• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Index to map units
 List of Tables
 Foreword
 Location of St. Johns County in...
 General nature of the county
 How this survey was made
 General soil map units
 General soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soils series and their morphol...
 Formation of the soils
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of St. Johns County, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025729/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of St. Johns County, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 1, 196 p. 56 folded p. of plates : ill., maps (1 col.) ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Readle, Elmer L
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Soil Science Dept
Florida -- Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Publisher: The Service
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: [1983]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Saint Johns County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Saint Johns County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 111.
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations, and Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Issued October 1983--P. iii.
General Note: Includes glossary and indexes to map sheets and units.
General Note: Item 102-B-9
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025729
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001285213
notis - AGD5876
oclc - 11398691
lccn - 83603456

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
        Page ia
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Index to map units
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    Location of St. Johns County in Florida
        Page viii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    How this survey was made
        Page 7
        Page 8
    General soil map units
        Page 9
        Soil descriptions
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
    General soil map units
        Page 15
        Soil descriptions
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
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            Page 33
            Page 34
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            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
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            Page 40
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            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 55
        Crops and pasture
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 58
            Page 59
        Recreation
            Page 60
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 61
        Engineering
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
    Soil properties
        Page 67
        Engineering index properties
            Page 67
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 68
        Soil and water features
            Page 69
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
        Engineering index test data
            Page 73
            Page 74
    Classification of the soils
        Page 75
    Soils series and their morphology
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
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        Page 91
        Page 92
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        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
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        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Formation of the soils
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Reference
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Glossary
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Tables
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
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        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
    General soil map
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Index to map sheets
        Page 199
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
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        Page 50
        Page 51
Full Text

_' j States
Department of
Agriculture
Soil
Conservation
Service


In cooperation with
University of Florida,
Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment
Stations and Soil Science
Department, and
Florida Department of
Agriculture and
Consumer Services


Soil Survey of

St. Johns County,

Florida


c"MS
I..1


r .
p


J


a;


*


k-~"
r-








Locate your area of interest on
1 the "Index to Map Sheets" (the
last page of this publication).


Locate your area of interest
3. on the map sheet.



Si' = T

^-^.1 / ^
X^/''/' y/ r \f -'


HOW TO U4







^ -
Kokomo




Note the number of the map
S sheet and turn to that sheel


List the map unit symbols
4. that are in your area


Symbols

, 27C
-56B
-131B
-134A
-148B


151C






HIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to "Index to Soil Map Units"
5. which lists the name of each map unit and the
page where that map unit is described.










See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6. Contents) for location of additional data
on a specific soil use.


Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of
Agriculture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of
race, color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1981. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1981. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in
this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1978. This survey was
made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment
Stations and Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to the
St. Johns Soil and Water Conservation District. The St. Johns County Board of
Commissioners contributed financially to the acceleration of the survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.
This survey supercedes the soil survey of St. Johns County published in 1920
(16).

Cover: Castillo de San Marcos National Monument in St. Augustine. The soils
are in the St. Augustine-Urban land complex.


II


















Contents


Index to map units ................................... ............
Summary of tables................................. ...............
Foreword...................................... ...........................
General nature of the county.......................................
How this survey was made..........................................
General soil map units...............................................
Soil descriptions ................................... ..............
Detailed soil map units ..............................................
Soil descriptions ................................... ..............
Use and management of the soils ..........................
Crops and pasture............................. ............
Woodland management and productivity .................
Recreation ........................................... ...............
Wildlife habitat ........................................ ..............


iv
v
vii
1
7
9
9
15
16
55
55
58
60
61


Engineering .......................................... ...............
Soil properties ......................................... .............
Engineering index properties....................................
Physical and chemical properties............................
Soil and water features.......................... .............
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
selected soils............................... ...............
Engineering index test data......................................
Classification of the soils............................ .......
Soil series and their morphology...................................
Formation of the soils............................. .............
References ............................................. ...............
Glossary .................................................................
Tables ......................................................................


Soil Series


Adamsville series.......................................................
Adamsville Variant.................................... ..............
Astatula series ...............................................................
Bakersville series.......................................................
Bluff series ................................................... ...............
Cassia series....................................................................
Durbin series .................................................................
EauGallie series...........................................................
ElIzey series..................................................................
Floridana series ..................................... ............
Fripp series ..................................................................
Holopaw series ..............................................................
Hontoon series ........................................ ...............
Immokalee series ............................................................
Jonathan series ..................................... ............
Manatee series..............................................................
M oultrie series ............................................ ...............
Myakka series.................................................................
Narcoossee series ........................................ .............
Ona series ........................................................................
Orsino series...................................................................
Palm Beach series .............................................. ............
Paola series ................................................ ...............


75
76
77
77
78
79
80
80
81
82
83
83
84
85
85
86
87
88
88
89
90
91
91


Parkwood series..................................... ..............
Pellicer series............................... ...............
Placid series...............................................
Pomello series ................................... ................
Pomona series ............................................................
Pompano series............................... .................
Pottsburg series............................................................
Riviera series ...................... ....... .............
Samsula series .................................. ...............
Satellite series ........................... ............
Sm yrna series...................................... .............
Sparr series.......................................... .......... .......
St. Augustine series ............................ ......... ..
St. Johns series ............................... ........................
Tavares series ........................................ .......... ...
Terra Ceia series............... .. .............
Tisonia series............................... ..........
Tocoi series................................... ..............
Tomoka series ............................... .. ................
Wabasso series ............. ...... .......
W esconnett series........................................ ......... ....
W inder series .............................................. ...............
Zolfo series ............................................... .................


Issued October 1983


iii


62
67
67
68
69

70
73
75
75
109
111
113
121


92
93
93
94
95
96
96
97
98
99
99
100
101
102
103
103
104
104
105
105
106
107
108

















Index to Map Units


1-Adamsville fine sand.............................................
2-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes..............
3-Myakka fine sand ...............................................
4-Myakka fine sand, depressional ............................
5-St. Johns fine sand, depressional .........................
6-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ..............
7-Immokalee fine sand..........................................
8- Zolfo fine sand...........................................................
9-Pomona fine sand ...............................................
11--Smyrna fine sand ................................................
12-Ona fine sand ................................... ..............
13-St. Johns fine sand .............................................
14-Cassia fine sand...................................................
15-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes............
16-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes...............
18-Floridana fine sand, frequently flooded................
19-Pompano fine sand.............................................
21-Wabasso fine sand ...............................................
22-Manatee fine sandy loam, frequently flooded.....
23-Paola fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes ................
24-Pellicer silty clay loam, frequently flooded...........
25-Parkwood fine sandy loam, frequently flooded...
26- Samsula muck .................................. ..............
27-St. Augustine fine sand ........................................
28-Beaches ........................................... ..............
29-Satellite fine sand............................... .............
30-Wesconnett fine sand, frequently flooded...........
31--Fripp-Satellite complex...........................................
32-Palm Beach sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.............
33-Jonathan fine sand ..............................................
34-Tocoi fine sand................................... ............


16
16
17
17
18
18
20
20
21
22
22
23
24
24
25
25
27
27
28
28
29
29
31
31
32
32
33
33
35
36
36


35-Hontoon muck.................................. ...............
36-Riviera fine sand, frequently flooded ..................
38- Pits ................................................. ...................
40-Pottsburg fine sand.............................................
41-Tomoka muck ........................................ ...........
42-Bluff sandy clay loam, frequently flooded............
44-Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.................
45-St. Augustine fine sand, clayey substratum.........
46-Holopaw fine sand ..................................................
47-Holopaw fine sand, frequently flooded.................
48-Winder fine sand, frequently flooded ..................
49-Moultrie fine sand, frequently flooded ..................
50-Narcoossee fine sand, shelly substratum ............
51-St. Augustine-Urban land complex......................
52-Durbin muck, frequently flooded ...........................
53-Immokalee-Urban land complex............................
54-Astatula-Urban land complex.................................
55-Arents, 0 to 2 percent slopes..............................
57-Adamsville Variant fine sand .................................
58-EauGallie fine sand .........................................
61-Riviera fine sand, depressional ......................
62-Floridana fine sand ..............................................
63-Placid fine sand ...................................................
64-Ellzey fine sand ................,.................. ............
65-Riviera fine sand.............................. ...............
66-Terra Ceia muck, frequently flooded ..................
67-Tisonia mucky peat, frequently flooded................
68-Winder fine sand ...............................................
69-Bakersville muck ...............................................


iv


37
37
38
38
39
39
40
40
41
42
42
43
43
44
45
45
45
46
47
47
48
49
49
50
51
52
52
53
53

















Summary of Tables


Temperature and precipitation (table 1)......................................................... 122
Freeze data (table 2) .......................................................................................... 122
Soil ratings and limiting properties for selected uses, by general soil map
unit (table 3)..................................................................................................... 123
Map unit. Percentage of survey area. Potential and
limitations for-Cropland, Pasture, Pine trees, Septic tank
absorption fields, Building sites, Local roads and streets.
Degree and kind of limitations for recreation areas.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4)................................ 128
Acres. Percent.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 5) ............................................. 129
Irish potatoes. Cabbage. Corn. Grain sorghum.
Bahiagrass. Grass-clover.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 6).................................................. 132
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Woodland management and productivity (table 7)........................................ 133
Ordination symbol. Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 8)................................................................ 136
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and trails.
Golf fairways.
W wildlife habitat (table 9) ..................................................................................... 140
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat for-
Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland wildlife.
Building site development (table 10) .............................................................. 143
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial buildings.
Local roads and streets. Lawns and landscaping.
Sanitary facilities (table 11)................................................................................ 147
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill. Area sanitary landfill Daily cover
for landfill.
Construction materials (table 12).................................................................... 152
Roadfil. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
Water management (table 13)........................................................................... 156
Limitations for-Embankments, dikes, and levees; Aquifer-
fed excavated ponds. Features affecting-Drainage,
Irrigation, Terraces and diversions, Grassed waterways.


v




















Engineering index properties (table 14) ......................................................... 161
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified, AASHTO.
Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percentage passing
sieve number-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plasticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 15) ............................. 167
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density. Permeability. Available
water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Erosion factors.
Wind erodibility group. Organic matter.
Soil and water features (table 16)..................................................................... 171
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Subsidence.
Risk of corrosion.
Water table depths (table 17)............................................................................ 174
Physical analyses of selected soils (table 18)............................................... 175
Depth. Horizon. Particle-size distribution. Hydraulic
conductivity Bulk density. Water content.
Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 19)............................................. 182
Depth. Horizon. Extractable bases. Extractable acidity
Cation exchange capacity. Base saturation. Organic
carbon. Electrical conductivity. pH. Pyrophosphate
extractable. Citrate dithionite extractable.
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 20).................................................. 190
Depth. Horizon. Percentage of clay minerals-
Montmorillonite, 14 angstrom intergrade, Kaolinite,
Gibbsite, Quartz.
Engineering index test data (table 21) ........................................................... 193
Classification. Mechanical analysis. Liquid limit. Plasticity
index. Moisture density.
Classification of the soils (table 22).................................................................. 196
Family or higher taxonomic class.


vi


I I

















Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning
programs in St. Johns County, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior
for selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards
inherent in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the
impact of selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers,
students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal,
and pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and
enhance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock.
Some are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads.
Clayey or wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A
high water table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground
installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.






James W. Mitchell
State Conservationist
V Soil Conservation Service


vii































PENSACOLA


APPROXIMATE SCALES


0 50 100

MILES


0 100 200
I I I I
KILOMETERS













* State Agricultural Experiment Station


Location of St. Johns County In Florida.














Soil Survey of

St. Johns County, Florida


By Elmer L. Readle, Soil Conservation Service

Others participating in the fieldwork were Robert Baldwin, Alfred O. Jones,
David A. Howell, and William B. Warmack, Soil Conservation Service


United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with
University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services


ST. JOHNS COUNTY, the oldest county in the state, is
on the Atlantic coast in the northeastern part of the
Florida Peninsula. The total area of the county is
389,760 acres, or 609 square miles, including
approximately 1,610 acres of water.
St. Augustine, the county seat and oldest continuously
occupied European settlement in the nation, is in the
east-central part of the county on the Atlantic Ocean.
The population is primarily centered in and around St.
Augustine and in the northeastern and northwestern
parts of the county. The total population of the county is
about 44,000. St. Augustine, with a population of about
12,000, is the largest city.
Agriculture, forestry, and tourism are the main
businesses. Some light manufacturing industries are
located in the county, but the county is not highly
industrialized. The manufacturing of shrimp boats and
other small commercial vessels is an important industry
in St. Augustine. Companies that specialize in
overhauling and refurbishing small commercial aircraft
and military aircraft are growing businesses.


General Nature of the County
The following paragraphs describe the environmental
and cultural factors that affect the use and management
of soils in St. Johns County-the climate, the history and
development, the natural resources, farming,
transportation, recreation, and geology, physiography,
and drainage.


Climate
Prepared by the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina,
and by the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences, Hastings Experiment Station.
St. Johns County has a subtropical maritime climate
(13). It is characterized by long, warm, humid summers
and mild, dry winters. The average temperature in
summer is 80 degrees F, and the average temperature in
winter is 62 degrees. Both summer and winter
temperatures are moderated by nearness to the Atlantic
Ocean to the east and the St. Johns River to the west.
Temperatures are less extreme at St. Augustine and
along the coast than at Hastings and the central part of
the county.
Table 1 shows data on temperature and precipitation,
as recorded at St. Augustine in the period 1951 to 1972.
In winter the average daily minimum temperature is 46
degrees F. The lowest temperature on record, which
occurred at St. Augustine on January 21, 1967, is 19
degrees. In summer the average daily maximum
temperature is 89 degrees. The highest recorded
temperature, which occurred at St. Augustine on August
19, 1972, is 102 degrees.
During summer months the average day-to-day
temperature is fairly uniform. Afternoon temperatures
reach 90 degrees F or higher with great regularity and at
night may fall to the low 70's. Daytime temperatures
rarely exceed 95 degrees because of the cooling effects
of sea breezes near the coast and of thunderstorms
1







Soil Survey


farther inland. Temperatures may dip 10 to 15 degrees
during thundershowers.
Temperatures in winter vary considerably from day to
day as periodic cold fronts move southward across the
state. Temperatures may vary from the 70's during mid-
day to an early morning low in the high 30's.
Temperatures of 32 degrees F or lower occur on the
average of about 10 times per year. Temperatures
usually rise above freezing during the day. On the
average, the first freeze in fall is December 8, and the
last frost in spring is February 20. Freeze data are
shown in table 2.
The average annual rainfall is about 55 inches.
Approximately 56 percent of the total annual rainfall falls
during the rainy season, which lasts from June through
the middle of October. The remainder is evenly
distributed during the rest of the year; about 2 to 3
inches generally falls each month. Summer rains occur
as convective afternoon and early evening
thundershowers. These showers, which are local and of
short duration, may produce 3 or more inches of rain in
an hour or more. During the latter part of September and
early in fall, when temperatures moderate, these
showers occur earlier in the day and their frequency
diminishes. Although thundershowers occur with greatest
frequency during summer, they may occur in all seasons.
Late in spring the thundershowers may produce intense
wind and be accompanied by hailstorms. Depending on
the size and duration, these storms may cause extensive
damage in vegetable-growing areas. Daylong rains in
summer are rare and are usually associated with tropical
storms. Precipitation during drier months is usually
associated with large scale weather developments and
may occur during any part of the day and last longer.
Tropical disturbances, or storms, can affect the area at
any time from June to November; the peak periods occur
from June through September. These storms produce
very high winds and copious rainfall, which may affect
weather conditions for several days. Intense rains may
cause considerable damage and flood the low-lying
areas. The chance of wind reaching hurricane force-74
miles per hour or greater-is about 1 in 40.
The occurrence of snow in St. Johns County is rare.
The only measurable snowfall at St. Augustine was 2
inches, which was on February 2, 1951.
Heavy fog is common early in the morning in fall and
winter, but it usually dissipates soon after sunrise. Dew is
usually heavy in the morning because of the high
humidity. The relative humidity in the afternoon ranges
from 40 to 50 percent and may rise to 90 or 95 percent
by early morning.
Prevailing winds are easterly from the ocean but often
are from the southwest or northwest. Windspeed is
usually 10 to 12 miles per hour but is slightly higher late
in February through March.


History and Development
Dr. Michael C. Scardaville, historian, Historic St. Augustine
Preservation Board, helped prepare this section.
In 1565, Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles, one of
Spain's most renowned captains, founded St. Augustine,
St. Johns County's largest city and county seat. He
came to expel the French from the land Ponce de Leon
had claimed for Spain 52 years before and to plant a
colony in a wilderness that had defeated six previous
attempts at settlement (8). Menendez defeated the
French; afterwards he devoted his resources to the
development of a permanent colony. Founded 42 years
before Jamestown, Virginia, and 55 years before the
Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock, St. Augustine is the
oldest permanent European settlement in the United
States.
Located on the northern frontier of Spain's New-World
empire, St. Augustine played an important role in the
defense of that realm. Spanish treasure galleons on their
way home laden with gold and silver from Mexico and
Peru sailed the swift Gulf Stream through the Bahama
channel past the east coast of Florida. To safeguard the
vital route and to provide a haven for survivors of
shipwrecks, the Spanish crown kept a permanent
garrison in St. Augustine. The community became
primarily a military settlement, and the Franciscan order
whose friars came to Florida in the late 16th century as
Christian missionaries to the Indians, made St. Augustine
their headquarters for a chain of missions (7).
In response to pirate attacks and English settlements
in South Carolina, Spain began to bolster her defenses
in Florida. In 1672, work began on an impressive stone
fortress, the Castillo de San Marcos (3). The Castillo
stood off two major English assaults-one led by
Governor James Moore of Carolina in 1702, and the
other by James Oglethorpe of Georgia in 1740. In the
former attack, however, St. Augustine was reduced to
ashes.
St. Augustine was rebuilt, but Spain's hold on Florida
grew weaker as English settlements pressed southward.
English and Indian attacks shattered the mission system.
In response, the Spanish built elaborate defense works
around the city, all protected by masses of Spanish
bayonet and pricklypear. Blockhouses protected
strategic outlying areas.
In 1762, English forces captured Havana, Cuba, the
gateway to the Caribbean; and the following year, in
order to recover that vital port, Spain ceded Florida to
Great Britain. The Spanish vacated St. Augustine and
sailed away to new homes in Mexico and Cuba.
Not long after assuming control, the British divided
Florida into two administrations (22). St. Augustine
became the capital of East Florida. Under its new rulers
the town retained its principally military character and,
despite new construction, much of its Spanish
appearance. East Florida remained an underdeveloped







3


St. Johns County, Florida


colony, even though the British through a generous land
grant policy harvested the timber and agricultural
resources of the region to a much greater extent than
the Spaniards had.
In 1768, Dr. Andrew Turnbull of England transported
1,400 settlers from Greece, Italy, and Minorca to his
colony at New Smyrna, (14), where they worked raising
indigo. The venture collapsed in 1777.
St. Augustine provided sanctuary for thousands of
loyalist refugees fleeing from Georgia and the Carolinas
during the American Revolution. Great Britain's defeat
ended her brief occupation of the Floridas. In 1784, they
were returned to Spain.
In 1821, Spain sold East and West Florida to the
United States. In a simple military ceremony at the
Castillo de San Marcos, Jose Coppinger, the last
Spanish governor, turned over command of St.
Augustine and East Florida to Colonel Robert Butler,
who represented Governor Andrew Jackson.
Florida was divided into two counties, St. Johns and
Escambia, roughly approximating the old boundaries of
East and West Florida. St. Johns County, with St.
Augustine as its administrative center, took in an area of
39,376 square miles. By 1830, St. Johns County had
been divided into 17 smaller counties, and in all, 44 of
Florida's counties were formed from the original district
(6).
St. Augustine first attracted the attention of American
travelers in the 1820's. Although the city was isolated
and difficult to reach, its distinctive old-world ambience
and its superb climate drew a number of distinguished
visitors, including Ralph Waldo Emerson and Prince
Napoleon Achille Murat, nephew of Napoleon (8). In
1835, a severe freeze wiped out the luxuriant orange
trees, a mainstay of the economy. That same year the
Seminole Indians protested the government's plan to
move them to reservations in the West. During the
Seminole Wars that followed, St. Augustine served as
military headquarters, and the Castillo de San Marcos
(fig. 1), renamed Fort Marion, was used as a prison for
Seminole captives, among them the tragic Osceola (11).
Four other forts were built within the county during the
war.
After the Seminole Wars, many new residents began
moving into the territory. In 1845, Florida entered the
Union as the 27th state. Tallahassee was the capital; St.
Augustine was too remote from most parts of the state
to have been an effective seat of government.
During the Civil War, St. Augustine was initially under
control of the Confederacy; however, in 1862, a Union
squadron sailed up to the inlet and demanded the city's
surrender. Judging resistance futile, the small
Confederate garrison withdrew, allowing the town to be
occupied by Union forces for the duration of the war.
The construction of the Jacksonville, St. Augustine,
and Halifax River Railway in 1883 greatly improved
access to the city. Numerous hotels sprang up around


town to handle the increased traffic. New settlements,
such as Switzerland, Orangedale, Picolata, and Tocoi,
also appeared along the banks of the St. Johns River as
steamboat traffic down the waterway increased. Orange
and vegetable production in the interior was greatly
expanded to meet the needs of the early tourists.
In 1885, Henry M. Flagler was so impressed by the
area's potential as a resort (10) that he began
constructing fabulous hotels in the area. The opening of
these magnificent hotels created a tourist boom, and the
cream of American high society flocked to the old city,
suddenly known as the "Southern Newport." The boom
times brought by Flagler were short lived. As he pushed
his Florida East Coast Railroad farther south and built
other luxurious hotels in Palm Beach, the tourist trade
followed.
In 1890, Thomas Hastings began growing vegetables
18 miles southwest of St. Augustine for the new hotels in
the city. This enterprise expanded within a decade to
include potatoes, now the major agricultural crop of the
county. Hastings, the new town that evolved out of these
early farms, was incorporated in 1907. Other settlements
were established in the county, including Ponte Vedra,
Vilano Beach, Crescent Beach, Spuds, Elkton,
Bakersville, Durbin, and St. Augustine Beach. While the
population of St. Augustine has remained relatively
constant since the 1920's, the county has experienced
tremendous growth, particularly east of Interstate
Highway 95 near Duval County and around St.
Augustine.
St. Augustine has remained a major point of interest
for visitors. The central plaza and the street plan remain
almost exactly as they were laid out in 1598 (12). On
those streets, 31 houses built in colonial times still stand.
The great Flagler hotels now serve as the County
Courthouse, City Hall, and Flagler College.

Natural Resources
Water and soil are important resources in St. Johns
County. The Atlantic on the east and the St. Johns River
on the west provide excellent fishing and water sports. A
large commercial shrimp fishing fleet is ported in St.
Augustine. The brackish St. Johns River is one of the
few rivers in the northern hemisphere which flow in a
northerly direction. It is a major route for boats and
barges carrying products to cities and industries on the
river.
Other major streams in the county are the Matanzas,
North, and Tolomato Rivers. These rivers are close to
the Atlantic Ocean and in some places form tidal
lagoons. They have been dredged and are maintained as
part of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, which extends
the entire length of the eastern side of the county.
There are no major freshwater streams or lakes in the
interior of St. Johns County. Freshwater for communities,
agricultural irrigation, homes, and other uses is obtained






4


Soil Survey





^^a^^a


~j)~j ~


Figure 1.-Castillo de San Marcos is an Important historical landmark in St. Johns County.


from shallow ground water or deep aquifer wells. Most of
the rainfall, which averages about 55 inches in the
county, infiltrates into the soil. There are many large
swamps and low areas, where 1 to 3 feet of rainwater
stands above the soil surface.
The Floridan aquifer underlying all of St. Johns County
(4) consists of several limestone or dolomitic limestone
formations that hold and transmit large amounts of
freshwater. It is the source of water for most of the
agricultural irrigation and the community water supply.
Saltwater intrusion into the Floridan aquifer has been a
problem during times of high water usage.

Farming
Farming is a major enterprise in St. Johns County.
According to the 1978 Census of Agriculture Preliminary
Report (20) for St. Johns County, there are 210 farms in
the county. The farmland takes in 60,330 acres, and the
average farm size is 287 acres. The size of the farms
and productivity have increased over the past years. The


value of the crops produced in St. Johns County made
up about 87 percent of the total value of the agricultural
products produced in 1978.
St. Johns County is the leading county in the state in
the production of Irish potatoes and cabbage (15), the
most important farm crops grown in the county. About
15,000 acres of potatoes and 5,000 acres of cabbage
are grown each year. Crops of minor importance include
other vegetable crops, cut flowers, and nursery stock.
When the first Spanish settlers arrived in St.
Augustine, farming was done at a subsistence level by
native Indians. The Spanish introduced cattle into St.
Johns County and established a land grant system.
Cattle were grazed on many of the land grants. Citrus
was also introduced by the Spanish. The site of the first
orange grove in the United States is on Fish Island,
southeast of St. Augustine. In 1776, a large population of
Minorcan descent settled in and near St. Augustine.
Many of the Minorcans were farmers, and they
introduced several new crops and methods of farming to
the area.







5


St. Johns County, Florida


In the late 1800's and early 1900's, St. Augustine
became a very popular tourist resort. The large number
of tourists created a great demand for vegetables, which
gave rise to the present centers of local vegetable
production in the southwestern and west-central parts of
the county (16).
About 2,000 acres of corn and grain sorghum are
produced each year. These crops normally are planted in
early spring to mid-spring, after the potato or cabbage
crops are harvested.
There are about 200 acres of commercial citrus groves
in St. Johns County, mostly on farms southeast of
Hastings.

Transportation
St. Johns County is served by good transportation
facilities. Interstate Highway 95 and U.S. Highway 1
traverse the eastern side of the county. Several paved
state and county roads serve most other parts of the
county.
The Florida East Coast Railroad provides freight
transportation for St. Augustine and Hastings. Scheduled
bus service is available in St. Augustine. St. Augustine
Airport can accommodate planes up to medium-sized
business jets. Commercial air passenger service is
available at nearby Jacksonville International Airport.

Recreation
Recreation is a major business in St. Johns County.
The most important tourist attractions are St. Augustine
Antiguo and the many miles of Atlantic Ocean beaches.
The National Park Service maintains Castillo de San
Marcos in St. Augustine and Fort Matanzas about 10
miles south of St. Augustine.
The Historic St. Augustine Preservation Board, a State
of Florida agency, provides research and guidance in the
operation and maintenance of San Augustine Antiguo,
the restored area of St. Augustine.
Fishing, hunting, boating, and camping are popular.
Fishing and boating are enjoyed on the Atlantic Ocean,
the Intracoastal Waterway, Guano Lake, and St. Johns
River. Large acreages of woodland are reserved for
organized hunting clubs, which lease hunting rights from
landowners. Guano Wildlife Management Area, which is
controlled by the Florida Fresh Water Fish and Game
Commission, provides public hunting on a permit basis.
Anastasia State Recreational Area and Faver Dykes
State Park provide camping, picnicking, and nature study
in rustic settings.
Golfing is a popular sport. There are several large golf
courses near St. Augustine and Ponte Vedra (fig. 2).

Geology, Physiography, and Drainage
St. Johns County is in the lower part of the Atlantic
Coastal Plain. The county takes in four marine terraces


composed of sandy and loamy sediments of Recent or
Pleistocene age (9). The Pamlico and Talbot Terraces,
which range from 10 to 42 feet above sea level, make
up most of the county. The Silver Bluff Terrace, which is
0 to 10 feet above sea level, is in narrow strands
bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the St. Johns River.
The Penholoway Terrace, which ranges from 42 to 70
feet above sea level, occupies only one small area of
about 6 square miles. This area is about 12 miles west
of Crescent Beach.
The surface sediments of Pleistocene or Recent age
range in thickness from about 50 feet in the southwest
corner of St. Johns County to more than 140 feet in the
northwest corner (fig. 3). In some areas of the county,
these sediments are mixed with marine shells. These
shells are more common and closer to the surface in the
area north and east of Molasses Junction and south of
St. Augustine along the Atlantic coast. In the area south
of St. Augustine, the small shells make up 60 to 90
percent of the material cemented into a hard mass
called Coquina rock. This rock, designated the Anastasia
Formation, was quarried by early Spanish soldiers in the
16th century to build Castillo de San Marcos, a well
known historical landmark in the city of St. Augustine.
Between the surface materials and the upper part of
the porous limestone in the Floridan aquifer lie
unconsolidated lenses of sand, sandy clay, clay, and
marl. In the upper part, these materials are Upper
Miocene or Pliocene deposits. They range from 30 feet
to 50 feet in thickness in the southwestern part of St.
Johns County and are about 75 feet thick in the
northwestern part. The lower part of these materials,
called the Hawthorn Formation, contains some
phosphatic materials. Thickness ranges from 50 feet to
100 feet in the southwestern part of the county and from
120 to 200 feet in the northwestern part. The sediments
and formations above the Floridan aquifer are the source
of ground water supplies for most areas of the county
where central water systems and deep wells are not
available.
The Floridan aquifer is composed of numerous
limestone and dolomite formations of Eocene age.
These formations are made up of carbonate materials
that range from very hard and continuous to very soft
and discontinuous. The very soft materials contain many
solution cavities, which hold and transmit large quantities
of water. Most of the freshwater supplies for agricultural
use and large domestic use are obtained from the
Floridan aquifer.
St. Johns County can be divided into four general
regions based on physiography (21). These are: (1) the
Atlantic Beach Ridge, (2) the Atlantic Coastal Lagoons,
(3) the Atlantic Coastal Ridge, and (4) the Eastern
Valley.
The Atlantic Beach Ridge extends along the eastern
edge of St. Johns County. It is a barrier chain separated
from the rest of the county by the Atlantic Coastal







6


Soil Survey


Figure 2.-Golf courses provide one of the many forms of recreation in the county. The soil is Immokalee fine sand.


Lagoons. The Atlantic Beach Ridge is made up of the
beach and a series of dunes, the present shoreline ridge.
This physiographic region is in the area making up the
Silver Bluff Terrace. The geologic material consists of
quartz sand mixed with varying amounts of shell
fragments. This material has been deposited by wind,
which blows from the beach and forms dunes that have
complex slopes. A series of dunes has been established,
the dunes becoming progressively older with increasing
distance from the shore. The vegetation changes from
primarily palmetto and scrub live oak to laurel oak, live
oak, magnolia, and a few longleaf pine farther from the
beach. Much of this area has been used for residential
and commercial developments.
The Atlantic Coastal Lagoons consist of the Matanzas
River, San Sebastian River, North River, Tolomato River,
and Guano Lake. This region consists of open water and
flat grassy marshes that are subject to daily flooding by
normal high tides. Most of the soils are mineral soils that
are high in clay and silt content. Some are organic. The
vegetation is mostly halophytic grasses and some
mangrove trees.
The Atlantic Coastal Ridge is a narrow ridge lying
mostly west of and parallel to the Atlantic Coastal


Lagoons. It is most pronounced in the Moultrie and St.
Augustine South areas and southeast of Palm Valley.
The elevations in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge region are
mostly between 25 and 35 feet above sea level. The
soils are mostly moderately well drained to excessively
drained, gently sloping sandy soils. Some soils on the
lower elevations are poorly drained or somewhat poorly
drained, nearly level sandy soils that have a sandy
subsoil with accumulations of organic matter. The natural
vegetation on the soils at higher elevations includes
sand pine, live oak, turkey oak, and scattered longleaf
pine. The natural vegetation on the soils at lower
elevations is dominantly slash pine, longleaf pine, and
sawpalmetto. Some of this area has been used for
community development. The city of St. Augustine and
the communities south and southwest of St. Augustine
are located in this physiographic region.
The Eastern Valley occupies the largest area of St.
Johns County. It lies mostly west of the Atlantic Coastal
Ridge and extends westward to the St. Johns River.
Mostly flatwoods and swamps are in this region. The
Pamlico and Talbot Terraces make up most of this
region. The soils are poorly drained or very poorly
drained sandy and loamy soils. Most of the soils have a







St. Johns County, Florida


U
o
E



_F7


I~_


Figure 3.-Cross section of St. Johns County.


loamy subsoil or a sandy subsoil that contains organic
accumulations. The natural vegetation includes slash
pine, longleaf pine, and sawpalmetto in the flatwoods
and hardwoods and cypress in the swamps. This region
is used mostly for growing pine trees. Large areas in the
southwestern and west-central parts of the county are
used for winter vegetables, mostly cabbage and Irish
potatoes.
Except for a few streams which flow into the St. Johns
River or into the Atlantic Coastal Lagoons, drainage
patterns are indistinct. The flatwoods are interspersed
with many poorly defined drainageways and depressional
areas, which are flooded or ponded for long periods of
time.


How This Survey Was Made
This survey was made to provide information about the
soils in the survey area. The information includes a
description of the soils and their location and a
discussion of the suitability, limitations, and management
of the soils for specified uses. Soil scientists observed
the steepness, length, and shape of slopes; the general
pattern of drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants
growing on the soils; and the kinds of bedrock. They dug
many holes to study the soil profile, which is the
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The


profile extends from the surface down into the
unconsolidated material in which the soil formed. The
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other
living organisms and has not been changed by other
biologic activity.
The soils in the survey area occur in an orderly pattern
that is related to the geology, the landforms, relief,
climate, and the natural vegetation of the area. Each
kind of soil is associated with a particular kind of
landscape or with a segment of the landscape. By
observing the soils in the survey area and relating their
position to specific segments of the landscape, a soil
scientist develops a concept, or model, of how the soils
were formed. Thus, during mapping, this model enables
the soil scientist to predict with considerable accuracy
the kind of soil at a specific location on the landscape.
Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
into one another as their characteristics gradually
change. To construct an accurate soil map, however, soil
scientists must determine the boundaries between the
soils. They can observe only a limited number of soil
profiles. Nevertheless, these observations, supplemented
by an understanding of the soil-landscape relationship,
are sufficient to verify predictions of the kinds of soil in
an area and to determine the boundaries.
Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the soil
profiles that they studied. They noted soil color, texture,
size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and amount of


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0


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rock fragments, distribution of plant roots, acidity, and
other features that enable them to identify soils. After
describing the soils in the survey area and determining
their properties, the soil scientists assigned the soils to
taxonomic classes (units). Taxonomic classes are
concepts. Each taxonomic class has a set of soil
characteristics with precisely defined limits. The classes
are used as a basis for comparison to classify soils
systematically. The system of taxonomic classification
used in the United States is based mainly on the kind
and character of soil properties and the arrangement of
horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
classified and named the soils in the survey area they
compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
same taxonomic class in other areas so that they could
confirm data and assemble additional data based on
experience and research.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some of
the soils in the area generally are collected for laboratory
analyses and for engineering tests. Soil scientists
interpreted the data from these analyses and tests as
well as the field-observed characteristics and the soil
properties in terms of expected behavior of the soils
under different uses. Interpretations for all of the soils
were field tested through observation of the soils in
different uses under different levels of management.
Some interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
and new interpretations sometimes are developed to
meet local needs. Data were assembled from other
sources, such as research information, production
records, and field experience of specialists. For example,
data on crop yields under defined levels of management
were assembled from farm records and from field or plot
experiments on the same kinds of soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only on
soil properties but also on such variables as climate and
biological activity. Soil conditions are predictable over
long periods of time, but they are not predictable from
year to year. For example, soil scientists can state with a
fairly high degree of probability that a given soil will have
a high water table within certain depths in most years,
but they cannot assure that a high water table will
always be at a specific level in the soil on a specific
date.
After soil scientists located and identified the
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, they
drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
photographs and identified each as a specific map unit.
Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, roads,


and rivers, all of which help in locating boundaries
accurately.

Map Unit Composition
A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an
area dominated by one major kind of soil or an area
dominated by several kinds of soil. A map unit is
identified and named according to the taxonomic
classification of the dominant soil or soils. Within a
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for the
properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, the
soils are natural objects. In common with other natural
objects, they have a characteristic variability in their
properties. Thus, the range of some observed properties
may extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class rarely, if
ever, can be mapped without including areas of soils of
other taxonomic classes. Consequently, every map unit
is made up of the soil or soils for which it is named and
some soils that belong to other taxonomic classes.
These latter soils are called inclusions or included soils.
Most inclusions have properties and behavioral
patterns similar to those of the dominant soil or soils in
the map unit, and thus they do not affect use and
management. These are called noncontrasting (similar)
inclusions. They may or may not be mentioned in the
map unit descriptions. Other inclusions, however, have
properties and behavior divergent enough to affect use
or require different management. These are contrasting
(dissimilar) inclusions. They generally occupy small areas
and cannot be shown separately on the soil maps
because of the scale used in mapping. The inclusions of
contrasting soils are mentioned in the map unit
descriptions. A few inclusions may not have been
observed, and consequently are not mentioned in the
descriptions, especially where the soil pattern was so
complex that it was impractical to make enough
observations to identify all of the kinds of soils on the
landscape.
The presence of inclusions in a map unit in no way
diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the soil data.
The objective of soil mapping is not to delineate pure
taxonomic classes of soils but rather to separate the
landscape into segments that have similar use and
management requirements. The delineation of such
landscape segments on the map provides sufficient
information for the development of resource plans, but
onsite investigation is needed to plan for intensive uses
in small areas.






9


General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up
one unit can occur in other units but in a different
pattern.
The general soil map can be used to compare, the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure.
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that
affect management.
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their
potential for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent
of the map units shown on the general soil map. It lists
the potential of each, in relation to that of the other map
units, for major land uses and shows soil properties that
limit use. Soil potential ratings are based on the
practices commonly used in the survey area to
overcome soil limitations. These ratings reflect the ease
of overcoming the limitations. They also reflect the
problems that will persist even if such practices are
used.
For the soils in each map unit, table 3 shows the
potential and limitations for cropland and pasture, for
woodland use, and for urban uses. It also shows the
degree and kind of limitations for recreation uses.
Cropland is soil on which cultivated crops, such as Irish
potatoes and cabbage, are grown extensively. Pasture
consists of areas where pasture is grown extensively.
Woodland refers to areas of native or introduced trees.
Building sites include residential and commercial
developments. Recreation areas are campsites, picnic
areas, ballfields, and other areas that are subject to heavy
foot traffic.
The soils in the eleven general soil map units make up
94.6 percent of the survey area. Bodies of water larger
than 3 acres make up the remaining 5.4 percent of the
area.


Soil Descriptions

Soils of the sand ridges and coastal dunes
This group consists of excessively drained, moderately
well drained, and somewhat poorly drained, nearly level
to moderately steep soils on ridges and slopes adjacent
to well defined drainageways and coastal areas. These
soils are sandy throughout. They generally are along the
Atlantic coast and in the western part of the county
along the St. Johns River and its tributaries.
Four map units are in this group.

