Title: Soil survey of St. Lucie County area, Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00025728/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of St. Lucie County area, Florida
Physical Description: vii, 183 p., 26 fold. leaves of plates : ill. ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Watts, Frank C
Stankey, Daniel L
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: [1980]
 Subjects
Subject: Soils -- Maps -- Florida -- Saint Lucie County   ( lcsh )
Soil surveys -- Florida -- Saint Lucie County   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 105-106.
Statement of Responsibility: by Frank C. Watts and Daniel L. Stankey ; United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Issued March 1980."
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00025728
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000287929
notis - ABR4084
oclc - 06392961
lccn - 80602562

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HIS SOIL SURVEY


Turn to Index to Soil Mapping Units"
5 which lists the name of each mapping unit and the
page where that mapping unit is described.


See "Summary of Tables" (following the
6. Contents) for location of additional data
on a specific soil use.


Consult "Contents" for parts of the publication that will meet your specific needs.
This survey contains useful information for farmers or ranchers, foresters or
7. agronomists; for planners, community decision makers, engineers, developers,
builders, or homebuyers; for conservationists, recreationists, teachers, or students;
for specialists in wildlife management, waste disposal, or pollution control.


- -.- -




















This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a
joint effort of the United States Department of Agriculture and other federal
agencies, state agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and
local agencies. The Soil Conservation Service has leadership for the federal
part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. In line with Department of Agricul-
ture policies, benefits of this program are available to all, regardless of race,
color, national origin, sex, religion, marital status, or age.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was performed in the period 1973-77. Soil
names and descriptions were approved in 1977. Unless otherwise indicated,
statements in this publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1977.
This survey was made cooperatively by the Soil Conservation Service and
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences and Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department, and Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services. It is part of the technical assistance fur-
nished to the St. Lucie Soil and Water Conservation District. The St. Lucie
County Board of Commissioners contributed financially to accelerate the com-
pletion of fieldwork for the soil survey.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of
these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping.
If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could
have been shown at a larger scale.









Cover: Native grass sea oats (Uniola panicula'ta) on Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This vegetation provides excellent dune stabilization along the Atlantic Ocean coastal line in
St. Lucie County.










Contents


Page
Index to map units...................................... .......... iv
Summary of tables.................... ...................... v
Foreword................................................. vii
General nature of the survey area........................... 1
Clim ate................................... .............................. 1
History and development........................... ......... 2
Physiography, relief, and drainage.......................... 2
W ater resources ....................................... ........... 3
Farm ing................................................ ............... 3
Transportation........................................... .......... 4
How this survey was made......................................... 4
General soil map for broad land use planning....... 4
1. St. Lucie-Satellite-Welaka Variant .............. 5
2. Salerno-Hobe-Waveland................................ 6
3. Waveland-Lawnwood ................................... 7
4. Basinger-Myakka-Lawnwood....................... 7
5. Nettles-Ankona-Pepper.................................. 7
6. Wabasso-Winder....................... ......... 8
7. Pineda-Wabasso-Riviera................................ 8
8. Winder-Riviera......................................... 9
9. Chobee.................................... ............ 9
10. Samsula Variant-Myakka Variant................ 9
11. Fluvaquents-Terra Ceia ............................... 9
12. Pompano Variant-Kaliga Variant-
Canaveral................................... .......... 10
Soil maps for detailed planning............................... 11
Use and management of the soils....................... 51
Crops and pasture..................................... .......... 52
Y ields per acre ......................................................... 53
Land capability classification........................... 53
Range and grazeable woodland................................ 54
Woodland management and productivity............... 55
Windbreaks and environmental plantings............... 56
Recreation ................................................... ............ 56
W wildlife habitat ......................................... ........... 57
Wildlife management...................... .......... 58
Engineering ................................................................ 58
Building site development................................... 59
Sanitary facilities.................................... .......... 59
Construction materials ..................................... 61
Water management.......................................... 61
Soil properties ...... ........................................ 62
Engineering index properties........................ ... 63
Physical and chemical properties............................ 63
Soil and water features........................... ........... 65
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of
selected soils................................................ 66
Engineering index test data................................... 68
Hydraulic conductivity of selected soils............... 68
Classification of the soils............................. ......... 68
Soil series and morphology................................ 69
Anclote series ............................................ 69
Ankona series .................................... ......... 69


Page
Astatula series ........................................ ........ .. 70
Basinger series.............................................. ......... 71
Canaveral series........................................ ........ 71
Chobee series................................ ............. 72
Electra series ................... ........................................... 73
Floridana series ................... ..... ... ........... 73
Hallandale series................................... ..... 74
Hilolo series......................................... ............. 75
Hobe series............................... ............................. 76
Hontoon series................................ ............ 77
Jonathan series ........................................................... 77
Kaliga series......... ........ ....... .............. 78
Kaliga Variant............................... ................ 79
Lawnwood series.......................... ......... 79
M alabar series ............................................. .......... 80
Myakka series ...................................... ........ .. 81
Myakka Variant ............................................... 82
Nettles series................... ............................................ 83
O ldsm ar series...... ..................... ............................ 84
Palm Beach series .................................. ... ... 85
Paola series................................ ....................... 85
Pendarvis series .......................................................... 86
Pepper series ................... .. .............. 87
Pineda series................. ............ ..... ....................... 88
Pompano series ..................... ....... ...... 89
Pompano Variant .................................. .....89
Pople series.................. ................ ............. 90
Riviera series ....................................... ........ .. 91
Salerno series................................................ .............. 92
Samsula Variant...................................... 93
Satellite series............................... ............ 93
St. Lucie series...................................... ...... 94
Susanna series ............................................................ 94
Tantile series .................... ..................... ...... 95
Terra Ceia series ............................... ....................... 96
Turnbull Variant....................................... ........... 97
Wabasso series ........................ ................... 97
Wabasso Variant ........................................ ................. 98
Waveland series ........................................ 100
Welaka Variant............................................................. 101
Winder series ....................................... 101
Winder Variant ..................................... 102
Formation of the soils................................................ 104
Factors of soil formation........................................... 104
Parent m aterial..................................................... 104
Climate............................... ... .......... 104
Plants and animals .................................... 104
R elief ............................................... .................... 105
Time .................................... .. .............. 105
Processes of soil formation............................. 105
References ..................................... 105
Glossary ...................................... 106
Tables ................................... ............... 113


Issued March 1980


iii










Index to map units


Page
1--Anclote sand......................................... .......... 13
2-Ankona sand .................................................... 13
3-Ankona-Urban land complex................................ 14
4-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes.............................. 15
5-Arents, 45 to 65 percent slopes.......................... 16
6-Arents, organic substratum.................................. 16
7-Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.................... 17
8-Basinger sand .......................................................... 17
9-Beaches............................................................. 18
10-Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes......... 18
11 -Chobee loamy sand................................................ 20
12-Electra fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.............. 20
13-Floridana sand....................................................... 21
14-Fluvaquents........................................................... 21
15-Hallandale sand.................................................. 22
16-Hilolo loamy sand................................................ 23
17-Hobe sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........................ 24
18-Hontoon muck ................................................. 24
19-Jonathan sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................ 25
20-Kaliga muck ........................................................... 26
21-Lawnwood sand .................................... .......... 26
22-Lawnwood-Urban land complex............................ 27
23-Malabar fine sand .............................................. 27
24-Myakka fine sand ............................................... 28
25-Nettles sand........................................... .......... 29
26-Oldsmar sand ........................................ ....... 30
27-Palm Beach fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes..... 30
28-Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes...................... 31
29-Pendarvis sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes................. 31


30-Pendarvis-Urban land complex..............................
31--Pepper sand...................................... .................
32-Pineda sand ..........................................................
33- Pits ..................................................... .................
34-Pompano sand ....................................................
35-Pompano Variant-Kaliga Variant association.......
36-Pople sand ....................................... ................
37-Riviera sand, depressional ...................................
38-Riviera fine sand............................... ...............
39-Salerno sand........................................................
40-Samsula Variant-Myakka Variant association......
41-Satellite sand .................................................
42-St. Lucie sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes...................
43-Susanna sand....................................................
44-Tantile sand ..........................................................
45-Terra Ceia muck.............................. ...............
46-Turnbull Variant sandy clay loam..........................
47-Urban land.............................................................
48-Wabasso sand ................................... .............
49-Wabasso Variant sand............................................
50-Waveland fine sand ................................................
51-Waveland-Lawnwood complex............................
52-Waveland-Urban land complex ...........................
53-Welaka Variant sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......
54-Winder sand, depressional............ .............
55-Winder loamy sand ................................. ..........
56-Winder Variant sand .............................................


iv


Page
32
32
33
33
34
35
35
36
37
38
38
39
39
41
41
42
43
43
43
44
44
47
48
48
49
50
50










Summary of tables


Page
Temperature and precipitation (table 1)......................................................... 114
Freeze dates in spring and fall (table 2)........................................................ 114
Potential and limitations of map units on the general soil map (table 3)..... 115
Extent of area. Community development. Citrus. Im-
proved pasture. Vegetables. Woodland.
Acreage and proportionate extent of the soils (table 4) ................................ 116
Acres. Percent.
Yields per acre of crops and pasture (table 5) ............................................... 117
Oranges. Grapefruit. Tomatoes. Cucumbers. Pangola
grass. Bahiagrass. Grass-clover.
Capability classes and subclasses (table 6).................................................. 120
Total acreage. Major management concerns.
Potential production and composition of livestock forage (table 7) ............. 121
Potential production-Kind of year, Dry weight. Com-
position of forage-Grasses and grasslikes, Forbs,
Woody plants and trees.
Woodland management and productivity (table 8)........................................ 124
Ordination symbol Management concerns. Potential
productivity. Site index. Trees to plant.
Recreational development (table 9)................................................................ 127
Camp areas. Picnic areas. Playgrounds. Paths and
trails. Golf fairways.
Wildlife habitat potentials (table 10) ............................................................... 131
Potential for habitat elements. Potential as habitat
for-Openland wildlife, Woodland wildlife, Wetland
wildlife, Rangeland wildlife.
Building site development (table 11) .............................................................. 134
Shallow excavations. Dwellings without basements.
Dwellings with basements. Small commercial build-
ings. Local roads and streets.
Sanitary facilities (table 12)................................................................................ 138
Septic tank absorption fields. Sewage lagoon areas.
Trench sanitary landfill Area sanitary landfill. Daily
cover for landfill
Construction materials (table 13).................................................................... 143
Roadfill. Sand. Gravel. Topsoil.
Water management (table 14).......................................................................... 147
Embankments, dikes, and levees. Aquifer-fed exca-
vated ponds. Drainage. irrigation. Terraces and diver-
sions. Grassed waterways.


V










Summary of tables-Continued
Page
Engineering index properties (table 15) ......................................................... 151
Depth. USDA texture. Classification-Unified,
AASHTO. Fragments greater than 3 inches. Percent-
age passing sieve-4, 10, 40, 200. Liquid limit. Plas-
ticity index.
Physical and chemical properties of the soils (table 16) ............................... 159
Depth. Clay. Moist bulk density Permeability. Availa-
ble water capacity. Soil reaction. Salinity. Shrink-
swell potential. Erosion factors-K, T. Wind erodibi-
lity group. Organic matter.
Soil and water features (table 17)................................................................... 163
Hydrologic group. Flooding. High water table. Ce-
mented pan. Subsidence. Risk of corrosion.
Physical analyses of selected soils (table 18)................................................ 167
Chemical analyses of selected soils (table 19).............................................. 172
Clay mineralogy of selected soils (table 20)...................................... 177
Engineering index test data (table 21) ........................................................... 179
Classification. Mechanical analyses. Liquid limit.
Plasticity index. Moisture density
In situ saturated hydraulic conductivity test data (table 22)........................ 182
Soil horizon tested. Number of tests. Hydraulic con-
ductivity. Permeability.
Classification of the soils (table 23)..................................... 183
Family or higher taxonomic class.














Foreword


This soil survey contains information that can be used in land-planning pro-
grams in St. Lucie County Area, Florida. It contains predictions of soil behavior
for selected land uses. The survey also highlights limitations and hazards inher-
ent in the soil, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the
impact of selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers,
foresters, and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and
the management needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners,
community officials, engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use
the survey to plan land use, select sites for construction, and identify special
practices needed to insure proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, stu-
dents, and specialists in recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and
pollution control can use the survey to help them understand, protect, and en-
hance the environment.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some
soils are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to rock. Some
are too unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or
wet soils are poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water
table makes a soil poorly suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in
this soil survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The
location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey
area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
using this publication and additional information are available at the local office
of the Soil Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.





William E. Austin
State Conservationist
Soil Conservation Service


vii





























IACKSONVILLE


PENSACOLA


APPROXIMATE SCALES


0 50 100
II I
MILES


0 100 200

KILOMETERS


* State Agricultural Experiment Station


0 ,


Location of St. Lucie County Area in Florida.








Soil Survey of St. Lucie County Area, Florida




United States Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
in cooperation with


University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
and Agricultural Experiment Stations, Soil Science Department,
and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services


By Frank C. Watts and Daniel L. Stankey
Soil Conservation Service


Others participating in the field survey were
Michael J. Jones and Robert H. Lisante, Soil Conservation Service


ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA is in the southeastern part
of peninsular Florida. It is bordered on the north by
Indian River County, on the west by Okeechobee
County, on the south by Martin County, and on the east
by the Atlantic Ocean. This survey joins the published
survey of Okeechobee County, Florida and the currently
progressive survey of Martin County, Florida.
The survey area, which does not include all of St.
Lucie County, covers 367,550 acres or about 575 square
miles. The area not surveyed, however, is included in the
aerial photographs which are the basis for the detailed
soil maps at the back of this publication. The survey area
includes 861 acres of water in bodies of less than 40
acres. Also included within the county boundary is about
20,280 acres of salt water in the Indian River.
The survey area is about 24 miles long. It is about 21
miles wide at the narrowest part and 29 miles wide at
the widest part. Fort Pierce, the county seat, is in the
eastern part of the survey area.
Tourism is the largest single nonagricultural industry in
the survey area. The mild winter temperatures and many
miles of inland water and beaches bring many tourists to
the survey area annually.

General nature of the survey area
In this section, environmental and cultural factors that
affect the use and management of soils in St. Lucie
County Area are described. These factors are climate;
history and development; physiography, relief, and drain-
age; water resources; farming; and transportation.

Climate
St. Lucie County Area has long, warm and humid sum-
mers and mild winters. The moderating influence of the
Atlantic Ocean on maximum temperatures in summer


and minimum temperatures in winter is strong along the
immediate coast, but it diminishes a few miles inland.
Because of the moderation of winter temperatures, the
coastal area has a tropical climate. However, between
Fort Pierce and the city of Vero Beach to the north, the
climate of the coastal area changes to humid subtropical
and is similar to the climate of the rest of the survey
area.
Rainfall is unevenly distributed during the year. About
62 percent occurs from June through October and about
21 percent in March, April, and May. The remainder
occurs from November through February. The start of
the rainy season varies considerably from year to year.
In some years, it begins as early as May and in other
years late in June. Late October generally marks the end
of the wet season.
The moist, unstable air in the survey area results in
frequent showers that are generally of short duration.
Thunderstorms are frequent during the summer, occur-
ring on an average of every other day. Sometimes these
storms are heavy, and 2 or 3 inches of rain falls in 1 to 2
hours. Daylong rains are rare and almost always are
associated with a tropical storm. Winter and spring rains
are not generally so intense as summer thunderstorms.
Summarized climatic data (14, 15), based on records
collected at Fort Pierce, are shown in table 1.
Tropical storms can affect the area any time from late
May through mid-November. Although hail falls occasion-
ally in thunderstorms, it is generally small and seldom
causes much damage. Snow is almost unknown in St.
Lucie County Area.
Extended periods of dry weather can occur in any
season, but such periods are most common in spring
and fall. Dry periods in April and May are generally of
shorter duration than those in fall, but tend to be more
serious because temperatures are higher and the need
for moisture is greater in April and May.
1







SOIL SURVEY


Cold continental air must travel over water or flow
down the Florida Peninsula before reaching St. Lucie
County Area. For this reason, cold air is modified. The
coldest weather and infrequent frosts occur the second
or third night after the arrival of cold air, when heat is
lost through radiation. There are freezing temperatures
of 32 degrees F as often as 1 year out of 10, but
temperatures of 28 degrees F or less are more rare. An
important citrus and vegetable growing industry has been
established because of the nearly frost-free winters.
Freeze data shown in table 2 were taken at Fort Pierce
(15) and are representative for the area.
Summer temperatures are tempered by the ocean
breeze, and by the frequent formation of cumulus clouds
which partly shade the land without completely obscuring
the sun. Temperatures of 88 degrees F or higher have
occurred in all months of the year, and a temperature of
as high as 101 degrees F has occurred in the past.
August is the warmest month and the average maximum
temperature is almost 90 degrees F. This temperature is
common in August.
Flying weather is generally very good in St. Lucie
County, and "instrument" weather occurs only rarely.
Because the air is clean and has no taint of industrial
smoke, there is almost no fog. In winter and spring, an
average of one morning a month has heavy fog; in
summer and fall, heavy fog rarely occurs.
Prevailing winds are generally from the north and east,
except in March when southerly winds prevail. Wind-
speed is usually between 10 and 15 miles per hour in
the afternoon, and 5 to 10 miles per hour at night.

History and development
Four hundred years ago the Ais, or Indian River Indi-
ans, lived in present day St. Lucie County (16). These
inhabitants were later named the Seminole Indians. The
area became Spanish Territory, and in 1565 a fort was
established at the north end of Jupiter Inlet. The fort,
and later the St. Lucie River, were named for the patron
saint, Santa Lucia of Podera. Transportation was by boat
and steamer.
In 1820 the area was ceded to the United States, and
in 1838 Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin K. Pierce estab-
lished a fort 4 miles south of the Indian River Inlet and 1
1/2 miles south of the present day city of Fort Pierce. In
1842, Congress passed the Armed Occupation Act, and
thousands of acres of public land were opened to settle-
ment. Many pioneers from Alabama, Georgia, South
Carolina, and North Carolina soon settled along the
Indian River.
In 1844, one year before Florida became a State,
Santa Lucia County was formed from Mosquito County. It
was bordered on the north by Cape Canaveral, on the
south by Lake Worth, and on the west by the Kissimmee
River. It became popularly known as St. Lucie County.


Fort Capron, the present location of the village of St.
Lucie, was established in 1850. There was a military trail
from Fort Capron to Fort Brooke, the site of present day
Tampa.
The name of St. Lucie County was changed to Bre-
vard County in 1855. Susanna, south of Fort Pierce,
became the county seat. The city of Fort Pierce was first
settled in 1868 and was incorporated in 1901.
The communities of Viking, Indrio, Edgartown, Canton,
and St. Lucie north of Fort Pierce; and of Ankona, Eden,
Elred, and Waveland south of Fort Pierce were settled
along the Indian River. The community of White City was
organized in 1893.
St. Lucie County was formed in 1905. It was bordered
on the north by the Sebastian River, on the south by the
St. Lucie River, and on the west by Osceola County.
Okeechobee County was formed in 1917 from this area,
and Martin and Indian River Counties were formed in
1925.
The Flagler Railway was built through the area in
1894. It provided goods and services and aided in settle-
ment. In 1920, St. Lucie County had a population of
7,886 and in 1935, of 9,044.
In 1921 the Fort Pierce Inlet was dug and construction
of a port began. Ships entered the inlet to the port in
1930. In 1935, this work became a Federal Project and
the channel was deepened to almost 27 feet. The city of
Port St. Lucie, 7 miles south of Fort Pierce, was incorpo-
rated in 1961.
In 1976 St. Lucie County had a population of about
73,000. The population of Fort Pierce was about 33,000
and the population of Port St. Lucie was 5,000.

Physiography, relief, and drainage
St. Lucie County Area can be divided into three major
physiographic regions-the Eastern Valley, the Osceola
Plain, and the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. The Green Ridge
and the southern end of Ten Mile Ridge are minor geo-
graphic areas within the Eastern Valley (17).
The Eastern Valley lies between the Atlantic Coastal
Ridge to the east and the Osceola Plain to the south-
west. It is by far the largest physiographic region and
extends the entire length of the survey area. Elevation
ranges from about 15 to 30 feet above sea level. These
ridges are low, narrow, and long. Allapattah Flats lies to
the west of Green Ridge, and St. Johns River Marsh lies
to the west of Ten Mile Ridge. These areas are mostly
covered with marsh grasses, scattered cabbage palm
hammocks, and clusters of cypress trees. The soils gen-
erally have a sandy surface layer and a loamy subsoil;
however, organic soil is common in the Allapattah Flats.
Native vegetation in the major part of the Eastern Valley
and in Ten Mile Ridge and Green Ridge is mostly pine
trees, sawpalmetto, and pineland threeawn. Most of the
soils in these areas have a sandy surface layer and a
weakly cemented subsoil. Much of the Eastern Valley is


2







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


used for range or has been planted to citrus or improved
pasture grasses.
The Osceola Plain is in the southwestern part of the
survey area. Elevation ranges from about 30 feet to as
much as 60 feet above sea level. There are a few areas
of broad grassy sloughs, depressions, and poorly defined
drainageways. Generally, the soils are nearly level, wet,
and sandy. The sandy subsoil has organic matter and is
weakly cemented. Vegetation consists mostly of
flatwoods pine and sawpalmetto. Large areas of this
region are used for range and improved pasture grasses.
The Atlantic Coastal Ridge is bordered on the west by
the Eastern Valley and on the east by the Atlantic
Ocean. It consists of relic beach ridges formed by wind
and wave action along the shore. The Indian River sepa-
rates the present day Barrier Islands from the mainland.
The part of the Atlantic Coastal Ridge on the mainland is
an elongated ridge that extends the entire length of the
county. It is 1/4 to 1/2 mile wide. Elevation ranges from
sea level to as much as 60 feet, the highest elevation in
the county. Vegetation is cabbage palm, sand pine, saw-
palmetto, scrub oak, rosemary, and shrubs. The main
ridge on the Barrier Islands ranges from a few hundred
feet to three-fourths of a mile wide. This ridge consists of
beach, primary dune, trough, inland dune, and the back
dune next to the bay. Elevation ranges from sea level
along the shore to 17 feet along the crest of the dune
ridges. Vegetation is most commonly sea oats, sawpal-
metto, sea grape, cocoa plum, waxmyrtle, lantana, and
bay cedar.
Most of St. Lucie County Area is drained through inter-
mittent streams, creeks, rivers, closed depressions, and
grassy sloughs. Ten Mile Cre6k, which is the headwaters
of the North Fork of the St. Lucie River, drains the
northern part of Allapattah Flats around the northern end
of Green Ridge. Five Mile Creek drains the area between
the Atlantic Coastal Ridge and Ten Mile Ridge and flows
into the North Fork of the St. Lucie River.

Water resources
Water is used for municipal, industrial, and agricultural
purposes in St. Lucie County Area. In most of the survey
area, water is adequate for domestic use, irrigation of
crops, and the watering of livestock late in spring, in
summer, and early in autumn. However, in most winter
seasons, there is a shortage of water because of low
rainfall.
The development of land for agricultural use in much
of the survey area has decreased the supply of water
from surface and ground water storage and has greatly
increased the need for irrigation. The canal network of
the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control, Fort
Pierce Farms Drainage, and North St. Lucie Drainage
District is the major water control system (3). Water is
replenished by rainfall and ground water inflow. Irrigation


water is supplemented by artesian water from deep
wells.
Ground water is the subsurface water in the zone of
saturation; that is, the zone in which all soil pore spaces
are filled with water under pressure no greater than at-
mospheric pressure. Ground water is derived almost en-
tirely from local precipitation.
Two major aquifers underlie St. Lucie County, the deep
artesian Florida aquifer and the shallow, nonartesian
aquifer (6, 9). They are separated by a layer of slowly
permeable clay and sand. The quality of nonartesian
water generally is superior to that of artesian water. The
nonartesian water in the Atlantic Coastal Ridge is the
source of supply for municipalities, hundreds of privately
owned wells, and sometimes is used for irrigation. The
Florida artesian aquifer has a chloride content that
ranges from 300 to 1,884 milligrams per liter. This water
is generally unsuitable for public drinking and is of ques-
tionable quality for irrigating citrus because of the low
tolerance of citrus to salts. Use depends on the variety
of citrus grown and the method of irrigation. The fine
mist from low rate sprinklers evaporates rapidly and
leaves a salt deposit on the leaves. If the ditch-irrigation
method is used, almost double concentrations of salts
can be tolerated. Artesian water is also used on ranches
for watering cattle.

Farming
Pineapples were the first crop grown by the farmers
who settled in St. Lucie County Area about 1842. They
were planted on Hutchinson Island but died because the
soil was too rich. When they were transferred to the
sandy soil of the mainland, however, and supplemented
with fertilizer, the crop flourished. Most of the plantings
were on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. Pineapples were the
leading crop until the early 1920's when a mysterious
disease struck. Production was brought to a standstill
from which it never fully recovered. However, pineapples
are still grown for local markets in the county.
Some oranges were also grown, but in 1894-95 a
disastrous series of freezes doomed the future of citrus
culture along the St. Johns River. The planting of citrus
was then encouraged in the warmer Indian River region.
Most of the western part of the survey area was in
swamps and was covered with water for a long period
each year. To use these areas for citrus cultivation, a
water control system was needed. In 1919-20 the Fort
Pierce Farms and North St. Lucie River Drainage Dis-
tricts were formed. According to the Fort Pierce Cham-
ber of Commerce, St. Lucie County Area now ranks third
in the State in acreage and production of citrus.
The most common vegetable crop in the survey area
is tomatoes. About 1,150 to 1,450 acres is planted to
tomatoes each year. Because tomatoes are susceptible
to disease, land is newly cleared for use each year.
Other vegetables grown are beans, Irish potatoes, sweet


3







SOIL SURVEY


potatoes, cabbage, lettuce, peppers, corn, eggplant,
celery, cauliflower, okra, squash, and onions. Cucum-
bers, cantaloupe, watermelon, strawberries, and dewber-
ries are also grown. At one time sugar cane was grown.
Fruits that have been grown or are now grown in the
area are kumquats, limes, mulberries, gooseberries, Jap-
anese persimmon, citron, pomegranate, sapodilla, cus-
tard apple, Jamaica apple, loquat, grapes, figs, plums,
peanuts, papaya, avocado, and mango.
In 1861, thirty people owned cattle and 15 people
owned 100 head or more. At that time cattle were
grazed on the open range. After the Civil War, cattle
raising became an important industry in Florida, and
thousands of beef cattle were grazed in the back country
west of Fort Pierce. In 1976 there were more than
52,000 cattle in St. Lucie County Area, according to the
St. Lucie County Cattlemen's Association. There were
1,650 head of dairy cattle.
In the early days an attempt was made to raise hogs
on Hutchinson Island. It was not successful, and the
hogs were moved to the mainland. Hogs are still raised
in the county.
In 1976 in St. Lucie County Area, about 73,500 acres
was used for cropland, 78,500 acres was used for im-
proved pasture, and 98,000 acres was used for range,
according to the Fort Pierce Chamber of Commerce.

Transportation
St. Lucie County Area is served by several major high-
ways. U.S. Highway 1 is in the eastern part of the survey
area, parallel to the coast. Florida Highway 68 extends
westward from Fort Pierce into Okeechobee County, and
Florida Highway 70 crosses the survey area south-
westward from Fort Pierce to the city of Okeechobee in
Okeechobee County. The Sunshine State Parkway, also
called the Florida Turnpike, crosses the survey area in a
northwest-southeast direction. When completed, Inter-
state Highway 95 will traverse the eastern part of the
survey area in a north-south direction.
The Florida East Coast Railway runs north-south along
the Atlantic Coastal Ridge and also provides rail service
from the Lake Okeechobee area to Fort Pierce. Ports
around Fort Pierce provide transportation by water.
One airport is available for private use.


How this survey was made
Soil scientists made this survey to learn what soils are
in the survey area, where they are, and how they can be
used. They observed the steepness, length, and shape
of slopes; the size of streams and the general pattern of
drainage; the kinds of native plants or crops; and the
kinds of rock. They dug many holes to study soil profiles.
A profile is the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in
a soil. It extends from the surface down into the parent


material, which has been changed very little by leaching
or by plant roots.
The soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
profiles they studied and compared those profiles with
others in nearby counties and in more distant places.
They classified and named the soils according to nation-
wide uniform procedures. They drew the boundaries of
the soils on aerial photographs. These photographs
show trees, buildings, fields, roads, and other details that
help in drawing boundaries accurately. The soil maps at
the back of this publication were prepared from aerial
photographs.
The areas shown on a soil map are called map units.
Most map units are made up of one kind of soil. Some
are made up of two or more kinds. The map units in this
survey area are described under "General soil map for
broad land use planning" and "Soil maps for detailed
planning."
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some
soils are taken for laboratory measurements and for en-
gineering tests. All soils are field tested to determine
their characteristics. Interpretations of those characteris-
tics may be modified during the survey. Data are assem-
bled from other sources, such as test results, records,
field experience, and state and local specialists. For ex-
ample, data on crop yields under defined management
are assembled from farm records and from field or plot
experiments on the same kinds of soil.
But only part of a soil survey is done when the soils
have been named, described, interpreted, and delineated
on aerial photographs and when the laboratory data and
other data have been assembled. The mass of detailed
information then needs to be organized so that it can be
used by farmers, rangeland and woodland managers,
engineers, planners, developers and builders, home
buyers, and others.


General soil map for broad land use
planning
The general soil map at the back of this publication
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general
soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, a map
unit consists of one or more major soils and some minor
soils. It is named for the major soils. The soils making up
one unit can occur in other units but in a different pat-
tern.
The general soil map can be used to compare the
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise,
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified.
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable for
planning the management of a farm or field or for select-
ing a site for a road or building or other structure. The
soils in any one map unit differ from place to place in


4







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics that
affect management.
The soils in the survey area vary widely in their poten-
tial for major land uses. Table 3 shows the extent of the
map units shown on the general soil map. It lists the
potential of each, in relation to that of the other map
units, for major land uses and shows soil properties that
limit use. Soil potential ratings are based on the prac-
tices commonly used in the survey area to overcome soil
limitations. These ratings reflect the ease of overcoming
the limitations. They also reflect the problems that will
persist even if such practices are used.
Each map unit is rated for community development,
citrus, improved pasture, vegetables, and woodland. Cul-
tivated crops are those grown extensively in the survey
area. Specialty crops are the vegetables and fruits that
generally require intensive management. Woodland
refers to areas of native or planted pine trees. Urban
uses include residential, commerical, and industrial de-
velopments. Intensive recreation areas are campsites,
picnic areas, ballfields, and other areas that are subject
to heavy foot traffic. Extensive recreation areas are
those used for nature study and as wilderness.


Soils of the sand ridges

The one map unit in this group consists of nearly level
to sloping, excessively drained soils and nearly level,
somewhat poorly drained soils. All of the soils are sandy
throughout. Some have a yellow subsoil. This unit is
mostly along the coastal ridge on the mainland, generally
along U.S. Highway 1. A few small areas are in the
southwestern part of the survey area.

1. St. Lucie-Satellite-Welaka Variant

Nearly level to sloping, execessively drained and some-
what poorly drained soils that are sandy throughout;
some soils have a yellow subsoil
This map unit consists mostly of nearly level to slop-
ing, deep, sandy soils on high, dunelike ridges. The larg-
est area, in the eastern part of the survey area, is paral-
lel to the Indian River and extends from Indian River
County to Martin County. Another area, in the southwest-
ern part of the survey area, is on isolated knolls and
ridges. Natural vegetation is sand pine, sand live oak,
rosemary, running oak, and pineland threeawn. Where
the area has been cleared, there are a few cabbage
palms.
This map unit makes up about 5,500 acres or about
1.5 percent of the survey area. It is about 45 percent St.
Lucie soils, about 30 percent Satellite soils, 19 percent
Welaka Variant soils, and about 6 percent soils of minor
extent.


St. Lucie soils are excessively drained and generally
are at higher elevation than Satellite soils. Typically, they
are gray, light gray, and white sand to a depth of 80
inches or more (fig. 1).
Satellite soils are somewhat poorly drained and are at
lower elevation than St. Lucie and Welaka Variant soils.
Typically, they have a surface layer of dark gray sand
about 6 inches thick. The substratum to a depth of 80
inches or more is light gray, light brownish gray, and
grayish brown sand. This soil is more common in the
southwestern part of the survey area than in the eastern
part.


-,
S-'. .
i .y -'


*1-i



* -


. ."'1 _. .;
.


I'r^ -'
^ih^-^;


I. *


S,


&~~S


Figure 1.-Profile of St. Lucie sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. These
excessively drained soils are on the coastal ridge.


.*


5


(~#~
ff' ~








SOIL SURVEY


Welaka Variant soils are excessively drained and are
at higher elevation than Satellite soils. Typically, they
have a surface layer of black sand 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray and light gray sand 13 inches
thick. The subsoil to a depth of 96 inches or more is
pinkish gray, strong brown, yellowish red, and strong
brown sand.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Astatula,
Paola, Pendarvis, and Pompano soils. Paola soils on the
high ridges are the most common minor soils.
Some areas of this map unit in the eastern part of the
survey area are used for urban development. Part of the
city of Fort Pierce, some industries, and many homesites
are placed on this unit. Other areas, which were formerly
used to grow pineapple, are mostly in cabbage palms.
The rest of the unit is in natural vegetation.

Soils of the low ridges, knolls, and
flatwoods
The five map units in this group consist of nearly level
to gently sloping, somewhat excessively drained soils
and nearly level, poorly drained soils. Some soils are
sandy throughout, some have a loamy subsoil within a
depth of 20 inches, and some are underlain by loamy
material. Most of the soils are weakly cemented sand
above a depth of 50 inches. These units are scattered
throughout the mainland; however, they are most
common in the eastern third and in the extreme western
part of the survey area.

2. Salerno-Hobe-Waveland
Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained and some-
what excessively drained soils that have a dark sandy
subsoil; some soils are sandy throughout, some subsoils
are loamy below a depth of 40 inches, and some sub-
soils are weakly cemented
This map unit consists of flatwoods interspersed with
narrow, slightly elevated ridges and a few scattered
depressional areas. Three areas of this unit, ranging
from about 1/8 mile to almost 1 mile wide and from
about 1/4 mile to nearly 6 miles long, are along the
North Fork of the St. Lucie River. Natural vegetation on
the Hobe soils is sand pine, sand live oak, sawpalmetto,
running oak, and rosemary. Natural vegetation on the
Salerno and Waveland soils is south Florida slash pine,
sawpalmetto, fetterbush, huckleberry, and Florida and
pineland threeawn. Natural vegetation in the depres-
sional areas is sandweed, stillingia, and longleaf
threeawn.
This map unit makes up about 5,150 acres or about
1.4 percent of the survey area. It is about 50 percent
Salerno soils, about 30 percent Hobe soils, about 13
percent Waveland soils, and about 7 percent soils of
minor extent.


Salerno soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface
layer is black sand 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is light brownish gray sand 50 inches thick. The subsoil
is black, weakly cemented sand to a depth of 63 inches.
The underlying material, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is dark grayish brown sand to a depth of 68 inches and
olive gray sand below this layer.
Hobe soils are somewhat excessively drained. Typical-
ly, the surface layer is gray sand about 5 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is white sand 50 inches thick. The
subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is black sand to
a depth of 65 inches and pale brown sandy loam below
this layer.
Waveland soils are poorly drained. Typically, the sur-
face layer is about 8 inches thick. It is black fine sand in
the upper 4 inches and dark gray fine sand in the lower
4 inches. The subsurface layer is grayish brown sand
and light gray fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of 53
inches is black, weakly cemented loamy sand (fig. 2).
The substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is dark
grayish brown, grayish brown, and olive gray sand that
has pockets of loamy sand and sandy loam.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Ankona, Elec-
tra, Lawnwood, and Pendarvis soils.


- ~ -.E


Figure 2.-Profile of Waveland fine sand showing dark, weakly
cemented layers. Most soils with such layers are in the flatwoods.


6


-~f~i~2rrl







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


Most areas of this map unit are in natural vegetation.
A few areas are used for homesites and urban develop-
ment.

3. Waveland-Lawnwood

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy through-
out; the dark subsoil is weakly cemented
This map unit consists of broad flatwoods interspersed
with depressional areas. A large area, about 1 mile to 5
miles wide, is west of and parallel to the Indian River
and extends west along the southern edge of the survey
area. Another large area is in the southwestern part of
the survey area, and a small area is in the southcentral
part. Natural vegetation is south Florida slash pine, saw-
palmetto, fetterbush, tarflower, huckleberry, and lopsided
Indian, Florida, and pineland threeawn grasses. The nat-
ural vegetation of the depressional area is sandweed,
stillingia, and longleaf threeawn.
This map unit makes up about 60,350 acres or about
16.4 percent of the survey area. It is about 45 percent
Waveland soils, 30 percent Lawnwood soils, and 25 per-
cent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Waveland soils have a surface layer of
black and dark gray sand 8 inches thick. The subsurface
layer is grayish brown sand and light gray fine sand 24
inches thick. The subsoil is black, weakly cemented
loamy sand that extends to a depth of 53 inches. The
substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is grayish
brown and olive gray sand that has pockets of loamy
sand and sandy loam.
Typically, the Lawnwood soils have a surface layer of
black and very dark gray sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray and light gray sand 20 inches
thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 58 inches. It is
black, weakly cemented sand in the upper 24 inches and
dark reddish brown sand in the lower part. The substra-
tum, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is pale olive sand
that has pockets of loamy sand and sandy loam.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Pendarvis,
Electra, Ankona, and Tantile soils.
A large part of this map unit is used for urban develop-
ment. Some areas are used for citrus and improved
pasture. The rest is native vegetation.

4. Basinger-Myakka-Lawnwood

Nearly level, poorly drained soils that are sandy through-
out; the dark subsoil is weakly cemented in places
This map unit consists of broad, low sloughs inter-
spersed with slightly elevated flatwoods. It is mostly in
the extreme western part of the survey area; however,
one small area is in the southeastern part. The largest
area ranges from about 1/4 mile to 1 1/2 miles wide and


is about 9 miles long. Natural vegetation in the sloughs
is scattered south Florida slash pine and sawpalmetto,
waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, and maidencane. Natural
vegetation on the flatwoods is south Florida slash pine,
sawpalmetto, fetterbush, huckleberry, and Florida and
pineland threeawn.
This map unit makes up about 9,950 acres or about
2.7 percent of the survey area. It is about 60 percent
Basinger soils, 20 percent Myakka soils, 10 percent
Lawnwood soils, and 10 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Basinger soils have a surface layer of
very dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The subsur-
face layer is light brownish gray sand about 21 inches
thick. The subsoil is dark brown sand to a depth of about
55 inches. The substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is pale brown sand.
Typically, the Mayakka soils have a surface layer of
black and very dark gray fine sand about 7 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is gray and light gray fine sand
about 20 inches thick. The subsoil is black, dark reddish
brown, very dark grayish brown, and dark grayish brown
fine sand. The substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is brown and pale brown fine sand.
Typically, the Lawnwood soils have a surface layer of
black and very dark gray sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray and light gray sand about 20
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 58
inches. It is black, weakly cemented sand in the upper
24 inches and dark reddish brown sand in the lower part.
The substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is pale
olive sand.
Of minor extent in this unit are the Anclote and Kaliga
soils.
Some areas of this map unit are in natural vegetation.
Many areas, however, are used for improved pasture
and range.

5. Nettles-Ankona-Pepper
Nearly level, poorly drained soils; the subsoil is dark,
sandy, and weakly cemented in the upper part and
loamy in the lower part below a depth of 40 inches
This map unit consists of broad flatwoods interspersed
with depressional areas and sloughs. It is mostly in the
eastern half of the survey area, but a few areas are near
the western boundary. The largest area, about 7 miles
wide and 8 1/2 miles long, is in the southeastern part of
the survey area on the mainland. Another area is in the
western part of the survey area. Natural vegetation on
the flatwoods is south Florida slash pine, sawpalmetto,
fetterbush, huckleberry, lopsided indiangrass, and Florida
and pineland threeawn. Natural vegetation in the sloughs
and depressional areas is sandweed, stillingia, and long-
leaf threeawn.
This map unit makes up about 73,600 acres or about
20 percent of the survey area. It is about 40 percent


7







SOIL SURVEY


Nettles soils, 19 percent Ankona soils, 12 percent
Pepper soils, and 29 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Nettles soils have a surface layer of
black, very dark gray, and dark gray sand about 11
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray sand
about 22 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of
80 inches or more. It is black and dark reddish brown,
weakly cemented sand and loamy sand in the upper 6
inches; dark reddish brown and dark brown sand that is
not cemented in the next 16 inches; and pale olive fine
sandy loam in the lower part.
Typically, the Ankona soils have a surface layer of
black and dark gray sand about 11 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray and light gray sand about 27
inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is black, weakly cemented sand in the upper 10
inches and olive gray sandy loam in the lower part.
Typically, the Pepper soils have a surface layer of
black and dark gray sand about 9 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is gray sand about 14 inches thick. The
subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is black, weakly
cemented sand in the upper 10 inches; dark reddish
brown and dark brown sand that is not cemented in the
next 15 inches; and olive gray and light olive gray sandy
loam in the lower part.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Floridana,
Malabar, Oldsmar, Pineda, Pople, Riviera, and Wabasso
soils. The Malabar and Oldsmar soils in sloughs and
depressions are the most extensive minor soils.
Most areas of this map unit are in natural vegetation
and are used for range. Some areas are used for im-
proved pasture, citrus, or urban development.

6. Wabasso-Winder
Nearly level, poorly drained soils; the subsoil is dark and
sandy in the upper part and loamy in the lower part or is
loamy within a depth of 20 inches
This map unit consists of sandy and loamy soils on
broad flatwoods interspersed with depressional areas.
The largest area, about 8 miles long and 5 miles wide, is
in the southcentral part of the survey area. Two smaller
areas are in the northern part. Natural vegetation on the
flatwoods is south Florida slash pine, sawpalmetto, huck-
leberry, and pineland threeawn. Natural vegetation in the
depressional areas is sandweed, stillingia, and longleaf
threeawn.
This map unit makes up about 23,550 acres or about
6.4 percent of the survey area. It is about 80 percent
Wabasso soils, 10 percent Winder soils, and 10 percent
soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Wabasso soils have a surface layer of
black and very dark gray sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is dark gray and gray sand about 17
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of about 60
inches. In sequence from the top, it is black sand, dark
brown loamy sand, dark grayish brown sandy loam, and


olive gray sandy loam. The substratum, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is olive gray sand that contains shell
fragments.
Typically, the Winder soils have a surface layer of
black sand about 1 inch thick. The subsurface layer is
grayish brown and light brownish gray sand about 9
inches thick. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of about 25 inches. The underlying material is light
gray, light olive gray, gray, and greenish gray sandy loam
and sandy clay loam.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Chobee, Hal-
landale, Hilolo, Pineda, Winder Variant, and Wabasso
Variant soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used for citrus. Some
areas remain in natural vegetation.

Soils of the swamps, marshes, and very
wet areas that are subject to ponding or
flooding
The five map units in this group consist of nearly level,
poorly drained and very poorly drained soils. Some of
these soils are organic throughout; some are stratified
sand to clay; and some have a dark sandy subsoil.
Some soils have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20
inches; others have a loamy subsoil between depths of
20 to 40 inches. These units are mostly in the central
part and in the western half of the survey area.

7. Pineda-Wabasso-Riviera
Nearly level, poorly drained soils; the subsoil is loamy
within a depth of 40 inches or is dark and sandy in the
upper part and loamy in the lower part
This map unit consists of broad sloughs and depres-
sional areas interspersed with flatwoods. It occurs in
scattered areas on the mainland. The largest area, about
17 miles long and 7 miles wide, is in the northwestern
part of the survey area. Natural vegetation in the sloughs
is scattered south Florida slash pine, waxmyrtle, cab-
bage palms in places, scattered sawpalmetto, and blue
maidencane. Natural vegetation in the flatwoods is south
Florida slash pine, sawpalmetto, huckleberry, fetterbush,
and Florida and pineland threeawn. Natural vegetation in
the depressional areas is sandweed, stillingia, and long-
leaf threeawn.
This map unit makes up about 80,200 acres or 21.8
percent of the survey area. It is about 65 percent Pineda
soils, 12 percent Wabasso soils, 10 percent Riviera soils,
and 13 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Pineda soils have a surface layer of very
dark grayish brown and dark brown sand about 6 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is yellowish brown, strong
brown, pale brown, and light gray sand about 32 inches
thick. The subsoil is olive gray sandy loam and sandy
clay loam to a depth of 52 inches. The substratum, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is gray loamy sand.


8







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


Typically, the Wabasso soils have a surface layer of
black and very dark gray sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is dark gray and gray sand about 17
inches thick. The subsoil is black sand that extends to a
depth of about 6 inches. In sequence, it consists of
layers of black sand; dark brown loamy sand; dark gray-
ish brown sandy loam; and gray sandy loam. The sub-
stratum, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is olive gray
sand that has shell fragments.
Typically, the Riviera soils have a surface layer of gray
sand about 1 inch thick. The subsurface layer is light
gray and dark gray sand about 21 inches thick. The
subsoil is dark gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 30
inches. The substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is gray and dark gray sandy clay loam.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Wabasso
Variant, Chobee, Floridana, Hallandale, Hilolo, Kaliga,
Pople, Riviera, Winder Variant, and Winder soils.
Most areas of this map unit are in natural vegetation
and are used for rangeland.

