• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of Hendry County...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 Map unit composition
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Rangeland and grazeable woodla...
 Woodland management and produc...
 Recreation
 Wildlife habitat
 Engineering
 Soil properties
 Physical and chemical properti...
 Soil and water features
 Physical, chemical, and mineralogical...
 Engineering index test data
 Classification of the soils
 Adamsville variant
 Boca series
 Chobee series
 Delray series
 Gator series
 Gentry series
 Holopaw series
 Jupiter series
 Malabar series
 Margate series
 Ochopee series
 Oldsmar series
 Pineda series
 Pomello series
 Pompano series
 Terra Ceia series
 Valkaria series
 Winder series
 Formation of the soils
 Processes of soil formation
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Hendry County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025730/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Hendry County, Florida
Physical Description: 1 case (1 v., 20 maps) : ill., maps (some col.) ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1991]
 Subjects
Subject: Soil surveys -- Florida -- Hendry County   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Hendry County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 101).
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service ; in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Shipping list no.: 91-264-P.
General Note: "Issued December 1990"--P. iii.
General Note: Includes index to map units.
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025730
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001641549
notis - AHV2982
oclc - 23844997

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Foreword
        Page ix
    Location of Hendry County in Florida
        Page x
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    How this survey was made
        Page 8
    Map unit composition
        Page 9
        Page 10
    General soil map units
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
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        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 57 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Rangeland and grazeable woodland
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Woodland management and productivity
        Page 62
    Recreation
        Page 63
    Wildlife habitat
        Page 64
    Engineering
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Soil properties
        Page 71 (MULTIPLE)
    Physical and chemical properties
        Page 72
    Soil and water features
        Page 73
    Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
    Engineering index test data
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Classification of the soils
        Page 79 (MULTIPLE)
    Adamsville variant
        Page 80 (MULTIPLE)
    Boca series
        Page 81
    Chobee series
        Page 82 (MULTIPLE)
    Delray series
        Page 83 (MULTIPLE)
    Gator series
        Page 84
    Gentry series
        Page 85 (MULTIPLE)
    Holopaw series
        Page 86 (MULTIPLE)
    Jupiter series
        Page 87 (MULTIPLE)
    Malabar series
        Page 88
    Margate series
        Page 89 (MULTIPLE)
    Ochopee series
        Page 90 (MULTIPLE)
    Oldsmar series
        Page 91 (MULTIPLE)
    Pineda series
        Page 92 (MULTIPLE)
    Pomello series
        Page 93
    Pompano series
        Page 94 (MULTIPLE)
    Terra Ceia series
        Page 95 (MULTIPLE)
    Valkaria series
        Page 96 (MULTIPLE)
    Winder series
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Formation of the soils
        Page 99 (MULTIPLE)
    Processes of soil formation
        Page 100
    Reference
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Glossary
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Tables
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
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        Page 125
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        Page 129
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        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    General soil map
        Page 175
    Index to map sheets
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
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        Page 11
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        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text


United States
Department of
Agriculture
Soil
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with
University of Florida,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil
Science Department;
and Florida Department
of Agriculture and
Consumer Services


Soil Survey of

Hendry County,

Florida


S041


^r^L^~

















How To Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area
divided into groups of associated soils called general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the
use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the
map unit in the area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units
for a general description of the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps


The detailed soil maps follow the general soil map. These maps can
be useful in planning the use and management of small areas.


To find information about
your area of interest,
locate that area on the
Index to Map Sheets,
which precedes the soil
maps. Note the number of
the map sheet, and turn to
that sheet.


Locate your area of
interest on the map
sheet. Note the map unit
symbols that are in that
area. Turn to the Index
to Map Units (see Con-
tents), which lists the map
units by symbol and
name and shows the
page where each map
unit is described.


-- '---;-- --

A Kok mo e



MAP SHEET


AREA OF INTEREST
NOTE- Map unit symbols in a soil
survey may consist only of numbers or
lellers, or they may be a combination
ot numbers and letters.


MAP SHEET


The Summary of Tables shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map
unit. See Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs. 4


1 j r



16 1 18 19
INDEX TO MAP SHEETS






















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal part
of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1985. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1986. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1985. This soil survey
was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service; the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services. The survey is part of the technical
assistance furnished to the Hendry County Soil and Water Conservation District.
Additional assistance was provided by the Florida Department of Transportation.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If
enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have
been shown at a larger scale.
All programs and services of the Soil Conservation Service are offered on a
nondiscriminatory basis, without regard to race, color, national origin, religion,
sex, age, marital status, or handicap.

Cover: Native range, such as this Slough range site in an area of Pineda fine sand, provides
much of the forage in Hendry County.


I























Contents


Index to map units ......................... iv
Summary of tables ........... ............... v
Foreword .................. ............... ix
General nature of the county ..................... 1
How this survey was made.................... 8
M ap unit com position .......... ..... .... . 9


General soil map units ..
Detailed soil map units ..
Use and management of t
Crops and pasture .....
Rangeland and grazeabl
Woodland management
Recreation .......... ..
W wildlife habitat.........
Engineering ...........
Soil properties ..........
Engineering index propel
Physical and chemical pr
Soil and water features.
Physical, chemical, and
selected soils ......
Engineering index test da
Classification of the soils
Soil series and their morph
Adamsville series ......
Adamsville variant......
Basinger series ........
Boca series ...........
Chobee series .........
Dania series...........
Delray series ..........


Denaud series ...............
G ator series .................
Gentry series ................
Hallandale series ............
Holopaw series ..............


Immokalee series ...........................


................ 8 7
................ 8 7
................ 8 8
................ 8 9
................ 8 9
................ 9 0
..... ........... 9 0
. .. .. . .. 9 1
. .. .. .. 9 1
................ 9 2
... ........... 9 2
................ 9 3
................ 9 4
................ 9 4
.. . .. .. .. 9 5
.. . .. .. .. 9 5
.. .. .. .. 9 6
.. . .. .. .. 9 6
................ 9 7
.. . .. .. .. 9 9
.. .. .. .. 9 9


........................ 11 Ju pite r se ries ..................
......... ..... ...... 19 Lauderhill series ...............
he soils ................ 57 M alabar series.................
........................ 57 M argate series.................
e woodland ............. 60 Myakka series .................
and productivity ......... 62 Ochopee series................
........................ 63 O keelanta series ............ ...
........................ 64 O ldsm ar series ................
........................ 65 Pahokee series ................
............ ......... 7 1 P ineda series ..................
ties .................... 71 Plantation series ...............
operties ................ 72 Pom ello series.................
........................ 73 Pom pano series ...............
mineralogical analyses of Riviera series..................
...... ........... 74 Terra Ceia series ............ ..
ata ..................... 77 Tuscawilla series...............
........................ 79 V alkaria series .................
ology ................. 79 Wabasso series................
........................ 79 W inder series..................
...... .. ............. 80 Form ation of the soils ...........
........................ 80 Factors of soil form ation ........


Processes of soil formation ....................
References ....................................
Glossary ... .......................
Tables ... .........................


Issued December 1990


..................
..................
..................
..................
..................


........................
........................
........................
........................



















Index to Map Units


1 Boca sand ...................... ............
2-Pineda sand, limestone substratum .............
4- Oldsmar sand . ......... ..................
6-Wabasso sand.............................
7-Immokalee sand ............ ............
8-Malabar sand .............. ............
9-Riviera fine sand............ ........... .
10- Pineda fine sand .............................
12-Winder fine sand ............................
13-Gentry fine sand, depressional................
14-Wabasso sand, limestone substratum..........
15- Myakka sand .............. ........... .
17-Basinger sand............. ...........
18-Pompano sand .........................
19-Gator muck ........................... .
20-Okeelanta muck ............ ...........
21-Holopaw sand .............. ............
22- Valkaria sand . ...... .................
23- Hallandale sand .. ............ ............
24-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......
26-Holopaw sand, limestone substratum ..........
27-Riviera sand, limestone substratum............
28- Boca sand, depressional ................. .


19
20
21
21
22
24
24
25
27
27
28
29
29
30
31
31
32
33
34
34
36
36
37


29-Oldsmar sand, limestone substratum .......... 37
32-Riviera sand, depressional ................... 38
33-Holopaw sand, depressional ................. 39
34-Chobee fine sandy loam, limestone
substratum, depressional ................... 39


37- Tuscawilla fine sand ..........................
39- Udifluvents ...................................
42-Riviera sand, limestone substratum,
depressional .................................
44- Jupiter fine sand..............................
45- Pahokee muck ................. .... .........
47- Udorthents .......................... .........
49-Aquents, organic substratum..................
50- Delray sand, depressional ....................
51- Malabar fine sand, high ......................
53- Adamsville fine sand ..........................
56- Terra Ceia muck....................... ........
57-Chobee fine sandy loam, depressional.........
58-Oldsmar sand, depressional ..................
59-Winder fine sand, depressional................
60-Myakka sand, depressional...................
61-Malabar sand, depressional....................
62-Pineda sand, depressional...............
63-Jupiter-Ochopee-Rock outcrop complex .......
64-Hallandale sand, depressional ................
65-Plantation muck .......... ...............
66- Margate sand ................................. ..
67- Lauderhill muck ...............................
68- Dania m uck ..................... .............
69-Denaud-Gator mucks .......................
70-Denaud muck ..............................
73-Adamsville variant sand ......................


















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1) ............................... 114

Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 2) .................... 115
Acres. Percent.

Land capability classes and yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 3)... 116
Land capability. Oranges. Grapefruit. Tomatoes.
Cucumbers. Bahiagrass. Watermelons. Sugarcane.

Capability classes and subclasses (table 4) .................... . 119
Total acreage. Major management concerns.

Rangeland productivity (table 5) ......................................... 120
Range site. Potential annual production for kind of growing
season.

Range site productivity potentials (table 6) ..................... . .... 123
Range site. Annual production of range in excellent
condition. Important range plants. Cover in excellent
condition.

Woodland management and productivity (table 7)........................ 124
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.

Recreational development (table 8) ................ ..................... 129
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.

W wildlife habitat (table 9) ................................................ 133
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife,
Rangeland wildlife.

Building site development (table 10) ........................ ........... 136
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.





















S anitary facilities (table 11) ............................. ..... ........... 140
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill. Daily cover
for landfill.

Construction m materials (table 12) . ......... ....................... 145
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.

Water management (table 13)........................................... 149
Limitations for-Pond reservoir areas; Embankments,
dikes, and levees; Aquifer-fed excavated ponds. Features
affecting-Drainage, Irrigation, Terraces and diversions,
Grassed waterways.

Engineering index properties (table 14) . . ........ .............. 155
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.

Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15) .................. 161
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-swell
potential. Erosion factors. Wind erodibility group. Organic
matter.

Soil and water features (table 16) .................... ................. 165
Hydrologic group. High water table. Bedrock. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.

Physical analyses of selected soils (table 17)................ ............ 168
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity. Bulk density. Water content.

Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 18) .......................... 170
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity.
Sum of cations. Base saturation. Organic carbon.
Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate extractable.
Citrate-dithionite extractable.

Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 19) ............... ............ 172
Depth. Horizon. Clay minerals.























Engineering index test data (table 20) ................... ............... 173
FDOT report number. Classification-AASHTO, Unified.
Mechanical analysis. Liquid limit. Plasticity index. Moisture
density.

Classification of the soils (table 21) . ........... ................... 174
Family or higher taxonomic class.


I I I










































































































































































I

















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in Hendry County, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior for
selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inherent
in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the impact of
selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the
management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to ensure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and
pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
improve the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey
or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high
water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this
soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location
of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is
described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this
publication and additional information are available at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service


















































































a


Location of Hendry County in Florida.














Soil Survey of

Hendry County, Florida


By David J. Belz, Lewis J. Carter, David A. Dearstyne, and John D. Overing,
Soil Conservation Service

Others participating in the fieldwork were Allen Moore, Craig Peters, and James A. Wolfe;
and on winter detail, Robert Lisante, Ronald W. Luethe, Eugene McCleod, and
Thomas Weber

United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department; and the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services


HENDRY COUNTY is in the south-central part of the
Florida Peninsula. It is bordered on the north by Glades
County and Lake Okeechobee, on the east by Palm
Beach and Broward Counties, on the south by Collier
County, and on the west by Lee County.
The county covers 774,013 acres, or about 1,210
square miles. La Belle, the county seat, is in the
northwestern corner of the county. Cattle farming and
citrus are the largest industries.


General Nature of the County
This section gives general information about the
climate, history and development, geology, water
resources, farming, and transportation facilities in
Hendry County.

Climate
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation
for the survey area as recorded at La Belle in the period
1974 to 1984.
In winter the average temperature is 58.8 degrees F.
The average daily minimum temperature is 49.0
degrees. In summer the average temperature is 81.4


degrees. The average daily maximum temperature is
91.9 degrees.
The total annual precipitation is about 49 inches. Of
this, nearly 36 inches, or about 73 percent, usually falls
in April through September. The growing season for
most crops falls within this period. In 2 years out of 10,
the rainfall in April through September is less than 11
inches.

History and Development
Ernest W. Hall, professor of Florida history, Edison Community
College, helped prepare this section.
Hendry County, Florida's 63rd county, and Collier
County to the south were created out of Lee County by
an act of the Florida Legislature in May 1923. The
county's name honors Captain Francis Asbury Hendry.
Captain Hendry owned thousands of acres of ranch
land in the Fort Thompson area. He laid out the
townsite of La Belle.
The Caloosa Indians inhabited southwest Florida at
the time of Florida's discovery by Ponce de Leon in
April 1513. They controlled the area from Charlotte
Harbor to Cape Sable and from the Gulf of Mexico to
and including Lake Okeechobee. These Indians fiercely
resisted the Spanish; consequently, Spanish rule in








Soil Survey


colonial Florida had very little impact on southwest
Florida. The Caloosas had about 60 villages, were
nonagricultural, and lived mainly on fish, shellfish, wild
berries, roots, and fresh game. They were
moundbuilders, and many mounds of various sizes are
throughout southwest Florida. The Caloosas dug a
canal from Lake Flirt (now a dry lakebed east of La
Belle) to a large mound at Ortona. The canal and
mound are still visible. The Caloosas had a high-level
social structure. They used atlatis and spears with
stone projectile points and made tools and ornaments of
shell and bone and pottery with artistic designs.
Because of diseases, such as smallpox and measles,
the Caloosas became extinct about 250 years after the
Spanish first came to Florida.
The Seminoles were Creek Indians who first began
migrating to north Florida from Georgia and Alabama
about 1750. They came into the Okeechobee, Big
Cypress, and Everglades regions because of the
Second and Third Seminole Wars, in which more than
4,000 Seminoles were sent to what is now Oklahoma.
About 200 to 300 Seminoles stayed in the swamps of
south Florida. As part of the war effort for Indian
removal, more than 100 U.S. Army forts were
established south of the Suwannee River. A number of
forts were activated from time to time in the areas near
Lake Okeechobee, the Caloosahatchee River, and the
Big Cypress Swamp. Some of these forts included Fort
Denaud; Fort T.B. Adams; Fort Simmons, which was
established when the river silted up at Fort Denaud;
Fort Thompson; and Fort Shackleford. At the conclusion
of the Third Seminole War in 1858, forts in southwest
Florida were deactivated and all military action ceased.
After the Indian wars about 200 Seminoles remained
in the Glades, the Big Cypress Swamp, and near Lake
Okeechobee. They number about 1,500 today. Four
reservations were established: the Brighten
Reservation, for the Mucsogee-speaking Cow Creek
Seminoles, just north and west of Moore Haven in
Glades County; the Big Cypress Reservation in
southeastern Hendry County where mostly Hichiti-
speaking Mikasuki Seminoles reside; a small
reservation on the east coast near Hollywood; and a
reservation recently established just east of Forty Mile
Bend on the Tamiami Trail.
During the Civil War, Fort Myers was occupied by
Union troops, and in February 1865, the southernmost
land battle of the war was fought. The Union force
withdrew from Fort Myers soon after the battle was
won.
Until the 1880's, Lake Flirt, 2 miles east of the
present city of La Belle, was the headwaters of the


Caloosahatchee River. Fort Thompson was along the
western shore of the river. Hamilton Disston, the saw
manufacturer, purchased 4 million acres of south
Florida land and water from the state in 1881, for
$1 million. Part of the deal was Disston's promise to dig
a canal from the Caloosahatchee River through Lake
Flirt and Lake Hicpochee to Lake Okeechobee. To
accomplish this, Disston arranged to have a 48-foot-
wide canal dredged from east of La Belle to Lake
Okeechobee. This canal drained Lake Flirt and lowered
Lake Okeechobee several feet, exposing lakeside
muckland for future farming. This canal was entirely
incorporated in a much larger flood-control canal
completed in 1936. A small part of the IDisston Canal is
still in existence at the Oxbow Golf Course at Port La
Belle.
The Caloosahatchee River has always been an
important avenue of transportation. Until the advent of
roads, regularly scheduled steamboats and other craft
were used to haul goods and passengers from Punta
Rassa and Fort Myers to Fort Thompson and often to
Moore Haven. The river, however, was not always a
benefactor. During wet periods and when hurricanes
dumped large amounts of water in the river valley,
about 500 bends in the river between Fort Myers and
La Belle prevented rapid drainage, which often caused
flooding. Notable floods occurred in 1873, 1878, 1908,
1910, 1912, 1922, 1924, 1929, 1930, and 1936.
In 1936, the Federal Government completed the
canal project along the Caloosahatchee River from east
of Fort Myers to Fort Thompson and widened the
Disston Canal from Fort Thompson to Lake
Okeechobee to eliminate the recurring floods and the
resulting hardship. In the 1960's, this canal was made
much wider along its entire length. Floods no longer
plague the Caloosahatchee Valley, but the beauty of the
meandering river is no longer present. An example of
what the river once was can be viewed from the
highway between La Belle and Fort Denaud south of
the river at the old Terrel Gardens.
Hurricanes have made their impact on southwest
Florida. Major hurricanes occurred in 1873, 1878, 1910,
1926, and 1928. The great loss of life along the shores
of Lake Okeechobee in the 1926 and 1928 hurricanes
caused the Federal Government to construct the
Hoover Dike around the lake in the 1930's. Today the
lake no longer threatens human life even in the greatest
of storms. The last major storm, Hurricane Donna in
1960, caused tremendous damage but no loss of life in
Hendry County.
From late in the 1860's into the 1880's, settlers
began migrating to the Caloosahatchee River area








Hendry County, Florida


around Alva, Fort Denaud, and Fort Thompson. Large
cattle herds were maintained in the Fort Thompson area
south of the Caloosahatchee River. Alva and Fort
Denaud depended upon citrus, pineapples, and small
farms as well as cattle. Many settlers established 160-
acre homesteads on prime land along the river as well
as in the Devil's Garden and Felda regions. Others
purchased plots north and south of the river. The early
settlers grew sugarcane for cane syrup. In the 1920's,
the sugar industry was established in Clewiston, and
many thousands of acres of sugarcane was grown in
Palm Beach, Glades, and Hendry Counties to supply
the mill in Clewiston. Many byproducts from the
manufacture of raw sugar add to the importance of the
industry.
The communities in Hendry County have had a part
in the region's history. Fort Thompson was once an
important community, but today it has no houses. In
1886, the community had 50 people. Captain Hendry
had his headquarters there and built a large ranch
house. Around the turn of the century, he sold most of
his property to E.E. Goodno, who established an ice
plant and an electrical plant to serve La Belle and to
furnish ice for boats plying the river from Lake
Okeechobee to Fort Myers. Henry Ford, the automobile
manufacturer, eventually acquired the property and in
turn sold it to Joe B. Hendry, Sr., who willed it to his
daughter, Lois Hendry Barron, the wife of Barney
Barron, former mayor of La Belle. The Barrons sold the
property to a development corporation, which
established Port La Belle.
Fort Denaud was named for a French trapper, Pierre
Denaud, who some say once owned the land. Settlers
homesteaded the Fort Denaud area as early as 1875,
and many citrus groves were established. Fort Denaud
once had a general store, post office, and church.
Historically, Fort Denaud is one of the most important
areas in the county.
La Belle was established by Francis Asbury Hendry
and named for his two daughters, Laura and Carrie
Belle. Later, E.E. Goodno added improvements and
exercised considerable influence on the development of
the town. La Belle was incorporated in 1923. It is an
important center for citrus, beekeeping, cattle, land
management, and truck farming.
Felda was first known as Eddy and could be reached
only by a trail through the woods. With the coming of
the railroad, the name Felda was selected in honor of
Felix and Ida Taylor. It has been a farming community,
but crude oil production in the last 20 years has given
Felda added importance in the economy of Hendry
County and the state of Florida.


Clewiston is the largest town in Hendry County. It
was once known as Sand Point. Camps of commercial
fishermen and a few scattered farms were on rich
muckland nearby. Sand Point was not mentioned in the
1920 census. The mayor of Moore Haven, Mrs. Marian
Horwitz O'Brion, was interested in development along
the lake shore. In 1921, she prevailed on A.C. Clewis, a
Tampa banker, to finance the construction of the Moore
Haven and Clewiston Railroad (later merged with the
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad) to serve the farms and
fishermen of the area. The name Clewiston was
selected in honor of that financier. Clewiston was
incorporated as a city in 1931. Because the rich
muckland was highly suited to sugarcane, Clewiston
became the site of a raw sugar mill. The Florida sugar
industry is centered in Clewiston. A sugar refinery
producing pure white sugar has been added to the
industry of the area.
Port La Belle, which is east of La Belle near the dry
bed of Lake Flirt, is currently being developed as a
residential area.

Geology
Paulette A. Bond, Florida Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology,
Department of Natural Resources, helped prepare this section.
Hendry County has been divided into three areas
based on its landforms or physiographic features (5).
Most of the county lies in the Sandy Flatlands province,
which is flanked on the east by the Everglades and on
the south by the Big Cypress Swamp (fig. 1).
The Everglades occupy a narrow curved slice in
eastern Hendry County that has a maximum width of
about 6 miles. The boundary between the Everglades
and adjacent physiographic provinces has been defined
using vegetation and is placed where the characteristic
sedges of the Everglades, including sawgrass, are
replaced by true grasses, pines, or cypress (6). The
soils in the Everglades are underlain by marl or a
surface of eroded marly limestone (5).
The Big Cypress Swamp is an irregularly shaped
area in southern Hendry County. The land surface in
the Big Cypress Swamp is slightly lower in elevation
than that of the Sandy Flatlands. It is characterized by a
flat swampy surface punctuated by small areas, called
hammocks, that are higher in elevation. Cypress sedges
and marsh plants are predominant in the low swampy
areas, and bunch grass, palmettos, and pines are on
hammocks (5).
The Sandy Flatlands occupy most of Hendry County.
The area la'haracterized by a blanket of surficial
marine sand that is up to about 15 feet thick. The sand








Soil Survey


-26 40"









-26 30









26 20


Figure 1.-Hendry County is in the Sandy Flatlands, Everglades, and Big Cypress Swamp physiographic areas and is divided into three
areas characterized by differing sinkhole development.


is late Pleistocene marine terraces that were deposited
when the sea level fluctuated from about 25 to 70 feet
above current sea level (5). White (14) alternatively
divided the Sandy Flatlands into part of his
Caloosahatchee Valley province and Immokalee Rise
province. The surficial sand was interpreted as
representing an ancient submarine shoal.
Karst landforms, mostly sinkholes, are superimposed
on the broad physiographic provinces in Hendry County
(see fig. 1). The type of sinkholes that occur in a given
area, as well as their mode of development and
distribution, depends upon the thickness and nature of
material that is underlain by limestone (9). The
thickness and nature of cover material are the criteria


that have been used to divide Hendry County into
regions of variable sinkhole occurrence.
The limestone of the southern part of Hendry County
is bare or thinly covered by soil or permeable sand
(area I). Water from the surface percolates down
through the sand and dissolves the underlying
limestone. Particles of soil and sand gradually move
downward as the limestone dissolves. Sinkholes form
infrequently in these areas and generally are shallow
and broad (9).
Central and northern Hendry County are
characterized by a somewhat deeper cover of
permeable and incohesive sand (area III). The few
sinkholes that form in this region are similar to the








Hendry County, Florida


sinkholes associated with southern Hendry County in
that they are shallow and small. They form as covering
sand and soil gradually subside into the depressions
formed by slowly dissolving limestone (9).
A small area (area III) in the northwest corner of
Hendry County is characterized by a thick (more than
200 feet) cover sequence of cohesive sediments
interlayered by laterally discontinuous carbonate beds
(9). Very few sinkholes form under these conditions, but
those that form are potentially deep and broad.
Topographic maps for the northwest corner of Hendry
County do not have any existing sinkholes of that type.
Stratigraphy
The layered rocks of Hendry County may be roughly
grouped into a lower section dominated by carbonates
and an upper section dominated by sand and clay
(clastic material). The carbonates include the Avon Park
Limestone and the Ocala Group Limestones (youngest).
The Ocala Group Limestones are in turn overlain by the
Suwannee Limestone of Oligocene age and the Tampa
Formation, a sandy limestone of Miocene age (fig. 2).
The rocks above the Tampa Formation are
characterized by increasing amounts of sand and clay
and a somewhat diminished proportion of carbonates.
The group of rocks that are more dominated by sand
and clay include the Miocene Hawthorn Formation,
which is successively overlain by the Tamiami
Formation, the Caloosahatchee Marl, and the
contemporaneous, locally adjacent Anastasia and Fort
Thompson Formations.
The Avon Park Limestone is 200 to 390 feet thick. It
consists of limestone and dolomite and is also a part of
the Floridan Aquifer. The Ocala Group rocks of the
Floridan Aquifer are above the Avon Park Limestone.
They consist of limestone and dolomite and are from
150 to 390 feet thick. The Suwannee Limestone is a
finely porous limestone that is somewhat crystalline and
partly dolomitized. It is up to 570 feet thick and is also
part of the Floridan Aquifer system. The Tampa
Formation, a sandy limestone, is above the Suwannee
Limestone and is 15 to 190 feet thick. It is also part of
the Floridan Aquifer system (5).
The Hawthorn Formation lies above the Tampa
Formation. It is 300 to 500 feet thick. A limestone layer
at the base of this formation is part of the Floridan
Aquifer. Above its lower limestone, the Hawthorn
Formation is characterized by an extremely variable
lithologic makeup consisting mainly of greenish gray
sandy marl, green and white plastic clay, silty sand, and
quartz pebbles with some finely crystalline permeable
limestone (5).


The Tamiami Formation is 30 to 110 feet thick. It
consists of sand, marl, shell beds, and limestone (5). It
is above the Hawthorn Formation, but the placement of
the contact between the two units is subject to
interpretation among geologists and may not be
consistent between authors. The Tamiami Formation
outcrops (fig. 3) in southern and western Hendry
County.
The Caloosahatchee Formation is up to 60 feet thick.
It lies unconformably above the Tamiami Formation (5)
and outcrops in central Hendry County adjacent to and
to the east of the outcrop of the Tamiami Formation
(13). The Caloosahatchee Formation is a mixture of
unconsolidated sand, sandy marl, and shell material (5).
The Fort Thompson Formation outcrops along the
eastern boundary of Hendry County (13). It is up to 15
feet thick and is described lithologically as marine shell
beds that alternate with beds of freshwater marl (5).
A small outcrop of the Anastasia Formation is in the
northwest corner of Hendry County (13). The formation
is up to 15 feet thick and consists of sand, marl, and
shell beds (5). It is contemporaneous with the Fort
Thompson Formation. The Anastasia Formation as
mapped in Hendry County is not a coquina, the lithology
described at the type locality for the formation.
The formations that outcrop in Hendry County
(Tamiami, Caloosahatchee, Fort Thompson, and
Anastasia) are blanketed by up to 15 feet of quartz
sand that was deposited during ancient high sea level
stands.

Ground-Water Resources
The most productive aquifer in northern Hendry
County is the Floridan Aquifer. This aquifer has
permeable zones as deep as 1,200 feet. At most places
it yields water by artesian flow. Water from limestone
deeper than 800 feet generally is highly mineralized (4).
Shallow aquifers in Hendry County are mainly the
limestone, shell bed, and sand of the upper part of the
Hawthorn Formation and the Tamiami Formation. The
units of the surficial aquifer range in depth from 40 to
about 300 feet. The water of the shallow aquifers
generally is of good quality. Both shallow aquifers and
the Floridan Aquifer are used for irrigation. The choice
of aquifers is based on individual crops and their
tolerance for mineralized water (4).

Economic Geology
Hendry County has commercial sand, limestone, and
oil production. Sand is produced from formations near
the surface and is used in a variety of construction and








Soil Survey


HENDRY COUNTY


-~*
I- -- POST MIOCENE


-. FORMATION



FORMATION


SUWANNEE


OCALA





AVON PARK


C o>
.200 CM


GROUP


-1200'


- -


-1400'


FORMATION CONTACTS DASHED
WHERE INFERRED
SCALE IN MILES


2 0 2 4 6 8

Figure 2.-A geologic section extending from west to east shows the stratigraphic layers in Hendry County. The location of section C-C' is
shown in figure 3.


industrial applications. Potential sand producing units
include the Fort Thompson, Caloosahatchee, and
Tamiami Formations (8). Limestone can also be mined
from these formations. General uses for limestone


include crushed stone, dimension stone, and soil
conditioning (7). The active oil fields are the Sunoco-
Felda field in Hendry and Collier Counties and the Mid-
Felda and Townsend Canal fields in Hendry County.


C
s 200
-J
-J

MSL 0-
m-



-200'



-400



-600-




-800



-1000.


-I---


TAMIAMI



HAWTHORN


* 0 MSL



*-200



*-400



--600


- *1


TAMPA


FORMATION


LIMESTONE


--800




*-1000



*-1200



*-1400



-1600


--


r


~ct-~--






Hendry County, Florida


These fields produce oil from the Sunniland Formation
of Cretaceous age (3).
Soil suitability for various uses is normally based on
evaluations of properties in the soil. Interpretations in
this soil survey are made as to the effects these
properties could have on use. Many geologic features
that are not expressed in the soil may significantly
affect the suitability of a soil for a particular use.
Individual sites should be evaluated by onsite


00 0 0 00
0 000l
S

1111 I
111111 li


Ulll


Anastasia Formation


Fort Thompson Fm.


Caloosahatchee Fm.


Tamiami Formation


examination and testing. In many cases, special
planning, design, and construction techniques can be
used to overcome geologic problems where they are
identified and evaluated.

Water Resources
The Caloosahatchee River is the major permanent
stream in Hendry County. It is part of the Okeechobee


GLADES COUNTY
-HENDRY COUNTY


COLLIER COUNTY


Location of cross-section C-C'
Figure 3.-The surficial geologic formations in Hendry County.








Soil Survey


Waterway, a navigable canal that crosses the state and
passes through Lake Okeechobee. Many small streams
and constructed drains give access into the
Caloosahatchee River. The Okaloacoochee Slough is
an extremely large, wide, natural drainage system in
southwestern Hendry County.

Farming
The soils and climate of Hendry County are favorable
for farming and agricultural industries including
vegetable crops, citrus, and cattle. Vegetable crops,
such as tomatoes, eggplant, peppers, and cucumbers,
are the main crops grown. The main fruits are
watermelon, oranges, and grapefruit. Sugarcane is also
an important crop.
Livestock production consists mainly of beef cattle. A
combination of native range and improved pasture is
used. Some supplemental feeding is needed, especially
during dry periods.
Throughout the county, several areas that were once
native range are being converted to housing
developments. This is especially evident between
Goodno and La Belle.

Transportation Facilities
Several county, state, and federal highways provide
access between population centers in Hendry County
and between Hendry County and the rest of the state.
Several interstate trucking companies serve the county.
Passenger rail service is available at Sebring. There
also is a freight line through the county. Bus service is
available to Fort Myers and West Palm Beach
connecting with nationally scheduled bus service.
Scheduled airline service is available at the Southwest
Regional Airport in Fort Myers. The airports in La Belle
and Clewiston are used mainly by private and corporate
aircraft.


How This Survey Was Made

This survey was made to provide information about
the soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and
management of the soils for specified uses. Soil
scientists observed the length and shape of slopes, the
general pattern of drainage, the kinds of crops and
native plants growing on the soils, and the kinds of
bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil profile,
which is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in


a soil. The profile extends from the surface down into
the unconsolidated material from which the soil formed.
The unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and
other living organisms and has not been changed by
other biological activity.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly
pattern that is related to the geology, the landforms,
relief, climate, and the natural vegetation of the area.
Each kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
landscape relationship, are sufficient to verify
predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of
rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and
other features that enable them to identify soils. After
describing the soils in the survey area and determining
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil

characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
confirm data and assemble additional data based on
experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
of the soils in the area are generally collected for
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
scientists interpreted the data from these analyses and
tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and
the soil properties in terms of expected behavior of the








Hendry County, Florida


soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of the
soils were field tested through observation of the soils
in different uses under different levels of management.
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
sources, such as research information, production
records, and field experience of specialists. For
example, data on crop yields under defined levels of
management were assembled from farm records and
from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate
and biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable
over long periods of time, but they are not predictable
from year to year. For example, soil scientists can state
with a fairly high degree of probability that a given soil
will have a high water table within certain depths in
most years, but they cannot assure that a high water
table will always be at a specific level in the soil on a
specific date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,
and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.

