Myakka, fundamental basis to many of the timber management
Immokalee, Holopaw, Riviera, Palmetto, and Pomona decisions facing the woodland owner and manager.
soils on the flatwoods. Slash pine is the most widely These factors are further examined for each woodland
planted tree on these soils, although loblolly pine is also grouping. Additional information on timber management
utilized, especially on soils that have a shallow, loamy or is available from the Soil Conservation Service, the
clayey subsoil. Longleaf pine also occurs naturally on the Florida Division of Forestry, and the Florida Cooperative
flatwoods and was once the predominant tree, since it Extension Service.
was resistant to damage caused by the frequent fires Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth,
which occurred throughout the southern pine forest. fertility, texture, and the available water capacity
Some longleaf pine is now being planted on the better influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate
drained soils, such as Candler, Apopka, Tavares, determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site.
Bonneau, and Millhopper soils. Sand pine is grown Available water capacity and depth of the root zone are
commercially on the excessively drained to well drained major influences of tree growth. Elevation and aspect
sandy soils, which include Astatula, Candler, Apopka, are of particular importance in mountainous areas.
and Paola soils. This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
Slash pine, longleaf pine, loblolly pine, sand pine, pond planning ways to increase the productivity of forest land.
pine, and cypress are coniferous trees that are being Some soils respond better to fertilization than others,
actively harvested. Hardwood trees harvested include and some are more susceptible to erosion after roads
red maple, sweetbay, sweetgum, loblolly bay, and others, are built and timber is harvested. Some soils require
Most of the hardwood timber is harvested in the special efforts to reforest In the section "Detailed Soil
depressions, sloughs, and drainageways. Map Units," each map unit in the survey area suitable for
Forestry has traditionally had much influence on the producing timber presents information about productivity,
economic development of Putnam County, and this limitations for harvesting timber, and management
influence is evident today in the plentiful local forest concerns for producing timber. The common forest
industry. The products produced by local mills include understory plants are also listed. Table 7 summarizes
paper, plywood, lumber, crates, furniture, wood chips, this forestry information and rates the soils for a number
and fuelwood. The strong market for the timber of factors to be considered in management Sight
resources created by the local mills and the mills in moderate, and severe are used to indicate the degree of
surrounding counties has encouraged a more intensive the major soil limitations to be considered in forest
management of the woodland resources, but many management.
opportunities for increasing the productivity of the survey The first tree listed for each soil under the column
area's woodlands for timber and other benefits still exist. "Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil. An
This is especially true of the many private, nonindustrial indicator species is a tree that is common in the area
ownership properties that support much lower than and that is generally the most productive on a given soil.
optimal stocking levels of the commercial pine trees. Table 7 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The
Forestry practices focus on the elimination of cull or first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates
weed trees and the reduction of acreage that is the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator
understocked in preferred timber species. On the species in cubic meters per hectare. The larger the
flatwoods, this is frequently done by clearcutting, number, the greater the potential productivity. Potential
intensive site preparation, and replanting of commercial productivity is based on the site index and the point
pine trees. Seeding and natural regeneration methods where mean annual increment is the greatest
are also utilized in reforestation. The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
Optimal growth rates of the commercial pine trees are indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and
encouraged by reducing competition stress. Prescribed management. The letter W indicates a soil in which
burning reduces competition from undesirable excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes a
hardwoods, reduces dangerous fuel levels, and improves significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry, sandy
accessibility, esthetics, and wildlife production. Thinning soil. The letter A indicates a soil that has no significant
reduces excessive competition between the pines while restrictions or limitations for forest use and management.
eliminating diseased or poorly formed trees and If a soil has more than one limitation, the priority is as
increases the amount of light reaching the grass and follows: W and S.
herbaceous understory growth for improved habitat for Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability
wildlife and cattle. that damage may occur if site preparation activities or
Several factors influence the soil's productivity. The harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is sight if
physical qualities of the soil and the depth to the water no particular preventive measures are needed under
table determine the extent of root development and the ordinary conditions, and moderate if erosion control
ability of the soil to provide water and nutrients. A measures are needed for particular silvicultural activities.
consideration of these soil factors provides a A rating of moderate indicates the need for construction