1. Fripp-Satellite-Paola
Nearly level to moderately steep, excessively drained
and somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy
throughout
This unit consists of soils on narrow, rolling sandy
ridges interspersed with narrow swales. These ridges
and swales are elongated, and their long axis generally
is oriented from the north to the south. They are parallel
to the Atlantic coast and extend inland for about 1 mile.
The ridges form the primary dunes adjacent to the ocean
beach and relict beach dunes farther inland. The height
of the ridges ranges from 30 to 50 feet, and the slope
length is mostly 50 to 75 feet. Slopes are complex and
range from 5 to 15 percent. The slope of the swales
ranges from 2 to 5 percent.
This map unit makes up about 1.8 percent of the
survey area. It is about 25 percent Fripp soils, 20
percent Satellite soils, and 19 percent Paola soils. The
rest is minor soils.
Fripp soils are excessively drained sandy soils on the
narrow ridges. These soils make up the primary dunes
along the Atlantic coast, and in some places, up to 1
mile from the beach, they make up relict beach dunes.
They have a gray fine sand surface layer. Below this is
pale brown and white fine sand that extends to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
Satellite soils are somewhat poorly drained soils in the
swales between ridges. The surface layer is very dark
gray fine sand. Below this is white fine sand that extends
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Paola soils are excessively drained soils on the ridges
farther inland behind the primary dunes. The surface
layer is gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is white fine
sand. At a depth of 20 to 30 inches is strong brown fine






Soil Survey


sand. Below this is yellow fine sand that extends to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the excessively
drained Astatula soils on the ridges; the somewhat
poorly drained Narcoossee soils in the swales and nearly
level, broad areas; the excessively drained Palm Beach
soils on higher, broader ridges; and Beaches.
About 20 percent of this map unit is used for
community development. Many beach homes along the
Atlantic Ocean have been built on these soils. Uncleared
areas remain in natural vegetation of southern magnolia,
live oak, laurel oak, yaupon, cabbage palm, and sea-
oats. A few longleaf pines grow in the swales.
These soils are not normally used for crops, pasture,
or pine trees because of poor soil quality. Several large
recreation areas, parks, and campgrounds are in this
unit.

2. Astatula-Tavares

Nearly level to sloping, excessively drained and
moderately well drained soils that are sandy throughout
This map unit consists of soils on narrow, low ridges
and knolls. It is located mostly along the Atlantic coast
behind the primary dunes and on slopes adjacent to
streams and well defined drainageways. The ridges
along the Atlantic coast generally parallel the coast line
and are 1/2 mile to 3 miles inland from the ocean. The
largest area of this map unit includes the Moultrie area
and St. Augustine South. Slopes range from 0 to 8
percent.
This map unit makes up about 3.2 percent of the
county. It is about 40 percent Astatula soils and 20
percent Tavares soils. The rest is minor soils.
Astatula soils are excessively drained soils on the
highest part of the landscape. They have a surface layer
of light brownish gray fine sand. The underlying layers
are light yellowish brown to yellow fine sand to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
The Tavares soils are moderately well drained soils on
the lower positions in the landscape. The surface layer is
gray fine sand. The underlying material is pale brown,
white, and very pale brown fine sand to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the somewhat
poorly drained Adamsville and Cassia soils on lower
positions on the landscape, the moderately well drained
Pomello soils on slightly lower positions, and the
excessively drained Paola soils on higher positions.
About 45 percent of the acreage of this map unit has
been used for community development. Many residential
subdivisions south and southwest of St. Augustine have
been established on this unit. Another large area, north
of St. Augustine and west of Guano Lake, has had little
development and remains in natural vegetation of sand
pine (fig. 4), live oak, laurel oak, and turkey oak.


3. Tavares-Zolfo-Sparr

Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
and somewhat poorly drained sandy soils; some sandy
to a depth of 40 inches or more and loamy below
In this unit are nearly level soils on low ridges and low
knolls on slightly higher positions than the adjacent
flatwoods and narrow areas of gently sloping soils that
are adjacent to well defined drainageways. This map unit
occurs mostly in the western part of St. Johns County
along the St. Johns River and its tributaries. Slopes
range from 0 to 5 percent.
This map unit makes up about 5.7 percent of the
county. It is about 30 percent Tavares soils, 30 percent
Zolfo soils, and 15 percent Sparr soils. The rest is minor
soils.
The Tavares soils are moderately well drained and on
low ridges and knolls in the flatwoods and on slopes
along drainageways and streams. They have a surface
layer of gray fine sand. The underlying material is pale
brown, white, and very pale brown fine sand to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
The Zolfo soils are somewhat poorly drained and are
on low knolls that are slightly higher in position than the
adjacent flatwoods. The surface layer is grayish brown
fine sand. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 61 inches,
is pale brown to light gray fine sand. The subsoil is dark
brown and black fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
The somewhat poorly drained Sparr soils are on low
ridges and knolls in the flatwoods and in narrow areas
adjacent to streams and well defined drainageways. The
surface layer is gray fine sand. The subsurface layer, to
a depth of 65 inches, is very pale brown to white fine
sand. The subsoil is brown fine sandy loam to a depth of
80 inches or more.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the excessively
drained Astatula soils on low ridges and knolls and the
poorly drained Myakka, Ona, Tocoi, and St. Johns soils
on the lower positions.
Some areas of this map unit have been used for
community development, and a few areas are used for
slash pine plantations. Other areas remain in natural
vegetation of turkey oak, laurel oak, longleaf pine, slash
pine, and some sand pine.

4. Cassia-Tavares

Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained
soils and moderately well drained soils that are sandy
throughout; some have a dark subsoil stained by organic
matter
This map unit consists of soils on low ridges and
knolls. It is mostly in the northeastern part of the county
near the Duval County boundary and the Atlantic Ocean.


10






St. Johns County, Florida


I~3. ~7!
I 2 -:P: &


Figure 4.-Sand pines are commonly grown on the Astatula-Tavares map unit.


This map unit makes up about 1 percent of the survey
area. It is about 55 percent Cassia soils, 20 percent
Tavares soils, and 25 percent minor soils.
Cassia soils are somewhat poorly drained soils on low
ridges. The surface layer is gray fine sand. The
subsurface layer is light gray fine sand. The subsoil is
very dark gray and dark brown fine sand coated with
organic accumulations. The underlying layers, which
extend to a depth of 80 inches or more, are yellowish
brown and very dark gray fine sand.
Tavares soils are moderately well drained soils on
slightly higher positions on the landscape. The surface
layer is gray fine sand. The underlying material is pale
brown, white, and very pale brown fine sand to a depth
of 80 inches or more.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the excessively
drained Paola soils, the moderately well drained Pomello
and Orsino soils, and the poorly drained Myakka soils.
The Pomello and Orsino soils are on similar positions
on the landscape, and the Myakka soils are on lower
positions.
The natural vegetation consists of scrub live oak,
sawpalmetto, and scattered areas of longleaf and slash


pines. About 50 percent of the acreage of this map unit
has been used for community development, primarily
single family dwellings, condominiums, and golf courses.

Soils of the flatwoods
In this group are dominantly poorly drained and very
poorly drained, nearly level soils on broad, flat marine
terraces. Most of the soils in this group have a loamy
subsoil or a sandy subsoil that is stained by dark organic
accumulations. The soils in this group are among
swamps, marshes, depressions, and drainageways.
Four map units are in this group.

5.' Myakka-lmmokalee-St. Johns
Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
sandy soils that have a dark subsoil stained by organic
matter
This map unit consists of soils in broad flatwoods and
narrow to broad depressional areas. It covers large parts
of the county. The largest area is along U.S. Highway 1.
This unit makes up about 28.9 percent of the county. It
is about 33 percent Myakka soils, 16 percent Immokalee


11








Soil Survey


soils, and about 12 percent St. Johns soils. The rest is
minor soils.
Myakka soils are poorly drained. Typically, they have a
black and dark gray fine sand surface layer about 8
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray and light gray
fine sand. The subsoil, at a depth of 23 inches, is black
and very dark brown fine sand well coated with organic
matter. The underlying layer to a depth of 80 inches or
more is dark brown fine sand.
Immokalee soils are poorly drained. Typically, they
have a surface layer of very dark gray fine sand about 8
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray and white
fine sand. The subsoil, at a depth of 40 inches, is very
dark gray fine sand coated with organic matter. The
underlying layer to a depth of 80 inches or more is
brown fine sand.
St. Johns soils are poorly drained and very poorly
drained. The very poorly drained soils are in
depressional areas. The surface layer is black and very
dark gray fine sand about 10 inches thick. The
subsurface -layer, to a depth of 15 inches, is gray fine
sand. The subsoil is black loamy fine sand in the upper 4
inches and black fine sand in the lower 9 inches. It is
well coated with organic matter. Below that, to a depth
of 80 inches or more, is gray, black, and dark gray fine
sand.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Cassia, Ona,
Pomello, Pomona, Tomoka, Smyrna, and Wesconnett
soils.
The natural vegetation consists of longleaf pine, slash
pine, sawpalmetto, inkberry, bluestem, panicum, and
pineland threeawn (wiregrass). The natural vegetation in
the depressions is dominantly cypress, bay, sweetgum,
red maple, cinnamon fern, and maidencane. Large areas
of the Myakka and Immokalee soils and the St. Johns
soils that are not in depressions have been planted to
slash pine.
6. Holopaw-Riviera-Pompano
Nearly level, poorly drained soils; some sandy to a depth
of more than 40 inches and loamy below; some sandy to
a depth of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below; others
sandy throughout
This map unit consists of soils in low, broad flat areas
interspersed with many wet depressions and
drainageways. This unit is in the central part of the
county. The largest area is northeast of Molasses
Junction.
This map unit makes up about 7.1 percent of the
county. It is about 40 percent Holopaw soils, 30 percent
Riviera soils, 10 percent Pompano soils, and 20 percent
minor soils.
Holopaw soils have a surface layer that is mixed very
dark gray and grayish brown fine sand in the upper 7
inches and dark gray fine sand in the lower 6 inches.
The subsurface layer, to a depth of 53 inches, is light
gray to gray fine sand. The subsoil, from 53 to 72 inches,


is dark gray fine sandy loam. The underlying material to
a depth of 80 inches or more is greenish gray loamy fine
sand.
Riviera soils have a surface layer of black and dark
grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, which extends to a depth of 28 inches,
is grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 50
inches, is dark grayish brown sandy clay. In the upper 12
inches, the subsoil has pockets and tongues of fine
sand. Below the subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is grayish brown fine sandy loam.
Pompano soils have a surface layer of dark grayish
brown fine sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying
material to a depth of 80 inches or more is white and
gray fine sand.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the poorly drained
EauGallie, Myakka, Pomona, and Winder soils and the
very poorly drained Floridana soils.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, longleaf
pine, waxmyrtle, and cabbage palm and a few scattered
areas of sweetgum, blackgum, and maple with smilax,
pineland threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, and bluestem.
Large areas of this map unit have been planted to slash
pine.

7. Pomona-Tocoi-Ona

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that have a dark subsoil
stained by organic matter; some sandy to a depth of
more than 40 inches and loamy below; some sandy
throughout
- This map unit consists of soils in the narrow to broad
flatwoods adjacent to drainageways and low areas. This
unit is mostly in the western and northwestern parts of
the county.
This unit makes up about 16 percent of the county. It
is about 40 percent Pomona soils, 30 percent Tocoi
soils, 7 percent Ona soils, and 23 percent minor soils.
Pomona soils have a surface layer of black and very
dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layers are gray and light gray fine sand. The upper part
of the subsoil, between depths of 21 and 35 inches, is
black and dark brown fine sand coated with organic
matter. Below that, to a depth of 47 inches, is pale
brown and light gray fine sand. The lower part of the
subsoil, to a depth of 63 inches, is light brownish gray
sandy clay loam and light gray fine sandy loam. The
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is
light brownish gray fine sand.
Tocoi soils have a surface layer of black fine sand
about 13 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil,
which extends to a depth of 40 inches, is dark brown
fine sand coated with organic matter. Below that, to a
depth of 45 inches, is light brownish gray fine sand. The
lower part of the subsoil, to a depth of 76 inches, is light
brownish gray loamy fine sand. The underlying layer to a
depth of 80 inches or more is gray loamy fine sand.


12






St. Johns County, Florida


Ona soils have a surface layer of very dark gray fine
sand about 8 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of 16
inches, is black and dark brown fine sand. Between
depths of 16 and 34 inches, the material is dark brown
and brown fine sand that contains black fragments of
subsoil material in the upper part. Below that, to a depth
of 80 inches or more, is light gray and grayish brown fine
sand.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Bakersville
and Wesconnett soils in depressions and the Immokalee,
Myakka, and Smyrna soils on similar positions in the
landscape.
The natural vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf
pine, waxmyrtle, inkberry, sawpalmetto, bluestems,
panicums, and pineland threeawn (wiregrass). Large
areas have been planted to commercial woodland of
slash pines.

8. Floridana-Placid-Ellzey

Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained
soils; some sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and
loamy below; others sandy throughout
This map unit consists of soils in low, broad flat areas.
This unit is mostly in the vegetable farming area of the
west-central part of the county. It extends from about the
Mill Creek community southward to the area south of
Hastings.
This unit makes up about 9 percent of the county. It is
about 28 percent Floridana soils, 22 percent Placid soils,
22 percent Ellzey soils, and 28 percent minor soils.
Floridana soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black fine sand about 11 inches thick.
The subsurface layers, to a depth of 30 inches, are light
brownish gray and gray fine sand. The subsoil, to a
depth of 46 inches, is gray sandy clay loam. Below that,
to a depth of 80 inches or more, is gray fine sandy loam.
Placid soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black fine sand about 12 inches thick.
Between depths of 12 and 51 inches are layers of dark
gray, grayish brown, light gray, and dark grayish brown
loamy fine sand. Below that material is dark grayish
brown loamy fine sand about 7 inches thick. Next is
grayish brown fine sand, which extends to a depth of 80
inches or more.
ElIzey soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is black fine sand about 12 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, about 15 inches thick, is light gray fine
sand. The subsoil is brownish yellow fine sand in the
upper part and yellowish brown, brown, and light
brownish gray loamy fine sand in the lower part. Next is
gray fine sand, which extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Bakersville,
Holopaw, Pompano, and Riviera soils. All these soils but
Bakersville soils are on similar positions in the
landscape. Bakersville soils are in depressional areas.


The natural vegetation includes slash pine, longleaf
pine, a few sweetgum, water oak, waxmyrtle, wild grape,
smilax, and some cypress.
Most areas of this unit have been cleared and have
water control established for truck farming. Much of the
cabbage and Irish potatoes produced in this county is
grown on the soils of this unit.

Soils of the inland and coastal wetlands
This group consists of poorly drained and very poorly
drained, nearly level soils. The coastal wetlands are in
tidal marshes near the Atlantic coast. The inland
wetlands are on flood plains and in poorly defined
drainageways and swamps scattered throughout the
county.
Three map units are in this group.

9. Riviera-Holopaw-Winder
Nearly level, poorly drained soils; some sandy to a depth
of 20 to 40 inches and loamy below; some sandy to a
depth of more than 40 inches and loamy below; and
others sandy to a depth of less than 20 inches and
loamy below
This map unit is made up of soils in nearly level,
freshwater hardwood and cypress swamps throughout
the county.
This map unit makes up about 11.6 percent of the
county. It is about 45 percent Riviera soils, 16 percent
Holopaw soils, 6 percent Winder soils, and 33 percent
minor soils.
Riviera soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is gray fine sand about 10 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, which extends to a depth of 40 inches,
is light gray and gray fine sand. The subsoil is gray fine
sandy loam. Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is light gray fine sandy loam and fine sand mixed with
shells.
Holopaw soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is black fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, to a depth of 50 inches, is grayish
brown and gray fine sand. The subsoil is gray fine sandy
loam. Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
gray loamy fine sand.
The Winder soils are poorly drained. Typically, they
have a surface layer of dark grayish brown fine sand
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, about 11
inches thick, is light gray fine sand. The loamy subsoil
extends to a depth of 42 inches. Below that, to a depth
of 80 inches or more, is dark gray and olive gray sandy
loam.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Bluff, EauGallie,
Parkwood, Pompano, and Wabasso soils. Bluff and
Parkwood soils are on similar positions in the landscape;
the other soils are on slightly higher positions.
The natural vegetation includes sweetgum, red maple,
loblolly-bay, waxmyrtle, and a few cypress. In most


13






14


areas, these soils remain in natural vegetation. In a few
areas, where water control has been established, slash
pine has been planted.
10. Terra Ceia-Wesconnett-Tomoka
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some organic and
others sandy throughout, and some organic and
underlain by loamy material
This map unit is made up of nearly level soils in
freshwater swamps under hardwood and cypress. It is
located primarily along the St. Johns River and its
tributaries. A few small areas are located throughout the
county.
This map unit makes up about 6 percent of the county.
It is about 40 percent Terra Ceia soils, 15 percent
Wesconnett soils, 15 percent Tomoka soils, and 30
percent minor soils.
Terra Ceia soils are dark reddish brown and very dark
gray muck, which extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Wesconnett soils have a surface layer of black fine
sand about 8 inches thick. The subsoil, which extends to
a depth of 34 inches, is black, dark reddish brown, and
very dark gray fine sand. Below that, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is a dark grayish brown and black fine
sand.
Tomoka soils are dark reddish brown and black muck
to a depth of 21 inches. Below that, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is dark gray and dark grayish brown fine
sandy loam.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Floridana,
Holopaw, Hontoon, Myakka, St. Johns, Samsula, and


Riviera soils. All the minor soils are on similar positions
in the landscape.
The natural vegetation includes sweetgum, blackfern,
red maple, cypress, bay, and waxmyrtle.
Most of the acreage of this map unit remains in natural
vegetation.

11. Pellicer-Tisonia

Nearly level, very poorly drained soils subject to frequent
tidal flooding; some loamy throughout; some organic and
underlain by clayey material
This map unit is made up of soils in saltwater
marshes. It is on the eastern side of the county along
the Atlantic Ocean. It ranges from 1 to 3 miles in width.
This map unit makes up about 4.3 percent of the
county. It is about 80 percent Pellicer soils, 6 percent
Tisonia soils, and 14 percent minor soils.
Pellicer soils have a surface layer of very dark brown
silty clay loam about 10 inches thick. Below that, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is dark greenish gray clay
loam and sandy clay loam.
Tisonia soils have a surface layer of very dark gray
mucky peat about 18 inches thick. Below that, to a depth
of 65 inches or more, is dark gray clay.
Of minor extent in this map unit are Durbin, Moultrie,
Riviera, and St. Augustine soils. All these soils, except
the St. Augustine soils, are on similar positions in the
landscape. St. Augustine soils are on higher positions in
the landscape.
The natural vegetation is mostly seashore saltgrass,
bushy sea-oxeye, glasswort, and needlegrass rush.







15


Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and
potential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be
used to plan the management needed for those uses.
More information on each map unit, or soil, is given
under "Use and Management of the Soils."
Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils
for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil and gives the principal
hazards and limitations to be considered in planning for
specific uses.
The potential of a soil is the ability of that soil to
produce, yield, or support the given structure or activity
at a cost expressed in economic, social, or
environmental units of value. The criteria used for rating
soil potential include the relative difficulty or cost of
overcoming soil limitations, the continuing limitations
after practices in general use in overcoming the
limitations are installed, and the suitability of the soil
relative to other soils in St. Johns County.
A five-class system of soil potential is used. The
classes are defined as follows:
Very high potential. Soil limitations are minor or are
relatively easy to overcome. Performance for the
intended use is excellent. Soils having very high potential
are the best in the survey area for the particular use.
High potential. Some soil limitations exist, but
practices necessary to overcome the limitations can be
installed at reasonable cost. Performance for the
intended use is good.
Medium potential. Soil limitations exist and can be
overcome with recommended practices; limitations,
however, are mostly of a continuing nature and require
practices that are more difficult or costly than average.
Performance for the intended use ranges from fair to
good.
Low potential. Serious soil limitations exist, and they
are difficult to overcome. Practices necessary to
overcome the limitations are relatively costly compared
to those required for soils of higher potential. Necessary
practices can involve environmental values and


considerations. Performance for the intended use is poor
or unreliable.
Very low potential. Very serious soil limitations exist,
and they are most difficult to overcome. Initial cost of
practices and maintenance cost are very high compared
to those of soils with high potential. Environmental
values are usually depreciated. Performance for the
intended use is inadequate or below acceptable
standards.
The soils are rated for pine trees in terms of their
potential productivity for growing pines. The ratings are
high, moderately high, moderate, low, and very low.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of
a series have major horizons that are similar in
composition, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil
maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Riviera fine sand, frequently
flooded, is one of several phases in the Riviera series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The
pattern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar
in all areas. Fripp-Satellite complex is an example.
Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
of these included soils have properties that differ
substantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and
management of the soils in the map unit. The included
soils are identified in each map unit description. Some
small areas of strongly contrasting soils are identified by
a special symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
have little or no soil material and support little or no
vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be







Soil Survey


shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
maps.
Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of Tables")
give properties of the soils and the limitations,
capabilities, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary
defines many of the terms used in describing the soils.

Soil Descriptions

1-Adamsville fine sand. This is a somewhat poorly
drained, nearly level soil on broad flat areas and low
knolls. Areas range from 16 to 70 acres. Slope is smooth
to convex and ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 8
inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand, which
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. The soil
material is pale brown with light gray mottles to a depth
of 30 inches and below that is light gray and white.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Immokalee, Tavares, and Zolfo soils. The included areas
do not exceed 15 percent of any mapped area.
In most years the seasonal high water table is at a
depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. It is at a
depth of 10 to 20 inches for up to 2 weeks in some
years. Available water capacity is low in the surface layer
and upper underlying layers and medium below.
Permeability is very rapid in the surface layer and is rapid
in the underlying material. Natural fertility and organic
matter content are low.
The natural vegetation includes sawpalmetto, longleaf
and slash pines, laurel and water oaks, greenbrier,
lopsided indiangrass, and pineland threeawn.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
The root zone is limited by a water table that is 10 to 40
inches below the surface much of the time. This soil is
drought during times of low rainfall. Natural fertility is
low, but response to fertilizer is good. Internal drainage
is slow under natural conditions, but response to water
control systems is rapid. Potential for a number of
vegetable crops is medium. A water control system
designed to remove excess water during wet seasons
and provide irrigation during dry seasons is needed.
Other good management practices include use of crop
rotations and cover crops. All crop residue should be
returned to the soil, and fertilizer and lime should be
applied as needed by the crop.
This Adamsville soil has medium potential for
improved pasture. A simple water control system is
needed to remove excess surface water during rainy
seasons. Deep-rooted drought-resistant grasses, such as
bahiagrass, are the best varieties to grow. Controlled
grazing and the use of fertilizer and lime are required to
reach full potential of the soil.
This soil has moderately high potential for pine trees.
Slash pine is the best variety to grow. The main
management concerns are limitations to the use of


equipment, seedling mortality, and plant competition.
Timely scheduling of harvesting, site preparation, and
planting operations is needed to overcome these
limitations.
Potential for community development is high. Some
water control systems are needed for the construction of
dwellings without basements, small commercial
buildings, and local roads and streets. Water outlets are
generally available for area drainage. Potential for use as
sites for septic tank absorption fields is high. If this soil is
used as a site for absorption fields, about 2 1/2 feet of
suitable fill material is needed to raise the field above
the high water table.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland
ordination group 3w.

2-Astatula fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This is
an excessively drained, nearly level to sloping soil on
knolls and narrow to broad ridges. Areas of this soil
range from 30 to 800 acres. Slopes are complex.
Typically, the surface layer is light brownish gray fine
sand 5 inches thick. Below that, to a depth of 80 inches
or more, is light yellowish brown to yellow fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Orsino, Paola,
and Tavares soils. Also included are small areas of
similar soils that have a dark accumulation of organic
matter below a depth of 60 inches. In the area located
south of St. Augustine and bordered on the east by the
Matanzas River and on the west by U.S. Highway 1 is an
area of other soils that are similar to this Astatula soil
but range from neutral to moderately alkaline. The
included soils are less than 15 percent of any mapped
area.
Permeability is very rapid throughout. Available water
capacity is low. Natural fertility and organic matter
content are very low. The seasonal high water table is at
a depth of more than 72 inches under natural conditions.
The natural vegetation consists of live oak, bay,
magnolia, cabbage palm, sawpalmetto, hickory, sand
pine, and American holly. Native grasses include
paspalum and pineland threeawn.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops and is only
poorly suited to improved pasture grasses. Droughtiness
and low fertility restrict this soil for those uses. The
potential for cultivated crops is very low, and the
potential for improved pasture grasses is low. The
maximum potential can be achieved by adding lime and
fertilizer to the soil and by irrigating.
Under high-level management, the potential is low for
slash and longleaf pines, and it is high for sand pine.
Limitations to the use of equipment and seedling
mortality are the main management concerns. Sand
pines are better suited to planting than other trees.
The potential for community development is very high.
This soil has no limitations or only slight limitations for
dwellings, small commercial buildings, and local roads
and streets. Areas that are used for lawns and


16







St. Johns County, Florida


landscaping require frequent watering and fertilization
because of droughtiness. Potential for septic tank
absorption fields is very high. There is a slight chance of
ground water contamination because of the very rapid
permeability of this soil.
This Astatula soil is in capability subclass Vis and
woodland ordination group 5s.

3-Myakka fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil that occurs in the flatwoods and formed in
marine deposits of sandy material. Areas of Myakka soils
are irregular in shape and range in size from 40 to 260
acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black and dark gray fine
sand about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray
and light gray fine sand about 15 inches thick. The
subsoil is about 30 inches thick. It is black fine sand in
the upper 7 inches, and it is very dark brown fine sand in
the lower 23 inches. The underlying layer to a depth of
80 inches or more is dark brown fine sand with black
pockets of fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Immokalee,
Ona, and Smyrna soils. Also included are small areas of
a moderately well drained to poorly drained soil with
shell fragments 1/8 inch to 1/4 inch in diameter at a
depth of 60 to 80 inches. Also included are small areas
of similar soils in which the subsoil extends to a depth of
80 inches or more. The included soils make up less than
15 percent of any area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months in most years. It is at a
depth of more than 40 inches during dry seasons.
Available water capacity is very low in the surface and
subsurface layers, moderate in the subsoil, and very low
in the underlying material. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers, moderate or moderately
rapid in the subsoil, and rapid in the underlying material.
The organic matter content and natural fertility are low.
The native vegetation is longleaf pine, slash pine,
sawpalmetto, running oak, inkberry, and waxmyrtle.
Native grasses include pineland threeawn, bottlebrush
threeawn, chalky bluestem, creeping bluestem, lopsided
indiangrass, and low panicum.
Because of wetness, this soil is very severely limited
for growing cultivated crops. The root zone is limited by
a water table that is within 10 inches of the surface
during the rainy season. During dry seasons this soil is
drought. The response to fertilizer is moderate. With
intensive management and soil-improving measures, this
soil has medium potential for a number of vegetable
crops. A water control system is needed to remove
excess water in wet seasons. Irrigation is required during
dry seasons. Close-growing, soil-improving cover crops
should be planted after crops are harvested. All crop
residue should be returned to the soil. Bedding of the
rows is needed in seedbed preparation. Fertilizer and


lime should be added according to the needs of the
crop.
Potential for growing improved pasture is high.
Bahiagrass and bermudagrass grow well when well
managed. After heavy rains, surface ditches are needed
to quickly remove excess water. Regular use of fertilizer
and lime and controlled grazing are required for best
yields.
Potential for pine trees is moderate. Limitations to the
use of equipment during wet seasons and seedling
mortality are the main management concerns. Use of
surface ditches for removing excess water and site
preparation that includes bedding of the rows are good
management practices to follow.
Potential for community development is medium.
Wetness that is the result of a seasonal high water table
rising to within 10 inches of the surface is the main
limitation. Dwellings without basements and local roads
and streets require special construction measures to
remove excess surface water quickly. If adequate water
control is not possible, roadbeds and building sites
should be raised by the use of fill material to increase
the depth to the water table. The potential for use as
sites for septic tank absorption fields is medium. If the
soil is used as a site for absorption fields, about 4 feet of
suitable fill material is needed to raise the field above
the high water table.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland
ordination group 4w.

4-Myakka fine sand, depressional. This is a nearly
level, very poorly drained sandy soil that is in shallow
depressions in the flatwoods. Areas of this soil are
covered with standing water for a period of 6 to 9
months or more in most years. The areas range from 5
to 50 acres. Slopes are less than 1 percent and are
concave.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand
about 17 inches thick. It is light brownish gray in the
upper 10 inches, and it is grayish brown in the lower 7
inches. The subsoil is black and dark reddish brown fine
sand about 14 inches thick. The underlying layer is dark
brown fine sand about 12 inches thick. Below that, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is very pale brown fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Ona, Smyrna,
and St. Johns soils. Also included are small areas of
similar soils, some of which are in poorly defined
drainageways and are subject to flooding, and others
which have a thicker subsoil that extends to a depth of
more than 80 inches. The included soils make up less
than 10 percent of any area mapped.
This soil is covered with 4 inches to 2 feet of standing
water for 6 to 9 months during most years. Available
water capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface
layers, moderate in the subsoil, and very low in the
underlying material. Permeability is rapid in the surface


17







Soil Survey


and subsurface layers, moderate or moderately rapid in
the subsoil, and rapid in the underlying material. Organic
matter content and natural fertility are low.
The natural vegetation is pond pine, tupelogum,
sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, broomsedge bluestem, pineland
threeawn (wiregrass), and panicums.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
cultivated crops. The potential for vegetable crops is
very low because water stands on the surface for long
periods. Establishing adequate drainage systems is
difficult because suitable outlets generally are not
available.
This Myakka soil has low potential for growing
improved pasture grasses. Water standing above the
surface for 6 to 9 months a year is a limitation that must
be overcome. Because suitable outlets generally are not
available, adequate drainage systems are difficult to
establish.
The potential for growing longleaf and slash pines is
low because water stands on the surface for extended
durations. Sufficient drainage is difficult because of
inadequate outlets. Limitations to the use of equipment
and seedling mortality are limitations that must be
overcome. This soil generally is not in commercial use
because of the cost of drainage.
Potential for community development is low. Water
stands on the surface of the soil for long periods during
the wet season. Suitable outlets for removal of the
standing water and for lowering the high water table
generally are not available. This soil could be used for
community development by designing an adequate water
control system; however, construction and maintenance
of the system would be expensive and difficult.
Roadbeds for local roads and streets, foundations for
houses, and septic tank absorption fields would require
the use of large amounts of fill material to elevate them
above the seasonal high water table.
This Myakka soil is in capability subclass Vllw. It is not
assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

5-St. Johns fine sand, depressional. This is a very
poorly drained, nearly level soil in depressions in the
flatwoods (fig. 5). Areas of this soil are irregular in shape
and range from 3 to 40 acres. Slopes are less than 1
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 13
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand, which is
about 12 inches thick. It is dark gray in the upper 3
inches and gray in the lower 9 inches. The subsoil
begins at a depth of 25 inches. It is compact fine sand
that has high organic matter content. It is black in the
upper 10 inches and dark reddish brown in the lower 15
inches. Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
grayish brown fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Myakka and
Wesconnett soils. Also included is a similar soil in which
the surface and subsurface layers combined are more


than 30 inches thick. Also included are similar soils,
some of which have 2 to 10 inches of muck on the
surface, and some that are on flood plains and are
frequently flooded. The included soils make up about 15
percent of any area mapped.
This soil is covered with standing water for periods of
6 to 12 months in most years. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. Available water capacity is moderate in the
surface layer and subsoil and low in the subsurface
layer. Natural fertility is low, and organic matter content
is moderate.
The natural vegetation consists of sweetgum, red
maple, pond cypress, hickory, cabbage palm, waxmyrtle,
willow, and a few pond and longleaf pines. The
understory vegetation is brackenfern, cinnamon fern,
chalky bluestem, and St. Johnswort.
St. Johns fine sand, depressional, has severe
limitations for cultivated crops in its natural state. The
soil is very wet, and water stands above the surface for
long periods. Because the soil is in depressions where
water outlets are not available, establishing water control
systems generally is difficult and expensive. Potential for
cultivated crops is low.
Potential for improved pasture is low because of
excessive wetness. Because the soil is on a low position
in the landscape, removal of excess surface water is
difficult. Water stands on the surface for long periods,
severely limiting plant growth.
Potential for growing pine trees is low. Excessive soil
wetness is the main limitation. Equipment mobility,
seedling mortality, plant competition, and windthrow
hazard are management concerns. Water control is
needed to remove excess surface water before trees
can be planted. This soil is rarely used for commercial
tree production because of the cost of drainage.
Potential for community development is very low.
Water standing above the surface restricts the use of
this soil for residential or commercial development.
Adequate outlets for water removal are not available or
are difficult to install. With adequate water control, these
areas could be developed, but maintenance of water
control installations would be expensive. Sites for
buildings, septic tank absorption fields, and roadbeds
require a large amount of suitable fill material because of
the high water table.
This St. Johns, depressional, soil is in capability
subclass Vllw. It is not assigned a woodland ordination
symbol.

6-Tavares fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is
a moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping
soil on narrow to broad low ridges and knolls. Slopes are
convex. Areas of this soil range from 10 to 195 acres.
Typically, this soil has a gray fine sand surface layer
about 5 inches thick. It is underlain by about 4 inches of


18







St. Johns County, Florida


Figure 5.-An area of St Johns fine sand, depressional, which Is covered with water for 6 to 12 months In most years.


pale brown fine sand. Below that, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is very pale brown and white fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Adamsville,
Astatula, and Orsino soils. Also included are small areas
of soils that are similar to this Tavares soil, except some
are dark brown or black and others are better drained to
a depth of more than 60 inches. The included soils make
up less than 20 percent of any area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is between depths of
40 and 80 inches for 6 to 8 months during most years,
but it recedes to a depth greater than 80 inches during
periods of lower rainfall. Permeability is very rapid
throughout. Available water capacity is very low or low.
Natural fertility is low.
The natural vegetation includes slash and longleaf
pines, live oak, sand live oak, laurel oak, turkey oak, and


scattered sawpalmetto. Native grasses include pineland
threeawn, grassleaf goldaster, and low panicum.
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops
because of droughtiness and low natural fertility.
Potential is low for vegetable crops. Planting soil-
improving cover crops, fertilization, liming, and irrigation
are needed to achieve maximum potential.
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
under high-level management. Fertilizers leach rapidly
from this soil. Drought-resistant varieties, such as
bahiagrass and bermudagrass, produce moderate yields
if well managed. Controlled grazing is needed for best
yields.
Potential for pine trees is moderately high. Limitations
to the use of equipment and seedling mortality are
important management concerns. Good site preparation
and timely planting are necessary.


19







Soil Survey


Potential for community development is very high.
Limitations are only slight for single family dwellings and
local roads and streets. Where the slope exceeds 4
percent, use of this soil for small commercial buildings is
moderately limited. Potential for septic tank absorption
fields is also very high, and no fill material is needed to
raise filter fields above the high water table.
This Tavares soil is in capability subclass Ills and
woodland ordination group 3s.

7-lmmokalee fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
nearly level soil on broad flats and low knolls in the
flatwoods. Areas of this soil range from 5 to 400 acres.
The areas generally are broad and elongated and have
slopes ranging from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer, which is
about 32 inches thick, is light gray and white sand. The
subsoil, from 40 to 64 inches, is very dark gray fine sand
that is coated with organic matter. Below that, to a depth
of more than 80 inches, is brown fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Myakka, Ona,
Pottsburg, Smyrna, and Wesconnett soils. Also included
are small areas of similar soils, some of which have a
subsoil that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more,
and others which have sand texture throughout. The
included soils make up less than 15 percent of any area
mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for about 2 months of the year. It is at a
depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 8 months of the
year, and it recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during extended dry periods. Available water capacity is
low in the surface layer, very low in the subsurface layer,
and moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. Organic matter content and natural fertility are
low.
In most areas, the natural vegetation includes slash
pine, longleaf pine, sawpalmetto, fetterbush, inkberry,
and a few scrub oak and running oak, blackberry, and
sumac. Native grasses are mostly chalky bluestem,
creeping bluestem, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops
because of wetness. The root zone is limited by a high
water table during the wet season. The soil is drought
during the dry season. Natural fertility is low, and
response to fertilizer is moderate. Potential for vegetable
crops is medium if a water control system can be
installed to remove excess water and supply additional
moisture through subsurface irrigation. Close-growing
cover crops should be planted after cash crops are
harvested. All crop residue should be used to protect the
soil from erosion. Good seedbed preparation includes
bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be added.
Potential for growing improved pasture is medium. Use
of surface ditches, which quickly remove excess water


after heavy rains, is needed. Fertilization and liming and
other good management practices that include controlled
grazing are needed to maintain healthy plants.
This soil has a moderate potential for slash pine under
high-level management. A high water table during
periods of higher rainfall limits this soil for this use.
Equipment mobility during wet seasons, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Use of surface ditches, which remove excess
water, is a good management practice. Timely
scheduling of site preparation, planting, and harvesting is
required. Site preparation should include bedding of the
rows.
Potential for community development is medium if
measures are taken to lower the seasonal high water
table, which is at a depth of less than 10 inches about 2
months of the year. Special measures are needed for
removing excess surface water and increasing the depth
to the seasonal high water table for dwellings without
basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
and streets. Adequate outlets for the disposal of excess
water generally are not available. Building sites and
roadbeds may need to be raised by the use of fill
material. Potential for use as a site for septic tank
absorption fields is medium. Suitable fill material is
needed to raise the absorption field above the high
water table.
This Immokalee soil is in capability subclass IVw and
woodland ordination group 4w.