Map Unit Composition
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however,
the soils are natural objects. In common with other


natural objects, they have a characteristic variability in
their properties. Thus, the range of some observed
properties may extend beyond their limits defined for a
taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic
class rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including
areas of soils of other taxonomic classes.
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soil or
soils for which it is named and some soils that belong to
other taxonomic classes. These latter soils are called
inclusions or included soils.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small
areas and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions
of contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.





















General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map
unit consists of one or more major soils and some
minor soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils
making up one unit can occur in other units but in a
different pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or a building or other
structure. The soils in any one map unit differ from
place to place in depth, drainage, and other
characteristics that affect management.

Soils of the Flatwoods
The five associations in this group consist of nearly
level, poorly drained soils in broad areas of flatwoods
that are interspersed with sloughs and freshwater
marshes. Some of these soils have a dark sandy
subsoil, some are sandy throughout, some have a
loamy subsoil, and some have a dark loamy surface
layer. Limestone is near the surface in some of the
soils.

1. Oldsmar-Wabasso Association
Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have a
sandy and loamy subsoil with organic staining in the
sandy layers
This association is in the southern and central parts
of the western third of Hendry County and in the central
part of the county. It occurs as large areas of low
flatwoods interspersed with sloughs, poorly defined
drainageways, and many small depressions. The
natural vegetation is South Florida slash pine, cabbage


palm, saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn,
chalky bluestem, and other native grasses.
This association makes up about 153,658 acres, or
20 percent of the county. It is about 55 percent Oldsmar
and similar soils, 15 percent Wabasso soils, and 30
percent soils of minor extent. Some small areas of
these soils are underlain by limestone at a depth of 40
to 80 inches. Some small or medium areas are
predominantly one or the other of the two major soils.
Typically, the Oldsmar soils have a very dark gray
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is light gray sand to a depth of about 32 inches
and grayish brown sand to a depth of about 38 inches.
The subsoil to a depth of about 40 inches is black sand
that is coated with organic matter. It is dark reddish
brown sand to a depth of about 50 inches, dark grayish
brown sandy clay loam to a depth of about 70 inches,
and olive gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches.
Immokalee soils have similar interpretations to Oldsmar
soils and are included with the Oldsmar soils in this
association.
Typically, the Wabasso soils have a dark gray sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 25 inches is light gray sand. The
subsoil to a depth of about 30 inches is black sand that
is coated with organic matter. It is dark grayish brown
sandy clay loam to a depth of about 40 inches and gray
sandy clay loam to a depth of about 58 inches. The
substratum to a depth of 80 inches is grayish brown
loamy sand that has lenses of sand and sandy loam.
The minor soils are Boca, Malabar, Pineda, Riviera,
Holopaw, Chobee, and Winder soils.
Most of the soils in this association are used for
native or improved pasture. Small or medium areas are
in citrus and vegetable crops. If water control is
adequate, these soils are moderately well suited or well
suited to citrus and vegetable crops. Limitations
affecting most urban uses are severe. Drainage is
needed to overcome wetness, and fill material is
needed to make most areas suitable for building sites.







Soil Survey


2. Immokalee-Basinger-Myakka Association

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy
throughout and have organic staining in the subsoil
This association is in the north-central, central, and
south-central parts of Hendry County. It is in broad
flatwood areas interspersed with grassy sloughs and
shallow depressions. Areas of this association are
primarily native range. Natural vegetation is South
Florida slash pine, saw palmetto, fetterbush lyonia,
pineland threeawn, chalky bluestem, and other native
grasses. Water-tolerant plants, such as flags and
various sedges, are in the lower areas.
This association makes up about 139,322 acres, or
18 percent of the county. It is about 45 percent
Immokalee and similar soils, 25 percent Basinger soils,
15 percent Myakka soils, and 15 percent soils of minor
extent.
Typically, the Immokalee soils have a very dark gray
sand surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is gray sand to a depth of about 25 inches and
light gray sand to a depth of about 40 inches. The
subsoil to a depth of about 70 inches is sand. The
upper part is black and is stained with organic matter.
The lower part is dark brown. The substratum is light
brownish gray sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Oldsmar soils have similar interpretations to Immokalee
soils and are included with the Immokalee soils in this
association.
Typically, the Basinger soils have a very dark gray
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 25 inches is light brownish
gray sand. The subsoil is dark yellowish brown sand to
a depth of about 50 inches. The substratum is light
brownish gray sand to a depth of 80 inches. Pompano
and Valkaria soils have similar interpretations to
Basinger soils and are included with the Basinger soils
in this association.
Typically, the Myakka soils have a very dark gray
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 26 inches is gray sand. The
subsoil to a depth of about 60 inches is sand. It is black
in the upper part and dark brown in the lower part. The
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is grayish
brown sand.
The minor soils are Malabar, Holopaw, Riviera,
Pineda, Delray, and Chobee soils.
Most of the soils in this association are used for
improved or native pasture. Small areas are used for
citrus, vegetables, and sugarcane. Under natural


conditions, these soils are poorly suited to cultivated
crops. If water control is adequate, they are moderately
well suited to a variety of vegetables, citrus, and
sugarcane. Drainage is needed to overcome wetness in
areas used for urban development, and fill material is
needed to make some areas suitable for building sites.

3. Tuscawilla-Chobee Association

Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy and loamy soils that
have a loamy subsoil
This association is dominantly bordering the
Okaloacoochee Slough in the central part of Hendry
County and the Caloosahatchee River in the
northwestern part. It is in long, relatively narrow
flatwood areas interspersed with many small ponds.
The natural vegetation is dominantly South Florida
slash pine, saw palmetto, cabbage palm, waxmyrtle,
and chalky bluestem.
This association makes up about 16,186 acres, or 2
percent of the county. It is about 70 percent Tuscawilla
soils, 20 percent Chobee soils, and 10 percent soils of
minor extent.
Typically, the Tuscawilla soils have a dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 8 inches is gray fine sand. The
subsoil is dark grayish brown sandy clay loam to a
depth of about 15 inches; light gray, calcareous sandy
clay loam to a depth of about 39 inches; and light gray,
calcareous fine sandy loam to a depth of about 56
inches. The substratum is white, calcareous loam to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Typically, the Chobee soils have a black fine sandy
loam surface layer about 9 inches thick. The next layer
to a depth of about 13 inches is gray fine sandy loam.
The subsoil to a depth of about 68 inches is light gray,
calcareous sandy clay loam. The substratum to a depth
of 80 inches is light gray, calcareous fine sandy loam.
The minor soils are Boca, Hallandale, Jupiter,
Oldsmar, Pineda, Riviera, and Wabasso soils.
Most of the soils in this association are used for
native range. Some areas are used for improved
pasture, vegetables, citrus, or urban development.
These soils are poorly suited to cultivated crops except
where water control is adequate. Simple surface
drainage is needed to make them suitable for improved
pasture. Limitations affecting most urban uses are
severe. Water control and fill material are needed to
make most areas suitable for building sites.







Hendry County, Florida


4. Wabasso Association

Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have a
sandy and loamy subsoil with organic staining in the
sandy layer
This association is primarily in a few areas along the
Okaloacoochee Slough and Twelve-Mile Slough in the
west-central and central parts of Hendry County. It
occurs as large areas of low flatwoods interspersed with
sloughs, poorly defined drainageways, and many small
depressions. The natural vegetation is South Florida
slash pine, cabbage palm, live oak, saw palmetto,
waxmyrtle, and various grasses.
This association makes up about 9,246 acres, or 1
percent of the county. It is about 75 percent Wabasso
soils and 25 percent soils of minor extent. In some
areas these soils are underlain by limestone at a depth
of 40 to 80 inches.
Typically, the Wabasso soils have a dark gray sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 25 inches is light gray sand. The
subsoil to a depth of about 30 inches is black sand that
is coated with organic matter. It is dark grayish brown
sandy clay loam to a depth of about 40 inches and gray
sandy clay loam to a depth of about 58 inches. The
substratum to a depth of 80 inches is grayish brown
loamy sand that has lenses of sand and sandy loam.
The minor soils are Boca, Malabar, Pineda, Riviera,
Holopaw, Chobee, and Winder soils.
Most of the soils in this association are used for
native pasture. Small areas are in improved pasture or
vegetable crops. If water control is adequate, these
soils are moderately well suited or well suited to citrus
and vegetable crops. Limitations affecting most urban
uses are severe. Drainage is needed to overcome
wetness, and fill material is needed to make most areas
suitable for building sites.

5. Ochopee-Rock Outcrop Association

Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that are
underlain by limestone at a depth of less than 20 inches
and areas of limestone outcrop
This association is in the southwestern and south-
central parts of Hendry County. It is in broad, low
flatwood areas interspersed with small, narrow sloughs
and common small depressions. The natural vegetation
is waxmyrtle, saw palmetto, cabbage palm, slash pine,
and various grasses and shrubs. Cypress, sawgrass,
pickerelweed, and other grasses and sedges are in the
wet areas.


This association makes up about 5,743 acres, or 1
percent of the county. It is about 65 percent Ochopee
and similar soils, 20 percent Rock outcrop, and 15
percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Ochopee soils have a dark grayish
brown fine sandy loam surface layer about 6 inches
thick. The subsoil is grayish brown fine sandy loam to a
depth of about 10 inches. It is underlain by hard
limestone. Hallandale soils have similar interpretations
to Ochopee soils and are included with the Ochopee
soils in this association.
The Rock outcrop part of this association is hard,
fractured limestone.
The minor soils are Jupiter, Boca, Riviera, Holopaw,
Margate, Chobee, and Gentry soils.
Most areas of this association are in native
vegetation. Even if drainage improvements are made,
most areas would not be suitable for cultivation
because of the shallow depth to rock. If drainage is
adequate, some areas may be suitable for improved
pasture. Limitations affecting most urban uses are
severe.

Soils of the Sloughs and Flatwoods
The three associations in this group consist mainly of
nearly level, poorly drained soils in sloughs and on
flatwoods. The soils in sloughs are sandy and have a
loamy subsoil; some are underlain by limestone. In
flatwood areas, some soils have a dark sandy subsoil
layer and a loamy subsoil layer, some have a loamy
subsoil that is underlain by limestone, and others are
sandy and are underlain by limestone at a shallow
depth.

6. Malabar-Pineda-Oldsmar Association

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained,
sandy soils that have a loamy subsoil; some are
underlain by limestone
This association is in most areas of Hendry County
except for the Everglades along the eastern boundary
and the southwestern part of the county. It is extensive
in the northwestern and north-central parts of the
county. This association is on broad, low flats and in
flatwood areas interspersed with grassy sloughs and
depressions. The natural vegetation is slash pine, saw
palmetto, waxmyrtle, and various grasses. Fireflags,
pickerelweed, sawgrass, and various grasses and
sedges are in wet areas.
This association makes up about 53,052 acres, or 7
percent of the county. It is about 35 percent Malabar








Soil Survey


and similar soils, 25 percent Pineda soils, 20 percent
Oldsmar and similar soils, and 20 percent soils of minor
extent.
Typically, the Malabar soils have a dark grayish
brown sand surface layer about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer to a depth of about 15 inches is light
brownish gray sand. The subsoil is sand to a depth of
about 45 inches. In sequence downward, it is very pale
brown. brownish yellow, light yellowish brown, and light
brownish gray. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of about 55 inches and gray sandy loam to a
depth of about 65 inches. The substratum is light gray
stratified sand and loamy sand to a depth of 80 inches
or more. Holopaw soils have similar interpretations to
Malabar soils and are included with the Malabar soils in
this association.
Typically, the Pineda soils have a black fine sand
surface layer about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 14 inches is gray and light gray fine
sand. The subsoil is yellowish brown and light yellowish
brown fine sand to a depth of about 30 inches. To a
depth of about 50 inches, it is gray sandy clay loam that
has vertical intrusions of light yellowish brown fine sand.
The substratum is gray sandy loam to a depth of about
60 inches, gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about 75
inches, and white sand to a depth of 80 inches. Calcium
carbonate nodules make up about 50 percent of the
white sand layer.
Typically, the Oldsmar soils have a very dark gray
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 38 inches is sand. It is light
gray in the upper part and grayish brown in the lower
part. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 80 inches.
In sequence downward, it is black sand, dark reddish
brown sand, dark grayish brown sandy clay loam, and
olive gray sandy clay loam. In some areas limestone is
below a depth of 40 inches. Immokalee soils have
similar interpretations to Oldsmar soils and are included
with the Oldsmar soils in this association.
The minor soils are Basinger, Boca, Chobee, Delray,
and Gentry soils.
Most of the soils in this association are used for
improved pasture or native range. In some areas they
are used for citrus and cultivated crops. These soils are
severely limited for most agricultural uses because of
the high water table; however, if water control is
adequate, these soils are well suited to truck crops,
citrus, and improved pasture. Limitations affecting most
urban uses are severe. Drainage is needed to
overcome wetness, and fill material is needed to make
some areas suitable for building sites.


7. Boca-Riviera-Pineda Association

Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have a
loamy subsoil or a sandy and loamy subsoil underlain by
limestone
This association is in the northwestern, central, and
southwestern parts of Hendry County. It occurs as small
or medium areas of flatwoods and hammocks
interspersed with grassy and lightly wooded sloughs,
depressions, and marshes. The natural vegetation is
South Florida slash pine, cabbage palm, live oak, saw
palmetto, pineland threeawn, chalky bluestem, and
other native grasses. Pickerelweed and many grasses,
sedges, and flags are in the wetter areas along with
occasional willow, maple, and cypress trees.
This association makes up about 108,361 acres, or
14 percent of the county. It is about 25 percent Boca
soils, 25 percent Riviera soils, 20 percent Pineda soils,
and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Boca soils have a sand surface layer
about 7 inches thick. It is very dark gray in the upper
part and gray in the lower part. The subsurface layer to
a depth of about 27 inches is light gray fine sand. The
subsoil is dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth of
about 28 inches and grayish brown fine sandy loam to a
depth of about 33 inches. It is underlain by limestone
that is discontinuous and that has many fractures and
solution basins.
Typically, the Riviera soils have a very dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 26 inches is fine sand. It is
gray in the upper part and light gray in the lower part.
The subsoil to a depth of about 32 inches is gray sandy
loam that has vertical intrusions of light gray sand.
Below that it is gray sandy clay loam to a depth of
about 50 inches and gray sandy loam to a depth of
about 70 inches. The substratum to a depth of 80
inches or more is gray sandy clay loam that has a few
calcium carbonate fragments.
Typically, the Pineda soils have a fine sand surface
layer about 8 inches thick. It is black in the upper part
and gray in the lower part. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 14 inches is light gray fine sand. The
subsoil is yellowish brown fine sand to a depth of about
25 inches. The next layer to a depth of 30 inches is
light yellowish brown fine sand. Below that to a depth of
about 50 inches the subsoil is gray sandy clay loam that
has vertical intrusions of light yellowish brown fine sand.
The substratum is gray sandy loam to a depth of about
60 inches and gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about
75 inches. Below that to a depth of about 80 inches it is








Hendry County. Florida


white sand that has about 50 percent calcium carbonate
nodules.
The minor soils are Wabasso and Oldsmar soils.
Most of the soils in this association are used for
improved or native pasture, although significant areas
are used for citrus or residential development. If water
control is adequate, these soils can be used for citrus
or vegetable production. Limitations affecting most
urban uses are severe. Drainage is needed to
overcome wetness, and fill material and some rock
removal are needed to make most areas suitable for
building sites.

8. Hallandale-Riviera-Holopaw Association

Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that are
underlain by limestone; some have a loamy subsoil
This association is in the southwestern and south-
central parts of Hendry County. It is on broad, low
flatwoods and hammocks interspersed with sloughs,
ponds, and marshy areas. The natural vegetation is saw
palmetto, cabbage palm, live oak, waxmyrtle, and other
shrubs and grasses. Cypress, willow, sawgrass,
pickerelweed, elephantears, and various wetland
grasses and sedges are in the wetter areas.
This association makes up about 52,152 acres, or 7
percent of the county. It is about 45 percent Hallandale
soils. 15 percent Riviera soils that have a limestone
substratum. 10 percent Holopaw soils that have a
limestone substratum, and 30 percent soils of minor
extent.
Typically, the Hallandale soils have a dark gray sand
surface layer about 4 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of about 16 inches is brown sand. It
is underlain by hard, fractured limestone that has many
solution basins.
Typically, the Riviera soils have a black sand surface
layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 35 inches is light brownish gray sand.
The subsoil to a depth of about 50 inches is olive gray
sandy clay loam and sandy loam. Fractured limestone
is at a depth of about 50 inches.
Typically, the Holopaw soils have a dark grayish
brown sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer to a depth of about 40 inches is sand.
It is brown in the upper part, pale brown in the next
part, and light gray in the lower part. The subsoil
extends to a depth of about 60 inches. The upper part
is brown sand, and the lower part is gray sandy loam
that has calcium carbonates. Fractured limestone is at a
depth of about 60 inches.


The minor soils are Boca, Chobee, Gentry, Jupiter,
and Margate soils.
Most areas of this association are in native
vegetation. Some areas are abandoned farmland, and
others are improved pasture. The soils in this
association are severely limited for most agricultural
uses because of the shallow depth to bedrock and the
high water table. If water control is adequate, the
deeper soils are suited to certain truck crops. Drainage
is needed to overcome the wetness. Fill material and
rock removal are needed to make some areas suitable
for building sites.

Soils of the Everglades
The two associations in this group consist mainly of
nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
soils that are underlain by limestone. Some of the soils
are sandy throughout, some are organic, and others
have a thin muck surface layer.

9. Margate Association

Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that are
underlain by limestone
This association is in the eastern part of Hendry
County. It is in a broad, low-lying area on the fringe of
the Everglades. The main vegetation is improved
pasture grasses and sugarcane.
This association makes up about 40,328 acres, or 5
percent of the county. It is about 70 percent Margate
and similar soils and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Margate soils have a black sand
surface layer about 10 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 18 inches is brown sand. The
subsoil to a depth of about 24 inches is pale brown
sand. The substratum to a depth of about 30 inches is
light yellowish brown gravelly sand. It is underlain by
hard limestone. Hallandale soils have similar
interpretations to Margate soils and are included with
the Margate soils in this association.
The minor soils are Basinger, Boca, Dania, Delray,
Immokalee, Lauderhill, and Riviera soils.
Most of the soils in this association are used for
improved pasture or sugarcane. Drainage and water
control have been established in most of the area.
Under natural conditions, these soils are not suited to
cultivated crops because of wetness and the shallow
depth to bedrock. If water control is adequate, these
soils are suited to sugarcane, truck crops, and improved
pasture. Limitations affecting most urban uses are
severe. Water control and fill material are needed to
make this area suitable for building sites.







Soil Survey


10. Plantation-Lauderhill-Dania Association

Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are underlain
by limestone: some are sandy with a thin muck surface
layer and some are organic
This association is on the fringe of the Everglades in
eastern Hendry County. It is dominantly freshwater
marshes that are drained and cultivated. Vegetation is
mainly sugarcane and improved pasture grasses.
This association makes up about 46,042 acres, or 6
percent of the county. It is about 36 percent Plantation
soils, 36 percent Lauderhill soils, 15 percent Dania
soils, and 13 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Plantation soils have a black muck
surface layer about 12 inches thick. It is underlain by
sand to a depth of about 39 inches. The sand is black
in the upper part and pale brown in the lower part. It is
underlain by hard limestone.
Typically, the Lauderhill soils have a muck surface
layer about 35 inches thick. It is black to a depth of
about 24 inches, dark reddish brown to a depth of about
31 inches, and black below that depth. The muck layer
is underlain by hard limestone.
Typically, the Dania soils have a muck surface layer
about 14 inches thick. It is black in the upper part and
dark reddish brown in the lower part. The underlying
material to a depth of 18 inches is very dark gray fine
sand. It is underlain by hard limestone.
The minor soils are Pahokee, Terra Ceia, Okeelanta,
and Margate soils.
Most areas of this association have been cleared and
are used for sugarcane. Some areas are in improved
pasture. Drainage and water control have been
established in most areas. Under natural conditions, the
soils in this association are not suited to cultivated
crops because of wetness and the shallow depth to
bedrock. If water control is adequate, these soils are
suited to sugarcane, truck crops, and improved pasture.
Limitations affecting most urban uses are severe. Water
control, muck removal, and fill material are needed to
make most areas suitable for building sites.

Soils of the Sloughs and Freshwater Marshes
The three associations in this group consist mainly of
nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
soils in sloughs and freshwater marshes. Some have a
loamy subsoil, some are sandy throughout, some are
organic, some have a loamy surface layer, some have a
dark colored loamy surface layer, and some are
underlain by limestone.


11. Winder-Chobee-Gator Association

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained,
sandy, loamy, and organic soils that have a loamy
subsoil
This association is mainly in the Okaloacoochee
Slough, Graham Marsh, and Devil's Garden Slough,
which are freshwater marshes in central Hendry County.
The natural vegetation is sawgrass, pickerelweed,
willow, and other water-tolerant vegetation.
This association makes up about 39,355 acres, or 5
percent of the county. It is about 40 percent Winder
soils, 30 percent Chobee soils, 15 percent Gator soils.
and 15 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Winder soils have a gray fine sand
surface layer about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 19 inches is very pale brown fine
sand. The subsoil to a depth of about 30 inches is light
gray sandy clay loam. The substratum is greenish gray
sandy clay loam to a depth of about 40 inches, light
gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about 60 inches,
and greenish gray loamy sand to a depth of 80 inches.
Typically, the Chobee soils have a black fine sandy
loam surface layer about 9 inches thick. The next layer
to a depth of about 13 inches is gray fine sandy loam.
The subsoil to a depth of about 68 inches is light gray.
calcareous sandy clay loam. The substratum to a depth
of 80 inches is light gray, calcareous fine sandy loam.
Typically, the Gator soils have a black muck surface
layer about 32 inches thick. The underlying material is
black sandy loam to a depth of about 35 inches and
gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 51 inches or more.
The minor soils are Delray, Gentry. Holopaw. Pineda,
and Riviera soils.
Most areas of this association are in natural
vegetation. Under natural conditions. the soils in this
association are poorly suited to cultivated crops.
Limitations affecting most urban uses are severe.

12. Holopaw-Basinger Association

Nearly level, poorly drained, sandy soils that have a
loamy subsoil or that are sandy throughout: some are
underlain by limestone
This association is mainly in the southeastern part of
Hendry County. It is in small or medium areas of broad.
low, grassy flats and cypress stands interspersed with
small cypress heads, ponds, and some flatwoods. The
natural vegetation is chalky bluestem and other
grasses, cypress, pickerelweed, South Florida slash
pine, saw palmetto, and cabbage palm. Thick stands of








Hendry County, Florida


cypress, elephantears, pickerelweed, sawgrass, and
other various grasses and sedges are in the wetter
areas.
This association makes up about 77,480 acres, or 10
percent of the county. It is about 60 percent Holopaw
soils, 25 percent Basinger soils, and 15 percent soils of
minor extent.
Typically, the Holopaw soils have a dark gray sand
surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 48 inches is sand. It is light
brownish gray to a depth of about 15 inches, light gray
to a depth of about 34 inches, and light brownish gray
below that depth. The subsoil to a depth of about 65
inches is grayish brown sandy clay loam. The
substratum to a depth of 80 inches is grayish brown
sandy loam that has many carbonate nodules.
Typically, the Basinger soils have a very dark gray
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 25 inches is light brownish
gray sand. The subsoil is dark yellowish brown sand to
a depth of about 50 inches. The substratum is light
brownish gray sand to a depth of 80 inches.
The minor soils are Pineda, Riviera, Margate,
Oldsmar, Immokalee, Boca, Gentry, and Delray soils.
Most of the soils in this association are used for
improved or native pasture. These soils are severely
limited for most agricultural uses by the high water
table. If water control is adequate, these soils are well
suited to truck crops, citrus, and improved pasture.
Limitations affecting most urban uses are severe.
Drainage is needed to overcome wetness, and fill
material is needed to make some areas suitable for
building sites.

13. Riviera-Hallandale-Boca Association

Nearly level, very poorly drained, sandy soils that are
underlain by limestone; some have a loamy subsoil
This association is mainly in the southeastern part of
Hendry County. It is in long, narrow sloughs and


depressions. Natural vegetation is cypress, waxmyrtle,
maidencane, and ferns.
This association makes up about 33,088 acres, or 4
percent of the county. It is about 35 percent Riviera
soils, 25 percent Hallandale soils, 10 percent Boca
soils, and 30 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Riviera soils have a very dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 26 inches is fine sand. It is
gray in the upper part and light gray in the lower part.
The subsoil to a depth of about 32 inches is gray sandy
loam that has vertical intrusions of light gray sand. It is
gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about 50 inches and
gray sandy loam to a depth of about 70 inches. The
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray
sandy clay loam that has a few calcium carbonate
fragments.
Typically, the Hallandale soils have a dark gray sand
surface layer about 4 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of about 16 inches is brown sand. It
is underlain by hard, fractured limestone that has many
solution basins.
Typically, the Boca soils have a sand surface layer
about 7 inches thick. It is very dark gray in the upper
part and gray in the lower part. The subsurface layer to
a depth of about 27 inches is light gray fine sand. The
subsoil is dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth of
about 28 inches and grayish brown fine sandy loam to a
depth of about 33 inches. It is underlain by limestone
that is discontinuous and that has many fractures and
solution basins.
The minor soils are Chobee, Holopaw, Plantation,
and Winder soils.
Most of the soils in this association are used for
native range. Under natural conditions, these soils are
covered by water for 3 to 7 months each year and are
poorly suited to cultivated crops. If water control is
adequate, they are suited to a variety of vegetable,
citrus, and improved pasture crops. Limitations affecting
most urban uses are severe.




















Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back
of this survey represent the soils in the survey area.
The map unit descriptions in this section, along with the
soil maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents
an area on the landscape and consists of one or more
soils for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils
of a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ
in slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into
soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed
soil maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Holopaw sand,
depressional, is one of several phases in the Holopaw
series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes. A soil
complex consists of two or more soils in such an
intricate pattern or in such small areas that they cannot
be shown separately on the soil maps. The pattern and
proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in all areas.
Jupiter-Ochopee-Rock outcrop complex is an example.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named.


Some of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
areas have little or no soil material and support little or
no vegetation. Udorthents is an example. Miscellaneous
areas are shown on the soil maps. Some that are too
small to be shown are identified by a special symbol on
the soil maps.
Table 2 gives the acreage and proportionate extent
of each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of
Tables") give properties of the soils and the limitations
and capabilities for many uses. The Glossary defines
many of the terms used in describing the soils.

1-Boca sand. This poorly drained soil is on broad
flatwoods, mainly near the edge of ponds and sloughs.
Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and range from
5 to 400 acres. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a sand surface layer about 7
inches thick. It is very dark gray in the upper part and
gray in the lower part. The subsurface layer to a depth
of about 27 inches is light gray fine sand. The subsoil is
dark grayish brown fine sand to a depth of about 28
inches and brown fine sandy loam to a depth of about
33 inches. It is underlain by limestone that is
discontinuous and that has many fractures and solution
basins.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Hallandale, Pineda, Riviera, and Wabasso soils. Also
included near the Caloosahatchee River are areas of
soils that are moderately well drained but are otherwise
similar to the Boca soil. Soils that have an accumulation
of secondary carbonates on the sand grains are also
included. The included soils make up 5 to 25 percent of
the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Boca soil has a high








Soil Survey


water table within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
months in most years. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. The organic matter content and natural fertility
are low. The available water capacity is low in the
surface layer, very low in the subsurface layer, and
moderate in the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are in pasture or native range.
Natural vegetation is an open forest of slash pine,
cabbage palm, and live oak. The understory is saw
palmetto. Pineland threeawn is the most common native
grass. Other native grasses that are important for range
management are creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
lopsided indiangrass, and low panicums.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness and the depth
to limestone. The limestone interferes with the
construction of water-control systems. With good water-
control and soil-improving measures, the soil can be
made suitable for crops. The water-control system
should remove excess water after periods of heavy
rainfall and provide for subsurface irrigation during dry
periods.
Citrus can be grown if intensive management
practices are used. A water-control system that
maintains the water table at a depth of about 4 feet is
needed. Planting trees on beds can also lower the
effective depth of the water table. Regular applications
of fertilizer are needed.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture; however,
water-control measures to remove excess surface water
after periods of heavy rainfall and regular applications
of fertilizer are needed.
Potential productivity is high for South Florida slash
pine. The equipment use limitation and seedling
mortality are moderate. South Florida slash pine is a
recommended tree to plant.
The high water table, the moderate depth to bedrock,
and the sandy texture are severe limitations affecting
most urban and recreational uses.
The capability subclass is III1w.

2-Pineda sand, limestone substratum. This poorly
drained soil is in sloughs and on low flats in flatwood
areas. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
range from 5 to 500 acres. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a sand surface layer about 10
inches thick. It is dark gray in the upper part and
grayish brown in the lower part. The subsurface layer to
a depth of about 16 inches is light gray sand. The
subsoil is yellowish brown sand to a depth of about 32


inches and gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about 49
inches. The substratum to a depth of about 50 inches is
light gray calcareous sandy loam. It is underlain by
limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Pineda, Malabar, and Riviera soils. Also included
in areas along the Caloosahatchee River are some
moderately well drained soils. The included soils make
up about 15 to 25 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Pineda soil has a high
water table within 12 inches of the surface for 6 months
during most years. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers, slow in the subsoil, and
moderately rapid in the substratum. The organic matter
content and natural fertility are low. The available water
capacity is low in the surface layer, subsurface layer,
and sandy part of the subsoil; moderate in the loamy
part of the subsoil; and variable in the substratum.
Many areas of this soil are in improved pasture or
native range. Some areas are used for citrus or
vegetables. Natural vegetation is grasses and scattered
saw palmetto, slash pine, and cabbage palm. Blue
maidencane and chalky bluestem are desirable grasses
for range management.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. If a water-
control system is used, it is well suited to many fruit and
vegetable crops. The water-control system should
remove excess water rapidly and provide subsurface
irrigation. Good soil management includes crop
rotations that keep close-growing cover crops in the
cropping system at least two-thirds of the time. All crop
residue should be plowed under. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding. Crops respond to fertilizer.
If water control is adequate, this soil is well suited to
citrus. The water-control system should maintain the
water table at a depth of about 4 to 6 feet. Trees should
be planted on beds, and a cover crop should be
maintained between the trees to help control erosion.
Fertilizer should be applied as needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops,
mainly pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Excellent
pastures of grass or grass-clover mixtures can be
grown with good management. Controlled grazing and
regular applications of fertilizer are needed for highest
yields.
If surface drainage is adequate, this soil has
moderate potential productivity for South Florida slash
pine. The equipment use limitation is moderate, and
seedling mortality is severe. South Florida slash pine is
a recommended tree to plant.








Hendry County, Florida


The high water table is a severe limitation affecting
urban and recreational uses.
The capability subclass is Vw.

4-Oldsmar sand. This nearly level, poorly drained
soil is on broad flatwoods. Areas of this soil are
irregular in shape and range from 5 to more than 1,000
acres.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray sand surface
layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 38 inches is sand. It is light gray in the
upper part and grayish brown in the lower part. The
subsoil extends to a depth of at least 80 inches. In
sequence downward, it is black sand, dark reddish
brown sand, dark grayish brown sandy clay loam, and
olive gray sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Boca, Holopaw, and Immokalee soils. Also
included are soils that have accumulations of
calcareous material. The included soils make up less
than 25 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Oldsmar soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 3 months
in most years. During dry periods the high water table is
more than 40 inches below the surface. Permeability is
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, moderately
rapid to moderately slow in the sandy part of the
subsoil, and slow or very slow in the loamy part of the
subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter content are
low.
Most areas of this soil are in pasture or native range.
Some areas are used for crops or citrus. Natural
vegetation is South Florida slash pine, cabbage palm,
saw palmetto, waxmyrtle, gallberry, fetterbush lyonia,
running oak, dwarf huckleberry, pineland threeawn, blue
maidencane, and several species of bluestem.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. It is suitable
for vegetable crops if a water-control system is used
that removes excess water in wet periods and provides
subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Good management
includes keeping close-growing, soil-improving crops in
the rotation and using crop residue and cover crops to
protect the soil from erosion. Crops respond to fertilizer.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
citrus because of the wetness; however, if a well
designed drainage system that maintains the water
table at a depth of about 4 feet is used, citrus can be
grown. Good management includes planting trees on
beds to lower the effective depth of the water table and


using a close-growing cover crop between the trees to
protect the soil from erosion. Lime, fertilizer, and
supplemental irrigation in dry periods are needed for
maximum yields.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly
managed. A simple drainage system is needed to
remove excess surface water during periods of heavy
rainfall. Lime, fertilizer, and controlled grazing are
needed to maintain healthy plants for best yields.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity
for pine trees. The major concerns in management are
plant competition, seedling mortality, and the equipment
use limitation. South Florida slash pine is the preferred
tree to plant. A simple drainage system is needed to
remove excess surface water.
The high water table and sandy texture are severe
limitations affecting urban and recreational uses. A
water-control system is required if this soil is developed
for urban or recreational uses. Fill material that is 3 feet
or more thick or ditches that remove excess surface
water are also required. Septic tank absorption fields do
not function adequately unless the water table is
lowered or fill material is added. The sandy texture and
the high water table are severe limitations affecting
sites for sanitary landfills. Because cutbanks caving is a
hazard in shallow excavations, shoring of side slopes is
required.
The capability subclass is IVw.