Putnam County Area, Florida 77



of higher standard roads, additional maintenance of strong winds commonly blow trees over. Ratings of
roads, additional care in planning of harvesting and moderate or severe indicate the need for care in thinning
reforestation operations, or use of specialized or possibly not thinning. Specialized equipment may be
equipment. needed to avoid damage to shallow root systems in
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the partial cutting operations. A plan for periodic salvage of
use of forest management equipment, year-round or windthrown trees and the maintenance of a road and
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope, trail system may be needed.
wetness, stoniness, or susceptibility of the surface layer Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
to compaction. As slope gradient and length increase, it the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
becomes more difficult to use wheeled equipment. On competition becomes more severe on the more
the steeper slopes, tracked equipment must be used. On productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils
the steepest slopes, even tracked equipment cannot having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The
operate; more sophisticated systems are needed. The risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants
rating is slight if equipment use is restricted by soil reduces adequate natural or artificial reforestation but
wetness for less than 2 months and if special equipment does not necessitate intensive site preparation and
is not needed. The rating is moderate if slopes are steep maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from
enough that wheeled equipment cannot be operated undesirable plants reduces natural or artificial
safely across the slope, if soil wetness restricts reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation
equipment use from 2 to 6 months per year, or if special and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if
equipment is needed to avoid or reduce soil compaction, competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate
The rating is severe if slopes are steep enough that natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is
tracked equipment cannot be operated safely across the intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or
slope, if soil wetness restricts equipment use for more severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to
than 6 months per year, or if special equipment is ensure the development of an adequately stocked stand.
needed to avoid or reduce soil compaction. Ratings of Managers must plan site preparation measures to ensure
moderate or severe indicate a need to choose the most reforestation without delays.
suitable equipment and to carefully plan the timing of The potential productivity of common trees on a soil is
harvesting and other management operations. expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of the order of their observed general occurrence.
death of naturally occurring or properly planted seedlings Generally, only two or three tree species dominate.
of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as influenced The soils that are commonly used to produce timber
by kinds of soil or topographic features. Seedling have the yield predicted in cubic meters. The yield is
mortality is caused primarily by too much water or too predicted at the point where mean annual increment
little water. The factors used in rating a soil for seedling culminates.
mortality are texture of the surface layer, depth and The site index is determined by taking height
duration of the water table, rock fragments in the surface measurements and determining the age of selected
layer, rooting depth, and the aspect of the slope, trees within stands of a given species. This index is the
Mortality generally is greatest on soils that have a sandy average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a specified
or clayey surface layer. The risk is slight if, after site number of years. This index applies to fully stocked,
preparation, expected mortality is less than 25 percent; even-aged, unmanaged stands. The procedure and
moderate if expected mortality is between 25 and 50 technique for determining site index are given in the site
percent; and severe if expected mortality exceeds 50 index tables used for this survey (10, 14, 18).
percent. Ratings of moderate or severe indicate that it The productivity class represents an expected volume
may be necessary to use containerized or larger than produced by the most important trees, expressed in
usual planting stock or to make special site preparations, cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per
such as bedding, furrowing, installing surface drainage, hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by
or providing artificial shade for seedings. Reinforcement multiplying by 14.3. It can be converted to board feet by
planting is often needed if the risk is moderate or severe, multiplying by a factor of about 71. For example, a
Ratings of windthrow hazard consider the likelihood of productivity class of 8 means the soil can be expected to
trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at the point
depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth where mean annual increment culminates, or about 568
can be restricted by a high water table or fragipan, or by board feet per acre per year.
a combination of such factors as soil wetness, texture, Trees to plant are those that are used for reforestation
structure, and depth. The risk is slight if strong winds or, if suitable conditions exist, natural regeneration. They
cause trees to break but do not uproot them; moderate if are suited to the soils and will produce a commercial
strong winds cause an occasional tree to be blown over wood crop. Desired product, topographic position (such
and many trees to break; and severe if moderate or as a low, wet area), and personal preference are three