8. Winder-Riviera
Nearly level, poorly drained soils; the loamy subsoil is
within a depth of 20 inches or is between depths of 20
and 40 inches
This map unit consists of broad, low areas inter-
spersed with numerous depressions and narrow, slightly
elevated ridges between the depressions. It is in St.
Johns Marsh, Allapattah Flats, Cypress Creek, and Five
and Ten Mile Creeks. One area, about 1 mile to 9 miles
wide, extends the entire length of the survey area; an-
other small area is near the western boundary of the
survey area. Natural vegetation in depressional areas
and low areas is sandweed, stillingia, and longleaf
threeawn. Natural vegetation on the ridges is waxmyrtle,
blue maidencane, and in places, cabbage palms.
This map unit makes up about 90,150 acres or about
24.5 percent of the survey area. It is about 44 percent
Winder soils, 36 percent Riviera soils, and 20 percent
soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Winder soils have a surface layer of
black sand about 1 inch thick. The subsurface layer is
grayish brown and light brownish gray sand about 9
inches thick. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam to a
depth of about 24 inches. The substratum, to a depth of
80 inches or more, is light gray, light olive gray, gray, and
greenish gray sandy loam and sandy clay loam.
Typically, the surface layer of the Riviera soils is gray
sand about 1 inch thick. The subsurface layer is light
gray and dark gray sand about 21 inches thick. The
subsoil is dark grayish brown sandy clay loam to a depth
of about 31 inches. The substratum, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is gray and dark gray sandy clay loam.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Wabasso
Variant, Chobee, Floridana, Hallandale, Hilolo, Kaliga,
Pineda, Pople, Riviera, Winder Variant, and Winder soils.


Most areas of this map unit are used for citrus. Some
areas remain in natural vegetation and are used for im-
proved pasture and rangeland.
9. Chobee
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; the subsoil is
loamy
This map unit consists of four low marshy areas. One
is in the southwestern part of the survey area, and the
others are in the northcentral part. Natural vegetation is
pickerelweed, maidencane, cypress, and a few oaks and
grasses (fig. 3).
This map unit makes up about 5,150 acres or about
1.4 percent of the survey area. It is about 80 percent
Chobee soils and 20 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Chobee soils have a black surface layer
of loamy sand about 11 inches thick. The subsoil is
black, very dark gray, dark gray, and gray sandy clay
loam.
The dominant minor soils in this map unit are the
Winder Variant, Floridana, Hallandale, and Kaliga soils.
Most areas of this map unit are used for citrus. A few
areas are in natural vegetation.

10. Samsula Variant-Myakka Variant
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are organic in
places; the dark subsoil is sandy
This map unit consists of low, long, narrow fresh
marshes in the Savannahs (fig. 4). The two areas, about
1/4 mile wide and 3 to 10 miles long, are north and
south of Fort Pierce parallel to the Atlantic Coastal
Ridge. Natural vegetation is buttonbush, sawgrass, and
cordgrass.
This map unit makes up about 4,050 acres or about
1.1 percent of the survey area. It is about 60 percent
Samsula Variant soils, 30 percent Myakka Variant soils,
and 10 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, the Samsula Variant soils have a surface
layer of black muck about 25 inches thick. The buried
subsurface layer is dark gray sand about 7 inches thick,
and the buried subsoil is very dark gray sand to a depth
of about 52 inches or more.
Typically, the Myakka Variant soils have a surface
layer of black muck about 11 inches thick. The subsur-
face layer is white, light gray, and grayish brown sand.
The subsoil is dark brown and dark reddish brown sand
to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The dominant minor soils in this map unit are the
Hontoon soils.
This map unit is in natural vegetation.

11. Fluvaquents-Terra Ceia
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils; some soils are


9








10


Figure 3.-Cypress swamp in an area of Chobee fine sand. This soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months in most years.


organic throughout, and some have variable layers of
sand to clay
This map unit consists of narrow flood plains along the
St. Lucie River and Ten Mile and Five Mile Creeks in the
southeastern part of the survey area. It is about 1/8 to
1/2 mile wide and about 13 miles long. Natural vegeta-
tion on the organic soils is a dense swamp of willows,
sweetbay, maple, waxmyrtle, sawgrass, ferns, and vines.
Natural vegetation on the mineral soils is cabbage
palms, several wetland hardwoods, sawpalmetto, and a
wide variety of herbaceous plants.
This map unit makes up about 3,700 acres or about 1
percent of the survey area. It is about 45 percent Fluva-
quents, about 40 percent Terra Ceia soils, and 15 per-
cent soils of minor extent.
Typically, Fluvaquents are variable within short dis-
tances in color, texture, and thickness of soil layers. The
layers range from sand to clay.
Typically, the Terra Ceia soils are black muck to a
depth of 80 inches or more.


This map unit is in natural vegetation.

Soils of the tidal areas
The one map unit in this group consists of nearly level
to gently sloping, moderately well drained to somewhat
poorly drained soils and nearly level, poorly drained and
very poorly drained soils. Most of the soils are sandy
throughout, but some soils are organic and are underlain
with loamy mineral material within a depth of 40 inches.
This unit is on Hutchinson Island.
12. Pompano Variant-Kaliga Variant-Canaveral
Nearly level to gently sloping, very poorly drained, some-
what poorly drained, and moderately well drained soils;
some soils are sandy throughout and some are organic
in the upper part and have loamy mineral material in the
lower part
This map unit consists of broad, very poorly drained
tidal swamps (fig. 5) and low, narrow, somewhat poorly


SOIL SURVEY







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


drained to moderately well drained, gently undulating
ridges along the Atlantic Ocean. The one area of this
unit is on Hutchinson Island, and it extends the length of
the survey area. Natural vegetation in the tidal swamps
is mangrove. Natural vegetation on the low, gently undu-
lating ridges is cabbage palms, sawpalmetto, sand live
oaks, seagrapes, scattered pines, and numerous
grasses.
This map unit makes up about 6,600 acres or about
1.8 percent of the survey area. It is about 55 percent
Pompano Variant soils and Kaliga Variant soils that are
mapped as an association, about 10 percent Canaveral
soils, and 35 percent soils of minor extent.
Pompano Variant soils are very poorly drained. Typi-
cally, they have a surface layer of greenish gray fine
sand about 1 inch thick and dark gray fine sand about 7
inches thick. The subsurface layers, to a depth of more
than 80 inches, are gray and greenish gray fine sand
mixed with shell fragments.
Kaliga Variant soils are very poorly drained. Typically,
they are black and dark reddish brown muck about 35
inches thick. The underlying material, to a depth of 52
inches or more, is dark grayish brown sandy clay loam.


Canaveral soils are somewhat poorly drained to mod-
erately well drained. Typically, they have a surface layer
of dark brown fine sand about 6 inches thick. The sub-
surface layers are pale brown and gray fine sand mixed
with shell fragments.
Of minor extent are the Turnbull Variant, Palm Beach,
and Myakka soils, and Beaches.
Most areas of this map unit are in natural vegetation.
Some areas, particularly the better drained areas along
the coast, are used for homesites or other urban pur-
poses.


Soil maps for detailed planning
The map units on the detailed soil maps at the back of
this survey represent the soils in the survey area. The
map unit descriptions in this section, along with the soil
maps, can be used to determine the suitability and po-
tential of a soil for specific uses. They also can be used
to plan the management needed for those uses. More
information on each map unit, or soil, is given under
"Use and management of the soils."


Figure 4.-Cordgrass and sawgrass on the Samsula-Myakka Variant association in an area of the Savannahs.


11







SOIL SURVEY


Figure 5.-Mangrove swamp in an area of the Pompano Variant-Kaliga Variant association. These swamps are common in the Indian River
between Hutchinson Island and the mainland.


Each map unit on the detailed soil maps represents an
area on the landscape and consists of one or more soils
for which the unit is named.
A symbol identifying the soil precedes the map unit
name in the soil descriptions. Each description includes
general facts about the soil, a brief description of the soil
profile, and a listing of the principal hazards and limita-
tions to be considered in planning management.
Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make up
a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
surface layer or of the underlying material, all the soils of
a series have major horizons that are similar in composi-
tion, thickness, and arrangement.
Soils of one series can differ in texture of the surface
layer or of the underlying material. They also can differ in
slope, stoniness, salinity, wetness, degree of erosion,
and other characteristics that affect their use. On the
basis of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil
phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil


maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use or
management. For example, Riviera fine sand is one of
several phases in the Riviera series.
Some map units are made up of two or more major
soils. These map units are called soil complexes, or soil
associations.
A soil complex consists of two or more soils in such
an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they
cannot be shown separately on the soil maps. The pat-
tern and proportion of the soils are somewhat similar in
all areas. Waveland-Lawnwood complex is an example.
A soil association is made up of two or more geo-
graphically associated soils that are shown as one unit
on the maps. Because of present or anticipated soil uses
in the survey area, it was not considered practical or
necessary to map the soils separately. The pattern and
relative proportion of the soils are somewhat similar.
Pompano Variant-Kaliga Variant is an example.


12







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


Most map units include small scattered areas of soils
other than those for which the map unit is named. Some
of these included soils have properties that differ sub-
stantially from those of the major soil or soils. Such
differences could significantly affect use and manage-
ment of the soils in the map unit. The included soils are
identified in each map unit description. Some small areas
of strongly contrasting soils are identified by a special
symbol on the soil maps.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such areas
have little or no soil material and support little or no
vegetation. Pits is an example. Miscellaneous areas are
shown on the soil maps. Some that are too small to be
shown are identified by a special symbol on the soil
maps.
Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent of
each map unit. Other tables (see "Summary of tables")
give properties of the soils and the limitations, capabili-
ties, and potentials for many uses. The Glossary defines
many of the terms used in describing the soils.

1-Anclote sand. This very poorly drained, nearly
level soil is in depressional areas and swamps. Slopes
are smooth to concave and are less than 1 percent in
most places, but they range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is sand 21 inches thick. It
is black in the upper 4 inches and very dark gray in the
lower 17 inches. The substratum is sand to a depth of
80 inches or more. It is gray in the upper 9 inches, dark
grayish brown in the next 7 inches, and grayish brown
below this layer.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Ba-
singer soils and Floridana soils. Each of the included
soils makes up less than 20 percent of any mapped
area.
The water table in Anclote sand is at or near the
surface during the rainy season in summer and after
periods of heavy rainfall in other seasons and recedes to
a depth of more than 20 inches the rest of the year.
Available water capacity is medium in the surface layer
and low in the substratum. Permeability is rapid through-
out; however, because of the shallow water table, inter-
nal drainage is slow. Natural fertility and organic matter
content are medium in the surface layer and low in the
substratum.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
mostly cypress and cabbage palms. Some areas have
been cleared and are used for improved pasture.
Under natural conditions, this soil has severe limita-
tions for cultivated crops. It has high potential for vegeta-
ble crops if a well designed and adequately maintained
water control system that provides rapid removal of
excess surface and internal water during heavy rains is
installed. Good seedbed preparation, crop rotation, and
regular applications of fertilizer are needed. Cover crops


should be grown two-thirds of the time and rotated with
the vegetable crops. Cover crops and crop residue
should be plowed under.
This soil is not suited to citrus without water control.
With intensive water control measures, however, it has
high potential for citrus. Trees should be planted in beds,
and close growing vegetation should be maintained be-
tween the trees. Regular applications of fertilizer are
needed.
Under natural conditions, this soil is too wet for most
improved pasture grasses and legumes. With adequate
water control, it has high potential for such plants as
pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and clovers. Simple drain-
age measures to remove excess surface water and
proper applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant vigor for high-
est yields.
This soil has high potential for pine. Slash pine is
better suited than other species. A good water control
system is needed to remove excessive surface water if
the production potential is to be realized. Severe equip-
ment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns.
This soil has medium potential for dwellings without
basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
and streets. Installation of water control measures helps
to overcome wetness of the soil. Potential is low for
septic tank absorption fields, playgrounds, shallow exca-
vations, and sewage lagoon areas. Water control sys-
tems help to overcome the excessive wetness of the
soil. Filling and mounding may be needed for septic tank
absorption fields. Shoring of sidewalls is needed for shal-
low excavations, and sealing or lining with impervious
material is needed for sewage lagoon areas. Potential is
very low for trench type sanitary landfills. Water control
systems are needed to overcome excessive wetness,
and sealing or lining with impervious material is needed
to overcome excessive seepage.
This soil is in capability subclass VIIw.

2-Ankona sand. This poorly drained, nearly level soil
is on broad flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to concave
and are less than 1 percent in most places, but they
range to 2 percent along the edges of depressional
areas.
Typically, the surface layer is sand 11 inches thick. It
is black in the upper 3 inches and dark gray in the lower
8 inches. The subsurface layer is sand 38 inches thick. It
is gray and light gray in the upper 24 inches and grayish
brown in the lower 3 inches. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 57 inches. It is black, moderately cemented
sand in the upper 10 inches and dark grayish brown
sandy loam in the lower 9 inches. The substratum, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is olive gray loamy sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of


13







SOIL SURVEY


Electra, Lawnwood, and Waveland soils. The included
soils make up about 15 percent of any mapped area.
The water table in Ankona sand is within a depth of 10
inches for 1 to 4 months and between depths of 10 to
40 inches for 6 months or more during most years. It is
perched above the upper part of the subsoil during the
rainy season in summer and after periods of heavy rain-
fall. During extended dry periods the water table recedes
to a depth of more than 40 inches. Available water
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers,
medium in the subsoil, and low in the substratum. Per-
meability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers,
very slow to slow in the upper part of the subsoil, and
moderately rapid to rapid in the lower part of the subsoil
and substratum. Natural fertility and organic matter con-
tent are low.
In most areas, natural vegetation is south Florida slash
pine and an understory of sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle,
pawpaw, inkberry, fetterbush, lopsided indiangrass,
creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, Florida threeawn,
and pineland threeawn. A few small areas are used for
citrus, improved pasture, and urban purposes.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops mainly because of wetness and low soil fertility.
Very intensive management is needed. The soil has
medium potential for vegetable crops if a water control
system that removes excess water in wet seasons and
provides for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons is in-
stalled. Close growing, soil improving crops should be
grown three-fourths of the time and rotated with the row
crops. The soil improving crops and crop residue should
be plowed under. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
according to the need of the crop.
This soil is not suited to citrus unless very intensive
management is provided. It has low potential for citrus if
a carefully designed water control system that will main-
tain the water table below a depth of 4 feet is installed.
Trees should be planted in beds to help lower the effec-
tive depth of the water table, and a vegetative cover
should be maintained between the trees. Regular appli-
cations of fertilizer and lime are needed (fig. 6).
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and
white clover grow well if they are well managed. Water
control measures to remove excess surface water after
heavy rains and regular applications of fertilizer and lime
are needed. Controlled grazing helps to prevent over-
grazing and weakening of plants.
This soil has low potential for pine trees. Slash pine is
better suited than other species. Equipment limitations
and seedling mortality are the main management con-
cerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and sewage lagoons. Water control measures
help to overcome excessive wetness. The size of ab-
sorption fields may need to be increased because of


slow permeability. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoon
areas helps to prevent excessive seepage. Potential is
medium for septic tank absorption fields, playgrounds,
trench type sanitary landfills, and shallow excavations.
Water control measures are needed. The sandy surface
layer should be stabilized for playground use. Sealing or
lining with impervious soil material is needed for trench
sanitary landfills and sewage lagoon areas to reduce
excessive seepage. Shoring of sidewalls is needed for
shallow excavations.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

3-Ankona-Urban land complex. This complex con-
sists of Ankona sand and Urban land. The components
are so intermingled they cannot be separated at the
scale used for mapping. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 per-
cent.
About 50 to 70 percent of the complex is nearly level
Ankona soils or Ankona soils that have been reworked
or reshaped but are still recognizable as Ankona soil,
and 15 to 50 percent is Urban land.
Typically, the surface layer of the Ankona soils is sand
11 inches thick. It is black in the upper 3 inches and
dark gray in the lower 8 inches. The subsurface layer is
gray, light gray, and grayish brown sand 27 inches thick.
The subsoil, to a depth of 57 inches, is moderately
cemented, black sand in the upper 10 inches and dark
grayish brown sandy loam in the lower 9 inches. The
substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is olive
gray loamy sand.
The areas of Urban land are covered by houses,
streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and other
uses. Unoccupied areas are mostly lawns, vacant lots, or
playgrounds made up of Ankona soils. These areas are
so small and intermixed with Urban land that it is imprac-
tical to map them separately.
Included with this complex in mapping are about 15
percent Nettles, Electra, Lawnwood, Pendarvis, and Tan-
tile soils. A few areas that have as much as 80 percent
or as little as 10 percent Urban land are also included.
Areas of soils that have been modified by grading and
shaping are more extensive in newer communities than
in older communities. Streets are commonly excavated
below the original soil surface and the material excavat-
ed is spread over the adjacent area. Sand material from
drainage ditches is often used as fill for sloughs or de-
pressions. In addition, material from outside the area is
frequently hauled in for fill.
In undrained areas, this complex has a water table
within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months of most
years. However, drainage systems have been estab-
lished in most areas and depth to the water table de-
pends upon the efficiency of the drainage system.
Present land use precludes the use of this complex for
cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture.
This complex is not placed in a capability subclass.


14







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


Figure 6.-Young citrus grove on Ankona sand. A good water control system is needed before citrus can be grown on this soil.


4-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This soil consists
of soil material dug from several areas that have differ-
ent kinds of soil. It is used to fill such areas as low
sloughs, marshes, shallow depressions, and swamps
above their natural ground levels.
In most places, the Arents soil is made up of loose,
sandy mineral material; however, amounts of loamy and
weakly cemented sandy materials that were subsoils in
other areas are mixed throughout. A variable mixture of
lenses, streaks, and pockets occur within short dis-
tances. Depth of the fill material ranges from about 20 to
50 inches. Several kinds of mineral soils underlie the fill
material.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of


Canaveral soil and sandy fill material that does not con-
tain fragments of former subsoils. Also included are
areas that are used as trench type sanitary landfills.
These areas are made up of 50 to 80 percent solid
waste materials; for example, plastic, wood, paper,
metal, or glass. They are identified on the soil map as
"Sanitary landfill."
The water table in this Arents soil is between depths
of 20 and 50 inches for most of the year. Available water
capacity and permeability are variable.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of periodic wetness and low fertility. It has
medium potential for vegetable crops if a water control
system that removes excess water in wet seasons and


15


fcl







SOIL SURVEY


provides for irrigation in dry seasons is installed. Good
management practices include crop rotation with close
growing crops grown at least two-thirds of the time, the
plowing under of soil improving crops and other crop
residue, and the application of fertilizer and lime accord-
ing to the need of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless good water
control is provided. It has medium potential for citrus if a
well designed water control system is installed. Excess
water needs to be rapidly removed from the soil to a
depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees in beds lowers the
effective depth of the water table. A cover of close
growing vegetation should be maintained between the
trees to protect the soil from erosion. Trees require regu-
lar applications of fertilizer. Lime is needed on some
areas. Irrigation can be needed in seasons of low rain-
fall.
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass and bahiagrass grow well. A
water control system that removes excess surface water
in times of high rainfall is needed. Regular applications
of fertilizer are needed, and lime is needed in some
areas. Carefully controlled grazing helps to maintain
healthy plants for highest yields.
This soil has medium potential for pine. Slash pine is
better suited than other species. Equipment limitations
and seedling mortality are the major management con-
cerns.
Except in areas of sanitary landfill, this soil has high
potential for dwellings without basements, small com-
mercial buildings, and local roads and streets. Water
control measures are needed to help overcome exces-
sive wetness. The sandy surface layer needs to be stabi-
lized for playground use. Except in areas of sanitary
landfill, potential is medium for septic tank absorption
fields and shallow excavations. Water control and the
shoring of sidewalls for shallow excavations are needed.
Potential is low for trench type sanitary landfills. Water
control and sealing and lining with impervious soil materi-
al are needed. Potential is very low for sewage lagoon
areas. Water control and sealing or lining with impervious
material are needed.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

5-Arents, 45 to 65 percent slopes. This soil con-
sists of soil materials dug from canals and piled along-
side, and materials excavated during construction of
highway overpasses and interchanges and used for em-
bankments. Most areas are long and narrow and have
narrow ridgetops.
In most places, the Arents soil is made up of inter-
mixed sandy mineral materials and amounts of loamy
and weakly cemented sandy materials that were sub-
soils. A variable mixture of lenses, streaks, and pockets
occur within short distances. Depth of the material
ranges from a few inches at the outer edges of areas to
10 feet or more.


Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
sandy material that do not contain fragments of former
subsoils and a few areas where the slope is less than 45
percent. The included soils make up less than 30 per-
cent of the mapped area.
This Arents soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus,
improved pasture, or pine. It has very low potential for
these uses. Some areas have been shaped to help
reduce erosion, and some areas have been covered with
vegetation. Spanish needle, natalgrass, and a few other
native grasses produce a sparse cover in some areas.
This soil has low potential for septic tank absorption
fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
buildings, local roads and streets, playgrounds, trench
type sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and sewage
lagoon areas. Water control measures are needed to
overcome excessive wetness for septic tank absorption
fields, buildings without basements, and small commer-
cial buildings. Unstable organic material needs to be
removed for local roads and streets, and should be re-
placed with suitable material if the soil is to be used for
dwellings without basements and small commercial build-
ings. The sandy surface layer should be stablized for
playground use. Sealing or lining with impervious soil
material is needed to help overcome excessive seepage
for trench type sanitary landfills and sewage lagoon
areas, and, in addition, water control measures are
needed for sewage lagoon areas. Shoring of sidewalls is
needed for shallow excavations.
This soil is in capability subclass Vile.

6-Arents, organic substratum. This soil consists of
soil materials dug from several areas with different kinds
of soils that have been spread over muck in marshes or
mangrove swamps. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
In most places, the Arents soil is made up of loose,
sandy mineral material; however, amounts of loamy and
weakly cemented sandy material that were subsoils in
other areas are mixed throughout. A variable mixture of
lenses, streaks, and pockets are within short distances.
Depth of the fill material ranges from about 20 to 70
inches. Muck of variable thickness underlies the fill mate-
rial, and mineral material underlies the muck.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas that
do not have a muck layer and areas that do not have
fragments of former subsoils.
The water table in this Arents soil is within a depth of
50 inches for most of the year. Available water capacity
and permeability are variable.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of periodic wetness and low fertility. It has
medium potential for vegetable crops if a water control
system that removes excess water in wet seasons and
provides for irrigation in dry seasons is installed. Good
management practices include crop rotation that keeps
the soil in close growing crops at least two-thirds of the
time, the plowing under of soil improving crops and crop


16







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


residue, and the application of fertilizer and lime accord-
ing to the need of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless good water
control is provided. It has medium potential for citrus if a
well designed water control system is installed. Excess
water needs to be removed from the soil to a depth of
about 4 feet. Planting trees on beds lowers the effective
depth of the water table. A cover of close growing vege-
tation should be maintained between the trees to protect
the soil from erosion. Trees require regular applications
of fertilizer. Lime is needed on some areas. For highest
yields, irrigation is needed in periods of low rainfall.
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass and bahiagrass grow well. A
water control system that removes excess surface water
in periods of heavy rainfall is needed. Regular applica-
tions of fertilizer are required, and lime is needed in
some areas. Carefully controlled grazing helps to main-
tain healthy plants for highest yields.
This soil has medium potential for pine. Slash pine is
better suited than other species. Equipment limitations
and seedling mortality are the major management con-
cerns.
This soil has high potential for playgrounds. However,
land shaping and stabilization of the sandy surface layer
are needed. Potential is medium for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, trench type sanitary landfills, and shallow ex-
cavations. The absorption field needs to be fitted to the
slope on this soil, trench type sanitary landfills need to
be sealed or lined with impervious soil material, and
sidewalls of shallow excavations need to be shored. Po-
tential is low for dwellings without basements, small
commercial buildings, and local roads and streets. Land
shaping is needed for all of these uses. Potential is very
low for sewage lagoon areas. Sealing or lining with im-
pervious soil material to overcome excessive seepage is
needed.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

7-Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This exces-
sively drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is on
broad, high ridges. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish brown
sand about 4 inches thick. The underlying material, to a
depth of 110 inches or more, is strong brown sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Paola, Pendarvis, and Welaka Variant soils. The included
soils make up less than 20 percent of any mapped area.
The water table in Astatula sand is below a depth of
72 inches annually. Available water capacity is very low,
and permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility and organ-
ic matter content are very low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
cabbage palm, hickory, and longleaf pine and an under-
story of bryophyllum. The most common native grass is
pineland threeawn.


This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. It has very
low potential for vegetable crops and low potential for
citrus. A ground cover of close growing plants is needed
between the trees to protect the soil from blowing. A
well designed irrigation system is needed to maintain
optimum moisture conditions and assure highest yields.
This soil has low potential for improved pasture
grasses. Deep rooted plants, for example, coastal ber-
mudagrass and bahiagrasses are well adapted, but
yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular applica-
tions of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing
is needed to permit plants to recover from grazing and to
help maintain vigor.
This soil has low potential for pine. Slash pine and
sand pine are better suited than other species. Equip-
ment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns.
This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, and local roads
and streets. No corrective measures are needed. Poten-
tial is high for small commercial buildings. Land shaping
may be needed on the more sloping areas. Potential is
medium for playgrounds, trench type sanitary landfills,
and shallow excavations. The sandy surface should be
stabilized for playground use, and land shaping may be
needed on the more sloping areas. Sealing or lining with
impervious material is needed to reduce excessive seep-
age for trench type sanitary landfills. Shoring of sidewalls
is needed for shallow excavations. Potential is very low
for sewage lagoon areas. Sealing or lining with impervi-
ous soil material is needed to reduce excessive seep-
age.
This soil is in capability subclass VIs.

8-Basinger sand. This poorly drained, nearly level
soil is in sloughs, on broad low flats, and along poorly
defined drainageways in the flatwoods. Slopes are
smooth to concave and are less than 1 percent in most
places, but they range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brown-
ish gray sand 21 inches thick. The subsoil is dark brown
sand to a depth of 55 inches. The substratum, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is pale brown sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Anclote, Myakka, and Pompano soil. Also included are
areas that have a dark surface layer 6 to 10 inches thick,
areas that have a loamy substratum, and areas that are
brown and yellow in the substratum. The included soils
make up less than 30 percent of any mapped area.
The water table in Basinger sand is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months annually and between
depths of 10 to 30 inches for periods of more than 6
months in most years. Available water capacity is low,
and permeability is very rapid. However, internal drainage
is slow because of a shallow water table. Natural fertility
and organic matter content are low.


17







SOIL SURVEY


Natural vegetation consists of a few scattered slash
pine and an understory of waxmyrtle, inkberry, sawpal-
metto, and pondweed. In some areas in low hammocks,
vegetation is mostly live oak and cabbage palms. The
most common native grass is pineland threeawn. Creep-
ing bluestem, lopsided indiangrass, blue maidencane,
and Florida paspalum are also grown in this soil.
This soil has very severe limitations for crops because
of wetness and low fertility. However, the soil has
medium potential for some vegetable crops if very inten-
sive management practices are followed. Soil improving
measures and a good water control system that removes
excess water in wet seasons and provides for irrigation
in dry seasons are needed. Close growing, soil improving
crops should be kept on the soil three-fourths of the time
and rotated with the row crops. These soil improving
crops and crop residue should be plowed under.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of rows.
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
need of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus under natural condi-
tions. However, it has low potential for citrus if a carefully
designed water control system that maintains the water
table below a depth of 4 feet is installed. Planting trees
in beds lowers the effective depth of the water table.
Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil has low potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and
white clover grow well if they are well managed. Water
control measures are needed to remove excess surface
water during heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer
and lime are needed. Controlled grazing is needed to
prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
This soil has low potential for pine. Slash pine is better
suited than other species. A good water control system
is needed to remove excessive surface water if the pro-
duction potential is to be realized. Equipment limitations
and moderate seedling mortality are the main manage-
ment concerns.
This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commer-
cial buildings, and local roads and streets. Water control
measures are needed to overcome excessive wetness.
Mounding may be needed for septic tank absorption
fields. Potential is low for playgrounds and shallow exca-
vations. Water control measures are needed. The sandy
surface should be stabilized for playground use, and the
sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored. Poten-
tial is very low for trench type sanitary landfills and for
sewage lagoon areas. Water control measures and seal-
ing or lining with impervious soil material are needed.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

9-Beaches. Beaches consist of narrow strips of tide
washed, very rapidly permeable sand along the Atlantic
coast line (fig. 7). Beaches range from less than 100 feet


to more than 500 feet in width, but in most places they
are less than 200 feet wide. As much as half of the
beach can be covered by water during daily high tides,
and all of it can be covered during periods of storm. The
shape and slope of the beaches commonly change with
every storm. Most areas have a uniform, gentle slope to
the water's edge. Other areas have wave-built ridges
with short, stronger slopes ranging to 15 percent or
more, and a few shallow inland swales.
Most beaches have no vegetation, but inland edges
are sometimes sparsely covered with moonvine, railroad
vine, sea oats, and seashore bermudagrass.
The water table ranges from a depth of 0 to 6 feet or
more. The depth is highly variable, depending on dis-
tance from the water, height of the beach, effect of
storms, and time of year.
Beaches are frequently mixed and reworked by waves.
Near the water's edge the sand is firm or compact, but
farther back the sand is drier and is loose. The beaches
are made up of pale brown to light gray uncoated quartz
sand grains mixed with multicolored, sand-size to 1/2-
inch shell fragments and few to many coarser shell frag-
ments. Some areas have pockets or lenses of coquina
shell or large shell fragments and little or no sand. A few
places in this map unit have rock outcrop. If the outcrop
is at the water's edge, it commonly acts as a barrier to
each incoming wave. Some areas are underlain by or-
ganic material.
Beaches are not suited to row crops, citrus, or pas-
ture. They have very low potential for these uses. They
are suited mainly to recreation and wildlife habitat. Be-
cause the beaches have great esthetic value, they are
an important part of the waterfront.
This soil has very low potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commer-
cial buildings, local roads and streets, playgrounds,
trench type sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and
sewage lagoon areas. There are no feasible practical
measures to overcome wetness and the hazard of flood-
ing of this soil.
This soil is in capability subclass Vlllw.

10-Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This moderately well drained to somewhat poorly
drained, nearly level to gently sloping soil is on low
dunelike ridges and side slopes that border depressional
areas and sloughs near the coast. Slopes are smooth to
concave in the sloughs and smooth to convex on the
low dunelike ridges.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The underlying material extends to
a depth of 80 inches or more. The upper part, to a depth
of 28 inches, is pale brown fine sand and the lower part
is gray fine sand. There are many sand-size shell frag-
ments.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of


18








ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


k nk--'--- -<* .^ _


Figure 7.-Area of Beaches. Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is on the beach and Palm Beach fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
is on the high ridge.


Pompano, Myakka, and Palm Beach soils, about 10 per-
cent of which have a dark surface layer. Also included
are thin ledges of limestone. The included soils make up
less than 30 percent of any mapped area.
The water table in Canaveral fine sand is between
depths of 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months or more and
is within a depth of 60 inches for most of the rest of the
year. Available water capacity is very low, and permeabil-
ity is very rapid. Rainfall is rapidly absorbed but moves
rapidly through the soil and very little water is retained.
Natural fertility and organic matter content are very low.
In most areas, natural vegetation is cabbage palms,
scattered sawpalmetto, magnolia, bay, and scattered
slash pine. The understory is inkberry and pineland
threeawn.
This soil is not suited to vegetable or other cultivated
crops, and it is poorly suited to citrus and improved
pasture grasses. It has very low potential for vegetable
crops and low potential for citrus and pasture. Low natu-
ral fertility and a lack of water retention severely reduce
the variety of grasses.


This soil has low potential for pine trees. Slash pine
grows better than other species. Moderate equipment
limitations and severe seedling mortality are the main
management concerns.
This soil has very high potential for local roads and
streets, and high potential for septic tank absorption
fields, dwellings without basements, and small commer-
cial buildings. Water control measures help to overcome
excessive wetness. The soil has medium potential for
playgrounds, trench type sanitary landfills, and shallow
excavations. The sandy surface layer should be stabi-
lized for playground use. Water control measures and
sealing or lining with impervious material are needed to
help reduce excessive seepage rates for trench type
sanitary landfills, and shoring of sidewalls and water con-
trol measures are needed for shallow excavations. The
soil has very low potential for sewage lagoon areas.
Water control measures and sealing or lining with imper-
vious material are needed to reduce excessive seepage.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis.


19







SOIL SURVEY


11-Chobee loamy sand. This very poorly drained,
nearly level soil is in small to large depressional areas,
along poorly defined drainageways, and on low lying
flats. Slopes are smooth to concave and are less than 1
percent in most places, but they range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black loamy sand 11
inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is sandy clay loam. In sequence from the top, it is
black in the upper 13 inches; very dark gray in the next
11 inches; dark gray in the next 5 inches; gray with light
gray calcareous nodules in the next 30 inches; and gray
in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Winder Variant, Floridana, Hallandale, and Kaliga soils.
Also included are areas of soils that have a thin muck
surface layer. These soils are generally in the center of
areas. The included soils make up less than 20 percent
of any mapped area.
The water table in Chobee loamy sand is above the
surface for 6 to 9 months in most years and within a
depth of 10 inches for most of the rest of the year. In dry
seasons, it is below a depth of 40 inches for short
periods. Available water capacity is medium, and perme-
ability is moderately rapid in the surface layer and slow
to very slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility is high.
A large part of the acreage is planted to citrus. Natural
vegetation is pickerelweed, lilies, and sawgrass in tree-
less areas and cypress or swamp maple, sweetgum,
water oak, and cabbage palm in wooded areas.
Under natural conditions, Chobee soil has severe limi-
tations for cultivated crops because of wetness. Howev-
er, it has high potential for many crops if a well designed
and maintained water control system that provides rapid
removal of excess water during heavy rains is installed.
Other soil management practices should include good
seedbed preparation, crop rotation, and regular applica-
tions of fertilizer. Soil improving cover crops need to be
grown at least two-thirds of the time and rotated with the
row crops. Soil improving crops and crop residue should
be plowed under.
This soil is not suited to citrus without water control. It
has high potential for citrus if a water control system that
maintains good soil aeration to a depth of about 4 feet is
provided. Planting trees in beds lowers the effective
depth of the water table. A good cover of close growing
vegetation is needed between the trees to prevent ero-
sion. Regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
This soil is too wet for most improved pasture grasses
under natural conditions; however, it has high potential if
adequate water control is provided. Simple measures to
remove water after rain are needed. Adequate applica-
tions of fertilizer and lime help to obtain high yields of
pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and white clover. Controlled
grazing is needed to maintain plant vigor.
This soil has high potential for pine, but a good water
control system is needed to remove excessive surface


water if the production potential is to be realized. Slash
pine is better adapted than other species. Equipment
limitations and seedling mortality are the main manage-
ment concerns.
This soil has high potential for sewage lagoon areas.
Water control measures are needed to overcome exces-
sive wetness. Potential is medium for trench type sani-
tary landfills and shallow excavations. Water control
measures are needed to overcome excessive wetness.
Potential is low for dwellings without basements, small
commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and play-
grounds. Water control measures are needed. Potential
is very low for septic tank absorption fields. The installa-
tion of water control measures, addition of fill material,
and mounding of the septic tank absorption field help to
overcome excessive wetness.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

12-Electra fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
somewhat poorly drained, nearly level and gently sloping
soil is on low ridges and knolls. Slopes are smooth to
convex and are less than 3 percent in most places, but
they range from 0 to 5 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray fine sand 7 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is white fine sand 40 inches
thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. It is dark reddish brown fine sand in the upper 13
inches and light brownish gray fine sandy loam below
this layer.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Ankona, Hobe, Jonathan, and Pendarvis soils. The in-
cluded soils make up less than 15 percent of any
mapped area.
The water table in Electra fine sand is between depths
of 25 to 40 inches for about 4 months and below a
depth of 40 inches during dry periods. Available water
capacity is very low to low to a depth of 47 inches and
medium below this depth. Permeability is very rapid to a
depth of 47 inches, moderate to a depth of 60 inches,
and moderately slow to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Natural fertility and organic matter content are very low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
south Florida slash pine and scrub oak and an under-
story of sawpalmetto, fetterbush, gopherapple, tarflower,
and running oak. The most common native grass is pine-
land threeawn.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. It has low
potential for vegetables and citrus and medium potential
for improved pasture grasses that are resistant to
drought conditions. Irrigation is needed in periods of low
rainfall for highest yields. Grazing needs to be carefully
controlled.
This soil has low potential for pine. Slash pine and
sand pine are the best adapted species. Equipment limi-
tations and seedling mortality are the main management
concerns.


20







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
and streets. No corrective measures are needed. Poten-
tial is high for septic tank absorption fields. Water control
is needed. Potential is medium for playgrounds, trench
type sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and sewage
lagoon areas. The sandy surface layer should be stabi-
lized for playground use. Water control measures are
needed for many uses. Sealing or lining with impervious
soil material is needed for trench type sanitary landfills
and sewage lagoon areas. Shoring of sidewalls is
needed for shallow excavations.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis.
13-Floridana sand. This very poorly drained, nearly
level soil is in wet depressional areas and on broad low
flats. Slopes are smooth to concave and are less than 1
percent in most places, but they range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is 21 inches thick. In se-
quence from the top, it is black sand in the upper 3
inches; very dark gray sand in the next 2 inches; black
sand in the next 6 inches; and very dark gray sand in the
lower 10 inches. The subsurface layer is dark gray sand
4 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 60
inches. In sequence from the top of this layer, it is dark
gray sandy clay loam with sandy krotovinas in the upper
12 inches; dark gray sandy clay loam in the next 13
inches; and gray sandy loam below this layer. The under-
lying material, to a depth of more than 80 inches, is gray
and light gray sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pineda, Riviera, and Winder soils. Also included are
areas that have a light colored subsurface layer and
areas that have a dark surface layer more than 24
inches thick. The included areas make up less than 15
percent of the map unit.
Floridana sand is ponded for more than 6 months
annually. Available water capacity is medium in the sur-
face layer and subsoil and low in the subsurface layer.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and slow to very slow in the subsoil. Internal drainage is
slow because oi a shallow water table. Natural fertility
and organic matter are medium to a depth of 20 inches
and low below this depth.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
sandweed and sand cordgrass in the depressional areas
(fig. 8) and waxmyrtle on the broad low flats. In places,
the vegetation is almost entirely cypress.
This soil is not suitable for cultivation under natural
conditions. It has high potential for many vegetable
crops if a well designed and maintained water control
system that provides for rapid removal of excess water
during heavy rains is installed. Other important soil man-
agement practices are good seedbed preparation, crop
rotation, and regular applications of fertilizer and lime.
Cover crops should be grown two-thirds of the time and
rotated with the row crops. The soil improving crops and
crop residue should be plowed under.


This soil is not suited to citrus unless water control
measures that will maintain good soil aeration to a depth
of about 4 feet are provided. The soil has high potential
for citrus if water control is provided and if trees are
planted in beds. A good cover of close growing vegeta-
tion is needed between the trees to prevent erosion.
Trees require regular applications of fertilizer.
Under natural conditions, this soil is too wet for im-
proved pasture grasses and legumes. It has high poten-
tial for many grasses and legumes if water control is
provided. Pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and clovers grow
well if adequate amounts of fertilizer and lime are ap-
plied. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain plant
vigor for highest yields.
This soil has high potential for pine if water control
measures are provided. Slash pine is better adapted
than other species. Equipment limitations and seedling
mortality are the main management concerns.
This soil has high potential for sewage lagoon areas.
Water control measures are needed to overcome exces-
sive wetness. Potential is medium for trench type sani-
tary landfills and shallow excavations. Water control
measures are needed. Potential is low for dwellings with-
out basements, small commercial buildings, local roads
and streets, and playgrounds. Water control measures
are needed. Potential is very low for septic tank absorp-
tion fields. Installation of water control measures, the
addition of fill material, and mounding of the septic tank
absorption field help to overcome excessive wetness.
This soil is in capability subclass VIIw.

14-Fluvaquents. This very poorly drained, nearly
level soil is on flood plains of rivers and creeks. Slopes
are smooth to concave or convex and range from 0 to 2
percent. Color, texture, and thickness of the soil layers
are variable within short distances. Texture ranges from
sand to clay and thickness of layers ranges from 2 to 30
inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chobee, Kaliga, Pompano, Riviera, and Winder soils. The
included soils make up less than 30 percent of any
mapped area.
The water table in Fluvaquents is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 4 to 6 months and within a depth of
40 inches for 9 to 12 months. More than once every 2
years the soils are flooded for a period of 7 to 30 days.
Available water capacity is medium to high in the loamy
and clayey layers and low in the sandy layers. Perme-
ability is rapid in the sandy layers and moderate to very
slow in the loamy and clayey layers. Natural fertility and
content of organic matter are low, but they vary.
Natural vegetation is cabbage palms and wetland
hardwoods and an understory of sawpalmetto and her-
baceous plants.
This soil is not suited to vegetable crops, citrus, pas-
ture, or pine because of the hazard of flooding. It has
very low potential for these uses.


21







SOIL SURVEY


Figure 8.-Pickerelweed, cordgrass, and stillingia in a very wet area of Floridana sand.


This soil has low potential for shallow excavations and
for playgrounds and very low potential for septic tank
absorption fields, dwellings without basements, small
commercial buildings, local roads and streets, trench
type sanitary landfills, and sewage lagoon areas. Water
control measures and flood protection are needed for all
these uses. In addition, mounding may be needed for
septic tank absorption fields.
This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

15-Hallandale sand. This poorly drained, nearly level
soil is on broad low flats, in low hammocks, and along
poorly defined drainageways. Slopes are smooth to
convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 6 inches thick. The substratum to a depth of 12
inches is dark grayish brown sand in the upper 4 inches
and a discontinuous layer of dark grayish brown loamy
sand in the lower 2 inches. Below this is a 25-inch, hard
fractured limestone ledge containing solution holes (fig.
9). The lower part of the substratum, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is gray sand that contains shell frag-
ments.


Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Hilolo, Pople, and Winder Variant soils. Also included are
areas where the limestone ledge is within a depth of 7
inches, areas that have more than 7 inches of dark
surface soil, and areas that have a sandy clay loam
subsoil. The included soils make up less than 20 percent
of any mapped area.
The water table in Hallandale sand is at a depth of
less than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months and within a depth
of 20 inches for 6 months or more. In the dry season, it
is below the limestone ledge. Available water capacity is
low in the surface layer, very low in the subsurface layer,
and medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid through-
out. Water moves through the solution holes in the lime-
stone freely. Natural fertility is low.
Some of this soil has been cleared and is planted to
citrus. The rest is in natural vegetation of slash pine and
live oak and an understory of sawpalmetto and cabbage
palm. Grasses are pineland threeawn and bluestem.
Under natural conditions this soil has very severe limi-
tations for cultivated crops. Shallow rock and a high


22








ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


Figure 9.-Profile of Hallandale sand. Hard limestone is a few
inches below the surface.

water table near the surface during much of the year
severely restrict root development. The soil has medium
potential for vegetable crops if a good water control
system is installed and soil improving measures are
used. Excess water in wet seasons needs to be removed
if the production potential of this soil is to be realized.
Because rock is near the surface, the construction of a
good water control system is difficult. Close growing, soil
improving crops should be kept on the soil three-fourths
of the time and rotated with the row crops. The soil
improving crops and crop residue should be plowed
under. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to
the need of the crop.
This soil has medium potential for citrus if very inten-
sive management that includes a carefully designed
water control system is provided. The water control
system should maintain the water table below a depth of


about 4 feet. Planting trees in beds lowers the effective
depth of the water table. A vegetative cover should be
maintained between the trees. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and
white clover grow well if they are well managed. Water
control measures are needed to remove excess surface
water after heavy rains, and regular applications of fertil-
izer and lime are required. Grazing should be controlled
to prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
This soil has low potential for pine. Slash pine is the
best adapted species. The hazard of windthrow, equip-
ment limitations, and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns. Proper water control is needed if
the production potential is to be realized.
This soil has medium potential for dwellings without
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and playgrounds. Water control measures are
needed. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for
playground use. Potential is low for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, trench type sanitary landfills, shallow excava-
tions, and sewage lagoon areas. Water control measures
are needed. Sealing or lining with impervious soil materi-
al helps to reduce excessive seepage for trench type
sanitary landfills and sewage lagoon areas.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

16-Hilolo loamy sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is on hammocks and along borders of depres-
sional areas and sloughs. Slopes are smooth to convex
and are less than 1 percent in most places, but they
range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is loamy sand 7 inches
thick. It is very dark gray in the upper 2 inches and black
in the lower 3 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of
53 inches. In sequence from the top of this layer, it is
dark gray fine sandy loam in the upper 5 inches; dark
gray sandy clay loam in the next 16 inches; gray fine
sandy loam in the next 8 inches; and olive gray fine
sandy loam in the lower 17 inches. The substratum, to a
depth of more than 80 inches, is light olive gray loamy
fine sand in the upper 21 inches and gray fine sandy
loam below this layer.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Winder Variant, Hallandale, Pineda, Pople, and Riviera
soils. Also included are a few areas that have limestone
boulders in the subsoil and areas that have a light col-
ored subsurface layer. The included soils make up less
than 35 percent of any mapped area.
The water table in Hilolo loamy sand is at a depth of
less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months in most years. It is
between depths of 10 to 40 inches for 6 to 9 months
and below a depth of 40 inches during dry periods.
Available water capacity is low to medium in the surface
layer and substratum and medium in the subsoil. Perme-


23







SOIL SURVEY


ability is moderate to moderately slow in the subsoil and
slow to very slow in the substratum. Natural fertility and
organic matter content are moderate.
Most of the acreage has been cleared and is used for
citrus. Natural vegetation is cabbage palms, water oak,
longleaf pine, and slash pine, and an understory of wax-
myrtle, sawpalmetto, and inkberry. The most common
native grass is pineland threeawn.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of wetness. It has high potential for vegetable
crops if a complete water control system is installed and
maintained. Such a system should remove excess sur-
face water and internal water rapidly, and provide for
subsurface irrigation. Good soil management includes
crop rotation that keeps the soil in close growing crops
at least two-thirds of the time. These soil improving
crops and crop residue should be plowed under. Other
important management practices are good seedbed
preparation that includes bedding, and the application of
fertilizers according to the need of the crop.
This soil has high potential for citrus if a water control
system that maintains good drainage to about a depth of
4 feet is installed. Planting the trees in beds lowers the
effective depth of the water table. A good cover of close
growing vegetation should be maintained between the
trees to protect the soil from erosion. Regular applica-
tions of fertilizer are required, but liming is not needed.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture
grasses. It is well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrasses,
and clovers. Good pastures of grass or grass-clover mix-
tures can be grown with good management. Regular
applications of fertilizer are needed, and grazing should
be controlled for highest yields.
This soil has medium potential for pine. Slash pine is
better adapted than other species. Water control is
needed if the production potential is to be realized.
Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and sewage lagoon areas and medium potential
for playgrounds, trench type sanitary landfills, and shal-
low excavations. Water control measures are needed to
overcome excessive wetness. The sandy surface layer
should be stabilized for playground use. Potential is low
for septic tank absorption fields. Water control measures
are needed, and the size of the absorption field should
be increased.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

17-Hobe sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This some-
what excessively drained, nearly level and gently sloping
soil is on ridges and knolls in the flatwoods. Slopes are
smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand 5 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is white sand 50 inches thick. The
subsoil extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. It is


black sand in the upper 10 inches and light brownish
gray sandy loam below this layer.
Included with this soil in mapping is about 15 percent
Electra, Jonathan, and Pendarvis soils. Also included are
about 30 percent areas that do not have an argillic
horizon within a depth of 80 inches. The included soils
make up 30 percent of any mapped area.
The water table in Hobe sand is between depths of 50
to 60 inches for brief periods following heavy rainfall. It is
generally between depths of 60 to 80 inches in wet
seasons and below a depth of 80 inches during dry
seasons. Available water capacity is very low in the sur-
face and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and moderate in the subsoil. Natural fertility and organic
matter content are very low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
longleaf pine and slash pine in the lower areas and sand
pine in the higher areas. The understory is scrub oak,
rosemary, sawpalmetto, running oak, and pineland
threeawn (fig. 10).
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. It has low
potential for citrus and improved pasture grasses and
very low potential for vegetable crops.
This soil has very low potential for pine. Sand pine is
better adapted than other species. Equipment limitations
and seedling mortality are the main management con-
cerns.
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
and streets. No corrective measures are needed. Poten-
tial is high for septic tank absorption fields and play-
grounds. Water control measures are needed for septic
tank absorption fields. The sandy surface layer should be
stabilized for playground use. Potential is medium for
shallow excavations. Water control is needed, and
sidewalls should be shored. Potential is low for trench
type sanitary landfills and sewage lagoon areas. Water
control is needed. Sealing or lining with impervious soil
material helps to overcome excessive seepage.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis.