6-Wabasso sand. This poorly drained soil is on
flatwoods. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
range from 5 to 250 acres. Slopes are less than 2
percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray sand surface layer
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of
about 25 inches is light gray sand. The subsoil to a
depth of about 30 inches is black sand that is coated
with organic matter. To a depth of about 58 inches, it is
sandy clay loam that is dark grayish brown in the upper
part and gray in the lower part. The substratum to a
depth of 80 inches is grayish brown loamy sand that
has lenses of sand and sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pineda and Riviera soils and small areas of Wabasso
soils that have a limestone substratum. Also included
near the Caloosahatchee River are areas of better
drained soils and areas of soils that have an
accumulation of secondary carbonates. The included
soils generally make up 10 to 20 percent of the map
unit.
Under natural conditions this Wabasso soil has a







Soil Survey


high water table within 10 inches of the surface for less
than 2 months in most years and at a depth of 10 to 40
inches for 6 months or more. In dry periods the water
table is at a depth of more than 40 inches. Permeability
is rapid in the surface layer, subsurface layer, and
substratum; moderate in the sandy part of the subsoil;
and slow in the loamy part of the subsoil. The organic
matter content and natural fertility are low. The
available water capacity is moderate in the subsoil and
low in the other layers.
Most areas of this soil are in native range or
improved pasture. Natural vegetation is an open forest
of slash pine with an understory of saw palmetto.
Cabbage palm and live oak are scattered throughout
the area. Pineland threeawn is the most abundant
native grass. Other grasses important for range
management are chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem,
lopsided indiangrass, and low panicums.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. The number of
suitable crops is limited unless intensive water-control
measures are used. A water-control system must
remove excess water in wet periods and provide
subsurface irrigation in dry periods. If water control is
adequate, the soil is well suited to many kinds of
flowers and vegetables. Good management, in addition
to water control, includes crop rotations that keep close-
growing, soil-improving crops in the cropping system at
least two-thirds of the time. The crop residue should be
plowed under to protect the soil from erosion. Crops
respond to fertilizer. Seedbed preparation should
include bedding.
The soil is poorly suited to citrus because of the
wetness. If adequately drained, it is moderately suited
to oranges and grapefruit (fig. 4). After periods of heavy
rainfall, drainage needs to remove excess water rapidly
to a depth of about 4 to 6 feet. Citrus trees should be
planted on beds to lower the effective depth of the
water table. A close-growing plant cover between the
trees protects the soil from blowing when it is dry and
from water erosion during periods of heavy rainfall. The
trees require regular applications of fertilizer and
occasional applications of lime. Irrigation is needed to
maximize yields.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay.
Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover grow well if they
are well managed. A water-control system is needed to
remove excess surface water after periods of heavy
rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
also needed. Grazing should be carefully controlled to
maintain healthy plants for the highest yields.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.


The equipment use limitation, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are the main concerns in
management. South Florida slash pine is a
recommended tree to plant.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development and
recreational uses because of the high water table and
the sandy texture. A water-control system is required.
Fill material that is 3 feet or more thick or ditches that
remove excess surface water are also required. Septic
tank absorption fields do not function adequately unless
the water table is lowered or fill material is added. The
sandy texture and the high water table are severe
limitations affecting sites for sanitary landfills. Because
cutbanks caving is a hazard in shallow excavations,
shoring of side slopes is required.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

7-Immokalee sand. This poorly drained soil is on
broad flatwoods. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape
and range from 5 to more than 100 acres. Slopes are
less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray sand surface
layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 40 inches is sand. It is gray in the upper
part and light gray in the lower part. The subsoil to a
depth of about 70 inches is sand that is stained with
organic matter. It is black in the upper part and dark
brown in the lower part. The substratum is light
brownish gray sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are Basinger,
Myakka, Oldsmar, and Valkaria soils. Also included are
areas of soils that have a black subsoil that is weakly or
moderately cemented or that has few or common
medium and coarse nodules that are moderately or
strongly cemented. The included soils make up about
20 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Immokalee soil has a
high water table within 10 inches of the surface for
about 5 months in most years. During dry periods the
water table is at a depth of about 50 inches. The
available water capacity is moderate in the subsoil and
low or very low in the other layers. Permeability is rapid
in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate in
the subsoil. The organic matter content and natural
fertility are low.
Most areas of this soil are in native range or
improved pasture. Natural vegetation consists of South
Florida slash pine and saw palmetto. Pineland threeawn
is the most abundant native grass. Other important
range grasses are chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem,
and lopsided indiangrass.








Hendry County, Florida


Figure 4.-If adequately drained, Wabasso sand is suited to citrus, such as oranges.


Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness, the sandy
texture, and low fertility. The number of suitable crops is
limited unless very intensive management practices are
followed. If good water-control and soil-improving
measures are used, this soil is suitable for many
vegetable crops. A water-control system must remove
excess water in wet periods and provide subsurface
irrigation in dry periods. Crop rotations should keep
close-growing, soil-improving crops in the cropping
system three-fourths of the time. Seedbed preparation


should include bedding. Crops respond to fertilizer and
lime.
The soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very
intensive management practices are used. A water-
control system is needed to maintain the high water
table at a depth of about 4 feet. The trees should be
planted on beds to help lower the effective depth of the
water table, and a plant cover should be maintained
between the trees. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,








Soil Survey


improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they
are well managed. Water-control measures are needed
to remove excess surface water. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed, and grazing should be
managed to maintain healthy plants.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
The equipment use limitation, seedling mortality, and
plant competition are the main concerns in
management. South Florida slash pine is a
recommended tree to plant. A simple water-control
system is needed to remove excess surface water.
The high water table and the sandy texture are
severe limitations affecting urban development and
recreational uses. A water-control system is' required.
Fill material that is 3 feet or more thick or ditches that
remove excess surface water are also required. Septic
tank absorption fields do not function adequately unless
the water table is lowered or fill material is added. The
sandy texture and the high water table are severe
limitations affecting sites for sanitary landfills. Because
cutbanks caving is a hazard in shallow excavations,
shoring of side slopes is required.
The capability subclass is IVw.

8-Malabar sand. This poorly drained soil is in
sloughs on flatwoods. Areas of this soil are elongated
and irregular in shape and range from 10 to 500 acres.
Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark grayish brown sand
surface layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 15 inches is light brownish gray
sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 65
inches. In sequence downward, it is very pale brown
sand, brownish yellow sand, light yellowish brown sand,
light brownish gray sand, gray sandy clay loam, and
gray sandy loam. The substratum to a depth of 80
inches is gray, stratified sand and loamy sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Boca, Holopaw, Oldsmar, Pineda, Riviera,
and Valkaria soils. Also included are a few areas of
soils that have weathered discontinuous limestone or
carbonate gravel and cobbles at a depth of 60 to 80
inches. The included soils make up less than 25
percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Malabar soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6
months in most years. Permeability is rapid in the
surface layer, subsurface layer, and sandy part of the
subsoil; slow or very slow in the loamy part of the
subsoil; and moderately rapid or rapid in the
substratum. The available water capacity is moderate in
the loamy part of the subsoil and low or very low in the


other layers. The organic matter content and natural
fertility are low.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation or
pasture. Some areas are used for citrus. Natural
vegetation is mainly grasses and scattered slash pine
and clumps of saw palmetto. Blue maidencane also
grows well.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. If water
control is adequate, however, it is suited to some
vegetable crops. A water-control system must remove
excess surface water rapidly and provide for irrigation.
Good management practices include crop rotations that
keep close-growing cover crops in the cropping system
three-fourths of the time. Growing cover crops and
maintaining crop residue help to control erosion.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the
rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to
the needs of the crop.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It is suitable if a water-control system is used to
maintain the high water table at a depth of about 4 to 6
feet and to provide subsurface irrigation. The trees
need to be planted on beds, and a close-growing plant
cover should be maintained between the rows. Regular
applications of fertilizer are needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they
are well managed. Water-control measures are needed
to remove excess surface water after periods of heavy
rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed, and grazing should be controlled to prevent
overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The equipment use limitation and seedling
mortality are the main concerns in management. South
Florida slash pine is the preferred tree to plant.
The sandy texture and the high water table are
severe limitations affecting urban and recreational uses.
A water-control system is required. Fill material that is 3
feet or more thick or ditches that remove excess
surface water rapidly are also required. Septic tank
absorption fields do not function adequately unless the
water table is lowered or fill material is added. The
sandy texture and the high water table are severe
limitations affecting sites for sanitary landfills. Because
cutbanks caving is a hazard in shallow excavations,
shoring of side slopes is required.
The capability subclass is IVw.

9-Riviera fine sand. This poorly drained soil is in
sloughs on broad flatwoods. Areas of this soil are








Hendry County, Florida


irregular and elongated in shape and range from 5 to
500 acres. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray fine sand
surface layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 26 inches is fine sand. It is gray in
the upper part and light gray in the lower part. The
subsoil to a depth of about 32 inches is gray sandy
loam that has vertical intrusions of light gray sand. It is
gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about 50 inches and
gray sandy loam to a depth of about 70 inches. The
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray
sandy clay loam that has a few calcium carbonate
fragments.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Gentry, Holopaw, Malabar, Pineda, and Winder
soils. Also included in areas near the Caloosahatchee
River are soils that are similar to the Riviera soil but are
moderately well drained. The included soils make up
less than 20 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Riviera soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
months in most years. During most of the remainder of
the year, the water table is between depths of 10 and
30 inches, and for short periods in dry seasons, it
recedes below a depth of 40 inches. Following periods
of prolonged, heavy rainfall, the water table in most
areas rises above the surface, resulting in sheet flow for
a week or more. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers, slow in the subsoil, and moderate or
moderately rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility and
organic matter content are low. The available water
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate in the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation,
which includes South Florida slash pine, cabbage palm,
waxmyrtle, blue maidencane, broomsedge bluestem,
pineland threeawn, cordgrass, panicums, and a variety
of sedges.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. If a water-
control system is used, it is well suited to many fruit and
vegetable crops. The system should remove excess
water rapidly and provide subsurface irrigation in dry
periods. Good soil management includes crop rotations
that keep close-growing cover crops in the cropping
system at least two-thirds of the time and use of crop
residue to protect the soil from erosion. Good seedbed
preparation includes bedding. Fertilizer should be
applied according to the needs of the crop.
If water control is adequate, this soil is suited to
citrus trees. The water-control system needs to maintain
good drainage to a depth of about 4 to 6 feet. Planting


citrus trees on beds provides good surface drainage. A
good close-growing plant cover is needed between the
trees to protect the soil from erosion when the trees are
young. Regular applications of fertilizer and occasional
applications of lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture and hay crops of
pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Excellent
pastures of grass or grass-clover mixtures can be
grown with good management. A simple drainage
system is needed to remove the excess surface water
in wet periods. Fertilizer and controlled grazing are
needed for highest yields.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high, but a water-control system is needed if the
potential productivity is to be realized. The equipment
use limitation, plant competition, and seedling mortality
are the main concerns in management. South Florida
slash pine is a recommended tree to plant.
The high water table is a severe limitation affecting
most urban and recreational uses.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

10-Pineda fine sand. This poorly drained soil is in
sloughs and on low flats in flatwood areas. Areas of this
soil are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 500
acres. Slopes are smooth to slightly convex and are 0
to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black fine sand surface layer
about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray and
light gray fine sand to a depth of about 14 inches. The
subsoil to a depth of about 30 inches is fine sand. It is
yellowish brown in the upper part and light yellowish
brown in the lower part. To a depth of about 50 inches,
it is gray sandy clay loam. The substratum is gray
sandy loam to a depth of about 60 inches and gray
sandy clay loam to a depth of about 75 inches. To a
depth of 80 inches, it is white sand that has about 50
percent calcium carbonate nodules.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Malabar, Riviera, Wabasso, and Winder soils. In
some places discontinuous limestone is at a depth of 60
to 80 inches. The included soils make up about 5 to 25
percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this soil has a high water
table within 10 inches of the surface for up to 6 months
in most years and between depths of 10 and 40 inches
for most of the remaining time. Some areas are covered
with shallow water for less than 1 month, and sheet flow
can occur. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer,
subsurface layer, and sandy part of the subsoil and
slow or very slow in the loamy part. The available water
capacity is low in the surface layer, subsurface layer,








Soil Survey


Figure 5.-Most areas of Pineda fine sand are used as native rangeland.


and sandy part of the subsoil and moderate in the
loamy part of the subsoil and in the substratum. Natural
fertility and the organic matter content are low.
Most areas of this soil are used for native range
(fig. 5). Some areas are used for pasture, citrus, or
vegetable crops. Natural vegetation is slash pine,
scattered saw palmetto, cabbage palm, waxmyrtle, blue
maidencane, broomsedge bluestem, pineland threeawn,
and many grasses.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
crops. If water control is adequate, it is well suited to
vegetable crops. The water-control system must remove
excess surface water and provide subsurface irrigation.
Good management includes crop rotations that keep
close-growing cover crops in the cropping system at
least two-thirds of the time. Using cover crops and


maintaining crop residue help to control erosion.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding. Fertilizer
should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
citrus, but if water control is adequate. it is well suited.
A water-control system needs to maintain the high
water table at a depth of about 4 to 6 feet. Planting
trees on beds lowers the effective depth of the water
table. A close-growing plant cover is needed between
the tree rows to protect the soil from erosion. Regular
applications of fertilizer are needed.
This soil is suited to pasture and hay crops of
pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Excellent
pastures of grass or grass-clover mixtures can be
grown if properly managed. A water-control system is
needed to remove excess surface water during wet








Hendry County, Florida


periods. Lime, fertilizer, and controlled grazing are
needed for highest yields.
The potential productivity is moderate for pine trees.
A water-control system is needed for highest yields.
The equipment use limitation and seedling mortality are
the main concerns in management. South Florida slash
pine is a recommended tree to plant.
The high water table is a severe limitation affecting
urban and recreational uses.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

12-Winder fine sand. This poorly drained soil is in
broad, low sloughs on flatwoods. Areas of this soil are
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 500 acres or
more. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray fine sand surface
layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 14 inches is light gray fine sand. The
subsoil extends to a depth of about 47 inches. In
sequence downward, it is sandy loam that has tongues
or vertical intrusions of fine sand from the subsurface
layer, gray sandy clay loam that has many brownish
yellow mottles, and gray sandy loam. The substratum to
a depth of 80 inches is stratified gray sandy loam and
sandy clay loam that contain calcium carbonate
nodules.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Gator, Gentry, Hallandale, Pineda, Riviera, and
Wabasso soils. The included soils make up less than 20
percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Winder soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 6 months
in most years. Permeability is slow in the subsoil and
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
substratum. The available water capacity is low in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. The organic matter content and natural fertility
are low.
Most areas of this soil are in native range or
improved pasture. Blue maidencane, a desirable forage
species, is one of the more abundant native grasses.
Overgrazing and excessive drainage result in the
replacement of blue maidencane by less palatable
sedges, rushes, and grasses, such as Florida threeawn,
pineland threeawn, broomsedge bluestem, and sand
cordgrass.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. If water
control is adequate, it is suited to many fruit and
vegetable crops. The water-control system must remove
excess water and provide subsurface irrigation. Crop


residue should be used to protect the soil from erosion.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding. Crops
respond to fertilizer.
If water control is adequate, this soil is well suited to
citrus. A water-control system needs to maintain good
drainage to a depth of about 4 to 6 feet. Planting citrus
trees on beds lowers the effective depth of the water
table. A good close-growing plant cover should be
maintained between the trees to protect the soil from
blowing in dry weather and from water erosion during
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture grasses, such as
pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clover. Good pastures of
grass or grass-clover mixtures can be grown if properly
managed. Controlled grazing and regular applications of
fertilizer are needed for highest yields. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after periods of heavy rainfall.
If surface drainage is adequate, this soil has high
potential for production of pine trees. Ditching is needed
to remove surface water, and the trees should be
planted on beds. The equipment use limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns
in management. South Florida slash pine is a
recommended tree to plant.
This soil is poorly suited to urban and recreational
uses because of the high water table and the sandy
texture. A water-control system is required. Fill material
that is 3 feet or more thick or ditches that remove
excess surface water are also required. Septic tank
absorption fields do not function adequately unless the
water table is lowered or fill material is added. The
sandy texture and the high water table are severe
limitations affecting sites for sanitary landfills. Because
cutbanks caving is a hazard in shallow excavations,
shoring of side slopes is required.
The capability subclass is III1w.

13-Gentry fine sand, depressional. This very
poorly drained soil is in marshes, swamps, and
depressions. Areas of this soil range from about 5 to 50
acres. The surface is slightly concave, and slopes are
less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a fine sand surface layer
about 22 inches thick. It is black in the upper part and
very dark gray in the lower part. The subsoil to a depth
of 75 inches is sandy clay loam. It is dark gray in the
upper part and gray sandy loam in the lower part. The
substratum is gray sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chobee, Delray, Gator, and Winder soils. Also included








Soil Survey


are soils that have a light colored subsurface layer. The
included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map
unit.
This Gentry soil is ponded for more than 6 months in
most years. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers, slow in the subsoil, and moderate in
the substratum. The available water capacity is
moderate, and natural fertility is medium.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation,
mainly maidencane, fireflags, pickerelweed, or cypress
and hardwood trees. Some areas of maidencane or
blue maidencane are used for grazing. Water for
livestock and other animals is available in most areas,
and many areas have high potential as habitat for
wildlife.
In its natural condition this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. The soil
generally is at the lowest landscape position and is
difficult to drain; however, if water control is adequate, it
is well suited to many vegetable crops. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding. Crops respond to
fertilizer.
Unless water control is intensive, this soil is not
suited to citrus. If water control is adequate and trees
are planted on beds, it is moderately suited to citrus.
The water-control system should maintain the high
water table at a depth of about 4 to 6 feet. Regular
applications of fertilizer are needed.
In its natural condition this soil is too wet for most
pasture grasses. If water control is adequate, improved
grasses and legumes can be grown.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees because
of the ponding. In some areas it is suited to cypress
production through natural regeneration.
The ponding is a severe limitation affecting urban
and recreational uses.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

14-Wabasso sand, limestone substratum. This
poorly drained soil is on flatwoods. It has discontinuous
beds of fractured limestone at a depth of 45 to 80
inches. Areas of this soil are elongated or irregular in
shape and range from 5 to more than 1,000 acres.
Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray sand surface
layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 25 inches is sand that is gray in the
upper part and light gray in the lower part. The subsoil
extends to a depth of about 45 inches. In sequence
downward, it is dark reddish brown sand that is well
coated with organic matter and brown sand and dark


grayish brown sandy clay loam that has yellowish
mottles. The subsoil is underlain by fractured angular
limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Gator, Gentry, Hallandale, Pineda, and Riviera
soils. Also included are soils that have an accumulation
of secondary carbonates. The included soils make up
10 to 25 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Wabasso soil has a
high water table within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to
4 months in most years. In dry periods the high water
table is at a depth of more than 40 inches. Permeability
is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, moderate
in the upper part of the subsoil, and slow in the lower
part of the subsoil. The available water capacity is low
in the sandy layers. The soil is drought during dry
periods. The organic matter content and natural fertility
are low.
In areas where water control is adequate and good
management practices are used, this soil is used for
specialty crops and improved pasture. In most places
the limestone bedrock is too deep to interfere with
common agricultural practices.
About half the acreage of this soil remains in native
vegetation, mainly an open forest of slash pine and a
thick understory of saw palmetto. Scattered cabbage
palm and live oak are common. Pineland threeawn is
the most abundant native grass. Other important range
grasses are creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
lopsided indiangrass, and panicums.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. If water
control is adequate and soil fertility is improved, it can
produce a variety of vegetable crops. The water-control
system should remove excess water during wet periods
and provide water during dry periods. Crops respond to
fertilizer. Crop residue should be used to protect the soil
from erosion. Seedbed preparation should include
bedding.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless intensive
management practices are used. A water-control
system is needed to maintain the high water table at a
depth of about 4 to 6 feet. Limestone can restrict the
construction of deep ditches and canals. Trees should
be planted on beds to lower the effective depth of the
water table, and fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture; however, water-
control measures are needed to remove excess surface
water after periods of heavy rainfall. Fertilizer and lime
are needed, and grazing should be controlled.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately








Hendry County, Florida


high. Seedling mortality and the equipment use
limitation are moderate. South Florida slash pine is a
recommended tree to plant.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development and
recreational uses because of the high water table and
the sandy texture. A water-control system is required.
Fill material that is 3 feet or more thick or ditches that
remove excess surface water rapidly are also required.
Septic tank absorption fields do not function adequately
unless the water table is lowered or fill material is
added. The sandy texture and the high water table are
severe limitations affecting sites for sanitary landfills.
Because cutbanks caving is a hazard in shallow
excavations, shoring of side slopes is required.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

15-Myakka sand. This poorly drained soil is on
broad flatwoods. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape
and range from 5 to more than 500 acres. Slopes are
less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray sand surface
layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 26 inches is gray sand. The subsoil to a
depth of about 60 inches is sand that is stained with
organic matter. It is black in the upper part and dark
brown in the lower part. The substratum to a depth of
80 inches is grayish brown sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Immokalee, Okeelanta, Oldsmar, Pompano,
and Valkaria soils. Also included are soils that have
discontinuous weathered limestone or carbonate gravel
and cobbles at a depth of more than 60 inches. The
included soils make up 10 to 25 percent of the map
unit.
Under natural conditions this Myakka soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 5
months and at a depth of more than 40 inches during
dry periods. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer,
subsurface layer, and substratum and moderate or
moderately rapid in the subsoil. The available water
capacity is moderate in the subsoil and low in the other
layers. The organic matter content and natural fertility
are low.
Most areas of this soil are native range or improved
pasture. Some areas are used for vegetables or citrus.
Natural vegetation consists of South Florida slash pine,
saw palmetto, and pineland threeawn. Important range
grasses are chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, and
lopsided indiangrass.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. The number of
suitable crops is limited unless intensive water-control


measures are used. If a water-control system is used,
the soil is suited to vegetable crops. The system should
remove excess water and provide irrigation. Good
management, in addition to water control, includes crop
rotations that keep close-growing, soil-improving crops
in the cropping system at least two-thirds of the time.
Cover crops and crop residue should be used to protect
the soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation should
include bedding. Crops respond to fertilizer and lime.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus trees because of
the wetness; however, if this soil is adequately drained
and well managed, citrus can be grown. A water-control
system needs to maintain the high water table at a
depth of about 4 to 6 feet. Trees should be planted on
beds to lower the effective depth of the water table. A
close-growing cover crop is needed between the tree
rows to protect the soil from blowing when dry and from
water erosion during periods of heavy rainfall. Lime,
fertilizer, and irrigation during periods of low rainfall are
needed to maximize yields.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if they
are well managed. Water-control measures are needed
to remove excess surface water after periods of heavy
rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed, and grazing should be controlled to maintain
healthy plants.
Potential productivity for pine trees is moderate. The
equipment use limitation and seedling mortality are the
main concerns in management. South Florida slash
pine is a recommended tree to plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture are
severe limitations for urban development and
recreational uses. A water-control system is required if
this soil is developed for urban or recreational uses. Fill
material that is 3 feet or more thick or ditches that
remove excess surface water are also required. Septic
tank absorption fields do not function adequately unless
the water table is lowered or fill material is added. The
sandy texture and the high water table are severe
limitations affecting sites for sanitary landfills. Because
cutbanks caving is a hazard in shallow excavations,
shoring of side slopes is required.
The capability subclass is IVw.

17-Basinger sand. This poorly drained soil is in
sloughs and poorly defined drainageways. Areas of this
soil are elongated or oval and range from 5 to 300
acres. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray sand surface
layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 25 inches is light brownish gray sand.








Soil Survey


The subsoil to a depth of about 50 inches is dark
yellowish brown sand. The substratum to a depth of 80
inches is light brownish gray sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Holopaw, Immokalee, Malabar, Myakka, Pompano, and
Valkaria soils. Also included are small areas of
Basinger soils that are ponded and a few areas of soils
that have limestone or loamy layers, or both, at a depth
of 60 to 80 inches. The included soils make up 10 to 25
percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Basinger soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6
months in most years and at a depth of less than 30
inches throughout the remainder of the year except
during long dry periods. Permeability is very rapid, and
the available water capacity is low or very low. The
organic matter content is moderately low or low, and
natural fertility is low.
Most areas of this soil are used as native range.
Some areas are in improved pasture. Natural vegetation
is mainly grasses, rushes, and sedges. Blue
maidencane is the most common range grass.
In its natural condition this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. If water
control is adequate, it is suited to many fruit and
vegetable crops. The water-control system must remove
excess surface water and provide subsurface irrigation.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding. Crops
respond to fertilizer.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless intensive
water-control measures are used. The water-control
system should maintain the high water table at a depth
of about 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds,
and lime and fertilizer should be applied as needed.
Where suitable drainage outlets are available, this
soil is well suited to pasture. Water control is needed to
remove surface water after periods of heavy rainfall. If
drainage is excessive, the soil becomes drought during
dry periods. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
are needed because of the rapid leaching through the
soil.
Potential productivity is moderate for pine trees if
surface drainage is adequate. Bedding and shallow
ditches are required in most areas. The equipment use
limitation, seedling mortality, plant competition, the
erosion hazard, and windthrow are concerns in
management. Slash pine is the best tree to plant.
A water-control system is required if this soil is
developed for urban or recreational uses. Fill material
that is 3 feet or more thick or ditches that remove
excess surface water are required. Septic tank
absorption fields do not function adequately unless the


water table is lowered or fill material is added. The
sandy texture and the high water table are severe
limitations affecting sites for sanitary landfills. Because
cutbanks caving is a hazard in shallow excavations,
shoring of side slopes is required.
The capability subclass is IVw.

18-Pompano sand. This poorly drained soil is in
sloughs and on broad, low flats. Areas of this soil are
elongated or irregular in shape and range from 5 to 500
acres. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray sand surface layer
about 6 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth
of about 80 inches is sand. It is light gray in the upper
part and light brownish gray in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Hallandale, Holopaw, Immokalee, and
Valkaria soils. Also included are areas of soils that have
discontinuous limestone at a depth of 60 to 80 inches.
The included soils make up 15 to 25 percent of the map
unit.
Under natural conditions this Pompano soil has a
high water table within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to
6 months and within a depth of 30 inches for 9 months
or more in most years. After periods of heavy rainfall,
many areas have shallow water on the surface for a few
days. The organic matter content and natural fertility are
low. The available water capacity is very low.
Permeability is very rapid.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation or
improved pasture. Natural vegetation is mostly grass
and grasslike rushes and sedges. Scattered slash pine
and cabbage palm are in several areas. Blue
maidencane is the common forage grass.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness and low
fertility. The number of suitable crops is limited unless
very intensive management practices are followed. With
good water-control and soil-improving measures, the
soil is suited to many vegetable crops. The water-
control system needs to remove excess water in wet
periods and provide water through subsurface irrigation
in dry periods. Row crops should be rotated with close-
growing, soil-improving crops that remain on the land
three-fourths of the time. All crop residue should be
plowed under. Seedbed preparation should include
bedding. Crops respond to fertilizer.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
citrus, but citrus can be grown if a water-control system
is installed that maintains the high water table at a
depth of about 4 to 6 feet. The trees should be planted
on beds to lower the effective depth of the water table,


I .








Hendry County, Florida


and a plant cover should be maintained between the
trees. Fertilizer and lime are needed.
If adequate surface drainage is available, this soil is
moderately suited to pasture. The high water table
should be maintained near the surface because the soil
is drought during dry periods. Fertilizer and lime leach
easily, and regular applications of both are needed.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate,
but excess surface water must be removed before the
potential can be reached. The equipment use limitation
and seedling mortality are the main concerns in
management. South Florida slash pine is the best tree
to plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture are
severe limitations affecting urban and recreational uses.
A water-control system is required. Fill material that is 3
feet or more thick or ditches that remove excess
surface water are required. Septic tank absorption fields
do not function adequately unless the water table is
lowered or fill material is added. The sandy texture and
the high water table are severe limitations affecting
sites for sanitary landfills. Because cutbanks caving is a
hazard in shallow excavations, shoring of side slopes is
required.
The capability subclass is IVw.

19-Gator muck. This very poorly drained organic
soil is in marshes and swamps. Areas of this soil are
oval or elongated and range from 5 to 1,200 acres. The
surface is slightly concave, and slopes are less than 1
percent.
Typically, this soil has a black muck surface layer
about 32 inches thick. The underlying material is black
sandy loam to a depth of about 35 inches. To a depth
of 51 inches, it is gray sandy clay loam that contains
carbonate nodules.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Gentry, Okeelanta, Pahokee, and Terra Ceia soils and
some soils that have a muck surface layer that is less
than 16 inches thick. The included soils make up less
than 25 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Gator soil is saturated
except during prolonged droughts and is ponded by up
to a foot of water for at least 9 months during most
years. Permeability is rapid in the organic material and
moderate in the loamy material. The available water
capacity is very high in the organic material and
moderate in the loamy material. Natural fertility is
medium.
Most areas of this soil remain in their natural
condition, mostly freshwater marshes with sawgrass
(fig. 6), maidencane, sand cordgrass, pickerelweed, and


fireflags. Some areas are cypress swamps. Most areas
are useful for water retention and as habitat for wildlife.
Where maidencane is abundant, the areas provide good
grazing for livestock.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness, but with
adequate water control it is well suited to most
vegetable crops and sugarcane. A well designed and
maintained water-control system is needed. The system
should remove excess water when the soil is cultivated
and keep the soil saturated with water at other times.
Crops respond to fertilizer. Water-tolerant cover crops
should be kept on the land when it is not in use for row
crops. Crop residue should be left on the surface or
plowed under.
Most improved grasses and clovers grow well if water
control is adequate. High yields of pangolagrass,
bahiagrass, and white clover can be obtained. The
water-control system should maintain the high water
table near the surface to prevent subsidence of the
muck. Fertilizer that is high in potash, phosphorus, and
minor elements is needed. Grazing should be controlled
to permit maximum yields.
This soil is not suited to citrus or pine trees.
Ponding and the high content of organic matter are
severe limitations affecting urban and recreational uses.
The capability subclass is VIIw.

20-Okeelanta muck. This very poorly drained soil is
in depressions and broad freshwater marshes. Areas of
this soil are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 500
acres. The surface is slightly concave, and slopes are
less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black muck surface layer
about 35 inches thick. The underlying material to a
depth of about 60 inches is sand. It is very dark grayish
brown in the upper part and light brownish gray in the
lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Delray, Gator, Holopaw, Pahokee, Terra
Ceia, and Winder soils. Also included are areas of soils
that have discontinuous weathered limestone, a loamy
layer, or calcareous gravel and cobbles at a depth of 50
to 80 inches. The included soils make up less than 25
percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Okeelanta soil is
ponded for 6 to 12 months in most years. The high
water table is rarely at a depth of more than 10 inches.
Internal drainage is slow, but response to artificial
drainage is rapid. The available water capacity is very
high in the organic material. Permeability is rapid.
Natural fertility is medium, and the soil responds well to








Soil Survey


Figure 6.-Sawgrass grows on Gator muck in this freshwater marsh.


fertilizer. When drained, the soil subsides rapidly.
Most areas of this soil are in marshes and are used
as native range. They are also important for water
retention and wildlife habitat. Areas near Clewiston are
drained and used for sugarcane. Natural vegetation
consists of grasses, sedges, rushes, flags, smartweed,
and pickerelweed. Maidencane is abundant in the
marshes.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops. If water control is adequate, the soil is
well suited to many vegetable crops and sugarcane.
The water-control system needs to remove excess
water while crops are growing and keep the soil
saturated with water at all other times. Fertilizer
containing phosphate, potash, and minor elements is
needed. Lime is needed in some areas. Cover crops
should be maintained on the soil when row crops are
not being grown. Crop residue and cover crops help to
control erosion.


Most improved grasses and clovers grow well on this
soil if water control is adequate. High yields of
pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and white clover can be
obtained. Water control should maintain the water table
near the surface to prevent excessive oxidation of the
muck. Fertilizer that is high in potash. phosphorus, and
minor elements is needed. Grazing should be controlled
to permit maximum yields.
This soil is not suited to citrus or pine trees.
The high content of organic matter and the high
water table are severe limitations affecting urban and
recreational uses.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

21-Holopaw sand. This poorly drained soil is in
sloughs and low areas on flatwoods. Areas of this soil
are oval or elongated and range from 5 to 500 acres.
The surface is slightly concave, and slopes are less
than 2 percent.