8-Zolfo fine sand. This is a somewhat poorly
drained, nearly level soil on broad landscapes that are
slightly higher than the adjacent flatwoods. This soil is
sandy throughout. Areas of this soil are moderately
broad and elongated and range from 10 to 85 acres.
Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent and is convex.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is pale brown
to light gray fine sand, which extends to a depth of about
66 inches. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches is fine
sand. It is dark brown in the upper 3 inches and black in
the lower part. The sand grains in this layer are coated
with organic matter.
Included in mapping are small areas of the poorly
drained Immokalee and Ona soils and somewhat poorly
drained Adamsville soils. The included soils make up
about 10 percent of any area mapped.
This Zolfo soil has a seasonal high water table at a
depth of 24 to 40 inches for 2 to 9 months in most years
under natural conditions. Permeability is very rapid or
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate
in the subsoil. Available water capacity is low in the
surface and subsurface layers and very high in the
subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter content are
low or very low.
The natural vegetation includes inkberry, slash and
longleaf pines, water oak, blackjack oak, scrub oak, and


20






St. Johns County, Florida


sawpalmetto. Native grasses include greenbrier, chalky
bluestem, dwarf huckleberry, and pineland threeawn.
This soil is severely limited for cultivated crops
because of periodic wetness. The root zone is limited by
a water table that is 24 to 40 inches below the surface
much of the time. Available water capacity is low in the
root zone. Natural fertility is low, but response to
fertilizers is good. Internal drainage is slow under natural
conditions, but response to water control systems is
rapid. Potential for cabbage, potatoes, and other
vegetable crops is medium. A water control system that
removes excess water during wet seasons and provides
subsurface irrigation during dry seasons is needed. Other
good management practices include bedding rows and
growing cover crops when the soil is not in use. All crop
residue should be returned to the soil. Fertilizer and lime
should be added at regular intervals, according to the
needs of the crop.
Potential for improved pasture is medium. Surface
ditches are needed to remove excess water during times
of high rainfall. Improved pasture grasses such as
bahiagrass and bermudagrass grow well. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are required. Grazing
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor.
Potential for pine trees is moderately high. Limitations
to the use of equipment, seedling mortality, and plant
competition are management concerns. Good site
preparation and timely scheduling of planting and
harvesting operations are required. Rows should be
bedded. Slash pines are the best trees to plant.
Potential for community development is high. Some
water control is required for the construction of dwellings
without basements, small commercial buildings, and local
roads and streets. In most areas, water outlets are
available for area drainage. Potential for use as sites for
septic tank absorption fields is high. If the soil is used as
a site for absorption fields, about 2 1/2 feet of suitable
fill material is needed to raise the field above the high
water table.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland
ordination group 3w.

9-Pomona fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is in broad areas in the flatwoods. Areas of this
soil are irregularly shaped and range from 25 to 300
acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black to very dark gray
fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer,
which is about 15 inches thick, is gray and light gray fine
sand. The subsoil to a depth of 31 inches is black and
dark brown fine sand coated with organic matter. Below
this depth is pale brown to gray fine sand, which extends
to a depth of 47 inches. Between 47 and 56 inches, the
subsoil is light brownish gray loamy material. From 56 to
63 inches, it is light gray fine sandy loam. Below that, to
a depth of 80 inches or more, is light brownish gray fine
sand.


Included in mapping are small areas of Bakersville,
EauGallie, Myakka, St. Johns, and Wesconnett soils.
Also included are small areas of soils that are similar to
this Pomona soil. Some of these similar soils have (
subsoil more than 30 inches thick; some are weakly
cemented in the upper part of the subsoil; some are
loamy in the lower part of the subsoil; and some are
yellowish brown in the lower part of the subsoil. Some
soils have a lighter colored surface layer than this soil
and are better drained. The included areas make up less
than 20 percent of any area mapped.
The water table in this Pomona soil is within a depth
of 10 inches for 1 to 3 months and is at a depth of 10 to
40 inches for 6 months or more. During extended dry
periods, the water table recedes to a depth of more than
40 inches. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the upper part df the
subsoil. Available water capacity is very low or low in the
surface and subsurface layers, and it is moderate in the
upper part of the subsoil. Organic matter content and

natural fertility are low.
The natural vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash
pine, gallberry, and sawpalmetto. The grasses include
chalky bluestem, bushy bluestem, creeping bluestem,
lopsided indiangrass, and pineland threeawn.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
The root zone is limited by a water table that is lesp than
10 inches below the surface in wet seasons. Natural
fertility is low, but response to fertilizer is good. Potential
for a number of vegetable crops is medium. To reach full
potential, a water control system that removes excess
water in rainy seasons and provides subsurface irrigation
in dry seasons is required. After cash crops are
harvested, close-growing, soil-improving crops should be
grown. All crop residue should be returned to the soil.
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
needs of the crop.
Potential for improved pasture is medium. Bahiagrass,
bermudagrass, and clovers grow well if well managed.
Use of surface ditches is needed to remove excess
water during wet seasons. Controlled grazing and regular
use of fertilizer and lime are needed for highest yields.
Potential for pine trees is moderately high. The main
management concerns are limitations to the use of
equipment and seedling mortality. Use of surface ditches
to remove excess water is needed. Trees should be
planted on bedded rows.
Potential for community development is medium. The
main limitation for this use is soil wetness caused by a
high water table that is within 10 inches of the surface
for long periods. Water control systems are necessary
but are normally difficult to install because adequate
water outlets are not available. Local roads and streets
require special measures, such as the construction of
deep side ditches, to remove excess water. Elevating the
roadbed to increase the effective depth to the seasonal
high water table may be needed. Single family dwellings


21






Soil Survey


and small commercial buildings require measures for
removing excess surface water. Fill material is needed
for elevating building sites in order to increase the
effective depth to the high water table. If this soil is used
as a site for septic tank absorption fields, about 4 feet of
fill material is needed to raise the field above the high
water table.
This Pomona soil is in capability subclass IVw and
woodland ordination group 3w.

11-Smyrna fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
nearly level soil on broad areas in the flatwoods. Areas
are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 100 acres.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 7
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray fine sand to a
depth of 14 inches. The subsoil is loamy fine sand about
7 inches thick. The upper 4 inches is black, and the
lower 3 inches is dark brown. Below that is brown sand,
about 11 inches thick, that has very dark brown subsoil
fragments; dark brown and brown fine sand about 30
inches thick; and grayish brown fine sand that extends to
a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included in mapping are small areas of Immokalee,
Myakka, and St. Johns soils. Also included are small
areas of similar soils, but they have shell fragments at a
depth of 60 to 80 inches. Included areas make up less
than 15 percent of any area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months, and it recedes to a
depth of 10 to 40 inches for more than 6 months in most
years. During the rainy seasons, the water table rises
above the surface briefly. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate or
moderately rapid in the subsoil. Available water capacity
is very low to moderate in the surface and subsurface
layers and moderate to very high in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is low. Organic matter content is moderate or
moderately low.
The natural vegetation includes longleaf and slash
pines, sawpalmetto, inkberry, waxmyrtle, running oak,
pineland threeawn, dwarf huckleberry, and panicum.
This Smyrna soil has medium potential for cultivated
crops. Wetness, low natural fertility, and susceptibility to
drought are severe limitations to this use. The root zone
is limited by a seasonal high water table that is within 10
inches of the surface during wet seasons. Response to
fertilizers is moderate. With adequate water control
measures that remove excess water and intensive
management that includes regular fertilization and
irrigation, good yields of potatoes and cabbage crops
can be obtained. Soil-improving cover crops should be
planted after crops are harvested. All crop residue
should be returned to the soil.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture
grasses, such as bermudagrass and bahiagrass. Water
control measures are needed to remove excess surface


water after heavy rains, and regular additions of fertilizer
are needed. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain
best yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for pines. Slash
pines are the most productive. Limitations to the use of
equipment during wet seasons and high seedling
mortality are the primary management concerns. For the
removal of excess surface water, water control systems
are needed. Bedding of the rows and good site
preparation help establish seedlings and keep plant
competition at a minimum.
Potential for community development is medium. A
seasonal high water table that is at or near the surface
during rainy seasons is a severe limitation for urban
uses. Removal of excess surface water and lowering the
water table are sometimes difficult because adequate
water outlets generally are not available. Local roads
and streets and dwellings without basements require
adequate water control, which lowers the high water
table to a depth of at least 2.5 feet. If adequate water
control is not possible, roadbeds and building sites
should be elevated by the use of fill material to increase
the effective depth to the water table. Potential for use
as a site for septic tank absorption fields is medium. If
this soil is used as a site for absorption fields, about 4
feet of suitable fill material is needed to raise the field
above the high water table.
This Smyrna soil is in capability subclass IVw and
woodland ordination group 3w.

12-Ona fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained sandy soil in flatwood areas. Areas of Ona fine
sand are irregular in shape and range from 5 to 125
acres. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer, about 8 inches thick, is
very dark gray fine sand. The subsoil between depths of
8 and 16 inches is black to dark brown fine sand.
Between depths of 16 and 34 inches, the subsoil is dark
brown and brown fine sand. The substratum to a depth
of 80 inches or more is light gray and grayish brown fine
sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Adamsville,
Smyrna, St. Johns, and Tocoi soils. Also included are
small areas of soils, some of which have a layer of
sandy loam below a depth of 40 inches, and others
which have a thicker subsoil. The included areas in any
one map unit do not exceed 15 percent.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 10 to
40 inches for periods of 4 to 6 months during most
years. It rises to a depth of less than 10 inches for
periods of 1 to 4 months and may recede to a depth of
more than 40 inches during very dry seasons. Available
water capacity is moderate in the surface layer and
subsoil, and it is very low or low in the underlying
material. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and
moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility and organic
matter content are moderate.


22






St. Johns County, Florida


The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
pines, sawpalmetto, huckleberry, gallberry, chalky
bluestem, and pineland threeawn.
This Ona soil has severe limitations for growing
cultivated crops. The root zone is limited by a water
table that is less than 10 inches below the surface in wet
seasons. Natural fertility is low, but response to fertilizer
is good. Potential for a number of vegetable crops is
high. To reach full potential, a water control system that
removes excess water in rainy seasons and provides
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons is required. Close-
growing, soil-improving crops should be grown after cash
crops are harvested. All crop residue should be returned
to the soil. Fertilizer and lime should be added according
to the needs of the crop.
Potential for improved pasture is high. Bahiagrass,
bermudagrass, and clovers grow well if the soil is well
managed. Surface ditches are needed to remove excess
water during wet seasons. Controlled grazing and regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for highest
yields.
Potential for pine trees is moderately high. Limitations
to the use of equipment and seedling mortality are the
main concerns of management. Surface ditches that
remove excess water are needed. Trees should be
planted on bedded rows.
Potential for community development is medium. The
main limitation for this use is soil wetness caused by a
high water table that is within 10 inches of the surface
for long periods. A water control system is needed to
remove excess water. It is normally difficult to install
because of lack of adequate water outlets. Local roads
and streets require special measures, such as the
construction of deep side ditches, to remove excess
water. Elevating the roadbed to increase the effective
depth to the water table may be required. For single
family dwellings and small commercial buildings,
measures are needed to remove excess surface water.
Building sites should be elevated to increase the depth
to the seasonal high water table. If this soil were used as
a site for absorption fields, about 4 feet of suitable fill
material would be needed to raise the field above the
high water table.
This Ona soil is in capability subclass IIIw and
woodland ordination group 3w.

13-St. Johns fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
nearly level soil in broad flatwoods and landscapes
adjacent to drainageways. Mapped areas of this soil
range from 5 to 350 acres. Slope ranges from 0 to 2
percent and is convex.
Typically, the surface layer is about 7 inches of black
fine sand over 3 inches of very dark gray fine sand. The
subsurface layer is gray fine sand that extends to a
depth of 15 inches. The upper 4 inches of the subsoil is
black loamy fine sand, and the lower 9 inches is black
fine sand. The sand grains in the subsoil are well coated


with organic matter. Below the subsoil is gray fine sand
about 14 inches thick, black fine sand about 24 inches
thick, and dark gray fine sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Included in mapping are small areas of Myakka, Ona,
and Smyrna soils. Also included are small areas of a
similar soil that has a very thick subsoil. The included
areas make up less than 10 percent of any area
mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 0 to 15
inches for 2 to 6 months and at 15 to 30 inches during
periods of lower rainfall in most years under natural
conditions.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low,
and organic matter content is moderate. Available water
capacity is moderate in the surface layer and subsoil and
very low or low in the other layers.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
loblollybay, sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, American holly, and
inkberry. Native grasses are chalky bluestem, cinnamon
fern, and pineland threeawn.
In its natural state, this soil is limited for cultivated
crops by a seasonal high water table. The root zone is
limited by a water table that is within 10 inches of the
surface during wet seasons. Available water capacity is
low or moderate in the root zone. Natural fertility is low,
but response to fertilizer is good. This soil has high
potential for growing vegetable crops, such as Irish
potatoes. A well designed water control system is
needed to remove excess water during wet seasons and
provide irrigation in dry seasons. Good management is
needed that includes growing cover crops and use of
crop residue to protect the soil from erosion. Seedbed
preparation should include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer
and lime should be added according to crop needs.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture.
Water control measures which remove excess surface
water during periods of high rainfall are required. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil has a moderately high potential for slash pine
under high-level management. A seasonal high water
table during periods of higher rainfall limits this soil for
this use. Equipment mobility during wet seasons,
seedling mortality, and plant competition are
management concerns. The use of simple water control
measures that remove excess surface water is a good
management practice. Timely scheduling of site
preparation, planting, and harvesting are required. Site
preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Potential for community development is medium.
Excessive soil wetness is the main limitation for this use.
A seasonal high water table is at or near the soil surface
during times of high rainfall. Water control measures,
which lower the water table to a depth of 2.5 feet, are
needed for constructing houses, small commercial
buildings, and local roads and streets. In many places,


23






Soil Survey


where water outlets are not available or are difficult to
install, construction sites and roadbeds should be
elevated to increase the effective depth to the water
table. Potential for use as septic tank absorption fields is
medium. If this soil were used as a site for absorption
fields, about 4 feet of suitable fill material would be
needed to raise the field above the high water table.
This St. Johns soil is in capability subclass IIIw and
woodland ordination group 3w.

14-Cassia fine sand. This is a nearly level,
somewhat poorly drained soil that occurs on low ridges
that are slightly higher than the adjacent flatwoods.
Areas of this soil range from 6 to 175 acres in size.
Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent and is convex.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand, which is
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer, about 15
inches thick, consists of light gray fine sand with grayish
brown stains along root channels. The subsoil, from 18
to 32 inches, is very dark gray and dark brown, compact
fine sand. The material between depths of 32 and 75
inches is light yellowish brown fine sand. Below that, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is very dark gray fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Immokalee,
Jonathan, Myakka, and Pomello soils. Also included are
small areas of similar soils. Some of these soils have a
thin, brown subsoil in which the sand grains are only
lightly coated with organic accumulations; some have a
very thick subsoil; and others have shell fragments
below a depth of 60 inches.
In most years the seasonal high water table is at a
depth of 15 to 40 inches for about 6 months under
natural conditions. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and is moderate or moderately
rapid in the subsoil. Available water capacity is very low
or low in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, running
oak, sand live oak, sand pine, a few longleaf pines, and
sawpalmetto. Native grasses include low panicum,
cinnamon fern, and broomsedge bluestem.
This soil has low potential for crops. The root zone is
restricted by a water table that is 15 to 40 inches below
the surface during wet seasons. The soil is drought and
has very low natural fertility. The response to fertilizer is
slight.
This soil has low potential for growing improved
pasture grasses. To achieve maximum potential for
improved pasture, water control systems and
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed. Deep-
rooting grasses, such as bahiagrass and bermudagrass,
are the best varieties to grow.
This soil has moderate potential for pine trees.
Unsatisfactory seedling survival rates can be expected
during dry years. The very low available moisture during
dry seasons and a very low level of plant nutrients
severely limit tree growth.


Potential for community development is high. This soil
is easily drained if adequate water outlets are available.
Water control measures are commonly used to make the
soil suitable for building houses, small commercial
buildings, and local roads and streets. If this soil were
used as a site for septic tank absorption fields, about 2-
1/2 feet of suitable fill material would be needed to raise
the field above the high water table.
This Cassia soil is in capability subclass Vis and
woodland ordination group 4s.

15-Pomello fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
is a moderately well drained, nearly level to gently
sloping soil on long, broad to narrow, slightly higher
ridges and knolls in the flatwoods. Areas range from
about 3 to 80 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 40
inches, is gray, white, and light gray fine sand. Next is
dark gray fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is
at a depth of 45 inches. The upper 6 inches is black fine
sand, and the lower 6 inches is dark reddish brown fine
sand. Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
dark reddish brown fine sand mixed with black fragments
of the subsoil.
Included in mapping are small areas of Cassia and
Immokalee soils. Also included are small areas of a
similar soil where the subsoil is below a depth of 50
inches. On Anastasia Island, north of Crescent Beach,
there are small areas of shells and shell fragments 60
inches or more deep. Near the Atlantic coast and Inland
Waterway are small areas of similar soils, which are
slightly acid to neutral. The included soils make up less
than 15 percent of any area mapped.
This soil has a seasonal high water table at a depth of
24 to 40 inches for 1 to 4 months during the normal wet
seasons. During the drier seasons, the water table
recedes to a depth of 40 to 60 inches. The available
water capacity is low in the surface layer, very low in the
subsurface layer, and moderate in the subsoil.
Permeability is very rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and moderate in the subsoil. Organic matter
content is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility is low
throughout.
The natural vegetation includes scrub and dwarf live
oaks, sand pine, longleaf and slash pines, sawpalmetto,
and pineland threeawn. A few areas have been cleared
and used for slash pine plantations. Other areas have
been cleared and used for improved pasture.
Potential is low for cultivated crops. This soil is
severely limited for crops because of droughtiness. Plant
nutrients leach rapidly from this soil.
Potential for improved pasture is low. Even with good
management, yields are only fair. Deep-rooted grasses,
such as bahiagrass, are better suited than other grasses.
Clovers are not suited. The drought nature of this soil


24







St. Johns County, Florida


severely limits pasture yields. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be greatly
restricted to maintain vigorous growth and highest yields.
Potential for pine trees is moderate. Sand pines are a
better variety to plant than other trees. Limitations to the
use of equipment, seedling mortality, and plant
competition are major management concerns.
Potential of this soil is medium for community
development. Dwellings without basements and small
commercial buildings require some water control to
maintain the water table below a depth of 2 1/2 feet.
Local roads and streets require only slight elevation of
the roadbed, or shallow side ditches are needed to
increase the depth to the water table. Potential for use
as a site for septic tank absorption fields is high. If this
soil were used as a site for absorption fields, about 2
1/2 feet of suitable fill material would be needed to raise
the field above the high water table.
This Pomello soil is in capability subclass Vis and
woodland ordination group 4s.

16-Orsino fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is
a moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping
soil on low ridges and knolls and on slopes adjacent to
soils on higher positions. Areas of this soil are irregular
or somewhat rounded in shape and range from 10 to 70
acres. Slopes are convex.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layer, to a depth of 18
inches, is white fine sand. Below that is about 26 inches
of brownish yellow fine sand containing dark reddish
brown, noncemented bodies of fine sand. Tongues of
white fine sand extend into this layer from the above
layer. The material between depths of 44 and 59 inches
is yellow fine sand. Below this, to a depth of 80 inches
or more, is white fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Paola,
Pomello, and Tavares soils. Also included are small
areas of similar soils that have layers darkened by
accumulations of organic matter extending to a depth of
more than 70 inches and soils that have a seasonal high
water table at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Included soils
in this map unit make up about 10 percent of any area
mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 40 to
60 inches for more than 6 months during most years, but
it recedes to a depth of more than 60 inches during
periods of low rainfall. Permeability is very rapid.
Available water capacity is low. Natural fertility is low.
The organic matter content is moderately low in the
surface layer and low or very low below.
The natural vegetation includes southern magnolia,
hickory, American holly, sand pine, sand live oak, and
sawpalmetto. Native grasses include pineland threeawn
and panicum.
This soil has severe limitations for growing cultivated
crops. The potential for vegetable crops is low. Intensive


management is required when the soil is cultivated.
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
the yields and the number of crops that can be grown.
Close-growing cover crops should be grown frequently,
and all crop residue should be left on the ground. The
variety of crops that can be grown without irrigation is
limited to a few.
Potential for improved pasture is medium. Deep-
rooting plants such as bahiagrass grow well, but yields
are reduced during periodic drought. Regular fertilization
and liming are needed. Controlled grazing is needed to
maintain vigorous plant growth.
This soil has moderately high potential for slash,
longleaf, and sand pines under high-level management.
Limitations to the use of equipment, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are management concerns.
This soil has high potential for community
development. It has only slight limitations for
constructing dwellings without basements, small
commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
Potential for septic tank absorption fields is also high.
Filter fields do not require elevation. Local experience
indicates that absorption fields function properly without
water control, and adequate outlets are generally
available.
This Orsino soil is in capability subclass IVs and
woodland ordination group 4s.

18-Floridana fine sand, frequently flooded. This is
a very poorly drained, nearly level soil on flood plains
and in broad, shallow drainageways. Areas of this soil
range from 5 to 60 acres. They are oblong or narrow and
elongated in shape. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 18
inches thick. The subsurface layer is grayish brown fine
sand about 10 inches thick. The subsoil, about 17 inches
thick, is dark gray fine sandy loam. Below the subsoil is
dark gray sandy clay loam that extends to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Included in mapping are small areas of Holopaw and
Riviera soils. Also included are small areas of soils that
are similar to this Floridana soil, but some have
carbonatic accumulations within 80 inches, some have
organic surfaces, and others that are subject to ponding
are in depressions. The included soils make up less than
25 percent of any area mapped.
This Floridana soil is subject to flooding for 1 to 3
months during the rainy season. The water table is at a
depth of less than 10 inches for more than 6 months
during most years. Permeability is rapid in the surface
and subsurface layers and very slow in the subsoil and
below. Available water capacity is moderate in the
surface layer and subsoil and low in the subsurface
layer. Natural fertility is medium, and organic matter
content is moderate.


25







Soil Survey


The natural vegetation includes black tupelo, red
maple, sweetgum, cypress, loblollybay, waxmyrtle,
sawgrass, and cinnamon fern.
This soil has low potential for cultivated crops.
Flooding and wetness are the primary management
concerns. A water control system is needed that
provides protection from flooding and removes excess
surface water and internal water rapidly before crops can
be grown. Good soil management includes use of crop
rotations that keep the soil in close-growing cover crops
(fig. 6) when it is not being cultivated. The cover crop
and all other crop residue should be returned to the soil.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Fertilizer should be applied according to the needs of the
crop.
This soil has medium potential for most pasture
grasses. Water control systems which provide flood


protection and quickly remove excess surface water are
needed before grasses can be grown.
The potential for pine trees is moderately high.
Limitations to the use of equipment, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are the main management
concerns. A water control system that protects the soil
from flooding and removes excess surface water is
required. Bedding of the rows helps overcome limitations
caused by excessive wetness. Timely scheduling of site
preparation, planting, and harvesting is required.
The potential for community development is very low.
Excessive wetness and flooding restrict the use of this
soil for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and local
roads and streets. The low position on the landscape
makes water control and protection from flooding
difficult. The soil has very low potential for use as a site


Figure 6.--Cover crops, such as this sorghum, are planted after cultivated crops of Irish potatoes or cabbage are harvested. The soil is
Floridana fine sand.


26







St. Johns County, Florida


for septic tank absorption fields. Large amounts of fill
material would be needed before filter fields could be
elevated above the high water table. Possibility of ground
water contamination during flooding would continue to
exist.
This Floridana soil is in capability subclass Vw and
woodland ordination group 3w.

19-Pompano fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
nearly level soil in low areas bordering poorly to well
defined drainageways and broad low flat areas. Areas
are irregular in shape and range from 3 to 200 acres.
Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
fine sand about 4 inches thick. The material between
depths of 4 and 28 inches is white fine sand. Below this,
and extending to a depth of 80 inches or more, is light
gray and light olive gray fine sand mixed with sand-sized
shell fragments.
Included in mapping are small areas of Adamsville,
Holopaw, and Riviera soils. Also included are small
areas of soils that are similar to this Pompano soil,
except that some have a loamy fine sand subsurface
layer, some are ponded or flooded, and some are
adjacent to tidal marshes and have a high salt content.
The included soils make up less than 10 percent of any
area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months of the year, and it
recedes to within a depth of 30 inches for more than 9
months during most years. Permeability is rapid or very
rapid throughout. Available water capacity is very low.
Natural fertility and organic matter content are low.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine, longleaf
pine, scattered sweetgum, waxmyrtle, bluestem,
panicum, and brackenfern.
Because wetness is a severe limitation, this soil has
medium potential for cultivated crops. The root zone is
limited by a water table that is less than 10 inches below
the surface. With a complete water control system, this
soil will produce good yields of cabbage or potatoes.
The water control system that is used must remove
excess water rapidly and provide a means for subsurface
irrigation during dry seasons. Cover crops should be
grown when the soil is not being farmed. All cover crops
and crop residue should be returned to the soil.
Applications of fertilizer and lime should be applied
according to the needs of the crop.
Potential for improved pasture grasses and legumes is
medium. A simple water control system is needed in
order to quickly remove excess surface water.
Bahiagrass, bermudagrass, and clovers grow well.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for
vigorous plant growth.
Potential for pine trees is moderate. Limitations to the
use of equipment and high seedling mortality resulting
from excessive wetness are management concerns.


Adequate surface water control and bedding of rows are
needed for low plant mortality.
Potential for community development is medium. A
seasonal high water table that is at or near the surface
during rainy seasons is a severe limitation for urban
uses. Removal of excess surface water and lowering the
water table are sometimes difficult because adequate
water outlets generally are not available. Local roads
and streets and dwellings without basements require
adequate water control, which lowers the high water
table to a depth of at least 2.5 feet. If adequate water
control is not possible, roadbeds and building sites
should be elevated by the use of fill material to increase
the effective depth to the water table. If this soil were
used as a site for absorption fields, about 4 feet of
suitable fill material would be needed to raise the field
above the high water table.
This Pompano soil is in capability subclass IVw and
woodland ordination group 4w.

21-Wabasso fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
nearly level soil on broad landscapes in the flatwoods.
Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and range from
15 to 120 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer consists of black fine sand
that has a salt and pepper appearance in the upper 4
inches and is very dark gray fine sand in the lower 2
inches. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand,
extending to a depth of about 25 inches. The upper part
of the subsoil is 7 inches thick. The upper 3 inches is
black fine sand, and the next 4 inches is very dark brown
fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil is about 13
inches thick. The upper 8 inches is brown fine sandy
loam; the next 5 inches is grayish brown sandy clay
loam. Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
gray loamy fine sand and fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of EauGallie,
ElIzey, and Floridana soils. Also included are small areas
of soils which are similar to this Wabasso soil, except
some have a light gray surface layer, some are more
acid in the lower part of the subsoil, and others are
sandy clay in the lower part of the subsoil. The included
soils make up about 15 percent of any area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 10 to
40 inches for more than 6 months during most years. It
is at a depth of more than 40 inches during very dry
seasons.
In this Wabasso soil, permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers. It is moderate in the
upper part of the subsoil, slow in the lower part of the
subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. Available water
capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers,
moderate in the upper and lower parts of the subsoil,
and low in the substratum. Natural fertility and organic
matter content are low.
The natural vegetation includes longleaf and slash
pines, cabbage palms, and live oak, with an undergrowth


27







Soil Survey


of sawpalmetto, laurel, waxmyrtle, and pineland
threeawn.
Wetness is a severe limitation if this soil is used for
cultivated crops. If well managed, the soil has medium
potential for cabbage, potatoes, and other vegetable
crops. A water control system is required to remove
excess water in wet seasons and provide water through
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Row crops should
be rotated with close-growing, soil-improving crops.
Fertilizer and lime should be added according to the
needs of the crops.
Potential for improved pasture grasses is high.
Bahiagrass, bermudagrass, and clovers grow well if they
are well managed. They require simple water control
measures to remove excessive water during times of
high rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime
and controlled grazing are needed for best yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for slash and
longleaf pines. Limitations to the use of equipment and
seedling mortality are management concerns. Adequate
water control helps to minimize the seedling mortality.
Timely scheduling of site preparation, planting, and
harvesting operations is needed. Bedding of the rows is
needed for good site preparation.
Potential for community development is medium. A
seasonal high water table that is within 10 inches of the
surface is the main limitation. Dwellings without
basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
and streets require special measures to remove excess
surface water and lower the high water table. Adequate
outlets to dispose of excess water are often not
available or difficult to install. Building sites may need to
be elevated by the use of fill material. Potential as a site
for septic tank absorption fields is medium. Suitable fill
material is needed to raise the field above the high water
table.
This Wabasso soil is in capability subclass Illw and
woodland ordination group 3w.

22-Manatee fine sandy loam, frequently flooded.
This is a very poorly drained, nearly level soil on flood
plains and in poorly defined drainageways. Areas are
irregular and elongated in shape and range from 15 to
200 acres. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray and black
fine sandy loam about 13 inches thick. The subsoil,
which extends to a depth of 34 inches, is very dark gray
fine sandy loam in the upper 12 inches and dark gray
sandy clay loam in the next 9 inches. From 34 to 52
inches, the material is dark gray loamy fine sand. Below
that, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is dark gray loamy
fine sand and fine sand mottled with yellowish red.
Included in mapping are small areas of Bluff,
Parkwood, and Riviera soils and small areas of soils that
are similar to this Manatee soil, except that some have a
subsoil at a depth of more than 20 inches, some have a
light colored surface layer, and some have a surface


layer of mucky fine sand or loamy fine sand. Others
have a finer textured subsoil. Also included are small
areas of this Manatee soil, which are in depressions and
are ponded for more than 6 months of the year. The
included soils make up about 15 percent of any area
mapped.
This soil has a water table within 10 inches of the
surface for 2 to 4 months in most years. It is subject to
flooding for long periods during seasons of high rainfall.
Permeability is very rapid to moderately rapid in the
surface layer and moderate in the subsoil. Available
water capacity is high or very high in the surface layer
and high in the subsoil. The organic matter content is
very high to moderate in the surface layer and low or
very low in the subsoil. The natural fertility is high.
The natural vegetation includes sweetgum, cabbage
palm, blackgum, cypress, water oak, cinnamon fern,
waxmyrtle, and wild grape.
In its natural state, this soil is not suited to most
agricultural uses, but if it is well managed and an
adequate water control system is used, this soil can be
used for cultivated crops. Potential for this use is low.
Fertilization, the use of crop rotations, good seedbed
preparation, and a well designed water control system
are needed to remove excess water and provide flood
protection during rainy periods. Cover crops should be
rotated with row crops. All crop residue should be
returned to the soil.
This soil has a medium potential for improved pasture
grasses. With adequate water control, fertilization, and
controlled grazing, this soil produces high yields of the
common improved pasture grasses and legumes.
On this soil, potential for slash and longleaf pines is
high. Limitations to the use of equipment, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are the main
management concerns. Bedding of the rows and
adequate drainage are needed to overcome the wetness
limitation.
Potential for community development is very low.
Excessive wetness and flooding restrict the use of this
soil for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and local
roads and streets. The low position on the landscape
makes water control and protection from flooding
difficult. Potential for use as a site for septic tank
absorption fields is very low. If this soil is used as a site
for absorption fields, large amounts of fill material are
needed to raise the filter field above the high water
table. Possibility of ground water contamination during
flooding would continue to be a hazard.
This Manatee soil is in capability subclass IIIw and in
woodland ordination group 2w.

23-Paola fine sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This is
an excessively drained, nearly level to sloping soil on
narrow to broad ridges and on hillsides adjoining
marshes and drainageways. Slopes are convex. Areas of


28







St. Johns County, Florida


the soil are narrow and irregular in shape and range from
10 to 100 acres.
This soil is fine sand throughout. Typically, the surface
layer, about 4 inches thick, is gray. The next layer,
between depths of 4 and 17 inches, is white. Between
depths of 17 and 32 inches is a brownish yellow subsoil
that is tongued with white. The substratum to a depth of
80 inches or more is very pale brown.
Included in mapping are small areas of Astatula and
Orsino soils. Also included are small areas of soils
similar to this Paola soil, except some have a finer
texture below a depth of 70 inches; some have a very
thick subsoil; others are underlain by shells and shell
fragments; and others have a substratum that is slightly
acid or neutral. The included soils make up less than 10
percent of any one mapped area.
Under natural conditions, the seasonal high water
table is at a depth of more than 72 inches. Permeability
is very rapid. Available water capacity is low. Natural
fertility is low, and organic matter content is very low.
The natural vegetation includes live oak, laurel oak,
sand pine, sand live oak, and sawpalmetto. Near the
Atlantic coast, southern magnolia, eastern redcedar, and
American holly are also included. Native grasses include
a few panicum and scattered bluestem.
This soil has very low potential for cultivated crops.
Natural fertility is low, and fertilizers are rapidly leached
from the soil. This soil is drought because of the low
available water capacity in the root zone.
Potential for growing improved pasture is low.
Irrigation, liming, fertilization, and use of improved
grasses, such as bahiagrass, are needed to reach the
maximum potential for pasture.
Potential for slash and longleaf pines is low. Sand
pines are better suited to planting than other trees.
Seedling mortality and limitations to the use of
equipment are management concerns.
Potential for community development is very high.
There are no limitations or only slight limitations for
dwellings without basements, local roads and streets,
and small commercial buildings on slopes up to 4
percent. Areas of this soil used for lawns and
landscaping require frequent watering and fertilization.
Potential as a site for septic tank absorption fields is also
very high. There is a slight chance of ground water
contamination because the soil is very rapidly
permeable. Local experience indicates that seepage of
effluent is not a problem when the distance between
filter fields and water wells meets minimum
requirements.
This Paola soil is in capability subclass Vis and
woodland ordination group 5s.

24-Pellicer silty clay loam, frequently flooded.
This is a very poorly drained, nearly level soil that is in
low tidal marshes along stream estuaries near the
Atlantic coast. Soil areas are wide and elongated in


shape and are 60 to several thousand acres. Slopes are
less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown silty clay
loam about 10 inches thick. Between depths of 10 and
55 inches, the material is dark greenish gray clay loam.
Below that, to a depth of 70 inches, is dark greenish
gray sandy clay with lenses of gray sandy and loamy
material. The lower layer, which extends to a depth of 80
inches or more, is dark greenish gray sandy clay loam
with pockets of gray fine sand, loamy fine sand, and
sandy clay.
Included in mapping are small areas of Durbin,
Moultrie, St. Augustine, and Tisonia soils. Also included
are small areas of soils that are similar to this Pellicer
soil. Some of these similar soils have an organic surface
layer; some have a sandy clay loam surface layer 10 to
20 inches thick that is underlain by sandy and loamy
layers; and others have a clayey surface layer less than
40 inches thick that is underlain by sandy and loamy
layers. The included soils make up about 10 percent of
any area mapped.
This soil is flooded twice daily by normal high tides.
The water table fluctuates with the tide. Permeability is
slow in the surface layer and very slow in the upper part
of the substratum. Available water capacity is high in the
surface layer and moderate in the substratum. Organic
matter content is very high. Natural fertility is limited by
excess salt.
The natural vegetation consists of seashore saltgrass,
bushy sea-oxeye, glasswort, and needlegrass rush.
This Pellicer soil is not suited to cultivated crops,
improved pasture, or trees; the potential for those uses
is very low. Reclaiming the soil for agricultural uses
would require extensive water control using dikes and
pumps. The high salt and sulfur content, high clay
content, and low strength severely restrict the use of this
soil for agricultural purposes. The soil becomes
extremely acid when it is dry for long periods. The low
soil strength will not support grazing cattle or equipment.
Potential for community development is very low. The
hazard of flooding, excessive wetness, and low strength
make the soil poorly suited to the construction of
buildings or local roads and streets. Overcoming these
limitations is impractical.
Areas of this soil are an important wildlife habitat (fig.
7). The native vegetation and fauna are important links in
the food chain for many sport and commercial finfish and
shellfish.
This Pellicer soil is in capability subclass Vlllw. It is not
assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

25-Parkwood fine sandy loam, frequently flooded.
This is a poorly drained, nearly level soil on flood plains
and in poorly defined drainageways. Areas of this soil
are commonly elongated and irregular in shape and
range from 15 to 80 acres. Slopes are less than 2
percent and smooth to concave.


29






30


Figure 7.-Marshland north of Guano Lake on Pellicer silty clay loam, frequently flooded. This soil provides habitat for wetland wildlife.
Soils in the Frlpp-Satellite complex are in the foreground.


Typically, the surface layer, about 7 inches thick,
consists of black fine sandy loam. The subsurface layer,
about 3 inches thick, is grayish brown fine sand. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 55 inches, and it is mixed
with carbonate accumulations. The upper 8 inches is
dark gray fine sandy loam, and the lower 21 inches is
white fine sandy loam. Between depths of 39 and 55
inches, the subsoil is light gray sandy clay loam. The
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is greenish
gray loamy fine sand.
Included in mapping, and making up about 10 percent
of the map unit, are small areas of Manatee, Bluff, and
Floridana soils. Also included are small areas of soils
similar to this Parkwood soil, except some have an
organic surface layer less than 10 inches thick, some
have a thinner or lighter colored surface layer, and
others have a very thick surface layer.
This Parkwood soil is flooded for 1 to 3 months during
rainy seasons. The water table is within 10 inches of the
soil surface for 2 to 4 months during most years.


Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and slow or moderately slow in the subsoil. Available
water capacity is very high in the surface layer, low in
the subsurface layer, and moderate to high in the
subsoil. Natural fertility is high, and organic matter
content is very high in the surface layer and very low in
the other layers.
The natural vegetation includes sweetgum, blackgum,
cabbage palm, water oak, waxmyrtle, cypress, sawgrass,
and cinnamon fern.
In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for
most agricultural uses, but with adequate water control
and good management, it can be used for a variety of
crops.
Potential is low for cultivated crops. Because of the
seasonal high water table, good water control is needed
to remove excess water during rainy periods. Floodwater
must also be controlled. Good seedbed preparation, use
of crop rotations, returning cover crops and all crop


Soil Survey






St. Johns County, Florida


residue to the soil, and regular applications of fertilizer
are also needed.
Potential is medium for improved pasture. The use of
adequate water control systems and controlled grazing,
along with applications of fertilizer, will maximize
potential for pasture.
Potential for pine trees is moderately high. Limitations
to the use of equipment, high seedling mortality, and
plant competition are management concerns. To help
overcome excessive seedling mortality, a water control
system that protects the soil from floodwater and quickly
removes excess surface water is needed. Bedding of the
rows and thorough site preparation are good
management practices. Timely scheduling of planting
and harvesting operations is required.
Potential for community development is very low.
Excessive wetness and flooding restrict the use of this
soil for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and local
roads and streets. The low position on the landscape
makes water control and protection from flooding
difficult. Potential for use as a site for septic tank
absorption fields is very low. If this soil were used as
sites for absorption fields, large amounts of fill material
would be required to raise the filter field above the high
water table. Possibility of ground water contamination
during flooding would continue to exist.
This Parkwood soil is in capability subclass Vw and in
woodland ordination group 3w.