78 Soil Survey



factors of many that can influence the choice of trees to surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry. If
use for reforestation. grading is needed, the depth of the soil over bedrock or
a hardpan should be considered.
Recreation Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
In table 8, the soils of the survey area are rated not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for are not subject to flooding more than once a year during
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil the period of use. They have moderate slopes.
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
vegetation, access to water, potential water moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the not considered in rating the soils.
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for Wildlife Habitat
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped to
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height, prepare this section.
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential. Wildlife is a valuable resource of Putnam County Area.
In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as Fishing and hunting are popular, year-round sports.
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil Several national professional bass fishing tournaments
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are are hosted each year in the county. Large acreages of
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that soils on both flatwoods and uplands provide a wide
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning, diversity of wildlife.
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil The primary game species include white-tailed deer,
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be squirrels, turkey, bobwhite quail, feral hogs, and
offset only by soil reclamation, special design, intensive waterfowl. Nongame species include raccoon, rabbit,
maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of these armadillo, opossum, skunk, bobcat, gray and red foxes,
measures, otter, and a variety of songbirds, wading birds,
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by woodpeckers, predatory birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
other information in this survey, for example, Some of the more important habitat areas are the
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 11,000 acre Georgia Pacific Wildlife Management Area
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements and the wetlands of the many streams and lakes.
and for local roads and streets in table 10. The St. Johns River, Crescent Lake, Lake George, and
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping Rodman Reservoir provide excellent freshwater fishing,
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads but the many sandhill lakes in the western part of the
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary county also provide good habitat for fish. Game and
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to nongame species include largemouth bass, channel
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best catfish, bullhead catfish, bluegill, redear, spotted sunfish,
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to warmouth, black crappie, chain pickerel, gar, bowfin, and
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs sucker. Striped bass and mullet are in the St Johns
rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when River and its connections.
dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of A number of endangered and threatened species are
constructing campsites. in the Putnam County Area. These included the red-
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most cockaded woodpecker, the alligator, and the bald eagle.
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking A detailed list of these species with information on range
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, and habitat needs is available from the district
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding conservationist at the local Soil Conservation Service
during the period of use, and do not have slopes that office.
increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
roads and parking areas. available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can







78 Soil Survey



factors of many that can influence the choice of trees to surface is firm after rains and is not dusty when dry. If
use for reforestation. grading is needed, the depth of the soil over bedrock or
a hardpan should be considered.
Recreation Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding should
require little or no cutting and filling. The best soils are
In table 8, the soils of the survey area are rated not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty when dry, and
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for are not subject to flooding more than once a year during
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil the period of use. They have moderate slopes.
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality, prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
vegetation, access to water, potential water moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the not considered in rating the soils.
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for Wildlife Habitat
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped to
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height, prepare this section.
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential. Wildlife is a valuable resource of Putnam County Area.
In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as Fishing and hunting are popular, year-round sports.
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil Several national professional bass fishing tournaments
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are are hosted each year in the county. Large acreages of
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that soils on both flatwoods and uplands provide a wide
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning, diversity of wildlife.
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil The primary game species include white-tailed deer,
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be squirrels, turkey, bobwhite quail, feral hogs, and
offset only by soil reclamation, special design, intensive waterfowl. Nongame species include raccoon, rabbit,
maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of these armadillo, opossum, skunk, bobcat, gray and red foxes,
measures, otter, and a variety of songbirds, wading birds,
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by woodpeckers, predatory birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
other information in this survey, for example, Some of the more important habitat areas are the
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table 11,000 acre Georgia Pacific Wildlife Management Area
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements and the wetlands of the many streams and lakes.
and for local roads and streets in table 10. The St. Johns River, Crescent Lake, Lake George, and
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping Rodman Reservoir provide excellent freshwater fishing,
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads but the many sandhill lakes in the western part of the
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary county also provide good habitat for fish. Game and
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to nongame species include largemouth bass, channel
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best catfish, bullhead catfish, bluegill, redear, spotted sunfish,
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to warmouth, black crappie, chain pickerel, gar, bowfin, and
flooding during the period of use. The surface absorbs sucker. Striped bass and mullet are in the St Johns
rainfall readily but remains firm and is not dusty when River and its connections.
dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the cost of A number of endangered and threatened species are
constructing campsites. in the Putnam County Area. These included the red-
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most cockaded woodpecker, the alligator, and the bald eagle.
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking A detailed list of these species with information on range
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet, and habitat needs is available from the district
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding conservationist at the local Soil Conservation Service
during the period of use, and do not have slopes that office.
increase the cost of shaping sites or of building access Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
roads and parking areas. available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can