Hendry County, Florida


Typically, this soil has a dark gray sand surface layer
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand to a
depth of about 48 inches. It is light brownish gray in the
upper part, light gray in the next part, and light brownish
gray in the lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about
65 inches is grayish brown sandy clay loam. The
substratum to a depth of 80 inches is grayish brown
sandy loam that has many carbonate nodules.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Boca, Gentry, Malabar, Oldsmar, Pineda, and
Riviera soils. Also included are soils that have
discontinuous limestone bedrock at a depth of 60 to 80
inches. The included soils make up as much as 25
percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Holopaw soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 6 months
in most years. Most areas have a thin layer of water on
the surface for several days following periods of heavy
rainfall and are subject to sheet flow. Permeability is
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil. The
organic matter content and natural fertility are low. The
available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are used as rangeland. Some
areas are used for improved pasture. Natural vegetation
is mostly grass and a few slash pine. Blue maidencane,
a desirable grass for range management, is common,
but when it is overgrazed, less palatable grasses, such
as sand cordgrass, pineland threeawn, and broomsedge
bluestem, generally are more abundant.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness and the thick,
sandy surface layer. If intensive management practices
are used to control water and improve soil fertility, a
variety of crops can be grown. The water-control system
should provide for irrigation during dry periods and
removal of water during wet periods. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding. Crops respond to
fertilizer.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. Citrus trees can be grown if a water-control
system maintains the high water table at a depth of
about 4 feet. The trees should be planted on beds.
Fertilizer and lime should be added as needed.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture if excess
surface water is removed; however, because the soil is
sandy and the available water capacity is low, the high
water table should be maintained near the surface.
Fertilizer and lime should be added when soil tests
indicate they are needed.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity


for pine trees; however, a water-control system is
needed to attain this potential. The equipment use
limitation and seedling mortality are the main concerns
in management. South Florida slash pine is the best
tree to plant.
This soil is poorly suited to urban and recreational
uses because of the high water table and the sandy
texture. A water-control system is required. Fill material
that is 3 feet or more thick or ditches that remove
excess surface water are also required. Septic tank
absorption fields do not function adequately unless the
water table is lowered or fill material is added. The
sandy texture and the high water table are severe
limitations affecting sites for sanitary landfills. Because
cutbanks caving is a hazard in shallow excavations,
shoring of side slopes is required.
The capability subclass is IVw.

22-Valkaria sand. This poorly drained soil is in
sloughs on broad flatwoods. Areas of this soil generally
are oval or elongated and range from 5 to 500 acres.
Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a sand surface layer about 10
inches thick. It is very dark gray in the upper part and
dark grayish brown in the lower part. The subsurface
layer to a depth of about 15 inches is light gray sand.
The subsoil to a depth of about 45 inches is sand. It is
very pale brown in the upper part, brownish yellow in
the next part, and brown in the lower part. The
substratum is light brownish gray sand to a depth of 80
inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Immokalee, Malabar, Myakka, Pineda, and
Pompano soils. The included soils make up 10 to 25
percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Valkaria soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 6 months
in most years. Water stands on the surface for a few
days following extended periods of heavy rainfall, and
the soil is subject to sheet flow. The high water table is
rarely at a depth of more than 30 inches. The organic
matter content and natural fertility are low. The
available water capacity is low in the surface layer,
subsurface layer, and subsoil and very low in the
substratum. Permeability is rapid.
Most areas of this soil are used as rangeland. Some
areas are used for improved pasture, vegetables, or
citrus. Natural vegetation consists of grasses, sedges,
and rushes. Blue maidencane, a desirable range grass,
grows well in areas that are properly managed.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the wetness. If water is controlled and soil fertility is








Soil Survey


improved, the soil is suited to many vegetable crops.
The water-control system must provide irrigation during
dry periods and remove excess water during wet
periods. Seedbed preparation should include bedding.
Crops respond to fertilizer.
Citrus can be grown if intensive management
practices are used. Water control is necessary. The
water-control system should maintain the high water
table at a depth of about 4 to 6 feet. The trees should
be planted on beds to help lower the effective depth of
the water table.
If adequate surface drainage is available, this soil is
well suited to pasture. The high water table should be
maintained near the surface because the soil is
drought during dry periods. Fertilizer and lime leach
easily, and regular applications of both are needed.
Potential productivity is moderate for pine trees if
adequate surface drainage is provided. Trees should be
planted on beds. The equipment use limitation, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are the main concerns
in management. South Florida slash pine is a
recommended tree to plant.
This soil is poorly suited to urban and recreational
uses because of the high water table and the sandy
texture. A water-control system is required. Fill material
that is 3 feet or more thick or ditches that remove
excess surface water rapidly are also required. Septic
tank absorption fields do not function adequately unless
the water table is lowered or fill material is added. The
sandy texture and the high water table are severe
limitations affecting sites for sanitary landfills. Because
cutbanks caving is a hazard in shallow excavations,
shoring of side slopes is required.
The capability subclass is IVw.

23-Hallandale sand. This poorly drained soil is on
flatwoods. Areas of this soil are elongated or irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 50 acres. Slopes are less
than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray sand surface layer
about 4 inches thick. The underlying material to a depth
of about 16 inches is brown sand. It is underlain by
hard, fractured limestone that has many solution basins
(fig. 7).
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Jupiter, Margate, Pineda, Riviera, and Wabasso
soils. The included soils make up less than 20 percent
of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Hallandale soil has a
high water table within 10 inches of the surface for 6
months in most years. The root zone is restricted by the
shallow depth to bedrock and the seasonal high water


table. The available water capacity is low. Permeability
is moderate or moderately rapid. The organic matter
content and natural fertility are low.
Most areas of this soil are in pasture or native range.
Natural vegetation consists of scattered slash pine,
cabbage palm, and clumps of saw palmetto with a
ground cover of grasses. In many areas the most
abundant grass is pineland threeawn. The more
desirable native range grasses are blue maidencane,
chalky bluestem, and panicums.
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops because
of the wetness and the shallow depth to bedrock. A
water-control system that removes excess surface
water and provides for irrigation is needed; however,
the shallow depth to bedrock interferes with the
construction of such a system.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus because of the
wetness and the shallow depth to bedrock. A water-
control system that maintains the high water table at a
depth of about 4 feet is needed; however, the shallow
depth to bedrock interferes with the construction of such
a system. It also interferes with the planting of citrus
trees.
This soil is well suited to pasture if excess surface
water is removed. Regular applications of fertilizer are
needed.
Potential productivity for pine trees is moderate. The
equipment use limitation and seedling mortality are
moderate. South Florida slash pine is a recommended
tree to plant.
The shallow depth to bedrock and the high water
table are severe limitations affecting urban and
recreational uses.
The capability subclass is IVw.

24-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
moderately well drained soil is on low, sandy ridges on
flatwoods. Areas range from 5 to 40 acres.
Typically, this soil has a gray fine sand surface layer
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of
about 40 inches is white fine sand. The subsoil to a
depth of about 65 inches is fine sand that is stained
with organic matter. It is dark reddish brown in the
upper part and dark brown in the lower part. The
substratum is very pale brown fine sand to a depth of
80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Immokalee, and Oldsmar soils. Also included
are areas of soils that have a weakly cemented to
strongly cemented subsoil. The included soils generally
make up about 5 to 25 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Pomello soil has a high








Hendry County, Florida


Figure 7.-Shallow limestone is exposed in a drainage ditch in Hallandale sand. The limestone generally is less than 3 feet thick and has
fractures and solution basins.


water table at a depth of 24 to 40 inches for about 1 to
4 months in most years. For the remainder of the year,
the high water table generally is at a depth of 40 to 60
inches. Permeability is moderately rapid in the subsoil
and rapid or very rapid in the other layers. The
available water capacity is low in the subsoil and very
low in the other layers. The organic matter content and
natural fertility are low.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation, but
they have limited use for native range. Natural
vegetation consists mostly of scattered scrub oak and
slash pine with a moderately thick undergrowth of saw
palmetto.
This soil is not suited to most crops commonly
grown, and it is poorly suited to citrus. Only fair yields


can be obtained even if good management practices
are used. For highest yields, sprinkler irrigation is
recommended and lime and fertilizer are needed.
If good management practices are used, this soil is
fairly well suited to improved pasture grasses, such as
bahiagrass. It is not suited to clover. Droughtiness is a
limitation except during wet periods. Lime and fertilizer
are needed. Grazing should be controlled to permit
highest yields and to maintain ground cover.
The potential productivity is low for pine trees.
Seedling mortality, plant competition, and the equipment
use limitation are the major concerns in management.
South Florida slash pine and sand pine are preferred for
planting.
The sandy texture and the high water table are








Soil Survey


moderate or severe limitations affecting urban uses and
severe limitations affecting recreational uses. A water-
control system is required. Fill material that is 3 feet or
more thick or ditches that remove excess surface water
rapidly are also required. Septic tank absorption fields
do not function adequately unless the water table is
lowered or fill material is added. The sandy texture and
the high water table are severe limitations affecting
sites for sanitary landfills. Because cutbanks caving is a
hazard in shallow excavations, shoring of side slopes is
required.
The capability subclass is VIs.

26-Holopaw sand, limestone substratum. This
poorly drained soil is on broad, low flats and in poorly
defined drainageways. Areas of this soil are irregular in
shape and range from 5 to more than 500 acres.
Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark grayish brown sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 40 inches is sand. It is brown in the
upper part, pale brown in the next part, and light gray in
the lower part. The subsoil to a depth of about 45
inches is brown sand, and to a depth of about 60
inches, it is gray sandy loam that has calcium
carbonates. The subsoil is underlain by fractured
limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Boca, Delray, Malabar, Oldsmar, Pineda, and
Riviera soils. Also included are some areas of the
Malabar soils that have limestone at a depth of 60 to 80
inches. The included soils make up less than 25
percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Holopaw soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6
months in most years. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate or
moderately slow in the subsoil. The available water
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate or high in the subsoil. The organic matter
content and natural fertility are low.
Most areas of this soil are in improved pasture or
native range. Natural vegetation is mainly blue
maidencane and other grasses. Rushes, sedges, and
grasses, such as Florida threeawn, pineland threeawn,
broomsedge bluestem, and sand cordgrass, are also
included.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. If a water-
control system is used to remove excess water and
provide irrigation, many fruit and vegetable crops can


be grown. Cover crops or crop residue should be
maintained to prevent excessive erosion. Crops
respond well to fertilizer.
Good citrus production can be obtained if water
control is adequate. Drainage needs to be controlled to
a depth of about 4 to 6 feet. Citrus trees should be
planted on beds. Cover crops should be maintained
between rows to protect the soil from wind and water
erosion. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
The soil is well suited to pasture of pangolagrass,
bahiagrass, and clover. Fertilizer and controlled grazing
are necessary for consistently high yields. Water-control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after periods of heavy rainfall.
If surface drainage is adequate, this soil has
moderately high potential productivity for pine trees.
South Florida slash pine is a recommended tree to
plant.
This soil is poorly suited to urban and recreational
uses because of the high water table and the sandy
texture. A water-control system is required if this soil is
developed for urban or recreational uses. Fill material
that is 3 feet or more thick or ditches that remove
excess surface water are also required. Septic tank
absorption fields do not function adequately unless the
water table is lowered or fill material is added. The
sandy texture and the high water table are severe
limitations affecting sites for sanitary landfills. Because
cutbanks caving is a hazard in shallow excavations,
shoring of side slopes is required.
The capability subclass is IVw.

27-Riviera sand, limestone substratum. This
poorly drained soil is in sloughs on broad flatwoods.
Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and range from
about 5 to more than 500 acres. Slopes are less than 2
percent.
Typically, this soil has a black sand surface layer
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of
about 35 inches is light brownish gray sand. The subsoil
to a depth of about 50 inches is olive gray sandy loam.
It is underlain by fractured limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Gator, Gentry, Holopaw, Pineda. Wabasso. and
Winder soils. Included in a few areas are soils in which
sand grains in the subsurface layer are coated with
carbonates. Also included in areas along streams are
soils that are subject to flooding. The included soils
make up less than 25 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Riviera soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4








Hendry County, Florida


months during most years and at a depth of 10 to 30
inches for most of the remainder of the year. Following
periods of prolonged, heavy rainfall, the water table in
most areas rises above the surface for a week or more
and sheet flow occurs. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil.
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are low.
The available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
Native vegetation consists of blue maidencane,
pineland threeawn, broomsedge bluestem, rushes, and
sedges.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
vegetable or field crops because of the wetness. If
water control is adequate, however, it is well suited to
many crops grown in the area. The water-control
system must remove water quickly after periods of
heavy rainfall and provide irrigation during dry periods.
Soil-improving crops should be included in the crop
rotation. Fertilizer should be applied according to the
needs of the crop.
If water control is adequate, this soil is suited to
citrus. A water-control system needs to maintain good
drainage to a depth of about 4 to 6 feet. Planting trees
on beds lowers the effective depth of the water table.
Regular applications of fertilizer and occasional
applications of lime are needed.
If drained, this soil is suited to pasture and hay.
Shallow ditches are needed to remove excess surface
water following periods of heavy rainfall. Excellent
pastures of grass or grass-clover mixtures can be
grown if the soil is properly managed. Regular
applications of fertilizer and occasional applications of
lime are needed.
If surface drainage is adequate, this soil has
moderately high potential for pine trees. Trees should
be planted on beds. The equipment use limitation and
seedling mortality are the main concerns in
management. South Florida slash pine is a
recommended tree to plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture are
severe limitations affecting urban and recreational uses.
A water-control system is required. Fill material that is 3
feet or more thick or ditches that remove excess
surface water are also required. Septic tank absorption
fields do not function adequately unless the water table
is lowered or fill material is added. The sandy texture
and the high water table are severe limitations affecting
sites for sanitary landfills. Because cutbanks caving is a
hazard in shallow excavations, shoring of side slopes is
required.
The capability subclass is 111w.


28-Boca sand, depressional. This poorly drained
soil is in depressions on flatwoods. Areas of this soil
are oval, elongated, or irregular in shape and range
from 5 to 250 acres. The surface is slightly concave,
and slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray sand surface layer
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of
about 25 inches is sand. It is gray in the upper part and
light gray in the lower part. The subsoil is gray or light
brownish gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about 32
inches. The substratum to a depth of about 38 inches is
calcium carbonate and rock fragments. It is underlain by
limestone that has numerous fissures and solution
basins.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Gator, Hallandale, Holopaw, Malabar,
Okeelanta, Pineda, and Riviera soils. The included soils
make up about 20 to 25 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Boca soil is ponded for
3 to 6 months in most years. The high water table is
within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4 months in
most years. During extended dry periods, the water
table is below a depth of 38 inches. Permeability is
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate in the subsoil. The organic matter content and
natural fertility are low. The available water capacity is
low in the surface layer, very low in the subsurface
layer, and moderate in the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are used as native range. A
few areas are in improved pasture. Small marshy or
swampy areas are dominated by sawgrass,
maidencane, and cypress. Blue maidencane, creeping
bluestem, and chalky bluestem are important native
grasses for range management.
In its natural condition this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. Suitable
drainage outlets are not available in many areas.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees because
of the ponding and the wetness. In some areas it is
suited to cypress production through natural
regeneration.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

29-Oldsmar sand, limestone substratum. This
nearly level, poorly drained soil is in broad areas on
flatwoods. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
range from 5 to more than 1,000 acres.
Typically, this soil has a black sand surface layer
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of
about 38 inches is sand. It is dark gray in the upper part
and light gray in the lower part. The subsoil to a depth
of about 63 inches is sand that is very dark gray in the








Soil Survey


upper part, black in the next part, and dark brown in the
lower part. It is dark grayish brown sandy clay loam to a
depth of about 73 inches. The subsoil is underlain by
fractured limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Hallandale, Holopaw, Immokalee, Malabar, Riviera, and
Pineda soils. Also included are areas of soils that have
an accumulation of calcareous material. The included
soils make up less than 25 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Oldsmar soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for about 3
months in most years and at a depth of more than 40
inches during dry periods. Permeability is rapid in the
sandy surface and subsurface layers, moderately rapid
to moderately slow in the sandy part of the subsoil, and
slow or very slow in the loamy part of the subsoil. The
available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural
fertility and the organic matter content are low.
Most areas of this soil are in pasture or native range.
Some areas are used for crops or citrus. Natural
vegetation is South Florida slash pine, saw palmetto,
chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, lopsided
indiangrass, and pineland threeawn.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. If intensive
water-control measures are used, it is suited to a
variety of vegetable crops. The water-control system
should remove excess water in wet periods and provide
subsurface irrigation in dry periods. Good management
practices include close-growing, soil-improving crops in
the rotation and use of crop residue and cover crops to
protect the soil from erosion. Crops respond to fertilizer.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
citrus because of the wetness. If a drainage system is
used to maintain the high water table at a depth of
about 4 feet, citrus can be grown. The trees should be
planted on beds to lower the effective depth of the
water table, and a close-growing plant cover is needed
between the trees to protect the soil from erosion. Lime,
fertilizer, and supplemental irrigation during dry periods
are needed for maximum yields.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if properly
managed. A simple drainage system is needed to
remove excess surface water during periods of heavy
rainfall. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are
needed, and grazing should be controlled to maintain
healthy plants for best yields.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The major concerns in management are plant
competition, seedling mortality, and the equipment use


limitation. A simple drainage system is needed to
remove excess surface water. South Florida slash pine
is the preferred tree to plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture are
severe limitations affecting urban and recreational uses.
A water-control system is required. Fill material that is 3
feet or more thick or ditches that remove excess
surface water are also required. Septic tank absorption
fields do not function adequately unless the water table
is lowered or fill material is added. The sandy texture
and the high water table are severe limitations affecting
sites for sanitary landfills. Because cutbanks caving is a
hazard in shallow excavations, shoring of side slopes is
required.
The capability subclass is IVw.

32-Riviera sand, depressional. This poorly drained
soil is in depressions on flatwoods. Areas of this soil
generally are oval or elongated and range from 10 to
500 acres. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray sand surface
layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
gray fine sand to a depth of about 26 inches. It has
tongues or intrusions that extend into the subsoil. The
subsoil extends to a depth of about 70 inches. The
upper part is grayish brown, mottled sandy clay loam,
and the lower part is grayish brown sandy loam. The
substratum to a depth of 80 inches is gray sand that
has many shell fragments.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Gentry, Malabar, Pineda, Holopaw, and Winder
soils. Also included are areas of soils that have
discontinuous limestone bedrock or calcium carbonate
concretions at a depth of 60 to 80 inches. The included
soils make up as much as 40 percent of the map unit.
This Riviera soil has up to 24 inches of water ponded
on the surface for 4 to 6 months in most years. The
high water table is rarely more than 30 inches below the
surface. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate or moderately rapid in
the subsoil. The organic matter content and natural
fertility are low. The available water capacity is low in
the surface and subsurface layers, moderate in the
upper 10 inches of the subsoil, and low below that
depth.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation of
water-tolerant grasses, rushes, and sedges. Some
areas are in pasture. Blue maidencane, an important
forage grass, thrives, but it is replaced by less palatable
species if it is overgrazed. Waxmyrtle generally is along
the edge of the range areas. Queensdelight corkwoodd)
is common in the lower areas.








Hendry County, Florida


Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops, improved pasture grasses, or citrus. If
properly drained, however, it is suited to many
vegetable crops. A water-control system needs to
remove excess water when crops are on the land.
Fertilizer containing phosphate, potash, and minor
elements is needed. Crop residue should be plowed
under, and water-tolerant cover crops should remain on
the land when it is not being used for row crops.
Most improved grasses and clovers grow well on this
soil if water control is adequate. Fertilizer that is high in
potash, phosphorus, and minor elements is needed.
Grazing should be controlled for maximum yields.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees because
of the ponding and the wetness. In some areas it is
suited to cypress production through natural
regeneration.
The ponding is a severe limitation affecting urban
and recreational uses.
The capability subclass is VIIw.

33-Holopaw sand, depressional. This poorly
drained soil is in depressions on flatwoods. Areas of
this soil generally are rounded or oval and range from
10 to 200 acres. The surface is slightly concave, and
slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark grayish brown sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 65 inches is sand. It is very pale
brown in the upper part and light gray in the lower part.
The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches is light brownish
gray sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Riviera, Malabar, and Pineda soils. Also
included are areas of soils that have discontinuous
limestone at a depth of 60 to 80 inches. The included
soils make up about 25 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Holopaw soil is ponded
for 3 to 6 months or more in most years. The high water
table is rarely more than 30 inches below the surface.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil.
The organic matter content and natural fertility are low.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation.
Some areas are in improved pasture. The natural
vegetation is mostly water-tolerant grasses, sedges,
and rushes and scattered St. Johnswort. Cypress trees
are abundant in many areas. Blue maidencane, an
important forage grass, generally is abundant, but in
some areas less palatable species have increased
because of overgrazing or excessive drainage.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to


cultivated crops. If properly drained, however, it is
suited to many vegetable crops. A water-control system
should remove excess water and provide subsurface
irrigation. Crops respond to fertilizer. Crop residue
should be left on the surface or plowed under. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding. Water-tolerant
cover crops should be on the land when it is not being
used for row crops.
This soil is not suited to citrus.
Most improved grasses and clovers grow well on this
soil if water control is adequate. Fertilizer that is high in
potash, phosphorus, and minor elements is needed.
Grazing should be controlled for maximum yields.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees because
of the ponding and the wetness. In some areas it is
suited to cypress production through natural
regeneration.
A water-control system is required if this soil is
developed for urban or recreational uses. Fill material
that is 3 feet or more thick or ditches that remove
excess surface water are also required. Septic tank
absorption fields do not function adequately unless the
water table is lowered or fill material is added. The
sandy texture and the high water table are severe
limitations affecting sites for sanitary landfills. Because
cutbanks caving is a hazard in shallow excavations,
shoring of side slopes is required.
This soil is poorly suited to urban and recreational
uses because of the ponding and the sandy texture.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

34-Chobee fine sandy loam, limestone
substratum, depressional. This very poorly drained soil
is in swamps, marshes, and depressions. Areas of this
soil generally are oval or elongated and range from 5 to
300 acres. The surface generally is concave, and
slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black fine sandy loam
surface layer about 15 inches thick. The subsoil to a
depth of about 32 inches is light gray sandy clay loam.
The substratum to a depth of about 50 inches is light
brownish gray sandy clay loam. It is underlain by
limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Dania, Gator, Gentry, Jupiter, and Winder soils. Gator
and Dania soils are organic. Gentry soils have an
argillic horizon. Jupiter soils are sandy and have
limestone at a depth of less than 20 inches. Winder
soils do not have a mollic epipedon and are not
underlain by limestone. The included soils make up
about 15 to 25 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Chobee soil is ponded








Soil Survey


Figure 8.-In most years, water ponds in areas of Chobee fine sandy loam, limestone substratum, depressional. for up to 6 months.


for up to 6 months of the year (fig. 8). The high water
table is rarely at a depth of more than 20 inches.
Permeability is slow, and the available water capacity is
moderate. Natural fertility is medium.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation and
provide food and protection for various kinds of wildlife.
A few areas along streams and canals are drained and
used for improved pasture or citrus. Natural vegetation
in areas near streams is a forest of swamp hardwoods
and baldcypress. Other areas are marshes, most of
which have short sawgrass interspersed with other


hydrophytic plants. Maidencane. an excellent range
forage, is common in marshes.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
vegetables or field crops because of the wetness. Most
areas of the soil are on the lowest part of the landscape
and are difficult to drain. Even if drainage is adequate.
the loamy soil is difficult to cultivate because it is hard
when dry and soft and muddy when wet.
This soil is not suited to citrus because of the
ponding and poor physical properties.
If surface drainage is adequate. good yields of








Hendry County, Florida


improved pasture and hay crops can be produced. The
presence of calcareous material in the substrata
eliminates the need for repeated, heavy applications of
lime. The time for seedbed preparation and harvesting
largely depends on the moisture condition of the soil.
This soil is often too dry and hard or too wet and muddy
to be worked.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees because
of the ponding and wetness. In some areas it is suited
to cypress production through natural regeneration.
The wetness and the ponding are severe limitations
affecting urban and recreational uses.
The capability subclass is VIIw.

37-Tuscawilla fine sand. This nearly level, poorly
drained soil is on low-lying ridges and hammocks, which
generally are between sloughs and depressions on
flatwoods. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
range from 5 to more than 150 acres.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray fine sand surface
layer about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 8 inches is gray fine sand. The subsoil
extends to a depth of about 56 inches. It is dark grayish
brown sandy clay loam in the upper part; light gray,
calcareous sandy clay loam in the next part; and light
gray, calcareous fine sandy loam in the lower part. The
substratum is white, calcareous loamy fine sand to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Jupiter, Pineda, and Wabasso soils. Also
included are areas of soils in which the upper part of
the subsoil is thin and very dark gray or black, areas of
soils near the Caloosahatchee River that are not as wet
as the Tuscawilla soil, and areas of soils that have
carbonates in the upper part of the subsoil. The
included soils make up about 10 to 25 percent of the
map unit.
Under natural conditions this Tuscawilla soil has a
high water table within 12 inches of the surface for up
to 6 months in most years. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
substratum and subsoil. The organic matter content and
natural fertility are low. The available water capacity is
low in the surface and subsurface layers, moderate in
the subsoil, and low or moderate in the substratum.
Most areas of this soil are used as native rangeland.
Natural vegetation is slash pine, laurel oak, live oak,
cabbage palm, waxmyrtle, bluestem, and panicums.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. If a water-
control system is used to remove excess water and


provide subsurface irrigation, it is suited to many fruit
and vegetable crops. Crop residue should be used to
protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding. Crops respond to fertilizer.
If a water-control system maintains the high water
table at a depth of about 4 feet, this soil is well suited to
citrus. Trees should be planted on beds, and a plant
cover should be maintained between the trees to
protect the soil from erosion. Fertilizer should be
applied as needed.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture, such as
pangolagrass, improved bahiagrass, and white clover.
Water-control measures are needed to remove excess
surface water after periods of heavy rainfall. Regular
applications of fertilizer are needed, and grazing should
be managed to maintain healthy plants.
Potential productivity for pine trees is high. The major
concerns in management are plant competition, the
equipment limitation, and seedling mortality. Slash pine
is preferred for planting. A simple water-control system
is needed to remove excess surface water.
The high water table is a severe limitation affecting
urban and recreational development.
The capability subclass is Ill1w.

39-Udifluvents. This map unit consists of spoil
material that was piled along the Caloosahatchee River
when the waterway was dredged and widened. In
places the material was piled along the riverbanks, but
in other places it was pumped into rectangular areas
surrounded by a high retaining dike and a perimeter
canal. Areas of this map unit range from 5 to 300 acres.
Slopes are mostly less than 2 percent. The slope of
some narrow side slopes along dikes, excavations, and
riverbanks ranges to 60 percent or more.
In a representative pedon, these soils have a very
dark gray fine sand surface layer about 25 inches thick.
The underlying material is mixed or stratified light gray,
light brownish gray, or gray sand, sandy clay, and clay
or silty clay, loamy sand, sandy loam, sandy clay loam,
or sandy clay that contains fragments of shell,
limestone, or both. The composition of the material
varies from place to place and from layer to layer
depending upon the kind of material excavated and the
degree to which it was sorted upon deposition. Coarser
material, such as rock, shell, and sand, was
concentrated near the point of deposition; finer particles
of silt and clay remained suspended in the water and
were carried farther.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
soils in which the loamy overburden is less than 20








Soil Survey


inches thick and soils in which the layer of sand is up to
60 inches thick and generally is underlain by the typical
stratified loamy material.
Properties of the Udifluvents vary according to the
composition. This material is mostly well drained and
calcareous. In places where the clay content is high,
internal drainage is very slow and water stands in low
areas for several days following periods of heavy
rainfall. If the texture is clayey and rocks or shells are
few, the soil strength is too low to support heavy loads
or traffic when the soil is wet.
In most places the overburden is mounded as it was
originally deposited. Some places have been smoothed,
and others have been excavated to obtain material for
roads and fill. Riverfront houses are common along the
Caloosahatchee River. A golf course and marina at Port
La Belle are on this soil. A few areas are in improved
pasture and citrus. Natural vegetation is largely a thick
growth of Brazilian pepper and baccharis bushes.
Cabbage palms are dominant on a few of the older,
less disturbed spoil banks. In some places the
vegetation is weedy annuals and grasses.
This soil is highly variable. In some places soil
properties can be unsatisfactory for agricultural or
community development, and in others the properties
can be desirable for specific purposes. Detailed onsite
investigation should be conducted before the soil is
used for any purpose.
This map unit is not assigned a capability
classification.

42-Riviera sand, limestone substratum,
depressional. This poorly drained soil is near ponds
and in depressions. Areas of this soil generally are oval
or elongated and range from about 5 to 500 acres. The
surface is concave, and slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray sand surface
layer about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 32 inches is gray sand. The subsoil is
dark gray sandy clay loam to a depth of about 50
inches and gray sandy loam to a depth of about 58
inches. The substratum is calcareous sand, fine sand,
or loamy fine sand that has marl and shell or rock
fragments. Fractured limestone that has numerous
fissures and solution basins begins at a depth of about
60 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are Boca, Gator,
Gentry. Hallandale, Holopaw, Malabar, Pineda, and
Winder soils and some areas of soils that have a thin
mucky layer on the surface. The included soils make up
about 15 to 25 percent of the map unit.


Unless drained, this Riviera soil is ponded for 4 to 9
months in most years. During the remainder of the year,
the high water table generally is within 20 inches of the
surface. Permeability is rapid in the sandy surface and
subsurface layers, but water movement is impeded by
the high water table. Permeability is moderate or
moderately rapid in the subsoil. The available water
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation and
are used as habitat for wildlife or for water storage. The
vegetation is dominantly cypress or maidencane. Other
plants include arrowhead, blueflag. pickerelweed.
spikerush, sedges, rushes, and queensdelight. The
marshes where maidencane is abundant are valuable
as rangeland.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops or improved pasture grasses. Water
stands on the surface for long periods. Adequate
drainage is difficult to establish because in most places
suitable outlets are not available. The soil provides
watering places and feeding grounds for many species
of wading birds and other wetland wildlife.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees because
of the ponding and the wetness. It can be suited to
cypress production through natural regeneration.
The capability subclass is VIIw.

44-Jupiter fine sand. This poorly drained soil is in
hammocks and on low flats that border sloughs and
marshes. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
range from 5 to 50 acres. Slopes are less than 1
percent.
Typically, this soil has a fine sand surface layer
about 6 inches thick. It is black in the upper part and
very dark grayish brown in the lower part. This layer is
underlain by fractured limestone that contains numerous
crevices and solution basins.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Chobee, Gentry. Hallandale. and Oldsmar soils.
Also included are areas of soils that have bedrock at a
depth of less than 10 inches. areas of rock outcrop. and
areas of soils that have an accumulation of calcareous
material. The included soils make up about 15 to 30
percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Jupiter soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 4
months during most years and at a depth of 10 to 40
inches during dry periods. Permeability is rapid above
the bedrock. The limestone has sufficient fractures and
solution basins to permit water movement. The








Hendry County, Florida


Figure 9.-Most areas of Jupiter fine sand remain in natural vegetation of live oak and cabbage palm.


available water capacity is low or moderate. The
organic matter content is moderate, and natural fertility
is medium.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation and
provide forage and shelter for cattle and other animals.


Some areas are used for pasture and specialty crops.
Natural vegetation is live oak and cabbage palm (fig. 9).
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness and the
shallow depth to limestone. The limestone and the high








Soil Survey


water table severely limit root development. If water
control is adequate, the soil is suited to some vegetable
crops. The water-control system should be designed to
remove excess water; however, the limestone makes
such a system difficult to construct. Row crops should
be planted on beds and should be rotated with soil-
improving crops. Crop residue and soil-improving crops
should be used to protect the soil from erosion.
Fertilizer should be applied according to the needs of
the crop.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
citrus: however, citrus can be grown if water control and
intense management are provided. The water-control
system should maintain the high water table at a depth
of about 4 feet. Trees should be planted on beds, and a
plant cover should be maintained between the trees.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if
properly managed. A water-control system is needed to
remove excess water after periods of heavy rainfall.
Regular applications of fertilizer are needed, and
grazing should be controlled to prevent damage to
plants.
This soil has only moderate potential productivity for
pine trees even if a water-control system removes
excess surface water. Windthrow hazard and seedling
mortality are the main concerns in management. South
Florida slash pine is a recommended tree to plant.
The shallow depth to bedrock and the high water
table are severe limitations affecting urban and
recreational uses.
The capability subclass is IVw.

45-Pahokee muck. This very poorly drained organic
soil is in marshes and swamps. Areas of this soil vary in
shape and range from 5 to 500 acres. The surface is
slightly concave, and slopes are less than 1 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black muck surface layer
about 40 inches thick that is underlain by fractured
limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Dania, Gentry, Hallandale, Lauderhill, Margate,
Okeelanta, Riviera, Terra Ceia, and Winder soils. The
included soils make up less than 20 percent of the map
unit.
Under natural conditions this Pahokee soil is
saturated except during prolonged droughts. In most
years it is ponded for 6 to 12 months. Permeability is
rapid, but internal drainage is impeded by the high
water table. The available water capacity is very high.
Natural fertility is medium.