26-Samsula muck. This is a very poorly drained soil
in narrow to broad swamps and depressional areas in
the flatwoods. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape
and range from 8 to 60 acres. Slopes are less than 1
percent and are concave.
Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 31
inches thick. The substratum to a depth of 49 inches is
very dark grayish brown fine sand. Below that, it is
grayish brown and gray fine sand, which extends to a
depth of 80 inches.
Included in mapping are small areas of Hontoon,
Tomoka, and Wesconnett soils. Also included are small
areas of soils which are similar to this Samsula soil,
except that they have an organic surface layer less than
16 inches thick. The included soils make up less than 10
percent of any area mapped.
Under natural conditions, in most years, the seasonal
high water table is at or above the surface, except during
extended dry periods. Permeability is rapid throughout.
Available water capacity is very high in the surface layer
and very low or low in the substratum. Natural fertility
and organic matter content are high.
The natural vegetation includes blackgum, cypress,
loblollybay, waxmyrtle, greenbrier, and cinnamon fern.
In its natural state, this soil is severely limited for
cultivated crops or improved pasture grasses. However,
with adequate drainage where outlets are available, this
soil has high potential for cultivated crops. A well


designed and maintained water control system is
needed. The water control system should provide for
removing excess surface water during times when crops
are being grown. This system should also permit the soil
to be kept saturated at times when crops are not grown.
Fertilizers that contain phosphates, potash, and minor
elements are needed. Large amounts of lime are
needed. Water-tolerant cover crops should be grown
when this soil is not used for row crops. All crop residue
should be plowed under.
Potential for unimproved pasture grasses and clovers
is high when water is properly controlled. A water control
system should maintain the water table near the surface
to prevent excessive oxidation and subsequent
subsidence. Fertilizers high in potash, phosphorus, and
minor elements are needed. Grazing should be
controlled for maximum yields of hay and pasture.
Potential of this soil for slash and longleaf pines is
very low. Limitations to the use of equipment, seedling
mortality, and windthrow hazard limit its use for trees of
commercial value.
Potential for community development is very low.
Water standing on the soil surface and low soil strength
are the main limitations. Water outlets to remove excess
water are difficult to install or do not exist in many
places. Muck must be removed, and large quantities of
fill material must be spread before this soil can be used
for building sites or for local roads and streets. Potential
as a site for septic tank absorption fields is very low. If
this soil were used as a site for absorption fields, large
quantities of fill material would be required to raise the
field above the high water table.
This Samsula soil is in capability subclass IVw. It is not
assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

27-St. Augustine fine sand. This is a somewhat
poorly drained, nearly level soil on narrow to broad flat
areas and low knolls adjacent to tidal marshes and
estuaries along the Atlantic coast and Intracoastal
Waterway. It formed in marine sands mixed with shell
fragments and loamy or clayey fragments. This soil is
formed by dredging, cutting, and filling operations.
Individual areas range from 3 to 125 acres. The shape of
the areas ranges from irregular and rounded to straight
and angular. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer, about 4 inches thick,
consists of very dark gray fine sand that is mixed with
shell fragments. The material between depths of 4 and
10 inches consists of brown loamy fine sand and light
gray fine sand and shell fragments. Below that, to a
depth of 33 inches, is light gray and gray fine sand
mixed with shell fragments and fragments of sandy clay.
Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is gray fine
sand mixed with shell fragments.
Included in mapping are small areas of Moultrie and
Pellicer soils and St. Augustine soils that have a clayey
substratum. Also included are small areas of soils that


31






Soil Survey


are similar to this St. Augustine soil, except that some
lack loamy or clayey fragments; some have black or dark
reddish brown fragments of sandy material coated with
organic accumulations; and some are better drained and
have steeper slopes.
In most years the water table is at a depth of 20 to 30
inches for 2 to 6 months. It rises to a depth of less than
20 inches during heavy rains. The soil is subject to
flooding for very brief periods during severe hurricanes.
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and upper
underlying layers and moderate to rapid in the lower
layers. Available water capacity is very low or low.
Natural fertility and the organic matter content are low.
The natural vegetation varies widely. In most areas of
this soil, vegetative growth is very sparse, but in some,
there is a good growth of trees, shrubs, and grasses.
This vegetation includes waxmyrtle, southern redcedar,
pricklypear, and sawpalmetto. The grasses include
creeping bluestem, bushybeard bluestem, panicum, and
pineland threeawn.
This soil has low potential for cultivated crops.
Available water capacity is very low in the root zone. The
root zone is limited by a water table that is 20 to 40
inches below the surface most of the time.
Potential for growing pasture grasses is low. Low
natural fertility and droughtiness severely limit yields of
improved pasture grasses.
Potential for pine trees is very low. Limitations to the
use of equipment and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns. Droughtiness and low natural
fertility result in an excessive rate of seedling mortality.
Potential for community development is high. This soil
is subject to flooding for very brief periods during severe
hurricanes, but tropical storms of hurricane intensity very
rarely affect St. Johns County. On this soil, wetness is a
severe limitation for dwellings without basements, small
commercial buildings, and local roads and streets, but
this limitation can usually be overcome. Some water
control measures are needed, or building sites may need
some elevation by use of fill material. Water outlets are
generally available for area drainage. Potential for septic
tank absorption fields is also high. If this soil were used
as a site for absorption fields, about 2 1/2 feet of
suitable fill material would be needed to raise the field
above the high water table.
This St. Augustine soil is in capability subclass Vlls. It
is not assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

28-Beaches. Beaches consist of long narrow strips
of nearly level sand along the Atlantic Ocean. Seawater
covers these areas twice daily during normal high tides.
Beaches also include some small areas of low dunes
that are adjacent to the narrow strips that are
overwashed by tidal waves. The material making up
Beaches is a mixture of light gray to white quartz sand,
few to many brown and black sand-size grains of heavy
minerals, and sea shells and shell fragments. It is


subject to movement by wind and tide and is practically
bare of vegetation.
Beaches are associated with Fripp, Pomona, and
Satellite soils. These included soils are on higher
positions and are not subject to wave action or flooding
by normal high tides.
The natural vegetation grows only on some of the low
dunes. It is sparse and consists of sea-oats,
morningglory, and a few other salt-tolerant plants.
Beaches are not suited to vegetable crops, improved
pasture, or pine trees. Periodic flooding, excessive salt
content, low natural fertility, and droughtiness prevent
this soil material from being used for agricultural
purposes.
Beaches are used intensively for recreation. In most
places they are smooth and wide enough at low tide to
permit automobile traffic. Because Beaches are in a
unique location and are valuable for recreation, other
uses are not practical.
Beaches are not assigned to a capability subclass or
given a woodland ordination symbol.

29-Satellite fine sand. This is a somewhat poorly
drained, nearly level soil in narrow to broad swales
between higher relict beach sand dunes, on low knolls
adjacent to drainageways, and on slight ridges in the
flatwoods. Most of this soil is in the area between the
Inland Waterway and Atlantic Ocean. Areas are generally
elongated in shape and range from 3 to 40 acres. Slope
ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The material between depths of 6
and 33 inches is white fine sand that has brownish
yellow mottles. Below that is about 8 inches of light gray
fine sand. Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
light brownish gray fine sand. Fine shell fragments and
heavy mineral grains are in this layer.
Included in mapping are small areas of Fripp,
Pompano, and Moultrie soils. Also included are small
areas of soils that are similar to this Satellite soil, but
they have a brown subsurface layer. The included soils
make up less than 15 percent of any area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is within a depth of 10
to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months in most years.
Permeability is rapid in the surface layer and very rapid
below. Available water capacity is moderate in the
surface layer and very low in the underlying layers.
Natural fertility is low. Organic matter content is high in
the surface layer and very low in the other layers.
The natural vegetation includes sand live oak, water
oak, and sawpalmetto. In coastal areas, the vegetation
includes cabbage palm, magnolia, yaupon holly, and
southern redcedar.
Potential for vegetable crops, such as Irish potatoes
and cabbage, is low. Limitations are severe for cultivated
crops. The root zone is limited by a shallow water table
that is 10 to 40 inches below the surface for long


32






St. Johns County, Florida


periods during wet seasons. The available water capacity
averages very low in the root zone. Natural fertility is
very low, and response to fertilizer is very low. The soil
would be subject to wind erosion if cleared for
cultivation.
Potential for improved pasture is medium. Bahiagrass
and bermudagrass are well adapted. Surface ditches,
which quickly remove excess water during times of high
rainfall, are needed. Additions of fertilizer and controlled
grazing are needed to maintain good yields and vigorous
plant growth.
Potential for pine trees is moderate. Limitations to the
use of equipment, seedling mortality, and plant
competition are the main management concerns. Slash
pines are better adapted than other species.
Potential for community development is high. Wetness
is a severe limitation for dwellings without basements,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets.
This limitation can usually be overcome. Some water
control systems are needed, or building sites may require
some elevation by use of fill material. Water outlets are
generally available for area drainage. Potential for use as
septic tank absorption fields is also high. If this soil were
used as a site for absorption fields, about 2 1/2 feet of
suitable fill material would be needed to raise the field
above the high water table.
This Satellite soil is in capability subclass Vis and
woodland ordination group 4s.

30-Wesconnett fine sand, frequently flooded. This
is a very poorly drained, nearly level soil in narrow to
broad, weakly defined drainageways in the flatwoods.
Areas are irregular to elongated in shape and range from
8 to 75 acres. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent and is
concave.
Typically, the surface layer is covered by partly
decomposed leaves, roots, and twigs about 3 inches
thick. The surface layer is black fine sand about 8 inches
thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 34 inches. It is
black fine sand in the upper 10 inches, dark reddish
brown fine sand in the next 6 inches, and very dark gray
fine sand in the lower 10 inches. The sand grains
throughout the subsoil are well coated with organic
matter. Below the subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is dark grayish brown fine sand over black fine
sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Bakersville,
Myakka depressional, St. Johns depressional, and
Tomoka soils. Also included are small areas of soils that
are similar to this Wesconnett soil, except some have a
thicker subsoil, some have a thicker surface layer, some
are in depressional areas, and others lack a subsoil. The
included soils make up less than 10 percent of any area
mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 6 to 12 months during most years
under natural conditions. It is subject to flooding during


wet seasons. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer
and moderately rapid in the subsoil. Available water
capacity is moderate in the surface layer and subsoil.
Natural fertility is low, and organic matter content is
moderate.
The natural vegetation includes cypress, pond pine,
loblollybay, sweetgum, red maple, and inkberry. Native
grasses include maidencane, cinnamon fern, chalky
bluestem, and indiangrass.
This Wesconnett soil is severely limited for cultivated
crops in its natural state. The soil is very wet, and it is
subject to flooding for 1 to 3 months of the year. Before
crops can be grown, water control systems that protect
the soil from flooding are needed. Water control systems
are generally difficult and expensive to establish.
Potential for cultivated crops is low.
Flooding and excessive wetness cause the potential
for improved pasture to be low. Because the soil is in a
low position in the landscape, protection from flooding
and removal of excess surface water are difficult. With
adequate water control, bahiagrass, bermudagrass, and
clovers grow well. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed for best yields.
Potential for pine trees is high if water is controlled.
Excessive soil wetness and flooding are the main
limitations. Equipment mobility, seedling mortality, plant
competition, and windthrow hazard are management
concerns. A water control system is needed to remove
excess surface water before trees can be planted.
Potential for community development is very low.
Because of the hazard of flooding, the use of this soil for
residential or commercial development is severely
limited. Protection from flooding is necessary. Adequate
outlets for water removal are not available or are difficult
to install. With adequate water control, these areas could
be developed, but maintenance of water control
installations would be expensive. Sites for buildings,
septic tank absorption fields, and roadbeds would require
large amounts of fill material to elevate them sufficiently
above the high water table.
This Wesconnett soil is in capability subclass VIw and
woodland ordination group 2w.

31-Fripp-Satellite complex. In this map unit are
excessively drained, rolling or hilly Fripp soil on narrow
relict beach dunes (fig. 8) and somewhat poorly drained,
nearly level Satellite soil in narrow swales between areas
of the Fripp soil. These soils formed in thick sandy
deposits of marine origin mixed with small amounts of
shell and shell fragments. Slope of the Fripp soil ranges
from 8 to 15 percent. Slopes are convex and short; the
lengths generally range from 50 to 75 feet from crest to
base. Slope of the Satellite soil ranges from 0 to 2
percent and is concave and narrow. Areas of this map
unit range from 3 to 400 acres. The areas of these soils
are so intricately mixed or are so small that they could
not be shown separately at the scale used for mapping.


33






Soil Survey


f-,


L A'
/ \.

u... \


-* *./ -
/ -- L ei


Figure 8.-Dunes along the Atlantic coast are subject to wind erosion when the vegetative cover Is disturbed or removed. The soils are in
the Fripp-Satellite complex.


Fripp fine sand makes up 40 to 70 percent of the
complex. Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand
about 5 inches thick. The upper 1 inch of the surface
layer contains many black organic matter particles.
Below the surface layer is fine sand, which is mixed with
black sand-sized grains of heavy minerals and extends
to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is pale brown and
very pale brown in the upper 44 inches and white below
that depth.
Fripp fine sand has rapid permeability and very low
available water capacity. Natural fertility and organic
matter content are low. The water table is below a depth
of 80 inches during most years.
Satellite fine sand makes up 20 to 35 percent of the
complex. Typically, this soil has a very dark gray fine
sand surface layer about 6 inches thick. The next layer is
white fine sand about 27 inches thick. Below that is light


gray fine sand that extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more.
Satellite fine sand has a water table at a depth of 10
to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months during most years and
within a depth of 10 inches for up to a few days during
wet seasons. Permeability is rapid in the surface layer
and very rapid below. Available water capacity is
moderate in the surface layer and very low in the other
layers. Natural fertility is low. The organic matter content
is high in the surface layer and very low in the other
layers.
Included in mapping, and making up about 10 to 25
percent of the complex, are Narcoossee and Pompano
soils. Also included are other soils that are similar to the
Fripp soil but have slopes less than 8 percent and soils
having slopes of 15 to 40 percent. In some small areas,
earth-moving operations have smoothed and reworked
the soil material.


N-'


34


^


PPLC47F~*C


, ~r

,I






St. Johns County, Florida


The natural vegetation on Fripp fine sand consists of
live oak, yaupon, southern magnolia, and sea-oats. Near
the ocean it is primarily scrub live oak and sawpalmetto.
On Satellite fine sand, it is live oak, laurel oak, cabbage
palm, southern redcedar, and sawpalmetto.
Fripp fine sand is not suited to cultivated crops or
improved pasture grasses. Soil droughtiness, steep
slopes, and rapid leaching of fertilizer severely limit this
soil for those uses.
Potential for growing pine trees is very low on the
Fripp soil. Most areas are affected by salt spray from the
Atlantic Ocean. Limitations to the use of equipment and
seedling mortality are management concerns. The areas
not affected by salt spray have moderate potential
productivity.
Potential for community development is very high. The
Fripp soil is very desirable for homesites because it is on
relatively high positions near the ocean beaches. Small
commercial buildings and local roads and streets may
require special construction measures because of slope.
Potential for septic tank absorption fields is very high.
Although this soil has poor filtering capacity, local
experience indicates that contamination of ground water
supplies by sewage effluent is not a concern.
Satellite fine sand is not suited to cultivated crops. Its
root zone is limited by a seasonal high water table 10 to
30 inches below the surface for long periods during rainy
seasons. The available water capacity is very low in the
root zone. Natural fertility is very low. This soil would be
subject to wind erosion if cleared and cultivated.
Potential for growing improved pasture on Satellite fine
sand is medium. This soil is well suited to bahiagrass
and bermudagrass. Use of surface ditches that quickly
remove excess water during periods of intense rainfall is
needed to obtain good yields. Fertilizer and controlled
grazing are needed for maintaining yields and vigorous
plant growth.
Potential for growing pine trees is moderate.
Limitations to the use of equipment, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are the main management
concerns. This soil is better suited to slash pines than
other species.
Satellite fine sand has high potential for community
development. Some water control measures are needed
to lower the seasonal high water table to a depth of
about 2 1/2 feet. This Satellite soil is in low swales
between the higher areas of Fripp soil, and in most
areas, water outlets are not available. Elevation of
building sites and roadbeds by use of fill material would
be beneficial where water control systems could not be
established. Potential for use as septic tank absorption
fields is high. Suitable fill material is needed to raise the
field about 2 1/2 feet above the high water table.
These soils are in capability subclass Vlls and
woodland ordination group 4s.


32-Palm Beach sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
is a well drained to excessively drained, nearly level to
gently sloping soil on dunelike ridges parallel to the
Atlantic coast. Areas of this soil are narrow to somewhat
broad and elongated in shape and range from 30 to 200
acres.
Typically, the surface is covered with a discontinuous
root mat, leaves, stems, and other partially decomposed
organic material, which is 2 inches thick. The next layer
is about 3 inches thick. It consists of grayish brown sand
mixed with about 5 percent shell fragments. Below that,
to a depth of 28 inches, is light brownish gray and light
gray sand mixed with about 10 percent shell fragments.
The next layer, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is white
coarse sand mixed with about 70 percent shell
fragments.
Included in mapping are small areas of Astatula, Fripp,
Narcoossee, and Paola soils. Also included are small
areas of soils that are similar to this Palm Beach soil,
except some areas of these soils have up to 95 percent
shell fragments throughout, and others have been
disturbed by man. The included soils make up about 10
percent of any area mapped.
The water table is more than 80 inches deep.
Permeability is very rapid. Available water capacity is
low. The organic matter content is low or very low.
Natural fertility is low.
The natural vegetation includes live oak, eastern
redcedar, yucca, and sawpalmetto.
This soil has very low potential for cultivated crops
because of droughtiness. Water moves through this soil
too fast, and fertilizers leach too rapidly for crop
production.
Potential for pasture is also very low. Soil
amendments, such as peat or other organic materials,
are needed to achieve maximum potential, but may be
impractical to use on large acreages. The maximum
potential for pasture is easier to achieve on the older
landscapes, farther from the ocean. In those areas
vegetation is established, soil tilth is better, and organic
matter content is higher.
This soil has very low potential for growing slash or
longleaf pines commercially.
Potential for community development is very high. This
Palm Beach soil has no limitations or only slight
limitations for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and
local roads and streets. If areas of this soil were used for
lawns and landscaping, frequent watering and fertilization
would be required because of droughtiness. Potential for
septic tank absorption fields is very high. Although the
soil is very rapidly permeable, local experience indicates
there is little probability of contamination of ground water
supplies.
This Palm Beach soil is in capability subclass Vlls. It is
not assigned a woodland ordination symbol.


35






Soil Survey


33-Jonathan fine sand. This is a moderately well
drained, nearly level soil on low ridges and knolls in the
flatwoods. Areas are irregularly shaped and range from 3
to 50 acres. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 4
inches thick. The subsurface layer, between depths of 4
and 71 inches, is light gray and white fine sand. The
subsoil is black, weakly cemented fine sand, which
extends to a depth of 80 inches.
Included in mapping, and making up about 10 percent
of the map unit, are small areas of Cassia, Myakka,
Pomello, and Pottsburg soils. Also included are small
areas of soils that are similar to this Jonathan soil, but
some lack a subsoil within a depth of 80 inches, and
others have loamy layers beneath the subsoil.
This Jonathan soil has a water table that is 30 to 40
inches below the surface for 4 to 6 months. It is at a
depth of 24 to 30 inches for brief periods during wet
seasons. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during prolonged dry periods. Available water capacity is
very low or low in the surface and subsurface layers and
very high in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and slow in the subsoil.
Organic matter content is very low, and natural fertility is
low.
The natural vegetation includes sand pine, a few slash
and longleaf pines, sand live oak, dwarf live oak,
sawpalmetto, and pricklypear. The grass vegetation
consists of sparse pineland threeawn, bluestem, and
panicum.
Potential for cultivated crops is very low. Droughtiness
and rapid leaching of plant nutrients do not allow plants
to flourish. This soil is not suited to most cultivated
crops.
Potential for improved pasture grasses is low. Even
with good management, yields are low. This soil is best
suited to bahiagrass and other grasses, which can
withstand droughts. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed. Controlled grazing is necessary to
maintain healthy plants.
Potential for pine trees is low. Sand pine grows best
and is better for planting than other trees. The main
concerns are limitations to the use of equipment,
seedling mortality, and plant competition.
Potential for community development is high. Some
water control systems are needed to keep the seasonal
high water table at a depth of at least 2 1/2 feet. Water
outlets generally are available. Potential for septic tank
absorption fields is high. If this soil were used as a site
for septic tank absorption fields, suitable fill material
would be needed to raise the field slightly above the high
water table.
This Jonathan soil is in capability subclass VIs and in
woodland ordination group 5s.

34-Tocoi fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly level
soil is in broad flatwood areas. Slopes range from 0 to 2


percent. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
range from 15 to 400 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 13
inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil consists of
very dark brown and dark reddish brown fine sand, which
extends to a depth of 23 inches. It is underlain by 17
inches of dark brown fine sand and then by 5 inches of
light brownish gray fine sand. The lower part of the
subsoil, at a depth of 45 inches, is light brownish gray
loamy fine sand about 31 inches thick. Below that, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is gray loamy fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Myakka, Ona,
Placid, Pompano, and St. Johns soils. The Placid and
Pompano soils are on slightly lower positions. Also
included are small areas of soils that are similar to this
Tocoi soil, except that in some, the lower part of the
subsoil is at a depth of less than 40 inches; some have
a subsoil of fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam; and
others are mildly alkaline to strongly alkaline in the
subsoil. The included soils make up less than 15 percent
of any area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months during rainy seasons. It
is within a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 6 months or
more during most years.
In this Tocoi soil, permeability is rapid in the surface
layer and moderate or moderately rapid in most of the
lower layers. Available water capacity is very low or low
in the surface layer, low or moderate in the upper part of
the subsoil, and moderate or high in the lower part of the
subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter content are
low.
The natural vegetation consists of slash and longleaf
pines, waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto, greenbrier, inkberry,
bluestem, and pineland threeawn.
This soil has high potential for cultivated crops; Irish
potatoes grow well on this soil. In its natural state, its
root zone is limited by a water table that is less than 10
inches below the surface much of the time. A water
control system is needed for removing excess surface
water during growing seasons and providing irrigation
during dry seasons. Additional management practices
include planting close-growing, soil-improving cover
crops when the soil is not being farmed and plowing
under all crop residue. Fertilizer and lime should be
applied according to the needs of the crops.
Potential for improved pasture and hay crops is high.
Where surface ditches are used to remove excess water,
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clovers grow well. For
high yields, regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed.
This soil has moderately high potential productivity for
pine trees. Limitations to the use of equipment and
seedling mortality are important management concerns.
Use of surface ditches, which remove excess surface
water, and bedding of the rows are needed to overcome
these limitations. Slash pines are the best suited.


36







St. Johns County, Florida


Potential for community development is medium. A
seasonal high water table that is at or near the surface
during rainy seasons is a severe limitation for urban
uses. Removal of excess surface water and lowering the
seasonal high water table are sometimes difficult
because adequate water outlets generally are not
available. Local roads and streets and dwellings without
basements require adequate water control systems,
which lower the seasonal high water table to a depth of
at least 2.5 feet. If adequate water control is not
possible, roadbeds and building sites should be elevated
by the use of fill material to increase the effective depth
to the water table. Potential for use as septic tank
absorption fields is medium. If this soil were used as a
site for septic tank absorption fields, about 4 feet of
suitable fill material would be needed to raise the field
higher than the water table.
This Tocoi soil is in capability subclass IIIw and
woodland ordination group 3w.

35-Hontoon muck. This is a very poorly drained,
nearly level organic soil in depressional areas. Areas of
this soil are oval or narrow to broad and elongated in
shape and range from 5 to 200 acres. Slopes are less
than 1 percent.
Typically, the muck layer is 55 inches thick. The upper
7 inches of soil material is black, and the next 48 inches
is dark reddish brown and black. The material between
depths of 55 and 70 inches is black mucky fine sand.
Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is very dark
gray fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Samsula and
Wesconnett soils. Also included are small areas of soils
that are similar to this Hontoon soil, but some have a
muck layer less than 16 inches thick, and others are
poorly drained sandy soils. The included areas make up
less than 10 percent of any area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at or above the soil
surface for most of the time under natural conditions.
Permeability is rapid throughout, and available water
capacity is very high. Natural fertility is high. The organic
matter content is very high.
The natural vegetation includes loblollybay, waxmyrtle,
sweetgum, and cypress, with an understory of fern,
grape, greenbrier, and fetterbush.
In its natural state, this soil is not suited to cultivated
crops, pasture grasses, or commercial trees. With
adequate water control, this soil has high potential for
growing cultivated crops and pasture grasses. A good
drainage system which removes excess water is
essential where drainage outlets are available. The use
of equipment is limited because of low strength. Heavy
applications of lime and fertilizers are also needed. This
soil should be flooded when cultivated crops are out of
season, and cover crops should be returned to the soil
to help maintain the thickness of organic material.


The potential for growing slash and longleaf pines is
very low. Limitations to the use of equipment, seedling
mortality, and windthrow hazard are the main concerns
in producing commercial trees.
Potential for community development is very low.
Water standing above the soil surface and low strength
are the main limitations. A water outlet to provide
necessary removal of excess water is difficult to install or
many times does not exist. Muck must be removed and
large quantities of fill material must be spread before this
soil can be used for building sites or for local roads and
streets. Potential for septic tank absorption fields is very
low. Large quantities of fill material would be required to
raise the absorption field above the high water table.
This Hontoon soil is in capability subclass Illw. It is not
assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

36-Riviera fine sand, frequently flooded. This is a
poorly drained, nearly level soil in poorly defined
drainageways and on flood plains. Areas of this soil are
irregular in shape and range from about 40 to 200 acres.
Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 10
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray fine sand
to a depth of 23 inches. The upper 5 inches of the
subsoil is gray fine sandy loam with vertical intrusions of
gray fine sand extending into it from the subsurface layer
above. The lower part of the subsoil is gray fine sandy
loam 6 inches thick. Below that, the soil material is light
gray fine sandy loam, which extends to a depth of 55
inches. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more
is light gray fine sandy loam and fine sand mixed with
shells or shell fragments.
Included in mapping are small areas of Bluff,
Floridana, Holopaw, Manatee, and Winder soils. Also
included are small areas of similar soils that have a
sandy clay subsoil and soils that have layers of yellowish
brown to yellow fine sand or loamy fine sand above the
subsoil. The included soils make up less than 15 percent
of any area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is within 10 inches of
the surface for 2 to 4 months in most years. It is below a
depth of 40 inches in driest seasons. This soil is subject
to flooding for up to 3 months during times of high
rainfall. Available water capacity is low or very low in the
surface and subsurface layers, moderate in the subsoil,
and low in the substratum. Permeability is rapid or very
rapid in the surface and subsurface layers, very slow or
slow in the subsoil, and moderate or moderately rapid in
the substratum. Organic matter content is low. Natural
fertility is low.
The natural vegetation includes a few slash pines,
cabbage palms, sweetgum, water oaks, waxmyrtle,
sawpalmetto, and various ferns. Some areas have been
cleared and replanted in slash or longleaf pines.
This soil has low potential for cultivated crops.
Flooding and wetness are the primary management


37







Soil Survey


concerns. Before crops can be grown, a water control
system is needed to protect the soil from flooding and
remove excess surface and internal water rapidly. Good
soil management should include crop rotations that keep
the soil in close-growing cover crops at least two-thirds
of the time. The cover crop and all other crop residue
should be plowed under. Seedbed preparation should
include bedding. Fertilizer should be applied according to
crop needs.
This soil has low potential for most pasture grasses.
Water control systems which provide flood protection
and quickly remove excess surface water are needed to
realize the full potential of the soil. With adequate water
control, this soil is well suited to bermudagrass,
bahiagrass, and clovers. Regular applications of fertilizer
and lime are required for good yields.
Potential for slash and longleaf pines is moderately
high. For low seedling mortality and good tree growth,
installation of water control systems to remove excess
surface water and bedding of the rows are needed.
Potential for community development is very low.
Excessive wetness and flooding restrict the use of this
soil for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and local
roads and streets. The low position on the landscape
makes it difficult to control water and protect the soil
from flooding. Potential for use as a site for septic tank
absorption fields is very low. Large amounts of fill
material would be required to raise the filter field above
the high water table, and it is likely that ground water
contamination during flooding would continue to exist.
This Riviera soil is in capability subclass Vw and
woodland ordination group 3w.

38-Pits. This miscellaneous area consists of
excavations from which soil and geologic material have
been removed, primarily for use in road construction, fill
for low areas, and building foundations. Pits, locally
called borrow pits, range in size from less than 1 acre to
about 30 acres. Included in mapping are waste materials,
mostly mixtures of sand, shells, and shell fragments and
sandy loam material. These materials are scattered
around the edge of the pits. Pits have little or no value
for agricultural crops or growing pine trees.
This unit is not assigned a capability subclass or given
a woodland ordination symbol.

40-Pottsburg fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
nearly level soil in the flatwoods. It formed in deep sandy
marine sediments. Areas of this soil are broad and
irregularly shaped and range from 4 to 300 acres. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 5
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand, which
extends to a depth of 60 inches. It is grayish brown in
the upper 7 inches, light gray in the next 19 inches, and
white in the lower 29 inches. The subsoil is at a depth of
60 inches. The upper part of the subsoil is very dark


grayish brown fine sand about 5 inches thick. The lower
part of the subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
black fine sand that contains pockets of lighter colored
fine sand and sand grains which are lightly coated with
organic matter.
Included in mapping are small areas of Immokalee,
Myakka, and Smyrna soils. Also included are small areas
of soils that are similar to this Pottsburg soil, except that
some have a subsoil containing sand grains that are only
lightly coated with organic matter, and others have a
dark surface layer more than 10 inches thick. Between
the Atlantic Ocean and the Inland Waterway are similar
soils in which the lower part of the subsurface layer and
the subsoil are neutral or mildly alkaline. The included
soils make up 10 percent of any area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months in most years during
the wet season. It is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for
about 8 months in most years and recedes to a depth of
more than 40 inches during long dry periods. Available
water capacity is very low or low in the surface and
subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderate in the subsoil. Organic matter content and
natural fertility are low.
In most areas, the natural vegetation includes longleaf
and slash pines, sawpalmetto, inkberry, and waxmyrtle.
Creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, and pineland
threeawn are common grasses. Some areas on slightly
higher positions support a few sand live oaks and
running oaks.
Wetness is a severe limitation for cultivated crops. The
root zone is limited by a water table that is within 10
inches of the surface during wet seasons. Available
water capacity is very low to low in the root zone.
Potential for vegetable crops, such as cabbage and Irish
potatoes, is medium. Adequate water control and soil-
improving measures are needed. A water control system
is required to maintain the water level needed by the
particular crop. It must remove excess water in wet
seasons and provide water during dry seasons. Close-
growing cover crops should be planted after row crops
are harvested. Cover crops help prevent fertilizer
leaching and add organic matter if returned to the soil.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the rows.
Fertilizer and lime should be added as required by the
crop being grown.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture
grasses, such as bermudagrass and bahiagrass. Water
control measures that remove excess surface water after
heavy rains and regular fertilization are needed.
Controlled grazing is also needed for high yields.
Potential productivity for pine trees is moderate. Slash
pines are the best suited. Management concerns are
limitations to the use of equipment during wet seasons,
seedling mortality, and plant competition. A simple water


38







St. Johns County, Florida


control system which removes excess surface water is
needed. Trees should be planted in bedded rows.
Potential for community development is medium. The
soil is severely limited for urban uses because of a
seasonal high water table that is at or near the surface
during rainy seasons. Removal of excess surface water
and lowering the water table are sometimes difficult
because outlets generally are not available. Local roads
and streets and dwellings without basements require
water control, which lowers the high water table to a
depth of at least 2.5 feet. If adequate water control is
not possible, roadbeds and building sites should be
raised by the use of fill material to increase the depth to
the water table. Potential for use as sites for septic tank
absorption fields is medium. About 4 feet of suitable fill
material is needed to raise the field above the high water
table.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland
ordination group 4w.

41-Tomoka muck. This is a very poorly drained soil
in weakly defined drainageways and depressional areas.
Areas of this soil are rounded or elongated in shape and
are 5 to 150 acres. Slopes are less than 1 percent.
Typically, the muck layer is about 21 inches thick. It is
dark reddish brown in the upper 9 inches and black in
the next 12 inches. Below that is dark gray and dark
grayish brown fine sandy loam that extends to a depth of
80 inches or more.
Included in mapping are small areas of Hontoon and
Samsula soils. Also included are small areas of soils
similar to this Tomoka soil, except that some have a
sandy clay layer beneath the organic layer, others are
slightly acid through strongly alkaline in the mineral layer,
and others have carbonates or shell fragments in the
mineral layers. The included soils make up less than 20
percent of any area mapped.
This soil has a water table at or above the surface,
except during extended dry periods. Permeability is rapid
in the muck layer and moderate or moderately rapid in
the substratum. Available water capacity is very high in
the muck layer and moderate in the substratum. Natural
fertility is medium. Organic matter content is very high.
In its natural state, this soil has severe limitations for
cultivated crops. With adequate water control, this soil
has high potential for a number of vegetables. Where
drainage outlets are available, a good drainage system
which removes excess water is needed. The use of
equipment is limited because of low soil strength. Heavy
applications of lime and fertilizers are also needed. This
soil should be flooded when cultivated crops are out of
season. Cover crops should be returned to the soil to
help build up the organic material.
Potential for improved pasture grasses and clover is
high. A water control system which regulates the depth
of the water table is needed. This soil has low strength
and because of this limitation, cattle grazing and use of


equipment are limited when it is saturated with water.
The seasonal high water table should be maintained at a
shallow depth to prevent excessive subsidence.
The potential of this soil for slash pine is very low.
Limitations to the use of equipment, seedling mortality,
and windthrow hazard limit this soil for producing trees of
commercial value.
Potential for community development is very low.
Water standing above the soil surface and low soil
strength are the main limitations. Water outlets to
provide necessary removal of excess water are difficult
to install or do not exist in many places. Muck must be
removed, and large quantities of fill material must be
spread on this soil before it can be used for building
sites or for local roads and streets. Potential for septic
tank absorption fields is very low. Large quantities of fill
material would be required to elevate the field above the
high water table.
This Tomoka soil is in capability subclass IIIw. It is not
assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

42-Bluff sandy clay loam, frequently flooded. This
is a very poorly drained, nearly level soil in drainageways
and on flood plains. Areas are irregular in shape and
range from 10 to 300 acres. Slopes are less than 1
percent.
Typically, in undisturbed areas a 3-inch layer of black
muck is on the surface. The surface layer is very dark
gray sandy clay loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil,
which extends to a depth of about 50 inches, is sandy
clay loam and loam. It is very dark gray in the upper 7
inches and gray below, and it contains fine and medium,
white accumulations of calcium carbonate. The
substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is greenish
gray loamy fine sand with pockets of dark gray sandy
clay loam and gray sand.
SIncluded in mapping are small areas of Floridana,
Manatee, and Parkwood soils. Also included are soils
that are similar to this Bluff soil, except in some areas,
the surface layer is clay, and in others, it is dark and
over 24 inches thick. The included soils in this map unit
are less than 15 percent of any area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of less
than 10 inches or is above the surface for 6 months or
more. It seldom recedes to a depth of more than 20
inches. The soil is subject to frequent flooding for long
durations. Available water capacity is very high in the
organic surface layer and is high in the subsoil.
Permeability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and
very slow to moderately slow in the subsoil. Natural
fertility is high. Organic matter content is high.
The natural vegetation includes sweetgum, hickory,
pond pine, cabbage palm, water oak, cypress, waxmyrtle,
sawpalmetto, and wild grape.
This Bluff soil is too wet for cultivated crops in its
natural state. The root zone is limited by a high water
table or by flooding for long periods in most years. Water


39






Soil Survey


control systems that protect the soil from flooding are
needed. This soil is high in natural fertility, but the
texture of the subsoil, wetness, and the hazard of
flooding severely limit its use for cultivated crops.
Potential for cultivated crops is low.
With adequate water control measures, this soil has
medium potential for improved pasture. Because it is
difficult to install water control systems, the soil is
seldom used for improved pasture.
Potential for pine trees is high. Water control
measures, which include protection from flooding, are
required to make tree planting feasible. Bedding of rows
is needed. Limitations to the use of equipment and
seedling mortality because of excessive soil wetness are
the primary management concerns.
Potential for community development is very low.
Excessive wetness and flooding restrict the use of this
soil for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and local
roads and streets. The low position on the landscape
makes water control and protection from flooding
difficult. Potential for use as septic tank absorption fields
is very low. If this soil were used as a site for absorption
fields, large amounts of fill material would be needed to
raise the field above the high water table; however,
possibility of ground water contamination during flooding
would continue to exist.
This Bluff soil is in capability subclass Vw and
woodland ordination group 2w.

44-Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This is a
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping
soil adjacent to drainageways and on low knolls in the
flatwoods. Areas of this soil are narrow and long or
irregular in shape and range from 10 to 100 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand about 3
inches thick. The subsurface layers are fine sand, which
extends to a depth of 68 inches. They are very pale
brown to white. The subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or
more is grayish brown fine sandy loam.
Included in mapping are small areas of Adamsville,
Ona, Pomona, and Tavares soils. Also included are small
areas of soils that are similar to this Sparr soil. Some are
better drained; some have a loamy sand subsoil; and
some have a subsoil between depths of 20 and 40
inches. The included soils make up less than 15 percent
of any area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 20 to
40 inches for 1 to 4 months during most years.
Permeability is rapid or very rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers and very slow in the subsoil. Available
water capacity is low in the surface and subsurface
layers and high in the subsoil. Natural fertility and
organic matter content are low.
The natural vegetation includes turkey oak, water oak,
laurel oak, southern magnolia, sawpalmetto, pineland
threeawn, and bluestems.


This soil has a medium potential for cultivated crops.
The root zone is limited by a seasonal high water table.
For optimum growth of vegetable crops, a good water
control system and bedding of rows are needed.
Irrigation is needed when crops are grown during dry
periods. All crop residue should be returned to the soil,
and cover crops should be rotated with vegetable crops.
Cover crops add organic matter to the soil and help
prevent leaching of fertilizers. Response to fertilizers is
moderate. Fertilizer and lime are needed for best yields.
Potential of this soil for improved pasture grasses is
medium. Controlled grazing and adequate amounts of
fertilizer and lime are needed for optimum growth of
improved pasture grasses.
Potential is moderately high for slash pine under high-
level management. The moderate limitation to the use of
equipment and moderate seedling mortality are important
management concerns.
Potential for community development is high. Some
water control is required for the construction of dwellings
without basements, small commercial buildings, and local
roads and streets. Water outlets generally are available
for area drainage. Potential for use as septic tank
absorption fields is also high. If this soil is used as a site
for septic tank absorption fields, about 2 1/2 feet of
suitable fill material is needed to raise the field higher
than the water table.
This soil is in capability subclass Ills and woodland
ordination group 3s.