18-Hontoon muck. This very poorly drained, nearly
level organic soil is in fresh water swamps and broad
marshes. Slopes are smooth to concave and are less
than 1 percent in most places, but they range from 0 to
2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark reddish brown muck
about 6 inches thick. It is underlain to a depth of about
55 inches with dark reddish brown muck. Between
depths of about 55 to 60 inches is black muck that has a
high mineral content.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Samsula Variant, Kaliga, and Myakka Variant soils. The
included soils make up about 20 percent of any mapped
area.


24







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


Figure 10.-Sand pine, scrub live oak, and sawpalmetto on an area of Hobe sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.


The water table in Hontoon muck is at or above the
surface for 6 to 9 months in most years. It is within a
depth of 10 inches for most of the rest of the year.
Available water capacity is high, and permeability is
rapid. Natural fertility and organic matter are moderate.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
sawgrass and buttonbush. Maidencane occurs in places.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of wetness. It is not suitable for cultivation
under natural conditions, but it has high potential for
vegetable crops if a well designed and maintained water
control system is installed. This system needs to remove
excess water from the soil when crops are growing and
keep the soil saturated with water at all other times.
Cover crops and crop residue should be plowed under.
This soil is not suited to citrus. It has very low potential
for this use.
This soil has very high potential for improved grasses
and clovers adapted to the area if water is properly
controlled. Pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and white clover
produce high yields. The water table should be main-


trained near the surface to prevent excessive oxidation of
the organic horizons. Applications of fertilizer that con-
tain minor elements are needed. Grazing should be con-
trolled for maximum yields.
This soil is not suited to pine. It has very low potential
for this use.
This soil has very low potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commer-
cial buildings, local roads and streets, playgrounds,
trench type sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and
sewage lagoon areas. Water control measures are
needed. Because it has low strength, organic material
should be replaced with suitable material for dwellings
without basements, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, and playgrounds. Sealing with impervi-
ous soil material is needed for trench type sanitary land-
fills and shallow lagoon areas.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

19-Jonathan sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
moderately well drained, nearly level to gently sloping


25






SOIL SURVEY


soil is on slightly elevated knolls and ridges. Slopes are
smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand 3 inches thick.
The subsurface layer is white sand 65 inches thick. The
subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is black, weakly
cemented sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of Hobe,
Pendarvis, Salerno, and Waveland soils. The included
soils make up less than 15 percent of any mapped area.
The water table in Jonathan sand is between depths
of 40 to 60 inches for 1 to 4 months during the summer
rainy season. It is below a depth of 60 inches for most of
the rest of the year. Available water capacity is very low
in the surface and subsurface layers and medium in the
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsur-
face layers and slow to very slow in the subsoil. Natural
fertility and organic matter content are very low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
south Florida slash pine and several species of scrub
oak, and an understory of sawpalmetto, fetterbush, go-
pherapple, tarflower, and running oak. The most
common native grass is pineland threeawn.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. It has low
potential for vegetable crops, citrus, and improved pas-
ture grasses.
This soil has very low potential for pine. Sand pine is
better adapted than other species. Equipment limitations
and seedling mortality are the main management con-
cerns.
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
and streets. No corrective measures are needed. Poten-
tial is high for septic tank absorption fields and play-
grounds. Water control measures are needed for septic
tank absorption fields. The sandy surface layer should be
stabilized for playground use. Potential is medium for
shallow excavations. Sidewalls should be shored. Poten-
tial is low for trench type sanitary landfills and sewage
lagoon areas. Sealing or lining with impervious soil mate-
rial is needed to reduce excessive seepage. Water con-
trol is needed for trench type sanitary landfills.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis.

20-Kaliga muck. This very poorly drained, nearly
level organic soil is in fresh swamps and depressions.
Areas range from small to large. Slope is less than 1
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black muck about 27
inches thick. The next layer is dark reddish brown muck
about 8 inches thick. The substratum, to a depth of 52
inches or more, is dark grayish brown sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas that
are slightly less than 16 inches of muck and areas of
Chobee, Floridana, and Hontoon soils. The included soils
make up less than 20 percent of any mapped area.
The water table in Kaliga muck is at or above the
surface except for extended dry periods. Available water


capacity is high in the organic material and medium in
the substratum, and permeability is rapid in the organic
material and slow in the substratum. Natural fertility and
organic matter content are high.
Natural vegetation is mostly buttonbush and sawgrass.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
under natural conditions. It has high potential for vegeta-
ble crops if adequate water control is provided. A well
designed and maintained water control system that re-
moves excess water from the soil when vegetable crops
are growing and keeps the soils saturated with water at
all other times is needed. Cover crops and crop residue
should be plowed under.
This soil is not suited to citrus. It has very low potential
for this use.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture
grasses and clovers if water is properly controlled. Pan-
golagrass, bahiagrasses, and white clover grow well. The
water control system should maintain the water table
near the surface to prevent excessive oxidation of the
organic horizons. Grazing should be controlled for maxi-
mum yields.
This soil is not suited to pine. It has very low potential
for this use.
This soil has very low potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commer-
cial buildings, local roads and streets, playgrounds,
trench type sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and
sewage lagoon areas. Water control measures are
needed. Because it has low strength, organic material
needs to be replaced with suitable material for dwellings
without basements, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, and playgrounds. Sealing with impervi-
ous soil material is needed for trench type sanitary land-
fills and shallow lagoon areas.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

21-Lawnwood sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is on broad flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is about 8 inches thick. It is
black sand in the upper 4 inches and very dark gray
sand in the lower 4 inches. The subsurface layer is 21
inches thick. It is gray sand in the upper 7 inches and
light gray sand in the lower 13 inches. The subsoil ex-
tends to a depth of 58 inches. The upper 24 inches is
black, weakly cemented sand and the lower 6 inches is
dark reddish brown sand. The substratum, to a depth of
80 inches, is pale olive sand that has a few large scat-
tered pockets of loamy sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Electra, Ankona, and Waveland soils. The included soils
make up about 20 percent of any mapped area.
The water table in Lawnwood sand is within a depth of
10 inches for 1 to 4 months and is between depths of 10
to 40 inches for 6 months or more during most years. A
water table is perched above the subsoil during the


26







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


27


summer rainy season or after periods of heavy rainfall. It
recedes to a depth of less than 40 inches during ex-
tended dry seasons. Available water capacity is low in
the surface layer, very low in the subsurface layer,
medium in the subsoil, and medium to low in the substra-
tum. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers, very slow to slow in the subsoil, and moderate to
rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility and organic
matter content are low.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops because of wetness. It has medium potential for
vegetable crops if a water control system that removes
excess water is provided. Good management includes
crop rotation that keeps the soil in close growing, soil
improving crops at least two-thirds of the time. These
crops and crop residue should be plowed under. Fertiliz-
er and lime should be applied according to the need of
the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus because of wetness.
However, it has low potential for citrus if good drainage
and good management are provided. Drainage outlets
should be adequate to remove excess water from the
soil rapidly to a depth of about 4 feet after heavy rains.
Planting the trees in beds lowers the effective depth of
the water table. A cover of close growing vegetation
between the trees is needed to protect the soil from
erosion. Regular applications of fertilizer are required.
Irrigation is needed in seasons of low rainfall for highest
yields.
This soil is well suited to improved pasture grasses,
and it has medium potential for this use. Pangolagrass,
bahiagrass, and clovers are well adapted and grow well
if a water control system that removes surface water
after heavy rainfall is provided. Regular applications of
fertilizer are required. Grazing should be carefully con-
trolled to maintain healthy plants for highest yields.
This soil has low potential for pine. Slash pine is the
best adapted species. A good drainage system that re-
moves excessive surface water is needed if the produc-
tion potential is to be realized. Equipment limitations and
seedling mortality are the main management concerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, and local roads and
streets. Water control measures are needed. Potential is
medium for septic tank absorption fields, playgrounds,
trench type sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and
sewage lagoon areas. Installation of water control meas-
ures helps to overcome excessive wetness. In some
places, the size of the absorption field may need to be
increased because permeability rates are lower than is
acceptable. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized
for playground use. Sealing or lining with impervious ma-
terial to reduce excessive seepage is needed for trench
type sanitary landfills and sewage lagoon areas. Shallow
excavations should be shored.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.


22-Lawnwood-Urban land complex. This complex
consists of Lawnwood soils and Urban land so intermin-
gled that they cannot be separated at the scale used for
mapping. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Lawnwood soils that are nearly level, or that have
been reworked or reshaped but still are recognizable as
Lawnwood soil make up 50 to 70 percent of the com-
plex. Urban land makes up 15 to 50 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Lawnwood soils is 8
inches thick. It is black sand in the upper 4 inches and
very dark gray sand in the lower 4 inches. The subsur-
face layer is gray and light gray sand 20 inches thick.
The subsoil extends to a depth of 58 inches. It is black,
weakly cemented sand in the upper 24 inches and dark
reddish brown sand in the lower 6 inches. The substra-
tum, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is pale olive sand.
The areas of Urban land are covered by houses,
streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and other
uses. Unoccupied areas are mostly lawns, vacant lots, or
playgrounds made up of Lawnwood soils. These areas
are so small and intermixed with Urban land that it is
impractical to map them separately.
Included with this complex in mapping are about 15
percent Pendarvis soils and Waveland soils. A few areas
that have as much as 80 percent or as little as 10
percent Urban land are also included. Areas of soils that
have been modified by grading and shaping are more
extensive in newer communities than in older communi-
ties. Streets are commonly excavated below the original
surface and the material excavated is spread over the
adjacent area. Sand material from drainage ditches is
often used as fill in sloughs or depressions. In addition,
material from outside the area is frequently hauled in for
fill.
In undrained areas, the water table in this complex is
within 10 inches of the surface for 1 to 4 months in most
years. However, drainage systems have been estab-
lished in most areas and depth to the water table de-
pends upon the efficiency of the drainage system.
Present land use precludes the use of this complex for
cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture.
This complex is not placed in a capability subclass.

23-Malabar fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is in broad, poorly defined sloughs and on flats.
Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark gray-
ish brown fine sand 6 inches thick. The upper part of the
subsoil extends to a depth of 24 inches. It is light yellow-
ish brown fine sand in the upper 5 inches and yellowish
brown fine sand in the lower 7 inches. A layer of light
gray fine sand 18 inches thick separates the upper and
lower parts of the subsoil. The lower part of the subsoil
is gray fine sandy loam to a depth of 72 inches. The







SOIL SURVEY


underlying material, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
white fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pineda, Riviera, Nettles, and Oldsmar soils. Also includ-
ed are areas of a soil that has a stained layer above the
lower part of the subsoil that turns red when burned and
areas of a soil that has thin layers of ironstone. The
included soils make up less than 20 percent of any
mapped area.
The water table in Malabar fine sand is at a depth of
less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months during most years
and between depths of 10 to 40 inches for most of the
rest of the year. It is below a depth of 40 inches for
short periods in dry seasons. Available water capacity is
low in the surface layer, subsurface layer, and upper part
of the subsoil and substratum and moderate in the lower
part of the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface
layer, subsurface layer, upper part of the subsoil, and
substratum and slow to very slow in the lower part of the
subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter content are
low.
A large part of the acreage has been cleared and is
planted to citrus. Natural vegetation in sloughs is slash
pine, waxmyrtle, and cabbage palm in places and an
understory of sawpalmetto and pineland threeawn. Natu-
ral vegetation along broad, poorly defined drainageways
and on flats is scattered waxmyrtle, sandweed, and mai-
dencane.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops because of wetness. It has medium potential for
vegetable crops if water control is adequate. A water
control system is needed to remove excess water rapidly
if the productive potential of this soil is to be realized.
Good soil management includes crop rotation that keeps
the soil in close growing cover crops at least three-
fourths of the time. The cover crops and crop residue
should be plowed under. Seedbed preparation should
include bedding of rows. Fertilizer and lime should be
applied according to the need of the crop.
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It has medium potential for citrus if water is prop-
erly controlled. A carefully designed water control system
needs to be installed that will maintain the water table
below a depth of about 4 feet if the productive potential
is to be realized. Planting trees in beds lowers the effec-
tive depth of the water table. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
grasses. It is well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrasses,
and white clover if it is well managed. Water control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are required. Controlled grazing helps to prevent
overgrazing and weakening of plants.
This soil has medium potential for pine. Slash pine is
better adapted than other species. Water control is
needed if the production potential is to be realized.


Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and sewage lagoon areas. Water control meas-
ures are needed to overcome excessive wetness.
Sewage lagoon areas should be sealed or lined with
impervious soil material. Potential is low for septic tank
absorption fields, playgrounds, trench type sanitary land-
fills, and shallow excavations. Water control measures
are needed to help overcome excessive wetness.
Mounding may be needed for septic tank absorption
fields. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for
playground use. Sealing or lining with impervious material
is needed for trench type sanitary landfills, and sidewalls
of shallow excavations should be shored.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

24-Myakka fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is on broad flatwoods areas. Slopes are
smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand 7 inches thick.
It is black in the upper 3 inches and very dark gray in the
lower 4 inches. The subsurface layer is fine sand 20
inches thick. It is gray in the upper 10 inches and light
gray in the lower 10 inches. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 43 inches. It is black fine sand in the upper 2
inches, dark reddish brown fine sand in the next 2
inches, very dark grayish brown fine sand in the next 7
inches, and dark grayish brown fine sand in the lower 5
inches. The substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is fine sand. It is brown in the upper 4 inches and pale
brown below this layer.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Basinger, Lawnwood, Samsula Variant, Myakka Variant,
and Waveland soils. Also included are slightly depres-
sional areas that have more than 8 inches of dark sur-
face layer. The included soils make up less than 20
percent of any mapped area.
The water table in Myakka fine sand is at a depth of
less than 10 inches for 1 to 3 months during the summer
rainy season and after periods of heavy rainfall, between
depths of 10 to 40 inches for 6 to 9 months, and below
a depth of 40 inches in dry seasons. Available water
capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers
and substratum and moderate in the subsoil. Permeabil-
ity is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers and
substratum and moderate to moderately rapid in the sub-
soil. Natural fertility and organic matter content are low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
open forest of south Florida slash pine and an under-
story of sawpalmetto, running oak, inkberry, and fetter-
bush. The most common native grasses are pineland
threeawn and Florida threeawn. Low panicum grows in
places.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops. It has medium potential for a variety of vegetable


28







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


crops if good water control and soil improving measures
are provided. A water control system is needed to
remove excess water in wet seasons and to provide for
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Close growing, soil
improving crops should be kept on the soil three-fourths
of the time and rotated with the row crops. These soil
improving crops and crop residue should be plowed
under. Seedbed preparation should include bedding of
rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to
the need of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
management is practiced. However, it has low potential
for citrus if a carefully designed water control system
that will maintain the water table below a depth of 4 feet
is installed. Planting trees in beds lowers the effective
depth of the water table. A vegetative cover needs to be
maintained between the trees. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and
white clover grow well if they are well managed. Water
control measures are needed to remove excess surface
water after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer
and lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to
prevent overgrazing and weakening of plants.
This soil has low potential for pine. Slash pine is better
suited than other species. Equipment limitations and
seedling mortality are the main management concerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, and local roads and
streets. Water control measures are needed. Potential is
medium for septic tank absorption fields, playgrounds,
trench type sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and
sewage lagoon areas. Installation of water control meas-
ures helps to overcome excessive wetness. The size of
the absorption field may need to be increased because
the permeability rate in this soil is lower than is accept-
able. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for
playground use. Sealing or lining with impervious material
helps to reduce excessive seepage for trench type sani-
tary landfills or sewage lagoon areas. Shoring of
sidewalls is needed for shallow excavations.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

25-Nettles sand. This poorly drained, nearly level
soil is on broad flatwoods areas. Slopes are smooth to
concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is 11 inches thick. It is
black sand in the upper 5 inches, very dark gray sand in
the next 3 inches, and dark gray sand in the lower 3
inches. The subsurface layer is light gray sand 22 inches
thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 90 inches or
more. It is black and dark reddish brown, weakly cement-
ed sand and loamy sand in the upper 6 inches; dark
reddish brown and dark brown sand in the next 16
inches; and pale olive gray fine sandy loam below this
layer.


Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Ankona, Oldsmar, Pepper, Pineda, and Wabasso soils.
Also included are small areas of soils on the edges of
sloughs which have a cemented, very friable, dark layer
within a depth of 30 inches of the surface and a weakly
cemented, less friable, dark layer below a depth of 30
inches. The included soils make up about 20 percent of
any mapped area.
The water table in Nettles sand is within a depth of 10
inches for 2 to 4 months during wet seasons and be-
tween depths of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or longer
in most years. It is perched above the subsoil early in
the summer rainy season and after periods of heavy
rainfall in other seasons. During extended dry periods,
the water table may recede to a depth below 40 inches.
Available water capacity is very low to low in the surface
and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil. Per-
meability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and very slow to slow in the subsoil. Natural fertility and
organic matter content are low.
Some areas of these soils have been cleared and are
cultivated. A few areas are used for urban purposes.
Most areas are in natural vegetation of scattered south
Florida slash pine and cabbage palm and an understory
of sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, inkberry, fetterbush, creeping
bluestem, chalky bluestem, Florida threeawn, and pine-
land threeawn.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops. It has high potential for vegetable crops if water
control and other good management practices are pro-
vided. The water control system needs to remove
excess water in wet seasons and provide for subsurface
irrigation in dry seasons. Soil improving crops should be
kept on the soil three-fourths of the time and rotated
with the row crops. These soil improving crops and crop
residue should be plowed under. Bedding of rows needs
to be included in seedbed preparation. Fertilizer and lime
should be applied according to the need of the crop.
This soil has low potential for citrus. It is suited to
citrus if a carefully designed water control system is
installed that will maintain the water table below a depth
of about 4 feet. Planting trees in beds lowers the effec-
tive depth of the water table. A vegetative cover should
be maintained between the trees. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and
white clover grow well if they are well managed. Water
control measures are needed to remove excess surface
water after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer
and lime are required. Grazing should be controlled to
prevent overgrazing and weakening of plants.
This soil has medium potential for pine. Slash pine is
better suited than other species. Equipment limitations
and seedling mortality are management concerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and


29







SOIL SURVEY


streets, and sewage lagoon areas. Water control meas-
ures help to overcome excessive wetness. The size of
absorption fields may need to be increased because of
slow permeability. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoon
areas helps to overcome excessive seepage. Potential is
medium for septic tank absorption fields, playgrounds,
trench type sanitary landfills, and shallow excavations.
Water control measures are needed to overcome exces-
sive wetness. The sandy surface layer should be stabi-
lized for playground use. Sealing or lining with impervious
soil material is needed for trench sanitary landfills and
sewage lagoon areas to reduce excessive seepage.
Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

26-Oldsmar sand. This nearly level soil is in depres-
sional areas in the flatwoods. These areas are more
poorly drained than the surrounding flatwoods. Slopes
are smooth to concave and range from nearly level in
the center of the depression to 2 percent toward the
edge.
Typically, the surface layer is sand 5 inches thick. It is
black in the upper 1 inch and very dark gray in the lower
4 inches. The subsurface layer is gray sand 27 inches
thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or
more. In sequence from the top of this layer, it is very
dark gray sand in the upper 2 inches; very dark reddish
brown sand in the next 7 inches; black sand in the next
1 inch; olive gray fine sandy loam in the next 23 inches;
and light olive gray fine sandy loam below this layer.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Riviera soil and soils which have a dark surface layer 10
or more inches thick. Also included are a few areas that
do not have a dark sandy subsoil and a few areas that
have a dark subsoil at a depth of less than 30 inches.
The included soils make up 25 percent or less of any
mapped area.
The water table in Oldsmar sand is above the surface
for 6 to 9 months or more in most years. Available water
capacity is very low in the surface and subsurface layers
and medium in the rest of the soil. Permeability is rapid
in the surface and subsurface layers, moderate to mod-
erately rapid in the sandy part of the subsoil, and slow to
very slow in the loamy part of the subsoil. Natural fertility
and organic matter content are low.
In most of the acreage, natural vegetation is scattered
to dense sandweed, stillingia, longleaf threeawn, maiden-
cane, and sand cordgrass.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to culti-
vated crops because of ponding. However, it has
medium potential for vegetable crops if very intensive
management, soil improving measures, and a good
water control system that removes excess water in wet
seasons and provides for subsurface irrigation in dry
seasons is installed. Close growing, soil improving crops
should be kept on the soil three-fourths of the time and
rotated with the row crops. Soil improving crops and


crop residue should be plowed under. Seedbed prepara-
tion should include bedding of rows. Fertilizer and lime
should be applied according to the need of the crop.
This soil is not suited to citrus under natural condi-
tions. It has medium potential for citrus if very intensive
management and a good water control system that will
maintain the water table below a depth of about 4 feet
are provided. Planting the trees in beds lowers the effec-
tive depth of the water table. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil is not suited to pasture under natural condi-
tions. However, it has medium potential for improved
pasture if very intensive management, soil improving
measures, and a good water control system are pro-
vided. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and white
clover grow well if they are well managed. Water control
measures are needed to remove excess surface water
after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and
lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to prevent
overgrazing and weakening of plants.
This soil has low potential for pine. Slash pine is better
suited than other species. Water control measures need
to be installed before trees can be planted. Severe
equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns.
This soil has medium potential for sewage lagoon
areas, but water control measures are needed to help
overcome excessive wetness. Sealing or lining with im-
pervious material helps to reduce excessive seepage.
Potential is low for septic tank absorption fields, dwell-
ings without basements, small commercial buildings,
local roads and streets, playgrounds, trench type sanitary
landfills, and shallow excavations. Water control meas-
ures are needed. Fill material for septic tank absorption
fields, buildings without basements, small commercial
buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds; seal-
ing or lining with impervious material for trench type
sanitary landfills; and shoring of sidewalls for shallow
excavations are needed. Mounding may be needed for
septic tank absorption fields.
This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

27-Palm Beach fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This excessively drained, nearly level or gently sloping
soil is on dunelike ridges that are generally parallel to
the coast. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine sand
about 8 inches thick. The underlying material, to a depth
of 80 inches or more, is fine sand that has many sand-
size shell fragments. It is pale brown fine sand in the
upper 22 inches and light gray fine sand and multico-
lored shell fragments below this layer.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Canaveral soil and areas of soils that have a dark sur-
face layer. The included soils make up less than 15
percent of any mapped area.


30







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


Palm Beach sand does not have a water table within a
depth of 80 inches annually. Available water capacity is
very low, and permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility
and organic matter content are very low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
cabbage palms, running oak, sawpalmetto, bay, and
scrub oak.
This soil is not suited to vegetable crops, citrus, im-
proved pasture grasses, or pine. It has low potential for
all of these uses.
This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, and local roads
and streets. No corrective measures are needed. Poten-
tial is high for small commercial buildings. Land shaping
may be needed on the more sloping areas. Potential is
medium for playgrounds, trench type sanitary landfills,
and shallow excavations. The sandy surface layer should
be stabilized for playground use, and land shaping can
be needed on the more sloping areas. Sealing or lining
with impervious material helps to reduce excessive seep-
age for trench type sanitary landfills. Shoring of sidewalls
for shallow excavations is needed. Potential is very low
for sewage lagoon areas. Sealing or lining with impervi-
ous soil material is needed to reduce excessive seep-
age.
This soil is in capability subclass Vlls.

28-Paola sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This exces-
sively drained, nearly level to sloping soil is on high
dunelike ridges and in undulating areas. Slopes are
smooth to convex or concave.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 6
inches thick. The subsurface layer is 49 inches thick. It is
light gray sand in the upper 9 inches and white sand in
the lower 40 inches. The subsoil, to a depth of 80 inches
or more, is brownish yellow sand that contains intrusions
of the subsurface layer.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Astatula, St. Lucie, and Welaka Variant soils. The includ-
ed soils make up less than 15 percent of any mapped
area.
This soil does not have a water table within a depth of
80 inches, and usually it is not within a depth of 120
inches annually. Available water capacity is very low, and
permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility and organic
matter content are very low.
In a large part of the acreage of Paola sand, natural
vegetation is sand pine, scrub live oak, rosemary, and
cabbage palms and an understory of pricklypear cactus,
goldaster, and periwinkle. The most common native
grass is pineland threeawn. Sandspur occurs in places.
This soil is not suited to vegetable crops, and it has
very low potential for such crops. Potential is low for
citrus and improved pasture grasses. The drought con-
dition and low natural fertility of the soil severely reduce
the variety of grasses.


This soil has very low potential for pine. Sand pine is
better suited than other species. Seedling mortality and
equipment limitations are management concerns.
This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, and local roads
and streets. No corrective measures are needed. Poten-
tial is high for small commercial buildings. Land shaping
can be needed on the more sloping areas. Potential is
medium for playgrounds, trench type sanitary landfills,
and shallow excavations. The sandy surface layer should
be stabilized for playground use, and land shaping can
be needed on the more sloping areas. Sealing or lining
with impervious material helps to reduce excessive seep-
age for trench type sanitary landfills. Sidewalls of shallow
excavations need to be shored. This soil has very low
potential for sewage lagoon areas. Sealing or lining with
impervious soil material is needed to reduce excessive
seepage.
This soil is in capability subclass VIs.

29-Pendarvis sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes. This
moderately well drained, nearly level and gently sloping
soil is on low ridges and knolls in the flatwoods. Slopes
are smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
sand 42 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of
80 inches or more. It is black, weakly cemented loamy
sand in the upper 14 inches; dark reddish brown sand in
the next 14 inches; and dark yellowish brown loamy
sand in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Ankona, Jonathan, Hobe, Lawnwood, and Waveland
soils. The included soils make up less than 15 percent of
any mapped area.
Pendarvis sand has a perched water table between
depths of 24 to 40 inches for about 1 to 4 months during
the summer rainy season and between depths of 40 to
60 inches for the rest of the year except during dry
periods. Available water capacity is very low in the sur-
face and subsurface layers and medium in the subsoil.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers
and slow to moderately slow in the subsoil. Natural fertil-
ity and organic matter content are very low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
south Florida slash pine and several species of scrub
oak and an understory of sawpalmetto, fetterbush, tar-
flower, and running oak. The most common native grass
is pineland threeawn.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. It has low
potential for vegetable crops and citrus and medium po-
tential for improved pasture grasses that are resistant to
drought conditions. Irrigation is needed in periods of
low rainfall for highest yields. Grazing should be carefully
controlled.
This soil has low potential for pine. Slash pine and
sand pine are the best adapted species. Equipment limi-


31







SOIL SURVEY


stations and seedling mortality are the main management
concerns.
This soil has very high potential for dwellings without
basements, small commercial buildings, and local roads
and streets. No corrective measures are needed. Poten-
tial is high for septic tank absorption fields. Water control
is needed. Potential is medium for playgrounds, trench
type sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and sewage
lagoon areas. The sandy surface layer should be stabi-
lized for playground use. Water control measures are
needed for many uses. Sealing or lining with impervious
soil material is needed for trench type sanitary landfills
and sewage lagoon areas. Shoring of sidewalls is
needed for shallow excavations.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis.

30-Pendarvis-Urban land complex. This complex
consists of Pendarvis sand and Urban land. The compo-
nents are so intermingled they cannot be separated at
the scale used for mapping. Slope ranges from 0 to 5
percent.
About 50 to 70 percent of the complex is nearly level
to gently sloping Pendarvis soils or Pendarvis soils that
have been reworked or reshaped but are still recogniz-
able as Pendarvis soil, and 15 to 50 percent is Urban
land.
Typically, the Pendarvis soil has a surface layer of very
dark gray sand 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
light gray sand 42 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a
depth of 80 inches or more. It is black, weakly cemented
loamy sand in the upper 14 inches; dark reddish brown
sand in the next 14 inches; and dark yellowish brown
loamy sand in the lower part.
The areas of Urban land are covered by houses,
streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and similar
uses. Unoccupied areas are mostly lawns, vacant lots, or
playgrounds made up of Pendarvis soil. These areas are
so small and intermixed with Urban land that it is imprac-
tical to map them separately.
Included with this complex in mapping are about 15
percent areas of Lawnwood, Satellite, Electra, and Wa-
veland soils which are not covered by urban facilities.
Also included are a few areas that have as much as 80
percent or as little as 10 percent Urban land.
Areas of soils that have been modified by grading and
shaping are more extensive in newer communities than
in older communities. Streets are commonly excavated
below the original soil surface and the material excavat-
ed is spread over the adjacent area. Sand material from
drainage ditches is often used as fill for sloughs or
depressional areas. In addition, material from outside the
area is frequently hauled in for fill.
In undrained areas, this complex has a water table
perched above the subsoil for 1 to 4 months in the
summer rainy season and between depths of 40 to 60
inches for most of the rest of the year. However, drain-
age systems have been established in most areas and


depth to the water table depends upon the efficiency of
the drainage system.
Present land use precludes the use of this complex for
cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture.
The complex is not placed in a capability subclass.

31-Pepper sand. This poorly drained, nearly level
soil is on broad areas of flatwoods. Slopes are smooth
to convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is sand 9 inches thick. It is
black in the upper 6 inches and dark gray in the lower 3
inches. The subsurface layer is gray sand 14 inches
thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 99 inches or
more. It is black, weakly cemented sand in the upper 10
inches, dark reddish brown sand in the next 15 inches;
dark brown sand in the next 9 inches, and olive gray and
light olive gray sandy loam in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Lawnwood, Nettles, Pineda, Tantile, and Wabasso soils.
The included soils make up less than 20 percent of any
mapped area.
Pepper sand has a water table within a depth of 10
inches for 2 to 4 months during the summer rainy
season and between depths of 10 to 40 inches for 6
months during most years. It is perched above the sub-
soil during the summer rainy season and after periods of
heavy rainfall. Available water capacity is low in the sur-
face layer, very low in the subsurface layer, and low to
medium in the subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the sur-
face and subsurface layers and very slow to slow in the
subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter content are
low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
open forest of south Florida pine and an understory of
sawpalmetto, running oak, inkberry, and fetterbush. The
most common native grasses are pineland threeawn and
Florida threeawn. Other grasses include several varieties
of bluestem.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops. It has medium potential for vegetable crops if
water control and other good management practices are
provided. A water control system is needed to remove
excess water in wet seasons and provide for subsurface
irrigation in dry seasons. Soil improving crops should be
kept on the soil three-fourths of the time and rotated
with the row crops. These soil improving crops and crop
residue should be plowed under. Bedding of rows should
be included in seedbed preparation. Fertilizer and lime
should be applied according to the need of the crop.
This soil has low potential for citrus. It is suited to
citrus if a carefully designed water control system is
installed that maintains the water below a depth of about
4 feet. Planting trees in beds lowers the effective depth
of the water table. A vegetative cover should be main-
tained between the trees. Regular applications of fertiliz-
er and lime are needed.


32







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and
white clover grow well if they are well managed. Water
control measures are needed to remove excess surface
water after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer
and lime are required. Grazing should be controlled to
prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
This soil has medium potential for pine. Slash pine is
better suited than other species. Equipment limitations
and seedling mortality are management concerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and sewage lagoon areas. Water control meas-
ures help to overcome excessive wetness. The size of
absorption fields may need to be increased because of
slow permeability. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoon
areas helps to overcome excessive seepage. Potential is
medium for septic tank absorption fields, playgrounds,
trench type sanitary landfills, and shallow excavations.
Water control measures are needed to overcome exces-
sive wetness. The sandy surface layer should be stabi-
lized for playground use. Sealing or lining with impervious
soil material is needed for trench sanitary landfills and
sewage lagoon areas to reduce excessive seepage.
Shoring of sidewalls is needed for shallow excavations.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

32-Pineda sand. This poorly drained, nearly level soil
is in low hammocks; in broad, poorly defined sloughs;
and on flats. Slopes are smooth to concave and range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is sand 6 inches thick. It is
very dark grayish brown in the upper 3 inches and dark
brown in the lower 3 inches. The upper part of the
subsoil extends to a depth of 34 inches. It is yellowish
brown sand in the upper 6 inches, strong brown sand in
the next 9 inches, and pale brown sand in the lower 13
inches. A layer of light gray sand 4 inches thick sepa-
rates the upper part of the subsoil from the lower part.
The lower part of the subsoil is olive gray sandy loam
that extends to a depth of 52 inches. The upper 4 inches
has intrusions of white sand. The substratum, to a depth
of 80 inches or more, is gray loamy sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Wabasso, Wabasso Variant, Hallandale, Malabar, Pople,
Riviera, Winder, and Winder Variant soils. Also included
are areas of soils similar to Pineda soils that have a dark
layer directly overlying the yellowish layer. The included
soils make up less than 20 percent of any mapped area.
Pineda sand has a water table at a depth of less than
10 inches for 1 to 6 months and between depths of 10
to 40 inches for most of the rest of the year. In a few
areas, the soil is covered with shallow standing water for
about 7 days to 6 months. For short periods in dry
seasons the water table is below a depth of 40 inches.
Available water capacity is very low in the surface and
subsurface layers and substratum and moderate in the


subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsur-
face layers, slow to very slow in the subsoil, and moder-
ately rapid to rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility and
organic matter content are low.
A large part of the acreage has been cleared and is
planted to citrus. Natural vegetation in sloughs is scat-
tered slash pine, waxmyrtle, cabbage palm in places,
scattered sawpalmetto, blue maidencane, and pineland
threeawn. Along the broad, poorly defined drainageways
and on flats, natural vegetation is scattered waxmyrtle,
sandweed, and maidencane.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops, but
it has high potential for vegetable crops. A water control
system is needed to remove excess water and to pro-
vide for subsurface irrigation. Good management in-
cludes crop rotation that keeps the soil in close growing
cover crops at least two-thirds of the time. The cover
crops and crop residue should be plowed under.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding. Fertilizer
should be applied according to the need of the crop.
Under natural conditions this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. It has high potential for citrus if a water control
system that maintains good drainage to a depth of about
4 feet is installed. Planting the trees in beds lowers the
effective depth of the water table. A good cover of close
growing vegetation is needed between the trees to pro-
tect the soil from erosion when the trees are young.
Regular applications of fertilizer are needed.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture
grasses. It is well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrasses,
and clovers. An excellent pasture of grass or a mixture
of grass-clover can be grown with good management.
Regular applications of fertilizer are required. Controlled
grazing is needed for highest yields (fig. 11).
This soil has medium potential for pine. Slash pine is
better suited than other species. A water control system
is needed if the production potential is to be realized.
Equipment limitations and seedling mortality are the main
management concerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and sewage lagoon areas. Water control meas-
ures are needed to overcome excessive wetness. Seal-
ing or lining with impervious soil material is needed for
sewage lagoon areas. Potential is low for septic tank
absorption fields, playgrounds, trench type sanitary land-
fills, and shallow excavations. Water control measures
are needed to help overcome excessive wetness.
Mounding can be needed for septic tank absorption
fields. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for
playground use. Sealing or lining with impervious material
is needed for trench type sanitary landfills, and sidewalls
of shallow excavations should be shored.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

33-Pits. This map unit consists of excavations from
which soil and geological material have been removed


33







SOIL SURVEY


Figure 11.-These broad sloughs of Pineda sand produce excellent pasture if well managed. Hammock on Hilolo loamy sand in the
background provides good protection for cattle.


mostly for use in road construction or in building founda-
tions. Included with Pits is sandy and loamy waste mate-
rial that is piled or scattered around the edges of the
pits. Pits are generally small, but a few excavations are
large. Many of the pits have been abandoned. Some are
filled with water and are shown as water on the soil map.
Pits have little or no value for farming or woodland
use.
This map unit is not placed in a capability subclass.

34-Pompano sand. This poorly drained, nearly level
soil is along poorly defined drainageways and on broad
low flats. Slopes are smooth to concave and range from
0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 3
inches thick. The substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is light brownish gray, light gray, and grayish
brown sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of


Myakka Variant, Satellite, and Waveland soils. Also in-
cluded are areas that have more than 6 inches of dark
surface layer and a few areas that are in depressions.
The included soils make up less than 15 percent of any
mapped area.
Pompano sand has a water table within a depth of 10
inches for 2 to 6 months each year. During periods of
extended heavy rainfall, the water table is at or a few
inches above the surface. During the rest of the year, it
is within 30 inches of the surface for more than 9
months. Available water capacity is very low, and perme-
ability is very rapid. Natural fertility and organic matter
content are very low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
scattered longleaf pine and slash pine and an understory
of waxmyrtle, inkberry, and sawpalmetto. The most
common native grass is pineland threeawn. Creeping
bluestem, blue maidencane, and Florida paspalum also
occur.


34







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


Pompano sand has very severe limitations for cultivat-
ed crops. It has medium potential for a variety of vegeta-
ble crops if good water control measures and soil im-
proving measures are provided. A water control system
is needed to remove excess water in wet seasons and
provide for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons. Close
growing, soil improving crops need to be kept on the soil
three-fourths of the time and rotated with the row crops.
These soil improving crops and crop residue should be
plowed under. Seedbed preparation should include bed-
ding of rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied ac-
cording to the need of the crop.
This soil has low potential for citrus. A water control
system that maintains the water table below a depth of
about 4 feet is needed. Planting trees in beds lowers the
effective depth of the water table. Regular applications
of fertilizer are needed.
This soil has low potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and
white clover grow well if they are well managed. A water
control system is needed to remove excess surface
water after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer
are needed, and grazing should be controlled to help
prevent overgrazing and weakening of plants.
This soil has low potential for pine. Slash pine is better
suited than other species. Water control is needed
before trees are planted if the production potential is to
be realized. Seedling mortality and equipment limitations
are the main management concerns.
This soil has medium potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commer-
cial buildings, and local roads and streets. Water control
is needed to overcome excessive wetness. Mounding of
septic tank absorption fields can be needed. Potential is
low for playgrounds and shallow excavations. Water con-
trol measures are needed. The sandy surface layer
should be stabilized for playground use. Sidewalls of
shallow excavations should be shored. This soil has very
low potential for trench type sanitary landfills and
sewage lagoon areas. Water control measures and seal-
ing or lining with impervious soil material are needed.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

35-Pompano Variant-Kaliga Variant association.
This association consists of very poorly drained soils in
tidal mangrove swamps in the Indian River. Kaliga Vari-
ant soils are generally in the center of the swamps
where organic material is thickest, and Pompano Variant
soils are on the outer edges. The pattern of the soils is
regular and uniform. Areas of each soil are large enough
to map separately, but mapping is extremely difficult due
to dense vegetation and flooding, and because of fore-
seeable use, the soils were not separated in mapping.
Slope is less than 2 percent.
Pompano Variant soils and closely similar soils make
up about 65 percent of the association, and Kaliga Vari-


ant soils make up about 25 percent. Other soils make up
10 percent.
Typically, the Pompano Variant soils are fine sand that
contain shell fragments throughout. The surface is over-
lain by an inch of undecomposed leaves and twigs. Be-
neath this covering, the surface layer is 8 inches thick. It
is 1 inch of greenish gray fine sand and 7 inches of dark
gray fine sand. The underlying material, to a depth of 80
inches or more, is gray fine sand in the upper 24 inches
and greenish gray fine sand below this layer. In the
closely similar soils, the surface layer is thin muck and
the mineral layers are similar to the Pompano Variant
soils in color. The similar soils are between the Pompano
Variant soils and the Kaliga Variant soils.
The Pompano Variant soils and the closely similar
soils have low available water capacity and rapid perme-
ability. The water table is at or above the surface. These
soils are flooded during normal high tides and storm
periods. Many areas in the mosquito control impound-
ments are flooded for long periods.
Typically, the surface layer of the Kaliga Variant soils
is black muck about 35 inches thick. The upper part of
the substratum is dark grayish brown sandy clay loam
about 17 inches thick.
The Kaliga Variant soils have high available water ca-
pacity and rapid permeability in the organic layer and
medium available water capacity and slow permeability in
the substratum. The water table is at or above the sur-
face for most years. These soils are flooded during
normal high tides and storm periods. Many areas in mos-
quito control impoundments are flooded for long periods.
Included in mapping are areas of Turnbull Variant soil,
the most significant of the minor soils, and small areas
of thin ledges of limestone.
In most areas of the Pompano Variant-Kaliga Variant
association, natural vegetation is red and black man-
grove and some white mangrove.
This association is not suited to cultivated crops, pas-
ture, or pine. It has very low potential for these uses.
The potential is very low for septic tank absorption
fields, dwellings without basements, small commercial
buildings, local roads and streets, playgrounds, trench
type sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and sewage
lagoon areas. A water control system and protection
from flooding are needed. Sealing or lining with impervi-
ous soil material is needed to overcome excessive seep-
age for trench type sanitary landfills and sewage lagoon
areas. Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be
shored. The addition of fill material and mounding are
needed for septic tank absorption fields.
These soils are in capability subclass Vlllw.

36-Pople sand. This poorly drained, nearly level soil
is on flatwoods and in sloughs. Slopes are smooth to
convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand 3
inches thick. The subsurface layer is 26 inches thick. In


35







SOIL SURVEY


sequence from the top of this layer, it is light brownish
gray sand in the upper 6 inches; pale brown and yellow-
ish brown sand in the next 11 inches; light gray sand in
the next 4 inches; and brownish yellow sand in the lower
5 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 56 inches. In
sequence from the top of this layer, it is dark grayish
brown with sandy intrusions in the upper 9 inches; dark
grayish brown in the next 4 inches; and gray sandy clay
loam in the lower 8 inches. The substratum, to a depth
of 80 inches or more, is gray sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Winder Variant, Winder, Hallandale, Hilolo, Pineda, and
Riviera soils. The included soils make up less than 20
percent of any mapped area.
Pople sand has a water table at a depth of less than
10 inches for less than 3 months and between depths of
10 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. In slough areas,
however, the water table is 1 to 3 inches above the
surface for about 2 to 7 days during periods of heavy
rainfall. It recedes to a depth of more than 40 inches
during extended dry periods. Available water capacity is
low in the surface and subsurface layers and medium in
the subsoil and substratum. Permeability is moderately
rapid in the surface layer and upper part of the subsoil,
slow to very slow in the lower part of the subsoil, and
moderately slow to moderate in the substratum. Natural
fertility and organic matter content are low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
scattered cabbage palms and south Florida slash pine
and an understory of sawpalmetto and running oak. In
places there is inkberry. The most common native grass
is pineland threeawn. In the sloughs, the principal vege-
tation is maidencane and pineland threeawn and scat-
tered clumps of sawpalmetto and south Florida slash
pine.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. It
has high potential for many vegetable crops if a com-
plete water control system that removes excess surface
and internal water rapidly and provides for subsurface
irrigation is installed. Good soil management includes
crop rotations that keep the soil ir close growing crops
at least two-thirds of the time. These soil improving
crops and crop residue should be plowed under. Good
seedbed preparation, bedding of rows, and applications
of fertilizer according to the need of the crop are other
good management practices.
This soil has high potential for citrus if a water control
system that maintains good drainage to a depth of about
4 feet is installed. Planting the trees in beds lowers the
effective depth of the water table. A good cover of close
growing vegetation needs to be maintained between the
trees to protect the soil from erosion. Regular applica-
tions of fertilizer are required.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture
grasses. It is well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrasses,
and clovers. Good pastures of grass or grass-clover mix-
tures can be grown if good management is provided.


Regular applications of fertilizer are required. Controlled
grazing is needed for highest yields.
This soil has medium potential for pine. Slash pine is
better suited than other species. A water control system
is needed if the production potential is to be realized in
slough areas. Seedling mortality and equipment limita-
tions are the main management concerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and sewage lagoon areas. Water control meas-
ures are needed to overcome excessive wetness. Seal-
ing or lining with impervious soil material is needed for
sewage lagoon areas. Potential is low for septic tank
absorption fields, playgrounds, trench type sanitary land-
fills, and shallow excavations. Water control measures
are needed to help overcome excessive wetness.
Mounding can be needed for septic tank absorption
fields. The sandy surface layer should be stabilized for
playground use. Sealing or lining with impervious material
is needed for trench type sanitary landfills, and sidewalls
of shallow excavations should be shored.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

37-Riviera sand, depressional. This poorly drained,
nearly level soil is in depressional areas. Slopes are
mostly concave, but a few slopes along slight ridges are
smooth to convex. They range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand 1 inch thick.
The subsurface layer is light gray sand 12 inches thick.
The next layer is dark gray sand 9 inches thick. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 31 inches. It is dark gray
sandy clay loam and has penetrations of gray sand. The
next layer is gray sandy loam to a depth of 42 inches.
The underlying material, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is dark gray sandy clay loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Wabasso, Chobee, Floridana, Hallandale, Oldsmar,
Pineda, and Winder soils. Also included are areas of soil
on the slight ridges between depressions and areas that
have a thin organic surface layer. The included soils
make up less than 20 percent of any mapped area.
This Riviera soil is ponded for 6 to 9 months or more
annually. The low ridges are covered with water for peri-
ods ranging from a few days to about 3 months. The
water table is within a depth of 40 inches for most of the
rest of the year. Only for short periods in dry seasons is
the water table below a depth of 40 inches. This soil is
not ponded in drainage districts or in other areas that
have water control systems. However, if the water con-
trol system is not well maintained, the soil can become
ponded. Available water capacity is low in the surface
and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil and
substratum. Permeability is rapid in the surface and sub-
surface layers, slow to very slow in the subsoil, and rapid
in the substratum. Natural fertility and organic matter
content are low.