Some areas of this soil are in natural vegetation, but
large areas are drained and used for sugarcane.
vegetables, or pasture. Natural vegetation is mostly
sawgrass in marshes and a few small areas of cypress
swamp or willow thicket.
Unless drained, this soil is not suited to cultivated
crops. If water control is adequate, it is well suited to
most vegetable crops and sugarcane. The water-control
system should provide for the rapid removal of excess
water when crops are on the land. At other times the
soil should be kept saturated. Water-tolerant cover
crops should be on the land when it is not being used
for row crops. Fertilizer containing phosphate. potash.
and trace elements is needed.
This soil is not suited to citrus.
Most improved grasses and clovers grow well on this
soil if water control is adequate. The high water table
should be maintained near the surface to prevent
excessive subsidence of the organic material.
This soil is not suited to pine trees.
The ponding and the high content of organic matter
are severe limitations affecting urban and recreational
uses.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

47-Udorthents. This map unit consists of a
heterogeneous mixture of shell, marl. limestone, and
sandy and loamy materials left after excavation for
construction materials. Areas of this map unit generally
are rectangular and range from about 40 to 60 acres.
The surface generally is rough and irregular in shape.
and slopes are less than 5 percent.
Udorthents make up about 80 percent of most areas
of this map unit but range from 75 to 90 percent.
Typically, these soils to a depth of more than 40 inches
are grayish, calcareous, loamy material mixed with
sand, shell, and limestone fragments. In most places
the shell and rock fragments make up less than 35
percent of the volume.
Included in mapping are areas in which the
overburden is less than 40 inches thick. Also included
are small areas that contain water. These inclusions
make up less than 20 percent of the map unit.
Properties of Udorthents vary within short distances.
These soils are alkaline. The organic matter content
and natural fertility are low.
Many areas of these soils are barren or have
vegetation in the early stages of succession.
Broomsedge bluestem. Brazilian pepper, and caesar
weed are common.
Without alteration, these soils are not suited to







Hendry County, Florida


agricultural uses, woodland, or urban development.
This map unit is not assigned a capability
classification.

49-Aquents, organic substratum. This map unit
consists of poorly drained soils that have been mixed by
land leveling or deep tillage. In most places it is a
heterogeneous mixture of soils that is used as fill for
low areas, such as depressions. The center of many
wet spots was deepened to create ponds, and the
excavated material was spread over the remaining area
to raise the surface level. Areas of these soils generally
are rectangular or oval and range from 5 to 50 acres. In
most places the surface has been smoothed. Slopes
are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the overburden consists of grayish brown
sandy clay loam that has pockets and streaks of black
to gray sand or loamy sand. The original soil is buried
at a depth of about 35 inches. It is black muck in the
upper part, black sand in the next part, and light
brownish gray sand in the lower part.
Included in mapping are small areas of Basinger,
Chobee, Gator, Okeelanta, Pompano, Riviera, and
Winder soils. In places the overburden is 10 inches
thick. The included soils rarely make up more than 15
percent of the map unit.
The physical and chemical properties of these soils
are extremely variable, often within short distances.
Natural fertility and organic matter content generally are
low. The high water table is variable but is at a depth of
10 to 40 inches for most of the year. Permeability is
estimated to be rapid throughout.
Most areas of these soils have been leveled for
cultivated crops.
This soil varies so widely in its physical and chemical
properties that the suitability for cultivated crops, citrus,
improved pasture, or woodland varies widely. Suitability
for these uses depends upon the thickness of the fill
and upon the source of the soil material used as fill.
The thickness of the fill material directly affects whether
or not a water-control system is required. Such soil
properties as natural fertility and availability of soil
moisture for plant use are also influenced by the kind of
soil material used for fill.
This map unit is not assigned a capability
classification.

50-Delray sand, depressional. This very poorly
drained soil is in swamps, marshes, and depressions.
Areas of this soil range from 10 to 500 acres. The
surface is concave, and slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a sand surface layer about 22


inches thick. It is black in the upper part and very dark
gray in the lower part. The subsurface layer to a depth
of about 50 inches is gray sand. The subsoil to a depth
of about 62 inches is dark grayish brown sandy clay
loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches is gray
loamy fine sand that contains fragments of calcareous
material.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Gentry, Holopaw, and Okeelanta soils and some soils
that have limestone at a depth of 40 to 80 inches. The
included soils make up less than 25 percent of the map
unit.
Under natural conditions this Delray soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 6 to 9
months in most years and is ponded for 2 to 6 months.
Internal drainage is slow because of the high water
table, but the response to artificial drainage is rapid.
The organic matter content is high. The available water
capacity is high in the surface layer, low in the
subsurface layer, and moderate in the subsoil.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and moderate or moderately rapid in the subsoil.
Natural fertility is medium, but response to fertilizer is
good.
Most areas of this soil are in natural vegetation.
Some areas are in improved pasture. Natural vegetation
in swamps is dominantly red maple, swampbay, laurel
oak, and cabbage palm. Maidencane and blue
maidencane generally are abundant in marshes.
Unless drained, this soil is not suited to cultivated
crops. If water control is adequate, it is well suited to
many locally important crops. A water-control system
should remove excess water rapidly during periods of
heavy rainfall. Additional important soil management
practices include good seedbed preparation, crop
rotations, and regular applications of fertilizer. Cover
crops should be rotated with row crops and should be
on the land two-thirds of the time. Crop residue should
be plowed under.
Unless drained, this soil is not suited to citrus. If
water control is adequate, it is moderately suited. The
trees should be planted on beds, and a close-growing
plant cover should be maintained between the trees.
Regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
This soil is too wet for most improved pasture
grasses and legumes. If water control is adequate, it is
well suited to such plants as pangolagrass, bahiagrass,
and clover. Simple drainage measures are needed to
remove excess surface water. Fertilizer and lime are
also needed. Grazing should be controlled to maintain
plant vigor for best yields.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees because







Soil Survey


of the ponding and the wetness. In some areas it is
suited to cypress production through natural
regeneration.
The high water table is a severe limitation affecting
most urban and recreational uses.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

51-Malabar fine sand, high. This poorly drained
soil is on broad flatwoods. Areas of this soil generally
are elongated or irregular in shape and range from 5 to
300 acres. The surface generally is slightly convex, and
slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray fine sand surface
layer about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a
depth of about 28 inches is fine sand. It is light gray in
the upper part and very pale brown in the lower part.
The subsoil extends to a depth of about 65 inches. In
sequence downward, it is yellowish brown fine sand;
very pale brown fine sand; grayish brown, mottled
sandy loam; and light gray, mottled sandy loam. The
substratum to a depth of 80 inches is a mixture of light
gray sand and shell fragments.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Holopaw, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Riviera soils.
Also included are a few areas of soils that have
weathered discontinuous limestone at a depth of 60 to.
80 inches and soils that have an accumulation of
secondary carbonates. The included soils make up less
than 25 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Malabar soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 3
months in most years and at a depth of more than 40
inches during dry periods. Permeability is rapid in the
surface layer, subsurface layer, and sandy part of the
subsoil and moderately slow in the loamy part of the
subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the
surface layer, subsurface layer, and sandy part of the
subsoil and moderate in the loamy part of the subsoil.
The organic matter content and natural fertility are low.
Most areas of this soil are used as native range.
Natural vegetation consists mostly of slash pine, saw
palmetto, cabbage palm, and live oak. Pineland
threeawn is an abundant ground cover.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. If water
control is adequate, it is suited to some vegetable
crops. A water-control system must remove excess
surface water rapidly and provide subsurface irrigation.
Good management practices include crop rotations that
keep close-growing cover crops in the cropping system
at least three-fourths of the time. Cover crops and crop
residue should be used to protect the soil from erosion


and to increase the content of organic matter. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding. Crops respond to
fertilizer and lime.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. If water control is adequate, citrus can be
produced. The water-control system must maintain the
high water table at a depth of about 4 to' 6 feet. Trees
should be planted on beds, and a close-growing cover
crop should be maintained between the rows. Regular
applications of fertilizer are needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrass, and white clover grow well if
properly managed. Water-control measures are needed
to remove excess surface water after periods of heavy
rainfall. Regular applications of lime and fertilizer are
needed, and grazing should be controlled to maintain
plant vigor for best yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for the
production of South Florida slash pine. The equipment
use limitation and seedling mortality are moderate.
South Florida slash pine is a recommended tree to
plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture are
severe limitations affecting urban and recreational uses.
A water-control system is required. Fill material that is 3
feet or more thick or ditches that remove excess
surface water are also required. Septic tank absorption
fields do not function adequately unless the water table
is lowered or fill material is added. The sandy texture
and the high water table are severe limitations affecting
sites for sanitary landfills. Because cutbanks caving is a
hazard in shallow excavations, shoring of side slopes is
required.
The capability subclass is IVw.

53-Adamsville fine sand. This somewhat poorly
drained soil is on low-lying ridges near La Belle. Areas
of this soil are slightly convex, irregular in shape, and
range from 40 to 100 acres or more. Slopes are 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray fine sand surface
layer about 5 inches thick. The underlying material to a
depth of 80 inches is fine sand. In sequence downward,
it is light gray, brown, light gray, and light brownish
gray. Mottles are in all layers between depths of 25 and
70 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are soils similar to
the Adamsville soil except they have loamy material and
shell fragments in the underlying material. Also included
are small areas of Holopaw, Oldsmar, and Pompano
soils. The included soils make up about :20 percent of
the map unit.








Hendry County, Florida


Under natural conditions this Adamsville soil has a
high water table at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6
months in most years. During dry periods the water
table is at a depth of more than 60 inches. Permeability
is rapid, and the available water capacity is low in the
surface layer and very low in the underlying material.
The organic matter content and natural fertility are low.
Most areas of this soil are used as native range.
Natural vegetation consists mostly of slash pine, saw
palmetto, cabbage palm, and live oak. Pineland
threeawn is an abundant ground cover.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness, droughtiness,
and low fertility. If a complete water-control system is
used to remove excess surface water and to provide
subsurface irrigation, the soil is suited to many fruit and
vegetable crops. Crop residue should be used to protect
the soil from erosion. Crops respond to lime and
fertilizer.
If a water-control system maintains the high water
table at a depth of about 4 feet, this soil is moderately
suited to citrus. Trees should be planted on beds, and a
plant cover should be maintained between trees to
protect the soil from erosion. Fertilizer and lime should
be applied as needed.
This soil is moderately well suited to improved
pasture, such as pangolagrass and bahiagrass. Simple
drainage is needed to remove excess surface water
during periods of heavy rainfall. Regular applications of
fertilizer are also needed. Grazing should be managed
to maintain healthy plants.
This soil has a moderately high potential for the
production of pine trees. The equipment use limitation
and seedling mortality are moderate. South Florida
slash pine is the most suitable tree to plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture are
moderate or severe limitations affecting most urban and
recreational uses. A water-control system is required if
this soil is developed for urban or recreational uses. Fill
material that is 3 feet or more thick or ditches that
remove excess surface water are also required. Septic
tank absorption fields do not function adequately unless
the water table is lowered or fill material is added. The
sandy texture and the high water table are severe
limitations affecting sites for sanitary landfills. Because
cutbanks caving is a hazard in shallow excavations,
shoring of side slopes is required.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

56-Terra Ceia muck. This very poorly drained,
organic soil is in freshwater marshes and swamps.
Areas of this soil range from 5 to more than 100 acres.


The surface is slightly concave, and slopes are less
than 1 percent.
Typically, this soil is black muck to a depth of 70
inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chobee, Gator, Gentry, Okeelanta, Riviera, Pahokee,
and Winder soils. The included soils make up about 10
to 15 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Terra Ceia soil is
ponded by as much as 12 inches of water for up to 6
months. The high water table is rarely more than 18
inches below the surface. Permeability is rapid, but
internal drainage is restricted by the high water table.
The available water capacity is very high. Natural
fertility is medium, and response to fertilizer is good.
Many areas of this soil are in natural vegetation,
such as sawgrass, pickerelweed, and maidencane.
Some large areas are drained and used for sugarcane,
vegetables, or pasture.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops unless very
intensive water-control measures are used. If water
control is adequate, it is well suited to a variety of
vegetable crops and to sugarcane. Fertilizer containing
phosphate, potash, and minor elements is needed.
When the land is not being used for crops, the soil
should be kept saturated to prevent excessive
subsidence of the muck.
This soil is not suited to citrus.
Most improved grasses and clover grow well if water
control is adequate. The high water table should be
maintained near the surface to prevent excessive
oxidation of this soil. Fertilizer that is high in
phosphorus, potash, and minor elements is needed.
This soil is not suited to pine trees.
The ponding is a severe limitation affecting urban
and recreational uses.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

57-Chobee fine sandy loam, depressional. This
very poorly drained soil is in marshes, swamps, and
depressions. Areas of this soil are elongated or oval
and range from 5 to 100 acres or more. The surface is
concave, and slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a black fine sandy loam
surface layer about 9 inches thick. The subsoil extends
to a depth of about 68 inches. It is gray fine sandy loam
in the upper part and light gray sandy clay loam in the
lower part. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches is
light gray fine sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Gator, Gentry, Riviera, and Winder soils and some soils
that have fractured limestone at a depth of 40 to 70







Soil Survey


inches. Also included in areas along the
Caloosahatchee River are some better drained soils.
The included soils make up about 10 to 25 percent of
the map unit.
This Chobee soil has a high water table within 10
inches of the surface for 3 to 6 months in most years
and is ponded for about 6 months in most years.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer,
slow in the subsoil, and moderately slow in the
substratum. The available water capacity is moderate.
Natural fertility is medium.
Most areas of this soil are used for native range and
wildlife habitat. Some areas are drained and used for
pasture or citrus. Natural vegetation generally is
sawgrass, maidencane, pickerelweed, and other
hydrophytic plants. Some areas have cypress, ash, and
red maple trees. Maidencane, an important range grass,
is in marshy areas.
Under natural conditions this soil is too wet for
cultivated crops. Drainage is difficult because the soil is
in a low landscape position and suitable drainage
outlets are not available. If water control and seedbed
preparation are adequate, a variety of vegetable crops
can be grown; however, some problems arise because
the fine textured, slowly permeable subsoil is near the
surface. The soil is hard when dry and plastic when
wet, and water can stand for long periods in ruts and
other low spots.
Unless drained, this soil is not suited to citrus. If
water control is adequate and trees are planted on
beds, it is moderately suited. Regular applications of
fertilizer and occasional applications of lime are needed.
This soil is too wet for improved pasture. A drainage
system is needed to remove surface water. If water
control is adequate, the soil is well suited to several
improved grasses and legumes.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees because
of the ponding and the wetness. Cypress can be grown
in some areas through natural regeneration.
The capability subclass is VIIw.

58-Oldsmar sand, depressional. This poorly
drained soil is in depressions on flatwoods. Areas of
this soil generally are round, oval, or irregular in shape
and range from about 5 to more than 200 acres. The
surface is slightly concave, and slopes are less than 2
percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray sand surface layer
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of
about 32 inches is light brownish gray sand. The subsoil
extends to a depth of about 65 inches. It is dark grayish


brown sand in the upper part and black sand in the next
part. The lower part is grayish brown sandy loam that
has pockets of sandy clay loam. The substratum to a
depth of 80 inches is brown fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Gentry, Gator, Holopaw, Malabar, Okeelanta,
and Riviera soils. Also included are soils that have a
thin muck surface layer and soils that have limestone at
a depth of more than 60 inches. The included soils
make up less than 25 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Oldsmar soil is ponded
for 3 to 9 months or more in most years. The high water
table is rarely at a depth of more than 24 inches.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers, rapid to moderately slow in the upper part of the
subsoil, slow in the lower part of the subsoil, and rapid
in the substratum. The organic matter content and
natural fertility are low. The available water capacity is
low in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate
in the subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are used as native range.
Natural vegetation consists mostly of maidencane,
bluestem, and St. Johnswort.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops; however, if water control is adequate,
it is suited to vegetable crops. The water-control system
must remove excess water in wet periods and provide
irrigation in dry periods. Crop rotations should keep
close-growing, soil-improving crops in the cropping
system three-fourths of the time. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
citrus. Even if management is intensive and water
control is adequate, it is only poorly suited.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
improved pasture; however, if a good water-control
system is used, good pasture of grass or grass-clover
mixtures can be grown. Controlled grazing and regular
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed for highest
yields.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees because
of the ponding and the wetness. In some areas, it is
suited to cypress production through natural
regeneration.
The ponding and the sandy texture are severe
limitations affecting urban development and recreational
uses.
The capability subclass is VIIw.

59-Winder fine sand, depressional. This nearly
level, poorly drained soil is in marshes and depressions







Hendry County, Florida


on flatwoods. Areas of this soil generally are round,
oval, or irregular in shape and range from 5 to more
than 1,000 acres.
Typically, this soil has a gray fine sand surface layer
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of
about 19 inches is very pale brown fine sand. The
subsoil to a depth of about 30 inches is light gray sandy
clay loam. The substratum to a depth of about 40
inches is greenish gray sandy clay loam that has a few
carbonate nodules. To a depth of about 60 inches, it is
light gray sandy clay loam, and to a depth of 80 inches,
it is greenish gray loamy sand that has more than 50
percent carbonate nodules.
Included with this soil in mapping are Boca, Gator,
Gentry, Okeelanta, and Riviera soils. Also included are
soils that have a thin muck surface layer and soils that
have discontinuous limestone at a depth of more than
60 inches. The included soils make up less than 25
percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Winder soil is ponded
for 3 to 9 months in most years. The high water table is
rarely at a depth of more than 24 inches. Permeability is
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, slow in the
subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. The organic matter
content and natural fertility are low. The available water
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers,
moderate in the subsoil, and low in the substratum.
Most areas of this soil are used as native range.
Natural vegetation is waxmyrtle, maidencane,
queensdelight, and sand cordgrass.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops; however, if water control is adequate,
it is suited to vegetable crops. The water-control system
must remove excess water rapidly and prevent ponding.
Cover crops and crop residue should be used to protect
the soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation should
include bedding. Crops respond to fertilizer.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
citrus; however, it is suited if a water-control system is
used that maintains good drainage to a depth of about
4 feet. Planting trees on beds lowers the effective depth
of the water table. A close-growing plant cover is
needed between the trees to protect the soil from
blowing when the trees are young. Regular applications
of fertilizer are also needed.
In its natural condition this soil is not suited to
improved pasture; however, if water control is adequate,
good pasture of improved grasses or grass-clover
mixtures can be grown. Controlled grazing and regular
applications of lime and fertilizer are required for
highest yields.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees because


of the ponding and the wetness. Cypress can be grown
in some areas through natural regeneration.
This soil is poorly suited to urban and recreational
uses because of the ponding and the sandy texture.
The capability subclass is VIIw.

60-Myakka sand, depressional. This poorly drained
soil is in depressions on flatwoods. Areas of this soil
generally are round, oval, or irregular in shape and
range from about 5 to more than 70 acres. The surface
is slightly concave, and slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark gray sand surface layer
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of
about 25 inches is sand. It is gray in the upper part and
light gray in the lower part. The subsoil to a depth of
about 60 inches is sand. It is black in the upper part
and dark brown in the lower part. The substratum to a
depth of 80 inches or more is brown sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Immokalee, Oldsmar, and Okeelanta soils.
Also included are soils that have a thin muck surface
layer and soils that have limestone at a depth of 60 to
80 inches. The included soils make up less than 25
percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Myakka soil is ponded
for 6 to 9 months in most years. The high water table is
rarely at a depth of more than 30 inches. Permeability is
rapid in the surface layer, subsurface layer, and
substratum and moderate or moderately rapid in the
subsoil. The available water capacity is low in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. The organic matter content and natural fertility
are low.
Most areas of this soil are used as rangeland.
Natural vegetation consists mostly of maidencane,
bluestem, and St. Johnswort.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops; however, if water control is adequate,
it is suited to vegetable crops. The water-control system
must remove excess water rapidly. Good management
also includes keeping a close-growing cover crop in the
crop rotation. This cover crop and crop residue help to
protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation
needs to include bedding. Fertilizer should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
citrus. It is only poorly suited even if management is
intense and water control is adequate.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
improved pasture; however, if water control is adequate,
good quality pasture of improved grasses or grass-
clover mixtures can be grown. Controlled grazing and







Soil Survey


regular applications of lime and fertilizer are needed for
highest yields.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees because
of the ponding and the wetness. In some areas it is
suited to cypress production through natural
regeneration.
The ponding is a severe limitation affecting urban
and recreational development.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

61-Malabar sand, depressional. This poorly
drained soil is in depressions on flatwoods. Areas are
oval, elongated, or irregular in shape and range from 5
to more than 200 acres. The surface is smooth to
concave, and slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a dark grayish brown sand
surface layer about 1 inch thick. The subsurface layer
to a depth of about 11 inches is light brownish gray
sand. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 70
inches. It is very pale brown sand in the upper part,
light brownish gray sand in the next part, and grayish
brown sandy loam in the lower part. The substratum to
a depth of about 80 inches is gray sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Gator, Holopaw, Okeelanta, Pineda, Riviera, and
Valkaria soils. Also included are soils similar to Malabar
soils except they have discontinuous limestone at a
depth of 60 to 80 inches. The included soils make up
less than 25 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Malabar soil is ponded
for 3 to 6 months in most years. The high water table is
rarely more than 30 inches below the surface.
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, subsurface
layer, and upper part of the subsoil; slow in the lower
part of the subsoil; and moderately rapid or rapid in the
substratum. The organic matter content and natural
fertility are low. The available water capacity is low in
the surface layer, subsurface layer, and upper part of
the subsoil and moderate in the lower part of the
subsoil.
Most areas of this soil are used as native range.
Natural vegetation is St. Johnswort, maidencane, sand
cordgrass, and other water-tolerant grasses. Some
areas have dense to scattered stands of cypress.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops; however, if water control is adequate,
it is suited to vegetable crops. The water-control system
must remove excess water rapidly and provide for
irrigation during dry periods. Good management also
includes crop rotations that keep close-growing cover
crops in the cropping system at least two-thirds of the
time. These cover crops and crop residue help to


protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding. Fertilizer should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
citrus; however, citrus can be grown if a water-control
system is used that maintains the high water table at a
depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees on beds lowers the
effective depth of the water table. A close-growing
cover crop is needed between the trees to protect the
soil from blowing when the trees are young. Regular
applications of fertilizer are needed.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
improved pasture; however, if water control is adequate,
good quality pasture of improved grasses or grass-
clover mixtures can be grown. Controlled grazing and
regular applications of fertilizer are needed for highest
yields.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees because
of the ponding and the wetness. Cypress can be grown
in some areas through natural regeneration.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

62-Pineda sand, depressional. This poorly drained
soil is in depressions on flatwoods. Areas of this soil
are oval, elongated, or irregular in shape and range
from 5 to 150 acres. The surface is slightly concave,
and slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil has a light gray sand surface layer
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a depth of
about 14 inches is very pale brown sand. The subsoil is
brownish yellow sand to a depth of about 24 inches and
gray sandy loam to a depth of about 42 inches. The
substratum is gray sand to a depth of about 50 inches,
greenish gray loamy sand to a depth of about 75
inches, and greenish gray sand to a depth of 80 inches
or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Chobee, Gator, Holopaw, Malabar, Okeelanta,
Riviera, and Valkaria soils. Also included are soils
similar to the Pineda soil except they have
discontinuous limestone at a depth of 60 to 80 inches.
The included soils make up less than 25 percent of the
map unit.
Under natural conditions this Pineda soil is ponded
for 3 to 6 months in most years. The high water table is
rarely more than 30 inches below the surface.
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer, subsurface
layer, and upper part of the subsoil; slow in the lower
part of the subsoil, and moderately rapid in the
substratum. The organic matter content and natural
fertility are low. The available water capacity is low in
the surface layer, subsurface layer, and upper part of








Hendry County, Florida


the subsoil; moderate in the lower part of the subsoil;
and low in the substratum.
Most areas of this soil are used as native range.
Natural vegetation is St. Johnswort, maidencane, and
sand cordgrass. Some areas have dense to scattered
stands of cypress trees.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops because of the ponding; however, if a
good water-control system is used, it is suited to
vegetable crops. The system must remove excess
water in wet periods. Row crops should be rotated with
close-growing, soil-improving crops. The soil-improving
crops need to be in the rotation three-fourths of the
time. Crop residue and soil-improving crops help to
protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding. Crops respond to fertilizer.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
citrus trees; however, citrus can be grown if a water-
control system that maintains good drainage to a depth
of about 4 feet is installed. Planting the trees on beds
also lowers the effective depth of the water table. When
the trees are young, a close-growing plant cover is
needed between the trees to protect them from blowing
soil. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
Under natural conditions this Pineda soil is not suited
to improved pasture; however, if water control is
adequate, good quality pasture of improved grasses or
grass-clover mixtures can be grown. Controlled grazing
and regular applications of lime and fertilizer are
needed for highest yields.
This soil generally is not suited to pine trees because
of the ponding and the wetness. Cypress can be grown
in some areas through natural regeneration.
The ponding is a severe limitation affecting urban
and recreational uses.
The capability subclass is Vllw.

63-Jupiter-Ochopee-Rock outcrop complex. This
map unit consists of areas of nearly level, poorly
drained Jupiter and Ochopee soils and bedrock
outcrops on broad, low-lying, grassy prairies in
southeastern Hendry County. The areas are irregular in
shape and range from 20 to 250 acres or more. They
are about 50 percent Jupiter soil, 25 percent Ochopee
soil, 15 percent Rock outcrop, and 10 percent other
soils. The soils and the Rock outcrop are in too
complex a pattern to be mapped separately at the
selected scale.
Typically, the Jupiter soil has a black fine sand
surface layer about 6 inches thick. The subsoil to a
depth of about 14 inches is dark grayish brown fine
sand. It is underlain by fractured limestone.


Typically, the Ochopee soil is fine sandy loam to a
depth of about 10 inches. It is dark grayish brown in the
upper part and brown in the lower part. Limestone
bedrock is at a depth of about 10 inches.
The Rock outcrop part of this map unit is hard,
fractured limestone.
Included in mapping are small areas of Boca,
Chobee, Margate, Pineda, Riviera, and Wabasso soils.
Under natural conditions this Jupiter soil has a high
water table within 10 inches of the surface for up to 6
months in most years. Permeability is rapid. The
organic matter content is moderate, and natural fertility
is medium.
Under natural conditions this Ochopee soil has a
high water table within 10 inches of the surface for up
to 6 months in most years. Permeability is moderately
rapid. The organic matter content and natural fertility
are low.
Most areas of this map unit are used as native range.
Natural vegetation is scattered slash pine, cabbage
palm, saw palmetto, pineland threeawn, blue
maidencane (fig. 10), chalky bluestem, and panicums.
The soils in this map unit are poorly suited to
vegetable crops because of the wetness and the
shallow depth to limestone. A water-control system is
needed to remove excess surface water and provide
subsurface irrigation; however, the shallow depth of
bedrock interferes with construction of such a system.
These soils are poorly suited to citrus because of the
wetness and the shallow depth to bedrock. A water-
control system is needed to maintain the high water
table at a depth of about 4 to 6 feet; however, the
shallow depth to bedrock interferes with the
construction of such a system. It also interferes with the
planting of trees.
If excess surface water is removed, these soils are
suited to pasture. Regular applications of lime and
fertilizer are needed.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderate.
The equipment use limitation is severe, and seedling
mortality is moderate. South Florida slash pine is a
recommended tree to plant.
The shallow depth to bedrock and the high water
table are severe limitations affecting urban and
recreational uses.
The capability subclass is IVw.

64-Hallandale sand, depressional. This very poorly
drained soil is in depressions on flatwoods. Areas of
this soil generally are round or oval and range from
about 5 to more than 20 acres. The surface is slightly
concave, and slopes are less than 2 percent.








Soil Survey


Figure 10.-Blue maidencane is one of the main native grasses grown in areas of the Jupiter-Ochopee-Rock outcrop complex.


Typically, this soil has a very dark gray sand surface
layer about 3 inches thick. The subsoil to a depth of
about 15 inches is sand. It is dark grayish brown in the
upper part and dark brown in the lower part. It is
underlain by hard limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Pineda, Pahokee, Riviera, and Winder soils. The
included soils make up less than 25 percent of the map
unit.
This Hallandale soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months in
most years. Permeability is moderately rapid or rapid,
and the available water capacity is low. The organic
matter content and natural fertility are low.
Most areas of this soil are used as range. Natural
vegetation is St. Johnswort, maidencane, panicums,
bluestem, and cypress.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to


cultivated crops. If a water-control system is used to
remove excess water, it is suited to a variety of
vegetable crops: however, the shallow depth to bedrock
interferes with the construction of such a system. Good
management includes close-growing cover crops in the
crop rotation. Crop residue should be returned to the
soil. Seedbed preparation should include bedding.
Fertilizer should be added as needed.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
citrus. It is poorly suited even if water control is
adequate.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
improved pasture: however, if water control is adequate.
good quality pasture of improved grasses or grass-
clover mixtures can be grown. Controlled grazing and
regular applications of lime or fertilizer are needed for
high yields.








Hendry County, Florida


The potential productivity is moderate for pine trees;
however, water control is needed. The equipment use
limitation and seedling mortality are concerns in
management. South Florida slash pine is a
recommended tree to plant.
This soil is poorly suited to most urban and
recreational uses because of the ponding and the
shallow depth to bedrock.
The capability subclass is VIIw.

65-Plantation muck. This nearly level, very poorly
drained soil is on broad, low-lying flats generally
adjacent to the Everglades. Areas of this soil are
predominantly fringes of organic soils and generally are
elongated. They range from 5 to more than 150 acres.
Typically, this soil has a black muck surface layer
about 12 inches thick. The next layer to a depth of
about 20 inches is black sand. The substratum to a
depth of about 39 inches is pale brown sand. It is
underlain by hard limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Boca, Hallandale, Margate, and Pahokee soils. The
included soils make up about 15 to 30 percent of the
map unit.
Under natural conditions this Plantation soil is
ponded for 1 to 2 months in most years. The high water
table is within 10 inches of the surface for 2 to 6
months and within 20 inches the rest of the year.
Permeability is rapid, and the available water capacity is
very high in the organic material and low in the mineral
material. The organic matter content is high, and natural
fertility is medium.
Most areas of this soil are in improved pasture. Some
areas are used as rangeland or cropland. The plant
cover is mainly improved pasture or sugarcane.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. If water
control is adequate, sugarcane and many vegetable
crops can be grown. Crop residue should be returned to
the soil to reduce oxidation. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding. Crops respond to fertilizer.
Even if water control is adequate, this soil is poorly
suited to citrus.
If water control is adequate, this soil is well suited to
pasture of improved grasses and clover. Lime and
fertilizer should be applied according to plant needs,
and controlled grazing is needed to maintain healthy
plants.
This soil is poorly suited to pine trees even if water
control is adequate.
This soil is poorly suited to urban and recreational


uses because of the high water table and the high
content of organic matter.
The capability subclass is IVw.

66-Margate sand. This nearly level, poorly drained
soil is on low-lying flats and in sloughs adjacent to the
Everglades. Areas of this soil are elongated and
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 250 acres or
more.
Typically, this soil has a black sand surface layer
about 10 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a depth
of about 18 inches is brown sand. The subsoil to a
depth of about 24 inches is pale brown sand. The
substratum is light yellowish brown gravelly sand to a
depth of about 30 inches. It is underlain by hard
limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pahokee and Hallandale soils. The included soils make
up about 10 to 15 percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Margate soil is ponded
for about 7 months during most years. The high water
table is rarely at a depth of more than 24 inches.
Permeability is rapid. The organic matter content and
natural fertility are low. The available water capacity is
low in the surface layer, very low in the subsurface
layer and the subsoil, and low in the substratum.
Most areas of this soil are in improved pasture or
cropland.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. If water
control is adequate, it is suited to cultivation. The water-
control system must remove excess surface water and
provide subsurface irrigation. Crop residue should be
used to protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding. Crops respond to
fertilizer.
If a water-control system maintains the high water
table at a depth of about 4 feet, this soil is suited to
citrus. Trees should be planted on beds, and a cover
crop should be maintained between the trees to protect
the soil from erosion. Fertilizer should be applied as
needed.
This soil is well suited to pasture. Improved
bahiagrass or grass-clover mixtures grow well if
properly managed. Water-control measures are needed
to remove the excess surface water after periods of
heavy rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer are
needed, and grazing should be managed to maintain
healthy plants.
This soil is not suited to pine trees even if a water-
control system is used.








Soil Survey


This soil is poorly suited to urban and recreational
uses because of the ponding and the sandy texture.
The capability subclass is IVw.

67-Lauderhill muck. This very poorly drained soil is
mainly in the Everglades. Areas of this soil are irregular
in shape and range from 5 to more than 500 acres.
Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, this soil is muck to a depth of about 35
inches. It is black to a depth of about 24 inches, dark
reddish brown to a depth of about 31 inches, and black
below that depth. It is underlain by hard limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Gator, Margate, Okeelanta, Pahokee, Plantation, and
Terra Ceia soils. The included soils make up about 25
percent of the map unit.
Under natural conditions this Lauderhill soil is ponded
for 6 to 12 months during most years. The high water
table is rarely at a depth of more than 10 inches.
Permeability is rapid, and the available water capacity is
very high in the muck. Natural fertility is medium. The
organic matter content is high. Subsidence of the muck
occurs if the soil is drained.
Most areas of this soil are drained and used for
sugarcane or vegetable crops. Some areas are in
improved pasture or native range. Natural vegetation is
sawgrass, pickerelweed, flags, rushes, sedges, willow,
and elder.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops. If water control is adequate, sugarcane
and many vegetable crops can be grown. Crops
respond to fertilizer. Cover crops and crop residue help
to protect the soil from erosion. The soil should be kept
saturated when crops are not being grown to reduce
subsidence of the muck.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus even if water
control is adequate.
If water control is adequate, this soil is well suited to
pastures of grass and grass-clover mixtures. Regular
applications of fertilizer are needed. Grazing should be
managed to permit maximum yields.
This soil is not suited to pine trees.
The high content of organic matter, the high water
table, and the depth to bedrock are severe limitations
affecting urban and recreational uses.
The capability subclass is IIIw.