45-St. Augustine fine sand, clayey substratum.
This is a somewhat poorly drained, nearly level soil on
narrow to broad low flat areas and low knolls adjacent to
tidal salt marshes and estuaries along the Atlantic coast
and Intracoastal Waterway. It formed in marine sands
mixed with shells and shell fragments and fragments of
loamy or clayey materials overlying loamy or clayey
layers. This soil formed as the result of dredging
operations in the Inland-Waterway. The dredged material
has been deposited on adjacent tidal marsh soils that
have a loamy or clayey surface layer and underlying
material. Areas are rounded to irregular and range from
3 to 250 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
fine sand about 1 inch thick. The material between
depths of 1 and 48 inches is fine sand. It is grayish
brown in the upper 3 inches and very pale brown in the
next 17 inches. The lower 27 inches is greenish gray and
contains a few fragments or bodies of dark greenish gray
sandy clay. Below that is 5 inches of greenish gray fine
sandy loam. Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is dark greenish gray sandy clay.
Included in mapping are small areas of Pompano soils.
Also included are small areas of soils similar to this St.
Augustine soil, except that layers of well decomposed
organic material (muck) are in the subsoil of some soils,
and others have a substratum darkened by organic


40






St. Johns County, Florida


accumulations. The included soils occupy similar
positions in the landscape and make up about 10
percent of the unit.
In most years the water table is at a depth of 20 to 30
inches for 2 to 6 months. It rises above a depth of 20
inches for brief periods after heavy rains. During
extended dry periods, the water table recedes to a depth
of more than 50 inches. During severe hurricanes this
soil may be flooded for short times by excessively high
tides.
Available water capacity is very low in the surface
layer and upper part of the underlying material. It is
moderate to high in the middle part of the underlying
material and low in the lower part. Permeability is
moderately rapid or rapid in the sandy layers and
moderately slow to very slow in the loamy and clayey
layers. Natural fertility and the organic matter content are
low.
The natural vegetation consists of southern redcedar,
waxmyrtle, cabbage palm, and sparse bluestem.
This soil has low potential for cultivated crops.
Available water capacity is very low in the root zone. The
root zone is limited by a water table that is 20 to 40
inches below the surface most of the time. The salt
content of the soil and of the ground water is high
enough to have an adverse effect on some plants.
Potential for pasture grasses is low. Low natural
fertility and droughtiness severely limit yields of improved
pasture grasses.
Potential for pine trees is very low. Limitations to the
use of equipment and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns. Low natural fertility,
droughtiness, and high salt content result in an
excessive seedling mortality rate.
Potential for community development is high. Flooding
is a hazard for very brief periods during severe
hurricanes, but tropical storms of hurricane intensity
seldom affect St. Johns County. The soil is severely
limited by wetness for dwellings without basements,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets,
but this limitation can usually be overcome. Some water
control measures are needed, or building sites may
require some elevation by use of fill material. Water
outlets are generally available for area drainage.
Potential for use as septic tank absorption fields is also
high. If this soil is used as a site for septic tank
absorption fields, about 2 1/2 feet of suitable fill material
is needed to raise the field higher than the water table.
This St. Augustine soil is in capability subclass Vlls. It
is not assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

46-Holopaw fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
nearly level soil in low, broad areas in the flatwoods.
Areas are elongated and irregular in shape and range
from 25 to 400 acres. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is covered with partly
decomposed litter and organic matter about 1 inch thick.


It is mixed very dark gray and grayish brown fine sand in
the upper 7 inches, and it is dark gray fine sand in the
lower 6 inches. The subsurface layer, which extends to a
depth of about 53 inches, is light gray to gray fine sand.
The subsoil, about 19 inches thick, consists of dark gray
fine sandy loam that has pockets of loamy sand and
sandy clay loam. Below that is greenish gray loamy fine
sand, which has pockets of sandy loam and extends to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Included in mapping are small areas of Pompano,
Riviera, and Winder soils. Also included are small areas
of soils that resemble this Holopaw soil. Some of the
similar soils are more acid, some have yellowish brown
sandy layers above the subsoil, and others have a thick
dark surface layer. Some map units have a loamy fine
sand subsoil. The included soils make up about 20
percent of any area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 1 to 3 months, but may recede to a
depth of 10 to 40 inches for 3 to 4 months in most
years. Permeability is rapid or moderately rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderately slow in
the subsoil. Available water capacity is very low in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter content are
low.
The natural vegetation includes slash pine, sweetgum,
water oak, waxmyrtle, wild grape, smilax, and a few
small cypress. Native grasses include cinnamon fern,
lopsided indiangrass, and bluestem.
This soil has medium potential for cultivated crops.
Wetness is a severe limitation. The root zone is limited
by a water table that is less than 10 inches below the
surface. With a complete water control system, this soil
will produce good yields of cabbage or potatoes. The
water control system used must remove excess water
rapidly and provide a means for subsurface irrigation
during dry seasons. Cover crops should be grown when
the soil is not being farmed. All cover crops and crop
residue should be returned to the soil. Applications of
fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
needs of the crop.
Potential for improved pasture grasses and legumes is
medium. A simple water control system is required to
quickly remove excess surface water. Bahiagrass,
bermudagrass, and clovers grow well. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for vigorous
plant growth.
Potential for growing pine trees is moderately high.
Limitations to the use of equipment and high seedling
mortality caused by excessive wetness are management
concerns. Adequate control of excess surface water and
bedding of the rows are required for low plant mortality.
Potential for community development is medium. A
seasonal high water table that is at or near the surface
during rainy seasons is a severe limitation for urban
uses. Removal of excess surface water and lowering the


41






Soil Survey


water table are sometimes difficult because adequate
water outlets generally are not available. Local roads
and streets and dwellings without basements require
adequate water control, which lowers the high water
table to a depth of at least 2.5 feet. If an adequate water
control system is not possible to install, roadbeds and
building sites should be elevated by the use of fill
material to increase the effective depth to the water
table. Potential for use as septic tank absorption fields is
medium. If this soil were used as a site for septic tank
absorption fields, about 4 feet of suitable fill material
would be needed to raise the field higher than the water
table.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw and woodland
ordination group 3w.

47-Holopaw fine sand, frequently flooded. This is
a very poorly drained, nearly level sandy soil in broad,
shallow drainageways. Areas of Holopaw fine sand are
irregular in shape and range from 15 to 150 acres.
Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer, about 44 inches
thick, is grayish brown and gray fine sand. The subsoil,
which extends to a depth of 68 inches, is gray fine sandy
loam. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is
gray loamy fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Floridana and
Riviera soils and of the Myakka depressional soil. Also
included are small areas of soils, in depressions, that are
similar to this Holopaw soil and areas of other soils that
are more acid than this soil. Included areas make up
less than 10 percent of any area mapped.
This soil is flooded for more than 1 month during most
years. A water table is within 10 inches of the soil
surface for 2 to 6 months annually. Available water
capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid or
moderately rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderately slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility and
organic matter content are low.
The natural vegetation is slash and pond pines,
cypress, loblollybay, sweetgum, and cinnamon fern.
This soil has low potential for cultivated crops.
Flooding and wetness are the primary management
concerns. A water control system is needed for
protecting the soil from flooding and removing excess
surface water and internal water rapidly. Good soil
management includes the use of crop rotations that
keep the soil in close-growing cover crops at least two-
thirds of the time. The cover crop and all other crop
residue should be returned to the soil. Bedding of rows
is needed in seedbed preparation. Fertilizer should be
applied according to the needs of the crop.
This soil has low potential for most pasture grasses. A
water control system that provides flood protection and
quickly removes excess surface water is needed to


realize the full potential. With an adequate water control
system, this soil is well suited to bermudagrass,
bahiagrass, and clover. Regular applications of fertilizer
and lime are required for good yields.
Potential for pine trees is moderately high. Limitations
to the use of equipment, high seedling mortality, and
plant competition are the main management concerns.
To overcome excessive seedling mortality, a water
control system is needed for providing protection against
floodwater and removing excess surface water quickly.
Bedding of the rows and thorough site preparation are
good management practices. Timely scheduling of
planting and harvesting operations is required.
Potential for community development is very low. The
main limitations-excessive wetness and flooding-
restrict the use of this soil for dwellings, small
commercial buildings, and local roads and streets. The
low position on the landscape makes water control and
protection from flooding difficult. Potential for use as a
site for septic tank absorption fields is very low. Large
amounts of fill material would be needed to raise the
field above the high water table. Possibility of ground
water contamination during flooding would continue to
exist.
This Holopaw soil is in capability subclass Vlw and
woodland ordination group 3w.

48-Winder fine sand, frequently flooded. This is a
poorly drained, nearly level soil that formed in loamy
marine materials. It is on flood plains and in poorly
defined drainageways. Areas are elongated and irregular
in shape and range from 20 to 100 acres. Slopes are
less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray fine sand
about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
fine sand about 8 inches thick. The subsoil in the upper
5 inches is grayish brown sandy loam with vertical
intrusions of light gray fine sand from the subsurface
layer. It is dark grayish brown sandy clay loam in the
next 13 inches and gray sandy loam in the lower 13
inches. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more
is 20 inches of dark gray sandy loam mixed with shell
fragments over olive gray sandy loam mixed with shells
and shell fragments.
Included in mapping are small areas of Bluff, Holopaw,
Manatee, and Riviera soils. Also included in mapping are
small areas of soils that are similar to this Winder soil,
except some have an accumulation of carbonates within
the upper 20 inches of the subsoil; some have a more
acid subsoil; some are in depressional areas; and others
have a sandy clay subsoil. Also included is a similar soil
that has a surface layer less than 3 inches thick. The
included soils make up less than 15 percent of any area
mapped.
The seasonal high water table is within a depth of 10
inches for 2 to 6 months during most years. The soil is


42






St. Johns County, Florida


subject to flooding for periods up to 3 months during
times of high rainfall in most years.
Available water capacity is very low or low in the
surface and subsurface layers. It is low in the upper part
of the subsoil and moderate in the lower part. It is low or
moderate in the substratum. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers, moderately slow to very
slow in the subsoil, and slow in the substratum. Organic
matter content is very low to moderately low. Natural
fertility is medium.
The native vegetation consists of cabbage palms,
sweetgum, red maple, loblollybay gordonia, hornbeam,
sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, and a few cypress.
The soil has low potential for cultivated crops.
Wetness and flooding are the primary management
concerns. Before crops can be grown, a water control
system which removes excess surface water and internal
water rapidly and controls flooding is needed. Good soil
management includes crop rotations that keep the soil in
close-growing cover crops at least two-thirds of the time.
The cover crop and all other crop residue should be
returned to the soil. Seedbed preparation should include
bedding. Fertilizer should be applied according to the
needs of the crop.
Potential for most pasture grasses is medium. Water
control systems should be designed to quickly remove
excess surface water and provide flood control. Regular
applications of fertilizer and controlled grazing are
needed to realize the full potential. This soil is well suited
to bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
Potential for slash and longleaf pines is high. A water
control system is needed to provide protection from
flooding. Limitations to the use of equipment, seedling
mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. Bedding of the rows is necessary for low
seedling mortality and good tree growth.
Potential for community development is very low. This
soil is limited by excessive wetness and flooding, which
restrict its use for dwellings, small commercial buildings,
and local roads and streets. The low position on the
landscape makes water control and protection from
flooding difficult. Potential for use as septic tank
absorption fields is very low. Large amounts of fill
material would be required to raise the field above the
high water table. Possibility of ground water
contamination during flooding would continue to exist.
This Winder soil is in capability subclass Vw and
woodland ordination group 2w.

49-Moultrie fine sand, frequently flooded. This
very poorly drained, nearly level soil is in tidal marsh
areas, generally in long narrow areas on the margins of
the tidal marsh or on low "islands" in the tidal marsh.
Individual areas of this soil range from 5 to 60 acres.
Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light


gray fine sand in the upper 6 inches and grayish brown
fine sand in the lower 14 inches. The subsoil is very dark
gray fine sand in the upper 4 inches and very dark brown
fine sand in the lower 3 inches. The next layer is brown
fine sand about 18 inches thick. The substratum is
grayish brown fine sand, which extends to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Included in mapping are small areas of Pellicer and
Tisonia soils. Also included are small areas of other soils
that are similar to this Moultrie soil. Some have a mucky
surface layer, some have a thin clayey surface layer, and
some do not have a subsoil. The other included soils are
on similar positions in the landscape. The included soils
make up 10 to 15 percent of any area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of less
than 10 inches most of the time and is directly
influenced by tidal fluctuations. This soil is flooded
periodically by abnormally high tides caused by storms or
other unusual conditions.
In this Moultrie soil, permeability is very rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and in the substratum. It
is rapid or moderately rapid in the subsoil. Available
water capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface
layers and in the substratum and is moderate in the
subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter content are
low.
The natural vegetation includes seashore saltgrass,
bushy sea-oxeye, glasswort, big leaf sumpweed, and red
mangrove.
This Moultrie soil has severe limitations for growing
vegetable crops, improved pasture, or pine trees.
Potential for these uses is very low. Excessive salt
content and periodic tidal flooding restrict the use of this
soil for agricultural purposes. This soil is used mainly for
aquatic wildlife habitat.
Potential for community development is very low.
Excessive wetness and flooding restrict the use of this
soil for dwellings, small commercial buildings, and local
roads and streets. The low position on the landscape
makes water control and protection from flooding
difficult. Potential for use as septic tank absorption fields
is very low. Large amounts of fill material are needed to
raise the field above the high water table. Possibility of
ground water contamination during flooding would
continue to exist.
This Moultrie soil is in capability subclass Vlllw. It is
not assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

50-Narcoossee fine sand, shelly substratum. This
is a somewhat poorly drained, nearly level soil on narrow
flats and low knolls adjacent to relict beach dunes and
tidal salt marshes. It formed in sandy marine sediments
mixed with shells and shell fragments. Areas of this soil
are irregular in shape and range from 10 to 75 acres.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
This soil is fine sand throughout. Typically, the surface
layer, about 3 inches thick, is black. The subsurface


43






Soil Survey


layer, which extends to a depth of 11 inches, is gray.
The upper 3 inches of the subsoil is dark reddish brown
and contains shells and shell fragments. Below that, the
subsoil is yellowish brown to gray and contains shells
and shell fragments in the upper part.
Included in mapping are small areas of Adamsville
Variant and Pompano soils. Also included are small
areas of soils that resemble this soil but do not have
shells or shell fragments and soils that have a water
table within 10 inches of the surface during the rainy
season. Included areas in this map unit make up about
10 percent of any area mapped.
The water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for 4
to 6 months. During periods of very heavy rainfall, it rises
to a depth of 10 to 20 inches for brief periods. During
extended dry periods, the water table recedes to a depth
of more than 40 inches. Available water capacity is very
low to low in the surface layer and very low in the
subsurface layer. It is low in the subsoil and very low or
low in the substratum. Permeability is rapid or very rapid
in the surface layer, subsurface layer, and substratum
and moderately rapid to very rapid in the subsoil. Natural
fertility and organic matter content are low.
The natural vegetation includes live oak, laurel oak,
scattered longleaf pine, waxmyrtle, sweetbay,
sawpalmetto, creeping bluestem, pineland threeawn, and
panicums.
Seasonal wetness and droughtiness are severe
limitations for growing cultivated crops. Potential is
medium for vegetable crops under intensive
management. A water control system designed to
remove excess water and provide irrigation in dry
seasons is necessary to overcome the limitations.
Fertilizer should be added, and all crop residue should
be returned to the soil.
Potential for improved pasture grasses is medium. Use
of surface ditches to remove excess water during heavy
rainfall is needed to realize the full potential of the soil.
Grazing should be carefully controlled to maintain
vigorous plants for highest yields. Fertilizer and lime
should be added according to the needs of plants.
This soil has moderately high potential for slash pines.
Limitations to the use of equipment, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are management concerns. The
use of good site preparation and planting techniques
helps overcome limitations caused by poor soil quality.
Bedding of the rows concentrates organic matter in the
rows and improves soil quality.
Potential for community development is high. Some
water control is necessary to lower the seasonal high
water table to a depth of 2 1/2 feet. Water outlets for
area drainage generally are available. Potential for use
as septic tank absorption fields is also high. If this soil is
used as a site for septic tank absorption fields, about 2
1/2 feet of clean fill material is needed to raise the field
higher than the water table.


This soil is in capability subclass Illw and woodland
ordination group 3w.

51-St. Augustine-Urban land complex. This map
unit consists of nearly level, somewhat poorly drained St.
Augustine soils that have been used for urban
development. Most areas of this unit are located near
the Atlantic coast and along the Intracoastal Waterway.
Many areas are adjacent to tidal marshes and other low
areas or bodies of water from which sandy soil material
has been dredged. This is the material from which the
St. Augustine soils formed. Individual areas range from
40 to 800 acres and contain about 65 percent St.
Augustine soils and 35 percent Urban land. The areas of
soils and the areas of Urban land are so intricately mixed
or so small that they could not be shown separately at
the scale used for mapping.
Typically, the St. Augustine soils have a surface layer
about 4 inches thick. It is very dark gray fine sand mixed
with shell fragments. Below this, to a depth of 10 inches,
is brown and light gray fine sand mixed with shell
fragments. Between depths of 10 and 33 inches, the
material is light gray and gray fine sand mixed with
fragments of sandy clay and shells. Below this is gray
fine sand and shell fragments.
Urban land consists mainly of streets, sidewalks,
parking lots, buildings, and other structures which
obscure or alter the soils to such a degree that
identification of the soil is not feasible.
Included in this unit are small areas of the St.
Augustine soils that have a clayey substratum and of
Fripp and Satellite soils. Also included are small areas of
soils that are similar to the St. Augustine soils, but some
do not have loamy or clayey fragments, some have a
thicker surface layer, and others are better drained. Also
included are a few areas where Urban land makes up
more than 65 percent of the unit.
The water table is at a depth of 20 to 30 inches for 2
to 6 months. It rises to a depth of less than 20 inches
briefly during times of high rainfall. This map unit is
subject to flooding for very brief periods during passage
of hurricanes. Available water capacity of the St.
Augustine soils is very low. Permeability is rapid in the
surface layer and upper part of the underlying material
and moderate to rapid in the lower part. Natural fertility
and the organic content are low.
Present land use precludes the use of the soils for
cultivated crops, improved pasture, or pine trees. St.
Augustine soils, the open part of the unit, are used for
lawns, parks, playgrounds, and open space. Potential for
these uses is medium. Regular applications of fertilizer
and water are needed to maintain lawn grasses and
ornamental plants in good condition. Good-quality topsoil
should be spread before planting lawns. Use of drought-
resistant plant varieties is a good practice. Where
nearness to the Atlantic Ocean or other bodies of salty
water is a factor, salt-tolerant plants should be grown.


44






St. Johns County, Florida


These soils are not assigned to a capability subclass
or given a woodland ordination symbol.

52-Durbin muck, frequently flooded. This is a very
poorly drained, nearly level soil in narrow estuaries and
broad tidal basins near the Atlantic Ocean and Inland
Waterway. Individual areas of this soil are narrow and
elongated and range from 15 to 500 acres. Slopes are
less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
muck about 6 inches thick. Between depths of 6 and 59
inches is very dark gray and black muck. The substratum
is very dark grayish brown fine sand and extends to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
Included in mapping are small areas of Moultrie,
Pellicer, and Tisonia soils. Also included are small areas
of soils similar to this Durbin soil, except they have a
muck layer only 20 to 35 inches thick. Total included
soils make up about 10 percent of any area mapped.
This soil is continuously saturated. It is flooded daily by
normal high tides. During high tides salty water 6 to 24
inches deep stands above the soil surface.
Permeability is rapid throughout. Available water
capacity is very high in the organic layer and moderate in
the sandy substratum. The organic matter content is
high. Natural fertility is high, but is limited by high salt
and sulfur content.
This Durbin soil has natural vegetation that includes
seashore saltgrass, needlegrass rush, smooth cordgrass,
bushy sea-oxeye, glasswort, and bigleaf sumpweed.
This soil has very low potential for vegetable crops,
improved pasture, or pine trees. It is flooded daily by
fluctuating tide levels. The high salt content and extreme
wetness permit only the most salt- and water-tolerant
plants to grow. The high sulfur content makes this soil
extremely acid when dry. Its location in low, concave
tidal basins makes reclamation difficult. Water control
could be accomplished only by diking and pumping.
Potential for community development is very low. The
hazard of flooding, excessive soil wetness, and low
strength make this soil unsuitable for construction of
buildings or local roads and streets. Overcoming these
limitations is impractical.
Areas of this Durbin soil provide important wildlife
habitat. The native vegetation and fauna are important
links in the food chain for many sport and commercial
finfish and shellfish.
This Durbin soil is in capability subclass Vlllw. It is not
assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

53--mmokalee-Urban land complex. This map unit
consists of poorly drained, nearly level Immokalee soils
and Urban land. Individual areas of this map unit range
from 50 to 650 acres in size and contain from 40 to 60
percent Immokalee soils and 30 to 40 percent Urban
land. The areas of Immokalee soils and the areas of


Urban land are so mixed or are so small that they could
not be shown separately at the scale used for mapping.
Typically, Immokalee soils have a surface layer that is
very dark gray fine sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is fine sand, which extends to a depth
of 37 inches. The upper 5 inches of the soil material is
gray. The next 26 inches is light gray, and the lower 17
inches is mottled with very dark gray, dark gray, and dark
grayish brown. The subsoil consists of very dark gray
fine sand about 14 inches thick. Below that is dark
grayish brown fine sand.
Urban land consists mainly of streets, sidewalks,
parking lots, buildings, and other structures which
obscure or alter the soils to such a degree that
identification of the soil is not feasible.
Included in mapping are small areas of Cassia,
Myakka, Smyrna, Ona, Pomello, Pottsburg, and Tavares
soils, of which Myakka soils are the most extensive. Also
included are a few small areas where Urban land makes
up as much as 60 percent of the unit.
Immokalee soils have a seasonal high water table at a
depth of less than 10 inches. Available water capacity is
low in the surface layer, very low in the subsurface layer,
and moderate in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the
subsoil. Organic matter content and natural fertility are
low.
Present land use prevents the use of these soils for
growing cultivated crops, pasture, or commercial trees.
The Immokalee soils, or the open part of this unit, are
used for lawns, parks, playgrounds, cemeteries, or open
space. These soils have medium potential for growing
lawn grasses and ornamental shrubs. For maintaining
lawns in good condition, regular applications of fertilizer
are needed. Also, water control measures are needed to
supply water during drought periods and to quickly
remove excess surface water during periods of high
rainfall.
Potential for community development is medium.
Immokalee soils are limited by excessive wetness
caused by a seasonal high water table that is within 10
inches of the surface during periods of high rainfall.
Where adequate water outlets are available, a water
control system is needed to increase the depth to the
water table to about 2 1/2 feet. If outlets are not
available, building sites and roadbeds should be elevated
with fill material to increase the depth to the water table.
Potential for septic tank absorption fields is medium. If
Immokalee soils were used as a site for septic tank
absorption fields, about 4 feet of fill material would be
needed to raise the field above the high water table.
These soils are not assigned to a capability subclass
or given a woodland ordination symbol.

54-Astatula-Urban land complex. This map unit
consists of nearly level to sloping, excessively drained
Astatula soils on broad upland ridges and Urban land.


45






Soil Survey


Individual areas of this complex range from about 40 to
400 acres and contain 40 to 60 percent Astatula soils
and 30 to 40 percent Urban land. The areas of Astatula
soils and the areas of Urban land are so intricately mixed
or so small that they could not be shown separately at
the scale used for mapping.
Typically, Astatula soils have a surface layer of very
dark grayish brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. Below
that is fine sand, which extends to a depth of 80 inches
or more. It is yellowish brown and has pockets of very
dark grayish brown in the upper 11 inches. Below that,
the material is strong brown and has pockets of light
yellowish brown. Below that is yellow fine sand.
Urban land consists mainly of streets, sidewalks,
parking lots, buildings, and other structures, which
obscure or alter the soils to such a degree that
identification of the soil is not feasible.
Included in mapping are small areas of Immokalee,
Myakka, Paola, Pomello, Tavares, and Wesconnett soils.
The excessively drained Paola soils are on similar
positions and are the most extensive. The moderately
well drained Pomello and Tavares soils are on lower
positions in the landscape, generally on the lower part of
ridges and side slopes. Also included are poorly drained
to very poorly drained soils in low flat areas, sloughs,
and depressions and a few small areas where Urban
land makes up as much as 60 percent. Near the Atlantic
Ocean, small areas of Fripp soils are included. These
excessively drained soils occupy similar positions on
long narrow ridges. The included areas make up 20 to
45 percent of this unit.
Astatula soils have a water table at a depth of more
than 72 inches. Available water capacity is very low, and
permeability is rapid throughout. Natural fertility and the
organic matter content are low.
Present land use precludes the use of these soils for
cutivated crops, pasture, or commercial trees. The
Astatula soils, in the open spaces of this map unit, are
used for lawns, parks, playgrounds, cemeteries, or open
space. The potential is moderate for growing lawn
grasses and ornamental shrubs. Regular applications of
fertilizer and water are needed to maintain lawns in good
condition. Selection of drought-resistant plant varieties
helps overcome the droughtiness of these soils. Where
the surface soil has been removed to prepare for
community development, additions of good-quality
topsoil may be needed for vigorous plant growth.
These soils are not assigned to a capability subclass
or given a woodland ordination symbol.

55-Arents, 0 to 2 percent slopes. Arents are nearly
level soils made up of heterogeneous soil material that
was removed from other soils and used in land leveling,
as fill material, or as a final covering for sanitary landfill.
This material is a mixture of fine sand or sand and
fragments of sandy subsoil material that have dark
organic accumulations. Areas occur throughout the


county. Individual areas are square, rectangular, or
irregular in shape and range from 3 to 150 acres.
Arents do not have an orderly sequence of soil layers.
In most areas, the upper 20 to 60 inches is variable and
contains discontinuous lenses, pockets, and streaks of
black, gray, grayish brown, brown, or yellowish brown
sand. It contains few to common, black or dark reddish
brown sandy fragments from subsoil material. Below this
is an undisturbed sandy soil.
In some areas, large cells of solid waste refuse are
below a depth of 2 to 4 feet. This refuse consists of
plastic, wood, glass, concrete, metal, and other material
ranging in thickness from 2 to 10 feet. It is generally
stratified with layers of soil material that was used as
daily cover. A final layer of soil material is spread on top
of the refuse and then smoothed. These areas of
sanitary landfill are identified on the soil map by the
words "sanitary landfill" and the map symbol.
Included with these soils in mapping are a few areas in
which the mixed material contains fragments of loamy
soil material. A few small areas contain shell fragments.
In some spots, the fill material is less than 20 inches
thick.
The water table is at a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 2
to 6 months. In areas of sanitary landfill, the water table
is controlled by perimeter drainage ditches or other
water control measures. The available water capacity is
low, and permeability is rapid. Natural fertility and the
organic matter content are low.
The native vegetation includes waxmyrtle, inkberry,
sawpalmetto, longleaf pine, and slash pine. The
understory vegetation includes bluestem, panicum, and
pineland threeawn.
These soils are generally not suited to vegetable crops
because of the extreme variability of soil properties and
the generally poor soil quality. Potential for this use is
very low.
In some areas improved pasture grasses can be
grown, but the potential is generally low. Deep-rooted
varieties such as bahiagrass should be grown. A large
amount of fertilizer must be applied.
The potential for pine trees is low. In many areas
these soils are not suited to trees because of the wide
range of soil properties.
The potential for community development is medium in
the areas of Arents that were not used for sanitary
landfills. The areas having less than 2 feet of fill may
require additional elevation of sites for building
foundations and subgrades for local roads and streets. In
areas that have less than 3 feet of fill material, additional
material may be needed to raise the septic tank
absorption field. Areas of sanitary landfill have very low
potential for community development. The differential
settling of the buried refuse severely limits the building of
dwellings without basements and local roads and streets
on these areas. Areas of sanitary landfill are not suitable
for septic tank absorption fields. Refuse cells would not


46







St. Johns County, Florida


provide necessary filtering of effluent. Differential settling
would cause filter fields to cease functioning.
Arents are not assigned to a capability subclass or
given a woodland ordination symbol.

57-Adamsville Variant fine sand. This somewhat
poorly drained, nearly level soil is on low knolls adjacent
to tidal marshes, streams, and estuaries, near the
Atlantic coast and Atlantic Inland Waterway. Early
settlers added large quantities of oyster shells to the soil
as a soil amendment. Crop residue was added to the soil
at regular periods, and the soil was tilled to a depth of
about 10 to 15 inches. These practices have greatly
increased the organic matter content and thickness of
the surface layer. Areas are irregularly shaped and range
from 10 to 60 acres. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer, about 10 inches thick, is
very dark grayish brown fine sand containing oyster
shells 1/4 inch to 2 1/2 inches in diameter. Below this is
pale brown, brown, light brownish gray, and light
yellowish brown fine sand that extends to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Included in mapping are small areas of Immokolee,
Myakka, and St. Johns soils. Also included is a soil that
is similar to this Adamsville Variant soil, but it has a layer
darkened by organic accumulations at a depth of 60 to
80 inches.
In most years the water table is at a depth of 20 to 40
inches for 2 to 6 months. It rises to within a depth of 10
to 20 inches for up to 2 weeks during the rainy season in
some years. It is within a depth of 60 inches for more
than 9 months in most years. Available water capacity is
moderate in the surface layer and low in the underlying
layers. Permeability is very rapid in the surface layer and
the upper underlying layers and is rapid below. Natural
fertility is medium. The organic matter content is
moderate in the surface layer and low in the other
layers.
The natural vegetation consists of live oak, laurel oak,
cabbage palms, southern redcedar, yaupon holly,
waxmyrtle, wild grape, blackberry, bluestem, and
panicum.
This soil has medium potential for production of
vegetable crops, but it is limited for this use because of
its small total acreage. Some water control measures are
needed to maintain the water table at the depth required
by the crop being grown. Installation of water control
systems that remove excess water during rainy seasons
is feasible. This soil is drought, and some provision
must be made to irrigate crops grown during the dry
seasons. For maximum yields, regular applications of
fertilizers are required, but lime is not needed.
Potential for improved pasture is medium. Although
this soil is not subject to long periods of wetness, simple
water control measures may be needed to quickly
remove excess surface water after periods of high
rainfall. Adapted varieties such as bahiagrass and


sweetclover grow well. Use of fertilizer is needed for high
production. Grazing should be controlled to maintain
healthy plants.
Potential for pine trees is moderately high. The total
acreage is very small, however, and it is seldom used for
this purpose. Limitations to the use of equipment,
seedling mortality, and plant competition are the main
management concerns.
Potential for community development is high. Some
water control is needed to maintain the water table at a
depth of at least 2 1/2 feet. Water outlets are usually
available for area drainage. If water outlets are not
available, building sites and roadbeds need to be
elevated about 1 1/2 feet. Potential for septic tank
absorption fields is high. About 2 feet of fill material is
needed to raise the filter field above the high water
table.
This Adamsville Variant soil is in capability subclass
IIIw and woodland ordination group 3w.

58-EauGallie fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
nearly level soil on low knolls and ridges, adjacent to
depressions and drainageways in the flatwoods. Areas of
this soil are irregular in shape and are 5 to 150 acres.
Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand, about 6
inches thick, that contains many uncoated sand grains.
The subsurface layer, about 11 inches thick, consists of
gray and light gray fine sand. The subsoil, in the upper 6
inches, is black and dark reddish brown fine sand, and in
the next 9 inches, a yellowish brown fine sand. The
material between depths of 32 and 45 inches is very
pale brown fine sand, and it is underlain by 8 inches of
gray loamy fine sand. The lower part of the subsoil, at a
depth of 53 inches, is gray fine sandy loam about 5
inches thick. Below that, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is gray fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Myakka,
Pomona, Riviera, and Wabasso soils. Also included is a
similar soil in which the upper part of the subsoil is at a
depth of 30 to 40 inches. Other similar soils have a layer
of mixed dark yellowish brown and yellowish brown fine
sand above the loamy layers, and others are brown in
the lower part of the subsoil. Total included areas in this
map unit are less than 15 percent.
The water table is within 10 inches of the surface for a
period of 1 to 4 months and within 40 inches for more
than 6 months. Available water capacity is very low in
the surface and subsurface layers, low in the upper part
of the subsoil, very low in the next layer, and moderate
in the lower part of the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in
the surface and subsurface layers, slow to moderate in
the upper and lower parts of the subsoil, and moderate
to rapid in the other layers. Organic matter content and
natural fertility are low.
The natural vegetation includes slash pine, cabbage
palms, southern bayberry, pineland threeawn, and


47







Soil Survey


greenbrier. A few areas have been cleared and are used
for improved pasture. Other areas are planted to slash
pine.
This EauGallie soil has medium potential for cultivated
crops. A seasonal high water table that is within 10
inches of the surface during wet seasons and low natural
fertility are limitations that must be overcome if the
maximum potential is to be achieved. An adequate water
control system is needed to remove excess water in wet
seasons and provide water through subsurface irrigation
in dry seasons. Close-growing cover crops should be
planted after cash crops are harvested. All crop residue
should be returned to the soil. Good seedbed
preparation includes bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and
lime should be added according to the needs of the
crop.
This EauGallie soil has high potential for pasture
grasses. Bahiagrass and bermudagrass grow well under
good management. Water control measures are needed
to remove excess surface water after heavy rains.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are also
needed due to low natural fertility. Grazing should be
controlled to maintain best yields.
This soil has moderately high potential for slash pine.
Limitations to the use of equipment, seedling mortality,
and plant competition are management concerns. A
seasonal high water table during wet seasons restricts
the use of equipment for site preparation, planting, and
harvesting. Some water control is needed to remove
excess surface water. Good site preparation includes
bedding of the rows.
Potential for community development is medium.
Wetness resulting from a seasonal high water table that
is within 10 inches of the surface is the main limitation
affecting the use of this soil. Water control measures are
needed to lower the water table and quickly remove
excess surface water after heavy rains. Elevating
roadbeds for local roads and streets and foundation
sites for dwellings without basements may require use of
fill material. The effective depth to the water table should
be no less than 2 1/2 feet. If this soil is used as a site
for septic tank absorption fields, about 4 feet of fill
material is needed to raise the field above the high water
table.
This EauGallie soil is in capability subclass IVw and
woodland ordination group 3w.

61-Riviera fine sand, depressional. This is a very
poorly drained, nearly level soil in depressional areas
and in the flatwoods. This soil is ponded for more than 6
months of the year. Areas of this soil are elongated to
nearly circular and range from 4 to 200 acres. Slopes
are less than 1 percent and are smooth to concave.
Typically, the surface layer consists of about 6 inches
of dark gray fine sand. The subsurface layer is grayish
brown fine sand, which extends to a depth of 25 inches.
The subsoil, about 17 inches thick, is dark gray sandy


clay loam and fine sandy loam that has pockets and
tongues of fine sand in the upper 10 inches. Between
depths of 42 and 55 inches is dark gray fine sandy loam.
The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more is
grayish brown loamy fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Bluff,
Floridana, Manatee, and Winder soils and Riviera soils in
frequently flooded areas. Also included are similar soils
that have a subsurface layer darkened by organic
accumulations, soils that have layers of yellowish brown
to yellow fine sand or loamy fine sand above the subsoil,
and soils having a sandy clay subsoil. The included soils
make up less than 10 percent of any area mapped.
This soil is subject to ponding for long periods. The
water table is above the surface for more than 6 months
in most years. Permeability is rapid or very rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers, slow or very slow in the
subsoil, and moderate or moderately rapid in the
substratum. Available water capacity is low or very low in
the surface and subsurface layers and substratum and
moderate in the subsoil. Organic matter content and
natural fertility are low.
The native vegetation includes mostly juncus, flags,
maidencane, and sawgrass and scattered cypress,
cabbage palm, willow, bay, and waxmyrtle.
In its natural state, this Riviera soil is not suited to
most agricultural uses. A water table that is above or
within 10 inches of the surface for more than 6 months
in most years severely restricts the use of the soil for
crops. Potential for vegetable crops is very low because
of ponding. Water stands above the soil surface for long
periods during the growing season. Suitable drainage
outlets are not available or are difficult to install and
maintain. This soil is seldom used for growing vegetables
because installing water control systems is difficult and
expensive.
Potential for improved pasture grasses is very low.
Water standing above the surface for long periods and
the difficulty of installing adequate water control systems
limit the use of this soil for improved pasture.
Potential for pine trees is low. The excessive wetness
of this soil limits its capability to grow pine trees. Water
control measures that remove excessive surface water
are difficult to install because of lack of suitable outlets.
Management concerns are equipment use limitations,
seedling mortality, and plant competition. This soil is
rarely used for commercial woodland because of cost of
drainage.
Potential for community development is very low.
Water stands above the surface of the soil for long
periods of time during the wet season. Outlets which
permit removal of the standing water and lowering the
high water table are usually not available. This soil could
be developed if water control measures were adequate;
however, construction and maintenance of the water
control system would be expensive and difficult. Large
amounts of suitable fill material are needed to raise


48







St. Johns County, Florida


roadbeds for local roads and streets, foundations for
houses, and septic tank absorption fields above the high
water table.
This Riviera soil is in capability subclass Vllw. It is not
assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

62-Floridana fine sand. This is a poorly drained,
nearly level soil on low broad flats. Areas of this soil
range from 60 to 1,200 acres. They are irregular in
shape. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 11
inches thick. The subsurface layer, which is about 19
inches thick, consists of light brownish gray and gray fine
sand. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam, which
extends to a depth of 46 inches. Below that, to a depth
of 80 inches or more, is gray fine sandy loam.
Included in mapping are small areas of soils that are
similar to this Floridana soil, except that some have a
subsoil within 20 inches of the surface; some have a
surface layer more than 24 inches thick; some have a
surface layer that is only 7 to 10 inches thick; and others
are in depressions and are subject to ponding. The
included soils in this map unit make up less than 15
percent of any area mapped.
In the soil's natural state, the seasonal high water
table is within a depth of 10 inches for 4 to 6 months.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and very slow in the subsoil. Available water capacity is
moderate in the surface layer and subsoil and low in the
subsurface layer. Natural fertility is high, and the organic
matter content is moderate.
The natural vegetation includes slash pine, cabbage
palm, sweetgum, water oak, waxmyrtle, sawpalmetto,
and various ferns. Most areas have been cleared and
are used for cabbage and potato production.
This soil has high potential for growing specialized
cultivated crops (fig. 9). It is severely limited by wetness.
The root zone is limited by a seasonal high water table
that is less than 10 inches below the surface. A water
control system that removes excess surface water and
internal water rapidly and provides subsurface irrigation
is needed. Good soil management includes the use of
crop rotations that keep the soil in close-growing cover
crops when it is not being cultivated. The cover crop and
all other crop residue should be returned to the soil.
Bedding of rows is needed in seedbed preparation.
Fertilizer should be applied according to the needs of the
crop.
This Floridana soil has high potential for most pasture
grasses. Water control systems designed to quickly
remove excess surface water and regular applications of
fertilizer are needed. This soil is well suited to
bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and clover.
This soil has moderately high potential for slash pine
under high-level management. A high water table during
periods of higher rainfall limits this soil for this use.
Equipment mobility during wet seasons, seedling


mortality, and plant competition are management
concerns. A simple water control system is needed to
remove excess surface water. Timely scheduling of site
preparation, planting, and harvesting is required. Site
preparation should include bedding of the rows.
The potential for community development is medium.
Excessive wetness is the main limitation for this use. A
seasonal high water table is at or near the soil surface
during times of high rainfall. For constructing houses,
small commercial buildings, and local roads and streets,
water control measures that increase the depth to the
water table to 2.5 feet are needed. In many places water
outlets are not available or are difficult to install. In these
areas, construction sites and roadbeds should be
elevated to increase the effective depth to the water
table. The potential for use as a site for septic tank
absorption fields is medium. If this soil is used as a site
for absorption fields, about 4 feet of suitable fill material
is needed to raise the field above the high water table.
This Floridana soil is in capability subclass Illw and
woodland ordination group 3w.