36







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


A large part of the acreage has a water control system
established and is planted to citrus. Natural vegetation in
the depressional areas is sandweed and stillingia. Blue
maidencane and, in places, cypress grow along the
ridges of the depressional areas. Vegetation along the
slight ridges is cypress, cabbage palms, and scattered
longleaf pine or slash pine and an understory of sawpal-
metto, waxmyrtle, pineland threeawn, and chalky blues-
tem.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to culti-
vated crops. It has high potential for vegetable crops,
however, if a complete water control system to protect
the soil from ponding and to remove excess water rapid-
ly is installed. Good soil management includes crop rota-
tion that keeps the soil in close growing cover crops at
least two-thirds of the time. The cover crops and crop
residue should be plowed under. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding. Fertilizer should be applied ac-
cording to the need of the crop.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
citrus. However, it has high potential for citrus if a water
control system that maintains good drainage to a depth
of about 4 feet is installed. Planting the trees in beds
lowers the effective depth of the water table. A cover of
close growing vegetation is needed between the trees to
protect the soil from blowing when the trees are young.
Regular applications of fertilizer are required.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to im-
proved pasture. However, it has high potential for good
quality improved pasture if proper water control is pro-
vided. Excellent pastures of grass or grass-clover mix-
tures can be grown with good management. Regular
applications of fertilizer are required. Controlled grazing
is needed for highest yields.
This soil has low potential for pine. Slash pine is better
suited than other species. A water control system that
removes excessive surface water is needed before trees
can be planted. Seedling mortality and equipment limita-
tions are management concerns.
This soil has medium potential for sewage lagoon
areas if water control measures are provided to help
overcome excessive wetness. Sealing or lining with im-
pervious material help to reduce excessive seepage. Po-
tential is low for septic tank absorption fields, dwellings
without basements, small commercial buildings, local
roads and streets, playgrounds, trench type sanitary
landfills, and shallow excavations. Water control meas-
ures are needed. Fill material is needed for septic tank
absorption fields, buildings without basements, small
commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and for
playground use. Sealing or lining with impervious soil
material is needed for trench type sanitary landfills, and
sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.
Mounding can be needed for septic tank absorption
fields.
This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.


38-Riviera fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is in hammocks and along drainageways.
Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown fine
sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is 18
inches thick. It is light gray fine sand in the upper 9
inches and grayish brown fine sand in the lower 9
inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 54 inches. It is
gray sandy clay loam that has light gray vertical penetra-
tions of sand. The substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is greenish gray loamy fine sand and fine sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Wabasso, Wabasso Variant, Floridana, Hallandale,
Pineda, Winder Variant, and Winder soils. Also included
are areas that have a dark surface layer of more than 6
inches and other areas that have a stained layer of
organic matter above the subsoil. The included areas
make up less than 20 percent of any mapped area.
This Riviera soil has a water table at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months in most years, and at a
depth of 10 to 30 inches for most of the rest of the year.
Only for short periods in dry seasons is the water table
below a depth of 40 inches. Available water capacity is
low in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate
in the subsoil and substratum. Permeability is rapid in the
surface and subsurface layers, slow to very slow in the
subsoil, and rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility and
organic matter content are low.
Nearly all of the acreage has been cleared and is
planted to citrus. Natural vegetation is cabbage palms
and scattered longleaf pine and slash pine and an un-
derstory of waxmyrtle and sawpalmetto. The most
common native grasses are pineland threeawn and blue
maidencane. Toothachegrass, broomsedge, creeping
bluestem, Florida paspalum, sand cordgrass, and pani-
cums are other grasses.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops.
However, it has high potential for vegetable crops if a
water control system is installed to remove excess water
and provide for subsurface irrigation. Good soil manage-
ment includes crop rotation that keeps the soil in close
growing cover crops at least two-thirds of the time.
Cover crops and crop residue should be plowed under.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding. Fertilizer
should be applied according to the need of the crop.
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. However, it has high potential for citrus if a water
control system that maintains good drainage to a depth
of about 4 feet is installed. Planting the trees in beds
lowers the effective depth of the water table. A good
cover of close growing vegetation is needed between
the trees to protect the soil from blowing when the trees
are young. Regular applications of fertilizer are required.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture
grasses. It is well suited to pangolagrass, bahiagrasses,
and clovers. Excellent pasture of grass or grass-clover


37







SOIL SURVEY


mixtures can be grown with good management. Regular
applications of fertilizer are required, and controlled graz-
ing is needed for highest yields.
This soil has high potential for pine. However, a water
control system is needed if the production potential is to
be realized. Equipment limitations and seedling mortality
are the main management concerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and shallow excavations. Water control meas-
ures are needed to help overcome excessive wetness.
Potential is medium for septic tank absorption fields,
playgrounds, trench type sanitary landfills, and sewage
lagoon areas. Water control practices are needed. The
sandy surface layer should be stabilized for playground
use. Trench type sanitary landfills and sewage lagoon
areas should be sealed or lined with impervious soil
material to help overcome excessive seepage. Sidewalls
of shallow excavations need to be shored.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

39-Salerno sand. This poorly drained, nearly level
soil is in flatwood areas. Slopes are smooth to convex
and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 5
inches thick. The subsurface layer is light grayish brown
sand about 50 inches thick. The subsoil is black, weakly
cemented sand to a depth of about 68 inches. The
substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or more, is dark
grayish brown sand in the upper 5 inches and olive gray
sand below this layer.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas of similar
soils that have a loamy layer below a depth of 60 inches
and a weakly developed subsoil and areas where the
subsoil extends to a depth of more than 80 inches. Also
included are small areas of Pendarvis soils and Wave-
land soils. The included soils make up about 25 percent
of any mapped area.
The Salerno soil has a water table within a depth of 10
inches for 2 to 4 months in the wet seasons in most
years and recedes to a depth of below 40 inches during
extended dry seasons. Available water capacity is low in
the surface layer, very low in the subsurface layer,
medium in the subsoil, and very low to low in the sub-
stratum. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsur-
face layers, very slow to moderately slow in the subsoil,
and rapid in the substratum. Internal drainage is slow
because of a shallow water table. Natural fertility and
organic matter content are low throughout.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
open forest of south Florida slash pine and an under-
story of sawpalmetto, pawpaw, and inkberry. The most
common native grasses are pineland threeawn and Flor-
ida threeawn, lopsided indiangrass, and several varieties
of bluestem.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops. Very intensive management practices are needed.


The soil has medium potential for a variety of vegetable
crops if a water control system that removes excess
water in wet seasons and provides for subsurface irriga-
tion in dry seasons is provided. Close growing, soil im-
proving crops that are kept on the soil three-fourths of
the time should be rotated with the row crops. Soil im-
proving crops and crop residue should be plowed under.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of rows.
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
need of the crops.
The soil is poorly suited to citrus unless very intensive
management is provided. However, it has low potential
for citrus if a carefully designed water control system is
installed that maintains the water table below a depth of
4 feet. Planting the trees in beds lowers the effective
depth of the water table. A vegetative cover should be
maintained between the trees. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed.
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass, improved bahiagrasses, and
white clover grow well if they are well managed. Water
control measures are needed to remove excess surface
water after heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer
and lime are needed. Grazing should be controlled to
prevent overgrazing and weakening of the plants.
This soil has low potential for pine. Slash pine is better
suited than other trees.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, and local roads and
streets. Water control measures are needed to over-
come excessive wetness. Potential is medium for septic
tank absorption fields, playgrounds, trench type sanitary
landfills, and sewage lagoon areas. Water control meas-
ures are needed. The sandy surface layer should be
stabilized for playground use. Trench type sanitary land-
fills and sewage lagoon areas need to be sealed or lined
with impervious material. Sidewalls of shallow excava-
tions should be shored.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

40-Samsula Variant-Myakka Variant association.
This association consists of very poorly drained, nearly
level soils in the marshes of the Savannahs. Samsula
Variant soils are generally in the center of areas where
organic material is thicker, and Myakka Variant soils are
on the outer edges or rims. The soils are regular in
shape and uniform. Areas of each soil are large enough
to map separately, but mapping is extremely difficult due
to the dense vegetation and wetness, and because of
foreseeable use, the soils were not separated in map-
ping. Slope is less than 2 percent.
Samsula Variant soils make up about 60 percent of
the association, and Myakka Variant soils make up 30
percent. Other soils make up 10 percent of the map unit.
Typically, the surface layer of the Samsula Variant
soils is black muck about 25 inches thick. Below this
layer is 4 inches of black mucky sand and 7 inches of


38






ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


dark gray sand. The subsoil, to a depth of 52 inches or
more, is dark gray sand.
Typically, the surface layer of the Myakka Variant soils
is muck 12 inches thick. It is dark reddish brown in the
upper 4 inches and black in the lower 8 inches. Below
this layer, to a depth of 72 inches or more, is sand. In
sequence, it is white in the upper 6 inches; light gray in
the next 5 inches; grayish brown in the next 6 inches;
and dark reddish brown and dark brown below.
Available water capacity in the Samsula Variant and
Myakka Variant association is high in the organic layers
and low in the sandy layers. Permeability is rapid in the
organic layers and upper sandy layers and moderately
rapid below. Natural fertility and organic matter content
are high in the surface layer of both soils. The water
table is at or above the surface for 6 to 9 months and
within a depth of 10 inches for the rest of the year.
Included with these soils in mapping are areas of Hon-
toon muck that make up about 10 percent of the associ-
ation.
In most areas of this association, natural vegetation is
buttonbush, sawgrass, and cordgrass.
Under natural conditions, these soils have very severe
limitations for cultivated crops. They have high potential
for vegetable crops if adequate water control is provided.
A well designed and maintained water control system is
needed to remove excess water during growth of crops
and to keep the water at saturation level at other times.
Applications of a complete fertilizer are required. Water-
tolerant cover crops should be grown if the soils are not
used for row crops. Cover crops and crop residue should
be plowed under.
Under natural conditions, these soils are not suited to
citrus. They have very low potential for this use.
These soils have medium potential for improved pas-
ture grasses and clovers if water control measures that
maintain the water near the surface is provided. Such
measures are needed to prevent excessive oxidation of
organic horizons. Applications of fertilizer that contain
minor elements are needed. Controlled grazing is
needed for highest yields.
These soils are not suited to pine. They have very low
potential for this use.
These soils have medium potential for septic tank ab-
sorption fields if water control measures are provided to
reduce excessive wetness. Fill material is needed. Po-
tential is very low for dwellings without basements, small
commercial buildings, local roads and streets, play-
grounds, trench type sanitary landfills, shallow excava-
tions, and sewage lagoon areas. Water control measures
are needed to help overcome excessive wetness. Organ-
ic materials need to be removed and backfilled with
suitable soil material for dwellings without basements,
small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, and
playgrounds. Sealing or lining with impervious soil materi-
al helps to overcome excessive seepage for trench type


sanitary landfills and sewage lagoon areas. Shoring of
sidewalls is needed for shallow excavations.
This association is in capability subclass IVw.

41-Satellite sand. This somewhat poorly drained,
nearly level soil is on low knolls and ridges. Slopes are
smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray sand about 6
inches thick. The substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or
more, is sand. It is light gray in the upper 27 inches, light
brownish gray in the next 19 inches, and grayish brown
in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pompano and St. Lucie soils. The included soils make
up less than 15 percent of any mapped area.
Satellite sand has a water table between depths of 10
to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months, but in most years it is
within a depth of 60 inches for more than 9 months. In
some areas the water table does not rise above a depth
of 40 inches in some years. Available water capacity is
very low, and permeability is very rapid. Natural fertility
and organic matter content are very low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
open forest of south Florida slash pine and an under-
story of scrub oak, sawpalmetto, and running oak. Fetter-
bush grows in places. The most common native grass is
pineland threeawn.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. It has very
low potential for vegetable crops. If high level manage-
ment is provided, it has low potential for citrus.
This soil has low potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass and bahiagrass produce fair
yields if good management is provided.
This soil has low potential for pine. Slash pine and
sand pine are better suited than other species. Equip-
ment limitations and severe seedling mortality are the
main management concerns.
This soil has very high potential for local roads and
streets. No corrective measures are needed. Potential is
high for septic tank absorption fields, dwellings without
basements, and small commercial buildings. Water con-
trol measures help to overcome excessive wetness. Po-
tential is medium for playgrounds, trench type sanitary
landfills, and shallow excavations. The sandy surface
layer should be stabilized for playground use. Water con-
trol measures and sealing or lining with impervious mate-
rial help to reduce excessive seepage for trench type
sanitary landfills. Shoring of sidewalls and water control
measures are needed for shallow excavations. Potential
is very low for sewage lagoon areas. Water control
measures and sealing or lining with impervious material
are needed to reduce excessive seepage.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis.

42-St. Lucie sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. This
excessively drained, nearly level to sloping soil is on high
dunelike ridges and in undulating areas. Slopes are


39







SOIL SURVEY


smooth to convex on the ridges and concave in the
undulating areas.
Typically, the surface layer is gray sand 6 inches thick.
The underlying material, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is light gray and white sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Astatula, Paola, and Welaka Variant soils. The included
soils make up less than 15 percent of any mapped area.
The water table of St. Lucie sand is not within a depth
of 80 inches. It usually is not within a depth of 120
inches annually. Permeability is very rapid, and available
water capacity is very low. Natural fertility and organic
matter content are very low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
sand pine, scrub live oak, rosemary, and cabbage pal-
metto. The understory is goldaster, pricklypear cactus,
and periwinkle. The most common native grass is pine-
land threeawn (fig. 12). Sandspur grows in some areas.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
vegetable crops and improved pasture. It has very low
potential for these uses. Absence of water and low natu-


ral fertility severely reduce the variety of adapted crops
and grasses.
Potential is low for citrus on this soil.
This soil has very low potential for pine. Sand pine is
better suited than other species. Limited use of equip-
ment and seedling mortality are management concerns.
This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, and local roads
and streets. No corrective measures are needed. Poten-
tial is high for small commercial buildings. Land shaping
may be needed on the more sloping areas. Potential is
medium for playgrounds, trench type sanitary landfills,
and shallow excavations. The sandy surface layer should
be stabilized for playground use, and land shaping can
be needed on the more sloping areas. Sealing or lining
with impervious material is needed to reduce excessive
seepage for trench type sanitary landfills. Sidewalls for
shallow excavations should be shored. This soil has very
low potential for sewage lagoon areas. Sealing or lining


Figure 12.-Sand pine on St. Lucie sand, 0 to 8 percent slopes. Sparse ground cover of pineland threeawn is in most areas.


40






ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


with impervious soil material is needed to reduce exces-
sive seepage.
This soil is in capability subclass Vlls.

43-Susanna sand. This poorly drained, nearly level
soil is on the flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to convex
and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand 6 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is about 19 inches thick. It is
dark gray sand in the upper 12 inches and gray sand in
the lower 7 inches. The subsoil extends to a depth of 48
inches. It is black, weakly cemented loamy sand in the
upper 4 inches and very dark grayish brown and brown
sandy loam in the next 19 inches. The substratum, to a
depth of 80 inches or more, is light brownish gray loamy
sand in the upper 15 inches and light brownish gray
sand below this layer.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Ankona, Chobee, Nettles, Pepper, Pineda, Riviera, Tan-
tile, Wabasso, and Winder soils. Also included are areas
where the substratum is medium acid to neutral. The
included soils make up less than 20 percent of any
mapped area.
The water table of Susanna sand is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months and within a depth of
40 inches for about 6 months in most years. It is
perched above the subsoil during the summer rainy
season and after periods of heavy rainfall. During the dry
seasons, the water table may recede to a depth of below
40 inches. Available water capacity is low in the surface
layer, very low in the subsurface layers, and medium in
the layers below. Permeability is rapid in the surface and
subsurface layers, very slow to moderately slow in the
subsoil, and moderately rapid to rapid in the substratum.
Natural fertility and organic matter content are low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
open forest of south Florida slash pine and an under-
story of sawpalmetto, running oak, inkberry, and fetter-
bush. The most common native grasses are pineland
threeawn and Florida threeawn. Other grasses are
chalky bluestem and panicum.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops. However, it has high potential for vegetable crops
if a water control system that removes excess water in
wet seasons and provides for subsurface irrigation in dry
seasons is installed. Good management includes crop
rotation that keeps the soil in close growing, soil improv-
ing crops at least two-thirds of the time. These crops
and crop residue should be plowed under. Fertilizer and
lime should be applied according to the need of the
crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus. However, it has
medium potential for citrus if very intensive water control
and management are provided. After heavy rains, the
excess water needs to be rapidly removed from the soil
to a depth of about 4 feet. Planting the trees in beds
helps lower the effective depth of the water table. A


cover of close growing vegetation between the trees is
needed to protect the soil from erosion. Regular applica-
tions of fertilizer are required. Irrigation in seasons of low
rainfall is needed for highest yields.
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and clovers are
well adapted and grow well if they are well managed.
Water control measures are needed to remove excess
surface water after heavy rainfall. Fertilizer is required.
Grazing should be carefully controlled to maintain
healthy plants for highest yields.
This soil has medium potential for pine. Slash pine is
better suited than other species. Equipment limitations
and seedling mortality are management concerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and sewage lagoon areas. Water control meas-
ures help to overcome excessive wetness. The size of
absorption fields can need to be increased because of
slow permeability. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoon
areas helps to overcome excessive seepage. Potential is
medium for septic tank absorption fields, playgrounds,
trench type sanitary landfills, and shallow excavations.
Water control measures are needed to overcome exces-
sive wetness. The sandy surface layer should be stabi-
lized for playground use. Sealing or lining with impervious
soil material is needed for trench sanitary landfills to
reduce excessive seepage. Sidewalls of shallow excava-
tions should be shored.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

44-Tantile sand. This poorly drained, nearly level soil
is in the flatwoods. Slopes are smooth to convex and
range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is sand about 9 inches
thick. It is black in the upper 2 inches, very dark gray in
the next 3 inches, and dark gray in the lower 4 inches.
The subsurface layer is light gray sand 18 inches thick.
The upper part of the subsoil extends to a depth of 59
inches. It is black sand in the upper 8 inches, dark
reddish brown sand in the next 5 inches, brown sand in
the next 10 inches, and pale brown loamy sand in the
lower 10 inches. A layer of white sand 10 inches thick
separates the upper and lower parts of the subsoil. The
lower part of the subsoil is light brownish gray fine sandy
loam to a depth of more than 80 inches.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Ankona, Lawnwood, Nettles, and Pepper soils. The in-
cluded soils make up less than 20 percent of any
mapped area.
The water table of Tantile sand is within a depth of 10
inches for 2 to 4 months and between depths of 10 to
40 inches for 6 months or more during most years. It is
perched above the subsoil early in the summer rainy
season and after periods of heavy rainfall in other sea-
sons. Available water capacity is low in the surface layer,
very low in the subsurface layer, and medium in the


41






SOIL SURVEY


subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsur-
face layers and very slow to moderately slow in the
subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter content are
low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
open forest of south Florida slash pine and an under-
story of sawpalmetto, running oak, and in places ink-
berry, pawpaw, and fetterbush. The most common
grasses are pineland threeawn, lopsided indiangrass,
and Florida threeawn.
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops. However, it has high potential for vegetable crops
if a water control system is installed. Such a system
should be designed to remove excess water in wet sea-
sons and to provide subsurface irrigation in dry seasons.
Good management also includes crop rotations that
keep the soil in close growing, soil improving crops at
least two-thirds of the time. These crops and crop resi-
due should be plowed under. Fertilizer and lime should
be applied according to the need of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus. However, it has
medium potential for citrus if very intensive water control
and management are provided. After heavy rains, excess
water needs to be rapidly removed from the soil to a
depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees in beds helps lower
the effective depth of the water table. A cover of close
growing vegetation between the trees is needed to pro-
tect the soil from erosion. Regular applications of fertiliz-
er are required. Irrigation in seasons of low rainfall is
needed for highest yields.
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and clovers are
well adapted and grow well if they are well managed.
Water control measures are needed to remove excess
surface water after heavy rainfall. Applications of fertilizer
are required. Grazing should be carefully controlled to
maintain healthy plants for highest yields.
This soil has medium potential for pine. Slash pine is
better suited than other species. Equipment limitations
and seedling mortality are management concerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and sewage lagoon areas. Water control meas-
ures help to overcome excessive wetness. The size of
absorption fields may need to be increased because of
slow permeability. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoon
areas helps to overcome excessive seepage. Potential is
medium for septic tank absorption fields, playgrounds,
trench type sanitary landfills, and shallow excavations.
Water control measures are needed to overcome exces-
sive wetness. The sandy surface layer should be stabi-
lized for playground use. Sealing or lining with impervious
soil material is needed for trench sanitary landfills to
reduce excessive seepage. Sidewalls of shallow excava-
tions should be shored.
This soil is in capability subclass IVw.


45-Terra Ceia muck. This very poorly drained, nearly
level soil is on the lower flood plains of rivers and
streams. Slope is smooth and is less than 1 percent.
Typically, this soil is black muck to a depth of 80
inches or more.
Included with this soil in mapping are areas where the
river or stream has meandered and deposited mineral
material on top of the organic material and areas where
the mineral material is within a depth of 52 inches. Also
included are small areas of Pompano soils and Satellite
soils. The included soils make up less than 30 percent of
any mapped area.
The water table of Terra Ceia muck is at or above the
surface for 6 to 9 months annually. The soil is subject to
flooding by stream overflow. Available water capacity is
very high in the root zone, and permeability is rapid
throughout. However, internal drainage is slow because
of the shallow water table. Natural fertility is high, and
organic matter content is very high.
Natural vegetation is mostly a dense swamp growth of
willows, sweet bay, maple, and waxmyrtle and an under-
story of giant ferns and vines. In a few open areas,
vegetation is sawgrass and giant ferns.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to culti-
vated crops. However, it has high potential for vegetable
crops if a well designed and maintained water control
system is installed. Such a system needs to remove
excess water when crops are growing and keep the soil
saturated at other times. Water-tolerant cover crops
should be grown when the soils are not in use for truck
crops. These cover crops and crop residue should be
plowed under. Fertilizer that contains phosphates,
potash, and minor elements are needed.
This soil is not suited to citrus. It has very low potential
for this use.
This soil has high potential for most improved pasture
grasses and clovers adapted to the area. High yields of
pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and white clover can be
realized if water is properly controlled. The water table
needs to be maintained near the surface to prevent
excessive oxidation of the organic horizons. Fertilizer
that contains minor elements is needed. Grazing should
be controlled for highest yields.
This soil is not suited to pine. It has very low potential
for this use.
This soil has very low potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commer-
cial buildings, local roads and streets, playgrounds,
trench type sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and
sewage lagoon areas. Water control measures are
needed. Organic materials which have low strength
should be removed and replaced with suitable material
for dwellings without basements, small commercial build-
ings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds. Sealing
with impervious soil material is needed for trench type
sanitary landfills and shallow lagoon areas.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.


42






ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


46-Turnbull Variant sandy clay loam. This very
poorly drained, nearly level soil is in tidal marshes.
Slopes are dominantly less than 1 percent but range to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is 23 inches thick. It is
black sandy clay loam in the upper part and very dark
gray fine sandy loam in the lower part. The substratum
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is gray sandy
clay loam in the upper 13 inches and gray, very bouldery
sandy clay loam below this layer.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Pompano Variant and Kaliga Variant soils and areas that
have more than 8 inches of organic material on the
surface. The included soils make up less than 25 per-
cent of any mapped area.
Turnbull Variant sandy clay loam is flooded by tidal
waters daily. Available water capacity is very high in the
surface layer and medium below. Permeability is slow to
very slow in the surface layer and moderate to rapid
below. Organic matter content is high.
Natural vegetation is red and black mangrove.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, citrus, pas-
ture, or pine. It has very low potential for these uses.
This soil has very low potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commer-
cial buildings, local roads and streets, playgrounds,
trench type sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and
sewage lagoon areas. Water control measures and pro-
tection from flooding are needed. Size of septic tank
absorption fields should be increased and may need to
be mounded. Footings and foundations need to be in-
creased for dwellings without basements and small com-
mercial buildings, and the structural strength should be
increased for local roads and streets. Trench type sani-
tary landfills and lagoon areas should be sealed or lined
with impervious soil material.
This soil is in capability subclass Vlllw.

47-Urban land. Urban land consists of areas that are
more than 70 percent covered by airports, shopping cen-
ters, parking lots, large buildings, streets, and sidewalks.
Other areas, for example, lawns, parks, vacant lots, and
playgrounds are made up mostly of Ankona, Lawnwood,
Nettles, Pendarvis, Pepper, Tantile, St. Lucie, Paola, and
Waveland soils. The surface of these soils, to a depth of
about 12 inches, has been covered with fill material
consisting of sandy and loamy materials which contain
limestone and shell fragments in places. These areas of
soils are too small to be mapped separately.
Urban land is not placed in a capability subclass.

48-Wabasso sand. This poorly drained, nearly level
soil is in flatwoods areas. Slopes are smooth to convex
and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is sand about 8 inches
thick. It is black in the upper 4 inches and very dark gray
in the lower 4 inches. The subsurface layer is gray sand


17 inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 60
inches. In sequence, it is black sand in the upper 5
inches; dark brown loamy sand in the next 4 inches; dark
grayish brown sandy loam in the next 14 inches; and
olive gray sandy clay loam in the lower 12 inches. The
substratum is olive gray sand to a depth of 80 inches or
more and contains shell fragments.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Oldsmar, Parkwood, and Pineda soils. Also included are
areas where the dark sandy subsoil is weakly cemented
and slowly permeable. In the area of T. 37 S., R. 38 E
and R. 39 E., the clay content of the subsoil is slightly
higher than is described for the series. In this area the
loamy subsoil is as shallow as 18 inches. The included
soils make up less than 20 percent of any mapped area.
The water table of Wabasso sand is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 1 to 4 months during the summer
rainy season and between depths of 10 to 40 inches for
6 to 9 months in most years. It is below a depth of 40
inches in dry seasons. The water table is perched above
the subsoil during the summer and after periods of heavy
rainfall. Available water capacity is low in the surface and
subsurface layers and substratum and medium in the
subsoil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsur-
face layers and substratum and moderate to moderately
slow in the dark sandy subsoil. It is very slow to slow in
the loamy subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter
content are low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
open forest of second growth longleaf pine or slash pine,
and scattered to many cabbage palms. The understory is
sawpalmetto, running oak, and in places inkberry and
fetterbush. The most common native grasses are pine-
land threeawn and Florida threeawn and, in places, sev-
eral varieties of bluestem.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of wetness. It has medium potential for vegeta-
ble crops if a water control system that is designed to
remove excess water in wet seasons and provide for
subsurface irrigation in dry seasons is installed. Good
management includes crop rotation that keeps the soil in
close growing, soil improving crops at least two-thirds of
the time. These crops and crop residue should be
plowed under. Fertilizer and lime should be applied ac-
cording to the need of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus because of wetness.
However, it has medium potential for citrus if a water
control system that rapidly removes excess water from
the soil after heavy rains is provided. The water should
be removed to a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees in
beds lowers the effective depth of the water table. A
cover of close growing vegetation between the trees is
needed to protect the soil from erosion. Regular applica-
tions of fertilizer are required. Irrigation can be needed in
seasons of low rainfall for highest yields.
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass, bahiagrasses, and clovers are


43







SOIL SURVEY


well adapted and grow well if they are well managed. A
water control system that removes excess surface water
in periods of high rainfall is needed. Regular applications
of fertilizer and carefully controlled grazing are needed to
maintain healthy plants for highest yields.
This soil has medium potential for pine. Slash pine is
better suited than other species. Equipment limitations
and seedling mortality are the main management con-
cerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and sewage lagoon areas. Water control meas-
ures are needed to help overcome excessive wetness.
The size of absorption fields may need to be increased
because of slow permeability. Sealing or lining of sewage
lagoon areas helps to overcome excessive seepage. Po-
tential is medium for septic tank absorption fields, play-
grounds, trench type sanitary landfills, and shallow exca-
vations. Water control measures are needed to over-
come excessive wetness. The sandy surface layer
should be stabilized for playground use. Sealing or lining
with impervious soil material is needed to reduce exces-
sive seepage for trench sanitary landfills. Sidewalls of
shallow excavations should be shored.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

49-Wabasso Variant sand. This poorly drained,
nearly level soil is in flatwoods areas. Slopes are smooth
to convex and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 5
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray sand 14
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 32
inches. It is mainly dark reddish brown and brown sand
in the upper 6 inches, and dark grayish brown and olive
gray sandy clay loam in the lower 7 inches. The substra-
tum extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. In se-
quence, it is light gray very gravelly sandy loam in the
upper 4 inches; brown sand and loamy sand containing
calcium carbonate nodules in the next 9 inches; light
olive brown, calcareous sandy loam in the next 5 inches;
light olive gray loamy sand that contains shell fragments
in the next 18 inches; and gray sandy loam and sandy
clay loam that contain shell fragments in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Hallandale, Pople, Hilolo, and Wabasso soils. The includ-
ed areas of Wabasso soil are less than 25 percent of
any mapped area. The included areas of other soils are
less than 20 percent of any mapped area.
The water table of Wabasso Variant sand is at a depth
of less than 10 inches for less than 2 months in wet
seasons and between depths of 10 to 40 inches for
more than 6 months during most years. It is perched
above the subsoil during the summer rainy season and
after periods of heavy rainfall. The water table is at a
depth of 40 inches or more during the dry season. Avail-
able water capacity is very low in the surface and sub-
surface layers and substratum and medium in the sub-


soil. Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers and substratum, moderate in the dark sandy sub-
soil, and very slow to slow in the loamy subsoil. Internal
drainage is slow because of the shallow water table.
Natural fertility and organic matter content are low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is live
oak, cabbage palm, and a few south Florida slash pine
and an understory of sawpalmetto, running oak, and ink-
berry (fig. 13). The most common native grass is pine-
land threeawn.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops
because of wetness. However, the soil has medium po-
tential for vegetable crops if a water control system that
is designed to remove excess water in wet seasons and
provide for subsurface irrigation in dry seasons is in-
stalled. Good management includes crop rotation that
keeps the soil in close growing, soil improving crops at
least two-thirds of the time. These crops and crop resi-
due should be plowed under. Fertilizer and lime should
be applied according to the need of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus because of wetness.
It has medium potential for citrus, however, if a water
control system that rapidly removes excess water from
the soil after heavy rains is provided. The water should
be removed to a depth of about 4 feet. Planting trees in
beds lowers the effective depth of the water table. A
cover of close growing vegetation between the trees is
needed to protect the soil from erosion. Regular applica-
tions of fertilizer are required. Irrigation can be needed in
seasons of low rainfall for highest yields.
This soil has high potential for pasture grasses. Pan-
golagrass, bahiagrasses, and clovers are well adapted
and grow well if they are well managed. A water control
system to remove excess surface water during periods
of heavy rainfall is needed. Regular applications of fertil-
izer are required. Carefully controlled grazing is needed
to maintain healthy plants for highest yields.
This soil has medium potential for pine. Slash pine is
better suited than other species.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and sewage lagoon areas. Water control meas-
ures help to overcome excessive wetness. The size of
absorption fields may need to be increased because of
slow permeability. Sealing or lining of sewage lagoon
areas helps to overcome excessive seepage. Potential is
medium for septic tank absorption fields, playgrounds,
trench type sanitary landfills, and shallow excavations.
Water control measures are needed to overcome exces-
sive wetness. The sandy surface layer should be stabi-
lized for playground use. Sealing or lining with impervious
soil material is needed for trench sanitary landfills to
reduce excessive seepage. Sidewalls of shallow excava-
tions should be shored.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

50-Waveland fine sand. This poorly drained, nearly


44







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


Figure 13.-Oak, pine, and cabbage palm hammock on Wabasso Variant sand. Pineda sand is in the foreground.


level soil is on broad flatwoods areas. Slopes are
smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is fine sand about 8 inches
thick. It is black in the upper 4 inches and is dark gray in
the lower 4 inches. The subsurface layer is 24 inches
thick. It is grayish brown sand in the upper 9 inches, and
light gray fine sand in the lower 15 inches. The subsoil
extends to a depth of 53 inches. It is black loamy sand
in the upper 8 inches and black sand in the lower 13
inches. The substratum to a depth of 80 inches or more
is sand with pockets of loamy sand and sandy loam. It is
dark grayish brown in the upper 4 inches, grayish brown
in the next 9 inches, and olive gray in the lower part.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Electra, Jonathan, Lawnwood, and Salerno soils. The
included soils make up about 15 percent of any mapped
area.
The water table of Waveland fine sand is within a
depth of 10 inches for 1 to 4 months and within a depth
of 40 inches for 6 months or more during most years. It
is perched above the subsoil early in the summer rainy
season and after periods of heavy rainfall in other sea-


sons. The water table recedes to a depth of more than
40 inches during extended dry seasons. Available water
capacity is low in the surface layer, very low in the
subsurface layer, medium in the subsoil, and low in the
substratum. Permeability is rapid in the surface and sub-
surface layers, very slow to slow in the subsoil, and
moderate to rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility and
organic matter content are low.
A few small areas of this soil are cleared and are used
for improved pasture. Native vegetation is south Florida
slash pine and an understory of palmetto, waxmyrtle,
gallberry, pawpaw, huckleberry, fetterbush, lopsided in-
diangrass, creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, Florida
threeawn, and pineland threeawn (fig. 14).
This soil has very severe limitations for cultivated
crops because of wetness. It has medium potential for
vegetable crops if a water control system that is de-
signed to remove excess water is installed. Good man-
agement includes crop rotations that keep the soil in
close growing, soil improving crops at least two-thirds of
the time. These crops and crop residue should be


45








SOIL SURVEY


Figure 14.-Waveland fine sand in an area of flatwoods. Pine, sawpalmetto, and several species of threeawn are the dominant vegetation.


plowed under. Fertilizer and lime should be applied ac-
cording to the need of the crop.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus because of wetness.
It has low potential for citrus. A good drainage system
that rapidly removes excess water from the soil to a
depth of about 4 feet after heavy rains is needed if citrus
are to be grown. Planting the trees in beds lowers the
effective depth of the water table. A cover of close
growing vegetation between the trees is needed to pro-
tect the soil from erosion. Regular applications of fertiliz-
er are required. Irrigation is needed in seasons of low
rainfall for highest yields.
This soil has medium potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clovers are well
adapted and grow well if they are well managed. Water
control measures are needed to remove surface water in
times of heavy rainfall. Regular applications of fertilizer
are required. Carefully controlled grazing is needed to
maintain healthy plants for highest yields.


This soil has low potential for pine. Slash pine is the
best adapted species. A good drainage system that re-
moves excessive surface water is needed if the produc-
tion potential is to be realized. Equipment limitations and
seedling mortality are the main management concerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, and local roads and
streets. Water control measures are needed. Potential is
medium for septic tank absorption fields, playgrounds,
trench type sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and
sewage lagoon areas. Installation of water control meas-
ures helps to overcome excessive wetness. The size of
the absorption field can need to be increased because
of lower permeability rates. The sandy surface layer
should be stabilized for playground use. Sealing or lining
with impervious material is needed to reduce excessive
seepage for trench type sanitary landfills and for sewage
lagoon areas. Sidewalls of shallow excavations should
be shored.


46








ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


This soil is in capability subclass IVw.

51-Waveland-Lawnwood complex. This complex
consists of poorly drained, depressional soils in the
flatwoods. The soils are so intermixed that they could
not be separated at the scale selected for mapping.
Areas are 3 to 25 acres in size. Slope ranges from 0 to 2
percent.
Waveland sand makes up 45 to 65 percent of the
complex, and Lawnwood sand makes up 25 to 45 per-
cent.
Typically, the surface layer of Waveland soils is black
fine sand 1 inch thick. The subsurface layer is light gray
sand 21 inches thick. The subsoil is sand that extends to
a depth of 50 inches. The upper 15 inches is dark
grayish brown, the next 6 inches is dark reddish brown
and is weakly cemented, and the lower 7 inches is dark
brown. The substratum, to a depth of 80 inches or more,
is sand that has pockets of loamy sand. It is pale brown
in the upper 16 inches and light brownish gray below this
layer.


Waveland soils are ponded for 6 to 9 months in
most years (fig. 15). The available water capacity is low
to a depth of about 5 inches, very low to a depth of 34
inches, and medium below this depth. Permeability is
rapid in the surface layer and subsurface layer, slow to
very slow in the subsoil, and moderately rapid to rapid in
the substratum. Natural fertility and organic matter con-
tent are low.
Typically, the Lawnwood soil has a surface layer of
very dark gray sand 3 inches thick. The subsurface layer
is gray sand 19 inches thick. The subsoil is sand that
extends to a depth of 26 inches. It is black and weakly
cemented in the upper 4 inches and is dark reddish
brown in the lower 3 inches. The substratum, to a depth
of 80 inches or more, is reddish brown sand.
Lawnwood soils are ponded for 6 to 9 months in
most years. The available water capacity is low to a
depth of 3 inches, very low to a depth of 22 inches, and
medium below this depth. Permeability is rapid in the


Figure 15.-Waveland-Lawnwood complex in a depressional area in the flatwoods. These soils are ponded for 6 to 9 months in most years.


47







SOIL SURVEY


surface layer and subsurface layer. It is moderately rapid
to rapid in the substratum, and slow to very slow in the
subsoil. Natural fertility and organic matter content are
low.
Included with this complex in mapping are areas of
soils that are similar to Waveland and Lawnwood soils
which have a thick dark surface layer. The included soils
make up 10 to 40 percent of the complex.
Natural vegetation is stillingia, sandweed, longleaf
threeawn, maidencane, and sand cordgrass.
Under natural conditions, these soils are not suited to
crops because of ponding. However, the soils have
medium potential for vegetable crops if very intensive
management, soil improving measures, and a good
water control system are provided. A water control
system is needed to remove excess water in wet sea-
sons and to provide subsurface irrigation in dry seasons.
Close growing, soil improving crops need to be rotated
with the row crops. They should be grown three-fourths
of the time. These soil improving crops and crop residue
should be plowed under. Seedbed preparation should
include bedding of rows. Fertilizer and lime should be
applied according to the need of the crop.
Under natural conditions, these soils are not suited to
citrus. Even with intensive management practices that
include adequate water control, they have low potential
for citrus.
These soils are not suited to pasture. They have
medium potential for improved pasture grasses if very
intensive management, soil improving measures, and a
good water control system are provided. Pangolagrass,
improved bahiagrasses, and white clover grow well if
they are well managed. Water control measures are
needed to remove excess surface water after heavy
rains. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are
needed. Controlled grazing is needed to prevent over-
grazing and weakening of plants.
These soils have low potential for pine. A good water
control system is needed to remove excessive surface
water before the trees are planted if the production po-
tential is to be realized. Slash pine is better suited than
other species. Severe equipment limitations and seedling
mortality are the main management concerns.
These soils have medium potential for sewage la-
goons; however, water control measures are needed to
help overcome excessive wetness. Sealing or lining with
impervious material helps to reduce excessive seepage.
Potential is low for septic tank absorption fields, dwell-
ings without basements, small commercial buildings,
local roads and streets, playgrounds, trench type sanitary
landfills, and shallow excavations. Water control meas-
ures are needed. In addition, fill material is needed for
septic tank absorption fields, dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, and playgrounds. Sealing or lining with impervi-
ous soil material is needed for trench type sanitary land-
fills. Sidewalls of shallow excavations should be shored.


Mounding is needed in places for septic tank absorption
fields.
This complex is in capability subclass Vllw.

52-Waveland-Urban land complex. This complex
consists of Waveland soils and Urban land that are so
intermingled that they cannot be separated at the scale
used for mapping. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Nearly level Waveland soils or Waveland soils that
have been reworked or reshaped but still are recogniz-
able as Waveland soil make up 50 to 70 percent of the
complex, and Urban land makes up 15 to 50 percent.
Typically, the surface layer of the Waveland soils is
fine sand 8 inches thick. It is black in the upper 4 inches
and dark gray in the lower 4 inches. The subsurface
layer is grayish brown sand and light gray fine sand 24
inches thick. The subsoil is black, weakly cemented
loamy sand to a depth of 53 inches. The substratum, to
a depth of 80 inches or more, is sand that has pockets
of loamy sand and sandy loam.
The areas of Urban land are covered by houses,
streets, driveways, buildings, parking lots, and other re-
lated uses. Unoccupied areas are mostly lawns, vacant
lots, or playgrounds made up of Waveland soils. These
areas are so small and so intermixed with Urban land
that it is impractical to map them separately.
Included with this complex in mapping are about 15
percent areas of Ankona, Pendarvis, and Tantile soils. A
few areas that have as much as 80 percent or as little as
10 percent Urban land are also included.
Areas of soils that have been modified by grading and
shaping are more extensive in newer communities than
in older communities. Streets are commonly excavated
below the original surface and the material excavated is
spread over the adjacent area. Sand material from drain-
age ditches is often used as fill for sloughs or depres-
sions. In addition, material from outside the area is fre-
quently hauled in for fill.
In undrained areas, the soils in this complex have a
water table within a depth of 10 inches of the surface for
1 to 4 months of most years. However, drainage systems
have been established in most areas and depth to the
water table depends upon the efficiency of the drainage
system.
Present land use precludes the use of this complex for
cultivated crops, citrus, or improved pasture.
This complex is not placed in a capability subclass.

53-Welaka Variant sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.
This excessively drained, nearly level to gently sloping
soil is on upland ridges near the Indian River. Slopes are
smooth to convex.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand 5 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is sand about 13 inches
thick. It is gray in the upper 3 inches and light gray in the
lower 10 inches. The subsoil is sand to a depth of 96
inches or more. In sequence, it is pinkish gray in the


48







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


upper 3 inches; strong brown in the next 14 inches;
yellowish red in the next 41 inches; and strong brown
below this layer.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Paola, Pendarvis, and St. Lucie soils. The included soils
make up less than 15 percent of any mapped area.
Welaka Variant sand does not have a water table
within a depth of 80 inches annually. Available water
capacity is very low throughout the soil, and permeability
is very rapid. Natural fertility and organic matter content
are low.
In a large part of the acreage, natural vegetation is
cabbage palm and hickory and an understory of bryo-
phyllum. The most common native grass is pineland
threeawn.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops because of
droughtiness. Even with good management, it has very
low potential for vegetable crops. Intensive soil manage-
ment is needed if this soil is cultivated. Droughtiness
and rapid leaching of plant nutrients reduce the variety
of adapted crops. Unless irrigation is practiced, good
yields are restricted to a few crops. Irrigation, however, is
usually feasible if water is readily available. Soil improv-
ing crops and crop residue should be left on the ground
or plowed under.
This soil is poorly suited to citrus. It has low potential
for citrus. A good ground cover of close growing plants
is needed between the trees to protect the soil from
erosion. A well designed irrigation system to maintain
optimum moisture conditions is needed for highest
yields.
This soil has low potential for improved pasture
grasses. Deep rooting plants, for example, coastal ber-
mudagrass and bahiagrass are adapted. Yields, however,
are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular applications of
fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing is
needed to maintain the vigor of plants.
This soil has low potential for pine. Sand pine is better
suited than other species. Equipment limitations and
seedling mortality are management concerns.
This soil has very high potential for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, and local roads
and streets. No corrective measures are needed. Poten-
tial is high for small commercial buildings. Land shaping
can be needed on the more sloping areas. Potential is
medium for playgrounds, trench type sanitary landfills,
and shallow excavations. The sandy surface layer should
be stabilized for playground use. Land shaping can be
needed on the more sloping areas. Sealing or lining with
impervious material is needed to reduce excessive seep-
age for trench type sanitary landfills. Sidewalls of shallow
excavations should be shored. Potential is very low for
sewage lagoon areas. Sealing or lining with impervious
soil material is needed to reduce excessive seepage.
This soil is in capability subclass Vis.