68-Dania muck. This nearly level, very poorly
drained soil is in marshes along the edge of the
Everglades.
Typically, this soil is muck to a depth of about 14
inches. It is black in the upper part and dark reddish


brown in the lower part. The underlying material to a
depth of about 18 inches is very dark gray fine sand. It
is underlain by hard limestone.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Lauderhill, Margate, Pahokee, and Plantation soils. The
included soils make up less than 25 percent of the map
unit.
Under natural conditions this Dania soil is ponded for
6 to 12 months during most years. The high water table
is rarely at a depth of more than 10 inches. Permeability
is rapid in the muck and moderate in the underlying
material. Natural fertility is medium. The organic matter
content is high. Subsidence of the muck occurs if the
soil is drained.
Most areas of this soil are drained and used for
sugarcane or pasture. Natural vegetation is sawgrass,
maidencane, willow, and elder.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness and the
shallow depth to bedrock. If water control is adequate, it
is suited to sugarcane and improved pasture; however,
the shallow depth to limestone interferes with the
construction of a drainage system. If the soil is flooded,
it is protected from excess subsidence.
This soil is not suited to citrus.
If water control is adequate, this soil is suited to hay
and pasture crops of grass and grass-clover mixture.
Fertilizer is needed.
This soil is not suited to pine trees.
The high content of organic matter, the high water
table, and the shallow depth to bedrock are severe
limitations affecting urban and recreational uses.
The capability subclass is Vw.

69-Denaud-Gator mucks. This map unit consists of
very poorly drained soils in depressions along the edge
of the Everglades. Areas of these soils are oval or
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 30 acres. Slopes
are less than 2 percent. The areas are about 50 percent
Denaud soil, 25 percent Gator soil, and 25 percent
other soils. These soils are in too complex a pattern to
be mapped separately at the selected scale.
Typically, the Denaud soil has a black muck surface
layer about 11 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
black fine sand to a depth of about 20 inches and dark
gray fine sand to a depth of about 23 inches. The
underlying material to a depth of about 42 inches is
gray fine sandy loam. To a depth of 80 inches, it is light
gray gravelly fine sand that has shell and calcareous
concretions.
Typically, the Gator soil has a black muck surface
layer about 32 inches thick. The subsurface layer to a








Hendry County, Florida


depth of about 35 inches is black sandy loam. The
underlying material to a depth of 51 inches is gray
sandy clay loam. Calcium carbonate nodules are in the
lower part of the underlying material.
Included with these soils in mapping are small areas
of Basinger, Chobee, Delray, Gentry, Holopaw, Pineda,
Riviera, and Winder soils. Also included are some areas
of soils that have fractured discontinuous limestone.
These inclusions normally occur around the edge of the
delineations. Inclusions make up less than 25 percent
of the map unit.
Under natural conditions the Denaud and Gator soils
are ponded for 6 to 9 months in most years. The high
water table is rarely below a depth of 20 inches.
Permeability is rapid in the organic material of both soils
and in the subsurface layer of the Denaud soil. It is
moderate or moderately slow in the other layers of both
soils. The available water capacity is very high in the
organic material and high in the underlying material of
the Gator soil. In the Denaud soil, it is very high in the
surface layer, moderate or low in the subsurface layer,
and moderate in the underlying material.
Most areas of these soils are used for improved
pasture or wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation consists of
blue maidencane and sawgrass in the fringe areas and
fire flags, pickerelweed, pond lily, and willow in the
other areas. Baldcypress is along the edge of some
ponds.
Under natural conditions these soils are poorly suited
to cultivated crops because of the wetness. If water
control is adequate, some fruit and vegetable crops can
be grown. The water-control system must remove
excess water and provide irrigation. Crops respond well
to fertilizer.
These soils are not suited to citrus.
If water control is adequate, these soils are suited to
pasture. Fertilizer and controlled grazing are necessary
for consistently high yields.
These soils are not suited to pine trees.
The high water table and the muck surface layer are
severe limitations affecting most urban and recreational
uses.
The capability subclass is VIIw.

70-Denaud muck. This very poorly drained soil is
primarily in depressions along the edge of the
Everglades. Areas of this soil are oval or irregular in
shape and range from 5 to 30 acres. Slopes are less
than 2 percent.
Typically, the Denaud soil has a black muck surface
layer about 11 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
black fine sand to a depth of about 20 inches and dark


gray fine sand to a depth of about 23 inches. The
underlying material is gray fine sandy loam to a depth
of about 42 inches. To a depth of 80 inches, it is light
gray gravelly fine sand that has shell and calcareous
concretions.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Chobee, Delray, Gator, Gentry, Holopaw,
Pineda, Riviera, and Winder soils. Also included are
some areas of soils that have fractured discontinuous
limestone. Except for the Gator soils, which generally
occur in the center of the delineation, these inclusions
normally occur around the edge of the delineation.
These inclusions make up less than 25 percent of the
map unit.
Under natural conditions this Denaud soil is ponded
for 6 to 9 months in most years. The high water table is
rarely below a depth of 20 inches. Permeability is rapid
in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate or
moderately slow in the underlying material. The
available water capacity is very high in the surface
layer, moderate or low in the subsurface layer, and
moderate in the underlying material.
Most areas of this soil are used for improved pasture
or wildlife habitat. Natural vegetation consists of blue
maidencane, sawgrass, fire flags, pickerelweed, willow,
and baldcypress.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops because of the wetness. If water
control is adequate, some fruit and vegetable crops can
be grown. The water-control system must remove
excess water and provide irrigation. Crops respond well
to fertilizer.
This soil is not suited to citrus.
If water control is adequate, this soil is suited to
pasture. Fertilizer and controlled grazing are necessary
for consistently high yields.
This soil is not suited to pine trees.
The high water table and the muck surface layer are
severe limitations affecting most urban and recreational
uses.
The capability subclass is Illw.

73-Adamsville variant sand. This somewhat poorly
drained soil is on a low-lying ridge near Clewiston.
Areas of this soil are convex, long, and narrow and
range from 20 to 40 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 5
percent.
Typically, this soil has a very dark gray sand surface
layer about 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
underlying material to a depth of about 49 inches is
sand. It is light gray in the upper part, very dark grayish
brown in the next part, and white in the lower part. The











next layer to a depth of about 59 inches is black muck.
The lower part of the underlying material to a depth of
80 inches is pale brown sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Boca, Immokalee, and Margate soils. The
included soils make up less than 25 percent of the map
unit.
Under natural conditions this Adamsville soil has a
high water table at a depth of more than 30 inches
during most of the year. During dry periods, the water
table is at a depth of more than 60 inches. Permeability
is rapid, and the available water capacity is low in the
sandy layers and very high in the organic layer. Natural
fertility is low.
Some areas of this soil are in natural vegetation, and
others have been cleared and are used for homesites.
Natural vegetation includes cabbage palm, strangler fig,
cypress, shrubs, and ferns.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
cultivated crops. It is suited to a variety of vegetable
crops if a water-control system is used. The system
must remove excess water in wet periods and provide
irrigation in dry periods. Crop residue should be used to
protect the soil from erosion.
Under natural conditions this soil is not suited to
citrus; however, if a water-control system maintains the


high water table at a depth of about 4 to 6 feet, it is
moderately well suited. Trees should be planted on
beds, and a plant cover should be maintained between
tree rows to protect the soil from erosion. Fertilizer and
lime should be applied as needed.
This soil is moderately well suited to improved
pasture, such as pangolagrass and bahiagrass. A
water-control system is needed to remove excess water
after periods of heavy rainfall.
The potential productivity for pine trees is moderately
high. The equipment use limitation and seedling
mortality are moderate. South Florida slash pine is a
recommended tree to plant.
The high water table and the sandy texture are
moderate or severe limitations affecting most urban and
recreational uses. A water-control system is required if
this soil is developed for urban or recreational uses. Fill
material that is 3 feet or more thick or ditches that
remove excess surface water are also required. Septic
tank absorption fields do not function adequately unless
the water table is lowered or fill material is added. The
sandy texture and the high water table are also severe
limitations affecting sites for sanitary landfills. Because
cutbanks caving is a hazard in shallow excavations,
shoring of side slopes is required.
The capability subclass is IIIw.



















Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations of natural resources and the
environment. Also, it can help avoid soil-related failures
in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect
extensive field data about the nature and behavior
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on erosion,
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect
various soil uses and management. Field experience
and collected data on soil properties and performance
are used as a basis for predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary
facilities, highways and other transportation systems,
and parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife
habitat. It can be used to identify limitations of each soil
for specific land uses and to help prevent construction
failures caused by unfavorable soil properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the
survey area. The survey can help planners to maintain
or create a land use pattern that is in harmony with
nature.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
John D. Lawrence, conservation agronomist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture


is suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils are identified; the system of land
capability classification used by the Soil Conservation
Service is explained; and the estimated yields of the
main crops and hay and pasture plants are listed for
each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
About 310,000 acres in Hendry County was used for
crops and pasture according to the 1980 Census of
Agriculture. Of this total, 300,000 acres was used for
pasture and 10,000 acres was used for vegetables,
such as cucumbers, tomatoes, watermelons, peppers,
and smaller acres of squash, eggplant, sod, and citrus
nursery plants. In addition, about 325,000 acres was
used as native range, and more than 43,000 acres was
used for citrus. About 55,000 acres was used for
sugarcane.
The potential for increased food production in Hendry
County is good. In addition to the acres in pasture,
about 170,000 acres of potentially good cropland is
currently used as woodland. In addition to the reserve
capacity represented by land not now in farming, food
production could be increased considerably by
extending the latest crop production technology to all
cropland in the county. This soil survey can greatly
facilitate the application of such technology.
The acreage in crops, pasture, and woodland has
gradually been decreasing as more land is used for
urban development. In 1980, about 17,000 acres of
urban land or land being held for urbanization was in
the county. According to Extension Service estimates,
this acreage has increased about 10 percent per year
for the past 10 years. The use of this soil survey to help
make land use decisions that will influence the future
role of farming in the county is discussed in the section
"General Soil Map Units."
Because of major limitations, the soils in Hendry








Soil Survey


County do not meet the requirements for prime
farmland. The main management needs are measures
that help to control erosion and soil blowing, improve
drainage, and help to maintain fertility and tilth.
Soil erosion is not a major problem in Hendry County
because the dominant slope is less than 2 percent.
However, loss of the surface layer through erosion is
damaging because productivity is reduced as the
surface layer is lost and part of the subsoil is
incorporated into the plow layer and because soil
erosion on farmland also results in sediment entering
streams. Control of erosion minimizes the pollution of
streams by sediment and improves the quality of water
for municipal use, for recreation, and for fish and
wildlife.
Erosion control practices provide protective surface
cover, reduce runoff, and increase infiltration. Plant
cover on the soil for extended periods can hold soil
erosion losses to amounts that will not reduce the
productive capacity of the soil. On livestock farms that
require pasture and hay, the legume and grass forage
crops in the cropping system reduce erosion and also
provide nitrogen and improve tilth for the following crop.
Conservation tillage leaves crop residue on the soil
surface, which increases organic matter, infiltration, and
available water capacity. This practice can be adapted
to most of the soils in the survey area.
Wind erosion is a hazard on the sandy and organic
soils. It reduces soil fertility by removing finer textured
soil particles and organic matter; damages or destroys
crops by sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and
weed seeds; and creates health hazards and cleaning
problems. Control of wind erosion minimizes duststorms
and improves air quality for more healthful living
conditions.
Soil blowing can damage soils and tender crops in a
few hours in open, unprotected areas if the winds are
strong and the soil is dry and bare. Maintaining a plant
cover and surface mulch minimizes soil blowing.
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such
as Carolina laurelcherry, slash pine, southern redcedar,
and Japanese privet, and strip crops of small grains are
effective in reducing wind erosion and crop damage.
Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow plantings
made at right angles to the prevailing wind and at
specific intervals across the field. The intervals depend
on the erodibility of the soil and the susceptibility of the
crop to damage from sandblasting.
Information for the design of erosion control practices
for each kind of soil is in the "Erosion Control
Handbook-Florida," which is available in the local
office of the Soil Conservation Service.


Soil drainage is a major management concern on
much of the acreage used for crops and pasture in
Hendry County. Some soils are naturally so wet that the
production of crops common to the area generally is not
practical without artificial drainage. These soils are the
poorly drained soils (such as Basinger, Holopaw,
Immokalee, Malabar, Myakka, Margate, Oldsmar,
Pineda, Pompano, Riviera, Tuscawilla. Wabasso,
Winder, and Valkaria soils) and the very poorly drained
soils (such as Chobee, Dania, Denaud, IDelray, Gentry,
Okeelanta, Pahokee, Plantation, and Terra Ceia soils).
Many of these soils also have a low available water
capacity and are drought during dry periods. A
subsurface irrigation system is needed on these soils
for adequate crop and pasture production.
The design of both surface drainage systems and
subsurface irrigation systems varies with the kind of soil
and the pastures grown. A combination of these
systems is needed for intensive pasture production.
Information on the drainage and irrigation needed for
each kind of soil is in the Technical Guide available in
the local office of the Soil Conservation Service.
Soil fertility is naturally low on most soils in Hendry
County. Most of the soils have a strongly acid or very
strongly acid surface layer. If lime has not been added,
ground limestone is needed to raise the pH level
sufficiently for good growth of crops. Nitrogen.
potassium, and available phosphorus levels are
naturally low in most of these soils. Additions of lime
and fertilizer should be based on the results of soil
tests, the needs of the crop, and the expected level of
yields. The Cooperative Extension Service can help in
determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and lime
to apply.
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils that
have good tilth are granular and porous.
Many of the soils in the county have a sandy surface
layer that is light in color and that is low or moderate in
content of organic matter. The Chobee, Dania, Delray,
Gator, Gentry, Margate, Okeelanta, and Terra Ceia
soils, however, have a dark sandy, loamy, or organic
surface layer and are high in content of organic matter.
Generally, the structure of the surface layer of most
of the soils in the county is weak. Soils that have a low
content of organic matter form a slight crust following
intense rainfall. The crust is slightly hard when it is dry
and is slightly impervious to water. Once the crust
forms, it reduces infiltration and increases runoff.
Regular additions of crop residue, manure, and other
organic material can improve soil structure and
minimize crust formation.








Hendry County, Florida


Specialty crops grown commercially in Hendry County
are citrus, watermelons, cucumbers, peppers,
sugarcane, squash, eggplant, nursery plants, and sod.
The latest information and suggestions for growing
specialty crops can be obtained from local offices of the
Soil Conservation Service and the Cooperative
Extension Service.
Pastures in Hendry County are used to produce
forage for beef cattle. Cow-calf operations are the major
cattle systems. Bahiagrass is the major pasture plant.
Grass seeds could be harvested from bahiagrass for
improved pasture plantings as well as commercial
purposes. Stargrass is also grown for pasture. Excess
grass is harvested as hay during the summer for
feeding during the winter.
If the Basinger, Boca, Gentry, Holopaw, Immokalee,
Malabar, Myakka, Pineda, Riviera, and Wabasso soils
are drained, they are well suited to bahiagrass and
hemerthria grass pasture. Where subsurface irrigation is
used, the length of the growing season and total forage
production will increase. These soils are well suited to
legumes, such as white clover, if adequate lime and
fertilizer are added.
Pasture in some parts of the county is depleted by
continuous excessive grazing. Yields of pasture can be
increased by adding lime and fertilizer, including
legumes in the cropping system, irrigating, and using
other management practices. The amount and kind of
pasture yields are closely related to the kind of soil.
Proper management is based on the relationship of
soils, pasture plants, lime, fertilizer, and moisture.
Expected yields for bahiagrass under a high level of
management are shown in table 3.
The latest information and suggestions for growing
pasture can be obtained from local offices of the Soil
Conservation Service and the Cooperative Extension
Service.

Yields Per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management
are shown in table 3. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table
because of variations in rainfall and other climatic
factors.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.
The management needed to obtain the indicated


yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Management can include drainage;
erosion control; the proper seeding rates; suitable high-
yielding crop varieties; appropriate and timely tillage;
control of weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects;
favorable soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure,
and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures
the smallest possible loss.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
likely to increase as new production technology is
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 3 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
about the management and productivity of the soils for
those crops.

Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general
way, the suitability of soils for use as cropland. Crops
that require special management are excluded. The
soils are grouped according to their limitations for field
crops, the risk of damage if they are used for crops,
and the way they respond to management. The criteria
used in grouping the soils do not include major, and
generally expensive, landforming that would change
slope, depth, or other characteristics of the soils, nor do
they include possible but unlikely major reclamation
projects. Capability classification is not a substitute for
interpretations designed to show suitability and
limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for
woodland, and for engineering purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped
at three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their
use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require moderate
conservation practices.








Soil Survey


Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode, but they have
other limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their
use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally not suited to cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them not suited to cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, w
or s, to the class numeral, for example, IIlw. The letter
w shows that water in or on the soil interferes with plant
growth or cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be
partly corrected by artificial drainage) and s shows that
the soil is limited mainly because it is shallow, drought,
or stony.
There are no subclasses in class I because the soils
of this class have few limitations. The soils in class V
are subject to little or no erosion, but they have other
limitations that restrict their use to pasture, rangeland,
woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation. Class V
contains only the subclasses indicated by w or s.
The acreage of soils in each capability class and
subclass is shown in table 4. The capability
classification of each map unit is given in the section
"Detailed Soil Map Units."

Rangeland and Grazeable Woodland
R. Greg Hendricks, state range conservationist, Soil Conservation
Service, helped prepare this section.
In areas that have similar climate and topography,
differences in the kind and amount of vegetation
produced on rangeland are closely related to the kind of
soil. Effective management is based on the relationship
of soils, vegetation, and water.
Table 5 shows, for each soil, the range site and the
total annual production of vegetation in favorable,
average, and unfavorable years. Only those soils that
are used as rangeland or are suited to use as
rangeland are listed. Explanation of the column
headings in table 5 follows.
A range site is a distinctive kind of rangeland that


produces a characteristic natural plant community that
differs from natural plant communities on other range
sites in kind, amount, or proportion of range plants. The
relationship between soils and vegetation was
established during this survey; thus, range sites
generally can be determined directly from the soil map.
Soil properties that affect moisture supply and plant
nutrients have the greatest influence on the productivity
of range plants. Soil reaction and a seasonal high water
table are also important.
Potential annual production is the amount of
vegetation that can be expected to grow annually on
well managed rangeland that is supporting the climax
plant community. It includes all vegetation, whether or
not it is palatable to grazing animals. It includes the
current year's growth of leaves, twigs, and fruits of
woody plants, but it does not include the increase in
stem diameter of trees and shrubs. It is expressed in
pounds per acre of air-dry vegetation for favorable,
average, and unfavorable years. In a favorable year,
the amount and distribution of precipitation and the
temperatures make growing conditions substantially
better than average. In an unfavorable year, growing
conditions are well below average, generally because of
low available soil moisture.
Yields are adjusted to a common percent of air-dry
moisture content. The relationship of green weight to
air-dry weight varies according to such factors as
exposure, season, amount of shade, growing
conditions, and unseasonable dry periods.
Range management requires a knowledge of the
kinds of soil and of the potential climax plant
community. It also requires an evaluation of the present
range condition. Range condition is determined by
comparing the present plant community with the climax
plant community on a particular range site. The more
closely the existing community resembles the climax
community, the better the range condition. Range
condition is an ecological rating only. It does not have a
specific meaning that pertains to the present plant
community in a given use.
The objective in range management is to control
grazing so that the plants growing on a site are about
the same in kind and amount as the potential climax
plant community for that site. Such management
generally results in the optimum production of
vegetation, reduction of undesirable brush species,
conservation of water, and control of erosion.
Sometimes, however, a range condition somewhat
below the potential meets grazing needs, provides
wildlife habitat, and protects soil and water resources.








Hendry County, Florida


Rangeland
Native grasses are an important part of the overall,
year-round supply of forage to livestock producers in
Hendry County. This forage is readily available. It is
economical and provides important roughage needed by
cattle, which are the principal grazing livestock
produced in the area. About 325,000 acres of native
rangeland is available to cattle producers. About
285,000 acres is used strictly as rangeland, and the
rest is used by cattle producers in connection with pulp
and timber operations as grazeable woodlands.
Rangeland consists o, specific native vegetation that
differs because of soil properties, light intensity, and
water fluctuation. These recognizable differences in
plant composition on rangeland in Florida are defined
by 13 specific range sites, 8 of which occur in Hendry
County. The dominant native forage plants that naturally
grow on a range site generally are the most productive
and the most suitable for livestock. These plants
maintain themselves as long as the environment does
not change. They are grouped into three categories
according to their response to grazing-decreasers,
increases, and invaders.
Decreasers generally are the most abundant and
most palatable plants on a given range site that is in
good or excellent condition. They decrease in
abundance if the rangeland is under continuous heavy
grazing.
Increasers are plants less palatable to livestock. They
increase for a short time under continuous heavy
grazing but eventually decrease under continuous
heavy grazing.
Invaders are native to rangelands in small amounts.
They have very little forage value and tend to increase
and become the new dominant plants as the decreaser
and increase plants have been grazed out.
Range condition is determined by comparing the
present plant community with the potential climax plant
community on a particular range site. The more closely
the existing community resembles the potential
community, the better the range condition. Range
condition is an ecological rating only and does not have
a specific meaning that pertains to the present plant
community in a given use. The classes used to
measure range condition are excellent, producing 76 to
100 percent of potential; good, producing 51 to 75
percent; fair, producing 26 to 50 percent; and poor,
producing 0 to 25 percent.
About 15 percent of the rangeland in Hendry County
is in good or excellent condition and about 85 percent is


in poor or fair condition. For each soil in Hendry County
that supports rangeland vegetation suitable for grazing,
table 5 gives the range site that can be expected if the
native vegetative cover has not been eliminated by the
influences of man.
Table 6 shows the annual production of air-dry
herbage per acre that can be expected in good, fair,
and poor growth years for each range site in excellent
condition. Good years are those in which climatic
factors, such as rainfall and temperature, are favorable
for plant growth. Moisture content in the plants varies
as the growing season progresses and is not a
measure of productivity. Forage refers to total
vegetation produced annually on well managed
rangeland and does not reflect forage value or grazing
potentials. Table 6 also lists the most important native
range plants that should be managed for best livestock
production and rangeland integrity.
The productivity of soils is closely related to the
natural drainage of the soil. The wettest soils, such as
those in freshwater and saltwater marshes, produce the
greatest amount of vegetation, while the deep, drought
soils normally produce the least amount of forage
annually.
Management of the soils for range should be planned
with potential productivity in mind. Soils with the highest
production should be given highest priority when
economic considerations are important.
Major management considerations revolve around
livestock grazing. The objective in range management
is to control grazing so that the native plants growing on
a site are about the same in kind and amount as the
potential natural plant community for that site. Such
management generally results in the optimum
production of vegetation, conservation of water, and
controlled erosion. The length of time an area should be
grazed, the season it should be used, how long and
when the range should be rested, the grazing pattern of
livestock within a pasture that contains more than one
soil, and the palatability of the dominant plants on the
soil are basic considerations if rangeland is to be
improved or maintained.
Rangeland improvement practices, such as
mechanical brush control, controlled burning, and
especially controlled livestock grazing, benefit
rangelands. Predicting the effects of these practices is
of the utmost importance. Without exception, the proper
management of rangeland results in maximum
sustained production, conservation of the soil and water
resources, and improvement of the habitat for many
wildlife species.








Soil Survey


Grazeable Woodland
Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory
of native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory
is an integral part of the forest plant community. The
native plants can be grazed without significantly
impairing other forest values. On such forest land,
grazing is compatible with timber management if it is
controlled or managed in such a manner that timber
and forage resources are maintained or enhanced.
Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs,
shrubs, and other plants within the reach of livestock or
used by grazing or browsing wildlife. A well managed
forest can produce enough understory vegetation to
support an optimum number of livestock or wildlife, or
both.
Forage production of grazeable woodland varies
according to the different kinds of grazeable woodland;
the amount of shade cast by the canopy; the
accumulation of fallen needles; the influence of time
and intensity of grazing on the present grasses;
absence of grass and forage production; and the
number, size, and spacing and site preparation method
of tree plantings.

Woodland Management and Productivity
Soils vary in their ability to produce trees. Depth,
fertility, texture, and the available water capacity
influence tree growth. Elevation, aspect, and climate
determine the kinds of trees that can grow on a site.
Available water capacity and depth of the root zone are
major influences of tree growth.
This soil survey can be used by woodland managers
planning ways to increase the productivity of forest
land. Some soils respond better to fertilization than
others, and some are more susceptible to landslides
and erosion after roads are built and timber is
harvested. Some soils require special efforts to reforest.
In the section "Detailed Soil Map Units," each map unit
in the survey area suitable for producing timber is
described in terms of productivity, limitations for
harvesting timber, and management concerns for
producing timber. The common forest understory plants
are also listed. Table 7 summarizes this forestry
information and rates the soils for a number of factors
to be considered in management. Slight, moderate, and
severe are used to indicate the degree of the major soil
limitations to be considered in forest management.
The first tree listed for each soil under the column
"Common trees" is the indicator species for that soil.
An indicator species is a tree that is common in the


area and that is generally the most productive on a
given soil.
Table 7 lists the ordination symbol for each soil. The
first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indicates
the potential productivity of a soil for the indicator
species in cubic meters per hectare. The indicator
species is the tree that is common in the area and that
is generally the most productive on the soil. The larger
the number, the greater the potential productivity.
Potential productivity is based on the site index and the
point where mean annual increment is the greatest.
The second part of the ordination symbol, a letter,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation for use and
management. The letter W indicates a soil in which
excessive water, either seasonal or year-round, causes
a significant limitation. The letter S indicates a dry,
sandy soil. If a soil has more than one limitation, the
priority is W and then S.
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the probability
that damage may occur if site preparation activities or
harvesting operations expose the soil. The risk is slight
if no particular preventive measures are needed under
ordinary conditions; moderate if erosion control
measures are needed for particular silvicultural
activities; and severe if special precautions are needed
to control erosion for most silvicultural activities. Ratings
of moderate or severe indicate the need for construction
of higher standard roads, additional maintenance of
roads, additional care in planning of harvesting and
reforestation operations, or use of specialized
equipment.
Ratings of equipment limitation indicate limits on the
use of forest management equipment, year-round or
seasonal, because of such soil characteristics as slope,
wetness, stoniness, or susceptibility of the surface layer
to compaction. The rating is slight if equipment use is
restricted by soil wetness for less than 2 months and if
special equipment is not needed. The rating is moderate
if soil wetness restricts equipment use from 2 to 6
months per year or if special equipment is needed to
avoid or reduce soil compaction. The rating is severe if
soil wetness restricts equipment use for more than 6
months per year or if special equipment is needed to
avoid or reduce soil compaction. Ratings of moderate or
severe indicate a need to choose the most suitable
equipment and to carefully plan the timing of harvesting
and other management operations.
Ratings of seedling mortality refer to the probability of
death of naturally occurring or properly planted
seedlings of good stock in periods of normal rainfall as
influenced by kinds of soil or topographic features.








Hendry County, Florida


Seedling mortality is caused primarily by too much water
or too little water. The factors used in rating a soil for
seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer, depth
and duration of the water table, rock fragments in the
surface layer, and rooting depth. Mortality generally is
greatest on soils that have a sandy or clayey surface
layer. The risk is slight if, after site preparation,
expected mortality is less than 25 percent; moderate if
expected mortality is between 25 and 50 percent; and
severe if expected mortality exceeds 50 percent.
Ratings of moderate or severe indicate that it may be
necessary to use containerized or larger than usual
planting stock or to make special site preparations,
such as bedding, furrowing, installing surface drainage,
or providing artificial shade for seedlings. Reinforcement
planting is often needed if the risk is moderate or
severe.
Ratings of windthrow hazard indicate the likelihood of
trees being uprooted by the wind. Restricted rooting
depth is the main reason for windthrow. Rooting depth
can be restricted by a high water table or bedrock or by
a combination of such factors as soil wetness, texture,
structure, and depth. The risk is slight if strong winds
cause trees to break but do not uproot them; moderate
if strong winds cause an occasional tree to be blown
over and many trees to break; and severe if moderate
or strong winds commonly blow trees over. Ratings of
moderate or severe indicate the need for care in
thinning or possibly not thinning. Specialized equipment
may be needed to avoid damage to shallow root
systems in partial cutting operations. A plan for periodic
salvage of windthrown trees and the maintenance of a
road and trail system may be needed.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the likelihood of
the growth or invasion of undesirable plants. Plant
competition becomes more severe on the more
productive soils, on poorly drained soils, and on soils
having a restricted root zone that holds moisture. The
risk is slight if competition from undesirable plants
inhibits adequate natural or artificial reforestation but
does not necessitate intensive site preparation and
maintenance. The risk is moderate if competition from
undesirable plants inhibits natural or artificial
reforestation to the extent that intensive site preparation
and maintenance are needed. The risk is severe if
competition from undesirable plants prevents adequate
natural or artificial reforestation unless the site is
intensively prepared and maintained. A moderate or
severe rating indicates the need for site preparation to
ensure the development of an adequately stocked
stand. Managers must plan site preparation measures
to ensure reforestation without delays.


The potential productivity of common trees on a soil
is expressed as a site index. Common trees are listed in
the order of their observed general occurrence.
Generally, only two or three tree species dominate.
The site index is determined by taking height
measurements and determining the age of selected
trees within stands of a given species. This index is the
average height, in feet, that the trees attain in a
specified number of years. This index applies to fully
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands.
The productivity class represents an expected volume
produced by the most important trees, expressed in
cubic meters per hectare per year. Cubic meters per
hectare can be converted to cubic feet per acre by
multiplying by 14.3. Cubic feet can be converted to
board feet by multiplying by a factor of about 5. For
example, a productivity class of 8 means the soil can be
expected to produce 114 cubic feet per acre per year at
the point where mean annual increment culminates, or
about 570 board feet per acre per year.
Trees to plant are those that are used for
reforestation or, if suitable conditions exist, natural
regeneration. They are suited to the soils and will
produce a commercial wood crop. The desired product,
topographic position (such as a low, wet area), and
personal preference are three factors of many that can
influence the choice of trees to use for reforestation.

Recreation
In table 8, the soils of the survey area are rated
according to the limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
Not considered in the ratings, but important in
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreational use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed
as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations
are minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that








Soil Survey


limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
of these measures.
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
and for local roads and streets in table 10.
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing
roads and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have gentle slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few
or no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes,
stones, or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are nearly level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after
rains, and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed,
the depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should
be considered.
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
soils are well drained, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are free of
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.


Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
Good habitat for wildlife is available in most of
Hendry County. The large areas of flatwoods
interspersed with marshes, sloughs, and swamps
provide habitat for a variety of wildlife species,
especially for wading birds and other wetland species.
The primary game species are deer, wild turkey,
quail, and feral hogs. Other wildlife species include gray
fox, skunks, snipe, raccoon, opossum, bobcat,
armadillo, otter, and a variety of songbirds,
woodpeckers, wading birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
Largemouth bass, various sunfishes, catfish, and chain
pickerel provide good fishing in the Caloosahatchee
River and larger wetland ponds.
The habitat for wildlife shows little evidence of
pressure from urban development, but the changes in
habitat caused by converting the native rangelands to
improved pasture are detrimental to wildlife. Some
range areas could offer better wildlife habitat if grazing
and burning practices were improved.
A number of endangered or threatened species are
in the county. They range from the easily recognizable
wood stork to the seldom seen red-cockaded
woodpecker. A complete list of such species with
information on range and habitat can be obtained from
the district conservationist at the local office of the Soil
Conservation Service.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat
can be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, maintaining the existing plant cover, or
promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
In table 9, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that
are suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
the intensity of management needed for each element
of the habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,








Hendry County, Florida


and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
available water capacity, and wetness. Soil temperature
and soil moisture are also considerations. Examples of
grain and seed crops are corn, browntop millet,
cowpeas, and grain sorghum.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, and wetness. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grasses
and legumes are bahiagrass, deervetch, sesbania, and
clover.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, and wetness. Soil
temperature and soil moisture are also considerations.
Examples of wild herbaceous plants are bluestem,
goldenrod, beggarweed, partridge pea, and bristlegrass.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage.
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
these plants are oak, saw palmetto, dahoon, red maple,
wild grape, sweetgum, blackberry, and blueberry.
Examples of fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for
planting on soils rated good are firethorn, waxmyrtle,
and blackberry.
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of


the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, and
cedar.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial, wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil
properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, and reaction.
Examples of wetland plants are smartweed, wild millet,
maidencane, pickerelweed, cordgrass, rushes, sedges,
and reeds.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dugouts, dams, levees, or other water-
control structures. Soil properties and features affecting
shallow water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, and
permeability. Examples of shallow water areas are
marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described
in the following paragraphs.
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas
produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes,
and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these
areas include bobwhite quail, dove, sandhill crane,
meadowlark, field sparrow, and cottontail.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous or coniferous plants or both and associated
grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife
attracted to these areas include wild turkey, barred
owls, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
raccoon, and deer.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore
birds, ibis, otter, and alligators.
Habitat for rangeland wildlife consists of areas of
shrubs and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to
rangeland include deer, meadowlark, and lark bunting.