63-Placid fine sand. This is a very poorly drained,
nearly level soil on broad, low, flat areas. Slopes range
from 0 to 2 percent. Areas of this soil are irregular in
shape and range from 60 to 500 acres.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 12
inches thick. The subsurface layer is fine sand, which
extends to a depth of 51 inches. It is dark gray in the
upper part and grayish brown, light gray, and dark
grayish brown below. Below that is dark grayish brown
loamy fine sand about 7 inches thick. Grayish brown fine
sand extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included in mapping are small areas of Ellzey,
Floridana, Holopaw, and Tocoi soils. Also included are
small areas of soils which are similar to this Placid soil,
except some have a fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam
subsoil, and others are more alkaline. The included soils
make up about 15 percent of any area mapped.
This soil has a seasonal high water table within a
depth of 10 inches for more than 6 months in most
years. During extended dry periods, the water table may
recede to a depth of more than 40 inches. In most
areas, this soil has extensive water control systems
installed, and it is cultivated.
Permeability is rapid throughout. Available water
capacity is moderate in the surface layer and very low or
low in the subsurface layer. Organic matter content and
natural fertility are high.
The natural vegetation includes longleaf and slash
pines, sweetgum, water oak, waxmyrtle, wild grape,
smilax, and a few cypress. The native grasses include
maidencane, bluestems, cinnamon fern, pineland
threeawn, and lopsided indiangrass.
This soil has high potential for cultivated crops. Irish
potatoes grow well on this soil. Response to fertilizer is
rapid. A water control system is needed to remove


49







Soil Survey


Figure 9.-Irrigated cabbage crop in area of Floridana fine sand.


excess water during rainy seasons and to provide
irrigation during dry seasons. Close-growing cover crops
should be planted when the soil is not used. All crop
residue should be returned to the soil. Fertilizer and lime
should be added according to the needs of the crop.
Under natural conditions, this soil is too wet for most
improved pasture grasses and legumes to be grown. It
has high potential for pasture, but use of surface ditches
for removing excess water is needed to grow such plants
as bahiagrass, bermudagrass, and clover. Proper
fertilization and liming are needed.
Potential for pine trees is high. Limitations to the use
of equipment and seedling mortality are management
concerns. Timely scheduling of site preparation and
planting operations is needed. Good site preparation
should include bedding of the rows.
Potential for community development is medium; a
high water table is the main limitation. Dwellings without
basements and local roads and streets require special
water control measures to remove excess surface water


and lower the high water table. Adequate water outlets
for drainage generally are available. Structures should be
built on low mounds. Potential for septic tank absorption
fields is medium. About 4 feet of suitable fill material is
needed to raise the field above the high water table
during wet seasons.
This Placid soil is in capability subclass Illw and
woodland ordination group 2w.

64-Elzey fine sand. This is a nearly level, poorly
drained soil that formed in thick sandy sediments of
marine origin. This soil is on low broad flats in the
cabbage and potato farming area of St. Johns County.
Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and range from
20 to 1,200 acres. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sand about 12
inches thick. The subsurface layer, about 15 inches
thick, is gray and light gray fine sand. The subsoil is
brownish yellow fine sand in the upper 6 inches;
yellowish brown fine sand in the next 4 inches; and


50


..






St. Johns County, Florida


yellowish brown and brown loamy fine sand to a depth of
58 inches. Below that, the subsoil is light brownish gray
loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. The substratum to
a depth of 80 inches or more is gray fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Anclote and
Floridana soils. Also included are small areas of similar
soils, some of which have a surface layer less than 10
inches thick, and others which have a gray subsoil. Total
included soils make up about 15 percent of any area
mapped.
This ElIIzey soil has a water table at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months during most years.
During extended periods of low rainfall, it may recede to
a depth greater than 40 inches. Permeability is rapid in
the surface and subsurface layers and substratum. It is
moderate in the subsoil. Fertility is low. The organic
matter content is moderate to high in the surface layer
and low in the other layers. Available water capacity is
very low or low in the surface and subsurface layers and
moderate in the subsoil.
The natural vegetation consists of slash pine,
sawpalmetto, inkberry, wild grape, and smilax and a few
sweetgum, water oak, and cypress. Native grasses
include pineland threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, chalky
bluestem, and maidencane.
This Ellzey soil has high potential for cultivated crops.
In its natural state, this soil has a root zone that is
limited by a water table that is within 10 inches of the
surface during wet seasons. A complete water control
system would be needed to permit this soil to produce
good yields. Good soil management includes growing a
cover crop when the soil is not in use. All crop residue
should be returned to the soil. Bedding of rows is
needed in seedbed preparation. Fertilizer and lime
should be applied as required by the needs of the crop.
The potential for pine trees is moderately high. Water
control measures, which remove excess surface water,
are needed to attain potential productivity. Limitations to
the use of equipment and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns.
Potential for improved pasture grasses and clover is
high. In its natural state, this soil is too wet for those
uses. Surface ditches, which quickly remove excess
water, are needed to permit such crops as bahiagrass,
bermudagrass, and clover to grow well. Regular
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for best
yields.
Potential for community development is medium.
Wetness caused by a water table that is within 10 inches
of the surface during periods of high rainfall is the main
limitation. Dwellings without basements and local roads
and streets require special measures to remove excess
surface water quickly and to increase the depth to the
seasonal high water table. Potential for use as sites for
septic tank absorption fields is medium. About 4 feet of
suitable fill material is needed to raise the field above
the high water table.


This soil is in capability subclass IIIw and woodland
ordination group 3w.

65-Riviera fine sand. This is a poorly drained, nearly
level soil in low, broad areas in the flatwoods. Individual
areas are irregular in shape and range from 15 to 120
acres. Slopes are 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black and dark grayish
brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of 28 inches, is grayish brown fine
sand. The subsoil, which extends to a depth of 62
inches, is dark grayish brown and grayish brown sandy
clay loam. The upper 12 inches of the subsoil contains
pockets and tongues of fine sand. The substratum, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is gray loamy fine sand.
Included in mapping are small areas of Floridana,
Holopaw, and Pompano soils. Also included are small
areas of similar soils, some of which have a more acid
subsoil; soils which have a loamy sand subsoil; and
others that have layers of yellowish brown to yellow fine
sand or loamy fine sand above the subsoil. The included
soils make up less than 15 percent of any area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is within 10 inches of
the surface for 2 to 4 months in most years. It is below
40 inches during long dry seasons. Available water
capacity is low or very low in the surface and subsurface
layers, moderate in the subsoil, and low in the
substratum. Permeability is rapid or very rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers, very slow or slow in the
subsoil, and moderate or moderately rapid in the
substratum. Organic matter content and natural fertility
are low.
The natural vegetation includes slash and longleaf
pines and a few scattered cabbage palm, sweetgum,
blackgum, and maple. The understory vegetation is
waxmyrtle, smilax, wild grape, pineland threeawn,
lopsided indiangrass, and bluestems.
Because wetness is a severe limitation, this soil has
medium potential for cultivated crops. The root zone is
limited by a water table that is less than 10 inches below
the surface. A complete water control system is needed
in order to produce good yields of cabbage or potatoes.
The water control system used must remove excess
water rapidly and provide a means for subsurface
irrigation during dry seasons. Cover crops should be
grown when the soil is not being farmed. All cover crops
and crop residue should be returned to the soil. Fertilizer
and lime should be applied according to the needs of the
crop.
Potential for improved pasture grasses and legumes is
medium. A simple water control system is needed to
quickly remove excess surface water. Bahiagrass,
bermudagrass, and clovers grow well. Applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed at regular intervals for
vigorous plant growth.
Potential for pine trees is moderately high. Limitations
to the use of equipment and high seedling mortality


51






Soil Survey


caused by excessive wetness are management
concerns. Adequate control of surface water and
bedding of rows are needed for low plant mortality.
Potential for community development is medium. A
seasonal high water table that is at or near the surface
during rainy seasons is a severe limitation for urban
uses. Removal of excess surface water and lowering the
water table are sometimes difficult because adequate
water outlets generally are not available. Local roads
and streets and dwellings without basements need
adequate water control measures to lower the high water
table to a depth of at least 2.5 feet. If adequate water
control is not possible, roadbeds and building sites
should be raised by the use of fill material to increase
the depth to the water table. Potential for use as sites
for septic tank absorption fields is medium. About 4 feet
of suitable fill material is needed to raise the field above
the high water table.
This soil is in capability subclass Illw and woodland
ordination group 3w.

66-Terra Ceia muck, frequently flooded. This is a
very poorly drained, nearly level soil on narrow to broad
flood plains along rivers and streams. It is primarily in the
western part of the county along the St. Johns River and
its tributaries. Areas of this soil are elongated or irregular
in shape and range from 40 to 2,000 acres. Slopes are
less than 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown muck
about 35 inches thick. The next layer is very dark gray
muck that extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Included in mapping are small areas of Riviera, St.
Johns, and Winder soils. Also included are small areas
of soils that are similar to this Terra Ceia soil but have
an organic layer less than 52 inches thick and are
underlain by sandy or loamy material. The included soils
make up less than 10 percent of any mapped area.
In most years under natural conditions, the seasonal
high water table is at the surface, except during
extended dry periods. Flooding can be expected after
heavy rains. Permeability is rapid throughout, and
available water capacity is very high. Natural fertility is
medium, and the organic matter content is very high.
The natural vegetation includes sweetgum, blackgum,
maple, bay, and waxmyrtle.
Under natural conditions, this soil is severely limited
for cultivated crops by the frequent flooding and the high
water table. If the soil is protected from flooding and
water control is adequate, the potential is high for
growing cabbage and most other vegetables. A well
designed and maintained water control system should
remove excess water during the growing season and
keep the soil saturated at other times. Fertilizers
containing phosphorus, potash, and minor elements are
needed. All crop residue and cover crops should be
returned to the soil to help maintain the thickness of the
organic material.


Potential for improved pasture is high. In areas where
water control is provided, improved pasture grasses and
clovers grow well. The water table should be maintained
near the surface to prevent excessive oxidation of the
organic material. Regular applications of fertilizers and
controlled grazing are required.
The potential of this soil for pine trees is very low.
Limitations to the use of equipment, seedling mortality,
and windthrow hazard limit the use of this soil for
producing pine trees of commercial value.
Potential for community development is very low. The
hazard of flooding, wetness, and low strength are severe
limitations. Overcoming these limitations is generally
impractical. Muck must be removed and large quantities
of fill material spread before this soil can be used for
building sites or local roads and streets. Potential for
septic tank filter fields is very low because large
quantities of fill material would be needed to raise the
absorption field above the high water table.
This Terra Ceia soil is in capability subclass Vllw. It is
not assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

67-Tisonia mucky peat, frequently flooded. This is
a very poorly drained, nearly level soil that is in tidal
marshes along the coastal area of the county. Areas of
this soil are broad and elongated in shape and range
from 80 to several hundred acres. Slopes are less than 1
percent.
Typically, the surface layer, about 18 inches thick, is
very dark grayish brown mucky peat. The subsurface
layer, to a depth of 65 inches, is dark gray clay. It has
pockets and lenses of sandy loam and loamy sand in the
lower 10 inches.
Included in mapping are small areas of Durbin and
Pellicer soils. Also included are small areas of soils that
are similar to this Tisonia soil, except some have organic
material less than 16 inches thick, some have organic
material that is more decomposed, and others have a
thin subsoil underlain by sandy loam material. The
included soils make up about 15 percent of any area
mapped.
The seasonal high water table fluctuates with the tide.
This soil is flooded twice daily by normal high tides.
Permeability is rapid in the organic layer and very slow in
the clay substratum. Available water capacity is very high
in the organic layer and high in the clay substratum.
The natural vegetation includes seashore saltgrass,
needlegrass rush, cattails, and marshhay cordgrass.
This mucky peat has severe limitations for cultivated
crops, improved pasture, or trees. Potential for these
uses is very low. Reclaiming this soil would require
extensive water control if dikes and pumps were used.
The high salt, sulfur, and clay content and low soil
strength severely limit this soil for agricultural uses.
Potential for community development is very low. The
hazard of flooding and limitations of excessive wetness
and low soil strength make this soil poorly suited to the


52






St. Johns County, Florida


construction of buildings or local roads and streets.
Overcoming these hazards and limitations is expensive
and impractical.
Areas of this soil are an important wildlife habitat. The
native vegetation and fauna provide important links in
the food chain for many sport and commercial finfish and
shellfish.
This Tisonia soil is in capability subclass Vlllw. It is not
assigned a woodland ordination symbol.

68-Winder fine sand. This is a poorly drained, nearly
level soil that formed in loamy marine sediments. It is in
broad, low areas in the flatwoods. Areas of this soil are
irregular in shape and range from 30 to 400 acres.
Slopes range from 0 to 1 percent.
Typically, the surface layer consists of very dark gray
fine sand about 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick. In the upper 4
inches, the subsoil is gray fine sandy loam with
intrusions of dark gray fine sand from the subsurface
layer. The next 4 inches is light gray fine sandy loam,
and the lower 38 inches is gray and light gray sandy clay
loam. The substratum is at a depth of 56 inches. It is
gray fine sandy loam in the upper 6 inches and contains
a few hard calcium carbonate concretions. Below that, to
a depth of more than 80 inches, is light olive gray fine
sandy loam that contains a few soft calcium carbonate
accumulations and shell fragments.
Included in mapping are small areas of Floridana,
Holopaw, and Riviera soils. Also included are small
areas of soils that are similar to this Winder soil. Some
of these similar soils have a bright sandy subsoil; some
have a more acid subsoil; some have a sandy clay
subsoil; and some have a loamy fine sand surface layer.
The included soils make up less than 20 percent of any
area mapped.
The seasonal high water table is within a depth of 10
inches for 2 to 6 months during most years. Available
water capacity is very low or low in the surface and
subsurface layers, low in the upper part of the subsoil,
and moderate in the lower part of the subsoil. It is low or
moderate in the upper part of the substratum and very
low or low in the lower part. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers, moderately slow to very
slow in the subsoil, slow in the upper part of the
substratum, and rapid in the lower part. Organic matter
content is very low to moderately low, and natural fertility
is medium.
The native vegetation is dominantly slash pine,
longleaf pine, and a few cabbage palms. Some areas
have a few mixed hardwoods, cypress, and bay. The
understory vegetation is sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle,
pineland threeawn, maidencane, and bluestem.
Potential is medium for cultivated crops. The soil is
severely limited because of wetness. The root zone is
limited by a water table that is less than 10 inches below
the surface much of the time. A complete water control


system is needed in order to produce good yields of
cabbage and other vegetables. The water control system
must remove excess water rapidly and provide for a
means of subsurface irrigation during periods of low
rainfall. Bedding the rows is a good practice. Cover
crops should be grown when the soil is not farmed. All
crop residue should be returned to the soil. A good
fertilizer program is needed for high yields.
Potential for improved pasture grasses and legumes is
high. A simple water control system, which quickly
removes surface water after heavy rainfall, is required.
Bahiagrass, bermudagrass, and clovers grow well.
Regular applications of fertilizer are needed for highest
yields.
This Winder soil has high potential for pine trees.
Limitations to the use of equipment during periods of
high rainfall and seedling mortality are management
concerns. Bedding of the rows lowers the effective
seasonal high water table, decreases the seedling
mortality rate, and promotes better tree growth.
Potential for community development is medium.
Limitations are severe for urban uses because a
seasonal high water table is at or near the surface during
rainy seasons. Removal of excess surface water and
increasing the depth to the water table are sometimes
difficult because adequate water outlets generally are
not available. Adequate water control systems, which
lower the high water table to a depth of at least 2.5 feet,
are needed for local roads and streets and dwellings
without basements. If adequate water control is not
possible, roadbeds and building sites should be elevated
by the use of fill material to increase the effective depth
to the water table. Potential for use as sites for septic
tank absorption fields is medium. About 4 feet of suitable
fill material is needed to raise the field above the high
water table.
This soil is in capability subclass Illw and woodland
ordination group 2w.

69-Bakersville muck. This is a nearly level, very
poorly drained soil in depressional areas of the
flatwoods. Slopes are less than 2 percent. Areas range
from 4 to 120 acres.
Typically, in undisturbed areas, a layer of black muck
about 5 inches thick is on the surface. The surface layer
is black and very dark grayish brown loamy fine sand,
which extends to a depth of about 41 inches. The
subsoil consists of fine sandy loam about 18 inches
thick. It is very dark grayish brown in the upper 7 inches
and dark brown in the lower 11 inches. Below that, the
soil material is brown loamy fine sand about 4 inches
thick over grayish brown loamy fine sand, which extends
to a depth of 86 inches or more.
Included in mapping are small areas of soils similar to
Bakersville muck, except that some have a gray or light
gray sandy subsurface layer; some have a sandy clay
subsoil; others have a fine sand surface layer; and


53







54


others have a subsoil within a depth of 40 inches. The
included soils make up about 20 percent of any mapped
area.
The seasonal high water table is above the soil
surface for 6 months or more in most years. Permeability
is rapid in the surface layer and moderately rapid in the
upper part of the subsoil. It is moderate in the lower part
of the subsoil and rapid below. Available water capacity
is very high in the organic layer, moderate to high in the
surface layer and subsoil, and low to moderate below.
Organic matter content is very high, and natural fertility is
medium.
The natural vegetation consists of cypress, sweetgum,
bay, and red maple with an understory of waxmyrtle,
smilax, cinnamon fern, and brackenfern.
In its natural state, this soil is severely limited for
growing vegetables, field crops, or pasture. It is covered
with standing water much of the time during most years.
The root zone is restricted by a high water table that is
within a few inches of the surface in extremely dry
periods. Adequate water outlets for removal of excess


water generally are not available. Potential for crops and
pastures is low.
Potential for pine trees is high only after drainage.
Seedling mortality and limitations to the use of
equipment are management concerns. Water control
measures for removing excess surface water are
needed. Bedding of the rows keeps seedling mortality at
a minimum and aids tree growth. The areas are generally
not used for commercial production.
Potential for community development is low; excessive
wetness and ponding are the main limitations. Large
amounts of fill material are needed to raise construction
sites and roadbeds above the high water table.
Adequate water outlets for removal of excess water
generally are not available because this soil is in low
positions. Potential for use as septic tank absorption
fields is low. About 7 feet of suitable fill material is
needed to elevate the field above the high water table.
This Bakersville soil is in capability subclass VIw and
woodland ordination group 2w.







55


Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses
and management. Field experience and collected data
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis
in predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil
properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information can
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
John Lawrence, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture is
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated


yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
More than 37,000 acres in St. Johns County is used
for crops and pasture, according to the 1976 Census of
Agriculture, estimates of St. Johns County Extension
Service, and the Florida Agricultural Statistics, Florida
Crop Reporting Service. Of this total, 12,000 acres is
used for pasture, 5,000 acres is used for cabbage, and
15,000 acres is used for Irish potatoes. The rest is used
mainly for vegetables, such as field peas, sweet corn,
and onions. There are small acreages of cut flowers and
nursery stock. About 200 acres of citrus is grown
commercially in the areas southeast of Hastings, and
about 2,000 acres of corn and grain sorghum is grown
each year. These grain crops are usually planted
following the harvest of cabbage or potatoes.
The potential of the soils in St. Johns County for
increased production of food is high. About 175,000
acres of potentially good cropland is currently used as
woodland, and about 10,000 acres is used as improved
pasture. Food production could also be increased
considerably by the use of the latest cropland
technology on all cropland in the county. This soil survey
can greatly facilitate the application of such technology.
The acreage in crops and pasture has increased slightly
in the past years. The acreage in woodland has
decreased as more land is used for farming and urban
uses.
In 1977, the Local Comprehensive Land Use Planning
Agency estimated that 19,800 acres was used for urban
development and predicted an increase of about 5
percent per year. The use of this soil survey in making
land use decisions that will influence the future role of
farming in the county is discussed under the heading
"General Soil Map Units."
Water erosion is not a major problem in St. Johns
County. The soils are sandy and mostly nearly level.
Erosion from rapid runoff takes place only during heavy
rains on bare soils that have short, steep slopes.
Examples of these soils are the excessively drained







55


Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural
resources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists,
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive
field data about the nature and behavior characteristics
of the soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness,
flooding, and other factors that affect various soil uses
and management. Field experience and collected data
on soil properties and performance are used as a basis
in predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as
rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife
habitat. It can be used to identify the potentials and
limitations of each soil for specific land uses and to help
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil
properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information can
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds,
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.

Crops and Pasture
John Lawrence, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture is
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil
Conservation Service is explained; and the estimated


yields of the main crops and hay and pasture plants are
listed for each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Detailed Soil Map
Units." Specific information can be obtained from the
local office of the Soil Conservation Service or the
Cooperative Extension Service.
More than 37,000 acres in St. Johns County is used
for crops and pasture, according to the 1976 Census of
Agriculture, estimates of St. Johns County Extension
Service, and the Florida Agricultural Statistics, Florida
Crop Reporting Service. Of this total, 12,000 acres is
used for pasture, 5,000 acres is used for cabbage, and
15,000 acres is used for Irish potatoes. The rest is used
mainly for vegetables, such as field peas, sweet corn,
and onions. There are small acreages of cut flowers and
nursery stock. About 200 acres of citrus is grown
commercially in the areas southeast of Hastings, and
about 2,000 acres of corn and grain sorghum is grown
each year. These grain crops are usually planted
following the harvest of cabbage or potatoes.
The potential of the soils in St. Johns County for
increased production of food is high. About 175,000
acres of potentially good cropland is currently used as
woodland, and about 10,000 acres is used as improved
pasture. Food production could also be increased
considerably by the use of the latest cropland
technology on all cropland in the county. This soil survey
can greatly facilitate the application of such technology.
The acreage in crops and pasture has increased slightly
in the past years. The acreage in woodland has
decreased as more land is used for farming and urban
uses.
In 1977, the Local Comprehensive Land Use Planning
Agency estimated that 19,800 acres was used for urban
development and predicted an increase of about 5
percent per year. The use of this soil survey in making
land use decisions that will influence the future role of
farming in the county is discussed under the heading
"General Soil Map Units."
Water erosion is not a major problem in St. Johns
County. The soils are sandy and mostly nearly level.
Erosion from rapid runoff takes place only during heavy
rains on bare soils that have short, steep slopes.
Examples of these soils are the excessively drained







Soil Survey


Astatula and Paola soils and the moderately well drained
Tavares soils that have slopes of more than 2 percent.
Wind erosion is a major hazard on the sandy and
organic soils. Wind erosion can damage soils and tender
crops in a few hours in open, unprotected areas if the
winds are strong and the soils are dry and bare of
vegetation and surface mulch. Maintaining a plant or a
surface mulch minimizes duststorms and improves air
quality.
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such as
Carolina cherry laurel, slash pine, southern redcedar, and
Japanese privet, and strip crops of small grain are
effective in reducing wind erosion and crop damage.
Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow plantings
made at right angles to the prevailing wind and at
specific intervals across the field. The intervals depend
on the erodibility of the soil and the susceptibility of the
crop to damage from sand blowing.
Information on the design of erosion control practices
for each kind of soil is contained in the "Water and Wind
Erosion Control Handbook-Florida," which is available
in local offices of the Soil Conservation Service.
Water control is a major management need on land
used for crops. In this county, about 336,000 acres, or
about 86 percent of the soils, is poorly drained or very
poorly drained. These soils are too wet in their natural
state during most years to grow crops commonly grown
in the area. These sandy soils also have low water
holding capacity and are drought during dry periods. For
most crops, water control systems that remove excess
surface water and provide subsurface irrigation are
needed on the poorly drained soils. Water control
measures include bedding of the rows (fig. 10). The
design of water control systems varies with the kind of
soil and crop grown. More information about water
control systems can be obtained from the local office of
the Soil Conservation Service.
Soil fertility is naturally low in most of the sandy soils
in the county. Most of the soils are strongly acid if they
have not been limed. Soils such as Floridana, Parkwood,
and Manatee have a thicker surface layer containing
more organic matter. They have a higher soil reaction
and are higher in natural fertility. Available phosphorous
and potash levels are naturally low in most of these
soils. On all soils, additions of lime and fertilizer should
be based on the results of soil tests, on the needs of the
crop, and on expected yields. The Cooperative Extension
Service can help in determining the kinds and amounts
of fertilizer and lime to apply.
Soil tilth is an important factor in the germination of
seeds and infiltration of water into the soil. Soils that
have good tilth are porous and granular. Most soils in St.
Johns County have sandy surface layers with good tilth.
The structure of the surface layer in most soils in the
survey area generally is weak. Organic matter content is
low to moderate in most areas. These soils can form
slight crusts on the surface upon drying after heavy


rains. Regular additions of organic matter from crop
residue or other sources improve soil tilth, increase soil
fertility, and reduce crust formation.
Field crops grown in the survey area include corn,
grain sorghum, and a few acres of oats, wheat, and rye
used for green chop feed for dairy cows. The corn and
grain sorghum are usually grown in rotation after
potatoes or cabbage has been harvested. Close-growing
cover crops of sorghum or sorghum-sudangrass are
usually grown when the land is idle. Sunflowers,
sugarcane, and cotton could be grown if economics
permit. Indigo was once a major crop.
Specialty crops grown commercially in the survey area
include Irish potatoes, cabbage, and a few acres of cut
flowers, field peas, sweet corn, okra, turnips, mustard,
citrus, and ornamental nursery stock. If water control is
adequate, most of the soils in the flatwoods can be used
for vegetable crops. The poorly drained Holopaw,
Immokalee, Myakka, Pomona, Pompano, Riviera, and
Winder soils are sandy soils that have good internal
drainage and are well suited to cabbage or Irish
potatoes. The water control systems should provide
water for subsurface irrigation during dry seasons.
Pastures in the survey area are used to produce
forage for beef and dairy cattle. The sale of beef cattle
in cow-calf operations is the major livestock enterprise.
Bahiagrass and Coastal bermudagrass are the main
pasture plants grown in the county. Excess grass is
harvested as hay for winter feed or sold at the farm.
Pastures in many parts of the county are depleted due to
overgrazing and undermanagement. Differences in
pasture yields are related closely to the kind of soil.
Management of pasture is based on the relationship
between soils, pasture plants, lime, fertilizer, and grazing
systems. Yields can be increased under management
that includes lime, fertilizer, and grass-legume mixtures.
If surface ditches are used, the poorly drained soils in
flatwoods are well suited to improved pasture grasses.
Unless artificially drained, some of the poorly drained
soils are wet enough to cause some damage to pasture
grasses during wet seasons.
There are no areas of prime farmland in St. Johns
County.

Yields Per Acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management
are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also
considered.


56






St. Johns County, Florida


Figure 10.-Areas of Ona fine sand are being prepared for growing Irish potatoes. Bedding of the rows is a common agronomic practice
used in water control.


The management needed to obtain the indicated
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop
residue, barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; and
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss.
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the crops
grown, that good quality irrigation water is uniformly
applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to a minimum.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely
to increase as new production technology is developed.


The productivity of a given soil compared with that of
other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the
Cooperative Extension Service can provide information
about the management and productivity of the soils for
those crops.

Land Capability Classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops
that require special management are excluded. The soils
are grouped according to their limitations for field crops,
the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the
way they respond to management. The grouping does
not take into account major and generally expensive


57







Soil Survey


landforming that would change slope, depth, or other
characteristics of the soils, nor does it consider possible
but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability
classification is not a substitute for interpretations
designed to show suitability and limitations of groups of
soils for rangeland, for woodland, and for engineering
purposes.
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
are defined in the following paragraphs.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by Roman numerals I through VIII. The
numerals indicate progressively greater limitations and
narrower choices for practical use. The classes are
defined as follows:
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require very careful
management, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
limitations that nearly preclude their use for commercial
crop production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
c, to the class numeral, for example, Ile. The letter e
shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly
corrected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold
or very dry.
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in
class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have
other limitations that restrict their use to pasture,
rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The
soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to
the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar
management, and to have similar productivity. Capability


units are generally designated by adding an Arabic
numeral to the subclass symbol, for example, Ile-4 or
Ille-6.
The acreage of soils in each capability class and
subclass is shown in table 6. The capability classification
of each map unit is given in the section "Detailed Soil
Map Units."

Woodland Management and Productivity
Hal Brockman, forester, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare
this section.
Approximately 293,000 acres, or 75 percent of the
survey area, is woodland. The soils and climate of St.
Johns County are suitable for growing timber. Most of
the forest land is Myakka, Immokalee, Holopaw, Riviera,
Pompano, and Pomona soils. Except for the vegetable
farms in the southwest and central parts of the county,
woodland resources are well distributed throughout the
county. Large wood-using industries own or lease most
of the woodland. A small part is owned and managed by
private individuals.
The predominant commercial species in St. Johns
County is slash pine. It grows well on the poorly drained
flatwood sites. Longleaf pine was once the dominant
species before intensive harvesting and management
began. Some sand pine grows on the small knolls and
ridges, where Astatula, Pomello, and Paola soils are
extensive. Sand pine is generally not harvested
commercially. Red maple, black gum, and cypress grow
on the wetter soils in depressions and drainageways.
These trees have some commercial value. Large water
oak, live oak, and laurel oak grow on the hammocks
bordering wet soils. Tavares, Sparr, and Adamsville soils
support a growth of mostly live oak, laurel oak, turkey
oak, and scattered longleaf pine. These trees currently
have little commercial value.
Timber management consists mostly of simple water
control, prescribed burning, clearcutting, site preparation,
and replanting with seedlings. Some selective cutting
and thinning are done by smaller timber companies and
private owners. Fire is a useful tool in that it reduces the
"rough" and exposes the mineral soil as a seedbed for
natural reproduction. Fire also encourages grasses and
forbs that help support various wildlife species, such as
deer, turkey, and quail. By reducing the underbrush,
prescribed burning also reduces the hazard of wildfire.
Markets are plentiful for wood produced in St. Johns
County (fig. 11). Pulpwood mills are near Palatka and
Fernadina Beach. The two small sawmills in St. Johns
County cut mostly cypress lumber.
More detailed information on woodland and woodland
management is available from the local offices of the
Soil Conservation Service, the Florida Division of
Forestry, and the Florida Cooperative Extension Service.
Table 7 can be used by woodland owners or forest
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops.


58







St. Johns County, Florida


59


...-.-- .j.f




-. i'
L.,,,.^^^ *^.^


Figure 11.-Production of pulpwood is a major business in St Johns County. Here, slash pine is loaded at a woodyard on Adamsville fine
sand and Sparr fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.


Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The
table lists the ordination (woodland suitability) symbol for
each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol
require the same general management and have about
the same potential productivity.
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number,
indicates the potential productivity of the soils for
important trees. The number 1 indicates very high
productivity; 2, high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate;
and 5, low. The second part of the symbol, a letter,
indicates the major kind of soil limitation. The letter w
indicates that there is excessive water in or on the soil,
and s indicates sandy texture. If a soil has more than
one limitation, the priority is as follows: w and s.
In table 7, slight, moderate, and severe indicate the
degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in
management.
Ratings of the erosion hazard indicate the risk of loss
of soil in well managed woodland. The risk is slight if the


expected soil loss is small, moderate if measures are
needed to control erosion during logging and road
construction, and severe if intensive management or
special equipment and methods are needed to prevent
excessive loss of soil.
Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the
characteristics and conditions of the soil that restrict use
of the equipment generally needed in woodland
management or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates
that use of equipment is not limited to a particular kind of
equipment or time of year; moderate indicates a short
seasonal limitation or a need for some modification in
management or in equipment; and severe indicates a
seasonal limitation, a need for special equipment or
management, or a hazard in the use of equipment.
Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which
the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant
competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings
apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly







Soil Survey


planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of
slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than
25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe,
more than 50 percent.
Ratings of windthrow hazard are based on soil
characteristics that affect the development of tree roots
and the ability of the soil to hold trees firmly. A rating of
slight indicates that few trees may be blown down by
strong winds; moderate, that some trees will be blown
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and
strong winds; and severe, that many trees are blown
down during periods of excessive soil wetness and
moderate or strong winds.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to
which undesirable plants are expected to invade where
there are openings in the tree canopy. The invading
plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings. A
rating of slight indicates little or no competition from
other plants; moderate indicates that plant competition is
expected to hinder the development of a fully stocked
stand of desirable trees; severe indicates that plant
competition is expected to prevent the establishment of
a desirable stand unless the site is intensively prepared,
weeded, or otherwise managed to control undesirable
plants.
The potential productivity of merchantable or common
trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is
the average height, in feet, that dominant and
codominant trees of a given species attain in a specified
number of years. The site index applies to fully stocked,
even-aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly grown trees
are those that woodland managers generally favor in
intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are selected
on the basis of growth rate, quality, value, and
marketability.
Trees to plant are those that are suited to the soils
and to commercial wood production.

Recreation
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 8
according to limitations that affect their suitability for
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not
considered in the ratings, but important in evaluating a
site, are the location and accessibility of the area, the
size and shape of the area and its scenic quality,
vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewerlines. The
capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent and the
ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
recreation use by the duration and intensity of flooding
and the season when flooding occurs. In planning
recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the height,
duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is essential.


In table 8, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil
properties are generally favorable and that limitations are
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that
limitations can be overcome or alleviated by planning,
design, or special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can be
offset only by costly soil reclamation, special design,
intensive maintenance, limited use, or by a combination
of these measures.
The information in table 8 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example,
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
11 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
and for local roads and streets in table 10.
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary
facilities and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to
heavy foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best
soils have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to
flooding during the period of use. The surface has few or
no stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but
remains firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes
and stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of
constructing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or
stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
considered.
Paths and trails for hiking, horseback riding, and
bicycling should require little or no cutting and filling. The
best soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
the surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the
surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is
not considered in rating the soils.


60






St. Johns County, Florida


Wildlife Habitat
John F. Vance, biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped prepare
this section.
Wildlife is a valuable resource of St. Johns County.
Urban development, especially in the coastal areas, and
intensive agricultural development in the Hastings area
have been detrimental to wildlife habitat, but less
developed areas still support a large variety and number
of wildlife species.
Game species include white-tailed deer, squirrel,
turkey, feral hogs, bobwhite quail, rail, and waterfowl.
Nongame species include raccoon, rabbit, armadillo,
opossum, skunk, bobcat, gray and red foxes, otter, and a
variety of songbirds, wading birds, shore birds,
woodpeckers, reptiles, and amphibians. A wide variety of
fish species, both freshwater and saltwater, provide good
fishing, especially in the ocean and the St. Johns River.
An area especially important to wildlife is the Guano
Wildlife Management Area-10,000 acres administered
by the Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission.
Guano Lake, a 2,200-acre impoundment, and associated
marshes provide an excellent waterfowl habitat and
support good duck hunting. The other salt marshes of
the county are of particular value as a part of the marine
ecosystem.
Numerous endangered or threatened species are
found in St. Johns County, ranging from the rare red-
cockaded woodpecker and indigo snake to more
commonly known species, such as the alligator and
pelican. A complete list of such species, with detailed
information on range and habitat, can be obtained from
the local Soil Conservation District conservationist.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
be created or improved by planting appropriate
vegetation, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by
promoting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
In table 9, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining
specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining
the intensity of management needed for each element of
the habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management,
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.


Moderately intensive management is required for
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
limitations are severe for the designated element or kind
of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
maintained in most places, but management is difficult
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat is
impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and
features that affect the growth of grain and seed crops
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of grain and
seed crops are corn, wheat, browntop millet, and grain
sorghum.
Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard,
and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
bahiagrass, lovegrass, Florida beggarweed, clover, and
sesbania.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of these
plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
layer, available water capacity, wetness, surface
stoniness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of wild
herbaceous plants are bluestem, goldenrod,
beggarweed, partridgepea, and bristlegrass.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone,
the available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
these plants are oak, cherry, sweetgum, hawthorn,
dogwood, hickory, blackberry, and blueberry. Examples
of fruit-producing shrubs that are suitable for planting on
soils rated good are firethorn, wild plum, and crabapple.
Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, fir, cedar, and
juniper.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil


61






Soil Survey


properties and features affecting wetland plants are
texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity,
slope, and surface stoniness. Examples of wetland
plants are smartweed, saltgrass, cordgrass, rushes,
sedges, and reeds.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water-control
structures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
water areas in St. Johns County are wetness, slope, and
permeability. Examples of shallow water areas are
marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
the following paragraphs.
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland,
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas
include bobwhite quail, dove, meadowlark, field sparrow,
cottontail, and red fox.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild
turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray
fox, raccoon, deer, and bear.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife
attracted to such areas are ducks, geese, herons, shore
birds, and otter.

Engineering
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the
most limiting features are identified. The ratings are
given in the following tables: Building site development,
Sanitary facilities, Construction materials, and Water
management. The ratings are based on observed
performance of the soils and on the estimated data and
test data in the "Soil Properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet
Because of the map scale, small areas of different soils
may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
soil.
The information is not site specific and does not
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or
for testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.


Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this
section. Local ordinances and regulations need to be
considered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed
performance were considered in determining the ratings
in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey,
determinations were made about grain-size distribution,
liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to
bedrock, hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the
surface, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water
table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure
aggregation, and soil density. Data were collected about
kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt
fractions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates
were made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-
swell potential, available water capacity, and other
behavioral characteristics affecting engineering uses.
This information can be used to (1) evaluate the
potential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial,
and recreation uses; (2) make preliminary estimates of
construction conditions; (3) evaluate alternative routes
for roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; (4) evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; (5)
plan detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
(6) locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
topsoil; (7) plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and (8) predict performance of proposed
small structures and pavements by comparing the
performance of existing similar structures on the same or
similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
survey can be used to make additional interpretations.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Glossary.