54-Winder sand, depressional. This poorly drained,
nearly level soil is in depressional areas. Most slopes are
concave to smooth; however, a few slopes on slight
ridges are convex. They range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand 1 inch thick.
The subsurface layer is sand 9 inches thick. It is grayish
brown in the upper 2 inches and light brownish gray in
the lower 7 inches. The subsoil is gray sandy clay loam
to a depth of 25 inches. The next layer is sandy loam to
a depth of 67 inches. It is light gray in the upper 7
inches, light olive gray in the next 10 inches, and gray in
the lower 19 inches. The underlying material, to a depth
of 80 inches or more, is greenish gray sandy clay loam
overlying sandy loam.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Chobee, Floridana, Hallandale, Pineda, Riviera, Wa-
basso, Wabasso Variant, and Winder Variant soils. Also
included are a few areas that have a thin organic surface
layer and areas that have slightly more clay in the sub-
soil than is typical. The included soils make up less than
20 percent of any mapped area.
Winder sand, depressional, is ponded for 6 to 9
months or more annually. The scattered low ridges are
covered with water from a few days to about 3 months.
The water table is within a depth of 40 inches for most
of the rest of the year. Only for short periods in dry
seasons is the water table below a depth of 40 inches.
The soil is not ponded in drainage districts or in other
areas where the water control systems have been main-
tained. However, if the water control system is not main-
tained, the soil can become ponded again. Available
water capacity is low in the surface and subsurface
layers, moderate in the subsoil, and very low in the
substratum. Permeability is rapid in the surface and sub-
surface layers, slow to very slow in the subsoil, and
moderate to rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility and
organic matter content are low.
A large part of the acreage has been cleared and is
planted to citrus. Natural vegetation is maidencane and
stillingia. Blue maidencane and, in places, cypress grow
along the edges of the depressional areas. Cypress,
cabbage palm, and scattered longleaf pine or slash pine
and an understory of sawpalmetto, waxmyrtle, pineland
threeawn, and chalky bluestem grow on the slight ridges.
Under natural conditions, Winder soil, depressional, is
not suited to cultivated crops. It has high potential for
vegetable crops if a water control system that removes
excess water rapidly and protects the soil from ponding
is installed. Good soil management includes crop rota-
tion that keeps the soil in close growing cover crops at
least two-thirds of the time. The cover crops and crop
residue should be plowed under. Seedbed preparation
should include bedding. Fertilizer should be applied ac-
cording to the need of the crop.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to
citrus. It has high potential for citrus, however, if a water
control system that maintains good drainage to a depth


49







SOIL SURVEY


of about 4 feet and protects the soil from ponding is
installed. Planting trees in beds lowers the effective
depth of the water table. A good cover of close growing
vegetation is needed between the trees to protect the
soils from blowing when the trees are young. Regular
applications of fertilizer and occasional liming are re-
quired.
Under natural conditions, this soil is not suited to im-
proved pasture. However, it has high potential for good
quality pasture of improved grasses if proper water con-
trol is provided. Excellent pasture of grass or grass-
clover mixtures can be grown with good management.
Regular applications of fertilizer are required. Controlled
grazing is needed for highest yields.
This soil has low potential for pine. Slash pine is better
suited than other species. Water control is needed
before trees can be planted. Equipment limitations and
seedling mortality are management concerns.
This soil has high potential for sewage lagoon areas.
Water control measures are needed to overcome exces-
sive wetness. The potential is medium for shallow exca-
vations. Water control measures are needed. Potential is
low for septic tank absorption fields, dwellings without
basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, playgrounds, and trench type sanitary landfills.
Water control measures help to overcome excessive
wetness. Fill material is needed for septic tank absorp-
tion fields, dwellings without basements, small commer-
cial buildings, local roads and streets, and playgrounds.
Mounding of septic tank absorption fields can be
needed.
This soil is in capability subclass Vllw.

55-Winder loamy sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is in hammocks and along drainageways.
Slopes are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2
percent.
Typically, the surface layer is 6 inches thick. It is black
loamy sand in the upper 3 inches and very dark gray
loamy sand in the lower 3 inches. The subsurface layer
is sand 6 inches thick. It is grayish brown in the upper 3
inches and light brownish gray in the lower 3 inches. The
subsoil extends to a depth of 61 inches. In sequence, it
is dark grayish brown sandy clay loam with a few light
brownish gray sandy tongues of the subsurface layer in
the upper 9 inches; gray sandy clay loam in the next 12
inches; dark gray sandy loam in the next 16 inches; and
gray loamy sand in the lower 12 inches. The substratum,
to a depth of 80 inches or more, is light gray sand.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Wabasso, Wabasso Variant, Floridana, Hallandale,
Pineda, Riviera, and Winder Variant soils. Also included
are areas that have a dark surface layer more than 7
inches thick. The included siols make up less than 20
percent of any mapped area.
The water table of Winder loamy sand is at a depth of
less than 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and between


depths of 10 to 40 inches for most of the rest of the
year. Only for short periods in dry seasons is the water
table below a depth of 40 inches. Available water capac-
ity is low in the surface and subsurface layers. It is
moderate in the subsoil and very low in the substratum.
Permeability is rapid in the surface and subsurface
layers. It is slow to very slow in the subsoil and moder-
ate to rapid in the substratum. Natural fertility and organ-
ic matter content are low.
Almost all of the acreage has been cleared and is
planted to citrus. Natural vegetation is cabbage palm,
willow oak, scattered longleaf pine, and slash pine and
an understory of waxmyrtle and sawpalmetto. The most
common native grasses are pineland threeawn and blue
maidencane. Toothache grass, broomsedge, creeping
bluestem, Florida paspalum, sand cordgrass, and pani-
cums are other grasses.
Under natural conditions, this soil has severe limita-
tions for cultivated crops. However, it has high potential
for vegetable crops if a water control system is installed
and good management is practiced. Good soil manage-
ment includes crop rotation that keeps the soil in close
growing cover crops at least two-thirds of the time.
Cover crops and crop residue should be plowed under.
Seedbed preparation should include bedding. Fertilizer
should be applied according to the need of the crop.
Under natural conditions, this soil is poorly suited to
citrus. However, it has high potential for citrus if a water
control system that maintains good drainage to a depth
of about 4 feet is installed. Planting trees in beds lowers
the effective depth of the water table. A good cover of
close growing vegetation is needed between the trees to
protect the soil from blowing when the trees are young.
Regular applications of fertilizer and occasional liming
are required.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass, bahiagrass, and clovers are well
suited. Excellent pasture of grasses or grass-clover mix-
tures can be grown if good management is practiced.
Regular applications of fertilizer are required. Controlled
grazing is needed for highest yields.
This soil has high potential for pine. Slash pine is the
best adapted species. Water control is needed if the
production potential is to be realized. Limitations to use
of equipment and seedling mortality are management
concerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, shallow excavations, and sewage lagoon areas.
The potential is medium for septic tank absorption fields,
playgrounds, and trench type sanitary landfills. Water
control measures are needed to help overcome exces-
sive wetness.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.

56-Winder Variant sand. This poorly drained, nearly
level soil is on low hammocks and along poorly defined


50







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


drainageways. Slopes are smooth to convex and range
from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, the surface layer is black sand 6 inches
thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish brown sand 3
inches thick. The subsoil extends to a depth of 29
inches. In sequence, it is gry:rish brown sandy clay loam
in the upper 11 inches, light brownish gray sandy clay
loam in the next 5 inches; dark gray sandy clay loam in
the next 2 inches; and gray gravelly sandy loam in the
lower 2 inches. The substratum extends to a depth of 80
inches or more. It is light gray, very gravelly sandy loam
in the upper 3 inches. The lower part of the substratum
is sandy loam. It is gray in the upper 18 inches, light
olive gray in the next 20 inches, and gray below this
layer.
Included with this soil in mapping are small areas of
Wabasso Variant, Hallandale, Hilolo, Pineda, Pople, and
Winder soils. Also included are a few areas that have a
slightly thicker surface layer and a few areas that do not
have a loamy subsoil. The included soils make up less
than 20 percent of any mapped area.
The water table of Winder Variant sand is at a depth
of less than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months and between
depths of 10 to 40 inches for 6 to 9 months. It is below a
depth of 40 inches during dry seasons. Available water
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
substratum. It is medium to high in the subsoil. Perme-
ability is rapid in the surface and subsurface layers. It is
slow in the subsoil and moderate in the substratum.
Water moves through the gravelly layer freely. Natural
fertility is medium, and organic matter content is low.
A large part of the acreage is in citrus. Natural vegeta-
tion is hammock growth of cabbage palm, south Florida
slash pine, and live oak and an understory of sawpal-
metto and vines.
This soil has severe limitations for cultivated crops. It
has medium potential for vegetable crops if a complete
water control system that removes excess water rapidly
and provides for subsurface irrigation is installed. Good
soil management includes crop rotations that keep the
soil in close growing cover crops at least two-thirds of
the time. Cover crops and crop residue should be
plowed under. Seedbed preparation should include bed-
ding. Fertilizer should be applied according to the need
of the crop.
This soil has high potential for citrus if a water control
system that maintains the water table at a depth of
about 4 feet is installed. Planting the trees in beds
lowers the effective depth of the water table. A good
cover of close growing vegetation is needed between
the trees to protect the soils from blowing when the
trees are young. Regular applications of fertilizer are
required.
This soil has high potential for improved pasture
grasses. Pangolagrass, bahiaqrass, and clovers are well
suited. Excellent pasture of grasses or grass-clover mix-
tures can be grown if good management is practiced.


Regular applications of fertilizer are required. Controlled
grazing is needed for highest yields.
This soil has high potential for pine. Slash pine is
better suited than other species. Equipment limitations
and seedling mortality are management concerns.
This soil has high potential for dwellings without base-
ments, small commercial buildings, local roads and
streets, shallow excavations, and sewage lagoon areas.
It has medium potential for septic tank absorption fields,
playgrounds, and trench type sanitary landfills. Water
control measures are needed to help overcome exces-
sive wetness.
This soil is in capability subclass IIIw.


Use and management of the soils
This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of the
soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust land
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural re-
sources and the environment. Also, it can help avoid
soil-related failures in land uses.
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, conservation-
ists, engineers, and others collect extensive field data
about the nature and behavior characteristics of the
soils. They collect data on erosion, droughtiness, flood-
ing, and other factors that affect various soil uses and
management. Field experience and collected data on
soil properties and performance are used as a basis in
predicting soil behavior.
Information in this section can be used to plan the use
and management of soils for crops and pasture; as ran-
geland and woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary
facilities, highways and other transportation systems, and
parks and other recreation facilities; and for wildlife habi-
tat. It can be used to identify the potentials and limita-
tions of each soil for specific land uses and to help
prevent construction failures caused by unfavorable soil
properties.
Planners and others using soil survey information can
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area.
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil.
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources of
sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use it to
identify areas where rock, wetness, or very firm soil
layers can cause difficulty in excavation.
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and
others may also find this survey useful. The survey can
help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and locate
sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, play-
grounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs.


51







SOIL SURVEY


Crops and pasture
John D. Griffin, agronomist, Soil Conservation Service, helped pre-
pare this section.
General management needed for crops and pasture is
suggested in this section. The crops or pasture plants
best suited to the soils, including some not commonly
grown in the survey area, are identified; the system of
land capability classification used by the Soil Conserva-
tion Service is explained; and the estimated yields of the
main crops and hay and pasture plants are listed for
each soil.
Planners of management systems for individual fields
or farms should consider the detailed information given
in the description of each soil under "Soil maps for
detailed planning." Specific information can be obtained
from the local office of the Soil Conservation Service or
the Cooperative Extension Service.
More than 150,000 acres in St. Lucie County Area was
used for citrus and improved pasture in 1973, according
to the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service.
More than 71,000 acres was used for citrus. About
36,000 acres was used for oranges; about 26,000 acres,
for grapefruit; and about 9,000 acres, for tangelos and
tangerines. There was about 78,000 acres of improved
pasture. Slightly less than 1,000 acres was used for
vegetables, mainly tomatoes.
The western part of the survey area has good poten-
tial for increased citrus and vegetable production; howev-
er, this area is slightly more susceptible to damage by
cold temperatures. Water control systems are needed if
citrus and vegetables are to be grown. Much of the area
has been cleared. The soil was used for vegetable crops
for a few years, but more recently, it has been planted to
improved pasture or has reverted to native forage plants.
In addition to the reserve productive capacity of this
soil, food production could be increased considerably by
extending the use of the latest crop production technol-
ogy. This soil survey can greatly facilitate the application
of such technology.
Most urban development is in the eastern part of the
survey area in the vicinity of Fort Pierce and Port St.
Lucie. About 250 acres a year are developed for urban
uses.
Soil erosion by wind and water is a concern on the
more sloping soils where areas are being developed for
urban use and the surface is laid bare of a protective
cover of vegetation. Soil erosion results in sediment en-
tering streams. Control of erosion decreases the pollu-
tion of streams by sediment and improves the quality of
water for municipal and recreational use and as habitat
for fish and wildlife. Erosion control practices include the
use of protective surface cover to reduce runoff and
increase infiltration. Temporary seeding of vegetation
and mulching reduces erosion.


Wind erosion is a hazard in some seasons. Soils that
are planted to vegetables, recently planted citrus, and
urban areas cleared of vegetation, are susceptible to
wind erosion. Soil blowing can damage these soils and
crops in a few hours if winds are strong and the soils are
dry and bare of vegetation or surface mulch. Maintaining
a vegetative cover, surface mulch, or roughing of sur-
faces through proper tillage methods minimizes soil
blowing. Windbreaks of adapted plants, for example,
Australian pine, slash pine, or bamboo are effective in
reducing wind erosion on these soils.
Information about the design of erosion control prac-
tices for each kind of soil is available in local offices of
the Soil Conservation Service.
Water control is a major management concern on
much of the acreage used for crops and pasture in the
survey area. Some soils, for example, Floridana, Chobee,
and Kaliga soils are naturally so wet that the production
of crops common to the area is generally not feasible
without extensive water control systems. Poorly drained
soils such as Hilolo, Myakka, Pepper, and Riviera soils
are so wet that crops are damaged during most years
without adequate water control. Soils on elevated sandy
ridges, for example, St. Lucie, Paola, and Welaka Variant
soils have good natural drainage most of the year, but
they tend to dry out quickly after rains.
The design of both surface and subsurface water con-
trol systems varies with the kind of soil. A system com-
bining surface drainage and tile drainage is needed in
most areas of the poorly drained and very poorly drained
soils if they are used for intensive row cropping. Drains
should be more closely spaced in soils with slow perme-
ability than in the more permeable soils. Tile drainage is
very slow in Chobee soils. Finding adequate outlets for
drainage systems is difficult in depressional areas.
Organic soils oxidize and subside when the pore
spaces are filled with air. They are not generally used for
crops in the survey area because special water control
systems are needed to control the depth of the water
table. Such a system needs to keep the water table at
the level required by crops during the growing season
and to raise it to the surface during other parts of the
year to minimize oxidation and subsidence. Information
about a water control system designed for each kind of
soil is available in local offices of the Soil Conservation
Service.
Soil fertility is naturally low in most of the soils in the
survey area. Hontoon, Samsula Variant, Terra Ceia,
Kaliga Variant, Chobee, and Floridana soils are among
the most naturally fertile soils in the survey area. Except
for Canaveral, Pompano Variant, Palm Beach, Pople,
and Hilolo soils which are slightly acid to moderately
alkaline, the surface layer of the mineral soils is general-
ly strongly acid to slightly acid. Hontoon and Samsula
Variant soils are the most acid, and Terra Ceia and
Kaliga Variant soils are the most alkaline of the organic


52






ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


soils. These soils require special fertilizers because they
are low in minor elements.
Many of the soils have a surface layer that is naturally
strongly acid. These soils require applications of lime to
raise the pH level if clover and other crops that grow
best on soils with a pH near neutral are grown. Available
phosphorus and potash levels, especially nitrogen, are
naturally low in most of these soils. On all soils, applica-
tions of lime and fertilizer should be based on the results
of soil tests, on the need of the crop, and on the expect-
ed level of yields. The Cooperative Extension Service
can help in determining the kinds and amounts of fertiliz-
er and lime to apply.
Soil tilth is important in the germination of seeds and
in the infiltration rate of water into the soil. Soils that
have good tilth are granular and porous. Most of the
soils used for crops in the survey area have a sandy
surface layer that is light in color and low in content of
organic matter. Generally the structure of such soils is
weak. If the soil becomes very dry, a slight crust is
formed, water beads up, and passage of water through
the soil is impeded until the soil becomes wet. Once the
crust forms, the infiltration rate is reduced and runoff is
increased. Regular additions of crop residue, manure,
and other organic material improve soil structure and
reduce crust formation.
Field crops are not commonly grown in St. Lucie
County Area. Common close growing crops for grazing
use are rye and ryegrass. Seed crops can be produced
from bahiagrass, clovers, and aeschynomeme.
Special crops grown in the survey area are vegetables,
citrus, and nursery plants. A small acreage is used for
tomatoes, watermelons, eggplant, peppers, and other
vegetables. Citrus is the most important fruit in the
county. The soils in the flatwoods are especially well
suited to many vegetable and small fruit crops because
the water table can be easily maintained by irrigation.
The soils in the St. Johns River Marsh are well suited to
citrus if water is controlled. Latest information and sug-
gestions for growing special crops can be obtained from
local offices of the Cooperative Extension Service and
the Soil Conservation Service.
Pasture and forage crops are grown in the western
part of the survey area. These crops are used mostly for
cow-calf operations. The major warm-season perennial
pasture plants are pangolagrass and improved bermuda
and bahiagrasses. In winter these improved pasture
grasses are supplemented with small grain, ryegrass,
and white clover. There are no cool-season perennial
pasture plants adapted to the soils and climate of St.
Lucie County Area.
The improved pasture in many parts of the survey area
has been greatly depleted by continued excessive use.
Much of the area that was planted to improved pasture
is now covered with weeds and brush. Where climate
and topography are about the same, differences in the
kind and amount of forage produced are related closely


to the kind of soil. Effective management needs to con-
sider the relationships of soils to each other, pasture
plant species, water control, liming, and fertilization.
Table 5 shows, for each kind of soil, the potential annual
production of forage in animal unit months for each
major forage plant.

Yields per acre
The average yields per acre that can be expected of
the principal crops under a high level of management
are shown in table 5. In any given year, yields may be
higher or lower than those indicated in the table because
of variations in rainfall and other climatic factors.
The yields are based mainly on the experience and
records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
results of field trials and demonstrations are also consid-
ered.
The management needed to obtain the indicated
yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil
and the crop. Management can include drainage, erosion
control, and protection from flooding; the proper planting
and seeding rates; suitable high-yielding crop varieties;
appropriate and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant
diseases, and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction
and optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
and trace elements for each crop; effective use of crop
residue, barnyard manure, and green-manure crops; and
harvesting that insures the smallest possible loss.
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity of
each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are likely
to increase as new production technology is developed.
The productivity of a given soil compared with that of
other soils, however, is not likely to change.
Crops other than those shown in table 5 are grown in
the survey area, but estimated yields are not listed be-
cause the acreage of such crops is small. The local
office of the Soil Conservation Service or of the Cooper-
ative Extension Service can provide information about
the management and productivity of the soils.

Land capability classification
Land capability classification shows, in a general way,
the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. Crops
that require special management are excluded. The soils
are grouped according to their limitations for field crops,
the risk of damage if they are used for crops, and the
way they respond to management. The grouping does
not take into account major and generally expensive
landforming that would change slope, depth, or other
characteristics of the soils, nor does it consider possible
but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability classi-
fication is not a substitute for interpretations designed to
show suitability and limitations of groups of soils for
rangeland, for woodland, and for engineering purposes.


53






SOIL SURVEY


In the capability system, soils are generally grouped at
three levels: capability class, subclass, and unit. Only
class and subclass are used in this survey. These levels
are defined in the following paragraphs.
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are designat-
ed by Roman numerals I through VIII. The numerals
indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower
choices for practical use. The classes are defined as
follows:
Class I soils have slight limitations that restrict their
use.
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require moderate conservation
practices.
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce the
choice of plants or that require special conservation
practices, or both.
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that reduce
the choice of plants or that require very careful manage-
ment, or both.
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make them
generally unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that make
them unsuitable for cultivation.
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have limita-
tions that nearly preclude their use for commercial crop
production.
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one class.
They are designated by adding a small letter, e, w, s, or
c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter e
shows that the main limitation is risk of erosion unless
close-growing plant cover is maintained; w shows that
water in or on the soil interferes with plant growth or
cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be partly cor-
rected by artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is
limited mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony;
and c, used in only some parts of the United States,
shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very cold
or very dry.
In class I there are no subclasses because the soils of
this class have few limitations. Class V contains only the
subclasses indicated by w, s, or c because the soils in
class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have
other limitations that restrict their use to pasture, range-
land, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
Capability units are soil groups within a subclass. The
soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be suited to
the same crops and pasture plants, to require similar
management, and to have similar productivity. Capability
units are generally designated by adding an Arabic nu-
meral to the subclass symbol, for example, lie-4 or Ille-6.
The acreage of soils in each capability class and sub-
class is shown in table 6. The capability classification of
each map unit is given in the section "Soil maps for
detailed planning."


Range and grazeable woodland
Clifford W. Carter, range conservationist, Soil Conservation Service,
helped prepare this section.
Native grasses are an important part of the overall,
year-round supply of forage to livestock producers in St.
Lucie County Area. This forage is readily available, it is
economical, and it provides important roughage needed
by cattle.
The dominant native forage species that grow on a
soil are generally the most productive and the most
suitable for livestock. They will maintain themselves as
long as the environment does not change. The forage
species are grouped into three categories according to
their response to grazing-decreasers, increases, and
invaders.
Decreasers generally are the most palatable plants,
and they decrease in abundance if the range is under
continuous heavy grazing. Increasers are less palatable
to livestock; they increase for a while under continuous
heavy grazing but eventually decrease. A small number
of invaders are native to the range. They have little value
for forage; consequently, they tend to increase after
other vegetation has been grazed.
Range condition is a measure of the current productiv-
ity of the range in relation to its potential. Four condition
classes are used to measure range condition.
Excellent condition produces 76 to 100 percent of
potential; good condition, 51 to 75 percent of potential;
fair condition, 26 to 50 percent of potential; and poor
condition, 0 to 25 percent of potential. Only about 10
percent of the range in St. Lucie County Area is in
excellent condition; about 70 percent is in fair or poor
condition.
Table 7 shows the potential of each soil for the pro-
duction of livestock forage. Potential production refers to
the amount of herbage that can be expected to grow on
well managed range. Yields are expressed in table 7 in
terms of pounds of air-dry herbage per acre for range in
excellent condition in favorable, normal, and unfavorable
years. Favorable years are those in which climatic fac-
tors such as rainfall and temperature are favorable for
plant growth. Moisture content in the plants varies as the
growing season progresses and is not a measure of
productivity. Forage refers to total vegetation produced
and does not reflect forage value or grazing potentials.
The productivity of the soils is closely related to the
natural drainage of the soil. The wettest soils, for exam-
ple, those soils in marshes, produce the most vegetation.
The deep, drought sandhills normally produce the least
herbage annually.
Management of the soils for range should be planned
with potential productivity in mind. Soils with the highest
production potential should be given highest priority if
economic considerations are important. Major manage-
ment considerations are centered around livestock graz-


54






ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


ing. The length of time an area should be grazed, the
season it should be used, how long and when the range
should rest, the grazing pattern of livestock within a
pa ture that contains more than one soil, and the palat-
ability of the dominant plants on the soil are basic con-
siderations if range condition is to be improved or main-
tained. Manipulation of range often involves mechanical
brush control, controlled burning, and especially con-
trolled livestock grazing. These practices are very impor-
tant. Without exception, the proper management of
range will result in maximum sustained production, con-
servation of soil and water resources, and generally,
improvement of the habitat for many wildlife.
Grazeable woodland is forest that has an understory
of native grasses, legumes, and forbs. The understory is
an integral part of the forest plant community. The native
plants can be grazed without significantly impairing other
forest values. On such forestland, grazing is compatible
with timber management if it is controlled or managed in
such a manner that timber and forage resources are
maintained or enhanced.
Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs,
shrubs, and other plants used by livestock or by grazing
or browsing wildlife. A well managed wooded area can
produce enough understory vegetation to supply food to
large numbers of livestock and wildlife.
The amount of forage production varies according to
the different kinds of grazeable woodland; the amount of
shade cast by the canopy; the accumulation of fallen
needles; the influence of time and intensity of grazing on
the grasses and forage; and the number, size and spac-
ing, and method of site preparation for tree plantings.

Woodland management and productivity
Carl D. Defazio, forester, Soil Conservation Service, and Roy Hopke,
county forester, Division of Forestry, Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services, helped prepare this section.
Approximately 47,000 acres or 13 percent of the land
area in St. Lucie County Area is in woodland, nearly all
of which is privately owned. The pine trees scattered
throughout the survey area are not considered to be
woodland.
South Florida slash pine, which grows in the flatwoods,
makes up most of the woodland. However, a sizeable
percentage of forested land is the oak-gum-cypress type.
This type of woodland is in the fresh water swamps
along Cypress Creek.
South Florida slash pine covers approximately 28,000
acres of flatwoods, according to the 1970 U.S. Forest
Service Survey. Since wood production is the most im-
portant traditional value in the county, slash pine is the
most important kind of forest in the area. Sand pine
grows in a small part of the survey area, mostly along
the Atlantic Coastal Ridge. These trees do not have high
economic value.


Mixed oak and pine forest is in the eastern part of the
survey area on slightly elevated areas in the flatwoods.
There are several species of oak trees, but they have
little commercial value. Mixed oak and hickory forest is
on the flood plain of the north fork of the St. Lucie River.
The magnificent stands of hickory which grow here are
not economically valuable as lumber, but they have con-
siderable value for wildlife and recreational use. The
mixed oak and gum forests which grow along several
creeks in the area are generally stocked with valuable
sawtimber. However, these areas may be of more value
for the wildlife they harbor and the water resources they
protect than for the timber they could produce.
Native tropical trees, for example, gymbo limbo, satin-
leaf, Florida strangler fig, and false-mastic are found in a
few areas, mostly along the eastern side of the Atlantic
Coastal Ridge.
Mangrove forests are perhaps the most economically
valuable trees in St. Lucie County Area. These red man-
groves and other salt marsh trees make an important
contribution to fisheries through their complex food chain
structures. In addition, they provide valuable habitat for
other wildlife.
Housing, intensive agriculture, and wildfire have re-
duced woodland resources in recent years. However,
those areas protected from fire are reverting back to
pine.
Timber management in the survey area generally con-
sists of natural regeneration following harvest cutting.
Prescribed burning is an important management tool. It is
used extensively to reduce "rough" which is a danger-
ous fire hazard, and to help facilitate natural regenera-
tion.
The county has scattered markets for wood products.
A few small sawmills are present. Pulpwood is occasion-
ally shipped to mills in the northern part of the State.
Woodland in St. Lucie County Area also has high value
as cover for cattle and wildlife and is aesthetically ap-
pealing for recreation. More detailed information about
woodland management can be obtained from the local
office of the Soil Conservation Service, County Extension
Service, and Florida Division of Forestry.
Table 8 can be used by woodland owners or forest
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops.
Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The
table lists the ordination (woodland suitability) symbol for
each soil. Soils assigned the same ordination symbol
require the same general management and have about
the same potential productivity.
The first part of the ordination symbol, a number, indi-
cates the potential productivity of the soils for important
trees. The number 1 indicates very high productivity; 2,
high; 3, moderately high; 4, moderate; and 5, low. The
second part of the symbol, a letter, indicates the major
kind of soil limitation. The letter x indicates stoniness or
rockiness; w, excessive water in or on the soil; t, toxic
substances in the soil; d, restricted root depth; c, clay in


55







SOIL SURVEY


the upper part of the soil; s, sandy texture; f, high con-
tent of coarse fragments in the soil profile; and r, steep
slopes. The letter o indicates that limitations or restric-
tions are insignificant. If a soil has more than one limita-
tion, the priority is as follows: x, w, t, d, c, s, f, and r.
In table 8, slight, moderate, and severe indicate the
degree of the major soil limitations to be considered in
management.
Ratings of equipment limitation reflect the characteris-
tics and conditions of the soil that restrict use of the
equipment generally needed in woodland management
or harvesting. A rating of slight indicates that use of
equipment is not limited to a particular kind of equipment
or time of year; moderate indicates a short seasonal
limitation or a need for some modification in manage-
ment or in equipment; and severe indicates a seasonal
limitation, a need for special equipment or management,
or a hazard in the use of equipment.
Seedling mortality ratings indicate the degree to which
the soil affects the mortality of tree seedlings. Plant
competition is not considered in the ratings. The ratings
apply to seedlings from good stock that are properly
planted during a period of sufficient rainfall. A rating of
slight indicates that the expected mortality is less than
25 percent; moderate, 25 to 50 percent; and severe,
more than 50 percent.
Ratings of windthrow hazard are based on soil charac-
teristics that affect the development of tree roots and
the ability of the soil to hold trees firmly. A rating of slight
indicates that a few trees may be blown down by normal
winds; moderate, that some trees will be blown down
during periods of excessive soil wetness and strong
winds; and severe, that many trees are blow down during
periods of excessive soil wetness and moderate or
strong winds.
Ratings of plant competition indicate the degree to
which undesirable plants are expected to invade or grow
if openings are made in the tree canopy. The invading
plants compete with native plants or planted seedlings
by impeding or preventing their growth. A rating of slight
indicates little or no competition from other plants; mod-
erate indicates that plant competition is expected to
hinder the development of a fully stocked stand of desir-
able trees; severe means that plant competition is ex-
pected to prevent the establishment of a desirable stand
unless the site is intensively prepared, weeded, or other-
wise managed for the control of undesirable plants.
The potential productivity of merchantable or common
trees on a soil is expressed as a site index. This index is
the average height, in feet, that dominant and codomin-
ant trees of a given species attain in a specified number
of years. Site index was calculated at age 25 for south
Florida slash pine and at age 50 for all other species.
The site index applies to fully stocked, even-aged, un-
managed stands. Common trees are those that wood-
land managers generally favor in intermediate or im-


provement cuttings. They are selected on the basis of
growth rate, quality, value, and marketability.
Trees to plant are those that are suitable for commer-
cial wood production and that are suited to the soils.

Windbreaks and environmental plantings
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards
from wind. They also protect fruit trees and gardens, and
they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several rows of low- and
high-growing broadleaf and coniferous trees and shrubs
provide the most protection.
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals
across the field. The interval depends on the erodibility
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and crops
from wind and provide food and cover for wildlife.
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely
spaced. To insure plant survival, a healthy planting stock
of suitable species should be planted properly on a well
prepared site and maintained in good condition.
Additional information on planning windbreaks and
screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
can be obtained from local offices of the Soil Conserva-
tion Service or the Cooperative Extension Service or
from a nursery.

Recreation
The soils of the survey area are rated in table 9 ac-
cording to limitations that affect their suitability for recre-
ation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil features,
such as wetness, slope, and texture of the surface layer.
Susceptibility to flooding is considered. Not considered in
the ratings, but important in evaluating a site, are the
location and accessibility of the area, the size and shape
of the area and its scenic quality, vegetation, access to
water, potential water impoundment sites, and access to
public sewerlines. The capacity of the soil to absorb
septic tank effluent and the ability of the soil to support
vegetation are also important. Soils subject to flooding
are limited for recreation use by the duration and intensi-
ty of flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
planning recreation facilities, onsite assessment of the
height, duration, intensity, and frequency of flooding is
essential.
In table 9, the degree of soil limitation is expressed as
slight, moderate, or severe. Slight means that soil prop-
erties are generally favorable and that limitations are
minor and easily overcome. Moderate means that limita-
tions can be overcome or alleviated by planning, design,
or special maintenance. Severe means that soil proper-
ties are unfavorable and that limitations can be offset
only by costly soil reclamation, special design, intensive


56







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


maintenance, limited use, or by a combination of these
measures.
The information in table 9 can be supplemented by
other information in this survey, for example, interpreta-
tions for septic tank absorption fields in table 12 and
interpretations for dwellings without basements and for
local roads and streets in table 11.
Camp areas require site preparation such as shaping
and leveling the tent and parking areas, stabilizing roads
and intensively used areas, and installing sanitary facili-
ties and utility lines. Camp areas are subject to heavy
foot traffic and some vehicular traffic. The best soils
have mild slopes and are not wet or subject to flooding
during the period of use. The surface has few or no
stones or boulders, absorbs rainfall readily but remains
firm, and is not dusty when dry. Strong slopes and
stones or boulders can greatly increase the cost of con-
structing campsites.
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and parking
areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm when wet,
are not dusty when dry, are not subject to flooding
during the period of use, and do not have slopes or
stones or boulders that increase the cost of shaping
sites or of building access roads and parking areas.
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand intensive
foot traffic. The best soils are almost level and are not
wet or subject to flooding during the season of use. The
surface is free of stones and boulders, is firm after rains,
and is not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the
depth of the soil over bedrock or a hardpan should be
considered.
Paths and trails for hiking, horseback riding, and bicy-
cling should require little or no cutting and filling. The
best soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
once a year during the period of use. They have moder-
ate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on the
surface.
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be re-
quired. The best soils for use as golf fairways are firm
when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not subject to
prolonged flooding during the period of use. They have
moderate slopes and no stones or boulders on the sur-
face. The suitability of the soil for tees or greens is not
considered in rating the soils.

Wildlife habitat
John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Soil Conservation Service, helped pre-
pare this section.
The original wildlife habitat in St. Lucie County has
been greatly diminished because large areas are now in
citrus groves, improved pastures, or urban areas. The
most extensive remaining areas of good habitat are the


undeveloped rangeland and the St. Johns River Marsh.
Other important areas of smaller extent are the ocean
beaches which are used extensively for nesting by en-
dangered sea turtles; the mangrove islands in the Indian
River which are especially valuable as rookery and roost-
ing areas for wading birds and as nursery areas for
many marine fish; and the Savannahs marsh area.
Endangered or threatened species that live in the
survey area range from the little-known, seldom-seen
Florida mouse to more commonly seen species, for ex-
ample, the American alligator and the brown pelican. A
detailed listing of endangered species together with in-
formation on range and habitat may be obtained from
the local District Conservationist.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that is
available to wildlife as food and cover. They also affect
the construction of water impoundments. The kind and
abundance of wildlife depend largely on the amount and
distribution of food, cover, and water. Wildlife habitat can
be created or improved by planting appropriate vegeta-
tion, by maintaining the existing plant cover, or by pro-
moting the natural establishment of desirable plants.
In table 10, the soils in the survey area are rated
according to their potential for providing habitat for var-
ious kinds of wildlife. This information can be used in
planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, and
other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils that are
suitable for establishing, improving, or maintaining specif-
ic elements of wildlife habitat; and in determining the
intensity of management needed for each element of the
habitat.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element or
kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or main-
tained. Few or no limitations affect management, and
satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of fair
indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be
established, improved, or maintained in most places.
Moderately intensive management is required for satis-
factory results. A rating of poor indicates that limitations
are severe for the designated element or kind of habitat.
Habitat can be created, improved, or maintained in most
places, but management is difficult and must be inten-
sive. A rating of very poor indicates that restrictions for
the element or kind of habitat are very severe and that
unsatisfactory results can be expected. Creating, improv-
ing, or maintaining habitat is impractical or impossible.
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
following paragraphs.
Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and seed-
producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties and fea-
tures that affect the growth of grain and seed crops are
depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
available water capacity, wetness, slope, surface stoni-
ness, and flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil mois-
ture are also considerations. Examples of grain and seed
crops are millet, cowpeas, and sunflowers.


57







SOIL SURVEY


Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial grasses
and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and features
that affect the growth of grasses and legumes are depth
of the root zone, texture of the surface layer, available
water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, flood hazard,
and slope. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
ryegrass, bahiagrass, switchgrass, deervetch, hairy
indigo, and clover.
Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally estab-
lished grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil proper-
ties and features that affect the growth of these plants
are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
available water capacity, wetness, surface stoniness, and
flood hazard. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
considerations. Examples of wild herbaceous plants
are bluestem, indiangrass, goldenrod, beggarweed,
pokeweed, mushrooms, partridge-pea, milk pea, rag-
weed, deers-tongue, and low panicums.
Hardwood trees and woody understory produce nuts
or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil
properties and features that affect the growth of hard-
wood trees and shrubs are depth of the root zone, the
available water capacity, and wetness. Examples of
these plants are oak, sawpalmetto, sweetgum, inkberry,
persimmon, elderberry, sumac, hickory, laurel cherry,
cabbage palm, American beautyberry, blackberry, grape,
huckleberry, viburnum, blueberry, and wax myrtle.
Coniferous plants furnish browse, seeds, and cones.
Soil properties and features that affect the growth of
coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth of
the root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
Examples of coniferous plants are pine, cypress, cedar,
and juniper.
Shrubs are bushy woody plants that produce fruit,
buds, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil properties and fea-
tures that affect the growth of shrubs are depth of the
root zone, available water capacity, salinity, and soil
moisture.
Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild herba-
ceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites. Submerged
or floating aquatic plants are excluded. Soil properties
and features affecting wetland plants are texture of the
surface layer, wetness, reaction, salinity, slope, and sur-
face stoniness. Examples of wetland plants are
smartweed, wild millet, rushes, sedges, maidencane,
reeds, wildrice, saltgrass, cordgrass, and cattail.
Shallow water areas have an average depth of less
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are
created by dams, levees, or other water-control struc-
tures. Soil properties and features affecting shallow
water areas are depth to bedrock, wetness, surface
stoniness, slope, and permeability. Examples of shallow
water areas are marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and
ponds.
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described in
the following paragraphs.


Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland, pas-
ture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas produce
grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, and wild
herbaceous plants. The wildlife attracted to these areas
include bobwhite quail, armadillo, meadowlark, field spar-
row, killdeer, cottontail, and red fox.
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of de-
ciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and associat-
ed grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous plants. Wild-
life attracted to these areas include wild turkey, wood-
cock, thrushes, vireos, woodpeckers, squirrels, gray fox,
raccoon, and deer.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy or
swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife at-
tracted to such areas are ducks, egrets, herons, shore-
birds, rails, kingfishers, muskrat, alligators, and otter.
Habitat for rangeland wildlife consists of areas of
shrubs and wild herbaceous plants.

Wildlife management
Wildlife habitat management thrives on disturbances
such as controlled burning, grazing, chopping, cultivation,
water level manipulation, mowing, and sometimes the
use of pesticides. Each species of wildlife occupies a
niche in a vegetative type; therefore, if management is
for a particular species, an attempt is made to keep the
vegetative community in the stage or stages that favor
that species.
A primary factor in evaluating wildlife habitat is the
plant diversity in an area. A wide range in vegetative
types or age classes is generally favorable to wildlife.
Increasing dominance by a few plant species is com-
monly accompanied by a corresponding decrease in
numbers of wildlife.

Engineering
James E. Thomas, area engineer, Soil Conservation Service, helped
prepare this section.
This section provides information for planning land
uses related to urban development and to water man-
agement. Soils are rated for various uses, and the most
limiting features are identified. The ratings are given in
the following tables: Building site development, Sanitary
facilities, Construction materials, and Water manage-
ment. The ratings are based on observed performance
of the soils and on the estimated data and test data in
the "Soil properties" section.
Information in this section is intended for land use
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for
planning site investigations prior to design and construc-
tion. The information, however, has limitations. For ex-
ample, estimates and other data generally apply only to
that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Be-
cause of the map scale, small areas of different soils


58







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


may be included within the mapped areas of a specific
soil.
The information is not site specific and does not elimi-
nate the need for onsite investigation of the soils or for
testing and analysis by personnel experienced in the
design and construction of engineering works.
Government ordinances and regulations that restrict
certain land uses or impose specific design criteria were
not considered in preparing the information in this sec-
tion. Local ordinances and regulations need to be con-
sidered in planning, in site selection, and in design.
Soil properties, site features, and observed perform-
ance were considered in determining the ratings in this
section. During the fieldwork for this soil survey, determi-
nations were made about grain-size distribution, liquid
limit, plasticity index, soil reaction, depth to bedrock,
hardness of bedrock within 5 to 6 feet of the surface,
soil wetness, depth to a seasonal high water table,
slope, likelihood of flooding, natural soil structure aggre-
gation, and soil density. Data were collected about kinds
of clay minerals, mineralogy of the sand and silt frac-
tions, and the kind of adsorbed cations. Estimates were
made for erodibility, permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell
potential, available water capacity, and other behavioral
characteristics affecting engineering uses.
This information can be used to (1) evaluate the po-
tential of areas for residential, commercial, industrial, and
recreation uses; (2) make preliminary estimates of con-
struction conditions; (3) evaluate alternative routes for
roads, streets, highways, pipelines, and underground
cables; (4) evaluate alternative sites for sanitary landfills,
septic tank absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; (5)
plan detailed onsite investigations of soils and geology;
(6) locate potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and
topsoil; (7) plan drainage systems, irrigation systems,
ponds, terraces, and other structures for soil and water
conservation; and (8) predict performance of proposed
small structures and pavements by comparing the per-
formance of existing similar structures on the same or
similar soils.
The information in the tables, along with the soil maps,
the soil descriptions, and other data provided in this
survey can be used to make additional interpretations.
Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
Glossary.

Building site development
Table 11 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and with-
out basements, small commercial buildings, and local
roads and streets. The limitations are considered slight if
soil properties and site features are generally favorable
for the indicated use and limitations are minor and easily
overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features are
not favorable for the indicated use and special planning,


design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or mini-
mize the limitations; and severe if soil properties or site
features are so unfavorable or so difficult to overcome
that special design, significant increases in construction
costs, and possibly increased maintenance are required.
Special feasibility studies may be required where the soil
limitations are severe.
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves,
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The rat-
ings are based on soil properties, site features, and ob-
served performance of the soils. The ease of digging,
filling, and compacting is affected by the depth to bed-
rock, a cemented pan, or a very firm dense layer; stone
content; soil texture; and slope. The time of the year that
excavations can be made is affected by the depth to a
seasonal high water table and the susceptibility of the
soil to flooding. The resistance of the excavation walls or
banks to sloughing or caving is affected by soil texture
and the depth to the water table.
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are struc-
tures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed soil.
The load limit is the same as that for single-family dwell-
ings no higher than three stories. Ratings are made for
small commercial buildings without basements, for dwell-
ings with basements, and for dwellings without base-
ments. The ratings are based on soil properties, site
features, and observed performance of the soils. A high
water table, flooding, shrink-swell potential, and organic
layers can cause the movement of footings. A high water
table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, large
stones, and flooding affect the ease of excavation and
construction. Landscaping and grading that require cuts
and fills of more than 5 to 6 feet are not considered.
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. They
have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material, a base of
gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material, and a
flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally limit-
ed to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on soil
properties, site features, and observed performance of
the soils. Depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a high
water table, flooding, large stones, and slope affect the
ease of excavating and grading. Soil strength (as in-
ferred from the engineering classification of the soil),
shrink-swell potential, frost action potential, and depth to
a high water table affect the traffic supporting capacity.

Sanitary facilities
Table 12 shows the degree and the kind of soil limita-
tions that affect septic tank absorption fields, sewage
lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations are consid-
ered slight if soil properties and site features are gener-
ally favorable for the indicated use and limitations are
minor and easily overcome; moderate if soil properties or
site features are not favorable for the indicated use and


59







SOIL SURVEY


special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil
properties or site features are so unfavorable or so diffi-
cult to overcome that special design, significant in-
creases in construction costs, and possibly increased
maintenance are required.
Table 12 also shows the suitability of the soils for use
as daily cover for landfills. A rating of good indicates that
soil properties and site features are favorable for the use
and good performance and low maintenance can be
expected; fair indicates that soil properties and site fea-
tures are moderately favorable for the use and one or
more soil properties or site features make the soil less
desirable than the soils rated good; and poor indicates
that one or more soil properties or site features are
unfavorable for the use and overcoming the unfavorable
properties requires special design, extra maintenance, or
costly alteration.
Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which efflu-
ent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil through
subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that part of the
soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is evaluated.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. Permeability, a
high water table, depth to bedrock or to a cemented
pan, and flooding affect absorption of the effluent. Large
stones and bedrock or a cemented pan interfere with
installation.
Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank absorption
fields, including excessively slow absorption of effluent,
surfacing of effluent, and hillside seepage, can affect
public health. Ground water can be polluted if highly
permeable sand and gravel or fractured bedrock is less
than 4 feet below the base of the absorption field, if
slope is excessive, or if the water table is near the
surface. There must be unsaturated soil material beneath
the absorption field to effectively filter the effluent. Many
local ordinances require that this material be of a certain
thickness.
Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the solid
and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly level
floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments of com-
pacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to hold the
sewage within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Nearly impervious
soil material for the lagoon floor and sides is required to
minimize seepage and contamination of ground water.
Table 12 gives ratings for the natural soil that makes
up the lagoon floor. The surface layer and, generally, 1
or 2 feet of soil material below the surface layer are
excavated to provide material for the embankments. The
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and
observed performance of the soils. Considered in the
ratings are slope, permeability, a high water table, depth
to bedrock or to a cemented pan, flooding, large stones,
and content of organic matter.


Excessive seepage due to rapid permeability of the
soil or a water table that is high enough to raise the level
of sewage in the lagoon causes a lagoon to function
unsatisfactorily. Pollution results if seepage is excessive
or if floodwater overtops the lagoon. A high content of
organic matter is detrimental to proper functioning of the
lagoon because it inhibits aerobic activity. Slope, bed-
rock, and cemented pans can cause construction prob-
lems, and large stones can hinder compaction of the
lagoon floor.
Sanitary landfills are areas where solid waste is dis-
posed of by burying it in soil. There are two types of
landfill-trench and area. In a trench landfill, the waste is
placed in a trench. It is spread, compacted, and covered
daily with a thin layer of soil excavated at the site. In an
area landfill, the waste is placed in successive layers on
the surface of the soil. The waste is spread, compacted,
and covered daily with a thin layer of soil from a source
away from the site.
Both types of landfill must be able to bear heavy
vehicular traffic. Both types involve a risk of ground
water pollution. Ease of excavation and revegetation
needs to be considered.
The ratings in table 12 are based on soil properties,
site features, and observed performance of the soils.
Permeability, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, a
high water table, slope, and flooding affect both types of
landfill. Texture, stones and boulders, highly organic
layers, soil reaction, and content of salts and sodium
affect trench type landfills. Unless otherwise stated, the
ratings apply only to that part of the soil within a depth
of about 6 feet. For deeper trenches, a limitation rated
slight or moderate may not be valid. Onsite investigation
is needed.
Daily cover for landfill is the soil material that is used
to cover compacted solid waste in an area type sanitary
landfill. The soil material is obtained offsite, transported
to the landfill, and spread over the waste.
Soil texture, wetness, coarse fragments, and slope
affect the ease of removing and spreading the material
during wet and dry periods. Loamy or silty soils that are
free of large stones or excess gravel and have low
permeability are the best cover for a landfill. Clayey soils
are sticky or cloddy and are difficult to spread; sandy
soils are subject to soil blowing.
After soil material has been removed, the soil material
remaining in the borrow area must be thick enough over
bedrock, a cemented pan, or the water table to permit
revegation. The soil material used as final cover for a
landfill should be suitable for plants. The surface layer
generally has the best workability, more organic matter,
and the best potential for plants. Material from the sur-
face layer should be stockpiled for use as the final
cover.