Engineering
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
test data in the "Soil Properties" section.








Soil Survey


Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet,
and because of the map scale, small areas of different
soils may be included within the mapped areas of a
specific soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this
section. Local ordinances and regulations must be
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about particle-size
distribution, liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction,
depth to bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 or 6 feet
of the surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high
water table, flood potential, soil structure, and bulk
density. Data were collected about kinds of clay
minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions, and
the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates were made for
erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell
potential, available water capacity, and other soil
characteristics affecting engineering uses.
This information can be used to evaluate the
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
and recreational uses; make preliminary estimates of
construction conditions; evaluate alternative routes for
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan
detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
topsoil; plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and predict performance of proposed
small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same
or similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil
maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
this survey, can be used to make additional
interpretations.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a


special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Glossary.
Building Site Development
Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil
limitations that affect shallow excavations, dwellings
with and without basements, small commercial
buildings, local roads and streets, and lawns and
landscaping. The limitations are considered slight if soil
properties and site features are generally favorable for
the indicated use and limitations are minor and easily
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features
are not favorable for the indicated use and special
planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
properties or site features are so unfavorable or so
difficult to overcome that special design, significant
increases in construction costs, and possibly increased
maintenance are required. Special feasibility studies
may be required where the soil limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to
bedrock and soil texture. The time of the year that
excavations can be made is affected by the depth to a
seasonal high water table and the susceptibility of the
soil to flooding. The resistance of the excavation walls
or banks to caving is affected by soil texture and the
depth to the water table.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are
made for small commercial buildings without
basements, for dwellings with basements, and for
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based on
soil properties, site features, and observed performance
of the soils. A high water table, flooding, shrink-swell
potential, and organic layers can cause the movement
of footings. Depth to a high water table, depth to
bedrock, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts
and fills of more than 5 or 6 feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year.
They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base
of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil








Hendry County, Florida


properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Depth to bedrock, depth to a high water table,
and flooding affect the ease of excavating and grading.
Soil strength (as inferred from the engineering
classification of the soil), shrink-swell potential, and
depth to a high water table affect the traffic-supporting
capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Soil reaction, depth to a high water table,
depth to bedrock, and the available water capacity in
the upper 40 inches affect plant growth. Flooding,
wetness, slope, and the amount of sand, clay, or
organic matter in the surface layer affect trafficability
after vegetation is established.

Sanitary Facilities
Table 11 shows the degree and the kind of soil
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,
sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
are considered slight if soil properties and site features
are generally favorable for the indicated use and
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
special design, significant increases in construction
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are
required.
Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for
use as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good
indicates that soil properties and site features are
favorable for the use and that good performance and
low maintenance can be expected; fair indicates that
soil properties and site features are moderately
favorable for the use and one or more soil properties or
site features make the soil less desirable than the soils
rated good; and poor indicates that one or more soil
properties or site features are unfavorable for the use
and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires
special design, extra maintenance, or costly alteration.
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to a high water table, depth to


bedrock or to a cemented pan, and flooding affect
absorption of the effluent. Bedrock interferes with
installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent
and surfacing of effluent, can affect public health.
Ground water can be polluted if highly permeable sand
and gravel or fractured bedrock is less than 4 feet
below the base of the absorption field or if the water
table is near the surface. There must be unsaturated
soil material beneath the absorption field to filter the
effluent effectively. Many local ordinances require that
this material be of a certain texture and thickness.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the
solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly
level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
recommended to minimize seepage and contamination
of ground water.
Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. Considered in
the ratings are permeability, depth to a high water table,
depth to bedrock, and content of organic matter.
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the
level of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to
function unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is
excessive. A high content of organic matter is
detrimental to proper functioning of the lagoon because
it inhibits aerobic activity. Bedrock can cause
construction problems.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste
is placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and
covered daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the
site. In an area landfill, the waste is placed in
successive layers on the surface of the soil. The waste
is spread, compacted, and covered daily with a thin
layer of soil from a source away from the site.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
needs to be considered.
The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties,








Soil Survey


site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to bedrock, depth to a high water
table, and flooding affect both types of landfill. Texture,
highly organic layers, and soil reaction affect trench
type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the ratings apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of about 6
feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated slight or
moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation is
needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Soil texture and wetness affect the ease of removing
and spreading the material during wet and dry periods.
Loamy or silty soils that are free of large stones or
excess gravel are the best cover for a landfill. Sandy
soils are subject to soil blowing.
After soil material has been removed, the soil
material remaining in the borrow area must be thick
enough over bedrock or the water table to permit
revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a
landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
and the best potential for plants. Material from the
surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final
cover.

Construction Materials
Table 12 gives information about the soils as a
source of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils
are rated good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and
topsoil. They are rated as a probable or improbable
source of sand and gravel. The ratings are based on
soil properties and site features that affect the removal
of the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
compaction, minor processing, and other standard
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
and used in road embankments in another place. In this
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
exacting in design than higher embankments.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
their profile. The table showing engineering index
properties provides detailed information about each soil
layer. This information can help determine the suitability
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil


after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not
considered in the ratings.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. The
thickness of suitable material is a major consideration.
The ease of excavation is affected by a high water
table. How well the soil performs in place after it has
been compacted and drained is determined by its
strength (as inferred from the engineering classification
of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
material, low shrink-swell potential, and few coarse
fragments. Depth to the water table is more than 3 feet.
Soils rated fair are more than 35 percent silt- and clay-
sized particles and have a plasticity index of less than
10. They have moderate shrink-swell potential. Depth to
the water table is 1 to 3 feet. Soils rated poor have a
plasticity index of more than 10 and high shrink-swell
potential. They are wet, and the depth to the water table
is less than 1 foot. They may have layers of suitable
material, but the material is less than 3 feet thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand
and gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 12,
only the probability of finding material in suitable
quantity is evaluated. The suitability of the material for
specific purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that
affect excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source
of sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as
indicated by the engineering classification of the soil)
and the thickness of suitable material. Kinds of rock,
acidity, and stratification are given in the soil series
descriptions. Gradation of grain sizes is given in the
table on engineering index properties.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of
clean sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is
up to 12 percent silty fines. This material must be at
least 3 feet thick. All other soils are rated as an
improbable source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock
are not considered to be sand and gravel.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
can be established and maintained. The upper 40
inches of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also
evaluated is the reclamation potential of the borrow
area.
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
is affected by a water table, soil texture, and thickness








Hendry County, Florida


of suitable material. Reclamation of the borrow area is
affected by slope, a water table, and bedrock.
Soils rated good have friable, loamy material to a
depth of at least 40 inches. They are free of cobbles
and have little or no gravel. They are low in content of
soluble salts, are naturally fertile or respond well to
fertilizer, and are not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have
a relatively high content of clay, or soils that have only
20 to 40 inches of suitable material. The soils are not
so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 20 inches of suitable material, or have a seasonal
water table at or near the surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
for topsoil because of its organic matter content.
Organic matter greatly increases the absorption and
retention of moisture and releases a variety of plant-
available nutrients as it decomposes.

Water Management
Table 13 gives information on the soil properties and
site features that affect water management. The degree
and kind of soil limitations are given for pond reservoir
areas; embankments, dikes, and levees; and aquifer-fed
excavated ponds. The limitations are considered slight if
soil properties and site features are generally favorable
for the indicated use and limitations are minor and are
easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or site
features are not favorable for the indicated use and
special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
properties or site features are so unfavorable or so
difficult to overcome that special design, significant
increase in construction costs, and possibly increased
maintenance are required.
This table also gives the restrictive features that
affect each soil for drainage, irrigation, terraces and
diversions, and grassed waterways.
Pond reservoir areas hold water behind a dam or
embankment. Soils best suited to this use have low
seepage potential in the upper 60 inches. The seepage
potential is determined by the permeability of the soil
and the depth to fractured bedrock or other permeable
material. Excessive slope can affect the storage
capacity of the reservoir area.
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
constructed to impound water or to protect land against
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the
soil material below the surface layer to a depth of about


5 feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly
mixed and compacted during construction.
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth greater than the height of the embankment can
affect performance and safety of the embankment.
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
determine these properties.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features
include less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high
content of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts
or sodium. A high water table affects the amount of
usable material. It also affects trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
impound water 3 feet or more above the original
surface. Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a
permanent water table, permeability of the aquifer, and
the salinity of the soil. Depth to bedrock and the content
of large stones affect the ease of excavation.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and

effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth
to a high water table or depth of standing water if the
soil is subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to
flooding; and subsidence of organic layers. Excavating
and grading and the stability of ditchbanks are affected
by depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large
stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving. The
productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely
affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in
the root zone, such as salts, sodium, or sulfur.
Availability of drainage outlets is not considered in the
ratings.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The
design and management of an irrigation system are
affected by depth to the water table, the need for
drainage, flooding, available water capacity, intake rate,
permeability, erosion hazard, and slope. The
construction of a system is affected by large stones and
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan. The
performance of a system is affected by the depth of the
root zone, the amount of salts or sodium, and soil
reaction.
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a










combination of channels and ridges constructed across
a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by
intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the
construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or water erosion,
an excessively coarse texture, and restricted
permeability adversely affect maintenance.
Grassed waterways are natural or constructed


channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available
water capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic
substances such as salts or sodium, and restricted
permeability adversely affect the growth and
maintenance of the grass after construction.


















Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during
the course of the soil survey. The data and the
estimates of soil and water features, listed in tables, are
explained on the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils
and to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are
taken from some typical profiles and tested in the
laboratory to determine grain-size distribution, plasticity,
and compaction characteristics. These results are
reported in table 20.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for
the major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most
soils have layers of contrasting properties within the
upper 5 or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each
layer is indicated. The range in depth and information
on other properties of each layer are given for each soil
series under "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are
defined according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay
in the fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters


in diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary.
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution
of the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and
according to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic
matter content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified
as GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and
clayey soils as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and
highly organic soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering
properties of two groups can have a dual classification,
for example, SP-SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral
soil that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in
one of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis
of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in
content of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme,
soils in group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils
are classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual
inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4,
A-2-5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20, or higher, for the poorest. The AASHTO
classification for soils tested, with group index numbers
in parentheses, is given in table 20.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are








Soil Survey


indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates
determined mainly by converting volume percentage in
the field to weight percentage.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area
or from nearby areas and on field examination.

Physical and Chemical Properties
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics
and features that affect soil behavior. These estimates
are given for the major layers of each soil in the survey
area. The estimates are based on field observations
and on test data for these and similar soils.
Clay as a soil separate, or component, consists of
mineral soil particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter
in diameter. In this table, the estimated clay content of
each major soil layer is given as a percentage, by
weight, of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters
in diameter.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
and physical condition of the soil. They influence the
soil's adsorption of cations, moisture retention, shrink-
swell potential, permeability, plasticity, the ease of soil
dispersion, and other soil properties. The amount and
kind of clay in a soil also affect tillage and earthmoving
operations.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at
field moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at
1/3 bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after
drying the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the
estimated moist bulk density of each major soil horizon
is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk
density data are used to compute shrink-swell potential,
available water capacity, total pore space, and other
soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates
the pore space available for water and roots. A bulk
density of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and
root penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by


texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil
structure.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of
movement of water through the soil when the soil is
saturated. They are based on soil characteristics
observed in the field, particularly structure, porosity, and
texture. Permeability is considered in the design of soil
drainage systems, septic tank absorption fields, and
construction where the rate of water movement under
saturated conditions affects behavior.
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of
water that the soil is capable of storing for use by
plants. The capacity for water storage in each major soil
layer is stated in inches of water per inch of soil. The
capacity varies, depending on soil properties that affect
the retention of water and the depth of the root zone.
The most important properties are the content of
organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil
structure. Available water capacity is an important factor
in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the
design and management of irrigation systems. Available
water capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of
water actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and
is expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH
of each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
corrosion.
Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
laboratory measurements at representative sites of
nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
construction material, and the potential of the soil to
corrode metal and concrete.
Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
minerals with water and varies with the amount and
type of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on
the soil and the magnitude of the change in soil








Hendry County, Florida


moisture content influence the amount of swelling of
soils in place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of
undisturbed clods were made for many soils. For
others, swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind
and amount of clay minerals in the soil and on
measurements of similar soils.
If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to
buildings, roads, and other structures. Special design is
often needed.
Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture
content is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
change is based on the soil fraction less than 2
millimeters in diameter. The classes are low, a change
of less than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and
high, more than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9
percent, is sometimes used.
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil
to sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
and rill erosion. Losses are expressed in tons per acre
per year. These estimates are based primarily on
percentage of silt, sand, and organic matter (up to 4
percent) and on soil structure and permeability. Values
of K range from 0.02 to 0.69. The higher the value, the
more susceptible the soil is to sheet and rill erosion by
water.
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water
that can occur over a sustained period without affecting
crop productivity. The rate is expressed in tons per acre
per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion. Soils are grouped
according to the following distinctions:
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine
sands. They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is
difficult to establish.
2. Loamy coarse sands, loamy sands, loamy fine
sands, loamy very fine sands, and sapric organic soils.
These soils are very highly erodible. Crops can be
grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion are
used.
3. Coarse sandy loams, sandy loams, fine sandy
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are
highly erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive
measures to control wind erosion are used.
4L. Calcareous loams, silt loams, clay loams, and


silty clay loams. These soils are erodible. Crops can be
grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion are
used.
4. Clays, silty clays, noncalcareous clay loams, and
silty clay loams that are more than 35 percent clay.
These soils are moderately erodible. Crops can be
grown if measures to control wind erosion are used.
5. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are less
than 20 percent clay and sandy clay loams, sandy
clays, and hemic organic soils. These soils are slightly
erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to control
wind erosion are used.
6. Noncalcareous loams and silt loams that are
more than 20 percent clay and noncalcareous clay
loams that are less than 35 percent clay. These soils
are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
ordinary measures to control wind erosion are used.
7. Silts, noncalcareous silty clay loams that are less
than 35 percent clay, and fibric organic soils. These
soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if
ordinary measures to control wind erosion are used.
8. Soils that are not subject to wind erosion
because of coarse fragments on the surface or because
of surface wetness.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
soil at various stages of decomposition.
In table 15, the estimated content of organic matter is
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The content of organic matter of a soil can be
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
other nutrients for crops.

Soil and Water Features
Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water
features. The estimates are used in land use planning
that involves engineering considerations.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
from precipitation. Soils are assigned to one of four
groups. They are grouped according to the intake of
water when the soils are thoroughly wet and receive
precipitation from long-duration storms.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
mainly of deep, well drained to excessively drained
sands or gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of
water transmission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate








Soil Survey


when thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of
moderately deep or deep, moderately well drained or
well drained soils that have moderately fine texture to
moderately coarse texture. These soils have a
moderate rate of water transmission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate
(high runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These
consist chiefly of clays that have high shrink-swell
potential, soils that have a permanent high water table,
soils that have a claypan or clay layer at or near the
surface, and soils that are shallow over nearly
impervious material. These soils have a very slow rate
of water transmission.
Some of the soils in table 16 are shown as having
dual hydrologic groups, such as B/D. A B/D rating
means that under natural conditions the soil is in
hydrologic group D, but by artificial methods the water
table can be lowered sufficiently so that the soil fits into
hydrologic group B. Since there are different degrees of
drainage or water table control, onsite investigation is
needed to determine the hydrologic group of the soil at
a particular location.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils.
The estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
soil. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to the seasonal
high water table; the kind of water table, that is,
apparent. and the months of the year that the water
table commonly is highest. A water table that is
seasonally high for less than 1 month is not indicated in
table 16.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil.
The two numbers in the "High water table-Depth"
column indicate the normal range in depth to a
saturated zone. Depth is given to the nearest half foot.
The first numeral in the range indicates the highest
water level. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
indicates that the water table is above the surface of
the soil. "More than 6.0" indicates that the water table
is below a depth of 6 feet or that it is within a depth of 6
feet for less than a month.
Depth to bedrock is given if bedrock is within a depth


of 5 feet. The depth is based on many soil borings and
on observations during soil mapping. The rock is
specified as either soft or hard. If the rock is soft or
fractured, excavations can be made with trenching
machines, backhoes, or small rippers. If the rock is hard
or massive, blasting or special equipment generally is
needed for excavation.
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Subsidence
results from either desiccation and shrinkage or
oxidation of organic material, or both, following
drainage. Subsidence takes place gradually, usually
over a period of several years. Table 16 shows the
expected initial subsidence, which usually is a result of
drainage, and total subsidence, which results from a
combination of factors.
Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
water throughout an extensive area as a result of
lowering the water table.
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion
of concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the
soil. Special site examination and design may be
needed if the combination of factors creates a severely
corrosive environment. The steel in installations that
intersect soil boundaries or soil layers is more
susceptible to corrosion than steel in installations that
are entirely within one kind of soil or within one soil
layer.
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed
as low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage
class, total acidity, electrical resistivity near field
capacity, and electrical conductivity of the saturation
extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
acidity, and the amount of sulfates in the saturation
extract.

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
Analyses of Selected Soils
Dr. Victor W. Carlisle, professor, and Dr. Mary E. Collins. assistant
professor, Soil Science Department, University of Florida, helped
prepare this section.
Parameters for physical, chemical, and mineralogical








Hendry County, Florida


properties of representative pedons sampled in Hendry
County are in tables 17, 18, and 19. The analyses were
conducted and coordinated by the Soil Characterization
Laboratory at the University of Florida. Detailed profile
descriptions of the analyzed soils are given in
alphabetical order in the section "Classification of the
Soils." Laboratory data and profile information for
additional soils in Hendry County, as well as for other
counties in Florida, are on file at the University of
Florida, Soil Science Department.
Typifying pedons were sampled from pits at carefully
selected locations. Samples were air dried, crushed,
and sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most
analytical methods used are outlined in Soil Survey
Investigations Report No. 1 (12).
Particle-size distribution was determined using a
modified pipette method with sodium
hexametaphosphate dispersion. Hydraulic conductivity
and bulk density were determined on undisturbed soil
cores. Water retention parameters were obtained from
duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in tempe
pressure cells. Weight percentages of water retained at
100 centimeters water (Vio bar) and 345 centimeters
water (1/3 bar) were calculated from volumetric water
percentages divided by bulk density. Samples were
oven dried and ground to pass a 2-millimeter sieve, and
the 15-bar water retention was determined. Organic
carbon was determined by a modification of the
Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils
with normal ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0.
Sodium and potassium in the extract were determined
by flame emission. Calcium and magnesium were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Extractable acidity was determined by the barium
chloride-triethanolamine method at pH 8.2. The sum of
cations, which may be considered a measure of cation-
exchange capacity, was calculated by adding the values
for extractable bases and extractable acidity. Base
saturation is the ratio of extractable bases to cation-
exchange capacity expressed in percent. The pH
measurements were made with a glass electrode using
a soil-water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01 molar calcium chloride
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and normal
potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio.
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil to water mixtures. Iron
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were
extracted from probable spodic horizons with 0.01 molar
sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and


iron was by atomic absorption, and determination of
extracted carbon was by the Walkley-Black wet
combustion method.
Mineralogy of the clay fraction of less than 2 microns
was ascertained by x-ray diffraction. Peak heights at
18-, 14-, 7.2-, and 4.31-angstrom positions represent
montmorillonite, interstratified expandable vermiculite or
14-angstrom intergrades, kaolinite, and quartz,
respectively. Peaks were measured, summed, and
normalized to give the percent of soil minerals identified
in the x-ray diffractograms. These percentage values do
not indicate absolute determined quantities of soil
minerals but do imply a relative distribution of minerals
in a particular mineral suite. Absolute percentages
would require additional knowledge of particle size,
crystallinity, unit structure substitution, and matrix
problems.
Most of the mineral soils sampled for laboratory
analyses in Hendry County are inherently sandy in the
upper part of the solum (table 17) and have argillic
horizons in the lower part of the solum. Many are
underlain with limestone. Except for the Chobee soils,
all other pedons have one or more horizons in which
the total sand content exceeds 90 percent. Oldsmar
soils have more than 90 percent sand to a depth of
more than 1 meter.
Only the Chobee soils have large amounts of clay
throughout the entire pedon. The clay content ranges
from 16.1 to 23.4 percent. Deeper argillic horizons in
the Oldsmar, Pineda, and Riviera soils have content of
clay ranging from 14.4 to 24.6 percent.
Silt content exceeds 9 percent in the Chobee soils
almost to a depth of 1 meter, but it rarely exceeds 5
percent in other soils.
Fine sand dominates the sand fractions throughout
all of the soils in Hendry County except Oldsmar soils,
which are dominated by medium sand. Except for the
Chobee and Oldsmar soils, all of the soils have one
horizon or more in which fine sand content exceeds 50
percent. Measurable amounts of very coarse sand,
generally less than 0.5 percent, are in one horizon or
more of all the soils. The content of coarse sand
generally is less than 10 percent; however, four
horizons of the Pineda soils exceed this amount. The
content of very fine sand generally is less than 6
percent; however, all but the deepest horizon of the
Chobee soils considerably exceed this value. The sandy
soils rapidly become drought during periods of low
precipitation when rainfall is widely scattered.
Conversely, these sandy soils are rapidly saturated
when heavy amounts of rainfall occur.
The hydraulic conductivity value of most of the soils








Soil Survey


ranges from about 30 to 60 centimeters per hour in
horizons in the upper part of the solum, but it rarely
exceeds 0.5 centimeter per hour in the deeper argillic
horizons. The higher clay content in the Chobee soils
results in a hydraulic conductivity value of 0.3
centimeter per hour or less. Design and function of
septic tank absorption fields are affected by low
hydraulic conductivity value. The spodic horizons in the
Oldsmar soils have higher hydraulic conductivity value
than is generally recorded for these horizons in most of
the soils in Florida. The available water for plants can
be estimated from bulk density and water content data.
Excessively sandy soils, such as Pineda sand, retain
very low amounts of available water; conversely, soils
that have a higher amount of fine-textured material and
a higher content of organic matter, such as Chobee fine
sandy loam, retain much larger amounts of available
water.
Chemical analyses (table 18) show that a wide range
of extractable bases are in the soils of Hendry County.
Except for Chobee and Plantation soils, all of the other
soils have one or more horizons that have less than 1
milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable bases.
Chobee soils have more than 22 milliequivalents per
100 grams extractable bases. The mild, humid climate
of Hendry County results in depletion of basic cations
(calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium) through
leaching.
Calcium is the dominant base in all of the soils of
Hendry County. Slightly more magnesium than calcium
occurs only in the surface horizon of Plantation muck.
All soils have one horizon or more in which extractable
calcium content exceeds 9.5 milliequivalents per 100
grams. Extractable magnesium of 1 milliequivalent or
more occurs in one horizon or more of all the soils
except Oldsmar and Riviera soils. The highest amounts
of extractable calcium (ranging from 15 to 27
milliequivalents per 100 grams) and the highest
amounts of extractable magnesium (ranging from 6 to
11 milliequivalents per 100 grams) occur in the Chobee
soils. Sodium generally occurs in amounts that are
much less than 0.2 milliequivalent per 100 grams;
however, practically all horizons of the Chobee soils
and the surface horizon of Plantation muck exceed this
value. All soils have one horizon or more that has 0.04
or less milliequivalent per 100 grams extractable
potassium. Some soils have horizons with
nondetectable amounts of potassium.
Values for cation-exchange capacity, an indicator of
plant nutrient-holding capacity, exceed 10
milliequivalents per 100 grams in the surface layer of all
soils except the Oldsmar, Pineda, and Riviera soils.


Enhanced cation-exchange capacities occur in all
argillic horizons. Soils, such as Pineda soils, that have
a low cation-exchange capacity in the surface layer
require only small amounts of lime or sulfur to
significantly alter the base status and soil reaction.
Generally, soils of low inherent soil fertility are
associated with low values for extractable bases and
low cation-exchange capacities, and fertile soils are
associated with high extractable base values, high base
saturation values, and high cation-exchange capacities.
The content of organic carbon is less than 1 percent
throughout the Pineda soils and in all horizons below
the surface layer of the Chobee, Margate, and Riviera
soils. The surface layer of the Margate and Plantation
soils is the only horizon that has more than 4 percent
organic carbon. The best developed spodic horizon
occurring in the Oldsmar soils has enhanced amounts
of organic carbon ranging from 1.28 to 1.77 percent. In
the other soils, the content of organic carbon decreases
rapidly as depth increases. Since the content of organic
carbon in the surface layer is directly related to soil
nutrient- and water-holding capacities of sandy soils,
management practices that conserve and maintain the
amount of organic carbon are highly desirable.
Electrical conductivity values are all very low, ranging
from 0.01 to 0.27 millimhos per centimeter. The highest
electrical conductivity values occur throughout the
Chobee soils. These data indicate that the content of
soluble salt in soils sampled in Hendry County is
insufficient to detrimentally affect the growth of salt-
sensitive plants.
Soil reaction in water ranges from pH 4.1 in the
surface layer of the Oldsmar soils that have a limestone
substratum to pH 8.4 in the C horizon of the Chobee
soils. Soil reaction frequently is lower, about 1.0 pH unit
or less, when determined in potassium chloride and
calcium chloride solutions than in water. Maximum plant
nutrient availability is generally attained when soil
reaction is between pH 6.5 and 7.5; however, under
Florida conditions, maintaining soil reaction above pH
6.5 is not economically feasible for most agricultural
production purposes.
The ratio of pyrophosphate extractable carbon and
aluminum to clay in the Bh horizon of the Oldsmar soils
is sufficient to meet the chemical criteria for spodic
horizons. Pyrophosphate extractable iron and aluminum
ratio to citrate-dithionite extractable iron and aluminum
is also sufficient to meet spodic horizon criteria. Sodium
pyrophosphate extractable iron is 0.05 percent or less
in the spodic horizon of these soils.
Citrate-dithionite extractable iron in the argillic
horizon of Chobee, Pineda, and Riviera soils ranges








Hendry County, Florida


from 0.13 to 1.89 percent. These values in the Bh
horizon of the Oldsmar soils range from 0.03 to 0.11
percent. Aluminum extracted by citrate-dithionite from
the Bt horizon in the Chobee, Pineda, and Riviera soils
ranges from 0.02 to 0.17 percent. The amounts of iron
and aluminum in Hendry County soils are not sufficient
to detrimentally affect phosphorus availability.
Sand fractions of 2.0 millimeters to 0.05 millimeter
are siliceous, and quartz is overwhelmingly dominant in
all pedons. Small amounts of heavy minerals occur in
most horizons with the greatest concentrations in the
very fine sand fraction. No weatherable minerals are
observed. Crystalline mineral components of the clay
fraction of less than 0.002 millimeter are shown in table
19 for major horizons of the pedons sampled. The clay
mineralogical suite is composed mostly of
montmorillonite, a 14-angstrom intergrade, kaolinite,
and quartz. Feldspar and goethite also occur in the
Pineda sand.
Large amounts of montmorillonite occur in all pedons
sampled. The 14-angstrom intergrade is not detectable
in the Chobee soils as well as in several horizons of
Pineda sand and the Oldsmar soils. Kaolinite occurs in
all other horizons for which determinations for clay
identification were performed except in the Bw and Bwl
horizons of the Pineda soils. Varying amounts of quartz
occur in all pedons; however, quartz is not detectable in
the Btgl horizon of Riviera fine sand.
Montmorillonite is dominant in Hendry County soils.
The occurrence of relatively large amounts of
montmorillonite suggests that it is among the most
stable minerals in this neutral or alkaline weathering
environment. Much smaller amounts of montmorillonite
are in most horizons of the Margate and Oldsmar soils
because this mineral is not stable in an acidic
environment. The Chobee soils have a large amount of
clay that is mostly montmorillonitic. Considerable
volume change can result from shrinking and swelling of


montmorillonitic soil materials that have a high content
of clay.
Large amounts of 14-angstrom intergrade minerals
and quartz occur in the Margate and Oldsmar soils
because these are among the most stable clay minerals
in an acidic environment. Clay-size quartz has primarily
resulted from decrements of the silt fraction. Kaolinite
has a tendency to increase as pedon depth increases,
but the tendency is inconsistent. Soils dominated by
montmorillonite have a much higher cation-exchange
capacity and retain more plant nutrients than soils
dominated by 14-angstrom intergrade minerals,
kaolinite, and quartz.

Engineering Index Test Data
Table 20 shows laboratory index test data for several
pedons sampled at carefully selected sites in the survey
area. The pedons are typical of the series and are
described in the section "Soil Series and Their
Morphology." The soil samples were tested by the Soils
Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
Bureau of Materials and Research.
The testing methods generally are those of the
American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials (AASHTO) or the American
Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
The tests and methods are AASHTO classification-
M 145 (AASHTO), D 3282 (ASTM); Unified
classification-D 2487 (ASTM); Mechanical analysis-T
88 (AASHTO), D 2217 (ASTM); Liquid limit-T 89
(AASHTO), D 423 (ASTM); Plasticity index-T 90
(AASHTO), D 424 (ASTM); Moisture density, Method
A-T 99 (AASHTO), D 698 (ASTM); California bearing
ratio-T 193 (AASHTO), D 1883 (ASTM); Shrinkage-T
92 (AASHTO), D 427 (ASTM); Limestone bearing
ratio-Florida Highway Standard; and Volume change
(Abercrombie)-Georgia Highway Standard.





















Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (11).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or on laboratory measurements. Table 21 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
example is Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders,
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquent (Aqu,
meaning water, plus ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property
of the soil. An example is Psammaquents (Psamm,
meaning sandy texture, plus aquent, the suborder of the
Entisols that has an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Psammaquents.


FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup
on the basis of physical and chemical properties and
other characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
properties are those of horizons below plow depth
where there is much biological activity. Among the
properties and characteristics considered are particle-
size class, mineral content, temperature regime, depth
of the root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent,
slope, and permanent cracks. A family name consists of
the name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
soil properties. An example is siliceous, hyperthermic
Typic Psammaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have
similar horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar
in color, texture, structure, reaction, consistence,
mineral and chemical composition, and arrangement in
the profile. There can be some variation in the texture
of the surface layer or of the substratum within a series.


Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area
of soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (10). Many
of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in Soil Taxonomy (11). Unless otherwise stated,
colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following
the pedon description is the range of important
characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in
the section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Adamsville Series


The Adamsville series is a member of the








Soil Survey


hyperthermic, uncoated family of Aquic
Quartzipsamments. It consists of somewhat poorly
drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in sandy
marine sediment. These soils are on low, sandy ridges.
Slope is 0 to 2 percent.
Adamsville soils are associated on the landscape
with Holopaw, Oldsmar, Pompano, and Wabasso soils.
Holopaw soils are poorly drained and have an argillic
horizon. Oldsmar and Wabasso soils have a spodic and
an argillic horizon. Pompano soils are poorly drained.
Typical pedon of Adamsville fine sand; about 0.6 mile
west of Highway 29 and 0.1 mile north of Highway 80 in
La Belle, SE/4SW1/4 sec. 5, T. 43 S., R. 29 E.
A-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; slightly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
C1-5 to 25 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; slightly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
C2-25 to 45 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand;
common medium faint light gray (10YR 7/2) mottles;
single grained; loose; slightly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C3-45 to 70 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
common medium prominent yellowish brown (10YR
5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; slightly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
C4-70 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; single grained; loose; slightly acid.
Silt plus clay content is less than 5 percent in the 10-
to 40-inch control section. Texture is sand or fine sand.
Reaction is very strongly acid to mildly alkaline.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2, or it is neutral in hue and has value of
2 to 5.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1 to 4. Most pedons have mottles in shades
of gray, yellow, or brown.

Adamsville Variant
The Adamsville variant is a member of the
hyperthermic, uncoated family of Aquic
Quartzipsamments. It consists of somewhat poorly
drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in sandy
marine sediment. Slope ranges from 0 to 5 percent.
Adamsville variant soils are associated on the
landscape with Immokalee, Oldsmar, Hallandale, and
Margate soils. All of the associated soils are poorly
drained. Immokalee and Oldsmar soils have a spodic
horizon. In addition, Oldsmar soils have an argillic


horizon at a depth of more than 40 inches. Hallandale
and Margate soils have limestone within a depth of 40
inches.
Typical pedon of Adlamsville variant sand; in a
natural area about 0.5 mile northwest of Clewiston and
0.3 mile southwest of Lake Okeechobee, SEANE4 sec.
9, T. 43 S., R. 34 E.

A-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; slightly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
C1-6 to 15 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single
grained; loose; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
C2-15 to 19 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) sand; common light gray (10YR 7/1) uncoated
sand grains; single grained; loose; slightly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
C3-19 to 49 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single
grained; loose; slightly acid; abrupt smooth
boundary.
Oab-49 to 59 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 70
percent fiber when unrubbed, about 10 percent
when rubbed; weak fine granular structure; friable;
extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
Cb-59 to 80 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand;
single grained; loose; slightly acid.

Reaction is strongly acid to slightly acid in the
mineral material and extremely acid or very strongly
acid in the buried organic horizon. Silt plus clay content
is less than 5 percent in the 10- to 40-inch control
section.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1 to 4. It has many uncoated sand grains.
The buried Oa horizon has hue of 10YR to 5YR,
value of 2, and chroma of 2 or less.
The buried C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or
7, and chroma of 1 to 3. Texture is sand or fine sand.