Putnam County Area, Florida 79



be created or improved by planting appropriate Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants. properties and features that affect the growth of
In table 9, the soils in the survey area are rated hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
according to their potential for providing habitat for the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in these plants are oak, maple, sweetgum, dogwood,
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and hickory, palmetto, blackberry, and blueberry. Examples of
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for planting on
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining soils rated good are wild plum, blueberry, blackberry, and
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining firethorn.
the intensity of management needed for each element of Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
the habitat, properties and features that affect the growth of
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, and
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, cedar.
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair Wetland plants are annual and perennial, wild
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
established, improved, or maintained in most places. Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
Moderately intensive management is required for properties and features affecting wetland plants are
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind and slope. Examples of wetland plants are smartweed,
of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or wild millet, cattail, cutgrass, rushes, and sedges.
maintained in most places, but management is difficult Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are created by dams, levees, or other water-control
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is water areas are wetness, slope, and permeability.
impractical or impossible. Examples of shallow water areas are marshes, waterfowl
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the feeding areas, and ponds.
following paragraphs. The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed- the following paragraphs.
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
available water capacity, wetness, slope, and flood grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas
considerations. Examples of grain and seed crops are include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow,
corn, wheat, oats, browntop millet, grain sorghum, and cottontail, and red fox.
soybeans. Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available turkey, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
water capacity, wetness, flood hazard, and slope. Soil raccoon, and deer.
temperature and soil moisture are also considerations. Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
Examples of grasses and legumes are bahiagrass, swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
lovegrass, white clover, sesbania, and hairy indigo, attracted to such areas are ducks, geese, herons, shore
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally birds, and otters.
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these Engineering
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, and flood Elwyn O. Cooper, area engineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped
hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also to prepare this section.
considerations. Examples of wild herbaceous plants are This section provides information for planning land
bluestem, goldenrod, beggarweed, partridge pea, and uses related to urban development and to water
deervetch. management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the







80 Soil Survey


most limiting features are identified. The ratings are Building Site Development
given in the following tables: Building site development, 1 s t d a k
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
management. The ratings are based on observed that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and without basements, small commercial buildings, local
test data in the "Soil properties" section. roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
Information in this section is intended for land use limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for features are favorable for the indicated use and
planning site investigations prior to design and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
construction. The information, however, has limitations. soil properties or site features are somewhat restrictive
For example, estimates and other data generally apply for the indicated use and special planning, design, or
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 6 feet, and maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
because of the map scale, small areas of different soils limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific are unfavorable for the indicated use and special design,
soil. significant increases in construction costs, and possibly
The information is not site specific and does not increased maintenance are required to overcome or
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or minimize the limitations. Special feasibility studies may
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the be required where the soil limitations are severe.
design and construction of engineering works. Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
not considered in preparing the information in this ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
section. Local ordinances and regulations must be observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design. filling, and compacting is affected by a very firm dense
Soil properties, site features, and observed layer, soil texture, and slope. The time of the year that
performance were considered in determining the ratings excavations can be made is affected by the depth to a
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, seasonal high water table and the susceptibility of the
determinations were made about grain-size distribution, soil to flooding. The resistance of the excavation walls or
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, soil wetness, banks to sloughing or caving is affected by soil texture
depth to a seasonal high water table, slope, likelihood of and the depth to the water table.
flooding, natural soil structure aggregation, and soil Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
density. Data were collected about kinds of clay structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made
erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential, for small commercial buildings without basements, for
available water capacity, and other behavioral dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without
characteristics affecting engineering uses. basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
This information can be used to: evaluate the potential
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high
of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and f
of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
construction conditional uses; evaluate alternative routes for layers can cause the movement of footings. Depth to a
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for high water table and flooding affect the ease of
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground high water table and flooding affect the ease of
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills, excavation and construction. Landscaping and grading
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan that require cuts and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate considered.
potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil; Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds, and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
terraces, and other structures for soil and water have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
conservation; and predict performance of proposed small gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
structures and pavements by comparing the performance flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
of existing similar structures on the same or similar soils. limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps, properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this the soils. Depth to a high water table, flooding, and slope
survey can be used to make additional interpretations, affect the ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a (as inferred from the engineering classification of the
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the soil), shrink-swell potential, and depth to a high water
Glossary. table affect the traffic-supporting capacity.