60







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


Construction materials
Table 13 gives information about the soils as a source
of roadfill, sand, gravel, and topsoil. The soils are rated
good, fair, or poor as a source of roadfill and topsoil.
They are rated as a probable or improbable source of
sand and gravel. The ratings are based on soil proper-
ties and site features that affect the removal of the soil
and its use as construction material. Normal compaction,
minor processing, and other standard construction prac-
tices are assumed. Each soil is evaluated to a depth of 5
or 6 feet.
Roadfill is soil material that is excavated in one place
and used in road embankments in another place. In this
table, the soils are rated as a source of roadfill for low
embankments, generally less than 6 feet high and less
exacting in design than higher embankments.
The ratings are for the soil material below the surface
layer to a depth of 5 or 6 feet. It is assumed that soil
layers will be mixed during excavating and spreading.
Many soils have layers of contrasting suitability within
their profile. The table showing engineering index proper-
ties provides detailed information about each soil layer.
This information can help determine the suitability of
each layer for use as roadfill. The performance of soil
after it is stabilized with lime or cement is not considered
in the ratings.
The ratings are based on soil properties, site features,
and observed performance of the soils. The thickness of
suitable material is a major consideration. The ease of
excavation is affected by large stones, a high water
table, and slope. How well the soil performs in place
after it has been compacted and drained is determined
by its strength (as inferred from the engineering classifi-
cation of the soil) and shrink-swell potential.
Soils rated good contain significant amounts of sand
or gravel or both. They have at least 5 feet of suitable
material, low shrink-swell potential, few cobbles and
stones, and slopes of 15 percent or less. Depth to the
water table is more than 3 feet. Soils rated fair are more
than 35 percent silt- and clay-sized particles and have a
plasticity index of less than 10. They have moderate
shrink-swell potential, slopes of 15 to 25 percent, or
many stones. Depth to the water table is 1 to 3 feet.
Soils rated poor have a plasticity index of more than 10,
a high shrink-swell potential, many stones, or slopes of
more than 25 percent. They are wet, and the depth to
the water table is less than 1 foot. They may have layers
of suitable material, but the material is less than 3 feet
thick.
Sand and gravel are natural aggregates suitable for
commercial use with a minimum of processing. Sand and
gravel are used in many kinds of construction. Specifica-
tions for each use vary widely. In table 13, only the
probability of finding material in suitable quantity is evalu-
ated. The suitability of the material for specific purposes


is not evaluated, nor are factors that affect excavation of
the material.
The properties used to evaluate the soil as a source of
sand or gravel are gradation of grain sizes (as indicated
by the engineering classification of the soil), the thick-
ness of suitable material, and the content of rock frag-
ments. Kinds of rock, acidity, and stratification are given
in the soil series descriptions. Gradation of grain sizes is
given in the table on engineering index properties.
A soil rated as a probable source has a layer of clean
sand or gravel or a layer of sand or gravel that is up to
12 percent silty fines. This material must be at least 3
feet thick and less than 50 percent, by weight, large
stones. All other soils are rated as an improbable
source. Coarse fragments of soft bedrock, such as shale
and siltstone, are not considered to be sand and gravel.
Topsoil is used to cover an area so that vegetation
can be established and maintained. The upper 40 inches
of a soil is evaluated for use as topsoil. Also evaluated i1
the reclamation potential of the borrow area.
Plant growth is affected by toxic material and by such
properties as soil reaction, available water capacity, and
fertility. The ease of excavating, loading, and spreading
is affected by rock fragments, slope, a water table, soil
texture, and thickness of suitable material. Reclamation
of the borrow area is affected by slope, a water table,
rock fragments, bedrock, and toxic material.
Soils rated good have friable loamy material to a depth
of at least 40 inches. They are free of stones and cob-
bles, have little or no gravel, and have slopes of less
than 8 percent. They are low in content of soluble salts,
are naturally fertile or respond well to fertilizer, and are
not so wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated fair are sandy soils, loamy soils that have a
relatively high content of clay, soils that have only 20 to
40 inches of suitable material, soils that have an appre-
ciable amount of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, or soils
that have slopes of 8 to 15 percent. The soils are not so
wet that excavation is difficult.
Soils rated poor are very sandy or clayey, have less
than 20 inches of suitable material, have a large amount
of gravel, stones, or soluble salts, have slopes of more
than 15 percent, or have a seasonal water table at or
near the surface.
The surface layer of most soils is generally preferred
for topsoil because of its organic matter content. Organic
matter greatly increases the absorption and retention of
moisture and nutrients for plant growth.

Water management
Table 14 gives information on the soil properties and
site features that affect water management. The degree
and kind of soil limitations are given for embankments,
dikes, and levees and aquifer-fed ponds. The limitations
are considered slight if soil properties and site features
are generally favorable for the indicated use and limita-


61







SOIL SURVEY


tions are minor and are easily overcome; moderate if soil
properties or site features are not favorable for the indi-
cated use and special planning, design, or maintenance
is needed to overcome or minimize the limitations; and
severe if soil properties or site features are so unfavor-
able or so difficult to overcome that special design, sig-
nificant increase in construction costs, and possibly in-
creased maintenance are required.
This table also gives for each soil the restrictive fea-
tures that affect drainage, irrigation, terraces and diver-
sions, and grassed waterways.
Embankments, dikes, and levees are raised structures
of soil material, generally less than 20 feet high, con-
structed to impound water or to protect land against
overflow. In this table, the soils are rated as a source of
material for embankment fill. The ratings apply to the soil
material below the surface layer to a depth of about 5
feet. It is assumed that soil layers will be uniformly mixed
and compacted during construction.
The ratings do not indicate the ability of the natural
soil to support an embankment. Soil properties to a
depth even greater than the height of the embankment
can affect performance and safety of the embankment.
Generally, deeper onsite investigation is needed to de-
termine these properties.
Soil material in embankments must be resistant to
seepage, piping, and erosion and have favorable com-
paction characteristics. Unfavorable features include less
than 5 feet of suitable material and a high content of
stones or boulders, organic matter, or salts or sodium. A
high water table affects the amount of usable material. It
also affects trafficability.
Aquifer-fed excavated ponds are pits or dugouts that
extend to a ground-water aquifer or to a depth below a
permanent water table. Excluded are ponds that are fed
only by surface runoff and embankment ponds that im-
pound water 3 feet or more above the original surface.
Excavated ponds are affected by depth to a permanent
water table, permeability of the aquifer, and quality of the
water as inferred from the salinity of the soil. Depth to
bedrock and the content of large stones affect the ease
of excavation.
Drainage is the removal of excess surface and subsur-
face water from the soil. How easily and effectively the
soil is drained depends on the depth to bedrock, to a
cemented pan, or to other layers that affect the rate of
water movement; permeability; depth to a high water
table or depth of standing water if the soil is subject to
ponding; slope; susceptibility to flooding; subsidence of
organic layers; and potential frost action. Excavating and
grading and the stability of ditchbanks are affected by
depth to rock or to a cemented pan, large stones, slope,
and the hazard of cutbanks. The productivity of the soil
after drainage is adversely affected by extreme acidity or
by toxic substances in the root zone such as salts. Avail-
ability of drainage outlets is not considered in the ratings.


Irrigation is the controlled application of water to sup-
plement rainfall and support plant growth. The design
and management of an irrigation system are affected by
depth to the water table, the need for drainage, flooding,
available water capacity, intake rate, permeability, ero-
sion hazard, and slope. The construction of a system is
affected by large stones and depth to rock or to a
cemented pan. The performance of a system is affected
by the depth of the root zone, the amount of salts and
soil reaction.
Terraces and diversions are embankments or a combi-
nation of channels and ridges constructed across a
slope to reduce erosion and conserve moisture by inter-
cepting runoff. Slope, wetness, large stones, and depth
to rock or to a cemented pan affect the construction of
terraces and diversions. A restricted rooting depth, a
severe hazard of wind or water erosion, an excessively
coarse texture, and restricted permeability adversely
affect maintenance.
Grassed waterways are natural or constructed chan-
nels, generally broad and shallow, that conduct surface
water to outlets at a nonerosive velocity. Large stones,
wetness, slope, and depth to bedrock or to a cemented
pan affect the construction of grassed waterways. A
hazard of wind erosion, low available water capacity,
restricted rooting depth, toxic substances such as salts
or sodium, and restricted permeability adversely affect
the growth and maintenance of the grass after construc-
tion.


Soil properties
Data relating to soil properties are collected during the
course of the soil survey. The data and the estimates of
soil and water features, listed in tables, are explained on
the following pages.
Soil properties are determined by field examination of
the soils and by laboratory index testing of some bench-
mark soils. Established standard procedures are fol-
lowed. During the survey, many shallow borings are
made and examined to identify and classify the soils and
to delineate them on the soil maps. Samples are taken
from some typical profiles and tested in the laboratory to
determine grain-size distribution, plasticity, and compac-
tion characteristics. These results are reported in table
15.
Estimates of soil properties are based on field exami-
nations, on laboratory tests of samples from the survey
area, and on laboratory tests of samples of similar soils
in nearby areas. Tests verify field observations, verify
properties that cannot be estimated accurately by field
observation, and help characterize key soils.
The estimates of soil properties shown in the tables
include the range of grain-size distribution and Atterberg
limits, the engineering classifications, and the physical


62







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


and chemical properties of the major layers of each soil.
Pertinent soil and water features also are given.

Engineering index properties
Table 15 gives estimates of the engineering classifica-
tion and of the range of index properties for the major
layers of each soil in the survey area. Most soils have
layers of contrasting properties within the upper 5 or 6
feet.
Depth to the upper and lower boundaries of each layer
is indicated. The range in depth and information on other
properties of each layer are given for each soil series
under "Soil series and morphology."
Texture is given in the standard terms used by the
U.S. Department of Agriculture. These terms are defined
according to percentages of sand, silt, and clay in the
fraction of the soil that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter. "Loam," for example, is soil that is 7 to 27
percent clay, 28 to 50 percent silt, and less than 52
percent sand. If a soil contains particles coarser than
sand, an appropriate modifier is added, for example,
"gravelly." Textural terms are defined in the Glossary.
Classification of the soils is determined according to
the Unified soil classification system (2) and the system
adopted by the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (1).
The Unified system classifies soils according to prop-
erties that affect their use as construction material. Soils
are classified according to grain-size distribution of the
fraction less than 3 inches in diameter and according to
plasticity index, liquid limit, and organic matter content.
Sandy and gravelly soils are identified as GW, GP, GM,
GC, SW, SP, SM, and SC; silty and clayey soils as ML,
CL, OL, MH, CH, and OH; and highly organic soils as Pt.
Soils exhibiting engineering properties of two groups can
have a dual classification, for example, SP-SM.
The AASHTO system classifies soils according to
those properties that affect roadway construction and
maintenance. In this system, the fraction of a mineral soil
that is less than 3 inches in diameter is classified in one
of seven groups from A-1 through A-7 on the basis of
grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
Soils in group A-1 are coarse grained and low in content
of fines (silt and clay). At the other extreme, soils in
group A-7 are fine grained. Highly organic soils are clas-
sified in group A-8 on the basis of visual inspection.
If laboratory data are available, the A-1, A-2, and A-7
groups are further classified as A-1-a, A-1-b, A-2-4, A-2-
5, A-2-6, A-2-7, A-7-5, or A-7-6. As an additional refine-
ment, the suitability of a soil as subgrade material can be
indicated by a group index number. Group index num-
bers range from 0 for the best subgrade material to 20
or higher for the poorest. The AASHTO classification for
soils tested, with group index numbers in parentheses, is
given in table 21.


Rock fragments larger than 3 inches in diameter are
indicated as a percentage of the total soil on a dry-
weight basis. The percentages are estimates determined
mainly by converting volume percentage in the field to
weight percentage.
Percentage (of soil particles) passing designated
sieves is the percentage of the soil fraction less than 3
inches in diameter based on an oven-dry weight. The
sieves, numbers 4, 10, 40, and 200 (USA Standard
Series), have openings of 4.76, 2.00, 0.420, and 0.074
millimeters, respectively. Estimates are based on labora-
tory tests of soils sampled in the survey area and in
nearby areas and on estimates made in the field.
Liquid limit and plasticity index (Atterberg limits) indi-
cate the plasticity characteristics of a soil. The estimates
are based on test data from the survey area or from
nearby areas and on field examination.
The estimates of grain-size distribution, liquid limit, and
plasticity index are rounded to the nearest 5 percent.
Thus, if the ranges of gradation and Atterberg limits
extend a marginal amount (1 or 2 percentage points)
across classification boundaries, the classification in the
marginal zone is omitted in the table.

Physical and chemical properties
Table 16 shows estimates of some characteristics and
features that affect soil behavior. These estimates are
given for the major layers of each soil in the survey area.
The estimates are based on field observations and on
test data for these and similar soils.
Clay as a soil separate consists of mineral soil parti-
cles that are less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter. In
this table, the estimated clay content of each major soil
layer is given as a percentage, by weight, of the soil
material that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter.
The amount and kind of clay greatly affect the fertility
and physical condition of the soil. They determine the
ability of the soil to adsorb cations and to retain mois-
ture. They influence shrink-swell potential, permeability,
and plasticity, the ease of soil dispersion, and other soil
properties. The amount and kind of clay in a soil also
affect tillage and earth-moving operations.
Moist bulk density is the weight of soil (oven-dry) per
unit volume. Volume is measured when the soil is at field
moisture capacity, that is, the moisture content at 1/3
bar moisture tension. Weight is determined after drying
the soil at 105 degrees C. In this table, the estimated
moist bulk density of each major soil horizon is ex-
pressed in grams per cubic centimeter of soil material
that is less than 2 millimeters in diameter. Bulk density
data are used to compute shrink-swell potential, availa-
ble water capacity, total pore space, and other soil prop-
erties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the pore
space available for water and roots. A bulk density of
more than 1.6 can restrict water storage and root pene-


63







SOIL SURVEY


tration. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, kind
of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure.
Permeability refers to the ability of a soil to transmit
water or air. The estimates indicate the rate of downward
movement of water when the soil is saturated. They are
based on soil characteristics observed in the field, par-
ticularly structure, porosity, and texture. Permeability is
considered in the design of soil drainage systems, septic
tank absorption fields, and construction where the rate of
water movement under saturated conditions affects be-
havior.
Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water
that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The
capacity for water storage is given in inches of water per
inch of soil for each major soil layer. The capacity varies,
depending on soil properties that affect the retention of
water and the depth of the root zone. The most impor-
tant properties are the content of organic matter, soil
texture, bulk density, and soil structure. Available water
capacity is an important factor in the choice of plants or
crops to be grown and in the design and management of
irrigation systems. Available water capacity is not an
estimate of the quantity of water actually available to
plants at any given time.
Soil reaction is a measure of acidity or alkalinity and is
expressed as a range in pH values. The range in pH of
each major horizon is based on many field tests. For
many soils, values have been verified by laboratory anal-
yses. Soil reaction is important in selecting crops and
other plants, in evaluating soil amendments for fertility
and stabilization, and in determining the risk of corrosion.
Salinity is a measure of soluble salts in the soil at
saturation. It is expressed as the electrical conductivity
of the saturation extract, in millimhos per centimeter at
25 degrees C. Estimates are based on field and labora-
tory measurements. Salinity affects the suitability of a
soil for crop production, the stability of soil if used as
construction material, and the potential of the soil to
corrode metal and concrete.
Shrink-swell potential is the potential for volume
change in a soil with a loss or gain in moisture. Volume
change occurs mainly because of the interaction of clay
minerals with water and varies with the amount and type
of clay minerals in the soil. The size of the load on the
soil and the magnitude of the change in soil moisture
content influence the amount of swelling of soils in
place. Laboratory measurements of swelling of undis-
turbed clods were made for many soils. For others,
swelling was estimated on the basis of the kind and
amount of clay minerals in the soil and on measure-
ments of similar soils.
If the shrink-swell potential is rated moderate to very
high, shrinking and swelling can cause damage to build-
ings, roads, and other structures. Special design is often
needed.
Shrink-swell potential classes are based on the
change in length of an unconfined clod as moisture con-


tent is increased from air-dry to field capacity. The
change is based on the soil fraction less than 2 millime-
ters in diameter. The classes are low, a change of less
than 3 percent; moderate, 3 to 6 percent; and high, more
than 6 percent. Very high, greater than 9 percent, is
sometimes used.
Erosion factor K indicates the susceptibility of a soil to
sheet and rill erosion by water. Factor K is one of six
factors used in the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)
to predict the average annual rate of soil loss by sheet
and rill erosion in tons per acre per year. The estimates
are based primarily on percentage of silt, sand, and
organic matter (up to 4 percent) and on soil structure
and permeability. Values of K range from 0.05 to 0.69.
The higher the value the more susceptible the soil is to
sheet and rill erosion by water.
Erosion factor T is an estimate of the maximum aver-
age annual rate of soil erosion by wind or water that can
occur without affecting crop productivity over a sustained
period. The rate is in tons per acre per year.
Wind erodibility groups are made up of soils that have
similar properties affecting their resistance to wind ero-
sion in cultivated areas. The groups indicate the suscep-
tibility of soil to wind erosion and the amount of soil lost.
Soils are grouped according to the following distinctions:
1. Sands, coarse sands, fine sands, and very fine
sands. These soils are generally not suitable for crops.
They are extremely erodible, and vegetation is difficult to
establish.
2. Loamy sands, loamy fine sands, and loamy very
fine sands. These soils are very highly erodible. Crops
can be grown if intensive measures to control wind ero-
sion are used.
3. Sandy loams, coarse sandy loams, fine sandy
loams, and very fine sandy loams. These soils are highly
erodible. Crops can be grown if intensive measures to
control wind erosion are used.
4L. Calcareous loamy soils that are less than 35 per-
cent clay and more than 5 percent finely divided calcium
carbonate. These soils are erodible. Crops can be grown
if intensive measures to control wind erosion are used.
4. Clays, silty clays, clay loams, and silty clay loams
that are more than 35 percent clay. These soils are
moderately erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to
control wind erosion are used.
5. Loamy soils that are less than 18 percent clay and
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate and
sandy clay loams and sandy clays that are less than 5
percent finely divided calcium carbonate. These soils are
slightly erodible. Crops can be grown if measures to
control wind erosion are used.
6. Loamy soils that are 18 to 35 percent clay and
less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate,
except silty clay loams. These soils are very slightly
erodible. Crops can easily be grown.
7. Silty clay loams that are less than 35 percent clay
and less than 5 percent finely divided calcium carbonate.


64







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


These soils are very slightly erodible. Crops can easily
be grown.
8. Ston; or gravelly soils and other soils not subject
to wind erosion.
Organic matter is the plant and animal residue in the
soil at various stages of decomposition.
In table 16, the estimated content of organic matter of
the plow layer is expressed as a percentage, by weight,
of the soil material that is less than 2 millimeters in
diameter.
The content of organic matter of a soil can be main-
tained or increased by returning crop residue to the soil.
Organic matter affects the available water capacity, infil-
tration rate, and tilth. It is a source of nitrogen and other
nutrients for crops.

Soil and water features
Table 17 gives estimates of various soil and water
features. The estimates are used in land use planning
that involves engineering considerations.
Hydrologic soil groups are used to estimate runoff
from precipitation. Soils not protected by vegetation are
assigned to one of four groups. They are grouped ac-
cording to the intake of water when the soils are thor-
oughly wet and receive precipitation from long-duration
storms.
The four hydrologic soil groups are:
Group A. Soils having a high infiltration rate (low runoff
potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist mainly of
deep, well drained to excessively drained sands or grav-
elly sands. These soils have a high rate of water trans-
mission.
Group B. Soils having a moderate infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of moderately deep
or deep, moderately well drained or well drained soils
that have moderately fine texture to moderately coarse
texture. These soils have a moderate rate of water trans-
mission.
Group C. Soils having a slow infiltration rate when
thoroughly wet. These consist chiefly of soils having a
layer that impedes the downward movement of water or
soils of moderately fine texture or fine texture. These
soils have a slow rate of water transmission.
Group D. Soils having a very slow infiltration rate (high
runoff potential) when thoroughly wet. These consist
chiefly of clays that have a high shrink-swell potential,
soils that have a permanent high water table, soils that
have a claypan or clay layer at or near the surface, and
soils that are shallow over nearly impervious material.
These soils have a very slow rate of water transmission.
Flooding, the temporary inundation of an area, is
caused by overflowing streams, by runoff from adjacent
slopes, or by tides. Water standing for short periods after
rainfall and water in swamps and marshes is not consid-
ered flooding.


Table 17 gives the frequency and duration of flooding
and the time of year when flooding is most likely.
Frequency, duration, and probable dates of occurrence
are estimated. Frequency is expressed as none, rare,
common, occasional, and frequent. None means that
flooding is not probable; rare that it is unlikely but possi-
ble under unusual weather conditions; common that it is
likely under normal conditions; occasional that it occurs
on an average of once or less in 2 years; and frequent
that it occurs on an average of more than once in 2
years. Duration is expressed as very brief if less than 2
days, brief if 2 to 7 days, and long if more than 7 days.
Probable dates are expressed in months; November-
May, for example, means that flooding can occur during
the period November through May.
The information is based on evidence in the soil pro-
file, namely thin strata of gravel, sand, silt, or clay depos-
ited by floodwater; irregular decrease in organic matter
content with increasing depth; and absence of distinctive
horizons that form in soils that are not subject to flood-
ing.
Also considered is local information about the extent
and levels of flooding and the relation of each soil on
the landscape to historic floods. Information on the
extent of flooding based on soil data is less specific than
that provided by detailed engineering surveys that delin-
eate flood-prone areas at specific flood frequency levels.
High water table (seasonal) is the highest level of a
saturated zone in the soil in most years. The depth to a
seasonal high water table applies to undrained soils. The
estimates are based mainly on the evidence of a saturat-
ed zone, namely grayish colors or mottles in the soil.
Indicated in table 17 are the depth to the seasonal high
water table; the kind of water table-that is, perched, or
apparent; and the months of the year that the water
table commonly is high. A water table that is seasonally
high for less than 1 month is not indicated in table 17.
An apparent water table is a thick zone of free water
in the soil. It is indicated by the level at which water
stands in an uncased borehole after adequate time is
allowed for adjustment in the surrounding soil. A perched
water table is water standing above an unsaturated
zone. In places an upper, or perched, water table is
separated from a lower one by a dry zone.
Only saturated zones within a depth of about 6 feet
are indicated. A plus sign preceding the range in depth
indicates that the water table is above the surface of the
soil. The first numeral in the range indicates how high
the water rises above the surface. The second numeral
indicates the depth below the surface.
Cemented pans are cemented or indurated subsurface
layers within a depth of 5 feet. Such pans cause difficulty
in excavation. Pans are classified as thin or thick. A thin
pan is less than 3 inches thick if continuously indurated or
less than 18 inches thick if discontinuous or fractured.
Excavations can be made by trenching machines, back-
hoes, or small rippers. A thick pan is more than 3 inches


65







SOIL SURVEY


thick if continuously indurated or more than 18 inches
thick if discontinuous or fractured. Such a pan is so thick
or massive that blasting or special equipment is needed
in excavation.
Subsidence is the settlement of the soil surface. Initial
subsidence generally results from drainage. Total subsi-
dence is initial subsidence plus the slow sinking that
occurs over a period of several years as a result of the
oxidation or compression or organic material.
Not shown in the table is subsidence caused by an
imposed surface load or by the withdrawal of ground
water throughout an extensive area as a result of lower-
ing the water table.
Risk of corrosion pertains to potential soil-induced
electrochemical or chemical action that dissolves or
weakens uncoated steel or concrete. The rate of corro-
sion of uncoated steel is related to such factors as soil
moisture, particle-size distribution, acidity, and electrical
conductivity of the soil. The rate of corrosion of concrete
is based mainly on the sulfate and sodium content, tex-
ture, moisture content, and acidity of the soil. Special
site examination and design may be needed if the com-
bination of factors creates a severe corrosion environ-
ment. The steel in installations that intersect soil bound-
aries or soil layers is more susceptible to corrosion than
steel in installations that are entirely within one kind of
soil or within one soil layer.
For uncoated steel, the risk of corrosion, expressed as
low, moderate, orhigh, is based on soil drainage class,
total acidity, electrical resistivity near field capacity, and
electrical conductivity of the saturation extract.
For concrete, the risk of corrosion is also expressed
as low, moderate, or high. It is based on soil texture,
acidity, and amount of sulfates in the saturation extract.

Physical, chemical, and mineralogical
analyses of selected soils
C. T. Hallmark, V. W. Carlisle, and R. E. Caldwell, assistant professor
and professors of Soil Science, respectively, Soil Science Department,
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, prepared this
section.
Physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of
representative pedons sampled in St. Lucie County Area
are presented in Tables 18, 19, and 20. Analyses were
conducted and coordinated by the Soil Characterization
Laboratory at the University of Florida. Detailed profile
descriptions of soils analyzed are given in alphabetical
order in the section "Classification of the Soils." Labora-
tory data and profile information for additional soils in St.
Lucie County Area as well as soils in other counties in
Florida are on file at the Soil Science Department, Uni-
versity of Florida.
Soils were sampled by horizon from pits at carefully
selected locations that represented typifying pedons.
Samples were air-dried, crushed, and sieved through a
2-millimeter screen. Most of the analytical methods used


are outlined in Soil Survey Investigations Report No. 1
(12).
Particle size distribution was determined by using a
modification of the Bouyoucos hydrometer procedure
with sodium hexametaphosphate as the dispersant (5).
Hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, and water content
data were obtained on undisturbed core samples. Organ-
ic carbon was determined by a modification of the Walk-
ley-Black wet combustion method. Extractable bases
were obtained by equilibrating and leaching soils with
ammonium acetate buffered at pH 7.0. Sodium and po-
tassium in the extract were determined by flame photo-
metry and calcium and magnesium were determined by
atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extractable acidity was
determined by the barium chloride-triethanolamine
method at pH 8.2. Sum of cations, which may be consid-
ered a measure of the cation exchange capacity, was
obtained by summation of extractable bases and extract-
able acidity. Base saturation is the ratio of extractable
bases to sum of cations expressed in percent. The pH
measurements were made with a glass electrode using
water in a 1:1 soil- solution ratio; 0.01 M calcium chloride
solution in a 1:2 soil-solution ratio; and nitrogen-potas-
sium chloride solution in a 1:1 soil-solution ratio.
Electrical conductivity determinations were made with
a conductivity bridge on 1:1 soil-to-water mixtures. Iron
and aluminum extractable in sodium dithionite-citrate
were determined by atomic absorption. Aluminum,
carbon, and iron were extracted from suspected spodic
horizons with 0.1 M sodium pyrophospate. Determination
of aluminum and iron was by atomic absorption and
extracted carbon by the Walkley-Black wet combustion
method.
Peak heights are at 18-angstrom, 14-angstrom, 7.2-
angstrom, 4.83-angstrom, and 4.31-angstrom positions.
These positions represent montmorillonite and/or inter-
stratified expandibles, vermiculite and/or 14-angstrom in-
tergrades, kaolinite, gibbsite, and quartz, respectively.
They were measured, summed, and normalized to give
percentage of soil minerals identified in the X-ray diffrac-
tograms. These values are not an absolute quantity but a
relative distribution of minerals in the clay fraction. The
absolute percentage would require additional knowledge
of particle size, crystallinity, unit structure substitution,
and matrix affects.
The sandy nature of St. Lucie County Area soils is
indicated in Table 18. Only four soils, the Floridana,
Hilolo, Riviera and Winder soils, have horizons which
contain more than 10 percent clay in the upper 2 feet of
the pedon, and no horizon sampled has more than 30
percent clay. Myakka Variant, St. Lucie, and Welaka
Variant pedons contain less than 5 percent clay through-
out their profiles to a depth of 6 feet. Ankona, Electra,
Floridana, Hallandale, Hilolo, Malabar, Nettles, Oldsmar,
Pepper, Pineda, Riviera, Susanna, Tantile, Wabasso, Wa-
veland, and Winder soils have significant textural in-
creases of clay in the lower horizons. Silt contents are


66







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


generally below 10 percent in the pedons studied. A
notable exception is the Hilolo soil where nearly 15 per-
cent silt values are in several of the subsoil horizons.
With the exception of the Electra, Hallandale, Hilolo,
Malabar, Riviera, Waveland, and Winder soils, medium
sand dominates the sand fraction of all of the pedons
sampled. Droughtiness is a common characteristic of
sandy soils, particularly those soils that are naturally
moderately well drained, well drained, or excessively
drained.
Hydraulic conductivity data in Table 18 are a measure
of the movement of water through the soil when the soil
is saturated. Generally, hydraulic conductivities decrease
as clay and silt percentages and bulk density increase
and increase as organic matter and better developed
structure increases. In the presented data, sandy loam
and sandy clay loam textures commonly show hydraulic
conductivities below 1.0 inch per hour and often values
are below 0.1 inch per hour. Generally, sands and loamy
sands exhibit higher hydraulic conductivities; however,
soil structure also affects the hydraulic conductivity
shown by the low values in the spodic horizons of the
Ankona, Lawnwood, Myakka Variant, Nettles, Pepper,
Susanna, and Waveland soils.
Plant available water holding capacity of soil can be
estimated from bulk density and water content data in
Table 18. Generally horizons that have sand and loamy
sand textures retain less available water than do hori-
zons that have sandy loam and sandy clay loam tex-
tures. When calculated to a depth of 40 inches, plant
available water capacity ranges from nearly 2 inches in
the Ankona, Electra, St. Lucie, and Tantile soils which
are sandy throughout to more than 19 inches in the
Samsula Variant pedon which has a thick surface hori-
zon of organic material. Other pedons about which data
are available are intermediate; they range from 2 to 6
inches of plant available water holding capacity in the
upper 40 inches of the pedon.
Low values for extractable bases, sum of cations, and
base saturations in Table 19 are indicative of low inher-
ent soil fertility. Calcium and magnesium are the pre-
dominant bases; the largest amounts of these elements
occur in the Hilolo soil. Sodium is generally uniformly low
in all soils except in some horizons of the Hilolo, Myakka
Variant, Riviera, and Samsula Variant pedons. In these
soils extractable sodium is greater than 1 milliequivalent
per hundred grams. Trace amounts of potassium com-
bined with low base saturations underscore the absence
of appreciable quantities of weatherable minerals in
these soils. Sum of cations reflects the amount of organ-
ic matter, clay, and type of clay present; it increases as
the amount of organic matter and clay content increase.
Therefore, sum of cations generally is relatively high in
the surface horizon where organic matter is high. It de-
creases with depth to the argillic or spodic horizon, and
then again increases.


Organic carbon content is highest in the upper hori-
zons and spodic horizons of all soils and is generally
notably low in the A2 horizons. Since organic carbon is
directly responsible for influencing nutrient and water re-
tention capacities, management practices that conserve
and maintain organic carbon are desirable. They are
especially important on soils with low organic carbon and
clay content, for example, the Electra, Hallandale, Lawn-
wood, Pendarvis, Pineda, St. Lucie, Susanna, Tantile,
and Waveland soils.
Electrical conductivity values reflect the amount of free
salts present in the soil solution. When these values are
high (generally above 3 millihos per centimeter), plant
growth may be adversely affected. Myakka Variant and
Samsula Variant soils exhibit values sufficiently high in
some horizons to indicate that growth of salt sensitive
plants would be affected.
The pH determinations reflect the acidity of the soils.
Nutrient availability generally is greatest in soil when the
reaction in water is between pH 6 and 7. Addition of lime
is a common management practice used to raise the pH
of the plow layer. If soil reaction is between pH 7.5 to
8.2, as in the Hilolo, Pineda, and Riviera pedons, pres-
ence of free carbonate minerals is indicated. Free car-
bonates readily reduce phosphorus availability to plants.
Soil reaction in calcium chloride and potassium chloride
is generally 0.5 to 1.5 units lower than in water.
Sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron was 0.17 per-
cent or less in selected horizons of Spodosols. The ratio
of pyrophosphate extractable carbon and aluminum to
clay in Ankona, Lawnwood, Myakka Variant, Nettles,
Oldsman, Pendarvis, Pepper, Samsula Variant, Susanna,
Tantile, Wabasso, and Waveland soils was sufficient to
meet the chemical criteria for spodic horizons.
Citrate-dithionite extractable iron and aluminum are as-
sociated with the ability of a soil to absorb and in time to
render phosphorus unavailable to plants. None of the
surface horizons studied show high amounts of free ses-
quioxides; however, the Malabar, Pineda, and Welaka
variant soils, as well as the Spodosols have appreciable
amounts of iron and aluminum in the subsoil which will
absorb phosphorus from solution percolating through the
soils.
Mineralogy of the sand and silt fractions (not shown) is
siliceous; quartz is dominant in all soils. Mineralogy of
the crystalline components of the clay fraction is given in
Table 20 for selected horizons of the pedons. In general
the clay mineralogical suite is composed of montmoril-
lonite, a 14-angstrom intergrade mineral, kaolinite, and
quartz. Mica (illite) was noted only in the Al horizon of
the Winder soil; gibbsite and vermiculite were not found
in any of the pedons. Because of the shrink-swell char-
acter of montmorillonite and the high amount of this
mineral in the Floridana, Hilolo, Rivera, and Winder soils,
the use of these soils for engineering purposes needs to
be carefully investigated. Kaolinite, quartz, and the 14-
angstrom intergrade minerals are present in all pedons;


67







SOIL SURVEY


the intergrade, however, was absent in the Winder
pedon. Montmorillonite and the 14-angstrom intergrade
minerals have higher cation exchange capacities than
kaolinite and quartz. These minerals indicate more native
ability of the soil to retain plant nutrients.

Engineering index test data
Table 21 contains engineering test data made by the
Soils Laboratory, Florida Department of Transportation,
Bureau of Materials and Research, on some of the major
soil series in the survey area. These tests were made to
help evaluate the soils for engineering purposes. The
classifications given are based on data obtained by me-
chanical analysis and by tests to determine liquid limits
and plastic limits.
The mechanical analyses were made by combined
sieve and hydrometer methods (5). In this method, the
various grain-sized fractions are calculated on the basis
of all the material in the soil sample, including that
coarser than 2 millimeters in diameter. The mechanical
analyses used in this method should not be used in
naming textural classes of soils.
Compaction (or moisture-density) data are important in
earthwork. If soil material is compacted at a successively
higher moisture content, assuming that the compactive
effort remains constant, the density of the compacted
material increases until the optimum moisture content is
reached. After that, density decreases with increase in
moisture content. The highest dry density obtained in the
compactive test is termed maximum dry density. As a
rule, maximum strength of earthwork is obtained if the
soil is compacted to the maximum dry density.
Liquid limit and plasticity index indicate the effect of
water on the strength and consistence of the soil materi-
al. As the moisture content of a clayey soil is increased
from a dry state, the material changes from a semisolid
to a plastic state. If the moisture content is further in-
creased, the material changes from a plastic to a liquid
state. The plastic limit is the moisture content at which
the soil material changes from a semisolid to a plastic
state, and the liquid limit is the moisture content at which
the soil material changes from a plastic to a liquid state.
The plasticity index is the numerical difference between
the liquid limit and the plastic limit. It indicates the range
of moisture content within which a soil material is plastic.
The data on liquid limit and plasticity index in this table
are based on laboratory tests of soil samples.

Hydraulic conductivity of selected soils
The rate of water movement through the soil is of
considerable importance for many agricultural, engineer-
ing, and urban uses. An important soil property affected
by soil water flow is the ability of the soil to transmit
water. The saturated hydraulic conductivity is the con-
stant which relates the rate of water transport for a soil


or soil horizon. Quantative measurement of saturated
hydraulic conductivity, commonly referred to as perme-
ability, is expressed in inches per hour (in/hr).
Table 22 contains in situ saturated hydraulic conductiv-
ity test data of weakly cemented sandy subsoils (Bh
horizons) and loamy subsoils (Bt horizons) of some of
the major soil series in the survey area. Measurements
were made below a water table using the piezometer
method (4). This data was used to help evaluate the
soils for engineering and agricultural uses and to esti-
mate the permeability rates given in table 16.


Classification of the soils
The system of soil classification used by the National
Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories (13). Begin-
ning with the broadest, these categories are the order,
suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series. Clas-
sification is based on soil properties observed in the field
or inferred from those observations or from laboratory
measurements. In table 23, the soils of the survey area
are classified according to the system. The categories
are defined in the following paragraphs.
ORDER. Ten soil orders are recognized. The differ-
ences among orders reflect the dominant soil-forming
processes and the degree of soil formation. Each order
is identified by a word ending in sol. An example is
Entisol.
SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders pri-
marily on the basis of properties that influence soil gen-
esis and are important to plant growth or properties that
reflect the most important variables within the orders.
The last syllable in the name of a suborder indicates the
order. An example is Aquent (Aqu, meaning water, plus
ent, from Entisol).
GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into great
groups on the basis of close similarities in kind, arrange-
ment, and degree of development of pedogenic hori-
zons; soil moisture and temperature regimes; and base
status. Each great group is identified by the name of a
suborder and by a prefix that indicates a property of the
soil. An example is Haplaquents (Hapl, meaning minimal
horizonation, plus aquent, the suborder of the Entisols
that have an aquic moisture regime).
SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic subgroup.
Other subgroups are intergrades or extragrades. The
typic is the central concept of the great group; it is not
necessarily the most extensive. Intergrades are transi-
tions to other orders, suborders, or great groups. Extra-
grades have some properties that are not representative
of the great group but do not indicate transitions to any
other known kind of soil. Each subgroup is identified by
one or more adjectives preceding the name of the great
group. The adjective Typic identifies the subgroup that
typifies the great group. An example is Typic Hapla-
quents.


68







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


FAMILY. Families are established within a subgroup on
the basis of physical and chemical properties and other
characteristics that affect management. Mostly the prop-
erties are those of horizons below plow depth where
there is much biological activity. Among the properties
and characteristics considered are particle-size class,
mineral content, temperature regime, depth of the root
zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope, and per-
manent cracks. A family name consists of the name of a
subgroup preceded by terms that indicate soil properties.
An example is fine-loamy, mixed, nonacid, mesic Typic
Haplaquents.
SERIES. The series consists of soils that have similar
horizons in their profile. The horizons are similar in color,
texture, structure, reaction, consistence, mineral and
chemical composition, and arrangement in the profile.
The texture of the surface layer or of the substratum can
differ within a series.


Soil series and morphology
In this section, each soil series recognized in the
survey area is described. The descriptions are arranged
in alphabetic order.
Characteristics of the soil and the material in which it
formed are identified for each series. The soil is com-
pared with similar soils and with nearby soils of other
series. A pedon, a small three-dimensional area of soil,
that is typical of the series in the survey area is de-
scribed. The detailed description of each soil horizon
follows standards in the Soil Survey Manual (11). Many
of the technical terms used in the descriptions are de-
fined in Soil Taxonomy (13). Unless otherwise stated,
colors in the descriptions are for moist soil. Following the
pedon description is the range of important characteris-
tics of the soils in the series.
The map units of each soil series are described in the
section "Soil maps for detailed planning."

Anclote series
Soils of the Anclote series are sandy, siliceous, hy-
perthermic Typic Haplaquolls. They are very poorly
drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in sandy
marine sediment. These soils are in depressional areas
and swamps. They are saturated during the summer
rainy season and after periods of heavy rainfall in other
seasons. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Anclote soils are associated with Basinger, Floridana,
and Myakka soils. Basinger and Myakka soils do not
have a mollic epipedon. Floridana soils have an argillic
horizon.
Typical pedon of Anclote sand, 2 miles south of Flor-
ida Highway 68 and 20.5 miles east of Fort Pierce, SW
1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 20, T. 35 S., R. 37 E.


A11-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; mixture of
organic matter and uncoated sand grains; moderate
medium granular structure; very friable; many fine
and medium roots; medium acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A12-4 to 21 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
single grain; loose; few fine roots; medium acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
Clg-21 to 30 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single
grain; loose; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C2g-30 to 47 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
sand; single grain; loose; slightly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
C3-47 to 80 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) sand;
single grain; loose; slightly acid.

Reaction ranges from medium acid to moderately alka-
line throughout the profile.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1; or value of 3 and chroma of 2. Estimated
organic matter content is 2 to 10 percent. Thickness
ranges from 10 to 24 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and
chroma of 2; hue of 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2
or I; or is neutral, and value is 4 to 6.

Ankona series
Soils of the Ankona series are sandy, siliceous, hy-
perthermic, ortstein Arenic Haplaquods. They are nearly
level, poorly drained, very slowly to slowly permeable
soils that formed in marine sandy and loamy sediments.
These soils are in broad flatwoods. The water table is
within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 4 months and
between depths of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more
in most years. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Ankona soils are closely associated with Electra,
Lawnwood, Nettles, Pepper, Susanna, Tantile, and Wa-
veland soils. The Lawnwood, Pepper, Susanna, and Tan-
tile soils have a spodic horizon within a depth of 30
inches. Electra soils are better drained than Ankona
soils. Waveland soils do not have an argillic horizon.
Nettles soils have an argillic horizon that has high base
saturation.
Typical pedon of Ankona sand, 200 feet north of
canal, 0.3 mile west of Glades Road cutoff, 0.85 mile
southwest of Selvitz Road, and 5 miles southwest of Fort
Pierce, SE 1/4 SW 1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 31, T. 35 S., R. 40
E.

A11-0 to 3 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand, rubbed;
weak medium crumb structure; very friable; mixture
of uncoated sand grains and organic matter that has
salt-and-pepper appearance; many fine and medium
roots; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.


69







SOIL SURVEY


A12-3 to 11 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand,
rubbed; single grain; loose; mixture of uncoated
sand grains and organic matter; many fine and
medium roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A21-11 to 15 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; common
medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks
along root channels; single grain; loose; few fine
roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A22-15 to 29 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand;
common medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
streaks along root channels; single grain; loose; few
fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A23-29 to 35 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
grain; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy
boundary.
A24-35 to 38 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grain; loose; few fine roots; strongly acid;
abrupt smooth boundary.
B21h-38 to 48 inches; black (N2/0) loamy sand; mas-
sive; moderately cemented in about 15 to 65 per-
cent of vertical thickness in 90 percent or more of
pedon; firm; few fine roots; sand grains well coated
with colloidal organic matter; very strongly acid;
clear irregular boundary.
B22tg-48 to 57 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
sandy loam; few coarse distinct vertical streaks of
black (N 2/0); weak medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; sand grains bridged and coated
with clay; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Cg-57 to 80 inches; olive gray (5Y 4/2) loamy sand;
few fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) streaks; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; very strongly
acid.
Reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid
throughout the profile.
The Al horizon has rubbed color in hue of 10YR,
value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1, or value is 2 to 4 or is
neutral. Where value is 3 or less, thickness is less than
10 inches. Unrubbed colors have a salt-and-pepper ap-
pearance. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5
to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5
through 8, and chroma of 2; or is neutral and value is 5
to 8.
A B1h horizon is in some pedons. Where present, it
has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1 or 2,
or value of 2 and chroma of 1. This horizon does not
meet the requirements for a spodic horizon. Thickness
ranges to 4 inches.
The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 to 3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma
of 2; hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2;
or is neutral, and has value of 2. Cementation ranges
from not cemented to strongly cemented and is variable
in most pedons; however, a weakly to strongly cemented
subhorizon that is 1 inch or more thick is in more than
half of each pedon. Consistence ranges from very firm in


the strongly cemented parts to very friable in the parts
that are not cemented. Thickness ranges from 4 to 18
inches with a few streaks extending into the C horizon.
In some pedons, there is a B3&Bh horizon. Where
present, it has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma
of 3 or 4; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and chroma of 2
or 4 with fragments of the Bh horizon. This horizon is
fine sand, sand, loamy fine sand, or loamy sand.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 4 to
7, and chroma of 1 to 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 2; or is neutral and value is 4 to 7 with
mottles of gray, yellow, brown, or red. This horizon is
sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Base saturation is less
than 35 percent. Depth to the Bt horizon ranges from 40
to 80 inches.
In some pedons, a weakly expressed A12 horizon is
between the Bh and Bt horizons. It has hue of 10YR,
value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value
of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2; or is neutral and value is 4 to
7. The A12 horizon is sand or fine sand. Thickness
ranges to 12 inches.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 to 7, and
chroma of 2; or is neutral and value is 4 to 7. The Cg
horizon is sand, fine sand, loamy fine sand, or loamy
sand.

Astatula series
Soils of the Astatula series are hyperthermic, uncoated
Typic Quartzipsamments. They are nearly level to gently
sloping, excessively drained, very rapidly permeable soils
that formed in thick beds of marine and eolian sand.
These soils are on broad high ridges. The water table is
below a depth of 72 inches. Slope ranges from 0 to 5
percent.
Astatula soils are closely associated with Pendarvis,
Paola, Satellite, St. Lucie, and Welaka Variant soils.
Paola and Welaka Variant soils have light colored A2
horizons. Pendarvis and Satellite soils are more poorly
drained than Astatula soils, and Pendarvis soils have a
spodic horizon. St. Lucie soils are light colored.
Typical pedon of Astatula sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
in a cleared area 0.1 mile east of U.S. Highway 1, 0.8
mile south of county line, and about 8 miles north of Fort
Pierce, SE 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 6, T. 34 S., R. 40 E.

A-0 to 4 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
sand; weak medium granular structure; very friable;
many fine and common medium roots; medium acid;
clear smooth boundary.
C1-4 to 16 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/8) sand;
single grain; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
common fine and many medium roots; slightly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.


70







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


C2-16 to 110 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) sand;
single grain; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
slightly acid.

There is less than 5 percent silt and clay between
depths of 10 and 40 inches. Reaction ranges from
medium acid to slightly acid.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2. This horizon is a mixture of organic
matter and uncoated sand grains. It is 2 to 8 inches
thick. Some pedons have an AC horizon. Where present,
they have mixed colors in hue of 10YR, value of 5, and
chroma of 1; or value of 6 or 7 and chroma of 1 to 4.
The C horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 5YR, value of 5 to
7, and chroma of 6 or 8; hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7,
and chroma of 3 or 4; or value of 5 or 6 and chroma of 6
or 8. In some pedons, splotches with hue of 10YR, value
of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 occur. These splotches are
the color of the uncoated sand grains. They do not
indicate wetness.