Building Site Development
Table 10 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
without basements, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
features are generally favorable for the indicated use
and limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate
if soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
special design, significant increases in construction
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.







St. Johns County, Florida


Special feasibility studies may be required where the soil
limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to
bedrock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer;
stone content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the
year that excavations can be made is affected by the
depth to a seasonal high water table and the
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of the
excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is
affected by soil texture and the depth to the water table.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed
soil. The load limit is the same as that for single-family
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made
for small commercial buildings without basements, for
dwellings with basements, and for dwellings without
basements. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high
water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water
table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large
stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts
and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high
water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the
ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as
inferred from the engineering classification of the soil),
shrink-swell potential, frost action potential, and depth to
a high water table affect the traffic supporting capacity.
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf and
ornamental trees and shrubs can be established and
maintained. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. Soil
reaction, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan, the available water capacity in the upper
40 inches, and the content of salts, sodium, and sulfidic
materials affect plant growth. Flooding, wetness, slope,
stoniness, and the amount of sand, clay, or organic
matter in the surface layer affect trafficability after
vegetation is established.
Sanitary Facilities
Table 11 shows the degree and the kind of soil
limitations that affect septic tank absorption fields,


sewage lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations
are considered slight if soil properties and site features
are generally favorable for the indicated use and
limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
soil properties or site features are not favorable for the
indicated use and special planning, design, or
maintenance is needed to overcome or minimize the
limitations; and severe if soil properties or site features
are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome that
special design, significant increases in construction
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
Table 11 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
and good performance and low maintenance can be
expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site
features are moderately favorable for the use and one or
more soil properties or site features make the soil less
desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
that one or more soil properties or site features are
unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
costly alteration.
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, a high water table, depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan, and flooding affect absorption of the
effluent. Large stones and bedrock or a cemented pan
interfere with installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath
the absorption field to filter the effluent effectively. Many
local ordinances require that this material be of a certain
thickness.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level
floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of
compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold
the sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly
impervious soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is
required to minimize seepage and contamination of
ground water.
Table 11 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The


63







Soil Survey


ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth
to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones,
and content of organic matter.
Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level
of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function
unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive
or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of
organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the
lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope,
bedrock, and cemented pans can cause construction
problems, and large stones can hinder compaction of
the lagoon floor.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is
disposed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted,
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
away from the site.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
needs to be considered.
The ratings in table 11 are based on soil properties,
site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a
high water table, slope, and flooding affect both types of
landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly organic
layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and sodium
affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the
ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth
of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated
slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation
is needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
free of large stones or excess gravel are the best cover
for a landfill. Clayey soils are sticky or cloddy and are
difficult to spread; sandy soils are subject to soil blowing.
After soil material has been removed, the soil material
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over
bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit
revegetation. The soil material used as final cover for a
landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
and the best potential for plants. Material from the


surface layer should be stockpiled for use as the final
cover.

Construction Materials
Table 12 gives information about the soils as a source
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil
properties and site features that affect the removal of
the soil and its use as construction material. Normal
compaction, minor processing, and other standard
construction practices are assumed. Each soil is
evaluated to a depth of 5 or 6 feet.
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
and used in road embankments in another place. In this
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
exacting in design than higher embankments.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
their profile. The table showing engineering index
properties provides detailed information about each soil
layer. This information can help determine the suitability
of each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered
in the ratings.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of
excavation is affected by large stones, a high water
table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place
after it has been compacted and drained is determined
by its strength (as inferred from the engineering
classification of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to
the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers
of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
gravel are used in many kinds of construction.
Specifications for each use vary widely. In table 12, only


64






St. Johns County, Florida


the probability of finding material in suitable quantity is
evaluated. The suitability of the material for specific
purposes is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect
excavation of the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated
by the engineering classification of the soil), the
thickness of suitable material, and the content of rock
fragments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are
given in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain
sizes is given in the table on engineering index
properties.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale
and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated is
the reclamation potential of the borrow area.
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a depth
of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and
cobbles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less
than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an
appreciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or
soils that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are
not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more
than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
near the surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of
moisture and nutrients for plant growth.
Water Management
Table 13 gives information on the soil properties and
site features that affect water management. The degree
and kind of soil limitations are given for embankments,
dikes, and levees and for aquifer-fed ponds. The


limitations are considered slight if soil properties and site
features are generally favorable for the indicated use
and limitations are minor and are easily overcome;
moderate if soil properties or site features are not
favorable for the indicated use and special planning,
design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
minimize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or
site features are so unfavorable or so difficult to
overcome that special design, significant increase in
construction costs, and possibly increased maintenance
are required.
This table also gives for each soil the restrictive
features that affect drainage, irrigation, terraces and
diversions, and grassed waterways.
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high,
constructed to impound water or to protect land against
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
and compacted during construction.
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth even greater than the height of the embankment
can affect performance and safety of the embankment.
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to
determine these properties.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable
compaction characteristics. Unfavorable features include
less than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content
of stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium.
A high water table affects the amount of usable material.
It also affects trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that
impound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
water table, permeability of the aquifer, and quality of the
water as inferred from the salinity of the soil. Depth to
bedrock and the content of large stones affect the ease
of excavation.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and
subsurface water from the soil. How easily and
effectively the soil is drained depends on the depth to
bedrock, to a cemented pan, or to other layers that
affect the rate of water movement; permeability; depth to
a high water table or depth of standing water if the soil is
subject to ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding;
subsidence of organic layers; and potential frost action.
Excavating and grading and the stability of ditchbanks
are affected by depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan,
large stones, slope, and the hazard of cutbanks caving.
The productivity of the soil after drainage is adversely


65






66


affected by extreme acidity or by toxic substances in the
root zone, such as salts, sodium, or sulfur. Availability of
drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings.
Irrigation is the controlled application of water to
supplement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
and management of an irrigation system are affected by
depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
available water capacity, intake rate, permeability,
erosion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system
is affected by large stones and depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts or
sodium, and soil reaction.
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a
combination of channels and ridges constructed across
a slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by


intercepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and
depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan affect the
construction of terraces and diversions. A restricted
rooting depth, a severe hazard of wind or water erosion,
an excessively coarse texture, and restricted permeability
adversely affect maintenance.
Grassed waterways are natural or constructed
channels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct
surface water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large
stones, wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a
cemented pan affect the construction of grassed
waterways. A hazard of wind erosion, low available water
capacity, restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such
as salts or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely
affect the growth and maintenance of the grass after
construction.






67


Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on
the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in
table 21.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for the
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5
or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other
properties of each layer are given for each soil series
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary.


Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
for soils tested is given in table 21.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
weight percentage.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.






67


Soil Properties


Data relating to soil properties are collected during the
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on
the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some
benchmark soils. Established standard procedures are
followed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and
compaction characteristics. These results are reported in
table 21.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field
examinations, on laboratory tests of samples from the
survey area, and on laboratory tests of samples of
similar soils in nearby areas. Tests verify field
observations, verify properties that cannot be estimated
accurately by field observation, and help characterize
key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical
and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering Index Properties
Table 14 gives estimates of the engineering
classification and of the range of index properties for the
major layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils
have layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5
or 6 feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other
properties of each layer are given for each soil series
under "Soil Series and Their Morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If the content of particles coarser than
sand is as much as 15 percent, an appropriate modifier
is added, for example, "gravelly." Textural terms are
defined in the Glossary.


Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to
properties that affect their use as construction material.
Soils are classified according to grain-size distribution of
the fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according
to plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter
content. Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW,
GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils
as ML, CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic
soils as PT. Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two
groups can have a dual classification, for example, SP-
SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are
classified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional
refinement, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material
can be indicated by a group index number. Group index
numbers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to
20 or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification
for soils tested is given in table 21.
Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
weight percentage.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an ovendry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on
laboratory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and
in nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.






Soil Survey


Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits)
indicate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The
estimates are based on test data from the survey area or
from nearby areas and on field examination.
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and
plasticity index are rounded to the nearest 5 percent.
Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg limits
extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points)
across classification boundaries, the classification in the
marginal zone is omitted in the table.

Physical and Chemical Properties
Table 15 shows estimates of some characteristics and
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area.
The estimates are based on field observations and on
test data for these and similar soils.
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil
particles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter.
In this table, the estimated clay content of each major
soil layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain
moisture. They influence shrink-swell potential,
permeability, and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion,
and other soil properties. The amount and kind of clay in
a soil also affect tillage and earth-moving operations.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (ovendry) per
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is
expressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential,
available water capacity, total-pore space, and other soil
properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the
pore space available for water and roots. A bulk density
of more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root
penetration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture,
kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are
based on soil characteristics observed in the field,
particularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability
is considered in the design of soil drainage systems,
septic tank absorption fields, and construction where the
rate of water movement under saturated conditions
affects behavior.
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The
capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per


inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies,
depending on soil properties that affect the retention of
water and the depth of the root zone. The most
important properties are the content of organic matter,
soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available
water capacity is an important factor in the choice of
plants or crops to be grown and in the design and
management of irrigation systems. Available water
capacity is not an estimate of the quantity of water
actually available to plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory
analyses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops
and other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for
fertility and stabilization, and in determining the risk of
corrosion.
Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and
laboratory measurements at representative sites of
nonirrigated soils. The salinity of irrigated soils is
affected by the quality of the irrigation water and by the
frequency of water application. Hence, the salinity of
soils in individual fields can differ greatly from the value
given in the table. Salinity affects the suitability of a soil
for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
construction material, and the potential of the soil to
corrode metal and concrete.
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates
are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and
organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69.
The higher the value the more susceptible the soil is to
sheet and rill erosion by water.
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum
average annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that
can occur without affecting crop productivity over a
sustained period. The rate is in tons per acre per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind
erosion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the
susceptibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of
soil lost. Soils are grouped according to the following
distinctions:
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to
establish.
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops


68






St. Johns County, Florida


can be grown if intensive measures to control wind
erosion are used.
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to
control wind erosion are used.
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35
percent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided
calcium carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can
be grown if intensive measures to control wind erosion
are used.
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to
control wind erosion are used.
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to
control wind erosion are used.
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate,
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly
erodible. Crops can easily be grown.
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate.
These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily
be grown.
8. Stony or gravelly soils and other soils not subject
to wind erosion.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
soil at various stages of decomposition.
In table 15, the estimated content of organic matter is
expressed as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The content of organic matter of a soil can be
maintained or increased by returning crop residue to the
soil. Organic matter affects the available water capacity,
infiltration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and
other nutrients for crops.

Soil and Water Features
Table 16 gives estimates of various soil and water
features. The estimates are used in land use planning
that involves engineering considerations.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped
according to the intake of water when the soils are
thoroughly wet and receive precipitation from long-
duration storms.
Some soils in table 16 are assigned to two hydrologic
soil groups. The dual grouping is used for soils that have
a seasonal high water table but can be drained. The first


letter applies to the drained condition of the soil and the
second letter to the undrained condition.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or
gravelly sands. These soils have a high rate of water
transmission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water
transmission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that
have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after
rainfall or snowmelt is not considered flooding, nor is
water in swamps and marshes.
Table 16 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, rare,
common, occasional, and frequent. None means that
flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but
possible under unusual weather conditions; common that
it is likely under normal conditions; occasional that it
occurs, on the average, no more than once in 2 years;
and frequent that it occurs, on the average, more than
once in 2 years. Duration is expressed as very brief if
less than 2 days, brief if 2 to 7 days, and long if more
than 7 days. Probable dates are expressed in months;
November-May, for example, means that flooding can
occur during the period November through May.
The information is based on evidence in the soil
profile, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay
deposited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic
matter content with increasing depth; and absence of
distinctive horizons that form in soils that are not subject
to flooding.
Also considered are local information about the extent
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that






Soil Survey


delineate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency
levels.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a
saturated zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the
soil. Indicated in table 16 are the depth to the seasonal
high water table; the kind of water table-that is,
perched, artesian, or apparent; and the months of the
year that the water table commonly is high. A water table
that is seasonally high for less than 1 month is not
indicated in table 16.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. An
artesian water table is under hydrostatic head, generally
beneath an impermeable layer. When this layer is
penetrated, the water level rises in an uncased borehole.
A perched water table is water standing above an
unsaturated zone. In places an upper, or perched, water
table is separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet
are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
indicates that the water table is above the surface of the
soil. The first numeral in the range indicates how high
the water rises above the surface. The second numeral
indicates the depth below the surface.
Fluctuations in depth to the water table of selected
soils in St. Johns County are shown in table 17. The
data resulted from a study of water tables performed
over a period of about 3 years.
Subsidence is the settlement of organic soils or of
saturated mineral soils of very low density. Table 16
shows subsidence that results from desiccation and
shrinkage and oxidation of organic material following
drainage. The table shows the expected initial
subsidence and total subsidence, which is initial
subsidence plus the slow sinking that occurs over a
period of several years as a result of oxidation.
Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
water throughout an extensive area as a result of
lowering the water table.
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of
corrosion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as
soil moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and
electrical conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of
concrete is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium
content, texture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil.
Special site examination and design may be needed if
the combination of factors creates a severe corrosion
environment. The steel in installations that intersect soil
boundaries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion


than steel in installations that are entirely within one kind
of soil or within one soil layer.
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
low, moderate, or high, is based on soil drainage class,
total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.

Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical
Analyses of Selected Soils
By Drs. V.W. Carlisle and R.E. Caldwell, Soil Science Department,
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of
representative pedons sampled in St. Johns County are
listed in tables 18, 19, and 20. The analyses were
conducted and coordinated by the Soil Characterization
Laboratory, University of Florida. Detailed profile
descriptions of soils analyzed are given in alphabetical
order in the section "Classification of the Soils."
Laboratory data and profile information for other soils in
St. Johns County, as well as for other counties in
Florida, are on file at the Soil Science Department,
University of Florida.
Typifying pedons were sampled from pits at carefully
selected locations. Samples were air-dried, crushed, and
sieved through a 2-millimeter screen. Most analytical
methods used are in Soil Survey Investigations Report
No. 1 (18).
Particle-size distribution was determined by using a
modified pipette method with sodium
hexametaphosphate as the dispersant. Hydraulic
conductivity and bulk density were determined on
undisturbed soil cores. Water retention parameters were
obtained from duplicate undisturbed soil cores placed in
tempe pressure cells. The weight percentages of water
retained at 100 centimeters water (1/10 bar) and 345
centimeters water (1/3 bar) were calculated from
volumetric water percentages, divided by bulk density.
Samples were oven-dried and ground to pass a 2-
millimeter sieve, and then the 15-bar water retention was
determined. Organic carbon was determined by a
modification of the Walkley-Black wet combustion
method.
Extractable bases were obtained by leaching soils with
ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium and
potassium in the extract were determined by flame
emission, and calcium and magnesium by atomic
absorption spectrophotometry. Extractable acidity was
determined by the barium chloridetriethanolamine
method at pH 8.2. Cation-exchange capacity was
calculated by summation of extractable bases and
extractable acidity. Base saturation is the percentage
ratio of extractable bases to cation-exchange capacity.


70






St. Johns County, Florida


The pH measurements were made with a glass electrode
using a soil-to-water ratio of 1:1; a 0.01 molar calcium
chloride solution in a 1:2 soil-to-solution ratio; and
potassium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-to-solution ratio.
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil-to-water mixtures. Iron
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
were determined by atomic absorption
spectrophotometry. Aluminum, carbon, and iron were
extracted from probably spodic horizons with 0.1 molar
sodium pyrophosphate. Determination of aluminum and
iron was by atomic absorption and extracted carbon by
the Walkley-Black wet combustion method.
Mineralogy of the clay less than 2 micrometers fraction
was ascertained by X-ray diffraction. Peak heights at 18
angstrom, 14 angstrom, 7.2 angstrom, and 4.31
angstrom positions represent montmorillonite,.
interstratified expandable vermiculite, or 14 angstrom
intergrades, kaolinite, and quartz, respectively. Peaks
were measured, summed, and normalized to give the
percent of soil minerals identified in the X-ray
diffractograms. These percentage values do not indicate
absolute determined quantities of soil minerals but do
imply a relative distribution of minerals in a particular
mineral suite. The absolute percentage would require
additional knowledge of particle size, crystallinity, unit
structure substitution, and matrix problems.
Most soils in St. Johns County are inherently sandy
(table 18). All minerals soils sampled, except for Bluff
and Pellicer soils, had at least one horizon containing
more than 90 percent sand. The entire pedons of
Adamsville, Adamsville Variant, Astatula, Fripp,
Immokalee, Moultrie, Narcoossee, Orsino, Palm Beach,
Paola, Pomello, Pompano, Pottsburg, Satellite, Tavares,
and Zolfo soils contained more than 90 percent sand to
a depth of 2 meters or more. Bluff and Pellicer soils
contained more than 25 percent silt and 25 percent clay,
the most fine-textured materials. Silt content of other
soils sampled was generally less than 3 percent, but in
one or more horizons of the Cassia, Manatee, Parkwood,
Riviera, and Tomoka series, it exceeded 10 percent.
Argillic horizons in the EauGallie, Ellzey, Holopaw,
Manatee, Parkwood, Riviera, Sparr, and Tocoi soils had
a clay content ranging from 11.3 to 23.3 percent. With
the exception of three horizons in the Palm Beach
pedon, fine sand dominated the sand fractions of all
soils. In the Adamsville, Adamsville Variant, EauGallie,
Ellzey, Fripp, Holopaw, Immokalee, Jonathan, Manatee,
Moultrie, Myakka, Narcoossee, Paola, Parkwood, Placid,
Pomello, Pompano, Pottsburg, Satellite, Smyrna, Sparr,
St. Augustine, St. Johns, Tocoi, and Zolfo soils, the
horizons contained 85 percent or more fine sand.
Droughtiness is a common characteristic of sandy soil
material, particularly in those soils that are moderately
well drained, well drained, and excessively drained.
In table 18, very high hydraulic conductivity values
were recorded for the Astatula, Narcoossee, Orsino,


Palm Beach, Paola, and Tavares soils. These soils are
sandy throughout and are moderately well drained to
excessively drained. In addition, the Narcoossee and
Palm Beach soils contained many coarse shell
fragments. Bluff, EauGallie, Ellzey, Holopaw, Manatee,
Parkwood, Riviera, Sparr, and Tocoi soils contained
horizons in which enhanced amounts of clay occurred at
varying depths. In these horizons, the hydraulic
conductivity was generally very low, approaching zero.
Cassia, Immokalee, Jonathan, Myakka, Smyrna, St.
Johns, and Zolfo soils contained well-developed spodic
horizons that have very low hydraulic conductivity values.
The very low hydraulic conductivity values for the soils
containing large amounts of clay and well-developed
spodic horizons may or may not coincide with the
estimated permeability values in table 15. The
undisturbed soil cores in only a small part of the pedon
are in only a single sample. In these soils, the very low
values may not represent true field conditions. Available
water capacity can be estimated from bulk density and
water content data. Generally, sandy soils containing 95
percent or more sand and low amounts of organic matter
retain low amounts of available water. Astatula, Fripp,
Jonathan, Orsino, Palm Beach, Paola, Pomello, Satellite,
Tavares, and Zolfo soils retain very low amounts of
available water to a depth of more than 1 meter. Organic
horizons of Bluff and Hontoon soils and surface mineral
horizons of Manatee and Parkwood soils retain large
amounts of available water.
Chemical soil properties (table 19) show that, with the
exception of Bluff, Durbin, Hontoon, Manatee, Moultrie,
Parkwood, Pellicer, and Tomoka soils, most soils
contained a low amount of extractable bases. However,
extractable calcium was high in at least one horizon of
the Myakka, Palm Beach, Pompano, Riviera, Satellite,
and St. Augustine soils. Durbin and Pellicer soils
contained more than 50 milliequivalents per 100 grams
magnesium in some horizons. Durbin, Moultrie, and
Pellicer soils contained large amounts of sodium, In Bluff
and Manatee soils, at least one horizon had high sodium
values. High potassium values were found only in the
Durbin and Pellicer soils. Cation-exchange capacity
values exceeded 10 milliequivalents per 100 grams in
the surface horizons of Bluff, Durbin, EauGallie, ElIIzey,
Fripp, Holopaw, Hontoon, Immokalee, Manatee, Moultrie,
Myakka, Narcoossee, Palm Beach, Parkwood, Pellicer,
Pompano, Satellite, Smyrna, Sparr, St. Augustine, St.
Johns, Tocoi, and Tomoka soils. Cation-exchange
capacity exceeded 10 milliequivalents per 100 grams in
the Bh horizons of the Cassia, EauGallie, Immokalee,
Jonathan, Moultrie, Myakka, Pomello, Pottsburg, Smyrna,
St. Johns, Tocoi, and Zolfo soils. Soils containing larger
amounts of clay and having a cation-exchange capacity
in excess of 10 milliequivalents per 100 grams include
Bluff, EauGallie, Holopaw, Manatee, Parkwood, Pellicer,
and Riviera soils.


71







Soil Survey


The surface horizons of such soils as Cassia,
Jonathan, Paola, and Zolfo have low cation-exchange
capacity and require only small amounts of lime to
significantly alter both the base status and soil reaction
in the upper horizons. In these soils, successful crop
production generally requires small but frequent fertilizer
applications.
Bluff, Durbin, Hontoon, Moultrie, Pellicer, and Tomoka
are the only soils sampled that had cation-exchange
values in excess of 10 milliequivalents per 100 grams
throughout. Generally, soils having low inherent fertility
are associated with low values for extractable bases and
cation-exchange capacity, and fertile soils have high
values for extractable bases, high cation-exchange
capacity, and high base saturation.
Organic carbon content in the surface horizons of
Adamsville, Astatula, Cassia, EauGallie, Ellzey, Jonathan,
Moultrie, Narcoossee, Orsino, Palm Beach, Paola, Placid,
Pomello, Riviera, Sparr, Tavares, and Zolfo soils was
less than 1.5 percent. More than 5 percent organic
carbon occurred in the surface horizons of the Bluff,
Durbin, Holopaw, Hontoon, Manatee, Myakka, Parkwood,
Pellicer, St. Johns, and Tomoka soils. Organic surface
horizons occurred only in the Durbin, Holopaw, Hontoon,
and Tomoka soils. Organic carbon content decreased
rapidly as depth increased in all mineral pedons, except
in Cassia, EauGallie, Immokalee, Jonathan, Myakka,
Pomello, Pottsburg, Smyrna, St. Johns, Tocoi, and Zolfo
soils. These soils have Bh horizons at various depths
that contain enhanced amounts of organic carbon. The
largest amount of organic carbon was found in the Oa
horizons of Durbin, Hontoon, and Tomoka mucks. On
these soils, management practices that conserve and
maintain organic carbon are highly desirable because the
organic carbon content is directly related to soil nutrients
and water retention.
Electrical conductivity values were generally low but
exceeded 3 millimhos per centimeter in some horizons of
the Bluff, Durbin, Manatee, Moultrie, Pellicer, and
Pompano soils. Growth of salt-sensitive plants may be
detrimentally affected by the soluble salt content of
these soils. The extractable sodium content is
considerably higher in soil horizons containing higher
electrical conductivity values.
Soil reaction in water generally ranged between pH 4.0
and 6.5; however, reaction exceeded pH 7.0 in at least
one horizon of the Adamsville, Bluff, Manatee, Moultrie,
Narcoossee, Palm Beach, Parkwood, Pellicer, Riviera,
and St. Augustine soils. Soil reaction was generally 0.5
to 1.5 units lower in calcium chloride and potassium
chloride solutions than in water. Generally, the maximum
plant nutrients are available when soil reaction is
between pH 6.5 and 7.5.
Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron was 0.15
percent or less in selected Bh horizons of Spodosols.
The ratio of pyrophosphate extractable carbon and


aluminum to clay in Cassia, EauGallie, Immokalee,
Jonathan, Moultrie, Myakka, Narcoossee, Pomello,
Pottsburg, Smyrna, St. Johns, Tocoi, and Zolfo soils was
sufficient to meet the chemical criteria for spodic
horizons. With the exception of the ElIIzey soil, citrate-
dithionite extractable iron was less than 0.26 percent,
and all aluminum values were less than 0.56 percent.
The soils in St. Johns County contain insufficient iron
and aluminum to deterimentally affect the availability of
phosphorus.
The sand fraction (2 millimeters to 0.05 millimeter) was
siliceous, and quartz was overwhelmingly dominant in all
pedons. Small amounts of heavy minerals, mostly
ilmenite, occurred in most horizons; the largest
concentration was in the very fine sand fraction.
Crystalline mineral components of the clay fraction (less
than 0.002 millimeter) are reported in table 20 for
selected horizons of specific pedons. The clay
mineralogical suite was composed of montmorillonite, a
14 angstrom intergrade, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz.
With the exception of the Adamsville, Astatula,
Immokalee, Myakka, Pomello, Pottsburg, Sparr, and
Zolfo soils, montmorillonite occurred in all pedons
sampled. With the exception of Bluff, EauGallie,
Hontoon, Immokalee, Manatee, Moultrie, Myakka,
Parkwood, Pellicer, Pottsburg, Riviera, Satellite, and St.
Augustine soils, the 14 angstrom intergrade mineral
occurred in one or more horizons of all pedons. Kaolinite
was found in all but the Immokalee and Myakka soils.
Gibbsite occurred only in the Adamsville, Astatula, Sparr,
and Zolfo soils. Quartz occurred in all pedons.
Montmorillonite, which is probably the least stable of
the mineral components in the present acidic
environment of the Cassia, Durbin, Ellzey, Fripp,
Holopaw, Hontoon, Jonathan, Orsino, Paola, Smyrna, St.
Johns, Tavares, Tocoi, and Tomoka soils, was not
readily apparent; however, it appears that
montmorillonite was inherited by these soils. In Bluff,
EauGallie, Hontoon, Manatee, Parkwood, Pellicer,
Riviera, Satellite, and St. Augustine soils, montmorillonite
heavily dominated the clay fraction, kaolinite occurred in
very low amounts, and the 14 angstrom intergrade and
gibbsite were not detectable. Considerable volume
changes could result from shrinkage upon drying and
swelling upon wetting of Bluff, Manatee, Parkwood,
Pellicer, and Riviera soils, which contain appreciable
amounts of montmorillonitic clay. The general tendency
for 14 angstrom intergrade to decrease with increasing
depth suggests that the 14 angstrom intergrade is one of
the most stable species in this weathering environment.
Soils dominated by kaolinite and quartz have a lower
cation-exchange capacity and retain less plant nutrients
than soils dominated by 14 angstrom intergrade minerals
and montmorillonite.


72






St. Johns County, Florida


Engineering Index Test Data
Table 21 contains engineering test data made by the
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major
soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to
help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The
classifications given are based on data obtained by
mechanical analysis and by tests to determine liquid
limits and plastic limits.
The mechanical analyses were made by combined
sieve and hydrometer methods (5). The various grain-
sized fractions are calculated on the basis of all the
material in the soil sample, including that coarser than 2
millimeters in diameter. The mechanical analyses used in
this method should not be used in naming textural
classes of soils.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
water on the strength and consistence of the soil
material. As the moisture content of a clayey soil is
increased from a dry state, the material changes from a
semisolid to a plastic state.


If the moisture content is further increased, the
material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
plastic limit is the moisture content at which the soil
material changes from a semisolid to a plastic state, and
the liquid limit is the moisture content at which the soil
material changes from a plastic to a liquid state. The
plasticity index is the numerical difference between the
liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range of
moisture content within which a soil material is plastic.
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples.
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive
effort remains constant, the density of the compacted
material increases until the optimum moisture content is
reached. After that, density decreases with increase in
moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the
compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a
rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density.


73






75


Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (19).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or from laboratory measurements. Table 22 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An
example is Spodosol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, meaning
water, plus od, from Spodosol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of
the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hapl, meaning
minimal horizonation, plus aquod, the suborder of the
Spodosols that have an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Haplaquods.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where
there is much biological activity. Among the properties


and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
properties. An example is sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic
Typic Haplaquods.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
differ within a series.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (17). Many
of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in Soil Taxonomy (19). Unless otherwise stated,
colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
pedon description is the range of important
characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Adamsville Series
The Adamsville series consists of nearly level,
somewhat poorly drained soils formed in thick beds of
sandy marine sediments. These soils are on low, broad
flats. The water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for
2 to 6 months during most years. It is at a depth of 10 to
20 inches for periods of about 2 weeks in some years. It
is within a depth of 60 inches for more than 9 months in
most years. Slopes are less than 2 percent. These soils
are hyperthermic, uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments.
Adamsville soils are closely associated with
Immokalee, Myakka, and Tavares soils. Adamsville soils






75


Classification of the Soils


The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (19).
Beginning with the broadest, these categories are the
order, suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and
series. Classification is based on soil properties
observed in the field or inferred from those observations
or from laboratory measurements. Table 22 shows the
classification of the soils in the survey area. The
categories are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The
differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
Each order is identified by a word ending in so/. An
example is Spodosol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
genesis and are important to plant growth or properties
that reflect the most important variables within the
orders. The last syllable in the name of a suborder
indicates the order. An example is Aquod (Aqu, meaning
water, plus od, from Spodosol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
arrangement, and degree of development of pedogenic
horizons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and
base status. Each great group is identified by the name
of a suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of
the soil. An example is Haplaquods (Hapl, meaning
minimal horizonation, plus aquod, the suborder of the
Spodosols that have an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are
transitions to other orders, suborders, or great groups.
Extragrades have some properties that are not
representative of the great group but do not indicate
transitions to any other known kind of soil. Each
subgroup is identified by one or more adjectives
preceding the name of the great group. The adjective
Typic identifies the subgroup that typifies the great
group. An example is Typic Haplaquods.
FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the
properties are those of horizons below plow depth where
there is much biological activity. Among the properties


and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and
permanent cracks. A family name consists of the name
of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil
properties. An example is sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic
Typic Haplaquods.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
differ within a series.

Soil Series and Their Morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is
compared with similar soils and with nearby soils of
other series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of
soil, that is typical of the series in the survey area is
described. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (17). Many
of the technical terms used in the descriptions are
defined in Soil Taxonomy (19). Unless otherwise stated,
colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
pedon description is the range of important
characteristics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in the
section "Detailed Soil Map Units."

Adamsville Series
The Adamsville series consists of nearly level,
somewhat poorly drained soils formed in thick beds of
sandy marine sediments. These soils are on low, broad
flats. The water table is at a depth of 20 to 40 inches for
2 to 6 months during most years. It is at a depth of 10 to
20 inches for periods of about 2 weeks in some years. It
is within a depth of 60 inches for more than 9 months in
most years. Slopes are less than 2 percent. These soils
are hyperthermic, uncoated Aquic Quartzipsamments.
Adamsville soils are closely associated with
Immokalee, Myakka, and Tavares soils. Adamsville soils







Soil Survey


are distinguished from Immokalee and Myakka soils by
lacking a spodic horizon. In contrast to Tavares soils,
Adamsville soils are somewhat poorly drained, whereas
Tavares soils are moderately well drained.
Typical pedon of Adamsville fine sand, in a planted
pine area on a 1 percent slope, 3,900 feet northwest of
U.S. Highway 1 and 1-95 intersection and 50 feet
northeast of 1-95, NW1/4NE1/4 sec. 5, T. 10 S., R. 30
E.

Ap-0 to 8 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; few
medium distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
mottles; weak medium granular structure; friable;
many fine, medium, and coarse roots; many
uncoated sand grains; strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
C1-8 to 19 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
common medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/1, 7/2)
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine, medium, and
coarse roots; strongly acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
C2-19 to 30 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
common coarse distinct very pale brown (10YR 7/3)
and few fine faint dark grayish brown mottles; single
grained; loose; few fine and medium roots; strongly
acid; gradual smooth boundary.
C3-30 to 44 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand;
common medium distinct very pale brown (10YR
7/3) mottles; single grained; loose; few fine and
medium roots; strongly acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
C4-44 to 53 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
few fine faint white mottles; single grained; loose;
very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
C5-53 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few
coarse distinct pinkish gray (7.5YR 6/2) mottles;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid.
Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to mildly
alkaline.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges in thickness from 5 to 18
inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1 to 4. It extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. Mottles in shades of gray, brown, and yellow are
in the horizon.

Adamsville Variant
Adamsville Variant soils are somewhat poorly drained,
nearly level soils that formed in deep marine sandy
sediments. Early settlers added large quantities of oyster
shells to these soils as a soil amendment. Shells and
crop residue have been mixed in the surface layer to a
depth of 10 to 15 inches. These soils are on low knolls
and slopes adjacent to tidal marshes, streams, and
estuaries near the Atlantic coast. The water table is at a


depth of 20 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months during most
years. It rises to a depth of 10 to 20 inches for up to 2
weeks during the rainy season in some years and is
within a depth of 60 inches for more than 9 months in
most years. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. These
soils are hyperthermic, uncoated Aquic
Quartzipsamments.
Adamsville Variant soils are closely associated with
Adamsville, Cassia, Immokalee, Myakka, and St. Johns
soils. Adamsville and Cassia soils occupy similar
positions. Adamsville soils have a dark surface layer that
is less than 10 inches thick and lacks oyster shells.
Cassia soils have spodic horizons. Immokalee, Myakka,
and St. Johns soils occupy lower positions and have
spodic horizons.
Typical pedon of Adamsville Variant fine sand on a 1
percent slope, in a wooded area 2,900 feet east of
intersection of Dixie Highway (U.S. Highway 1) and North
Boulevard and 500 feet southeast of North Boulevard,
Land Grant 54, T. 6 S., R. 29 E.

A1-0 to 10 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
fine sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; many
fine, medium and few coarse roots; about 280 p.p.m.
phosphorus pentoxide soluble in citric acid; common
to many white oyster shells 1/4 inch to 2 1/2 inches
in diameter; few tongues of very dark grayish brown
(10YR 3/2) fine sand less than 4 inches long and
less than 3 inches wide; mildly alkaline; clear
irregular boundary.
C1-10 to 23 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
loose; few medium distinct very dark brown (10YR
2/2) stains along root channels; few white oyster
shell fragments 1/8 to 1/2 inch in diameter; few
fine, medium, and coarse roots; mildly alkaline; clear
smooth boundary.
C2-23 to 35 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few fine, medium, and coarse roots;
mildly alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
C3-35 to 46 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand;
common coarse distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6,
6/8) and common fine distinct reddish yellow (7.5YR
7/8) and light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) mottles;
single grained; loose; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) stains along root channels; few calcium
carbonate nodules 1/4 inch in diameter; mildly
alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
C4-46 to 67 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; common medium distinct dark grayish brown
(10YR 4/2) mottles; single grained; loose; mildly
alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.
C5-67 to 80 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; single grained; loose; very dark grayish
brown (10YR 3/2) stains along root channels; mildly
alkaline.


76


I






St. Johns County, Florida


Soil reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately
alkaline to a depth of about 40 inches and neutral to
moderately alkaline below.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The content of oyster shells ranges
from about 10 to 65 percent. The content of phosphorus
pentoxide soluble in citric acid is more than 250 p/m.
Thickness ranges from about 10 to 15 inches.
The C1 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 2 to 4, or value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 3.
Colors that have chroma of 2 are the colors of uncoated
sand grains and do not indicate wetness. Mottles in
shades of brown and yellow are in this horizon in some
pedons. Thickness ranges from 10 to 18 inches.
The C2 through C5 horizons have hue of 10YR, value
of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 to 4. In some pedons, mottles
in shades of gray, brown, and yellow are in these
horizons.

Astatula Series
The Astatula series consists of excessively drained,
nearly level to sloping soils that formed in thick sandy
marine sediments. These soils are on broad ridges and
knolls. The water table is at a depth of more than 72
inches during most years under natural conditions.
Slopes range from 0 to 8 percent. These soils are
hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments.
Astatula soils are closely associated with Adamsville,
Orsino, Paola, Tavares, and Zolfo soils. Astatula soils
differ from Adamsville, Orsino, Tavares, and Zolfo soils
by not having a water table within a depth of 72 inches.
Paola soils have an A2 horizon, and Zolfo soils have a
spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Astatula fine sand, on a 2 percent
slope, on a sand pine ridge, 2,200 feet south of U.S.
Highway 1 and State Road 312 intersection and 400 feet
west of U.S. Highway 1, Land Grant 36, T. 7 S., R. 30 E.
A1-0 to 5 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
sand; few fine faint light yellowish brown mottles;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; few fine,
medium, and coarse roots; few fine black organic
matter particles; medium acid; clear irregular
boundary.
C1-5 to 14 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; few medium distinct very dark brown
(10YR 2/2) and few fine faint light brownish gray
mottles; single grained; loose; few fine, medium, and
coarse roots; few very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
pockets of organic matter approximately 1 inch in
diameter; medium acid; gradual smooth boundary.
C2-14 to 31 inches; yellow (10YR 7/6) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few fine, medium, and coarse roots;
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
C3-31 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
sand; single grained; loose; few fine, medium, and
coarse roots; strongly acid.


Soil reaction ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 6,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 2 to 5
inches. An AC horizon, if present, has mixed colors of
hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and chroma of 2 through 4.
Colors that have chroma of 2 are those of uncoated
sand grains and do not indicate wetness. Thickness
ranges from 0 to 4 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8,
and chroma of 3 through 6. Some pedons are mottled
with white or light gray, uncoated sand grains. The C
horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.

Bakersville Series
The Bakersville series consists of very poorly drained,
nearly level soils that formed in thick beds of sandy and
loamy marine sediments. These soils occur in
depressions in the flatwoods. The water table is above
the surface for 6 months or more in most years. Slopes
are less than 1 percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Cumulic Humaquepts.
Bakersville soils are closely associated with Ellzey,
Myakka, Pomona, Tocoi, and Tomoka soils. Except for
Tomoka soils, all the associated soils are on higher
positions in the landscape and have argillic horizons at a
depth of 20 inches or more. Additionally, Ellzey soils
have a Bir horizon, and Myakka, Pomona, and Tocoi
soils have a spodic horizon. Tomoka soils are organic.
Typical pedon of Bakersville muck in a wooded
depression, about 0.9 mile east of intersection of Nine
Mile Road and State Road 13 and 800 feet south, Land
Grant 37, T. 6 S., R. 28 E.
02-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; moderate
medium granular structure; slightly sticky; few fine,
many medium and coarse roots; very strongly acid;
clear smooth boundary.
A11-5 to 20 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy fine sand;
moderate medium granular structure; slightly sticky;
few medium and coarse roots; very strongly acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
A12-20 to 41 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) rubbed, loamy fine sand; moderate medium
granular structure; slightly sticky; few medium and
coarse roots; common coarse lenses and pockets of
grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand; very strongly
acid; clear irregular boundary.
B21-41 to 52 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) fine sandy loam; weak medium granular
structure; slightly sticky; few coarse roots; few thin
lenses of grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand
between peds; very strongly acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
B22-52 to 59 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) fine
sandy loam; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; slightly sticky; few thin lenses of grayish


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Soil Survey


brown (10YR 5/2) loamy fine sand between peds;
very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
B3g-59 to 63 inches; brown (7.5YR 4/2) loamy fine
sand; weak coarse granular structure; slightly sticky;
common coarse pockets of gray (10YR 5/1) fine
sand; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
Cg-63 to 86 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) loamy
fine sand; single grained; very strongly acid.