Basinger Series
The Basinger series is a member of the siliceous,
hyperthermic family of Spodic Psammaquents. It
consists of poorly drained, very rapidly permeable soils
that formed in sandy marine sediment. These soils are
in sloughs and depressions in broad flatwood areas.
Slope is less than 2 percent.
Basinger soils are associated on the landscape with
Immokalee, Margate, Myakka, Pompano, and Valkaria
soils. Immokalee and Myakka soils have a spodic








Hendry County, Florida


horizon. Margate soils have limestone at a depth of 20
to 40 inches. Pompano soils do not have a Bh horizon.
Valkaria soils have a high-chroma Bw horizon.
Typical pedon of Basinger sand; 3.3 miles north of
Sears Road, 1.8 miles east of Highway 29, and about 7
miles south of La Belle, NE/4SEI4 sec. 34, T. 43 S., R.
29 E.

A-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; medium
acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
E-6 to 25 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand;
single grained; loose; medium acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Bh-25 to 50 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
sand; single grained; loose; medium acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
C-50 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) sand;
single grained; loose; slightly acid.

Texture is sand or fine sand to a depth of 80 inches
or more. Reaction is extremely acid to neutral.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 6, and
chroma of 1; has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5,
and chroma of 2; or is neutral in hue and has value of 2
to 4.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR and value of 6 and
chroma of 2 or less, value of 7 and chroma of 4 or less,
or value of 8 and chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral in hue
and has value of 5 to 8. This horizon is 5 to 30 inches
thick.
The Bh horizon is within a depth of 40 inches and
has common to many uncoated sand grains. It
dominantly has hue of 10YR and value and chroma of 3
or 4. Colors are variable, but the value is always more
than one unit darker than the value of the E horizon. In
some pedons this layer is a Bh/E horizon. The Bh part
has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2; hue
of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; hue of 7.5YR,
value of 4, and chroma of 2 to 4; or hue of 5YR, value
of 3, and chroma of 3 or 4. The E part has the same
color range as that of the E horizon.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y and
value of 5 to 8 and chroma of 1 or 2 or value of 4 to 6
and chroma of 3.

Boca Series
The Boca series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic family of Arenic Ochraqualfs. It consists of
poorly drained and very poorly drained, moderately
permeable soils that formed in moderately thick beds of


sandy and loamy marine sediments over limestone.
These soils are on flatwoods and in depressions. Slope
is 0 to 2 percent.
Boca soils are associated on the landscape with
Hallandale, Holopaw, Malabar, Margate, Pineda,
Riviera, and Wabasso soils. Holopaw, Malabar, Pineda,
Riviera, and Wabasso soils are not underlain by
limestone. Hallandale and Margate soils do not have an
argillic horizon. Hallandale soils have limestone within a
depth of 20 inches. Holopaw and Malabar soils have a
Bt horizon at a depth of more than 40 inches. Malabar
and Pineda soils have a high-chroma Bw horizon.
Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Boca sand; about 0.75 mile east of
Florida Highway 29 and 1.125 miles south of Florida
Highway 80, in La Belle, SW/4NE1/4 sec. 16, T. 43 S.,
R. 29 E.

A1-0 to 2 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; strongly
acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
A-2 to 7 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; many black streaks
in root channels; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
E-7 to 27 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
single grained; loose; common very dark grayish
brown streaks in root channels; medium acid;
abrupt wavy boundary.
EB-27 to 28 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
fine sand; single grained; loose; medium acid;
abrupt wavy boundary.
Btg-28 to 33 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
sandy loam; common fine and medium distinct
yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and few fine prominent
red (2.5YR 4/6) mottles; slightly sticky and slightly
plastic; slightly acid; abrupt irregular boundary.
2R-33 inches; angular limestone; fissures and solution
basins at intervals of 1 to 6 feet.

The thickness of the solum and depth to limestone
range from 20 to 40 inches. The depth is greater in
pedons that have solution basins. Depth to the argillic
horizon ranges from 20 to 40 inches in most pedons.
The argillic horizon generally is deeper in pedons that
have solution basins.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 to
5, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is 3 to 9 inches thick. Where
value is less than 3.5, this horizon is less than 6 inches
thick. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to mildly
alkaline.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and








Soil Survey


chroma of 3 or less. Texture is sand or fine sand.
Where present, the EB horizon has hue of 10YR,
value of 3 to 7, and chroma of 2 to 8 or hue of 7.5YR,
value of 4, and chroma of 2. Some pedons have
mottles in shades of brown, yellow, or gray. Texture is
fine sand or sand. Reaction is strongly acid to mildly
alkaline.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to
6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Mottles in shades of gray,
yellow, or brown are common. Texture is sandy loam,
fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. Reaction is slightly
acid to moderately alkaline and can be calcareous in
places near the bedrock.
Some pedons have a 2C horizon that is as much as
3 inches thick. This horizon is partly decomposed,
calcareous material underlain by angular limestone that
has numerous fractures and solution basins.

Chobee Series
The Chobee series is a member of the fine-loamy,
siliceous, hyperthermic family of Typic Argiaquolls. It
consists of very poorly drained, slowly permeable soils
that formed in loamy marine sediment. These soils are
in swamps and marshes. Slope is less than 2 percent.
These soils are taxadjuncts to the Chobee series
because they have a calcic horizon. The calcium
carbonate content is only slightly more than the
minimum for a calcic horizon. This difference, however,
does not significantly affect the use and management of
these soils.
Chobee soils are associated on the landscape with
Boca, Gator, Gentry, Riviera, Wabasso, and Winder
soils. Boca soils do not have a mollic epipedon and
have limestone at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Gator
soils are organic. Gentry soils have an argillic horizon at
a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Wabasso soils have a Bh
horizon that is underlain by a Bt horizon. Winder soils
do not have a mollic epipedon.
Typical pedon of Chobee fine sandy loam,
depressional; about 11.5 miles east of Felda, about 0.5
mile east and 0.4 mile south of the northwest corner of
sec. 29, T. 45 S., R. 31 E.

A-0 to 9 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy loam;
moderate medium granular structure; friable; mildly
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg-9 to 13 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sandy loam;
weak medium granular structure; friable; moderately
alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
Btkg1-13 to 28 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy
clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky


structure; friable; moderately alkaline; calcareous;
gradual wavy boundary.
Btkg2-28 to 39 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy
clay loam; few fine distinct yellow (10YR 7/8)
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; moderately alkaline; calcareous;
clear wavy boundary.
Btkg3-39 to 68 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sandy
clay loam; common medium and coarse prominent
brownish yellow (1 OYR 6/6) mottles; weak coarse
subangular blocky structure; friable; moderately
alkaline; calcareous; clear wavy boundary.
Cg-68 to 80 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sandy
loam; massive; moderately alkaline.

The solum is more than 40 inches thick. In some
pedons a muck layer that is as much as 5 inches thick
is on the surface.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral and has value of 2 or 3.
Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loamy sand.
Reaction is slightly acid to mildly alkaline.
The Btg and Btkg horizons have hue of 10YR, value
of 2 to 7, and chroma of 1; are neutral in hue and have
value of 2 to 7; have hue of 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and
chroma of 2; or have hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 2. Yellowish mottles are in pedons that have
hue of 5Y or 2.5Y. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy
loam, or sandy clay loam. Reaction is slightly acid to
moderately alkaline in the Btg horizon and neutral to
moderately alkaline and calcareous in the Btkg horizon.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 2; hue of 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of
1 or 2; or hue of 5G or 5GY, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1. Some pedons have mottles. Texture is fine
sandy loam, sandy loam, or loamy sand. In some
pedons the Cg horizon is a mixture of sand, shell, and
loamy carbonatic material.

Dania Series
The Dania series is a member of the euic,
hyperthermic, shallow family of Lithic Medisaprists. It
consists of very poorly drained, rapidly permeable,
organic soils that are underlain by limestone. These
soils are mainly in the Everglades. Slope is less than 2
percent.
Dania soils are associated with Lauderhill, Pahokee,
and Terra Ceia soils. Lauderhill and Pahokee soils are
organic and have limestone below a depth of 20 inches.
Terra Ceia soils are muck to a depth of more than 51








Hendry County, Florida


inches and are not underlain by limestone.
Typical pedon of Dania muck; in a sugarcane field
about 20 miles south of Clewiston on the Palm Beach
County line, NEI/4NE1/4 sec. 36, T. 46 S., R. 34 E.

Oap-0 to 6 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; 5 percent
fiber; moderate fine and medium granular structure;
friable; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Oa-6 to 14 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
muck; 30 percent fiber when unrubbed, 5 percent
when rubbed; moderate medium granular structure;
friable; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
C-14 to 18 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sand; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; mildly alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary.
R-18 inches; hard limestone bedrock,

These soils are only 8 to 20 inches thick over
limestone. Reaction is medium acid to neutral in the
organic material and slightly acid to moderately alkaline
in the C horizon.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR to 5YR, value of 2
or 3, and chroma of 1. Fiber content ranges from 5 to
33 percent when unrubbed and is less than 16 percent
when rubbed.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 6, and
chroma of 1 to 3. Texture is sand, fine sand, loamy
sand, or loamy fine sand. This horizon is as much as 6
inches thick. Some pedons do not have a C horizon.
Some pedons have a 2C horizon that has hue of
10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is
calcareous sand, fine sand, sandy loam, or sandy clay
loam. This horizon is as much as 3 inches thick.

Delray Series
The Delray series is a member of the loamy,
siliceous, hyperthermic family of Grossarenic
Argiaquolls. It consists of very poorly drained,
moderately permeable soils that formed in sandy and
loamy marine sediment. These soils are in swamps and
marshes. Slope is less than 2 percent.
Delray soils are associated on the landscape with
Gentry, Gator, Holopaw, Immokalee, Okeelanta,
Oldsmar, and Riviera soils. Gentry and Riviera soils
have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. In
addition, Riviera soils do not have a mollic epipedon.
Immokalee and Oldsmar soils are on adjacent flatwoods
in slightly higher positions on the landscape than the
Delray soils. They have a spodic horizon. Okeelanta
and Gator soils are organic.
Typical pedon of Delray sand, depressional; about


2.15 miles east of the Lee County line and 50 feet
south of Highway 80, NWI/4SW1/4 sec. 28, T. 43 S., R.
28 E.

Al-0 to 15 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; neutral;
gradual wavy boundary.
A2-15 to 22 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
common medium faint gray (10YR 5/1) mottles;
weak medium granular structure; very friable;
slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
E-22 to 50 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single
grained; loose; medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Btg-50 to 62 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
sandy clay loam; weak medium granular structure;
friable; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Cg-62 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam;
massive; friable; about 5 percent, by volume, shell
fragments; neutral.

The A and E horizons combined are 40 to 60 inches
thick. Reaction is medium acid to neutral.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1. Texture is mucky sand, mucky fine sand,
mucky loamy fine sand, sand, or fine sand. This horizon
is 10 to 24 inches thick.
The E horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 10YR, value of 4 to
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Very dark gray or black vertical
streaks less than 1 inch wide are common in the E
horizon. Texture is sand or fine sand.
The Btg horizon has hue of 2.5Y or 10YR, value of 4
to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Many pedons have mottles
in shades of yellow, brown, and gray. Texture is sandy
loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.
Many pedons have a BC horizon that has the same
range in colors as that of the Btg horizon. Texture is
loamy sand or loamy fine sand.
The C horizon is fine sandy loam, loamy fine sand,
fine sand, or sand. Layers of shell, shell fragments, or
marl are in most pedons. Some pedons do not have a
Cg horizon.

Denaud Series
The Denaud series is a member of the coarse-loamy,
siliceous, hyperthermic family of Histic Humaquepts. It
consists of very poorly drained, slowly permeable,
mineral soils that have a histic epipedon. These soils
are in depressional areas fringing the Everglades. Slope
is less than 2 percent.
Denaud soils are associated on the landscape with
Dania, Gator, and Margate soils. Dania and Gator soils








Soil Survey


are organic. Dania and Margate soils are underlain by
limestone within a depth of 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Denaud muck; about 0.53 mile
south of Route 833 and 1.7 miles west of Route 833,
sec. 29, T. 46 S., R. 33 E.

Oa-0 to 11 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; 40 percent
fiber when unrubbed, 10 percent when rubbed;
weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
A-11 to 20 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy
boundary.
AC-20 to 23 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; mildly alkaline; clear wavy
boundary.
Ckg-23 to 42 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sandy loam;
weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
moderately alkaline; strongly effervescent; clear
wavy boundary.
2Ckg-42 to 80 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) gravelly fine
sand; massive; moderately alkaline; strongly
effervescent; 15 percent fine calcareous gravel.

The organic horizon is 9 to 15 inches thick. Mineral
content ranges to as much as 70 percent. Reaction is
medium acid to mildly alkaline.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral in hue and has value of 2
or 3. Organic matter content ranges to as much as 20
percent. Texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy fine sand.
Reaction is medium acid to moderately alkaline. This
horizon is 6 to 16 inches thick.
The AC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6,
and chroma of 1 to 3. Texture is sand or fine sand.
Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately
alkaline. This horizon is as much as 12 inches thick.
The Ck horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value
of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 3 or hue of 5G, 5BG, 5B,
or 5GY, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1. Texture
ranges from loamy fine sand to sandy clay loam.
Reaction is slightly acid to moderately alkaline. This
horizon is 5 to 30 inches thick.
The 2Ck horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value
of 4 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 3 or hue of 5GY, 5G,
5BG, or 5B, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1. Texture
ranges from fine sand to sandy clay loam or gravelly
fine sand to gravelly sandy loam. Some pedons have
shell, carbonates, or marl. Reaction is neutral to
moderately alkaline. This horizon is 14 to 60 inches
thick.
Some pedons have a 3C horizon, which has hue of


5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or hue of 5GY, 5G,
5BG, or 5B, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1. Texture is
sand or fine sand. Reaction is neutral to moderately
alkaline. This horizon is as much as 30 inches thick.

Gator Series
The Gator series is a member of the loamy, siliceous,
euic, hyperthermic family of Terric Medisaprists. It
consists of very poorly drained, moderately permeable,
organic soils that formed in moderately thick organic
material that is underlain by loamy marine sediment.
These soils are in marshes and swamps on the lower
Coastal Plain. Slope is less than 1 percent.
Gator soils are associated on the landscape with
Gentry, Riviera, Wabasso, and Winder soils, which are
mineral soils. Riviera and Winder soils have an argillic
horizon. Gentry soils have a mollic epipedon and an
argillic horizon.
Typical pedon of Gator muck; about 1.6 miles east of
the Seaboard Coast Line railroad and 0.5 mile south of
Sears Road, NE/4SW/4 sec. 20, T. 44 S., R. 30 E.

Oal-0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 30
percent fiber when unrubbed, 5 percent when
rubbed; massive; very friable; neutral; abrupt wavy
boundary.
Oa2-1 0 to 32 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; about 20
percent fiber when unrubbed, 2 percent when
rubbed; massive; friable; neutral; abrupt wavy
boundary.
2A-32 to 35 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sandy loam;
weak medium granular structure; very friable;
neutral; clear wavy boundary.
Cgl-35 to 45 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay loam;
massive; friable; few carbonate nodules; mildly
alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg2-45 to 51 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy clay loam;
common calcium carbonate nodules ranging from
0.2 to 2 centimeters; moderately alkaline.

The muck layer is 16 to 40 inches thick. The Oa
horizon has hue of 10YR to 5YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Fiber content is less than 33 percent
when unrubbed and less than 16 percent when rubbed.
Reaction is very strongly acid to medium acid in 0.01
molar calcium chloride and medium acid to mildly
alkaline by the Hellige-Truog method.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1. Texture is sandy clay loam, sandy loam,
or fine sandy loam.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 4 to 6,








Hendry County, Florida


and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is sand to sandy clay
loam. Reaction is slightly acid to moderately alkaline.
Some pedons have a loamy fine sand C horizon that is
3 to 10 inches thick.

Gentry Series
The Gentry series is a member of the loamy,
siliceous, hyperthermic family of Arenic Argiaquolls. It
consists of very poorly drained, slowly permeable soils
that formed in loamy marine sediment. Slope is less
than 2 percent.
Gentry soils are associated on the landscape with
Chobee, Delray, Gator, Riviera, and Winder soils.
Chobee soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of less
than 20 inches. Delray soils have an A horizon that is
more than 40 inches thick. Gator soils are organic.
Riviera and Winder soils do not have a mollic epipedon.
Typical pedon of Gentry fine sand, depressional;
about 2.7 miles east of the Lee County line and 7.5
miles south of Highway 80, SW/4SE1/4 sec. 33, T. 44 S.,
R. 28 E.

A1-0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; neutral;
gradual wavy boundary.
A2-10 to 22 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sand; common medium distinct gray (10YR 5/1)
mottles and streaks; weak medium granular
structure; very friable; neutral; clear irregular
boundary.
Btgl-22 to 50 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy clay
loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; common vertical streaks of sand; neutral;
gradual wavy boundary.
Btg2-50 to 75 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; few sand pockets; mildly alkaline; clear wavy
boundary.
Cg-75 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy loam; few
fine faint white (10YR 8/1) carbonate mottles;
massive; friable; moderately alkaline.

The solum is 50 to 80 inches or more thick. Reaction
is medium acid to neutral in the A horizon and slightly
acid to moderately alkaline in the B and C horizons.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 3 or 4,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have mottles in
shades of gray and brown and pockets of uncoated
sand grains. Texture is sand or fine sand. This horizon
is 20 to 28 inches thick.


The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5,
and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 3 or
4, and chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have gray,
yellow, brown, or olive mottles and tongues or
intrusions of sandy material extending downward from
the Al horizon. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam,
or sandy clay loam.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is sand, fine sand, fine sandy
loam, or sandy loam. Some pedons have shell
fragments or marl.

Hallandale Series
The Hallandale series is a member of the siliceous,
hyperthermic family of Lithic Psammaquents. It consists
of poorly drained and very poorly drained soils that
formed in sandy marine sediment underlain by shallow,
fractured limestone. Permeability is moderately rapid or
rapid. These soils are on broad, low flats and in
depressions. Slope is less than 1 percent.
Hallandale soils are associated on the landscape
with Basinger, Boca, Malabar, Margate, Pineda, and
Riviera soils. Basinger, Malabar, Pineda, and Riviera
soils do not have limestone bedrock within a depth of
50 inches. Boca and Margate soils have limestone
bedrock at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Pineda and
Riviera soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to
40 inches. Malabar soils have an argillic horizon at a
depth of more than 40 inches. Basinger soils are sandy
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typical pedon of Hallandale sand; about 200 feet
east of the Lee County line and 0.2 mile south of the
Glades County line, SW1/4NW/4 sec. 6, T. 43 S., R. 28
E.

A-0 to 4 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; medium acid; abrupt
wavy boundary.
C-4 to 16 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
grained; loose; slightly acid; abrupt irregular
boundary.
2R-16 inches; fractured limestone and solution basins;
mottles of grayish brown sandy clay loam and
weathered rock fragments in basins.

The thickness of the solum and depth to limestone
generally range from 7 to 20 inches. The depth to
limestone can range to 50 inches or more in pedons
that have fractures and solution basins. Texture
generally is sand or fine sand, but loamy or calcareous
material is in some cracks and solution basins.








Soil Survey


The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
6, and chroma of 1. Reaction is strongly acid to neutral.
Some pedons have an E horizon that has hue of
10YR and value of 4 to 7 and chroma of 1 or value of 5
or 6 and chroma of 2.
Some pedons have a Bw horizon that has hue of
10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3. Reaction is
medium acid to moderately alkaline.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR and value of 4 and
chroma of 1 or 2, value of 5 or 6 and chroma of 1 to 3,
value of 7 and chroma of 1 to 4, or value of 8 and
chroma of 3 or 4. Some pedons do not have a C
horizon.
The 2R horizon is fractured limestone that has
solution basins. Fractures in the limestone range from 4
to 12 inches or more wide. The solution basins range
from 4 inches to 3 feet in diameter and occur at
intervals of about 1 to 6 feet. They can have a
discontinuous Bt horizon consisting of brown or
yellowish brown sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy
clay loam. In the deeper holes the Bt horizon generally
is thicker and has a finer texture. Most holes contain
soft, carbonatic material or small fragments of
weathered limestone.

Holopaw Series
The Holopaw series is a member of the loamy,
siliceous, hyperthermic family of Grossarenic
Ochraqualfs. It consists of poorly drained and very
poorly drained, moderately slowly permeable soils that
formed in sandy and loamy marine sediments. These
soils are in sloughs and depressions on the lower
Coastal Plain. Slope is less than 2 percent.
Holopaw soils are associated on the landscape with
Delray, Gentry, Immokalee, Malabar, Riviera, and
Oldsmar soils. Delray and Gentry soils have a mollic
epipedon. Immokalee soils do not have an argillic
horizon at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Oldsmar soils
have a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Holopaw sand; about 0.7 mile east
of the Lee County line and 1.15 miles south of the
Glades County line, NW/4NE1/4 sec. 7, T. 43 S., R. 28
E.

A-0 to 5 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; slightly acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
Egl-5 to 15 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; single grained; loose; neutral; clear wavy
boundary.
Eg2-15 to 34 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; few


fine prominent brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles;
single grained; loose; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
Eg3-34 to 48 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; single grained; loose; mildly alkaline; abrupt
wavy boundary.
Btg-48 to 65 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy
clay loam; common medium distinct olive brown
(2.5Y 4/4) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; friable, slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
mildly alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary.
BC-65 to 80 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sandy
loam; massive; slightly sticky and slightly plastic;
many soft and hard nodules of calcium carbonate;
moderately alkaline.

The solum is 50 to 80 inches or more thick.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2 to
4, and chroma of 1 or 2. The E horizon has hue of
10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2.
The upper 30 inches of the E horizon can have mottles
in shades of yellow and brown. Texture of the A and E
horizons is sand or fine sand. Reaction is strongly acid
to neutral.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to
7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Mottles are in shades of brown
or yellow. Texture is sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately
alkaline.
The BC horizon is similar in color to the Bt horizon.
Texture is sandy loam or fine sandy loam. Some
pedons do not have a BC horizon.
Some pedons have a Cg horizon that has hue of
10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2.
Texture is sand or loamy sand mixed with shell
fragments or calcium carbonate nodules, or both.

Immokalee Series
The Immokalee series is a member of the sandy,
siliceous, hyperthermic family of Arenic Haplaquods. It
consists of poorly drained, moderately permeable soils
that formed in sandy marine sediment. These soils are
in broad flatwood areas. Slope is less than 2 percent.
Immokalee soils are associated on the landscape
with Basinger, Malabar, Myakka, Oldsmar, Pompano,
and Valkaria soils. Basinger and Pompano soils are in
sloughs and do not have a spodic horizon. Malabar and
Valkaria soils have a Bw horizon. Malabar soils also
have an argillic horizon. Myakka soils have a spodic
horizon at a depth of less than 30 inches. Oldsmar soils
have an argillic horizon beneath the spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Immokalee sand; about 0.6 mile








Hendry County, Florida


north of Florida Highway 80 and 0.25 mile west of
Florida Highway 78A, SE4SE/4 sec. 21, T. 43 S., R. 28
E.

A-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and
medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Egl-5 to 25 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; common
medium distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) mottles and
streaks along root channels; single grained; loose;
common fine roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Eg2-25 to 40 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; few
medium distinct dark gray streaks along root
channels; single grained; loose; few fine and
medium roots; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Bh-40 to 55 inches; black (5YR 2/1) sand; weak fine
granular structure; friable; few medium roots; very
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
Bw-55 to 70 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
C-70 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; single grained; loose; medium acid.

The texture is sand or fine sand to a depth of 80
inches or more. Reaction is very strongly acid to
medium acid except where lime has been added or the
soil has been irrigated with alkaline water.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2 or is neutral and has value of 2 to 4.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 2. Some pedons have brownish or yellowish
mottles. The combined thickness of the A and E
horizons is 30 to 50 inches.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma
of 1 to 3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or
hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. If
the sand grains are well coated with organic matter, this
horizon can have hue of 10YR and value and chroma of
3.
The Bw horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5,
and chroma of 3 or 4 or hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and
chroma of 2. Some pedons have mottles in shades of
yellow, brown, and gray.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR and value of 4 to 6
and chroma of 1 or 2 or value of 7 and chroma of 3 or
4. Some pedons have yellow, brown, or gray mottles.
In some pedons the Bh or Bw horizon is underlain by
a second sequum of E' and B'h horizons. The E'


horizon has the same range in colors as that of the E
horizon, and the B'h horizon has the same range in
colors as that of the Bh horizon.

Jupiter Series
The Jupiter series is a member of the sandy,
siliceous, hyperthermic family of Lithic Haplaquolls. It
consists of poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that
formed in thin beds of sandy marine sediment underlain
by limestone. These soils are on low hammocks and
flats adjacent to sloughs and marshes. Slope is 0 to 1
percent.
Jupiter soils are associated on the landscape with
Boca, Gator, Hallandale, and Riviera soils. Boca soils
have an argillic horizon and have limestone at a depth
of 20 to 40 inches. Gator soils are organic. Hallandale
soils do not have a mollic epipedon. Riviera soils have
an argillic horizon, but they do not have a mollic
epipedon or limestone bedrock within a depth of 50
inches.
Typical pedon of Jupiter fine sand; about 2.8 miles
east of the Collier County line and 1.3 miles south of
Wingate Road, SE1/4NE14 sec. 21, T. 48 S., R. 31 E.

A1-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; slightly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
A2-6 to 14 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
neutral; abrupt irregular boundary.
2R-14 inches; fractured limestone that has many
solution basins.

The depth to fractured limestone is 10 to 20 inches in
the major part of each pedon, but limestone is at a
depth of more than 20 inches in some part of each
pedon. Texture is sand or fine sand throughout the
profile. Reaction is slightly acid to moderately alkaline.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 3, and chroma
of 2.
Some pedons have a C horizon that has hue of
10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of
2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2.

Lauderhill Series
The Lauderhill series is a member of the euic,
hyperthermic family of Lithic Medisaprists. It consists of
very poorly drained, rapidly permeable, organic soils
that formed in deposits of well decomposed organic
matter underlain by limestone. These soils are in








Soil Survey


depressions and marshes. Slope is less than 2 percent.
Lauderhill soils are associated on the landscape with
Basinger, Gator, Margate, Okeelanta, Oldsmar,
Pahokee, Plantation, and Terra Ceia soils. Basinger,
Margate, Oldsmar, and Plantation are mineral soils.
Gator and Okeelanta soils do not have limestone
bedrock within a depth of 51 inches. Pahokee soils
have limestone at a depth of more than 36 inches.
Typical pedon of Lauderhill muck; about 0.6 mile
west of the Palm Beach County line, about 18.7 miles
south of Clewiston, SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 13, T. 46 S., R. 34
E.

Oal-0 to 24 inches; muck, black (5YR 2/1) when
unrubbed, dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) when
rubbed; about 50 percent fiber when unrubbed, 10
percent when rubbed; massive; friable; slightly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Oa2-24 to 31 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
muck; about 40 percent fiber when unrubbed, 10
percent when rubbed; massive; friable; neutral;
abrupt wavy boundary.
Oa3-31 to 35 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; about 10
percent fiber when rubbed and unrubbed; massive;
friable; mildly alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary.
R-35 inches; hard limestone.

The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR to 5YR, value of 2,
and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 10YR to 5YR, value of
3, and chroma of 2 or 3. Fiber content is less than 16
percent when rubbed. Mineral content ranges from 5 to
40 percent. Reaction is medium acid to mildly alkaline.
This horizon is 16 to 36 inches thick. Limestone is at a
depth of 20 to 40 inches.
Some pedons have a C horizon, which has hue of
10YR, value of 2 to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is
sand, loamy sand, or sandy loam. Some pedons have
carbonatic material.

Malabar Series
The Malabar series is a member of the loamy,
siliceous, hyperthermic family of Grossarenic
Ochraqualfs. It consists of poorly drained and very
poorly drained, slowly permeable soils that formed in
beds of sandy and loamy marine sediments. These
nearly level soils are in sloughs in broad flatwood
areas.
Malabar soils are associated on the landscape with
Holopaw, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Riviera soils. Pineda
and Riviera soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of
20 to 40 inches. Riviera and Holopaw soils do not have


a Bw horizon. Oldsmar soils have a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Malabar sand; about 3.3 miles east
of the Seaboard Coast Line railroad and 1.2 miles south
of Sears Road, NW'/4NW/4 sec. 28, T. 44 S., R. 30 E.

A-0 to 5 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; slightly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
E-5 to 15 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand;
single grained; loose; slightly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Bwl-15 to 20 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/4)
sand; single grained; loose; slightly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Bw2-20 to 27 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8)
sand; single grained; loose; slightly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
Bw3-27 to 35 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
sand; single grained; loose; slightly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
E'-35 to 45 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; single grained; loose; neutral; abrupt irregular
boundary.
Btg1-45 to 55 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay
loam; common medium distinct brownish yellow
(10YR 6/6) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; neutral; clear wavy
boundary.
Btg2-55 to 65 inches; gray (N 6/0) sandy loam; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; mildly
alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary.
Cg-65 to 80 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) stratified
sand and loamy sand; single grained; loose; about
5 percent, by volume, shell fragments; mildly
alkaline.

The solum is 46 to 90 inches thick. Reaction is
medium acid to moderately alkaline.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1; hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma
of 2; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 2.
Texture is sand or fine sand.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5
or 6, and chroma of 2; hue of 10YR, value of 6 to 8,
and chroma of 3; or hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and
chroma of 4. Texture is sand or fine sand.
The Bw horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7,
and chroma of 4 to 8; hue of 10YR, value of 6, and
chroma of 3; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma
of 6 to 8. Texture is sand or fine sand.
The E' horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to
7, and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6 or 7,








Hendry County, Florida


and chroma of 2. Texture is sand or fine sand.
The Btg horizon begins at a depth of 40 to 72 inches.
It has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1;
has hue of 5Y, value of 5, and chroma of 1 or 2; has
hue of 5Y, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 1; or is
neutral in hue and has value of 5 to 7. Many pedons
have mottles in shades of brown or yellow. Texture is
fine sandy loam, sandy clay loam, or sandy loam.
Pockets or lenses of coarser or finer material are in
many pedons.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5
to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2 or hue of 5Y, value of 5, and
chroma of 1. Texture is fine sand or sand that has
lenses or pockets of loamy material. The content of
shell fragments is as much as 50 percent.

Margate Series
The Margate series is a member of the siliceous,
hyperthermic family of Mollic Psammaquents. It consists
of poorly drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in
sandy marine sediment underlain by limestone. These
soils are on low flats and in sloughs. Slope is 0 to 2
percent.
Margate soils are associated on the landscape with
Boca, Gator, Hallandale, Okeelanta, Oldsmar, Pahokee,
Plantation, and Terra Ceia soils. Boca soils are in
slightly higher positions on the landscape than the
Margate soils and have an argillic horizon. Gator,
Okeelanta, and Terra Ceia soils are organic. Oldsmar
soils have a spodic horizon. Plantation soils have a
muck surface layer. Hallandale soils have bedrock at a
depth of 20 inches or less.
Typical pedon of Margate sand; about 5 miles south
of Clewiston and 4.25 miles west of State Road 832,
NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 7, T. 44 S., R. 34 E.

Ap-0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; medium acid; clear
smooth boundary.
E-10 to 18 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sand; single
grained; loose; slightly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
Bw-18 to 24 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand;
single grained; loose; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy
boundary.
C-24 to 30 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
gravelly sand; single grained; loose; 40 percent
shell and 20 percent limestone gravel; moderately
alkaline; abrupt irregular boundary.
2R-30 inches; limestone.

The thickness of the solum and depth to limestone


range from 20 to 40 inches, but solution basins in each
pedon range to a depth of 60 inches or more. Texture is
dominantly sand or fine sand throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1. Reaction is very strongly acid to medium
acid.
The E horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 to 4. Reaction is strongly acid to slightly
acid.
The Bw horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6,
and chroma of 2 or 3. Reaction is slightly acid to mildly
alkaline.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 3 to 6. It has as much as 40 percent shell or
fine weathered limestone gravel, or both. Solution
basins in the underlying limestone are 6 inches to 3 feet
in diameter.

Myakka Series
The Myakka series is a member of the sandy,
siliceous, hyperthermic family of Aeric Haplaquods. It
consists of poorly drained, moderately permeable soils
that formed in sandy marine sediment. These soils are
in broad flatwood areas and shallow depressions. Slope
is less than 2 percent.
Myakka soils are associated on the landscape with
Basinger, Immokalee, Oldsmar, Valkaria, and Wabasso
soils. Basinger soils are in sloughs and do not have a
spodic horizon. Immokalee and Oldsmar soils have a
spodic horizon at a depth of more than 30 inches.
Oldsmar soils have an argillic horizon beneath the
spodic horizon. Valkaria soils are in sloughs, have a Bw
horizon, and do not have a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Myakka sand; 3 miles east of
Florida Highway 29 and 1.8 miles south of Florida
Highway 80, SE14SE14 sec. 14, T. 43 S., R. 29 E.
A-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; weak
fine granular structure; very friable; common fine
and medium roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
E-6 to 26 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
grained; loose; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
Bhl-26 to 40 inches; black (5YR 2/1) sand; weak
medium granular structure; friable; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Bh2-40 to 60 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C-60 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grained; slightly acid.




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