Basinger series
Soils of the Basinger series are siliceous, hyperthermic
Spodic Psammaquents. They are poorly drained, very
rapidly permeable soils that formed in sandy marine sedi-
ment. These soils are in sloughs, on broad low flats, or
along poorly defined drainageways in the flatwoods. The
water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6
months and between depths of 10 to 30 inches for more
than 6 months in most years. Slope ranges from 0 to 2
percent.
Basinger soils are closely associated with Lawnwood,
Pepper, and Malabar soils. Basinger soils do not have a
spodic horizon. Lawnwood and Pepper soils have a
spodic horizon, and Pepper soils have a Bt horizon un-
derlying the spodic horizon. Basinger soils differ from the
Malabar soils in not having a Bir and a Bt horizon.
Typical pedon of Basinger sand, in a slough 0.25 mile
north of Florida Highway 68, 1.0 mile east of the Okee-
chobee county line, and 20.5 miles west of Fort Pierce,
NE 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 7, T. 35 S., R. 37 E.
Ap-0 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
mixture of organic matter and uncoated sand grains;
weak medium granular structure; very friable; many
fine and few medium roots; strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
A2-5 to 26 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; common medium distinct black (10YR 2/1)
and very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks along root
channels; single grain; loose; few fine roots; strongly
acid; clear wavy boundary.
Bh-26 to 55 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) sand; few
fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) streaks; common
medium distinct brown (10YR 5/3) pockets; single


grain; loose; many clean sand grains; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
C-55 to 80 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand; slight
increase of value with depth; single grain; loose;
slightly acid.
Thickness of sand exceeds 80 inches.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 1 to 12 inches.
Where value is 3.5 or less, thickness is less than 6
inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7,
and chroma of 1 to 3. Thickness ranges from 6 to 20
inches. In some pedons, there is a thin transitional A3
horizon between the A2 horizon and Bh horizon. Com-
bined thickness of the A horizons ranges from 8 to 40
inches. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to mildly
alkaline.
The Bh horizon has value that is one unit or more
darker than the A horizon. It has hue of 10YR, value of 3
or 4, and chroma of 3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 2, or value of 4 and chroma of 4; or hue of
5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 3 or 4 with common to
many uncoated sand grains. If the Bh horizon has the
latter colors, it does not meet the requirements of a
spodic horizon.
In places, few to many streaks and weakly cemented
fragments of the Bh horizon having hue of 10YR, 5YR,
or 7.5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 and 2; or hue
of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 3 and 4 are in the Bh
horizon. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to mildly
alkaline.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, value of
5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 10YR, value of 4
to 6, and chroma of 3. Reaction is strongly acid to
moderately alkaline. In some pedons, this horizon has
some pockets of loamy sand and a few pockets of
sandy loam.

Canaveral series
Soils of the Canaveral series are hyperthermic, uncoat-
ed Aquic Quartzipsamments. They consist of moderately
well drained to somewhat poorly drained, very rapidly
permeable soils that formed in thick beds of marine or
aeolian sand and shell fragments. These soils are on low
dunelike ridges and on side slopes bordering depres-
sional areas and sloughs near the coast. The water table
is between depths of 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months
or more annually. Slope is 0 to 5 percent.
Canaveral soils are closely associated with Turnbull
Variant, Pompano Variant, Palm Beach, and Kaliga Vari-
ant soils. Palm Beach soils are better drained than Ca-
naveral soils, and Turnbull Variant, Pompano Variant,
and Kaliga Variant soils are more poorly drained.
Typical pedon of Canaveral fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, 40 feet north of Jack Island State Park Road,
approximately 0.1 mile west of Florida Highway A1A, and


71






SOIL SURVEY


about 4 miles north-northeast of Fort Pierce, SW 1/4 SW
1/4 sec. 23, T. 34 S., R. 40 E.
A-0 to 6 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sand;
single grain; loose; common fine roots; about 15
percent by volume pale brown shell fragments; mod-
erately alkaline; calcareous; clear wavy boundary.
C1-6 to 28 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
common medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR
6/6) mottles; single grain; loose; few fine roots;
about 25 percent by volume sand-size pale brown
shell fragments; moderately alkaline, calcareous;
clear wavy boundary.
C2-28 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sand; single
grain; loose; about 15 percent by volume sand-size
pale brown shell fragments; moderately alkaline,
calcareous.
All horizons effervesce weakly to strongly with dilute
HCI. Stratified layers of sand and shells or shell frag-
ments may occur throughout the soil. Reaction ranges
from neutral to moderately alkaline.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 2 or 3. Where the A horizon has value of 3 or
less, it is less than 10 inches thick. Total thickness of
the A horizon is 6 to 15 inches. Content of shell frag-
ments ranges from 5 to 20 percent by volume.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 2 or 3; hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma
of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2;
or is neutral and value is 5 or 6. The C horizon is a
mixture of sand and multicolored shell fragments. In
some pedons the sand and shell fragments are stratified.
Content of shell fragments ranges from 10 to 60 percent.

Chobee series
Soils of the Chobee series are fine-loamy, siliceous,
hyperthermic Typic Argiaquolls. They are nearly level,
very poorly drained, very slowly permeable soils that
formed in unconsolidated, moderately fine marine sedi-
ment. These soils are in small to large depressional
areas, along poorly defined drainageways, and on low
lying flats. The water table is above the surface for 6 to
9 months in most years and is within 10 inches of the
surface for most of the rest of the year except in very
dry periods. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Chobee soils are closely associated with Floridana,
Hallandale, Hilolo, Pineda, Pople, Riviera, Winder, and
Winder Variant soils. Except for Floridana soils, the asso-
ciated soils do not have a mollic epipedon. Floridana
soils have an argillic horizon between depths of 20 to 40
inches. Hallandale soils have limestone within a depth of
20 inches.
Typical pedon of Chobee loamy sand, 5 miles north-
west of Fort Pierce, 0.05 mile east of Taylor Dairy Road,


and 50 feet south of Florida Highway 608, NW 1/4 NE
1/4 sec. 36, T. 34 S., R. 39 E.
Ap-0 to 11 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy sand; weak
fine subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine
and medium roots; slightly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B21tg-11 to 24 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sandy clay
loam; weak coarse subangular blocky structure; fri-
able; sand grains bridged and coated with clay;
common fine and medium roots; slightly acid; gradu-
al wavy boundary.
B22tg-24 to 35 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
sandy clay loam; common streaks of black (10YR
2/1) fine sand; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable; sand grains bridged and coated
with clay; common fine and medium roots; neutral;
gradual wavy boundary.
B23tg-35 to 40 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy
clay loam; common fine distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/6), brown (10YR 5/3), and black (10YR
2/1) streaks along root channels; weak coarse su-
bangular blocky structure; friable; sand grains
bridged and coated with clay; few fine and medium
roots; mildly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
B24tgca-40 to 47 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay
loam; common medium distinct light yellowish brown
(10YR 6/4) and brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mot-
tles; common fine distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
streaks; common medium white (10YR 8/1) calcium
carbonate nodules; weak coarse subangular blocky
structure; friable; sand grains bridged and coated
with clay; common medium roots; moderately alka-
line; calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
B25tgca-47 to 70 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay
loam; many medium distinct light brownish gray
(2.5Y 6/2) and common medium distinct yellowish
brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; common medium distinct
light gray (10YR 7/1) calcium carbonate nodules;
weak coarse subangular blocky structure; friable;
sand grains bridged and coated with clay; common
medium roots; moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear
wavy boundary.
B26tg-70 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay loam;
weak coarse subangular blocky structure; sand
grains bridged and coated with clay; firm; few
medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) calcium car-
bonate nodules; moderately alkaline; calcareous.
Solum thickness is more than 40 inches.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Reaction ranges from slightly acid
to moderately alkaline. The organic matter content is
about 5 to 20 percent. Thickness of the A horizon is 3 to
18 inches.
The Bt and Btca horizons have hue of 10YR, value of
2 to 5, and chroma of 1; hue of 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and


72







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


chroma of 1 or 2 with or without mottles; hue of 10YR or
2.5Y, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 with mottles; or is
neutral and value is 4 or 5. The Bt and Btca horizons are
sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Clay content in the
upper 20 inches of the argillic horizon ranges from 18 to
35 percent. Reaction ranges from slightly acid to mildly
alkaline in the Bt horizon, and from neutral to moderately
alkaline in the Btca horizon.
In some pedons, the Bt horizon contains pyrites, but
the presence of these pyrites cannot be predicted. If the
water table is lowered, the pyrites react to form acids
that can lower the pH to 3.5 or less. Thickness of the B
horizon ranges from 20 to 65 inches.
Some pedons have a Cg horizon. This horizon has
hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 1 or
2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2; or is
neutral and value is 4 to 6. The C horizon is loamy sand,
loamy fine sand, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. In
some pedons, the C horizon is a mixture of sand and
shell fragments. Reaction ranges from neutral to moder-
ately alkaline.

Electra series
Soils of the Electra series are sandy, siliceous, hy-
perthermic Arenic Ultic Haplohumods. They are some-
what poorly drained, moderately slowly permeable soils
that formed in sandy and loamy marine sediments.
These soils are on low ridges and knolls. A water table is
between depths of 25 to 40 inches for about 4 months
of the year and below a depth of 40 inches in dry
periods. Slope ranges from 0 to 5 percent.
Electra soils are closely associated with Ankona,
Hobe, Jonathan, Pendarvis, and Waveland soils. Hobe
soils are better drained, and Ankona soils are more
poorly drained than Electra soils. Ankona, Jonathan,
Pendarvis, and Waveland soils have an ortstein horizon.
Jonathan and Pendarvis soils do not have an argillic
horizon. Jonathan soils have a spodic horizon below a
depth of 50 inches.
Typical pedon of Electra fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, 400 feet east of telephone cable line trail, 0.15
mile south of Banyan Road, 0.1 mile west of U.S. High-
way 1, and 8.5 miles south of Fort Pierce, NE 1/4 NE1/4
sec. 27, T. 36 S., R. 40 E.
A1-0 to 7 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sand; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; many fine
and medium roots, few coarse roots; extremely acid;
clear smooth boundary.
A2-7 to 47 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; few fine
distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) streaks along root
channels; single grain; loose; common fine and
medium roots and few coarse roots decreasing to
common medium roots below a depth of about 24
inches; sand grains are uncoated; strongly acid;
abrupt wavy boundary.


B2h-47 to 60 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
fine sand; few coarse distinct dark brown (10YR
4/3) mottles near base of horizon; massive; friable;
few fine roots; sand grains well coated with colloidal
organic matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy bound-
ary.
B2tg-60 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
fine sandy loam; many coarse distinct dark grayish
brown (10YR 4/2) streaks; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; common medium dead and
few fine live roots; sand grains bridged and coated
with clay; very strongly acid.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value that ranges
from 4 to 6, and chroma of 1. The A2 horizon has hue of
10YR, value that ranges from 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 or
2. Darker streaks along root channels are few to
common. Thickness of the A horizon ranges from 30 to
50 inches. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to
strongly acid.
Some pedons have a thin B1h horizon. Where pres-
ent, this horizon has hue of 10YR, value that ranges
from 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. The B1h horizon does
not meet the requirements of a spodic horizon. Thick-
ness ranges to 3 inches.
The Bh horizon has hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 10YR, value of 2, and chroma
of 1 or 2; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2.
In some pedons, there are few to common, hard, darker
Bh fragments 1 to 3 inches in diameter. Thickness of the
Bh horizon ranges from 7 to 18 inches. Reaction ranges
from extremely acid to strongly acid.
In some pedons an A12 horizon is present. Where
present, it has hue of 10YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma
of 2. Thickness ranges to 8 inches.
Total thickness of the A, Bh, and A12 horizons is 40 to
less than 80 inches. Reaction ranges from extremely
acid to strongly acid.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
chroma of 2 or 4; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 6 or 7, and
chroma of 2 to 4. Few to many mottles are yellow, red,
and gray. This horizon is fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or
sandy clay loam. It is 6 to more than 20 inches thick.
Lenses or streaks of fine sand, sand, loamy fine sand, or
loamy sand are in some pedons.
Some pedons have a B3g horizon. Where present, this
horizon has colors similar to those of the Btg horizon.
The B3g horizon is loamy fine sand, loamy sand, sandy
loam, or fine sandy loam. Reaction ranges from extreme-
ly acid to strongly acid.

Floridana series
Soils of the Floridana series are loamy, siliceous, hy-
perthermic Arenic Argiaquolls. They are nearly level, very
poorly drained, slowly to very slowly permeable soils that
formed in sandy and loamy marine sediments. These


73







SOIL SURVEY


soils are in wet depressional areas and on low flats.
They are ponded for more than 6 months in most years.
Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Floridana soils are closely associated with Chobee,
Pineda, Riviera, Kaliga, and Winder soils. Pineda, Riviera,
and Winder soils have an ochric epipedon. Chobee soils
have an argillic horizon within a depth of 20 inches.
Kaliga soils are organic.
Typical pedon of Floridana sand, in a depressional
area about 17 miles west of Fort Pierce, 1.55 miles north
of Florida Highway 68, and 0.5 mile west of main trail,
NW 1/4 NW 1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 26, T. 34 S., R. 37 E.
A11-0 to 3 inches; black (10 YR 2/1) sand; moderate
fine crumb structure; very friable; many fine roots;
medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
A12-3 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) rubbed
sand; weak fine crumb structure; very friable; few
fine roots; medium acid; clear smooth boundary.
A13-5 to 11 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; common
medium distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2) streaks;
moderate medium crumb structure; very friable; few
fine roots; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A14-11 to 21 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
common coarse distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
bodies that are 1 to 1.5 inches in diameter and 2 to
5 inches long; common medium distinct yellowish
brown (10YR 5/4) mottles; weak medium crumb
structure; very friable; few fine roots; strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
A2-21 to 25 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand;
common medium distinct grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
bodies that are 1 to 2 inches in diameter and 1 to 3
inches long; single grain; loose; few fine roots; very
strongly acid; abrupt irregular boundary.
B21tg&A-25 to 37 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy
clay loam; common light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sandy penetrations of the A2 horizon that are 1 to 2
inches in diameter and 2 to 12 inches long; common
fine distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) mottles
along root channels; common medium faint very
dark gray (5Y 3/1) bodies; moderate medium suban-
gular blocky structure; friable; sand grains bridged
and coated with clay; many dead roots; few fine
roots; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22tg&A-37 to 50 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy
clay loam; common coarse distinct gray (10YR 5/1)
sandy bodies that are 1 to 3 inches in diameter;
moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm;
sand grains bridged and coated with clay; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
B3g-50 to 60 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sandy loam;
common coarse distinct black (5Y 2.5/1) bodies;
weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
sand grains bridged and coated with clay; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Clg-60 to 65 inches; light gray (5Y 6/1) sandy clay
loam with pockets of sandy loam; common medium


distinct dark gray (5YR 4/1) sandy pockets; mas-
sive; very friable; strongly acid; gradual wavy bound-
ary.
C2g-65 to 81 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay loam;
common fine distinct brownish gray (10YR 5/2)
sandy pockets; massive; firm; strongly acid.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2. This horizon is a mixture of uncoated
sand grains and organic matter. Thickness ranges from
10 to 24 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value
of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness is 4 to 18
inches. Reaction is strongly acid or medium acid. Thick-
ness of the A horizon is 20 to 40 inches.
The Btg part of the Btg&A horizon has hue of 10YR or
is neutral, and chroma of 1 or less; hue of 5Y, value of
4, and chroma of 1 with or without mottles; hue of 10YR,
value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 2; or hue of 2.5Y, value
of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2 with mottles. Pedons that
have matrix colors of chroma 1 or less may not have
mottles. This horizon ranges from sandy loam to sandy
clay loam, and penetrations of sand or fine sand extend
vertically into the horizon from the A2 horizon. Reaction
ranges from medium acid to moderately alkaline.
In some pedons, there are small bodies of pyrites in
the Btg horizon. The presence of pyrites, however,
cannot be predicted. If the water table is lowered, the
pyrites can react to form acids that may lower the pH to
3.5 or less in local spots.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 or 6,
and chroma of 1 or 2; or is neutral and has value of 5 or
6. This horizon ranges from sandy clay loam to sand. It
is mixed with shell fragments in many places. Reaction is
strongly acid to moderately alkaline.

Hallandale series
Soils of the Hallandale series are siliceous, hyperther-
mic Typic Psammaquents. They are nearly level, poorly
drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in a thin bed
of sandy sediment underlain by a fractured limestone
ledge. These soils are on broad low flats, in low ham-
mocks, and along poorly defined drainageways. They
have a water table within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 4
months of the year and within a depth of 20 inches for 6
months or more. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Hallandale soils are closely associated with Winder
Variant, Chobee, Hilolo, Pineda, Pople, Riviera, and
Winder soils. None of these soils have limestone within a
depth of 20 inches.
Typical pedon of Hallandale sand, in an orange grove
180 feet south of Immokalee Road, 1 mile west of junc-
tion of Florida Highway 713 (King's Highway) and Florida
Highway 608, and about 6.2 miles northwest of Fort
Pierce, NW 1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 35, T. 34 S., R. 39 E.


74







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


Ap-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
moderate medium crumb structure; very friable;
many fine roots; medium acid; clear wavy boundary.
C1-6 to 10 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
sand; few fine distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
crumbs; single grain; loose; common fine roots;
slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
C2-10 to 12 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
discontinuous loamy sand covering about 45 percent
of the pedon; common medium distinct yellowish
brown (10YR 5/4) and few fine distinct yellowish
brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; few fine distinct very
dark gray (5Y 3/1) bodies; weak medium granular
blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; neutral;
abrupt irregular boundary.
R-12 to 37 inches; hard fractured limestone ledge con-
taining an average of 4 to 5 solution holes per
square meter ranging from 6 to 12 inches in diame-
ter and 6 inches deep to complete penetration
through the rock; solution holes are filled with dark
grayish brown Bt material; rock is rippable from
outer edges of ledge; surface of rock is smooth and
undulating with rounded edges; abrupt wavy bound-
ary.
IIC3-37 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/2) sand; common
coarse faint (5Y 5/2) pockets of loamy sand and
sandy loam and many medium distinct light gray
(10YR 7/2) shell fragments; massive; very friable;
moderately alkaline; calcareous.

Combined thickness of the A and C horizons is 6 to 20
inches.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or
3, and chroma of 1 or 2. This horizon is a mixture of
organic matter and uncoated sand grains. Thickness
ranges from 3 to 7 inches. Reaction ranges from strongly
acid to slightly acid.
The A2 horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR,
value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Reaction ranges
from medium acid to moderately alkaline.
In some pedons, there is a B horizon. It has hue of
10YR, value of 5, and chroma of 3 or 4; value of 6, and
chroma of 3 or 4; or value of 4 and chroma of 4.
Reaction ranges from medium acid to moderately alka-
line. In some pedons, this horizon has mottles in shades
of gray, brown, or yellow. The B horizon is sand or fine
sand and has clay content of 1 to 3 percent.
In many pedons, a C horizon is between the A horizon
and limestone and in solution holes in the limestone
ledge and there is no B horizon. It has hue of 10YR,
value of 4, and chroma of 1 or 2; value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 1 of 3; value of 7 and chroma of 1 to 4; or
value of 8 and chroma of 3 or 4. Mottles are yellow,
brown, and gray. The C horizon is dominantly sand;
however, in less than half of the pedon a thin layer of
loamy sand immediately overlies the limestone boulders.


The underlying hard limestone is a continuous frac-
tured ledge 1 to 3 feet thick. Solution holes in the lime-
stone range from 3 inches to 36 inches in diameter, and
from 4 inches deep to complete penetration through the
limestone. In some pedons, soft carbonatic material or
small fragments of weathered rock are at the place of
contact with the limestone. Below the limestone is sand,
fine sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam
containing few to many shell fragments. This horizon has
hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or
2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2; or
is neutral and value is 5 to 7. Reaction ranges from
slightly acid to moderately alkaline.

Hilolo series
Soils of the Hilolo series are fine-loamy, siliceous, hy-
perthermic Mollic Ochraqualfs. They are nearly level,
poorly drained, slowly permeable soils that formed in
beds of marine sandy and loamy materials that are influ-
enced by underlying alkaline material. These soils are on
dense palm hammocks and along borders of depres-
sional areas and sloughs. The water table is within a
depth of 10 inches for 2 to 4 months of the year and
between depths of 10 to 40 inches for 6 to 9 months.
Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Hilolo soils are associated with Pepper, Hallandale,
Pineda, Pople, Riviera, Tantile, Winder Variant, and
Winder soils. Winder Variant and Hallandale soils have
limestone in the profile. Pepper soils have a spodic hori-
zon. Pople soils have an argillic horizon between depths
of 20 to 40 inches. Pineda, Riviera, and Winder soils do
not have a calcareous, argillic horizon.
Typical pedon of Hilolo loamy sand, in a hammock 50
feet north of Delaware Avenue, 0.2 mile east of Hartman
Road, 0.25 mile south of Florida Highway 68 (Orange
Avenue), and 2.5 miles west of Fort Pierce, NW 1/4 SW
1/4 sec. 8, T. 35 S., R. 40 E.

A11-0 to 2 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1), black
(10YR 2/1) loamy sand, rubbed; weak medium
granular structure; very friable; many fine and few
medium roots; common pieces of organic matter;
mildly alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.
A12-2 to 7 inches; black (10YR 2/1) loamy sand; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; few fine,
medium and coarse roots; weak effervescence with
dilute HCL; mildly alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy
boundary.
B21tgca-7 to 12 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) fine
sandy loam with common medium fine very dark
gray (10YR 3/1) mottles and common medium dis-
tinct gray (10YR 5/1) calcium carbonate nodules;
weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable;
few medium and large roots; sand grains bridged
and coated with clay; strong effervescence with


75







SOIL SURVEY


dilute HCI; moderately alkaline; calcareous; gradual
wavy boundary.
B22tgca-12 to 28 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sandy
clay loam; common medium distinct light gray (10YR
7/1) calcium carbonate nodules; weak medium su-
bangular blocky structure; friable; sand grains
bridged and coated with clay; few medium roots;
strong effervescence with dilute HCI; moderately
alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
B23tgca-28 to 36 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) fine sandy
loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/8) mottles; common medium distinct light
gray (10YR 7/1) calcium carbonate nodules; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; sand
grains bridged and coated with clay; very few
medium roots; strong effervescence with dilute HCI;
moderately alkaline; calcareous; abrupt irregular
boundary.
B24tgca-36 to 43 inches; olive gray (5Y 4/2) fine sandy
loam; few medium distinct very dark grayish brown
(10YR 3/2) 1 inch in diameter streaks along vertical
root channels; few 3-inch diameter pockets of sticky
light gray (10YR 7/2) calcium carbonates; common
medium distinct calcium carbonate nodules; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; sand
grains bridged and coated with clay; very few
medium roots; strong effervescence with dilute HCI;
moderately alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy
boundary.
B31g-43 to 50 inches; olive gray (5Y 4/2) fine sandy
loam; few fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) calcium
carbonate nodules; very friable; very few medium
roots; moderate effervescence with dilute HC1;
strongly alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy
boundary.
B32g-50 to 53 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) fine sandy
loam; few fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) streaks
along root channels; few concentrated areas of
white (10YR 8/1) calcium carbonate nodules and
powder; few medium distinct brownish yellow (10YR
6/6) and very pale brown (10YR 8/4) mottles; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; very friable;
very few medium roots; strong effervescence with
dilute HCI; strongly alkaline; calcareous; gradual
wavy boundary.
C1g-53 to 74 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) loamy
fine sand; few fine distinct very dark gray (10YR
3/1) streaks along root channels; few 2-inch diameter
pockets of gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; few fine distinct
light gray (10YR 7/1) calcium carbonate nodules;
massive; very friable; moderate effervescence with
dilute HCI; strongly alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy
boundary.
C2g-74 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam;
many medium distinct gray (10YR 6/1) mottles; few
fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) calcium carbonate


nodules; massive; very friable; moderate efferves-
cence with dilute HCI; strongly alkaline; calcareous.
The thickness of the solum ranges from 40 to 60
inches. The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of
2, and chroma of 1; or value of 3, and chroma of 1 or 2;
hue of 2.5Y, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or is neutral
and value is 2 or 3. The A horizon is sand, fine sand,
loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. Thickness is 6 to 10
inches. Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately alka-
line. The lower 2 or 3 inches of the Al horizon is not
calcareous in all pedons. In some pedons, a thin horizon
of calcareous sand or loamy sand is between the A
horizon and Btgca horizons. Where present, chroma is 2
or less.
The B2tgca horizon has hue of 10YR or is neutral,
value of 4 to 8, and chroma of 1 with or without mottles;
hue of 10YR, value of 7 or 8, and chroma of 2; or hue of
2.5Y, value of 4 to 8, and chroma of 2 with mottles. The
horizon is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay
loam. Weighted clay content of the upper 20 inches of
the control section ranges from 18 to 35 percent. Thick-
ness is 12 to 50 inches. Reaction is mildly alkaline or
moderately alkaline and calcareous.
The B3g horizon has color similar to that of the B2tgca
horizon, and, in addition, has hue of 5Y, value of 4 to 7,
and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sandy loam or fine sandy
loam. Thickness is 0 to 15 inches. Reaction ranges from
mildly alkaline to strongly alkaline and calcareous.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, 5GY, or
5BG, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2 or less. It ranges
from sand to fine sandy loam. Some pedons contain
shells or shell fragments. Reaction ranges from mildly
alkaline to strongly alkaline.

Hobe series
Soils of the Hobe series are sandy, siliceous, hyperth-
ermic Arenic Ultic Haplohumods. They are nearly level
and gently sloping, somewhat excessively drained, mod-
erately permeable soils that formed in thick beds of
sandy and loamy marine sediments. These soils are on
elevated knolls and ridges in the flatwoods. The water
table is generally below a depth of 60 inches. Slope
ranges from 0 to 5 percent.
Hobe soils are closely associated with Electra, Pendar-
vis, and Jonathan soils. Electra and Pendarvis soils have
a Bh horizon between depths of 30 to 50 inches and are
more poorly drained than Hobe soils. Jonathan soils do
not have an argillic horizon.
Typical pedon of Hobe sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, in
a wooded area 100 feet north of Lansdowne Avenue,
0.2 mile east of Crowberry Drive in Port St. Lucie, and
about 8 miles south of Fort Pierce, NE 1/4 NE 1/4 sec.
3, T. 37 S., R. 40 E.


76







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


A1-0 to 5 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; weak medium
granular structure; very friable; strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
A2-5 to 55 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single grain;
loose; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
Bh-55 to 65 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; common
medium distinct dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) bodies;
massive; friable; sand grains well coated with organ-
ic matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
Btg-65 to 80 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sandy loam; common medium distinct strong brown
(10YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium subangular
blocky structure; friable; sand grains bridged and
coated with clay; extremely acid.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
chroma of 1. Thickness ranges from 1 to 8 inches. The
A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or is neutral and value is 6 to 8.
Darker streaks are along root channels in some pedons.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid.
Combined thickness of the A horizons ranges from 50 to
70 inches.
In some pedons a Blh horizon is present. It has hue
of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. The Blh
horizon does not meet the requirements of a spodic
horizon. Thickness is 0 to 3 inches. The B2h horizon has
hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or
2; hue of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 3 or 4; or hue
of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2. In less than 40
percent of each pedon, the B2h horizon is firm and
weakly to strongly cemented. Generally, few to common
lighter colored sand pockets are in the B2h horizon.
Thickness is 2 to 20 inches.
Where present, the B3&Bh horizon has hue of 10YR,
value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 3 or 4; or hue of 5YR,
value of 4, and chroma of 3 or 4 with weakly cemented
Bh bodies. In some pedons, this horizon does not have
weakly cemented Bh bodies and is a B3 horizon. Reac-
tion ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid. The
B3&Bh horizon is sand or fine sand.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 2. It is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy
clay loam. Some pedons have lenses or streaks of fine
sand, sand, loamy sand, or loamy fine sand. This horizon
is discontinuous or dips below a depth of 80 inches in
some pedons; however, it is present in 60 percent or
more of each pedon. Reaction ranges from extremely
acid to strongly acid.

Hontoon series
Soils of the Hontoon series are dysic, hyperthermic
Typic Medisaprists. They are nearly level, very poorly
drained, rapidly permeable soils that formed in moderate-
ly thick beds of hydrophytic, nonwoody plant remains.


These soils are in fresh water swamps and broad
marshes. The water table is at or above the surface for 6
to 9 months in most years. Slope ranges from 0 to 2
percent.
Hontoon soils are closely associated with Waveland,
Salerno, Lawnwood, Pompano, Samsula Variant, and
Myakka Variant soils. Hontoon soils differ from those
soils in having sapric material more than 51 inches thick.
Samsula Variant and Myakka Variant soils have a Bh
horizon within the control section. Waveland, Salerno,
and Lawnwood soils have a spodic horizon. Pompano
soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Typical pedon of Hontoon muck, in Upper Savannas
marsh 0.5 mile south of Florida Highway 713, 0.25 mile
west of U.S. Highway I, and 7.5 miles north of Fort
Pierce, NE 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 7, T. 34 S., R. 40 E.
Oal--0 to 6 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
muck; about 85 percent fiber, 10 percent rubbed;
massive; friable; brown (10YR 5/3) sodium pyro-
phosphate extract; extremely acid in 0.01 molar cal-
cium chloride; clear wavy boundary.
Oa2-6 to 55 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2) well
decomposed muck (sapric material), unrubbed and
rubbed; about 24 percent fiber unrubbed, 2 percent
rubbed; massive; friable; dark brown (10YR 3/3)
sodium pyrophosphate extract; extremely acid in
0.01 molar calcium chloride; gradual wavy boundary.
Oa3-55 to 60 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck (sapric
material) containing about 75 percent sand; about 2
percent fiber, unrubbed; massive; very friable; dark
reddish brown (10YR 3/2) sodium pyrophosphate
extract; very strongly acid (4.5) in 0.01 molar cal-
cium chloride.
Reaction is less than 4.5 in 0.01 molar calcium chlo-
ride. The Oa horizons have hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1 or 2; and hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 2 or 3. Sodium pyrophosphate extract is in
hue of 10YR, value of 2 through 4, and chroma of 4 or
less; value of 5 and chroma of 2 through 8; value of 6
and chroma of 3 through 8; or value of 7 and chroma of
4 through 8. Mineral content within a depth of 16 to 51
inches ranges from about 5 to 30 percent and to 75
percent below that depth.

Jonathan series
Soils of the Jonathan series are sandy, siliceous, hy-
perthermic, ortstein Typic Haplohumods. They are mod-
erately well drained, slowly to very slowly permeable
soils that formed in sandy marine sediment. These soils
are on slightly elevated knolls and ridges in the
flatwoods. The water table is at a depth of 40 to 60
inches for 1 to 4 months during the summer rainy
season. Slope ranges from 0 to 5 percent.


77







SOIL SURVEY


Jonathan soils are closely associated with Electra,
Hobe, Lawnwood, Pendarvis, Salerno, and Waveland
soils. Hobe soils are better drained than Jonathan soils,
and Lawnwood, Salerno, and Waveland soils are more
poorly drained. Pendarvis soils have a spodic horizon at
a depth of 30 to 50 inches. Electra soils have an argillic
horizon and do not have an ortstein horizon.
Typical pedon of Jonathan sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, in a wooded area 20 feet north of Becher Road,
0.2 mile west of Gilson Road, and 16.25 miles south of
Fort Pierce, NE 1/4 SW 1/4 sec. 36, T. 37 S., R. 40 E.

A1-0 to 3 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain;
loose; common medium and fine roots; medium
acid; clear wavy boundary.
A2-3 to 68 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; single grain;
loose; medium acid; common medium and coarse
roots that decrease to few below a depth of about
40 inches; abrupt wavy boundary.
Bh-68 to 80 inches; black (5YR 2/1) sand; massive;
firm; weakly cemented in more than half of the hori-
zon; sand grains well coated with colloidal organic
matter; very strongly acid.
Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to medium
acid in the A horizon and from extremely acid to very
strongly acid in the Bh horizon.
The A horizon is more than 50 inches thick. The Al
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2; or is neutral and value is 4 to 6.
Thickness ranges from 1 to 6 inches. The A2 horizon
has hue of 10YR, value of 5 through 8, and chroma of 1
or 2; or is neutral and value is 5 through 8 with darker
vertical streaks in old root channels. In some pedons, a
transitional B1h horizon 1/2 inch to 4 inches thick con-
taining uncoated sand grains is between the A2 horizon
and the Bh horizon.
The Bh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2, and
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma
of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2
through 4. This horizon is more than 10 inches thick. In
most pedons, cementation is variable; however, more
than half of the Bh horizon in each pedon is weakly or
moderately cemented. Light gray pockets of A2 horizon
material are in many pedons.
Some pedons have a B3 horizon within a depth of 80
inches that has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 3 or 4,
and chroma of 3 or 4; or a B3&Bh horizon that has
similar matrix colors and firm, darker fragments of the Bh
horizon.
In a few pedons, a C horizon in hue of 10YR, value of
5 through 7, and chroma of 2 through 4 occurs within a
depth of 80 inches. The C horizon is fine sand or sand
with or without pockets or balls of loamy sand or loamy
fine sand.


Kaliga series
Soils of the Kaliga series are loamy, siliceous, dysic,
hyperthermic Terric Medisaprists. They are nearly level,
very poorly drained, slowly permeable soils that formed
in moderately thick beds of hydrophytic, nonwoody plant
remains and underlying loamy material. These soils are
in small to large fresh water swamps and depressional
areas. The water table is at or above the surface except
for extended dry periods. Slope is less than 1 percent.
Kaliga soils are closely associated with Floridana,
Pineda, Riviera, and Winder soils. All of those soils are
mineral.
Typical pedon of Kaliga muck, about 9.4 miles west of
Fort Pierce, 0.3 mile north of Florida Highway 68, 0.2
mile west along north side of a small ditch, and 50 feet
north of the ditch, NE 1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 7, T. 35 S., R.
38 E.

Oal-0 to 10 inches; black (10YR 2/1) muck, rubbed
and pressed; about 7 percent fiber, 1 percent
rubbed; weak fine and medium granular structure;
very friable; many fine and coarse roots; many
medium roots; brown (10YR 4/3) sodium pyrophos-
phate extract; about 11 percent mineral content;
very strongly acid; pH 3.9 in 0.01 molar calcium chlo-
ride; gradual wavy boundary.
Oa2-10 to 27 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck, rubbed
and pressed; about 10 percent fiber, 3 percent
rubbed; massive; friable; few fine and coarse roots,
medium roots; brown (10YR 4/3) sodium pyrophos-
phate extract; 28 percent mineral content; very
strongly acid; pH 3.9 in 0.01 molar calcium chloride;
gradual wavy boundary.
Oa3-27 to 35 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
muck, rubbed and pressed; about 3 percent fiber,
none rubbed; massive; friable; few medium roots;
dark yellowish brown (10YR 3/4) sodium pyrophos-
phate extract; 40 percent mineral content; very
strongly acid; pH 3.9 in 0.01 molar calcium chloride;
gradual wavy boundary.
IIC-35 to 52 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
sandy clay loam; massive; friable; sand grains
bridged and coated with clay; neutral.
Reaction of the organic material is less than 4.5 in
0.01 molar calcium chloride. Thickness ranges from 16
to 40 inches. The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR, value of
2, and chroma of 1; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma
of 1 to 3.
The IIC horizon is in hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 2 to 5, and
chroma of 2; or is neutral, and value is 2 to 4. The IIC
horizon is sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Reaction
ranges from very strongly acid to neutral. In some
pedons, the IIC horizon contains pyrites, but the pres-


78







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


ence of the pyrites cannot be
table is lowered, the pyrites can
may lower the pH to 3.5 or less.


predicted. If the water
react to form acids that


Kaliga Variant
Soils of the Kaliga Variant are loamy, siliceous, euic,
hyperthermic Terric Medisaprists. They are nearly level,
very poorly drained, slowly permeable soils that formed
in moderately thick beds of hydrophytic nonwoody plant
remains over loamy material. These soils are in broad,
medium to large coastal tidal swamps. They are flooded
daily during normal high tides and during storms. Slope
is less than 1 percent.
Kaliga Variant soils are closely associated with Canav-
eral, Turnbull Variant, Pompano Variant, and Myakka
soils. All of the associated soils are mineral.
Typical pedon of Kaliga Variant muck, in a mangrove
swamp 0.1 mile north of Florida Highway A1A, 0.2 mile
east along trail, 2.5 miles south of Seaway Drive, and
3.75 miles east-southeast of Fort Pierce, SE 1/4 NE 1/4
sec. 18, T. 35 S., R. 41 E.
Oal-0 to 20 inches; black (5YR 2/1) muck; about 30
percent fiber, about 6 percent rubbed; massive;
many fine roots; very friable; brown (10YR 6/3)
sodium pyrophosphate extract; very strongly acid;
pH 4.5 in 0.01 molar calcium chloride; gradual wavy
boundary.
Oa2-20 to 38 inches; black (5Y 2/1) muck, about 30
percent fiber, about 6 percent rubbed; massive; very
friable; many fine roots; brown (10YR 5/3) sodium
pyrophosphate extract; about 10 percent mineral
material; strongly acid; pH 4.8 in 0.01 molar calcium
chloride; gradual wavy boundary.
IIC1-38 to 51 inches; dark olive gray (5Y 3/1) sandy
clay loam; less than 20 percent organic matter con-
tent; n value greater than 0.7; massive; friable;
common fine roots; moderately alkaline; clear wavy
boundary.
IIC2-51 to 65 inches; olive gray (5Y 4/2) loamy sand;
common fine distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
streaks; massive; very friable; moderately alkaline;
gradual wavy boundary.
IIC3-65 to 80 inches; olive gray (5Y 4/2) sand;
common fine distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
streaks; massive; very friable; moderately alkaline.
Reaction of the organic material is 4.5 or more in 0.01
molar calcium chloride. Salinity is 8 to 16 millihos per
centimeter. Thickness of the organic material ranges
from 16 to 40 inches. The Oa horizon has hue of 10YR
or 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. Mineral
content ranges from 10 to 30 percent, and increases
with depth.
The IIC1 horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, 5BG, or
5GY, value of 2 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sandy


clay loam or sandy loam. Thickness is 12 to 30 inches.
Salinity is more than 8 millihos per centimeter. Reaction
is medium acid to moderately alkaline. The n value is
more than 0.7.
The IIC2 and IIC3 horizons have hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or
5Y, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 0 to 2. They are
loamy fine sand, loamy sand, fine sand, or sand mixed in
places with shell fragments. Salinity is more than 4 milli-
hos per centimeter. Reaction is slightly acid to moderate-
ly alkaline.

Lawnwood series
Soils of the Lawnwood series are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic, ortstein Aeric Haplaquods. They are nearly
level, poorly drained, very slowly to slowly permeable
soils that formed in marine sandy and loamy sediment.
These soils are on broad flatwoods and in depressional
areas. During most years, the water table is within a
depth of 10 inches for 1 to 4 months and between
depths of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more. Depres-
sional areas are ponded. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 per-
cent.
Lawnwood soils are closely associated with Electra,
Ankona, Nettles, Pepper, Susanna, and Waveland soils.
Electra soils are better drained than Lawnwood soils.
Ankona, Pepper, Susanna, and Nettles soils have an
argillic horizon below the Bh horizon. Waveland soils
have a thick Bh horizon below a depth of 30 inches.
Typical pedon of Lawnwood sand, in a flatwoods area
6.5 miles north of Fort Pierce, 0.9 mile west of U.S.
Highway 1, and 140 feet north of Indrio Road, sec. 18, T.
34 S., R. 40 E.
A11-0 to 4 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; moderate
medium granular structure; very friable; many fine
medium and coarse roots; very strongly acid; clear
smooth boundary.
A12-4 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
common medium faint black (10YR 2/1) worm
casts; weak medium granular structure; few fine
medium and common coarse roots; very strongly
acid; clear smooth boundary.
A21-8 to 15 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain;
loose; few fine medium and many coarse roots;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A22-15 to 28 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand;
common medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
streaks along root channels; few fine and medium
roots; medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B21h-28 to 52 inches; black (5YR 2/1) sand; about 30
percent by volume dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2,
5YR 3/2) sand bodies; massive; black matrix is
weakly cemented and firm, dark reddish brown
bodies are friable; few fine roots; sand grains well
coated with colloidal organic matter; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.


79







SOIL SURVEY


B22h-52 to 58 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
sand; common medium distinct pale brown (10YR
6/3) and few medium distinct dark brown (10YR
4/3) bodies; massive; very friable; common uncoat-
ed sand grains; strongly acid; gradual wavy bound-
ary.
C1-58 to 63 inches; pale olive (5Y 6/3) sand that has
few scattered large pockets of loamy sand; single
grain; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
C2-63 to 80 inches; pale olive (5Y 6/3) sand that has
few large scattered pockets of loamy sand and
sandy loam; sandy loam is discontinuous in 60 per-
cent of pedon; few medium faint light gray (5Y 7/2)
bodies of sand; massive; very friable; sand grains
coated with clay in loamy part; strongly acid.
The Al horizon has rubbed color in hue of 10YR,
value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1. Where value is less
than 3.5, thickness is less than 10 inches. Unrubbed
colors have a salt-and-pepper appearance. The A2 hori-
zon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1
or 2. Combined thickness of the A2 horizon is less than
30 inches. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to slight-
ly acid.
In some pedons, there is a B1h horizon between the
A2 horizon and Bh horizon. Where present, it has hue of
10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1 and 2; or value
of 2 and chroma of 1. The B1h horizon does not meet
the requirements for a spodic horizon. Reaction ranges
from very strongly acid to slightly acid. When moist, all or
part of the B2h horizon is weakly or moderately cement-
ed into a massive horizon that is present in more than
half of each pedon.
In some pedons, the cemented part occurs as a sub-
horizon and is continuous horizontally throughout the
pedon; in some pedons, cementation is not continuous
but occurs in more than 50 percent of the pedon; and in
some pedons, the cemented B2h horizon or subhorizon
is continuous but contains less than 50 percent bodies
that are not cemented. The B2h horizon ranges from
weakly or moderately cemented with consistence of firm
or very firm to not cemented and friable or loose. Ce-
mented horizons are frequently brittle.
The B21h horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2,
and chroma of 1 or 2; or is neutral and value is 2. Sand
grains are thickly coated with colloidal organic matter.
The B22h horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma of
2 to 4; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2. In
some pedons that have B23h and B24h horizons, colors
are similar to that of the B22h horizon. In some pedons,
particularly those with B23h and B24h horizons, the
B22h horizon has color similar to that of the B21h hori-
zon. The B2h horizon is fine sand, loamy fine sand, or
loamy sand. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to
strongly acid.


Where present, the B3 horizon has hue of 7.5YR,
value of 4, and chroma of 3 or 4; value of 3 and chroma
of 2; hue of 10YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2 or 3; or
value 4 to 6 and chroma of 3 or 4. A B3&Bh horizon that
contains dark, weakly cemented fragments of the Bh
horizon is in some pedons. Where present, color is simi-
lar to that of the B3 horizon. The B3 and B3&Bh hori-
zons are sand or fine sand.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 or 7, and
chroma of 2 to 4; hue of 5Y, value of 5 or 7, and chroma
of 1 to 3; or is neutral and value is 5 to 7. The C horizon
is sand with common to many, medium to large scat-
tered pockets of loamy sand and sandy loam. Reaction
ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid. The C hori-
zon ranges from a depth of 40 to 80 inches.

Malabar series
Soils of the Malabar series are loamy, siliceous, hy-
perthermic Grossarenic Ochraqualfs. They are nearly
level, poorly drained, slowly or very slowly permeable
soils that formed in unconsolidated, marine sandy and
loamy materials that are influenced by underlying alkaline
material. These soils are on broad, poorly defined
sloughs and flats. The water table is at a depth of less
than 10 inches for 2 to 6 months of the year and be-
tween depths of 10 to 40 inches for most of the rest of
the year. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Malabar soils are closely associated with Basinger,
Floridana, Oldsmar, Pineda, and Riviera soils. Basinger
soils are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more. Flori-
dana soils have a mollic epipedon. Riviera soils do not
have a Bir horizon. Oldsmar soils have a spodic horizon.
Pineda soils have an argillic horizon at a depth of 20 to
40 inches.
Typical pedon of Malabar fine sand, in a low flat area
0.4 mile north of Florida Highway 712, .02 mile west of
Florida Highway 611B (Selvitz Road), 500 feet south of
canal, 6 citrus rows east from a small ditch, and 5 miles
south-southeast of Fort Pierce, NW 1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 5,
T. 36 S., R. 40 E.
A1-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
weak, medium granular structure; very friable; many
fine roots, neutral; clear smooth boundary.
A2-6 to 12 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine
sand; single grain; loose; common medium roots;
neutral; clear wavy boundary.
B1ir-12 to 17 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
fine sand; common medium distinct grayish brown
(10YR 5/2) streaks; single grain; loose; sand grains
weakly cemented with iron oxide; few fine roots;
neutral; clear wavy boundary.
B2ir-17 to 24 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) fine
sand; common medium distinct brownish yellow
(10YR 6/6) and few medium distinct strong brown
(7.5YR 5/6) streaks; weak medium granular struc-


80






ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


ture; very friable; sand grains well coated with iron
oxide; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
A'2-24 to 42 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) fine sand;
common fine distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
streaks along old root channels; single grain; loose;
neutral; abrupt irregular boundary.
B'2tg-42 to 72 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sandy loam;
common fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
mottles and common medium distinct dark gray (5Y
4/1) mottles in upper part along root channels; weak
medium subangular blocky structure; friable; sand
grains bridged and coated with clay; horizontal and
vertical lenses of sandy clay loam 1 to 2 inches
thick; few krotovinas of light gray (10YR 7/2) sand
that are 1 to 3 inches wide and 3 to 10 inches deep;
few fine roots; mildly alkaline; clear smooth bound-
ary.
C-72 to 80 inches; white (10YR 8/1) fine sand; single
grain; loose; medium acid.
Thickness of the solum is 46 to 80 inches. Combined
thickness of the A, Bir, and A'2 horizons is 40 to 80
inches.
The Al or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
4, and chroma of 1. This horizon is a mixture of organic
matter and uncoated sand grains. Thickness ranges from
4 to 8 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of
5 to 8, and chroma of 3, or less; or hue of 2.5Y, value of
5 or 6, and chroma of 2. Thickness ranges from 6 to 18
inches. Reaction ranges from medium to neutral.
The Bir horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 3 to 8; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6, and
chroma of 6 or 8. Thickness ranges from 4 to 26 inches.
The Bir horizon is sand or fine sand. Reaction ranges
from medium acid to moderately alkaline.
Where present, the A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR,
value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value
of 5 to 7, and chroma of 2; or is neutral and value is 5 to
7. Reaction ranges from medium acid to moderately al-
kaline. Thickness ranges to 10 inches.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5Y, value of 5, and chroma of 1
or 2; or is neutral and value is 5 to 7. The Btg horizon is
sandy loam or sandy clay loam with few to many sandy
intrusions that are 1/2 inch to 2 inches in diameter and 2
to 15 inches long. Thickness ranges from 7 to 30 inches.
In some pedons, the Bt horizon contains small bodies
of pyrites (7, 8), but the presence of these pyrites cannot
be predicted. If the water table is lowered, the pyrites
can react to form acids that may lower the pH to 3.5 or
less in local spots. Reaction ranges from medium acid to
moderately alkaline.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of
2; hue of 5Y, value of 5, and chroma of 1, or is neutral
and value is 5 or 6. The Cg horizon ranges from sandy
clay loam to sand or fine sand. In some places, the


horizon is a mixture of sand and shell fragments. Reac-
tion ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline.