Putnam County Area, Florida 81


Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level
features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
reaction, depth to a high water table, the available water compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the content of salts the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
and sulfidic materials affect plant growth. Flooding, impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
wetness, slope, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic required to minimize seepage and contamination of
matter in the surface layer affect trafficability after ground water.
vegetation is established. Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
Sanitary Facilities or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
Table 11 shows the degree and the kind of soil excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields, ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
are considered slight if soil properties and site features ratings are slope, permeability, depth to a high water
are generally favorable for the indicated use and table, flooding, and content of organic matter.
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil properties or site features are somewhat restrictive soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level
for the indicated use and special planning, design, or of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of
are unfavorable for the indicated use and special design, organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the
soil reclamation, and possibly increased maintenance lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope can
are required to overcome or minimize the limitations, cause construction problems.
Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for use Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
soil properties and site features are favorable for the use landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is
and that good performance and low maintenance can be placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered
expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
features are moderately favorable for the use and one or area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on
more soil properties or site features make the soil less the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted,
desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
that one or more soil properties or site features are away from the site.
unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
costly alteration, water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which needs to be considered.
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties,
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that site features, and observed performance of the soils.
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is Permeability, depth to a water table, slope, and flooding
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site affect both types of landfill. Texture, highly organic
features, and observed performance of the soils. layers, soil reaction, and content of salts affect trench
Permeability, depth to a high water table, and flooding type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the ratings apply
affect absorption of the effluent. only to that part of the soil within a depth of about 6
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated slight or
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent, moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation is
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect needed.
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
permeable sand and gravel deposits are less than 4 feet to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
below the base of the absorption field, if slope is landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
excessive, or if the water table is near the surface. There to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
must be unsaturated soil material beneath the absorption Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
field to filter the effluent effectively. Many local affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
ordinances require that this material be of a certain during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
thickness. free of excess gravel are the best cover for a landfill.







82 Soil Survey



Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are difficult to suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing, thick.
After soil material has been removed, the soil material Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
the water table to permit revegetation. The soil material gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
used as final cover for a landfill should be suitable for Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 12, only
plants. The surface layer generally has the best the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
workability, more organic matter, and the best potential evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific
for plants. Material from the surface layer should be purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect
stockpiled for use as the final cover, excavation of the material.
io M i The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of
Construction Materials sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated
Table 12 gives information about the soils as a source by the engineering classification of the soil), the
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil. fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are
They are rated as a probable or improbable source of given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain
sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil sizes is given in the table on engineering index
properties and site features that affect the removal of properties.
the soil and its use as construction material. Normal A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean
compaction, minor processing, and other standard sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
and used in road embankments in another place. In this source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel.
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
exacting in design than higher embankments, can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil the reclamation potential of the borrow area.
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading. Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
their profile. The table showing engineering index fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
properties provides detailed information about each soil is affected by slope, a water table, soil texture, and
layer. This information can help determine the suitability thickness of suitable material. Reclamation of the borrow
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil area is affected by slope, a water table, and toxic
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered ar aeee e
in the ratings material.
in he rang are based on soil properties, site features, Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less
excavation is affected by a high water table and slope. than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
How well the soil performs in place after it has been are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
compacted and drained is determined by its strength (as not so wet that excavation is difficult.
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil) Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
and shrink-swell potential. relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand 40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable appreciable amount of gravel or soluble salts, or soils
material, low shrink-swell potential, and slopes of 15 that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are not so
percent or less. Depth to the water table is more than 3 wet that excavation is difficult.
feet. Soils rated fair are more than 35 percent silt- and Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
clay-sized particles and have a plasticity index of less than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
than 10. They have moderate shrink-swell potential or of gravel or soluble salts, have slopes of more than 15
slopes of 15 to 25 percent. Depth to the water table is 1 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or near the
to 3 feet. Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more surface.
than 10, a high shrink-swell potential, or slopes of more The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to the for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers of matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of








Putnam County Area, Florida 83



moisture and releases a variety of plant-available salts. A high water table affects the amount of usable
nutrients as it decomposes, material. It also affects trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
Water Management extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
Table 13 gives information on the soil properties and permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
site features that affect water management. The degree only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
ponds. The limitations are considered slight if soil water table, permeability of the aquifer, and the salinity
properties and site features are generally favorable for of the soil.
the indicated use and limitations are minor and are easily Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
somewhat restrictive for the indicated use and special effectively the soil is drained depends on layers that
planning, design, or maintenance is needed to overcome affect the rate of water movement, permeability, depth to
or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is
or site features are unfavorable for the indicated use and subject to ponding, slope, susceptibility to flooding, and
special design, soil reclamation, and possibly increased subsidence of organic layers. Excavating and grading
maintenance are required to overcome or minimize the and the stability of ditchbanks are affected by slope and
limitations. the hazard of cutbanks caving. The productivity of the
This table also gives the restrictive features that affect soil after drainage is adversely affected by extreme
each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and diversions, acidity or by toxic substances in the root zone, such as
and grassed waterways. salts or sulfur. Availability of drainage outlets is not
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or considered in the ratings.
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil and management of an irrigation system are affected by
and the depth to other permeable material. Excessive depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
slope can affect the storage capacity of the reservoir available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
area. erosion hazard, and slope. The performance of a system
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures is affected by the depth of the root zone, the amount of
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, salts, and soil reaction.
constructed to impound water or to protect land against Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of combination of channels and ridges constructed across
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5 intercepting runoff. Slope and wetness affect the
feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
and compacted during construction. rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or water erosion,
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural an excessively coarse texture, and restricted permeability
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a adversely affect maintenance.
depth greater than the height of the embankment can Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
affect performance and safety of the embankment, channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity.
determine these properties. Wetness and slope affect the construction of grassed
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include as salts, and restricted permeability adversely affect the
less than 5 feet of suitable material, organic matter, or growth and maintenance of the grass after construction.