Solum thickness is less than 70 inches. Soil reaction is
very strongly acid or strongly acid throughout.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 2; or no hue and value of 2. Thickness ranges
from 3 to 8 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2, or it has no hue and value of 2.
Thickness ranges from 20 to 40 inches.
The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 2; or no hue and value of 4 or 5. It has
mottles of brown and yellow in some pedons. Texture is
fine sandy loam or sandy loam. Thin pockets or lenses
of finer or coarser material are in this horizon in some
pedons. Thickness ranges from 20 to 36 inches.
The B3g horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5,
and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 4 or 5,
and chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 5 to 6, and
chroma of 1. Texture is loamy sand or loamy fine sand
with or without pockets of sand. Thickness ranges from
0 to 18 inches. Some pedons have no B3g horizon.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 4 to
7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 2.5YR, value of 4 to
7, and chroma of 2; or no hue and value of 4 to 7.
Texture is sand, fine sand, or loamy fine sand.

Bluff Series
The Bluff series consists of very poorly drained, nearly
level soils that formed in thick beds of alkaline loamy
and clayey marine sediments. These soils are in
drainageways and on flood plains. The water table is at
a depth of less than 10 inches or is above the surface
for 6 or more months and seldom recedes to a depth of
more than 20 inches. These soils are subject to frequent
flooding for long durations. Slopes are less than 1
percent. These soils are fine-loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Haplaquolls.
The Bluff soils are associated with Floridana, Manatee,
Parkwood, and Riviera soils. All the associated soils
have an argillic horizon.
Typical pedon of Bluff sandy clay loam under mixed
hardwoods, in a swamp, about 0.2 percent slope,
approximately 4,000 feet south of Nine Mile Road and 2
miles west of U.S. Highway 1, Land Grant 63, T. 6 S., R.
29 E.


Oa-0 to 3 inches; black (5YR 2/1) rubbed muck, 50
percent fiber, 8 percent rubbed; moderate medium
granular structure; friable; many fine and common
medium roots; few uncoated sand grains; mineral
content 15 percent; sodium pyrophosphate extract
pale brown (10YR 6/3); medium acid (pH 5.9 in 0.01
molar calcium chloride); clear smooth boundary.
A1-3 to 9 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy clay
loam; many fine distinct brown (1 OYR 5/3) mottles;
massive; few fine roots; sticky; few fine white (1 YR
8/1) calcium carbonate accumulations in lower 3
inches; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B21ca-9 to 16 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sandy
clay loam; common medium faint dark yellowish
brown (10YR 4/4) mottles; massive; sticky; many
fine and medium white (10YR 8/1) calcium
carbonate accumulations; mildly alkaline; gradual
wavy boundary.
B22gca-16 to 25 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sandy clay
loam; few fine distinct yellowish red (5YR 4/6) and
common medium distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) and
gray (10YR 5/1) mottles; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; sticky; common fine
and medium white (10YR 8/1) calcium carbonate
accumulations; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
boundary.
B3gca-25 to 53 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) loam;
common medium distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1), gray
(10YR 5/1), brownish yellow (10YR 6/6), and
yellowish red (5YR 4/6) mottles; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; common
fine and medium white (10YR 8/1) calcium
carbonate accumulations; moderately alkaline;
gradual wavy boundary.
Cg-53 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 6/1) loamy fine
sand; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
slightly sticky; common medium and coarse pockets
of dark gray (5Y 6/1) sand; neutral.

The solum thickness is 50 inches or more. Fine to
coarse calcium carbonate accumulations or nodules in
the upper 20 inches of the B2 horizon range from few to
many. Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to
medium acid in the Oa horizon. The A horizon is slightly
acid to mildly alkaline. All other horizons are mildly or
moderately alkaline.
The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR or 10YR, value of 2,
and chroma of 1. It ranges in thickness from 3 to 5
inches.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1; or hue of 5YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1;
or no hue and value of 2. Distinct or prominent mottles
of grayish brown or brown are in this horizon in some
pedons. The Al horizon ranges in thickness from 3 to 15
inches. Where the thickness of the Al horizon is less
than 10 inches, the B21 horizon has color value of 3.
Where color value of the B21 horizon is 3, combined


78






St. Johns County, Florida


thickness of the Al and B21 horizons ranges from 11 to
24 inches.
The B21 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5,
and chroma of 1 or 2; or no hue and value of 4. Distinct
or prominent mottles of gray, brown, grayish brown, dark
yellowish brown, yellowish brown, brownish yellow, or
yellow range from none to common. Texture is sandy
clay loam or sandy clay. Thickness ranges from 7 to 17
inches.
The B22 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 6, and
chroma of 1; or no hue and value of 5. The range of
texture is from sandy clay loam to sandy clay. The B22
horizon ranges in thickness from 5 to 30 inches.
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 1; or hue of 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma
of 1. Texture is sandy clay loam, loam, or sandy clay.
The B3 horizon ranges in thickness from 8 to 25 inches.
By weighted average, the clay content of the 10- to 40-
inch control section is 25 to 35 percent. The silt content
is less than 30 percent.
The C horizon has hue of 5Y, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 1; or hue of 5GY, value of 4 to 6, and chroma
of 1. Texture ranges from loamy fine sand to sandy clay
loam or is a mixture. Some pedons have a IICg horizon.
This horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 7, and chroma of
1 or hue of 5Y or 5GY, value of 5, and chroma of 1.
Texture is fine sand, sand, or a mixture of sand and shell
fragments. The C horizon extends to a depth of 80
inches or more.

Cassia Series
The Cassia series consists of somewhat poorly
drained soils that formed in thick sandy deposits on
marine terraces. These nearly level soils occur on
landscapes and low ridges that are slightly higher than
the adjacent flatwoods. The water table is at a depth of
15 to 40 inches for about 6 months during most years
under natural conditions. During dry seasons the water
table is at a depth below 40 inches. Slopes range from 0
to 2 percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic typic Haplohumods.
Cassia soils are closely associated with Immokalee,
Myakka, Paola, and Pomello soils. Cassia soils differ
from the Immokalee and Myakka soils by being better
drained and by having a thinner, lighter colored Al
horizon. Paola soils are better drained and lack a spodic
horizon. In addition, the moderately sloping Paola soils
are on higher positions in the landscape. Pomello soils
differ by having an A horizon 30 to 50 inches thick and
are better drained.
Typical pedon of Cassia fine sand in a sparsely
wooded area, 0.45 mile east of U.S. Highway 1, 700 feet
north of Stokes Road, Land Grant 95, T. 6 S., R. 29 E.
A1-0 to 3 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; common fine


and few medium roots; common fine particles of
black organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual
smooth boundary.
A2'2-3 to 18 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few
medium distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
mottles; single grained; loose; common fine and few
medium roots; common grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
stains along root channels; very strongly acid; abrupt
wavy boundary.
B21h-18 to 28 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sand; weak medium granular structure; friable;
noncemented; few fine and medium roots; sand
grains coated with organic matter; few uncoated
light gray sand grains; many pockets and intrusions
from A2 horizon of white (10YR 8/2) fine sand;
common grayish brown (10YR 5/2) stains along root
channels; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22h-28 to 32 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine
sand; common coarse distinct very dark grayish
brown (10YR 3/2) and dark brown (10YR 3/3) and
few medium distinct dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
and black (5YR 2/1) mottles; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; noncemented;
few fine and medium roots; sand grains well coated
with organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A'2-32 to 75 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; few coarse distinct dark yellowish brown
(10YR 4/4, 4/6) mottles; single grained; loose; few
fine and medium roots; few fine distinct dark reddish
brown (5YR 3/3, 3/4) stains along root channels;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B'2h-75 to 80 inches; very dark gray (5YR 3/1) fine
sand; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; noncemented; common medium
distinct pockets of dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
fine sand; sand grains are well coated with organic
matter; very strongly acid.

Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium
acid.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 1. It is 2 to 5 inches thick. The A2 horizon has
hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 1 or 2.
Thickness ranges from 14 to 28 inches.
The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR or 7.5YR, value of 2
or 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR and chroma of 3 or
4; or hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2.
Thickness ranges from 12 to 16 inches.
Some pedons have B3 horizons beneath the B2h
horizon. The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or
5, and chroma of 3 or 4, and it ranges to 15 inches in
thickness.
The A'2 horizon, as described in Cassia fine sand,
does not occur in all pedons. It has hue of 10YR, value
of 6 or 7, and chroma of 3 or 4, and it ranges to 42
inches in thickness.


79






Soil Survey


The B'2h horizon has no hue and value of 2 or 3; or
hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 through 4.
It extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.

Durbin Series
The Durbin series consists of very poorly drained,
nearly level soils that formed in thick beds of hydrophytic
nonwoody plant remains. These soils are in narrow tidal
marsh estuaries and tidal basins near the Atlantic coast.
They are flooded twice daily by normal high tides. Slopes
are less than 1 percent. These soils are euic,
hyperthermic Typic Sulfihemists.
Durbin soils are closely associated with Adamsville,
Adamsville Variant, Immokalee, Moultrie, Myakka,
Pellicer, and Tisonia soils. Adamsville, Myakka, and
Immokalee soils and the Adamsville Variant are mineral,
are better drained, and are on higher positions in the
landscape bordering tidal basins. Moultrie soils are
poorly drained sandy soils on slightly higher positions
along the margins of tidal basins. Pellicer and Tisonia
soils are in the same positions as are the Durbin soils.
Additionally, Pellicer soils are clayey and have high n
value, and Tisonia soils have organic layers less than 52
inches thick.
Typical pedon of Durbin muck, frequently flooded, on a
0.5 percent slope, in a narrow tidal marsh estuary on the
west side of Tolomato River, about 3,500 feet east of
U.S. Highway 1 north and 50 feet north of private road
along north boundary of St. Augustine Airport, Land
Grant 50, T. 6 S., R. 29 E.
Oal-0 to 6 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
muck; 40 percent fiber, 16 percent rubbed; massive;
slightly sticky; many fine and medium roots; 1.27
percent sulfur; 192.0 millimhos per centimeter
conductivity; extremely acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
Oa2-6 to 25 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) muck;
16 percent fiber, 4 percent rubbed; massive; slightly
sticky; common fine and medium roots; 1.67 percent
sulfur; 96.2 millimhos per centimeter conductivity;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Oa3-25 to 59 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck; 16
percent fiber, 2 percent rubbed; massive; slightly
sticky; few dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine sand
pockets; many fine and medium roots; 2.77 percent
sulfur; 51.2 millimhos per centimeter conductivity;
very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
IIC-59 to 80 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
sand; common coarse distinct very dark gray (10YR
3/1) mottles; single grained; loose; very strongly
acid.
The Oa horizon ranges from extremely acid to neutral
in 0.01 molar calcium chloride in its natural state. The pH
in air-dry soil ranges from 6.0 to less than 4.5 in 0.01
molar calcium chloride. The IIC horizon ranges from


extremely acid to moderately alkaline. The estimated
sulfur content ranges from 0.75 to 3.25 percent in the
upper 40 inches of the organic layers.
The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2 or
3, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 2; or it has no hue and value of 2 or 3. Fiber
content ranges from 16 to 48 percent, unrubbed, and
from 2 to 18 percent, rubbed. Thickness ranges from 55
to 70 inches.
The IIC horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or it has hue of 5Y, value of 4 or 5,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Black, very dark gray, and gray
mottles range from few to common in abundance and
medium to coarse in size. Texture is sand or fine sand.
This horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.

EauGallie Series
The EauGallie series consists of poorly drained, nearly
level soils in the flatwoods. These soils formed in sandy
and loamy marine sediments. The water table is within a
depth of 10 inches for 1 to 4 months and within 40
inches for more than 6 months. Slopes range from 0 to 2
percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic
Alfic Haplaquods.
EauGallie soils are closely associated with Holopaw,
Myakka, Parkwood, Riviera, and St. Johns soils.
Holopaw, Parkwood, and Riviera soils lack a spodic
horizon. Myakka and St. Johns soils lack an argillic
horizon. Additionally, Parkwood and Riviera soils occupy
a lower position in the landscape.
Typical pedon of EauGallie fine sand, in a wooded
area, on a 1 percent slope, 1,500 feet east of U.S.
Highway 1 south on Forestry Road No. 38, International
Telephone and Telegraph Company Rayionier property
and 200 feet south of Godwin Ranch south boundary,
SW1/4NE1/4 sec. 17, T. 9 S., R. 30 E.
A1-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
fine granular structure; friable; many fine and
medium, and few coarse roots; many uncoated sand
grains; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
A21-6 to 10 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand;
common coarse distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
and common fine faint dark gray mottles; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A22-10 to 17 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
common fine faint dark gray mottles; single grained;
loose; few fine roots; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
B21h-17 to 20 inches; black (N 2/0) loamy fine sand;
weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
common fine roots; few uncoated sand grains; very
strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
B22h-20 to 23 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
fine sand; common fine faint black and common fine


80






St. Johns County, Florida


distinct brown (10YR 5/3) mottles; weak fine
subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots;
very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
B3-23 to 32 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine
sand; common fine distinct pale brown (10YR 6/3)
mottles; moderate medium granular structure;
friable; few fine and medium roots; few dark reddish
brown (5YR 2/2) spodic fragments 1/8 inch to 1-
1/2 inches in diameter; few dark brown (10YR 3/3)
stains along root channels; medium acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
A'2-32 to 45 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; common fine distinct brown (7.5YR 4/2)
mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid; abrupt
wavy boundary.
B1g-45 to 53 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) loamy fine sand;
many coarse prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/6,
5/8) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; few medium roots; common fine
light gray (10YR 7/1) pockets of fine sand; neutral;
clear wavy boundary.
B2tg-53 to 58 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sandy loam;
many coarse prominent reddish yellow (7.5YR 5/6,
5/8) and common fine distinct light greenish gray
(5G 7/1) mottles; moderate medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; few medium roots; sand
grains coated and bridged with clay; neutral; gradual
wavy boundary.
Cg-58 to 80 inches; mixed lenses and pockets of gray
(5Y 6/1) fine sand and fine sandy loam; average
texture is fine sand; massive; loose to firm; neutral;
clear wavy boundary.

Soil reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid in
the A horizon. The Bh horizon is very strongly acid to
slightly acid. The other horizons are strongly acid to
neutral.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1. It ranges in thickness from 4 to 8 inches.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 10 to 17
inches. Total thickness of the A horizon is 16 to 21
inches.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 2, or value of 3 and chroma of 3; or hue of
5YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1 or 2, or value of 3 and
chroma of 2 or 3; or no hue and value of 2. Texture is
fine sand or loamy fine sand. Thickness ranges from 6 to
18 inches.
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4, and
chroma of 3, or value of 5 or 6 and chroma of 4. It
ranges to as much as 15 inches in thickness. Some
pedons have no B3 horizon.
The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 6 or 7, and
chroma of 2, or value of 7 or 8 and chroma of 3. It
ranges to as much as 15 inches in thickness. Some
pedons have no A'2 horizon.


The Big horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 6,
and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 5Y, value of 6, and
chroma of 1. It ranges in thickness from 8 to 12 inches.
The B2tg horizon has the same colors as in the B1
horizon and has texture of fine sandy loam or sandy clay
loam. Thickness ranges from 5 to 15 inches.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 or
6, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is loamy fine sand or
fine sand. This horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches
or more.

Elizey Series
The ElIIzey series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils that formed in sandy and loamy marine
sediments. These soils are on broad flats in the
cultivated area in the west-central and southwestern
parts of the county. The water table is within 10 inches
of the surface for 1 to 6 months in most years. Slopes
are less than 2 percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualfs.
ElIzey soils are closely associated with Floridana,
Placid, Holopaw, and Tocoi soils. All these soils do not
have a Bir horizon. Tocoi soils have a Bh horizon.
Typical pedon of Ellzey fine sand, in a cultivated
potato field, 700 feet east of intersection of St. Ambrose
Road and Scoville Road and 60 feet north of St.
Ambrose Road, SW1/4SE1/4 sec. 23, T. 8 S., R. 28 E.
Ap-0 to 12 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; few
medium faint very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
mottles; moderate medium granular structure; very
friable; many uncoated light gray sand grains;
slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A21-12 to 19 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; many
fine and medium distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1), few
fine distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1), and few
medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8)
mottles; single grained; loose; slightly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
A22-19 to 27 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
common coarse prominent yellowish brown (10YR
5/8) mottles; single grained; loose; medium acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
B11ir-27 to 30 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) fine
sand; single grained; loose; upper boundary stained
with brown (7.5YR 5/2) accumulation about 1/4 inch
thick; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
B12ir-30 to 33 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) fine
sand; moderate medium granular structure; friable;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B13ir-33 to 37 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) fine
sand; moderate medium granular structure; friable;
sand grains are well coated; strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
B21t-37 to 41 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6)
loamy fine sand; few coarse distinct dark grayish


81






Soil Survey


brown (10YR 4/2), few fine faint brown, and few fine
distinct red (2.5YR 4/8) mottles; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; sand grains are
lightly coated and bridged with clay; very strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
B22t-41 to 58 inches; brown (7.5YR 5/2) loamy fine
sand; few medium distinct gray (10YR 6/1) mottles;
few fine pockets of white (10YR 8/1) fine sand;
weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
sand grains are lightly coated and bridged with clay;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B3-58 to 64 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
loamy fine sand; common coarse distinct brown
(7.5YR 5/2) mottles; single grained; loose; few
medium pockets of gray (10YR 6/1) fine sandy
loam; friable; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C-64 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) fine sand; common
medium pockets of white (10YR 8/1) fine sand;
weak medium granular structure; friable; strongly
acid.
Reaction ranges from neutral to medium acid in the A
horizon and from neutral to very strongly acid in the
other horizons. Base saturation is less than 50 percent in
some parts of the argillic horizon.
The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1, or value of 3 and chroma of 2. This horizon
is bedded for cultivation. Average thickness ranges from
10 to 14 inches.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
chroma of 1 to 3. This horizon has mottles of gray,
brown, or yellow in some pedons.
The Bir horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 4 to 8; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 8; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6, and chroma of
8. Texture is sand or fine sand. The combined thickness
of the A and Bir horizons ranges from 30 to 38 inches.
The Bt horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
chroma of 4 to 8; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 2 or 4. Mottles in shades of gray, brown,
yellow, or red are in this horizon in some pedons.
Texture is loamy fine sand or loamy sand.
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4
to 7, and chroma of 2. In some pedons, this horizon
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The C horizon is absent in some pedons. This horizon
has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2;
or it has hue of 5Y or 5GY, value of 5, and chroma of 1.

Floridana Series
The Floridana series consists of very poorly drained,
nearly level soils formed in thick beds of sandy and
loamy marine sediments. These soils are on low broad
flats, on flood plains, and in narrow to broad, elongated
drainageways. The water table is within 10 inches of the
surface for 4 to 6 months. The soils that occur on flood
plains and in drainageways are flooded for very long


periods during wet seasons. Slopes range from 0 to 2
percent. These soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic
Arenic Argiaquolls.
Floridana soils are closely associated with Holopaw,
Parkwood, Riviera, and Winder soils. All the associated
soils lack a mollic epipedon. Additionally, Holopaw soils
have an argillic horizon below a depth of 40 inches, and
Parkwood and Winder soils have an argillic horizon at a
depth of less than 20 inches.
Typical pedon of Floridana fine sand, in a cultivated
field, approximately 4,000 feet south of State Road 207,
1,800 feet north of State Route 13, and 2,000 feet east
of Hastings Boulevard, SE1/4NW1/4 sec. 20, T. 9 S., R.
28 E.

Ap-0 to 11 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; few fine and
medium roots; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
A21-11 to 21 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; many coarse distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6) mottles; single grained; loose; medium
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A22-21 to 30 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; many
coarse distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles;
single grained; loose; common fine dark gray (10YR
4/1) sandy loam pockets; strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
B2tg-30 to 46 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy clay
loam; many coarse prominent light olive brown (2.5Y
5/6) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/8) mottles;
moderate coarse subangular blocky structure;
slightly sticky; sand grains are coated and bridged
with clay; few tubular intrusions of gray (10YR 5/1)
and light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) loamy fine sand
formed by filling of burrows made by crayfish; very
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B31g-46 to 60 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam;
many coarse prominent light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4)
mottles; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; few medium pockets of gray (10YR
5/1) sandy loam and few coarse pockets of white
(10YR 8/1) fine sand; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B32g-60 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; strongly acid.
Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to
moderately alkaline throughout.
The Ap or Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or
3, and chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges in thickness from 10
to 18 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of
4 to 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges from 8 to 18
inches in thickness. Total thickness of the Al and A2
horizons combined ranges from 20 to 36 inches.
The B2tg and Bg horizons have hue of 10YR, value of
4, and chroma of 1, or value of 5 or 6 and chroma of 1


82







St. Johns County, Florida


or 2; or hue of 7.5YR or 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma
of 1 or 2; or no hue and value of 4 to 6; or hue of 2.5Y,
value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2. Mottles in shades of
gray, brown, and yellow are in these horizons in some
pedons. Texture is fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam.
A Cg horizon occurs in some pedons. This horizon has
hue of 5Y or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1.
Texture is fine sand or loamy fine sand.

Fripp Series
The Fripp series consists of deep, excessively drained,
rolling or hilly soils that formed in thick sandy sediments.
These soils are in dunelike areas adjoining beaches and
waterways along the Atlantic coast and on relict beach
sand dunes up to 1 mile inland from the Atlantic coast.
The water table is at a depth of more than 80 inches
during most years. Slopes are dominantly 8 to 15
percent and are mostly complex. These soils are
thermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments.
Fripp soils are closely associated with Astatula,
Orsino, Paola, Pomello, and Satellite soils. Except for
Astatula and Paola soils, all the associated soils are
more poorly drained and are on lower positions.
Typical pedon of Fripp fine sand, 8 to 15 percent
slopes, in an area of Fripp-Satellite complex, under scrub
live oaks in a relict sand dune area, about 300 feet east
of the intersection of Florida Highway A1A and Owens
Road and 10 feet south of Owens Road, Land Grant 9,
T. 8 S., R. 30 E.
A11-0 to 1 inch; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; many
medium black (10YR 2/1) particles of organic
matter; weak fine granular structure; very friable;
many fine and medium roots; medium acid; clear
wavy boundary.
A12-1 to 4 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; common fine and medium roots;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
C1-4 to 9 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
common fine faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
mottles; single grained; loose; common fine,
medium, and coarse roots; many black sand-sized
grains of heavy minerals; few medium brown (10YR
5/3) stains along old root channels; medium acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
C2-9 to 48 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) fine
sand; few fine faint white mottles; single grained;
loose; common fine and medium and few coarse
roots; many black sand-sized grains of heavy
minerals; common medium brown (10YR 5/3) stains
along root channels; slightly acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
C3-48 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/2) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few medium and coarse roots; many
black sand-sized grains of heavy minerals; few
medium brown (10YR 5/3) stains along old root
channels; slightly acid.


Soil reaction ranges from medium acid to neutral in
the A horizon and slightly acid to moderately alkaline in
the C horizon.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2 and is 1 to 5 inches thick.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1 to 4. Low-chroma colors are due to
uncoated sand grains and do not indicate wetness.
Heavy minerals range from none to common in this
horizon. Shell fragments range from none to common.
This horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.

Holopaw Series
The Holopaw series consists of nearly level, poorly
drained soils formed in thick beds of sandy over loamy
marine sediments. These soils are on broad low flatlands
and in well defined drainageways. The water table is at a
depth of less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months, but
recedes to a depth of 10 to 40 inches for 3 to 4 months
during most years. Drainageways are flooded for more
than 1 month in most years. During extended dry
seasons, the water table recedes to a depth of more
than 40 inches. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. These
soils are loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Grossarenic
Ochraqualfs.
Holopaw soils are closely associated with ElIIzey,
Floridana, Myakka, Riviera, St. Johns, and Winder soils.
ElIzey soils have a Bir horizon. Floridana soils have a
mollic epipedon, and they have an argillic horizon with
high base saturation. Myakka and St. Johns soils have a
spodic horizon and are on somewhat higher positions in
the landscape. Riviera and Winder soils have an argillic
horizon at a depth of less than 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Holopaw fine sand, in a wooded
area, 2 miles south of Florida Highway 214, 3.25 miles
west of 1-95 on trail north of Moody Shanty Road,
NW1/4NW1/4 sec. 12, T. 8 S., R. 29 E.

Oa-1 inch to 0; black (N 2/0) partially decomposed
leaves, roots, and twigs; weak medium granular
structure; friable; extremely acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
A11-0 to 7 inches; mixed very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
and grayish brown (10YR 5/2) unrubbed, fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; friable; few medium
and fine roots; strongly acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
A12-7 to 13 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
common fine distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
mottles; weak fine granular structure; friable; few
medium and fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A21g-13 to 27 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
common coarse distinct gray (10YR 5/1), grayish
brown (10YR 5/2), and pale brown (10YR 6/3)







Soil Survey


mottles; single grained; loose; slightly acid; abrupt
wavy boundary.
A22g-27 to 42 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
fine sand; few coarse prominent yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4, 5/6) and light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4)
mottles; single grained; friable; medium acid; gradual
smooth boundary.
A23g-42 to 53 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; many
fine faint dark gray and few medium faint light gray
(10YR 6/1) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; medium acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B2tg-53 to 72 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sandy
loam; common coarse gray (10YR 5/1) loamy sand
pockets; common coarse gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay
loam pockets 1/4 inch to 4 inches in diameter;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
slightly sticky; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg-72 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 5/1) fine sand;
common fine faint gray and few fine distinct grayish
brown mottles; common fine greenish gray (5G 5/1)
sandy loam pockets; weak medium granular
structure; friable; very strongly acid.
Soil reaction ranges from strongly acid to slightly acid
in the A horizon. It ranges from strongly acid to
moderately alkaline in the B2tg and Cg horizons.
The Oa horizon has hue of 5YR or 10YR, value of 2 or
3, and chroma of 1 or 2; or it has no hue and value of 2.
The Oa horizon ranges to 2 inches in thickness. Some
pedons have no Oa horizon.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 through
4, and chroma of 1 or 2 and is 2 to 13 inches thick.
Where color value is 3.5 or less, thickness is less than 7
inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Some pedons have hue of 10YR,
value of 6, and chroma of 3 at a depth of less than 30
inches. Thickness ranges from 34 to 66 inches. Total
thickness of the A horizon is more than 40 inches.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and
chroma of 1; or hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy
loam, or sandy clay loam. Depth to the B2tg horizon
ranges from 40 to 60 inches.
Some pedons have a B3g horizon. This horizon has
about the same colors as the B2tg horizon. It ranges
from 3 to 8 inches in thickness. Texture is sandy loam or
fine sandy loam.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, 5Y, or 5GY, value of
5 or 6, and chroma of 1; or it has hue of 10YR, value of
6, and chroma of 6; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 5, and
chroma of 2. It is fine sand or loamy fine sand. The Cg
horizon extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.

Hontoon Series
The Hontoon series consists of very poorly drained,
deep organic soils that formed in thick beds of


hydrophytic nonwoody plant remains. These soils are in
depressional areas. The water table is at or above the
surface of the soil most of the time, under natural
conditions. Slopes are less than 2 percent. These soils
are dysic, hyperthermic Typic Medisaprists.
Hontoon soils are closely associated with Immokalee,
St. Johns, Samsula, and Wesconnett soils. Immokalee
and St. Johns soils are better drained and have a spodic
horizon. Samsula soils have organic layers less than 51
inches thick. Wesconnett soils are sandy throughout.
Typical pedon of Hontoon muck under mixed
hardwoods, on a 1 percent concave slope, in a
depression 8,200 feet south of Tillman Ridge and State
Road 214 intersection and 150 feet east of Tillman
Road, NE1/4NE1/4 sec. 5, T. 8 S., R. 29 E.
Oal-0 to 7 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; 50 percent
fiber, 11 percent rubbed; weak fine granular
structure; friable; many fine, medium and few coarse
roots; sodium pyrophosphate extract color light
yellowish brown (10YR 6/4); (pH 2.8 in 0.01 molar
calcium chloride) extremely acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
Oa2-7 to 16 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
muck, common coarse distinct black (N 2/0)
mottles; 25 percent fiber, 6 percent rubbed;
moderate medium granular structure; friable; few
fine, medium, and coarse roots; sodium
pyrophosphate extract color yellowish brown (10YR
5/4); (pH 2.8 in 0.01 molar calcium chloride)
extremely acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Oa3-16 to 24 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; 24
percent fiber, 4 percent rubbed; moderate medium
subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine,
medium, and coarse roots; sodium pyrophosphate
extract color dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4); (pH
2.8 in 0.01 molar calcium chloride) extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Oa4-24 to 55 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
muck; 20 percent fiber, 4 percent rubbed; weak
medium granular structure; friable; few fine, medium,
and coarse roots; sodium pyrophosphate extract
color light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4); about 15
percent coarse woody fragments in upper part; (pH
2.8 in 0.01 molar calcium chloride) extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
IIC1-55 to 70 inches; black (10YR 2/1) mucky fine
sand; massive; slightly sticky; extremely acid;
gradual smooth boundary.
IIC2-70 to 80 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sand; common medium distinct black (10YR 2/1)
and dark gray (10YR 4/1) mottles; moderate
medium granular structure; friable; extremely acid.

Soil reaction ranges from 2.8 to 4.5 in 0.01 molar
calcium chloride and from 4.5 to 5.5 by the Hellige-Truog


84






St. Johns County, Florida


method. The estimated content of sand in the Oa
horizon ranges from 5 to 40 percent.
The Oa horizons have hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3,
and chroma of 1 or 2; or they have hue of 10YR, value
of 2, and chroma of 1; or no hue and value of 2 and are
52 to 80 inches or more thick.
The fiber content ranges from 8 to 55 percent,
unrubbed, and 2 to 16 percent, rubbed. The sodium
pyrophosphate extract color has hue of 10YR, value of
5, and chroma of 2 to 4; or value of 6 and chroma of 3
or 4.
Some pedons have a IIC horizon, as described in
Hontoon muck. This horizon is at a depth greater than
51 inches. It has hue of 5YR, value of 2.5 or 3, and
chroma of 1; or hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or no hue and value of 2. Texture
ranges from fine sand to sandy clay. The IIC horizon
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more.

Immokalee Series
The Immokalee series consists of poorly drained,
nearly level soils that formed in sandy marine sediments.
These soils occur on broad flats and low knolls in the
flatwoods. In most years the water table is at a depth of
less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and recedes to a
depth of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more. Slopes
range from 0 to 2 percent. These soils are sandy,
siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Haplaquods.
Immokalee soils are closely associated with Myakka,
Ona, Pottsburg, St. Johns, and Smyrna soils. Immokalee
soils differ from Myakka, Ona, St. Johns, and Smyrna
soils by having a spodic horizon below a depth of 30
inches. They differ from Pottsburg soils by having a
spodic horizon at a depth of less than 50 inches.
Typical pedon of Immokalee fine sand, in a sparsely
wooded area, on a 1 percent slope, 500 feet northeast
of intersection of State Road 207 and Lightsey Road and
600 feet south of State Road 207, Land Grant 48, T. 7
S., R. 29 E.
A1-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine
and medium and few coarse roots; many uncoated
white sand grains; extremely acid; gradual smooth
boundary.
A21-8 to 15 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand;
common fine faint gray mottles; single grained;
loose; few fine distinct dark gray (10YR 4/1) stains
along root channels; few fine and medium roots;
very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
A22-15 to 40 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand;
common medium and coarse distinct dark gray
(10YR 4/1), dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2), and
dark brown (10YR 3/3) stains along root channels;
single grained; loose; very strongly acid; abrupt
irregular boundary.


B2h-40 to 64 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sand; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable;
noncemented; few uncoated white sand grains;
extremely acid; gradual smooth boundary.
B3-64 to 80 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand;
common fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) mottles;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
noncemented; friable; few pockets of very dark
grayish brown (10YR 3/2) fine sand; extremely acid.

Soil reaction ranges from extremely acid to medium
acid in all horizons. Texture of the Bh horizon is fine
sand or loamy fine sand.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or no hue and value of 2. Thickness
ranges from 4 to 12 inches. Where the color value is
less than 3.5, the Al horizon is less than 10 inches
thick.
The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2, or value of 8 and chroma of 1. Very
dark gray, dark gray, very dark grayish brown, gray, and
light gray mottles are in this horizon in some pedons.
Thickness ranges from 23 to 38 inches. Total thickness
of the A horizon ranges from 30 to 50 inches.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2 or
3, and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3,
and chroma of 2. Black and very dark brown mottles and
pockets and lenses of very dark gray, dark gray, and
gray fine sand are in this horizon in some pedons. Some
pedons have a second sequum of A'2 and B'h horizons.
In those pedons, colors in the A'2 horizon are similar to
those in the A2 horizon, and the B'h horizon has colors
similar to those of the Bh horizon.
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and
chroma of 3.
Some pedons have a C horizon. It has hue of 10YR,
value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2.

Jonathan Series
The Jonathan series consists of moderately well
drained, nearly level soils that formed in thick deposits of
marine sands. These soils occur on slightly elevated
broad ridges and knolls in the flatwoods. The water table
is 30 to 40 inches below the surface for 4 to 6 months
during periods of high rainfall. It may rise to a depth of
24 to 30 inches for brief periods. It is below 40 inches
during long periods of low rainfall. Slopes are 0 to 2
percent. These soils are sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic,
ortstein Typic Haplohumods.
Jonathan soils are closely associated with Cassia,
Immokalee, Myakka, and Pomello soils. Cassia and
Pomello soils occupy similar positions in the landscape.
Additionally, Cassia soils have an A horizon less than 20
inches thick and are wetter. Pomello soils have an A
horizon 30 to 50 inches thick. Myakka and Immokalee


85






Soil Survey


soils are on lower positions in the landscape and are
wetter.
Typical pedon of Jonathan fine sand under sand pines
in a wooded area, on a 1 percent slope, 5,500 feet south
of intersection of Dobbs Road and Florida State Road
207, 400 feet west of Dobbs Road, SW1/4NE1/4 sec.
36, T. 7 S., R. 30 E.

A1-0 to 4 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; common fine, medium and few
coarse roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A21-4 to 9 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grained; loose; few fine, medium, and coarse
roots; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary.
A22-9 to 39 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single
grained; loose; few fine, medium, and coarse roots;
common medium distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
and brown (10YR 5/3) stains along root channels;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A23-39 to 71 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
many medium and coarse very dark grayish brown
(10YR 3/2) mottles and stains along root channels;
single grained; loose; few fine and medium roots;
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B2hm-71 to 80 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand;
strong medium subangular blocky structure; firm;
cemented in 60 percent of horizon; few fine and
medium roots; extremely acid.

Soil reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium
acid in the A horizon and from very strongly acid to
extremely acid in the Bh horizon. Solum thickness
ranges from 74 to more than 80 inches. The Al horizon
has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 6, and chroma of 1
or 2. Thickness ranges from 3 to 5 inches. The A2
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 35 to 67
inches. The combined thickness of the Al and A2
horizons is 50 to 70 inches.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma
of 2; no hue and value of 1; or hue of 5YR, value of 2,
and chroma of 1. In some pedons, this horizon is within
a depth of 80 inches. In those pedons, a B3 is present. It
has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 4.
Texture is sand or fine sand, which extends to 80 inches
or more.

Manatee Series
The Manatee series consists of very poorly drained,
nearly level soils that formed in thick beds of loamy
materials. These soils are on flood plains and in poorly
defined drainageways. The water table is within 10
inches of the surface for more than 2 to 4 months during
most years. During seasons of high rainfall, these soils
are flooded. Slopes are less than 2 percent. These soils


are coarse-loamy, siliceous, hyperthermic Typic
Argiaquolls.
Manatee soils are closely associated with Bluff,
Floridana, Myakka, Parkwood, Riviera, St. Johns, and
Tocoi soils. Bluff soils lack an argillic horizon and have
heavy textures throughout. Parkwood soils lack a mollic
epipedon and have carbonate accumulations in the
upper 20 inches of the Bt horizon. Myakka, Riviera, and
St. Johns soils are on higher positions in the landscape
and are better drained. In addition, Myakka, Tocoi, and
St. Johns soils have a Bh horizon. Floridana soils have a
Bt horizon between depths of 20 and 40 inches.
Typical pedon of Manatee fine sandy loam, frequently
flooded, in a wooded drainageway, on a 0.5 percent
slope, 1 1/4 miles north of intersection of U.S. Highway
1 and Porter Road, 500 feet west of U.S. Highway 1 and
75 feet north of unpaved road, Land Grant 52, T. 6 S., R.
29 E.

A11-0 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sandy loam; weak medium granular structure; friable;
many fine roots; common large and medium roots;
strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
A12-8 to 13 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sandy loam;
moderate medium granular structure; friable;
common fine and medium roots; slightly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B21t-13 to 25 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine
sandy loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure;
friable; sand grains are bridged and coated with
clay; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
B22tg-25 to 34 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) sandy clay
loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
slightly sticky; few coarse faint dark grayish brown
(10YR 4/2) sandy loam vertical pockets; sand grains
are bridged and coated with clay; neutral; gradual
wavy boundary.
B3g-34 to 52 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) loamy fine
sand; common medium prominent yellowish red
(5YR 5/6) mottles in lower part; weak fine
subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky; common
coarse faint grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loamy sand
pockets; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg-52 to 80 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine sand;
few fine prominent yellowish red (5YR 5/6) mottles;
many medium faint gray sand pockets; weak
medium granular structure; friable; neutral.

Soil reaction ranges from strongly acid to mildly
alkaline in the A horizon and from neutral to moderately
alkaline in the B2tg and Cg horizons.
The Al horizon has no hue and value of 2 or hue of
10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1. Thickness is 12
to 22 inches.
The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1; no hue and value of 2; or hue of 5Y, value
of 4, and chroma of 1. It is 16 to 40 inches thick. It is


86




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