Myakka series
Soils of the Myakka series are sandy, siliceous, hy-
perthermic Aeric Haplaquods. They are nearly level,
poorly drained, moderately to moderately rapid perme-
able soils that formed in beds of sandy marine sediment.
These soils are on broad flatwoods areas. In most years,
the water table is within a depth of 10 inches for 1 to 3
months and between depths of 10 to 40 inches for 6 to
9 months. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Myakka soils are closely associated with Basinger,
Lawnwood, Samsula Variant, Myakka Variant, and Wave-
land soils. Basinger soils do not have a spodic horizon.
Lawnwood and Waveland soils have an ortstein horizon.
Myakka Variant soils have a histic epipedon. Samsula
Variant soils are organic.
Typical pedon of Myakka fine sand, in a flatwoods
area 27 miles southwest of Fort Pierce, SE 1/4 SW 1/4
sec. 31, T. 37 S., R. 37 E.
A11-0 to 3 inches; black (10YR 2/1) fine sand; mixed
uncoated sand grains and organic matter; weak fine
granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; very
strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A12-3 to 7 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) fine sand;
mixed uncoated sand grains and organic matter;
single grain; loose; common fine roots; very strongly
acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A21-7 to 17 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) fine sand; single
grain; loose; few fine roots; extremely acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
A22-17 to 27 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) fine sand;
single grain; loose; very strongly acid; abrupt wavy
boundary.
B21h-27 to 29 inches; black (5YR 2/1) fine sand; mas-
sive; very friable; sand grains coated with colloidal
organic matter; extremely acid; clear wavy boundary.
B22h-29 to 31 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
fine sand; massive; very friable; sand grains coated
with colloidal organic matter; extremely acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
B23h-31 to 38 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) fine sand; common medium distinct black (5YR
2/1) bodies; massive; very friable; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B3&Bh-38 to 43 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
fine sand; common fine distinct black (5YR 2/1)
bodies; single grain; loose; very strongly acid; gradu-
al wavy boundary.
C1-43 to 47 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sand; single
grain; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C2-47 to 53 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
single grain; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.


81






SOIL SURVEY


C3-53 to 80 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
common fine distinct light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6)
mottles; single grain; loose; strongly acid.

The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2. This horizon is a mixture of uncoated
sand grains and organic matter. Where value is less than
3.5, thickness is less than 8 inches. Reaction ranges
from extremely acid to strongly acid unless limed. The
A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and
chroma of 1 or 2. Reaction ranges from extremely acid
to strongly acid. Combined thickness of the A horizons is
20 to 30 inches.
Where present, the Blh horizon has hue of 10YR,
value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2 with many uncoat-
ed sand grains. Thickness ranges to 2 inches. The Bh
horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma
of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 3 or 4.
Thickness ranges from 6 to 14 inches. Sand grains in
this horizon are coated with colloidal organic matter.
Reaction of the Bh horizon ranges from extremely acid
to strongly acid.
The B3&Bh horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of
4 to 6, and chroma of 3 or 4; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3
or 4, and chroma of 2 or 4 with darker, weakly cemented
fragments of the Bh horizon. Reaction ranges from ex-
tremely acid to strongly acid.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 to 3. Reaction is very strongly acid or
strongly acid.

Myakka Variant
Soils of the Myakka Variant are sandy, siliceous, hy-
perthermic Aeric Haplaquods. They are nearly level, very
poorly drained, moderately rapidly permeable soils that
formed in thick beds of sand overlain by a thin mantle of
organic material. These soils are on broad marshy areas.
The water table is at or above the surface for 6 to 9
months and within a depth of 10 inches for the rest of
the year. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Myakka Variant soils are closely associated with Lawn-
wood, Hontoon, Oldsmar, Waveland, Pompano, and
Samsula Variant soils. Lawnwood, Oldsmar, Pompano,
and Waveland soils are better drained than Myakka Vari-
ant soils and do not have a histic epipedon. Hontoon
and Samsula Variant soils have organic material more
than 16 inches thick.
Typical pedon of Myakka Variant mucky peat, in the
Jensen Savannahs Fresh Marsh 0.7 mile south of
Walton Road, 0.1 mile west of South Indian River Drive
(Florida Highway 707), and 11 miles south of Fort Pierce,
NW 1/4 SE 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 5, T. 37 S., R. 41 E.

Oe-12 to 8 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
mucky peat, broken face, rubbed and pressed;


about 76 percent fiber, 24 percent fiber rubbed;
massive; friable; many fine roots; white (10YR 8/1)
sodium pyrophosphate extract; extremely acid in
0.01 molar calcium chloride; clear smooth boundary.
Oa-8 to 0 inches; black (5YR 2.5/1) muck (sapric),
broken face, rubbed and pressed; about 40 percent
fiber, 8 percent fiber rubbed; massive; very friable;
few fine roots; brown (10YR 5/3) sodium pyrophos-
phate extract; extremely acid in 0.01 molar calcium
chloride; clear wavy boundary.
A21b-0 to 6 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; many
coarse distinct black (10YR 2/1) pockets of organic
matter; weak medium granular structure; very friable;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A22b-6 to 11 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand;
common medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
bodies; single grain; loose; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
A23b--11 to 17 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grain; loose; strongly acid; clear wavy bound-
ary.
B21hb-17 to 26 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
sand; massive; very friable; sand grains coated with
colloidal organic matter; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B22hb-26 to 32 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) sand;
single grain; loose; sand grains coated with colloidal
organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
B23hb-32 to 38 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) sand;
single grain; loose; sand grains coated with colloidal
organic matter; strongly acid; gradual wavy bound-
ary.
B24hb-38 to 65 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR
2.5/2) sand; single grain; loose; sand grains coated
with colloidal organic matter; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
B25hb-65 to 72 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
sand; single grain; loose; sand grains well coated
with colloidal organic matter; medium acid.

The Oa and Oe horizons have hue of 10YR and 5YR,
value of 2, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, value of
3, and chroma of 2; or hue of 5YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 2 or 3. Thickness is 8 to 16 inches. Reaction
is 4.5 or less in 0.01 molar calcium chloride.
Some pedons do not have an Alb horizon. Where
present, the Alb horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
4, and chroma of 1 or 2. This horizon is a mixture of
uncoated sand grains and organic matter. Thickness is 0
to 14 inches. The A2b horizon has hue of 10YR, value of
5 to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from 4 to
27 inches. Combined thickness of the Ab horizons is
less than 30 inches. Reaction ranges from very strongly
acid to neutral. The A horizon is sand or fine sand.
The Bhb horizon has hue of 10YR or 5YR, value of 2,
and chroma of 1; hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and


82






ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


chroma of 2 or 3; hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 2; or hue of 10YR, value of 4, and chroma of
3. The Bhb horizon is sand or fine sand. Reaction ranges
from very strongly acid to neutral.

Nettles series
Soils of the Nettles series are sandy, siliceous, hy-
perthermic, ortstein Alfic Arenic Haplaquods. They are
poorly drained, very slowly permeable to slowly perme-
able soils that formed in marine sandy and loamy sedi-
ments. These soils are in broad, nearly level flatwood
areas. In most years, the water table is within a depth of
10 inches for 2 to 4 months and within a depth of 10 to
40 inches for 6 months or longer. Slope ranges from 0 to
2 percent.
Nettles soils are geographically closely associated with
Ankona, Malabar, Pineda, Lawnwood, Pepper, Riviera,
Susanna. Tantile, Waveland, and Wabasso soils. Ankona
soils have an argillic horizon and low base saturation.
Lawnwood, Pepper, Susanna, Tantile, and Wabasso soils
have a Bh horizon within a depth of 30 inches. Waveland
soils do not have an argillic horizon, and Pineda and
Riviera soils do not have a spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Nettles sand, in a flatwoods area, 80
feet north of trail, 0.3 mile southwest of Avenue Q and
Angle Road, and about 3.5 miles west-northwest of Fort
Pierce, SE 1/4 NW 1/4, sec. 6, T. 36 S., R. 40 E.
A11-0 to 5 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand, rubbed;
uncoated sand grains and pieces of organic matter
give salt-and-pepper effect; weak medium granular
structure; very friable; many fine and medium roots;
very strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A12-5 to 8 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
weak medium granular structure; very friable;
common fine and medium roots; extremely acid;
clear smooth boundary.
A13-8 to 11 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single
grain; loose; common medium and few fine roots;
very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A2--11 to 33 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand;
common medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
streaks along root channels; single grain; loose; few
fine and medium roots; very strongly acid; abrupt
wavy boundary.
B21h-33 to 36 inches; black (5YR 2/1) sand; massive;
very firm; weakly cemented; horizontal layer 0.5 inch
thick of friable, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
sand 1.5 inches below upper boundary; sand grains
throughout the horizon well coated with colloidal or-
ganic matter; very strongly acid; clear wavy bound-
ary.
B22h-36 to 39 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
loamy sand; massive; weakly cemented; sand grains
well coated with colloidal organic matter; friable;
very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.


B23h-39 to 46 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4)
sand; common medium distinct black (5YR 2/1)
mottles; massive; friable; sand grains coated with
colloidal organic matter; very strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
B24h-46 to 55 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand;
common fine distinct olive (5Y 5/3) streaks in lower
6 inches; massive; friable; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
B21tg-55 to 77 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) fine sandy
loam; common coarse distinct krotovinas filled with
white (10YR 8/1) sand; moderate medium subangu-
lar blocky structure; friable; sand grains bridged and
coated with clay; strongly acid; clear irregular bound-
ary.
B22tg-77 to 90 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) fine sandy
loam; common medium distinct very dark gray
(10YR 3/1) streaks along old root channels;
common 1/8-inch thick lenses of-light gray (10YR
7/1) sand; moderate medium subangular blocky
structure; friable; sand grains bridged and coated
with clay; strongly acid.
The Al or Ap horizon has rubbed hue of 10YR, value
of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1 or 2. Where the Al horizon
has value of less than 3.5, thickness is less than 10
inches. Unrubbed, the horizon has a salt-and-pepper ap-
pearance. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value 5 to
8, and chroma 1 or 2. Combined thickness of the A
horizon ranges from 30 to 50 inches. Reaction ranges
from extremely acid to medium acid.
In some pedons there is a Blh horizon. Where pres-
ent, it has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1
or 2; or it has value of 2 and chroma of 1 and does not
meet the requirements of a spodic horizon. Thickness
ranges from 0 to 4 inches. If moist, all or part of the B2h
horizon is weakly or moderately cemented into a mas-
sive horizon that is present in more than half of each
pedon.
In some pedons, the cemented part of the B2h horizon
occurs as a subhorizon and is continuous horizontally
throughout the pedon; in some pedons, cementation is
not continuous horizontally but occurs in more than 50
percent of the pedon; and in some pedons, the cement-
ed B2h horizon or subhorizon is continuous horizontally
but contains less than 50 percent bodies that are not
cemented. The B2h horizon ranges from weakly cement-
ed or moderately cemented and firm or very firm consis-
tence to absence of cementation and friable or loose
consistence. Cemented horizons are frequently brittle.
The B21h and B22h horizons have hue of 10YR or
5YR, value of 2, and chroma of 1 or 2; or is neutral and
value is 2. Some pedons, however, do not have the
B22h horizon in the colors described. Sand grains are
well coated with colloidal organic matter. The B23h and
B24h horizons, and in some pedons the B22h horizon,
have hue of 5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2 to 4; or they


83







SOIL SURVEY


have hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2. These
horizons are not cemented and range from loose to
friable in consistence. Thickness of the B2h horizon is
variable, and ranges from about 6 to as much as 36
inches or more. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid
to slightly acid. The B horizon is sand, fine sand, loamy
sand, or loamy fine sand.
In some pedons, a B3&Bh horizon is below the Bh
horizon. Where present, it has hue of 5YR, value of 3,
and chroma of 4; hue of 10YR, value of 3, and chroma of
2 or 3, or value of 4 to 6 and chroma of 3 or 4; hue of
7.5YR, value of 4, and chroma of 3 or 4, or value of 3
and chroma of 2 with few to common dark weakly ce-
mented fragments of the Bh horizon. Thickness ranges
from 0 to 5 inches. Texture and reaction ranges of the
B3&Bh horizon are similar to those of the Bh horizon. In
some pedons, there is a B3 horizon. Where present, it
has characteristics similar to the B3&Bh horizon but
does not have fragments of the Bh horizon.
In some pedons, an A'2 horizon is between the Bh
and Btg horizons. If present, it has hue of 10YR, value of
5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 3; hue of 2.5Y, value of 5 to
8, and chroma of 1 to 3; or is neutral and value is 5 to 8.
The A'2 horizon is sand or fine sand.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 4 to
6, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6,
and chroma of 2; or is neutral and value is 4 to 6. It may
have mottles of gray, yellow, brown, or red. The Btg
horizon is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy clay
loam. Reaction is highly variable and ranges from strong-
ly acid to mildly alkaline. In some places, the more
strongly acid reaction is caused by pyrites which oxidize
and release acid when the water level is lowered. The
presence of pyrites cannot be predicted.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to
6, and chroma of 0 to 3; or hue of 5Y, 5G, or 5BG, value
of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or 2 with mottles of gray,
yellow, brown, or red. The C horizon is sand, loamy
sand, fine sand, or loamy fine sand. In horizons of sand
or fine sand, there are common to many pockets of
loamy sand and sandy loam. Reaction ranges from
medium acid to mildly alkaline.

Oldsmar series
Soils of the Oldsmar series are sandy, siliceous, hy-
perthermic Alfic Arenic Haplaquods. They are nearly
level, slowly to very slowly permeable soils in depres-
sional areas in the flatwoods. These soils are more
poorly drained than the surrounding flatwoods. In most
years, water stands above the surface for 6 to 9 months
or more. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Oldsmar soils are closely associated with Ankona, Wa-
basso, Kaliga, Malabar, Nettles, Pepper, Pineda, and Riv-
iera soils. Ankona, Nettles, and Pepper soils have an
ortstein horizon. Wabasso soils have a spodic horizon
within a depth of 30 inches. Malabar and Pineda soils


have a Bir horizon. Riviera soils have an argillic horizon
between depths of 20 to 40 inches. Kaliga soils are
organic.
Typical pedon of Oldsmar sand, in a depressional area
about 5.5 miles southwest of Fort Pierce, 0.7 mile south-
west of Florida Highway 611B, 0.2 mile north of Florida
Highway 709 on graded road, and 650 feet west of road,
NW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 31, T. 35 S., R. 40 E.
A11-0 to 1 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; moderate
medium crumb structure; friable; many fine and few
medium roots; extremely acid; clear smooth bound-
ary.
A12-1 to 5 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand; few
fine distinct black (10YR 2/1) streaks in old root
channels; weak medium crumb structure; very fri-
able; few fine and medium roots; very strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
A2-5 to 32 inches; gray (10YR 6/1) sand; few fine very
dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks along root channels;
single grain; loose; few medium roots; neutral; grad-
ual wavy boundary.
Blh-32 to 34 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
single grain; loose; many uncoated sand grains;
slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B21h-34 to 41 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2)
sand; common faint black (5YR 2/1) and common
medium faint dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2) bodies;
massive; very friable; many uncoated sand grains;
medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B22h-41 to 42 inches; black (5YR 2/1) sand; massive;
very friable; sand grains well coated with organic
matter; medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B21tg-42 to 65 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) fine sandy
loam; moderate medium subangular blocky struc-
ture; friable; sand grains bridged and coated with
clay; medium acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22tg-65 to 80 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) fine
sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky struc-
ture; very friable; sand grains bridged and coated
with clay; medium acid.
The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1. This horizon is a mixture of organic matter
and uncoated sand grains. Thickness ranges from 2 to 8
inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8,
and chroma of 1 or 2. Combined thickness of the A
horizon ranges from 28 to 45 inches. Reaction ranges
from very strongly acid to neutral.
The Blh horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5,
and chroma of 1 or 2 and is more than one unit of value
darker than the horizon above it. Thickness ranges from
2 to 23 inches. The B1h horizon does not meet the
requirements of a spodic horizon.
The B2h horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR,
value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2. Dark bodies are
commonly present. The Bh horizon is sand or fine sand.


84







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


Reaction ranges from extremely acid through slightly
acid. Thickness ranges from 6 to 14 inches. Combined
thickness of the A horizon and Bh horizon is more than
40 inches. The lower boundary of the Bh horizon gener-
ally lies directly upon the underlying B2t horizon.
The B2tg horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6,
and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and
chroma of 2; hue of 5Y, value of 3 to 6, and chroma of 1
or 2; or is neutral and value is 5 or 6. This horizon is fine
sandy loam, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam. Reaction
ranges from strongly acid to neutral.
In some pedons the Bt horizon contains pyrites, but
the presence of pyrites cannot be predicted. If the water
table is lowered, the pyrites can oxidize and release
acids that may lower the pH to 3.5 or less.
The C horizon has hue of 5Y, 5GY, or 5BG, value of 5
or 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is sand or loamy sand.
Reaction ranges from medium acid to moderately alka-
line.

Palm Beach series
Soils of the Palm Beach series are hyperthermic un-
coated Typic Quartzipsamments. They are excessively
drained, very rapidly permeable soils that formed in thick
beds of marine or eolian sand and shell fragments on
dunelike ridges that are generally parallel to the coast.
The water table is below a depth of 80 inches. Slope
ranges from 0 to 5 percent.
Palm Beach soils are closely associated with Canaver-
al and Turnbull Variant soils. Those soils are more poorly
drained than Palm Beach soils.
Typical pedon of Palm Beach fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, 55 feet east of Florida Highway A1A, 2.2 miles
north of junction of Atlantic Boulevard and Royal Palm
Avenue, 4.5 miles north of Fort Pierce, SE 1/4 SW 1/4
sec. 14, T. 34 S., R. 40 E.
A-0 to 8 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand;
single grain; loose; few fine roots; about 20 percent
pale brown fine shell fragments; moderately alkaline;
calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
C1-8 to 30 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sand;
single grain; loose; about 40 percent by volume
sand-size shell fragments; moderately alkaline; cal-
careous; gradual wavy boundary.
C2-30 to 80 inches; multicolored shell fragments mixed
with light gray fine sand; single grain; very loose;
about 50 to 80 percent shell fragments that range
from sand-size to about 1 centimeter in diameter;
moderately alkaline; calcareous.
The soil is dry for as many as 50 consecutive days in
most years. All horizons have weak to strong efferves-
cence when mixed with dilute HCI. Stratified layers of
fine sand and shells or shell fragments may occur
throughout the soil.


The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 2 or 3. It has 5 to 35 percent by volume sand-
size, multicolored shell fragments. This horizon is a mix-
ture of organic matter, uncoated sand grains, and shell
fragments. Thickness of the horizon is 2 to 8 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 6, and
chroma of 2 or 3. It has about 15 to 80 percent shell
fragments, mostly sand-size but ranging to 1 centimeter
in diameter. The horizon is generally similar in color to
the shells. The C horizon may have lenses of fine sand
and multicolored shells or shell fragments, or mixed fine
sand and shells.

Paola series
Soils of the Paola series are hyperthermic, uncoated
Spodic Quartzipsamments. They are excessively drained,
very rapidly permeable soils that formed in thick beds of
marine or eolian sand on high dunelike broad ridges and
in undulating areas. These soils have a water table
below a depth of 80 inches. Slope ranges from 0 to 8
percent.
Paola soils are closely associated with Astatula, Pen-
darvis, Satellite, St. Lucie, and Welaka Variant soils. As-
tatula soils do not have an A2 horizon. Pendarvis and
Satellite soils are more poorly drained than Paola soils.
Pendarvis soils have a spodic horizon, and St. Lucie
soils do not have a B horizon. Unlike the Paola soils,
Welaka Variant soils do not have intrusions of the A
horizon into the B horizon, and they do not have a
discontinuous Bh horizon between the A2 and B hori-
zons.
Typical pedon of Paola sand, in an area 50 feet east
of railroad tracks, about 1 mile south of Citrus Avenue
railroad overpass, and about 1.1 mile south of Fort
Pierce, SW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 15, T. 35 S, R. 40 E.

A1-0 to 6 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; single
grain; loose; few fine roots; very strongly acid; clear
wavy boundary.
A21-6 to 15 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single
grain; loose; slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
A22-15 to 55 inches; white (10YR 8/1) sand; few
medium distinct splotches of brownish yellow (10YR
6/6) in lower part; single grain; loose; neutral; gradu-
al irregular boundary.
B&A-55 to 80 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
sand; single grain; loose; many tongues of sand
from the A horizon; outer edges of tongues stained
with dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) organic material that
are weakly cemented in places; thin (less than 2
inches thick) discontinuous layers of dark brown
(7.5YR 3/2) weakly cemented sand at irregular inter-
vals at the place of contact between the A horizon
and B horizon; neutral.


85







SOIL SURVEY


The Al horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and
chroma of 1 or 2. The horizon is a mixture of organic
matter and uncoated sand grains. The A2 horizon has
hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 1 or
2. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to neutral.
The B&A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7,
and chroma of 6 or 8; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 5 or 6,
and chroma of 6 or 8; or value of 5 and chroma of 3 or
4. Intrusions of A2 material are absent in some pedons.
In some pedons, weakly cemented reddish brown or very
dark grayish brown fragments 1/2 inch to 3 inches thick
are scattered throughout the B&A horizon.
In many pedons, a thin discontinuous layer 2 to 5
inches is beneath the A2 horizon. It has hue of 10YR or
5YR, value of 4, and chroma of 3 or 4; or hue of 7.5YR,
value of 3, and chroma of 2. Where this layer is absent,
an AB horizon 4 to 6 inches thick is between the A2
horizon and B horizon. Reaction of the B&A horizon is
very strongly acid to neutral.
Where present, the C horizon has hue of 10YR, value
of 5 to 8, and chroma of 3 or 4. Reaction ranges from
strongly acid to neutral.

Pendarvis series
The soils of the Pendarvis series are sandy, siliceous,
hyperthermic, ortstein Arenic Haplohumods. They are
moderately well drained, slowly to moderately slowly per-
meable soils that formed in sandy marine sediment.
These soils are on low ridges and knolls in the
flatwoods. A perched water table is between depths of
24 to 40 inches for about 1 to 4 months and between
depths of 40 to 60 inches for the rest of the year except
in dry periods. Slope ranges from 0 to 5 percent.
Pendarvis soils are closely associated with Ankona,
Hobe, Electra, Jonathan, Lawnwood, and Waveland
soils. Jonathan and Hobe soils are better drained than
Pendarvis soils and have a Bh horizon below a depth of
50 inches. Ankona, Lawnwood, and Waveland soils are
more poorly drained. Electra soils have an argillic hori-
zon. Electra and Hobe soils do not have an ortstein
horizon.
Typical pedon of Pendarvis sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, in a wooded flatwoods area, 5 miles south of
Fort Pierce, 0.8 mile east of U.S. Highway 1, and 100
feet south of Florida Highway 712 (Midway Road), SW
1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 2, T. 36 S., R. 40 E.
A1-0 to 6 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand;
mixed uncoated sand grains and organic matter;
single grain; loose; many fine medium and coarse
roots; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.
A21-6 to 36 inches; light gray (10YR 6/1) sand; single
grain; loose; common fine and many medium roots
decreasing to few below a depth of 22 inches;
slightly acid; gradual wavy boundary.


A22-36 to 48 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand;
common medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1)
splotches; single grain; loose; few fine roots;
medium acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B21h-48 to 62 inches; black (N 2/0) loamy sand; mas-
sive; firm; weakly cemented; sand grains thickly
coated with colloidal organic matter; extremely acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B22h-62 to 76 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
sand; common medium faint dark reddish brown
(5YR 2/2) bodies; single grain; loose; sand grains
thinly coated with colloidal organic matter; very
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B3-76 to 80 inches; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
loamy sand; weak medium granular structure; very
friable; many uncoated sand grains; very strongly
acid.

The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1; or is neutral and value is 2 to 4. The A2
horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of
1 or 2. Reaction ranges from strongly acid to slightly
acid. Thickness of the A horizon ranges from 30 to 50
inches.
In some pedons there is a Blh horizon. Where pres-
ent, it has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and chroma of 1
or 2. It has few to many streaks and splotches of materi-
al from the A2 horizon. The B1h horizon does not meet
spodic requirements. Thickness ranges to 3 inches.
The B2h horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 or 3,
and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 5YR, value of 2 or 3, and
chroma of 1 to 3; hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma
of 2; or is neutral and value is 2.
Cementation is absent or ranges to strongly cemented.
About 25 to 70 percent of the entire Bh horizon or a
subhorizon 1 inch or more thick that occurs in more than
50 percent of each pedon is weakly cemented or moder-
ately cemented. Consistence ranges from very firm in
the cemented part to friable in that part which is not
cemented.
The Bh horizon is fine sand, sand, loamy fine sand, or
loamy sand. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to
medium acid. Thickness of the B2h horizon, which is
highly variable within short distances, ranges from 10 to
more than 40 inches.
The B3 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and
chroma of 3 or 4; or hue of 7.5YR, value of 4, and
chroma of 2 or 4. Some pedons have a B3&Bh horizon
that has color similar to that of the B3 horizon. The
B3&Bh horizon has dark, weakly cemented fragments of
the Bh horizon. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to
medium acid. The B3&Bh horizon is fine sand, sand,
loamy fine sand, or loamy sand.
Where present, the C horizon has hue of 10YR,
2.5YR, or 5Y, value of 3 or less, and chroma of 5 to 7.
Reaction ranges from extremely acid to medium acid.


86







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


This horizon is fine sand, sand, loamy fine sand, or
loamy sar J.

Pepper series
Soils of the Pepper series are sandy, siliceous, hy-
perthermic, ortstein Alfic Haplaquods. They are nearly
level, poorly drained, very slowly to slowly permeable
soils that formed in beds of marine sandy and loamy
materials that are influenced by underlying alkaline mate-
rial. These soils are on broad flatwoods. The water table
is within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 4 months and
between depths of 10 to 40 inches for 6 months or more
in most years. Slope ranges from 0 to 2 percent.
Pepper soils are closely associated with Ankona, Wa-
basso, Chobee, Lawnwood, Oldsmar, Pineda, Malabar,
Nettles, Susanna, Tantile, and Waveland soils. Ankona,
Oldsmar, Nettles, and Waveland soils have a spodic
horizon below a depth of 30 inches. Wabasso soils do
not have an ortstein horizon. Lawnwood soils do not
have an argillic horizon. Susanna and Tantile soils have
an argillic horizon that has low base saturation. Chobee,
Pineda, and Malabar soils do not have a spodic horizon.
Chobee soils have a mollic epipedon. Pineda and Mala-
bar soils have a Bir horizon.
Typical pedon of Pepper sand, in a flatwoods area
about 3.5 miles northwest of Fort Pierce, 0.3 mile south-
west of Avenue Q and Angle Road, and 60 feet south of
trail, NE 1/4 SW 1/4 sec. 6, T 35 S., R. 40 E.
A11-0 to 6 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand, rubbed;
moderate medium granular structure; very friable;
many fine roots; color is that of mixed uncoated
sand grains and organic matter; very strongly acid;
clear wavy boundary.
A12-6 to 9 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1) sand; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; common fine
roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A2-9 to 23 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) sand; single grain;
loose; common medium and few fine roots; medium
acid; abrupt wavy boundary.
B21h-23 to 28 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; massive;
firm; weakly cemented; common fine and few fine
roots; sand grains well coated with colloidal organic
matter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22h-28 to 33 inches; black (5YR 2/1) sand; massive;
very firm; weakly cemented; sand grains well coated
with colloidal organic matter; very strongly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
B23h-33 to 42 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/3)
sand; common fine distinct black (20YR 2/1) mot-
tles; massive; very friable; strongly acid; gradual
wavy boundary.
B24h-42 to 48 inches; dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2)
sand; common medium distinct black (10YR 2/1)
mottles; massive; friable; strongly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.


B25h-48 to 57 inches; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2) sand;
many coarse distinct black (10YR 2/1) mottles; mas-
sive; friable; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
B21tg-57 to 77 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) sandy loam;
many light gray (2.5Y 7/2) sand streaks 1/8 to 1/4
inch wide; weak medium subangular blocky struc-
ture; friable; sand grains coated and bridged with
clay; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
B22tg-77 to 99 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) sandy
loam; few fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/1) sand
streaks; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
strongly acid.
The A2 or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to
4, and chroma of 1 or 2. It is a mixture of uncoated sand
grains and organic matter. Where value is less than 3.5,
thickness is less than 10 inches. Thickness ranges from
6 to 13 inches. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value
of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 or 2. Thickness ranges from
10 to 24 inches. Combined thickness of the A horizon is
less than 30 inches. Reaction ranges from extremely
acid to medium acid.
In many pedons, there is a B1h horizon. Where pres-
ent, it has hue of 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 1
or 2 with many uncoated sand grains. Thickness ranges
to 3 inches. This horizon does not meet the require-
ments of a spodic horizon.
The B2h horizon has hue of 5YR or 10YR, value of 2,
and chroma of 1 or 2; or hue of 5YR or 7.5YR, value of
3, and chroma of 2. Thickness is variable within short
distances and ranges from about 8 to 45 inches or more.
In most pedons, cementation is variable. It is absent or
ranges to weakly cemented. In more than half of each
pedon, there is a weakly cemented subhorizon that is 1
inch or more thick. Consistence ranges from very firm in
the weakly cemented parts to very friable in the parts
which are not cemented. In some pedons, there are few
to common streaks or pockets of uncoated sand.
In some pedons, there is a B3 or B3&Bh horizon.
Where present, it has hue of 10YR, value of 3, and
chroma of 2 or 3; value of 4 to 6 and chroma of 3 or 4;
or hue of 7.5YR, value of 3, and chroma of 2, or value of
4 and chroma of 3 or 4. Thickness ranges to 12 inches.
The B3&Bh horizon, where present, has color similar to
that of the B3 horizon, and it has few to common,
weakly cemented, darker fragments of the Bh horizon.
Thickness ranges to 20 inches. Reaction ranges from
very strongly acid to slightly acid.
Some pedons have an A'2 horizon between the Bh
and Btg horizons. Where present, it has hue of 10YR,
value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 3; hue of 2.5YR,
value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 1 to 3, or is neutral and
value is 5 to 8. Thickness ranges to 12 inches. The A'2
horizon is sand or fine sand. Reaction ranges from very
strongly acid to slightly acid. In some pedons, the Bh
horizon rests directly on the Btg horizon. Combined


87







SOIL SURVEY


thickness of the A, Bh, and A'2 horizons is more than 40
inches.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR and 5Y, value of 4
to 6, and chroma of 2 or 1; hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6,
and chroma of 2; or is neutral and value is 4 or 6. The
Btg horizon is sandy loam or sandy clay loam. Many
pedons have lenses and pockets of sand and loamy
sand. Reaction is highly variable within short distances
and ranges from strongly acid to mildly alkaline.
In some pedons, the Bt horizon contains pyrite; how-
ever, the presence of pyrite cannot be predicted. If the
water table is lowered, the pyrite can oxidize and form
acids that may lower the pH to 3.5 or less in local spots.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 5Y, 5GY, and 5BG,
value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value
of 5 or 6, and chroma of 2; or is neutral and value is 5 or
6. The C horizon is variable. It ranges from sand to
sandy clay loam and may be stratified. Reaction ranges
from medium acid to mildly alkaline.

Pineda series
Soils of the Pineda series are loamy, siliceous, hy-
perthermic Arenic Glossaqualfs. They are poorly drained,
slowly to very slowly permeable soils that formed in
unconsolidated marine sandy and loamy materials that
are influenced by underlying alkaline material. These
soils are in low hammocks, in broad, poorly defined
sloughs, and on flats. The water table is within a depth
of 10 inches for 1 to 6 months and between depths of
10 to 40 inches for most of the rest of the year. Slope
ranges from 0 to 2 inches.
Pineda soils are closely associated with Wabasso, Wa-
basso Variant, Floridana, Hallandale, Malabar, Riviera,
and Winder soils. Winder Variant and Winder soils have
an argillic horizon within a depth of 20 inches. Floridana
soils have a mollic epipedon. Hallandale soils have hard
limestone within a depth of 20 inches. Riviera soils do
not have a Bir horizon and have an abrupt textural
change. Wabasso and Wabasso Variant soils have a
spodic horizon.
Typical pedon of Pineda sand, in a broad, low flat area
230 feet east of main trail, 2.55 miles north of Florida
Highway 68 (Orange Avenue), and 17 miles west of Fort
Pierce, NW 1/4 SW 1/4 sec. 35, T. 34 S., R. 37 E.
A11-0 to 3 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
sand; moderate medium granular structure; very fri-
able; many fine roots; neutral; clear smooth bound-
ary.
A12-3 to 6 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) sand; weak
medium granular structure; very friable; many fine
roots; moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
B21ir-6 to 12 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sand;
single grain; loose; sand grains well coated with iron
oxide; many fine roots; moderately alkaline; gradual
wavy boundary.


B22ir-12 to 21 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) sand;
weak medium subangular blocky structure; very fri-
able; sand grains well coated with iron oxide; few
fine roots; moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
B3ir-21 to 34 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand;
single grain; loose; slightly acid; clear wavy bound-
ary.
A'2-34 to 38 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand; single
grain; loose; neutral; abrupt irregular boundary.
B21tg-38 to 42 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) sandy loam;
common white (10YR 8/1) sandy intrusions 1 inch in
diameter and 3 to 4 inches deep; common medium
distinct olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) and olive (5Y 5/3)
mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; neutral; sand grains coated and bridged with
clay; gradual wavy boundary.
B22tg-42 to 52 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) sandy clay
loam; common medium distinct yellowish brown
(10YR 5/4) and few medium faint gray (10YR 5/1)
mottles; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; sand grains coated and bridged with clay;
neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
Cg-52 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) loamy sand; mas-
sive; very friable; mildly alkaline.
The solum is 40 to 80 inches in thickness. Combined
thickness of the A, Bir, and A'2 horizons ranges from 20
to 40 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 4, and
chroma of 1 or 2, or value of 3 and chroma of 3. This
horizon is a mixture of organic matter and uncoated sand
grains. Thickness ranges from 1 inch to 12 inches.
Where value is 3.5 or less, thickness is less than 7
inches. Where present, the A2 horizon has hue of 10YR
or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 3 or less.
Thickness ranges to 10 inches. Reaction ranges from
medium acid to neutral.
The B2ir horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 5
or 6, and chroma of 6 or 8. Thickness ranges from 6 to
16 inches. Where present, the B3ir horizon has hue of
10YR, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 3 or 4; or hue of
2.5YR, value of 6 to 8, and chroma of 4. It has yellow or
brown mottles. The Bir horizon is sand or fine sand.
Reaction ranges from medium acid to neutral.
The A'2 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5
to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Reaction ranges from
medium acid to neutral.
In some pedons, a B'hir horizon is at the base of the
A'2 horizon. Where present, it hast hue of 10YR, value of
2 or 3, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 7.5YR, 10YR, or
2.5Y, value of 3, and chroma of 2; or hue of 10YR, value
of 3, and chroma of 3. This horizon becomes redder on
ignition. Thickness ranges to 3 inches. Reaction is
medium acid to neutral.
The Btg horizon has hue of 10YR or 5Y, value of 4 to
6, and chroma of 1 or 2; hue of 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6,
and chroma of 2; or is neutral and value is 4 to 6. It has


88







ST. LUCIE COUNTY AREA, FLORIDA


mottles of yellow, red, olive, and brown. There are verti-
cal sandy intrusions from the upper horizons extending
into this horizon. The Btg horizon is sandy loam, fine
sandy loam, or sandy clay loam and has lenses or pock-
ets of loamy sand or loamy fine sand. Reaction ranges
from neutral to moderately alkaline.
In some pedons, the Bt horizon contains pyrites; how-
ever, the presence of these pyrites cannot be predicted
(7, 8). If the water table is lowered, the pyrites form acids
that may lower the pH to 3.5 or less.
The Cg horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, 5GY, or
5BG, value of 5 or 6, and chroma of 1 or 2. It ranges
from sandy clay loam to loamy sand, or it is a mixture of
sand and shell fragments or shell fragments and calcium
carbonate. Reaction ranges from neutral to moderately
alkaline.

Pompano series
Soils of the Pompano series are siliceous, hyperther-
mic Typic Psammaquents. They are poorly drained, very
rapidly permeable soils that formed in thick beds of
marine or eolian sand. These soils are along poorly de-
fined drainageways and in broad low flats. Slope ranges
from 0 to 2 percent. In most years, the water table is
within a depth of 10 inches for 2 to 6 months and within
a depth of 30 inches for more than 9 months.
Pompano soils are closely associated with Lawnwood,
Myakka Variant, Waveland, Samsula Variant, and Satel-
lite soils. Satellite soils are better drained than Pompano
soils. Myakka Variant soils have a histic epipedon and a
spodic horizon. Lawnwood and Waveland soils have a
spodic horizon. Samsula Variant soils are organic.
Typical pedon of Pompano sand, in a poorly defined
drainageway 60 feet south of county sanitary landfill
road, 0.5 mile west of U.S. Highway 1, and 4 miles north
of Fort Pierce, NW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 20, T. 34 S., R. 40
E.
A-0 to 3 inches; black (10YR 2/1) sand; weak medium
granular structure; very friable; many fine roots;
strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
C1-3 to 15 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; single grain; loose; few coarse and fine roots;
strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C2-15 to 44 inches; light gray (10YR 7/1) sand; single
grain; loose; strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary.
C3-44 to 54 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; single grain; loose; neutral; gradual wavy
boundary.
C4-54 to 80 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sand;
single grain; loose; neutral.
Reaction ranges from strongly acid to mildly alkaline.
Thickness of sand exceeds 80 inches.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 2 to 5, and
chroma of 1. This horizon is a mixture of uncoated sand


and organic matter. Where value is less than 3.5, thick-
ness is less than 6 inches. Total thickness of the A
horizon is 3 to 15 inches.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 5 to 7, and
chroma of 1 or 2.

Pompano Variant
Soils of the Pompano Variant are siliceous, hyperther-
mic Typic Psammaquents. They are nearly level, very
poorly drained, rapidly permeable, sandy soils that
formed in thick beds of sand and shells. These soils are
in broad, medium to large coastal tidal swamps. They
are flooded daily during normal high tides. The water
table is at or above the surface. Slope is less than 1
percent.
Pompano Variant soils are closely associated with Ca-
naveral, Myakka, Kaliga Variant, and Turnbull Variant
soils. Canaveral soils are better drained than Pompano
Variant soils. Myakka soils have a spodic horizon. Turn-
bull Variant soils have a loamy mineral horizon and a
high n value. Kaliga Variant soils are organic.
Typical pedon of Pompano Variant fine sand, in an
area of mangrove swamp 150 feet north of Florida High-
way A1A, 2.25 miles southeast of intersection of Seaway
Drive and South Ocean Drive, 3 miles southeast of Fort
Pierce, NE 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 13, R. 40 E., T. 35 S.

01-1 to 0 inch; undecomposed leaves and twigs.
A11-0 to 1 inch; greenish gray (5GY 5/1) fine sand;
single grain; very friable; few fine and medium roots;
moderately alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
A12-1 to 8 inches; dark gray (5Y 4/1) fine sand;
common coarse distinct very dark grayish brown
(10YR 3/2) mottles; few coarse distinct very dark
gray (10YR 3/1) pieces of organic matter; single
grain; loose; 30 percent fine shell fragments; few
fine and medium roots; moderately alkaline; gradual
wavy boundary.
C1-8 to 32 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) fine sand; few
medium distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
streaks along root channels; single grain; loose; 40
percent fine shell fragments; few medium roots;
moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
C2-32 to 80 inches; greenish gray (5GY 5/1) fine sand;
few medium distinct very dark grayish brown (10YR
3/2) streaks along root channels; single grain; loose;
40 percent fine shell fragments; moderately alkaline.
This soil has 8 to 16 millhos per centimeter salinity.
Reaction ranges from slightly acid to moderately alkaline.
Shell content ranges from 10 to 40 percent. The soil is
sand or fine sand. Silt and clay are less than 10 percent
in the 10 to 40 inch control section.
The A horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, or 5GY,
value of 2 to 5, and chroma of 2 or less. Matrix colors of


89








SOIL SURVEY


chroma of 2 or less are caused by uncoated sand grains.
The Al horizon is absent in some pedons.
The C horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, 5Y, 5BG, or
5GY, value of 5 to 8, and chroma of 2 or less.

Pople series
Soils of the Pople series are loamy, siliceous, hyperth-
ermic Arenic Glossaqualfs. They are nearly level, poorly
drained, slowly permeable soils that formed in sandy and
loamy marine sediments. These soils are on flatwoods
and in sloughs. In most years, the water table is within a
depth of 10 inches for less than 3 months and between
depths of 10 to 40 inches for 2 to 6 months. Slope is 0
to 2 percent.
Pople soils are closely associated with Hilolo, Pineda,
Riviera, and Winder soils. Hilolo and Winder soils have
an argillic horizon within a depth of 20 inches. Pineda
and Riviera soils do not have a calcareous A2 or Btg
horizon. Riviera soils do not have iron coatings on the
sand grains in the A2 horizon.
Typical pedon of Pople sand, in a flatwoods area 20
feet south of east-west powerline, 15 feet west of end of
canal, 0.15 mile east of Carlton Road extension, 0.85
mile north of Florida Highway 709 (Glades Road cutoff),
and 18 miles southwest of Fort Pierce, NW 1/4 NW 1/4
sec. 15, T. 36 S., R. 37 E.
A1-0 to 3 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) sand,
rubbed; unrubbed color is mixture of uncoated sand
grains and organic matter; weak, medium granular
structure; very friable; many fine and few medium
roots; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
A21-3 to 9 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
sand; single grain; loose; few fine roots; slightly acid;
gradual wavy boundary.
A22-9 to 18 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sand;
single grain; loose; slightly acid; gradual wavy
boundary.
A23-18 to 20 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sand;
few fine distinct light gray (10YR 7/2) secondary
calcium carbonate lenses; weak medium granular
structure; very friable; sand grains coated with iron
oxide; moderately alkaline; calcareous; clear smooth
boundary.
A24ca-20 to 24 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sand;
common medium faint light gray (10YR 7/2) second-
ary calcium carbonate in interstices between sand
grains and as coatings on the sand grains; few
medium distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks
along old root channels; few medium distinct brown-
ish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; weak medium granu-
lar structure; friable; common hard calcium carbon-
ate nodules 1/2 inch to 1 1/2 inches in diameter;
very strong effervescence; moderately alkaline; cal-
careous; gradual wavy boundary.


A25ca-24 to 29 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6)
sand; few medium faint yellowish brown (10YR 5/8)
mottles; common nodules of calcium carbonate 1/4
to 1 inch in diameter around old root channels; sand
grains coated with iron oxide; single grain; friable;
very strong effervescense; moderately alkaline; cal-
careous; abrupt irregular boundary.
B&A-29 to 38 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
sandy clay loam; many coarse distinct light olive
brown (2.5Y 5/6, 5/4) mottles; few medium distinct
hollow nodules 1/8 to 1/4 inch in diameter and
lenses of white (5Y 8/2) secondary accumulations
of calcium carbonate; common tongues of light
brownish gray (10YR 6/2) sand 1/2 to 1 inch in
,diameter and 3 to 9 inches long with many coarse
distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) mottles; weak
coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; very
strong effervescence; moderately alkaline; calcare-
ous; gradual wavy boundary.
B22tgca-38 to 42 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR
4/2) sandy clay loam; common coarse distinct light
olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) mottles; common medium
distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks along root
channels; few medium distinct light gray (10YR 7/2)
secondary calcium carbonate cylinders along root
channels; weak, coarse subangular blocky structure;
friable; sand grains bridged and coated with clay;
strong effervescence; moderately alkaline; calcare-
ous; gradual wavy boundary.
B23tgca-42 to 50 inches; gray (5Y 5/1) sandy clay
loam; common medium faint olive (5Y 5/4) mottles
in upper 2 inches; common medium distinct pale
olive (5Y 6/3, 6/4) mottles along root channels; few
medium distinct light gray (5Y 7/2) calcium carbon-
ate nodules along root channels; weak coarse su-
bangular blocky structure; sand grains bridged and
coated with clay; moderate effervescence; moder-
ately alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy boundary.
B3gca-50 to 56 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy loam;
common medium distinct yellow (5Y 7/6) mottles;
common hard light gray (10YR 7/2) calcium carbon-
ate nodules 1/4 to 1/2 inch in diameter; few fine
distinct very dark gray (10YR 3/1) streaks along root
channels; massive; friable; strong effervescence;
moderately alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy
boundary.
Clg-56 to 60 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy loam; about
5 percent white (10YR 8/2) calcium carbonate in
thin layers; massive; friable; strong effervescence;
moderately alkaline; calcareous; gradual wavy
boundary.
C2g-60 to 80 inches; gray (5Y 6/1) sandy loam; about
10 percent white (10YR 8/2) calcium carbonate in
thin layers; massive; friable; strong effervescence;
moderately alkaline; calcareous.


90




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