85









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as SP,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils as CL and CH; and
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
table 21.
for example, SP-SM.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field for example, SP-SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
accurately by field observation, and help characterize of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
key soils. grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Engineering Index Properties 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
classification and of the range of index properties for the numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils 20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 for soils tested, with group index numbers in
or 6 feet. for soils tested, with group index numbers in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer parentheses, is given in table 21.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.







85









Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the Classification of the soils is determined according to
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on adopted by the American Association of State Highway
the following pages. and Transportation Officials (1).
Soil properties are determined by field examination of The Unified system classifies soils according to
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some properties that affect their use as construction material.
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as SP,
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils as CL and CH; and
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
table 21.
for example, SP-SM.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field for example, SP-SM.
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of those properties that affect roadway construction and
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
accurately by field observation, and help characterize of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
key soils. grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil. classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given. If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
Engineering Index Properties 5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
classification and of the range of index properties for the numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils 20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 for soils tested, with group index numbers in
or 6 feet. for soils tested, with group index numbers in
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer parentheses, is given in table 21.
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
properties of each layer are given for each soil series indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology." weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined weight percentage.
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27 inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52 sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
defined in the Glossary. in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.







86 Soil Survey



Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) Available water capacity is an important factor in the
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the design
estimates are based on test data from the survey area, and management of irrigation systems. Available water
or from nearby areas, and on field examination, capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
actually available to plants at any given time.
Physical and Chemical Properties Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics and each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area. analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
The estimates are based on field observations and on and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
test data for these and similar soils. fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of corrosion.
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter Shrink-swellpotential is the potential for volume
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
in diameter. of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink- place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
operations. measurements of similar soils.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3 buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying often needed.
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of
available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high,
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent,
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density is sometimes used.
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure, factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre
movement of water through the soil when the soil is per year. These estimates are based primarily on
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values of
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the
drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by
construction where the rate of water movement under water.
saturated conditions affects behavior. Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The can occur over a sustained period without affecting crop
capacity for water storage in each major soil layer is productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre per
stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The capacity year.
varies, depending on soil properties that affect the Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
retention of water and the depth of the root zone. The similar properties affecting their resistance to wind
most important properties are the content of organic erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the
matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure, susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of







Putnam County Area, Florida 87



soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following that are shallow over nearly impervious material. These
distinctions: soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine In table 16, some soils are assigned to two hydrologic
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops. soil groups. Soils that have a seasonal high water table
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to but can be drained are assigned first to a hydrologic soil
establish. group that denotes the drained condition of the soil and
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very then to a hydrologic group that denotes the undrained
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops condition, for example, B/D. Because there are different
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind degrees of drainage and water table control, onsite
erosion are used. investigation is needed to determine the hydrologic
3. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and group of the soil in a particular location.
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate, Flooding, the temporary covering of the soil surface by
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly flowing water, is caused by overflowing streams, by
erodible. Crops can easily be grown, runoff from adjacent slopes, or by inflow from high tides.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the Shallow water standing or flowing for short periods after
soil at various stages of decomposition. rainfall is not considered flooding. Standing water in
In table 15, the estimated content of organic matter is swamps and marshes or in a closed depression is
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil considered ponding.
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Table 16 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
The content-of organic matter of a soil can be and the time of year when flooding is most likely to
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the occur.
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity, Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and are estimated. Frequency generally is expressed as none
other nutrients for crops. or frequent. None means that flooding is not probable.
Frequent means that flooding occurs often under normal
Soil and Water Features weather conditions (there is more than a 50 percent
chance of flooding in any year). Duration is expressed as
Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water brief (2 to 7 days), long (7 days to 1 month), and very
features. The estimates are used in land use planning long (more than 1 month). The time of year that floods
that involves engineering considerations. are most likely to occur is expressed in months. June-
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff November, for example, means that flooding can occur
from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four during the period June through November. About two-
groups. They are grouped according to the intake of thirds to three-fourths of all flooding occurs during the
water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive stated period.
precipitation from long-duration storms. The information on flooding is based on evidence in
The four hydrologic soil groups are: the soil profile, namely, thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff clay deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in
potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of organic matter content with increasing depth; and
deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or absence of distinctive horizons, which are characteristic
gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water of soils that are not subject to flooding.
transmission. Also considered are local information about the extent
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep the landscape to historic floods. Information on the
or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than
that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse that provided by detailed engineering surveys that
texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
transmission. levels.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
soils have a slow rate of water transmission. saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high soil. The water table in 7 pedons, representing 7 soil
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist series, was measured twice a month during the course
chiefly of clays that have high shrink-swell potential, soils of the soil survey. The pedons were selected as typical
that have a permanent high water table, soils that have a of the series as mapped in the county, and they were as
claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and soils far removed as possible from any source of artificial







88 Soil Survey



drainage (table 17). Indicated in table 16 are the depth Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
to the seasonal high water table; the kind of water table, Properties of Selected Soils
that is, perched or apparent; and the months of the year
that the water table commonly is highest. A water table Dr. Victor W. Carlisle and Dr. Mary E. Collins, professor and assistant
that is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not professor of Soil Science, respectively, University of Florida,
indicated in table 16. Agricultural Experiment Station, Soil Science Department, prepared this
section.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is properties of representative pedons sampled in Putnam
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A perched County Area are presented in tables 18, 19, and 20. The
water table is water standing above an unsaturated analyses were conducted and coordinated by the Soil
zone. In places an upper, or perched, water table is Characterization Laboratory at the University of Florida.
separated from a lower one by a dry zone. Detailed profile descriptions of soils analyzed are given
The two numbers in the "High water table-Depth" in alphabetical order in the section "Classification of the
column indicate the normal range in depth to a saturated Soils." Laboratory data and profile information for
zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot. The first additional soils in Putnam County Area, as well as for
numeral in the range indicates the highest water level. A other counties in Florida, are on file at the Universty of
plus sign preceding the range in depth indicates that the were sampled from pits at carefully
water table is above the surface of the soil. "More than Typifying pedons were sampled from pits at carefully
6.0" indicates that the water table is below a depth of 6 selected locations. Samples were airdried, crushed, and
feet6.0" indicates that the water table exists for less than a depth of 6 sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most analytical
feet or that the water table exists for less than a month methods used are outlined in Soil Survey Investigations
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of Report No. 1 (17).
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence rticle-size distribution was determined using a
results from either desiccation and shrinkage or oxidation modified pipette method with sodium
of organic material, or both, following drainage. hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity
Subsidence takes place gradually, usually over a period and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil
of several years. Table 16 shows the expected initial cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from
subsidence, which usually is a result of drainage, and duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe
total subsidence, which results from a combination of pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at
factors. 100 centimeters water (1/10 bar) and 345 centimeters
Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water
imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground percentages divided by bulk density. .Samples were
water throughout an extensive area as a result of ovendried, ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and the
lowering the water table. 15-bar water retention was determined. Organic carbon
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced was determined by a modification of the Walkley-Black
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or wet combustion method.
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils with
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and and potassium in the extract were determined by flame
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of emission. Calcium and magnesium were determined by
concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Extractable acidity
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil. was determined by the barium chloride-triethanolamine
Special site examination and design may be needed if method at pH 8.2. The sum of cations, which may be
the combination of factors creates a severely corrosive considered a measure of cation-exchange capacity, was
environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil calculated by adding the values for extractable bases
boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion and extractable acidity. Base saturation is the ratio of
than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind extractable bases to cation-exchange capacity
of soil or within one soil layer. expressed in percent. The pH measurements were made
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as with a glass electrode using a soil-water ratio of 1:1, a
low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class, 0.01 molar calcium chloride solution in a 1:2 soil-solution
total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and ratio; and normal potassium chloride solution in a 1:1
electrical conductivity of the saturation extract. soil-solution ratio.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture, a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
extract, were determined by atomic absorption




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